O’LEARY CHAPTER 5

CRESSWELL CHAPTER 9
Quantitative Design

O’Leary Chapter 5

Who holds the answer?


Sampling
Strategic v. systematic
Qualitative v. quantitative

O’Leary Chapter 5

Cases: Delving into detail

Case and Case Study
Determine the best possible means for
credible data collection: delve into detail, dig
into context, develop rich thick description of
experience and knowledge of individuals,
community, group or organization
Answers to your research questions may lie
in the rich history of an event, or in the dayto-day practices of a workplace.

O’Leary Chapter 5

Cases: Delving into Detail
Answers to research may lie in rich
history of an event, or in the day-to-day
practices of a workplace. What you are
looking for may be found in a single
case…

Case: bounded system, particular instance
Case Study: Development of a single
situation or case in a detailed study of an
individual, setting, group, episode, event.

O’Leary Chapter 5

Cases: Delving into Detail
While case studies may not always be
“representative” or “generalizable,”, they
add to the body of knowledge in the
following ways:




Have an intrinsic value
Be used to debunk a theory
Bring new variables to light
Provide supportive evidence for a theory
Be used collectively to form the basis of a
theory

O’Leary Chapter 5

Cases: Delving into Detail

Case Selection: 1) define your case, 2) set
the boundaries that will give meaning and
characterization to the class of ‘elements’
you wish to explore.
Define your case: will you be looking at
people, places, or things? What
characteristics of those selected subjects
will be important to examine?
See figure 5.1 p. 81

O’Leary Chapter 5

Choices in Case Selection:

You may delve into one case or compare and
contrast two or more cases
Factors that influence case selection:
Pragmatics: (practical)-being asked to do the case
study (commitments), timely opportunities-taking
advantage of your current situation, accessibilityexisting connections and relationships
 Purposiveness: select case that will help you to make
particular arguments; typical-case that may argue
representativeness, extreme/atypical-chosen in order to
debunk a theory or highlight deviations from the norm

O’Leary Chapter 5

Factors affecting case selection:

Intrinsic interest: The case is interesting in
its own right; must argue the inherent
worth and value of a particular case
Selecting respondents within cases: How
will you select and work with individuals
within a particular case…

O’Leary Chapter 5

Key Informants: Working with experts and
insiders
Attempting to gather inside/expert knowledge
that goes beyond private experiences, beliefs,
knowledge base of individual you are talking
to.
This individual can delve into what “others”
think believe, provide important insight, people
in the “know,” not necessarily people in
obvious positions of authority, unofficial status,
informal knowledge….

O’Leary Chapter 5

Opportunities in working with key
informants:

Instrumental in preliminary phases of
research
Can triangulate/confirm accuracy of
gathered/generated data
Be used to generate primary data

O’Leary Chapter 5

Informant Selection

Informant types
Experts
 Insiders
 Highly experienced
 Leaders
 The observant
 The gossip
 Secondary experience
 Stool pigeons: caution!! They may appear to be
informants but are not
 The ex: the disavowed…

O’Leary Chapter 5

Appropriate selection of informants:


Challenges:
Identify the type of informant you need and then
identify individuals with those characteristics
Confirm the status of those identified
Look for and recognize informant subjectivities:
pay attention to potential agendas at work,
limitations
Pay attention to dilemmas of ethics and integrity
when working with informants…table 5.1

O’Leary Chapter 5

Samples: Selecting elements of a
population

Capturing the reality of a ‘population’
A population means “everyone” that can be
counted in that defined group…
Most research cannot reach a population in its
entirety and so you must work with a sample
Speak to the few in order to capture the
thoughts, knowledge, attitudes, feeling, beliefs
and/or probable behavior of many…

O’Leary Chapter 5

Opportunities with samples for research

Make research process manageable
Used to represent a population with some
level of ‘confidence.’ That is where the
statistics come in…

O’Leary Chapter 5

Sample Selection
Strategic, often mathematical, very
tricky
Select a sample that is: broad enough to
allow you to speak about a parent
population, 2) large enough to allow you
to conduct desired analysis, 3) small
enough to be manageable

O’Leary Chapter 5

Defining your population: Necessary first step
Ex: If you want to present findings that
represent 13-18 year olds in the US, your
population is made up of individuals, age, and
geography…
Population may not just be individuals, it
could also be households, organizations,
events i.e., hospital emergency rooms across
Europe or professional soccer games in
Sydney in 2005

O’Leary Chapter 5

Determining Sample Size: How many? It
depends…
Qualitative Data: don’t be afraid to
utilize systematic and statistical
methods if representativeness is part of
your goal…
Quantitative Data: rule of thumb, the
larger the better…

O’Leary Chapter 5

Quantitative Analysis

Minimum 30 just to run the formulas
If there are subdivisions in your sampling,
need minimum 25 cases in each category
In multivariate analysis (simultaneous
relationships among several variables) you
need at least 10 cases for each variable
you wish to explore
Formula p. 89 bottom…table 5.2 Use
tables, www.surveysystem.com/sscalc.htm

O’Leary Chapter 5

Sampling strategies
Random Samples: the process by which
each element in a population has an
equal chance of selection…Process
demands that 1) all elements of a
population are known and accessible, and
2) all elements are equally likely to agree
to be part of the sample; otherwise
coverage error and non-response bias
may occur…p. 91

O’Leary Chapter 5

Non-Random Samples: purposive or
theoretical samples, demands
conscientious decision-making. For
validity,
1) selection is done with the goal of
representativeness in mind, 2) strategies
are used to ensure that samples match
population characteristics…need to be
aware of unwitting bias, and erroneous
assumptions

O’Leary Chapter 5







Sample types, p. 92-95
Systematic Sampling
Stratified Sampling
Cluster Sampling
Handpicked Sampling
Snowball Sampling
Volunteer Sampling
Convenience sampling

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.