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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
(An ISO Certified Institution)
DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY E – NOTES
Subject Name Subject Code Branch Semester
: Environmental Science and Engineering : : : HS-1201 ECE, EEE & IT , CSE III & V
HS1201 – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES
Definition – Scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources:Use and over – Exploitation – Deforestation – Case studiess – Timber extraction – Mining – Dams and their ground water – Floods – Drought – Conflicts over water – Dams – Benefits and Problems – Mineral Resources:- Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People – Water Resources:- Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation, Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources, Case Studies – Food Resources: World Food Problems, Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing, Effects of Modern Agriculture, Fertilizer- Pesticide Problems, Water Logging, salinity, Case Studies – Energy Resources:- Growing Energy Needs, Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources, Use of Alternate Energy Sources, Case Studies – Land Resources:- Land as a Resource, Land Degradation, Man Induced Landslides, Soil Erosion and Desertification – Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources – Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles.. UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY
Concepts of an Ecosystem – Structure and Function of an Ecosystem – Producers, Consumers and Decomposers – Energy Flow in the Ecosystem – Ecological Succession – Food Chains, Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids – Introduction, Types, Characteristic Features, Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds, Streams, Lakes, Rivers, Oceans, Estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: Genetic, Species and Ecosystem Diversity – Biogeographical Classification of India – Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use, Productive Use, Social, Ethical, Aesthetic and Option Values – Biodiversity at Global, National and Local Levels – India as a Mega-Diversity Nation – Hot-Spots of Biodiversity – Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss, Poaching of Wildlife, Man-Wildlife Conflicts – endangered and Endemic Species of India – Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity.Field Study of Common Plants, Insects and Birds.
Definition – Causes, Effects and Control Measures of:- (A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal
Case Studies – Wasteland Reclamation – Consumerism and Waste Products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation – Public Awareness. UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Population Growth. Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets – River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain. Earthquake.4 Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Solid Waste Management:. Watershed Management – Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People. Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:. River.Causes.Issues and Possible Solutions – Climate Change. Ozone Layer Depletion. Variation Among Nations – Population Explosion – Family Welfare Programme – environment and Human Health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV /AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health – Case Studies. Case Studies – Environmental Ethics:. Acid Rain. UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development – Urban Problems Related To energy – Water conservation. etc Field Study of Local Polluted Site – Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES Definition – Scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources:- .Floods. Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust. Hill Slopes. Global Warming. Rain Water Harvesting. Its Problems and Concerns. Field Study of Simple Ecosystems – Pond. Cyclone and Landslides.
Natural environment 2.Pesticide Problems. Environmental education: It is the process of educating the people for preserving quality environment. Effects of Modern Agriculture.5 Use and over – Exploitation – Deforestation – Case studiess – Timber extraction – Mining – Dams and their ground water – Floods – Drought – Conflicts over water – Dams – Benefits and Problems – Mineral Resources:. Types of environment: 1. interrelationship among themselves and also with the human beings. Environment: It is also defined as the sum of total of water. Man made environment Natural environment: . Environmental Engineering: It is the application of engineering principles to the protection and enhancement of the quality of the environment and to the enhancement and protection of public health and welfare. Use of Alternate Energy Sources. Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Sources. Land Degradation. other living organisms and property.Use and Over-Utilization of Surface and Exploitation.I Introduction to Environmental Studies Introduction: Environment is a French word meaning surrounding. UNIT . it’s biotic and abiotic and their inter relationship. Fertilizer. Case Studies – Land Resources:. Changes caused by Agriculture and Overgrazing.Use Effects on Forests and Tribal People – Water Resources:. salinity.Growing Energy Needs. Soil Erosion and Desertification – Role of an Individual in Conservation of Natural Resources – Equitable use of Resources for Sustainable Lifestyles.Land as a Resource. Environmental Science: It is the study of environment. Man Induced Landslides. Environmental Effects of Extracting and Using Mineral Resources. Water Logging.. air and land. All biological and non biological things surrounding an organism is called an environment. Case Studies – Food Resources: World Food Problems. Case Studies – Energy Resources:.
Structure of atmosphere: . Abiotic (or) non living 2.6 All natural things. Biotic (or) living 3.g) soil. biotic and abiotic are collectively called natural environment. (e. 21% O2 and 1% other gases. It is 500 km from earth. Energy component Abiotic component: 3 categories atmosphere. It is essential for all living organisms. Component of environment: Consist of 3 components 1. tree and air. Atmosphere: The air that covers the earth is known as atmosphere. hydrosphere. 78% N2. Manmade environment: Created by man Powerful engineering agent Man modifies the environment using modern technologies according to his necessity. lithosphere. water.
Co2.H2o.500 Temperature in 15 to -56 -56 to -2 -2 to -92 -92 to 1200 o C Chemical species N2.O2 Ozone No+.7 Region Troposphere Stratosphere Mesosphere Thermosphere Altitude in Km 0 -15 18 – 50 50 – 85 85 .O+.O2+ No+.O2+ Troposphere (1 to 15 km) 75% atmospheric air contain moisture Stratosphere (18 to 50 km) consists of large amount of O3 free from moisture and clouds prevents UV radiation from sun Mesosphere (50 to 85 km) less ozone more nitrogen oxide Function of atmosphere: .
Biosphere: Interaction of biological environment with physical environment is called biosphere. Gases present in atmosphere are essential for sustaining life. nuclear energy. lakes. Lithosphere: It consists of soil and rock components of earth. geo thermal energy etc. Hydrosphere: The aquatic envelope of the earth.g) Animals. streams. In the hydrosphere 97% of water is not suitable for drinking and only3% is fresh water. It plays an important role in living organisms. SCOPE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES . 2. Function: Home for human beings and wild life. It includes oceans. river and water vapour.8 1. plants and micro organisms. Energy component: Flow energy across biotic and abiotic components. (e. Functions of hydrosphere: Drinking purpose Irrigation Power production Industries and transport Biotic or living component: (e.g) solar energy. Oxygen – supports life Carbon dioxide – essential for photosynthesis of plants Nitrogen – essential nutrient for plant growth. Store house of minerals and organic matter. It maintains heat balance on the earth by absorbing the IR radiations.
The number and area of the protected are should be increased so as to protect the wild life. 5. science and technology in eliminating the evils from the society. 2. 7. health. service centers. 4. It enables one to evaluate alternative responses to environmental issues before deciding an alternative course of action. It provides necessary information about biodiversity richness and the potential dangers to the species of plants. animals and microorganism in the environment This study enables one to understand the causes and consequences of natural and man induced disasters. colleges. should realize the importance of day to day environmental issues. The individuals could expose the problems by writing in the newspapers/discuss about the environmental evils in forums and make the people to become aware of the same. so that the problem is alive till it is eliminated. pattern of utilization and the balance of various resources available for future use in the state or a country are analyzed in the study. There is a need to meet the people and discuss again and again. 2. 6. The urban areas. 9. industries. The methods and techniques of exploiting natural resources and advanced. village. NEED FOR PUBLIC AWARENESS 1. 9 This study crates awareness among the people to know about various renewable and non renewable resources of a region. 8. Education and training are needed to save the biodiversity and species extinction. 3. The people should take a combined responsibility for the deteriorating environment and begin to take appropriate actions to save the earth. World population is increasing at an alarming rate especially in developing countries. are the major sources of pollution. The unplanned exploitation of natural resources lead to pollution of all types and at all levels. 3. 2. hygiene etc and the role of arts.1. 8. 10. urban centers etc. The natural resources endowment in the earth are limited. It provides the knowledge about ecological system causes. 5. effects and relationships between the components. pollutions and measures to minimize theses effects. The pollution and degraded environment seriously affect the health of all living things on earth. The resources are over-exploited and there is no foresight of leaving the resources of the future generations. . The endowment or potential. 4. coupled with industries. 7. Individuals of school. This study enables environmentally literate citizens to make appropriate judgment and decisions for the protection and improvement of the earth. 3. 6. This study tries to identify and develop appropriate and indigenous eco friendly skills and technologies to various environmental issues. 4. This study exposes the problems of over pollution. The individuals should practice environmental conservation principles and create awareness among family members. IMPORTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL STUDY 1. including man.
1. Pressure group 2. Advisory council 4. air Non Renewable resources These resources are not capable of being regenerated by ecological processes. plant rice. in India and abroad. water. Forest resources: ENERGY RESOURCES LAND RESOURCES FOOD RESOURCES . Types of public participation. are doing tremendous efforts in conserving the environment. WATER RESOURCES. MINERAL RESOURCES. If you plan for 10 years plant trees and if you plan for 100 years educate people” Natural resources: Natural resources are the source which are useful to man or it can be transformed into a useful product. Watch dog 3. RESOURCES FOREST RESOURCES. Chinese proverb “ If you plan for one year. Two types Renewable resources These resources are capable of being regenerated by ecological processes within a reasonable time period.10 5. The Nongovernmental organizations. Example Soil. Enforcing the environmental laws.
. rd Types of forest: Ever green forest: Found in equatorial region. animals and wild life. They control water quality. 2. Coniferous trees: Trees contain needle shaped leaves (e.g) pine tree. 4.g) silent valley in kerela Important trees teak and rosewood. Forest covering the earth like a green blanket. but also provide several environmental services. 6. Forest not only produce innumerable material goods. They moderate temperature and weather.11 One of the important renewable natural resource on earth. spruce tree Functions of forest: 1. It performs very important function both to human and to nature. Trees sandal wood. They remove pollutant from air. Where temperature and rain fall is high. 1/3 of the world’s land surface is covered with forest. 5. Therefore they loose their leaves during summer season. They recycle rain water. Deciduous forest: These forest receive only seasonal rainfall. They influence soil condition and prevent soil erosion. 7. They are habitats to millions of plants. (e. 3. due to heavy rain the forest are ever green.
Mining. grazing. Over exploitation of forest: . Ivory. They promote tourism. Wood – used as a fuel 2. for dams and recreation. Production of oxygen: Photosynthesis produces large amount of oxygen which is essential for life. resins 4. 6. Pollution moderators: Forest can absorb many toxic gases and noises and help in preventing air and noise pollution. Supply wood for various industries – Raw materials as pulp. 5. Supply variety of animal products – honey. Wild life habitat: Forest is the homes of millions of wild animals and plants. 3. dyes. Ecological uses Commercial uses: 1. Many plants – Medicines 5. They also act as wind breaks. paper. Uses of forest: 1. 3. 2. Commercial uses 2. Reducing global warming: Carbon dioxide is one of the main green house gas. Soil conservation: Roots of trees bind the soil tightly and prevent soil erosion. horns etc. furniture timber etc. Ecological uses: Forest provides number of environmental services.12 8. 4. Regulation of hydrological cycle: Watershed in forest act like giant sponges and slowly release the water fore recharge of spring. It is absorbed by plants for photosynthesis. 6. Minor forest products – gum. Many forest lands are used for . Therefore the problem of global warming caused by CO2 is reduced. 1.
So over exploitation of forest material occur. Hence exploitation of forest material going on increases. Deforestation: It is process of removal of forest resources due to natural or man made activities (i.) destruction of forests. Increasing agricultural activities. . Reason for deficiency of forest: In India the minimum area of forest required to maintain good ecological balance is about 33% of total area.13 Due to over population. wood and fuel increases. Deforestation in India: In India 1.e.3 hectare of forest land has been lost. Cause of over exploitation: 1. Increasing agricultural production. But at present it is only about 22%. 2. shelter. Increase in demand of wood resources. there is a demand fort medicine. 3.
(e.g. hydro electric projects. Shifting cultivation: Replacement of natural forest ecosystem for mono specific tree plantation. road construction etc. Manganese and lime stone. 2. coal. Developmental projects: Developmental projects causes deforestation through two ways. Mining operations: It reduces forest areas.)Mica.) making boxes. furniture and paper etc. Forest fires: Forest fire destructs thousands of forest. 4. (e. Raw materials for industries: Wood is an important raw material for various purposes. (eg) teak 6. (e. Destruction of forest area. Fuel requirement: Wood is the important fuel for rural and tribal population.14 Causes of deforestation: 1. . 3. 5.g) big dams. 7. Through submergence of forest area. Over grazing: Over grazing by cattle reduces the cultivation land.g.
therefore soil losing their fertility. Over grazing by cattle must be controlled. Increases the rate of global warming 6. involves clearing of natural forests and plantation of monoculture like eucalyptus. 3. 7. Increases flood frequency. Forest fire must be controlled by modern techniques. Underground mining: mining of minerals from deep deposits Steps involved in mining: . 9. Destructs the habitats of various species 4. Loss of forests put additional pressure on the pristine forests. Degradation of soil and acceleration of the rate of soil erosion. Economic loss 2. Breaks the water cycle 11. Use of wood for fuel should be discouraged. Education and awareness programmers must be conducted. Surface mining: mining of minerals from shallow deposits 2. 8. magnitude / severity.15 CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION (or) ILL EFFECTS (or) IMPACT OF DEFORESTATION 1. Disruption of weather patterns and global climate 7. 5. PREVENTIVE MEASURES (OR) AVOID OF DEFORESTATION (OR) METHODS OF CONSEVATION OF FORESTS 1. Case study: Deforestation in the Himalayan region. New plants of more or less of the same variety should be planted to replace the trees cut down for timber 2. Breaks the nutrient cycle 12. Hence Himalayan area facing the serious problem of deforestation. Types of mining 1. Steps should be taken by the government to discourage the migration of people into the islands from mainland. Forest pests can be controlled by spraying pesticides by using aero planes 4. 10. Loss of biodiversity 3. Induces and accelerates mass movement / land slides. Reduction in stream flow 5. Nutrient in the soil is poor. 8. Mining: The process of extracting mineral resources and fossil fuels like coal from the earth. Strict implementation of law of Forest conservation Act. 6.
Continuous removal of minerals leads to the formation of trench where water is logged which contaminates the ground water. Ore processing 5. Exploration 2. Exploitation 4.16 1. India has more than 1600 large dams. Dam – “Temple of modern India” – Nehru Dams destruct vast area of forest area. Development 3. Dams and their effects on forests and tribal people: Dams are the massive artificial structure built across the river to store water for much beneficial purpose. . 2. water and air.5 lakhs hectares of forest. which needs enormous amount of land area for it’s operation and management. Thousands of hectares of forest have been cleared. Reduces shape and size of the forest. Vibrations cause earth quakes. Pollute soil. 4. Spreading of water borne diseases. 4. Effects of mining: 1. 3. Some times land slides may also occur. 5. Killing of wild animals and destruction of aquatic life. Effects of dams on forest: 1. Water logging reduces the salinity of the soil.g) Narmadha sagar project it has submerged 3. 7. Produces noise pollution 6. 3. Destruction of natural habitat. 2. Extraction and purification of minerals The extent of damage by under ground mining is less than that of surface mining. (e.
Water resources: Water is essential component of all living things. Displacement and cultural change affects the tribal people both mentally and physically. 4. Hydrological cycle: Water from various water bodies Evaporated by solar energy Enters in to the atmosphere as clouds Falls again on earth as rain or snow Ultimately returns to the ocean. Tribal people are ill treated by the modern society. 80% of earth surface is covered with water. (e. Construction of big dam leads to the displacement of tribal people. 2. It is circulated in the hydrological cycle. This process is called hydrological cycle. Body condition of tribal people will not suit with new areas and hence they will be affected by many diseases. 6. 3.17 Effects of dam on tribal people: 1. liquid and gases. 5. . All organisms are made up of mostly by water. Many of the displaced people were not recognised and resettled or compensated. They do not accommodate the modern food habits and life style.g) Tree 60% by weight of water Animals50 – 65% by weight of water Water exist in three phases solid.
18 Distribution of water resources: Fresh water resources Surface water under ground water Standing water bodies Flowing water bodies .
It supports more life. Under ground water: Water available deep in the ground due to percolation of surface water. where they join the ocean. Streams 2. Estuaries: These are deltas formed at the mouth of rivers. It is very pure and used for almost all purposes in the world. Reservoirs 3. Estuaries 1. Biological reactions are less. Reservoirs: Generally larger than lakes. It carries sedimentary materials and dissolved minerals. Dystrophic lakes: Shallow coloured lakes and low PH. The mixing of fresh and salt water gives estuaries. . The nutrients amount is deficient. Eutrophic lakes: More nutrients and more turbid. Standing water bodies Lakes: Oligotrophic lakes: These lakes are deep and clear.19 1. Rivers Surface water: Water stored on the surface of earth. Lakes 2. Flowing water bodies: Water flows in streams and rivers. It is the major source.
Problems: a. 2. Structural damages in the buildings b. Effects of over utilisation of water: 1. Decrease of ground water: Increased usage decreases the ground water. . c. Fracture in pipes. water from sea. Clay and crystalline rocks are not good aquifers. 3. decrease the number of aquifers c. the sediments in the aquifers get compacted. Layer of sand and gravels are good aquifers. Change the speed and direction of water. lowering of water table b. 4. Lowering of water table: Over utilisation of ground water in arid and semi arid regions for agriculture disturbs the state of equilibrium of the hydrological cycle. As a result shrinkage of land surface takes place. Ground subsidence: Ground water withdrawal is greater than it’s recharge rate. Insufficient rain fall Building construction activities sealing the permeability of the soil.20 Under ground water Aquifer: Layers of highly permeable rock containing water is called an aquifer. Problem: a. Reversing the flow of canals. Intrusion of salt water: In coastal area over exploitation of ground water leads to the intrusion of salt Therefore that water cannot be used for drinking and agriculture.
Effect of flood: 1. Deforestation. Flood Management: 1. 2. 3. Reduction in the carrying capacity of the channel. Extinction of civilisation. It leads to drying up of dug well and bore wells. Over utilisation of water causes earth quakes. Heavy rainfall. Causes of flood: 1. Drying up of wells: Due to over utilisation. 4. Flood: It is an over flow of water. Channel management and embankment also control flood. land slides and famine 6. 2. 3. It happens when the magnitude of flow of water exceeds the carrying capacity of the channel within its bank. pollution of water: Near the agricultural land ground water decreases therefore water containing nitrogen enters into the ground and pollute the ground water. mining and over grazing increase the run off from rains and the level of flood raises. 3. melting of snow (i. Cultivated land affected. . Water spreads in the surrounding area and submerges them.21 5. Flood may also be reduced by reduction of run off by increasing infiltration through appropriate afforestation in the catchment area. ground water level decreases much faster than can be regenerated. Flood hazards reduced by forecasting or flood warning. Problem: Water which contains excess nitrate content is not suitable for drinking. 2. Floods can be controlled by dams. 7.e) sudden release of water from dams.
Agricultural drought: It occurs due to the shortage as well as timing of over all rain fall. livestock.) Maharashtra There has been no recovery from drought for the last 30 years due to over exploitation of water by sugarcane crop.22 Drought: Drought is nothing but scarcity of water. drought is created. Intensive cropping pattern (e. It is generally associated with reduction of water in aquifers. Agricultural drought affects cropped plants.g. Types of drought: 1. High population. industry or human population may be termed as a drought. Hydrological drought: It occurs when the total amount of rainfall is less than the average rain fall. 2. Causes of drought: 1. Meteorological drought: It occurs when the total amount of rain fall is less than 75% of the normal rain fall. Excessive withdrawal of ground water. lakes and reservoirs. . 3. which intern reduce the ground water level and reservoir level. Lack of water for the narrow needs of agriculture. Drought causes serious damages to plants. which occurs due to 1. 2. Inadequate rain fall 2. It will be severe if the rain fall is less than 50%. 3. Late arrival of rain fall 3. animals and human life. Socio economic drought: It occurs due to reduction in the availability of food and social security of the people in the affected areas. 4. Socio economic drought leads to famine. When annual rain falls below normal and less than evaporation.
Afforestation activities also improve the potential of water in the drought area. Conflict through use: Unequal distribution of water led to inter state and international disputes. Raw materials of agro based industries are critically affected during drought time. Siruvani – TamilNadu and Kerala International conflicts: a. 5. Drought causes hunger. Indigeneous knowledge is essential. Indus – India and Pakistan b. 6. 6. Drought management: 1. Worst situation of drought causes desertification. Drought causes widespread crop failure leading to acute shortage of food and adversely affects human and live stock population. Modern irrigation technology (drip irrigation) very useful to conserve water. Colorado river – Mexico and USA . Sharing of cauvery water between Karnataka and TamilNadu. 5. 3. Drought increases the degradation of natural resources. Crop mixing and dry forming are the suitable methods which minimise the risk of crop failures in dry area. Drought causes large migration of people and urbanisation. Construction of reservoir to improve ground water level. 2. b. Rain water harvesting system. 2. hence industrial and commercial growth decreases. Conflicts over water: Causes of water conflict: 1. 4. 4. National conflicts: a. 3. Sharing of Krishna water between Karnataka and Andrapradesh c. malnutrition and scarcity of drinking water an also changes the quality of water.23 Effects of drought: 1.
No Organisation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Central water commission Central ground water board Indian meteorological department Central pollution control board Ministry of agriculture Ministry of environment and forest Central public health and env.24 c. therefore removal industrial wastes creates conflicts.engg Source Surface water Ground water Precipitation Water quality Water for irrigation Environmental impact assessment Water supply. sanitation and sewage disposal 8 9 Department of power Department of forest Hydro electric power Watershed management .g) Damodhar River Most polluted river from 45 major industries Water resource management S. dams are built across the river. Efforts to implement laws to check these practices to control water pollution. Conflicts through pollution: Water reservoirs like lakes and rivers are also used for industrial purposes. Construction of dams or power stations: For hydro electric power generation. It creates the conflicts between the states. Bhramaputra – India and Bangladesh 2. fresh water is a serious problem 1 billion people – no fresh drinking water 2 billion people – no water for proper sanitation. (e. Management of conflicts over water: 1.( The inter linking of rivers has been one such solution) Case study: Conflicts on Indian River: According to UN report. 2. Conflicts over sharing of river water in the country are studied by many organisation and several solutions are suggested. 3.
Uses and exploitation of minerals: 1. uranium 4. Communication purposes – telephone.coal. Concentration of minerals at one particular spot is called mineral deposit. cables and electronic devices 9. Al &Ni 3. 1. Identified resources: Location. Undiscovered resources: Assumed to exist on the basic of geological knowledge. quality and quantity known by direct geological evidence and measurement. Ag & Pt 7. quality and quantity are unknown. Reserves: Minerals are identified. Designing defence equipments like weapons and ornaments 5. Al & Cu 2. 3. Ores: These are mineral or combination of minerals from which metal can be extracted. wires. lignite. particularly in ayurvedic system – sulphur pyrites .S geological survey divides non renewable mineral resources into 3 categories. existence. Medicinal purposes.Fe. but their specific location. Construction work – Fe. Usable materials can be extracted profitably. Generation of energy . Making alloys for various purposes – phosphoresces 8. Jewellery –Au. Classification of mineral resources: U. Agricultural purposes – fertilisers and fungicides – Zn & Mn 6. 2.25 Mineral resources: Naturally occurring substances with different physical and chemical properties. Development of industrial plants and machinery. .
26 Classification of minerals: Metallic minerals: From which metals can be extracted. e.g Fe, Al & Cu
Non metallic minerals Non metallic compounds can be extracted.e.g Quartz and feldspar
Mineral wealth of India
S.No Mineral 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Iron Coal Manganese Copper Gold Aluminium Lime stone Mica Monozite Lead and zinc Precious stones Magnesite Petroleum Magnesite Gypsum
Available state Tamil nadu Orissa, west bangal M.P Bihar Karnataka Tamilnadu M.P Bhar Kerela Gujarat & rajasthan Rajasthan Tamil nadu Assam Tamilnadu, sikkim Rajasthan
27 Mining: The process of extraction of minerals from the earth. Types of mining: 1. Surface mining 2. Under ground mining Types of under ground mining a. Open pit mining: Machines dig holes and remove the ores. b. Dredging: Chained buckets are used to extract minerals. c. Strip mining: Bulldozers are used to extract minerals.
Environmental damages caused by mining activities: 1. Devegetation : topsoil and vegetation are removed deforestation leads to several ecological losses land scape badly affected
28 2. Ground water contamination: Mining pollutes ground water , sulphur is converted into sulphuric acid which enters into the soil. 3. Surface water pollution: Radioactive wastes and other acidic impurities affect the surface water, which kills many aquatic animals. 4. Air pollution: Smelting and roasting are done to purify the metal whih emits air pollutants and damage the nearby vegetation. It causes many health problems. 5. Subsidence of land: Mainly underground mining results in cracks in houses, tilting of buildings and bending of rail tracks.
Effects of over exploitation of minerals: 1. Rapid depletion of mineral deposits 2. Wastage 3. Environmental pollution 4. Needs heavy energy requirements.
Management of mineral resources: 1. The efficient use and protection of mineral resources. 2. Modernisation of mining industries 3. Search for new deposit 4. Reuse and recycling of the metals. 5. Environmental impacts can be minimised by adopting eco friendly mining technology. Case studies; Mining and quarrying in udaipur: 200 open cast mining and quarrying in udaipur. But 100 minings are illegal. 150 tonnes of explosives are used per month. It pollutes air, soil and water. It affects irrigation and wild life.
.g fruits. Urbanisation affects agricultural land. fats. minerals and vitamins. Environmental degradation like soil erosion. Hence production of rice. water pollution. at the same time population explosion is high therefore world food problem arises. wheat. In the earth’s surface 79% water out of total area. Ocean: Fisheries – 7% of world’s food World food problem: 1. Types of food supply: 1. mountain and barren land) . corn and other vegetable is difficult. Main components are carbohydrates. salinity affect agricultural land.g rice.29 Food resources: Food is an essential requirement for survival of life. e. 21% land(forest. 2. proteins. Range lands: It produces 17% of world’s food from trees and grazing animals. 3. wheat and maize 2. milk and meat 3. Less % cultivated land. e. Crop plants: Mostly produce grains about 76% of the world’s food. desert. water logging.
proteins. Over grazing: It is a process of eating the forest vegetation without giving a chance to regenerate. Effect of mal nutrition: S. fats and smaller amount of micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals such as Fe. Effect of under nutrition: Suffer from mental retardation and infectious diseases. World food summit 1996: The world food summit.No 1 2 3 4 Deficiency of nutrients Protein Iron Iodine Vitamin – A Effects Growth Anemia Goiter Blindness India 3rd largest producer of crops. minerals. Food and agricultural organisation (FAO) of United Nations estimated that on an average. Ca and iodine. Under nutrition. the minimum calorie intake on a global state is 2500 calories/day. They receive less than 90% of this minimum dietry calorie. nearly 300 million Indians are still under nourished. vitamins. 1996 has set the goal to reduce the number of under nourished and mal nourished people to just half by 2015. People who can not buy enough food to meet their basic energy needs suffer from under nutrition. 2. . we need large amount of carbohydrate. Mal nutrition: Besides minimum calorie intake we also need proteins.30 Types of nutrition: 1. 3. iron and iodine. Nutritious nutrition: To maintain good health and disease resistant. Deficiency leads to malnutrition resulting in several diseases.
Traditional agriculture 2. dairying and forestry. Land degradation over grazing removing the cover of vegetation exposed soil gets compacted soil moisture is not available OG leads to poor. Land can not be used for further cultivation. Loss of useful species: OG affects the plant population and their regenerating capacity. dry and compacted soil. 2. Modern (or) industrialised agriculture Traditional agriculture: Small plot. They produce enough food to feed their family and to sell it for their income. . 3. surface water. breeding and raising livestock. Types of agriculture: 1. simple tools. growing and harvesting crops.31 Effects of over grazing: 1. Agriculture: Agriculture is an art. science and industry of managing the growth of plants animals for human use. It includes cultivation of the soil. OG replace the plant of high nutritive value with plant of low nutritive value. Soil erosion: When the grasses are removed the soil becomes loose and gets eroded by the action of wind and rain fall. organic fertilizer and a mixture of crops are enough.
Excess of fertilisers causes micronutrient imbalance. c. Blue baby syndrome(nitrate pollution) Nitrate present in the fertiliser causes blue baby syndrome. lot of fertilisers. Eutrophication: Nitrogen and phosphorus in the crop fields washed out by run off water in the water bodies. pesticides and water to produce large amount of single crops. high tech equipments. Hence algal species increases rapidly. Problems in using fertilisers: a. b. Haryana . which increases the nourishment of the lakes called eutrophication. Effects of modern agriculture: 1.g) Punjab and deficiency of nutrient zinc in the soil affect the productivity of the soil. (e.32 Modern agriculture: Hybrid seeds of single crop variety. Life time of the species is less and they decompose easily and pollute the water which affects the aquatic life. when the amount exceeds the limit leads to death.
lead and mercury. Death of non target organism. Producing new pest – super pest . 2. Problems in using pestcides: First generation pesticide: Sulphur.33 2. Second generation pesticide: DDT Number of side effects: 1. arsenic.
Risk of cancer: a. It directly acts as carcinogen b.34 3. Heavy rain 3. Pesticides in pepsi and coca cola: India has reported that pepsi and coca cola companies are selling soft drinks with a pesticide content 30-40 times higher than EU limits. Subsurface drainage technology 3. Causes of water logging: 1. It indirectly supports immune system. Excessive water supply 2. This damages the nervous system. Energy consumed by a person in a developed country for a single day is equal to energy consumed by a single person in a poor country for one year. 4.. . keep on concentrating in the food chain and it is harmful to human beings. ENERGY RESOURCES: Energy distribution in the world: Developed countries like USA and Canada constitute only 5% of the world’s population but consume 25% of the world’s available energy. Preventing excessive irrigation 2. Water logging: Land where water stand for most of the year. Bio drainage like trees like Eucalyptus Case study: Pesticides in India: In Delhi the accumulation of pesticide in the body of mother causes premature delivary and low birth weight infant. Poor drainage Remedy: 1. Bio magnification – Most of the pesticides are non bio degradable.
Reliable and the devices are modular in size. DC EC PC GNP Types of energy resources: 1. 3. Merits of renewable energy resources: 1. 5. Renewable energy resource (or)Non conventional energy resources 2. Renewable energy sources: Energy which can be regenerated . In the poor country GNP and energy consumption are less. Decentralised energy production.35 Developed country GNP increases and energy consumption increases. 4. Unlimited supply 2. Non renewable energy resources (or) Conventional energy resources 3. Provides energy security. Fits into sustainable development concept.
Solar water heater: It consist of insulated box painted with black paint with glass lid. Cold water is allowed to flow. It is used in remote areas where continuous power supply is a problem. solar rays fall on the top layer . Solar battery: Large number of solar cells connected in series is called solar battery.. . Several techniques are available for collecting. Inside the box black painted copper coil is present.type semi conductor (Si doped with B) And n-type semi conductor(Si doped with P). Potential difference between the two layers is created which causes flow of electrons. electronic watches. water pumps etc.36 Solar energy: Nuclear fusion reaction of sun produces enormous amount of energy. it is heated up and flows out into a storage tank from which water is supplied through pipes. street light. Solar cell Uses: It is used in calculators. storing and using solar energy. Solar cell (or) Photovoltaic cell (or) PV cell: Solar cell consist of p. the electrons fron valence band promoted to the conduction band which crosses the p-n junction into n-type semi conductor. p-type forms top layer and n-type forms bottom layer.
37 Wind energy: Moving air is called wind. It produces large amount of electricity. Condition: Minimum speed for wind generator is 15 Km/hr . Wind farms: When a large number of mills are installed and joined together in a definite pattern – it forms wind farm. flour mills and electric generators. Wind mills: When a blowing wind strikes the blade of the wind mill. The energy recovered from the force of the wind is called wind energy It’s speed is high. it rotates continuously. And rotational motion of the blade drives number of machines like water pump.
During high tides sea water enters into the reservoirs and rotates the turbine. Condition: Temperature difference should be 200C. it increases the vapour pressure which rotate the turbine and generates electricity. The energy utilised from the high temperature present inside the earth is called geothermal energy. Tidal energy can be used by constructing a tidal barrage. The energy available due to the difference in temperature of water is called ocean thermal energy. Ocean thermal energy: Temperature difference between surface water and deeper level water in ocean generates electricity. Process: Ammonia is converted into vapours on the surface of warm water. Deeper level cold water is pumped to cool and condense the vapour in to liquid. During low tides water from reservoir enters into the sea rotate the turbine produce electricity. Geo thermal energy: Temperature of the earth increases at a of 20 –750C per/km when we move down the earth. Very cheap Ocean energy: Tidal energy (or) Tidal power: Ocean tides are due to gravitational force of sun and moon which produce enormous amount of energy. Bio mass energy: Bio mass: . The hot water or steam is used to rotate the turbine and generate electricity. produce electricity. Low tides – fall of water in the ocean. Natural geysers: Hot water or steam comes out of the ground through cracks naturally is called natural geysers. High tides – rise of water in the ocean.38 Advantages: 1. It does not cause air pollution 2. Artificial geysers: Artificially a drill hole up to the hot region and by sending a pipe into it.
Eg cane.39 Organic matter produced by plants or animals used as source of energy Bio gas: Mixture of methane. Non polluting one because the combustion product is water. 2. Difficult to store and transport. photolysis and electrolysis of water. Gasohol: Mixture of ethanol and gasoline India trial is going on to use gasohol in cars and buses. Disadvantages: 1. It is obtained by anerobic fermentation of animal dung (or) plant wastes in the presence of water. Safe handling is required. 3. Methanol: Obtained from ethanol Calorific value too less. It has high calorific value. Methane is the major constituent. Hydrogen is highly inflammable and explosive. ethanol. carbondioxide and hydrogen sulphide. Bio fuels: Fuels obtained by the fermentation of biomass. Hydrogen fuel: Hydrogen produced by pyrolysis. methanol Ethanol : Produced from sugar Calorific value is less. .
when coal is burnt large amount of CO2 is released. Nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. S. but during cylindering mercaptans are added to detect leakage.Bhabha is a father of nuclear power development in India. Liquefied petroleum gases(LPG): Petroleum gases obtained during FD and cracking can be easily converted into liquid under high pressure as LPG. In the world level 25% of oil reserves are in Saudi Arabia. Calorific value is high. Disadvantages: 1. the world crude oil reserves are expected to get exhausted in just 40 years. It is a nuclear change in which heavier nucleus split into lighter nuclei on bombardment of fast moving neutrons. There are two types. It is colourless and odourless gas. 10 nuclear reactors are present in India. Which causes global warming. Coal: It is a solid fossil fuel. Petroleum: Crude oil is a liquid consists of more than hundreds of hydrocarbons and small amount of impurities.H. Nuclear energy can be produced by two types of reactions.g . Natural gas: These are found above oil in oil wells. Large amount of energy is released through chain reaction. It is a mixture of methane and other hydrocarbons. Nuclear fission. N produces toxic gases during burning. It produces 2% of India’s electricity. Nuclear energy: Dr. The petroleum can be refined by fractional distillation.40 Non renewable energy sources: Energy which can not be regenerated. E. Dry gas and wet gas. 2. At present rate of usage.
This process of propagation of the reaction by multiplication is called chain reaction.41 Uranium with fast moving neutron gives barium and krypton in addition to three neutrons. This car will be commercially available by 2010. in the second stage it gives nine neutrons and so on. E. Nuclear fission: It is a nuclear change in which lighter nucleus are combined together at extremely high temperature (1 billion 0C) to form heavier nucleus and a large amount of energy is released. Largest wind farm situated near Kanyakumari in Tamil nadu. . Hydrogen fuel car: General motar company of china discovered a experimental car ( fuel H2) can produce no emission only water droplets and vapours come out of the exhaust pipe. Case Study: Wind energy in India: India generating 1200 MW electricity using the wind energy.g Isotopes of hydrogen combine to form helium molecule. It produces 380 MW electricity.
Fertilizers and pesticides: It affects fertility of the soil and causes land pollution. Soil texture and soil structure are destructed. Land degradation: It is a process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility. which inturn affects millions of plants and animals. salination and contamination of the soil with industrial wastes and cause land degradation. . soil erosion. 4. 2. 5. Effects of land degradation: 1. increase in water logging. Soil erosion: The process of removal of superficial layer of the soil from one place to another is called soil erosion. It is a mixture of inorganic materials and organic materials. 5. So land is degraded due to over exploitation. It provides food. 3. medicine. Loss of soil fertility.42 Land resources: Land is the most important valuable resource for mankind. Urbanisation leads to deforestation. salinity. Population: More land is needed for producing food. To construct building Acts as a dustbin for most of the wastes created by the modern society. Causes of land degradation: 1. 2. Urbanisation: Urbanisation reduces the agricultural land. alkalinity and acidity problem. 4. Damage of top soil: Increase in food production generally leads to damage of top soil through nutrient depletion. Water logging. Loss of valuable nutrients. fibre and fuel wood. Loss of economic social and biodiversity. fibre. 3.
rapid flow and wave action. roads removes protective vegetal cover and leads to soil erosion. Biotic agent: Over grazing. Normal erosion: It is caused by gradual removal of top soil by the natural process. To slow down the water movement when it flows along the slope. To slow down the water for concentrating and moving down the slope in a narrow path. run off. The rate of erosion is less. 2. Land slide: It causes soil erosion. Sediments run off can pollute water and kill aquatic life. 2. 4.43 Harmful effects of soil erosion: 1. 2. Construction: Construction of dams. . water water causes soil erosion in the form of rain. Accelerated erosion: It is caused by man made activities. mining and deforestation are the major biotic agent cause soil erosion. 3. which carry away the fine particles of soil creates soil erosion. 35% of soil erosion is due to over grazing and 30% is due to deforestation. 5. Loss of it’s ability to hold water and sediments. 3. The erosion is much faster than the rate formation of soil. Control of soil erosion (or) Soil conservation practices: The art of soil conservation is based on following basic principles 1. Soil fertility decreases due to the loss of top soil layer. 2. wind: It is an important climatic agent. Types of soil erosion: 1. Causes of soil erosion: 1. buildings.
Organic farming: Process of increasing organic input to the soil. Reduction in the wind velocity near the ground by growing vegetation. that can provide fruits and fuel wood. Conservational tillage: The process of mixing the residues from previous crops into the soil by ploughing is called conservational tillage. 5. To encourage more water to enter into the soil. It prevents the loss of fertility of the soil. Strip cropping: Planting of crops in rows to check flow of water.e placing some furrows to store water. which in turn improve soil moisture and nutrients.44 3. Mulching: Soil is covered with cropl residues and other form of plant litters. To increase the size of soil particles. It improves soil permeability and increase organic matter. 4. It reduces soil erosion by controlling run off. E. Contour Ploughing: It is very useful areas with low rain fall. Agroforestry: Planting crops in between rows of trees or shrubs. After harvesting the crops the soil will not be eroded because trees and shrubs will remain on the soil and hold the soil particles. .g bio fertilizer Crop rotation: Process of growing different crops in successive year on the samew land. i. Terrace farming: Conversion of steep slopes in to a series of broad terraces which run across the contour. which reduces runoff and erosion.
45 Wind break: Trees are planted in lo0ng rows along the boundaryof cultivated lands. fan and other appliances when not in use. Role of an individual in conservation of natural resources: Conservation of energy: 1. Mining and quarrying 5. Switch off light. Climate change 6. 4. Over utilisation of water 4. Dry the cloth in the sun light instead of driers. which block the wind and reduces soil erosion. Causes: 1. Ride bicycle or just walk instead of using scooter for ashort distance. Around 600 million people are suffered by desertification. Grow trees near the house to get cool breeze instead of using AC and ai cooler. 3. Desertification: It is a form of land degradation. Excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides Effects of desertification: 80% of productive land in the arid and semi arid regions are converted in to desert. It is a progressive destruction or degradation of arid or sen\mi arid lands to destruct. 2. 6. Use solar heater for cooking. . Use always pressure cookers 5. Over grazing 3. Deforestation 2.
e trees. 3. check the water leaks in pipes and repair them properly. Sewage treatment plant may be installed in all industries and institution. 3. Rain water harvesting system should be installed in all the houses. 2. Reuse the soapy water. 7. 4. 8. Use drip irrigation.46 Conservation of water: 1. using strong flow of water should be avoided. . 5.. Soil erosion can be prevented by sprinkling irrigation. 2. carpets etc. Grow different type plants i. herbs and shrubs. In the irrigation process. 6. after washing clothes for washing courtyard. Continuous running of water taps should be avoided. Watering of plants should be done in the evening. Use minimum water for all domestic purposes. Conservation of soil: 1.
5. Conservation of forest: 1. Use non timber product. Don’t store large amount of food grains and protect them from damaging insects. Plant more trees. give it to some one before spoiling. 5. Use green manures in the garden. road in the forest areas. Minimise the use of paper and fuel. 2. . Avoid the construction of dam. Cook required amount of food.47 4. 3. Conservation of food resources: 1. Use mixed cropping. Grassing must be controlled 4. 3. 2. Don’t waste the food.
Causes of unsustainability: Main cause – difference between MDCs and LDCs. QUESTION BANK . Life style in more developed countries: 22% of world population. 12% of it’s natural resources and 15% of total global income. Degradation of the environment due to over utilisation of natural resources. Consumption is less and pollution is less. Consumption is more and pollution is more. This will reduce the gap between MDCs and LDCs. leads to sustainable development of the entire world.48 Equitable use of resources for sustainable life style: Sustainable development: Development of healthy environment without damaging natural resources. Sustainable life style: MDCs should have to reduce the utilisation of natural resources. Life style in less developed countries: 78% of world population. 88% of it’s natural resources and 85% of total global income. Unsustainable development. that should have to be diverted to LDCs.
Explain as an individual how will you conserve natural resources. Define sustainable forestry. 7. Define Environmental studies. Differentiate between renewable & non-renewable energy resources. 3. 10. 11. Mention the advantages & disadvantages of modern agriculture. PART – B 1. Define Eutrophication. 4. Mention the effects of ground water usage? 16. Why alternate energy resources are required? 9. What are the merits of using renewable energy resources? 8. What is meant by sustainable development? 14. State the need for public awareness for solving environmental problems. What are conventional energy resources? Discuss about solar energy and Ocean thermal energy. . 11. What is nuclear energy? 18. 9. State the environmental effects of extracting & using mineral resources. How forests are useful to mankind? 4. What are the environmental impacts of mineral extraction? Explain. 6. What are the methods of flood control? 7. Mention the scope and importance of Environmental studies. 12. 2. What is mining? Mention the methods of mining. What are the major causes of deforestation? 15. What are the uses and over-exploitation of water? Explain with a case-study. Discuss the major causes & consequences of deforestation? 3. Enumerate the various benefits and drawbacks of constructing dams. Explain the major impacts of timber extraction and mining. 6. What are the measures recommended for conservation of natural resources. 19. 13. 5. 8.49 UNIT – I PART – A 1. 5. 2. Discuss in detail the impacts of over-grazing & agriculture. What is soil erosion? 10. Explain in detail the effects due to pesticides usage in moderns agriculture. What are the types of minerals? 17. Explain briefly the various methods of harvesting solar energy. 20. 12. Discuss the problems of over-exploitation of Ground water. How will you achieve sustainable life-style by equitable share of resources.
An ecosystem is therefore defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable self supporting system . Pond. Man-Wildlife Conflicts – endangered and Endemic Species of India – Conservation of Biodiversity: In-Situ and Ex-Situ conservation of Biodiversity. Food Webs and Ecological Pyramids – Introduction. produces transfer of food energy known as food chain. Species and Ecosystem Diversity – Biogeographical Classification of India – Value of Biodiversity: Consumptive Use. . etc. Estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: Genetic. The main source of energy in the ecosystem is sunlight. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is unidirectional. Oceans. Social. Sun Producer Herbivores Carnivores Top carnivores Decomposers FOOD CHAIN Plants by photosynthesis convert solar energy into protoplasm. Lakes. Streams. UNIT II ECOSYSTEM: Living organisms cannot be isolated from their non-living environment because the later provides materials and energy for the survival of the farmer. Characteristic Features. Productive Use. Rivers. Structure and Function of the (A) Forest Ecosystem (B) Grassland Ecosystem (C) Desert Ecosystem (D) Aquatic Ecosystems (Ponds. The process of energy flow involves transfer of energy from autotrophy to various components of heterotrophy and help in maintaining bio diversity. The flow of energy from producer level to top consumer level is called energy flow. About 80% of energy is lost during flow of energy from one tropic level to the next one. It flows from producer level to consumer level and never in the reverse direction. ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM: Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. Eg. Consumers and Decomposers – Energy Flow in the Ecosystem – Ecological Succession – Food Chains. forest. Ethical. it is the basic force responsible for running all the metabolic activities. Aesthetic and Option Values – Biodiversity at Global. Types. lake. grassland. This sequence of eaten and being eaten . Small herbivores consume the vegetable matter and convert into animal matter which in turn eaten by large carnivores. For living organisms. desert. Poaching of Wildlife.Field Study of Common Plants. Insects and Birds. National and Local Levels – India as a Mega-Diversity Nation – Hot-Spots of Biodiversity – Threats to Biodiversity: Habitat Loss.50 UNIT II ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY Concepts of an Ecosystem – Structure and Function of an Ecosystem – Producers.
Types of ecological pyramids: a) pyramid of numbers b) pyramid of biomass c) pyramid of energy Eg. Grass Mouse Rabbit Grasshopper snake Hawk Lizard ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS: The energy biomass and number of organisms gradually decreases from the producer level to the consumer level. The total mass of herbivores in an ecosystem will generally be less than the total mass of plants. biomass and energy of various energy levels is called ecological pyramid. Lion) Decomposers (Bacteria. In an ecosystem linking of feeding habit relations will provide a food web. In any ecological pyramid the producer forms the base and the successive levels form the tires which can make the apex.51 Producers (Plants) FOOD WEB: Consumer I order (Deer) Consumer II order (Tiger. Similarly the total mass of carnivores will be less than the total mass of herbivores. The graphical representation of the number. fungi) The food relationship between various organisms is being depicted by linking all the possible prey and predators of different food level. Grassland ecosystem – pyramid of number – upright pyramid birds insects Worms grass .
wet green Littoral and swamps Sub tropical Characteristics: Abiotic: soil. shrubs and animals Structure: Producer : trees and shrubs Consumer : Primary – elephants. birds. Secondary – snakes. tigers etc Decomposers : fungi.52 Parasite ecosystem – pyramid of number – inverted pyramid Bacteria. temperature etc Biotic : forest trees. fungi Parasites Birds Tree MAJOR TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS FOREST ECOSYSTEM Definition: It is a natural ecosystem consisting of dense growth of trees and wild animals Types: tropical – deciduous. lizards etc Tertiary – lions. deer etc. sun light. bacteria Functional components: Ecological pyramids (upright) lions lizards deers trees . evergreen.
Types: 1. River ecosystem: large streams flowing from mountain highlands are rivers. Lake ecosystem: Big fresh water ecosystem – Zonation or stratification. especially during summer is a common one.53 AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Definition: Deals with water bodies and biotic communities present in them-Classified as fresh water and marine ecosystems. Dal lake in Srinagar. prone to anthropogenic activities – Littoral zone Second layer – enough sunlight. Ponds are very often exposed to anthropogenic pressure like cloth washing. Stream organisms have to face extreme difference in climatic conditions but they do not suffer from oxygen deficiency as pond and lake organisms. aquatic plants. 2.oligotrophic lakes – with less nutrient content – eutrophic lakes – with very high nutrient content due to fertilizer contamination – desert salt lakes – that contains high saline water due to over evaporation – volcanic lakes – formed by water emitted from magma due to volcanic eruptions – dystrophic lakes – that contains highly acidic water (low pH) – endemic lakes – lakes that contain many endemic species – etc. Streams: fresh water ecosystem where water current plays a major role. This is because large surface area of running water provides more oxygen supply. The animals have very narrow range of tolerance towards oxygen deficiency. swimming etc. warm. Fresh water systems are classified as lentic and lotic ecosystems. insects. Pond ecosystem: Small fresh water ecosystem – seasonal in nature – organisms: algae. cattle bathing. Top layer – shallow. . Snails Types of lakes : Many types. Naini lake in Nainital Organisms: planktons – phytoplankton eg. Fishes Neustons – that float on the surface of water Benthos – that attached to sediments eg. bathing. Thus stream are worst victims of industrial pollution. 3. high primary productivity – Limnetic zone Third layer – very poor or no sunlight – Profundal zone Eg. Rotifers Nektons – that swims in water eg. Algae – zooplankton eg. fishes etc. Oxygen and nutrient content are uniform.
natural gas. euphotic zone – abundant sunlight 2. Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds fishes Worms.50. Characteristics: Structural Components: Abiotic: pH. oils. drugs etc. Two zones: coastal zone – warm. etc. sand etc.O. – major sinks of carbon di oxide – regulate biochemical cycles. mountain highlands – rushing down water fall of water – large quantity of dissolved oxygen – plants attached to rocks and fishes that require more oxygen are found. Mg. shallow – high sunlight – high primary productivity. insects phytoplankton Energy flow: Phytoplankton Insects small fishes huge fishes Decomposition sediments . Biotic: Phytoplankton. D. 2. nutrients are brought – deposited in plains and delta – very rich in biodiversity. abyssal zone – dark zone – world’s largest ecological unit. nutrient rich. Estuary: coastal area where river meet ocean – strongly affected by tidal actions – very rich in nutrients – very rich in biodiversity also – organisms are highly tolerant – many species are endemic – high food productivity – however to be protected from pollution.000 species – huge variety of sea products. etc. 1. Third phase: river shapes the land – lots of silts. 4.54 Three phases: 1. Second phase – gentle slopes of hills – warmer – supports the growth of plants and fishes that require less oxygen are seen. fishes. nutrients. – provide Fe. 3. birds. snails insects. Open sea – away from continental shelf – vertically divided in to 3 zones. Oceans: Gigantic reservoirs of water covering >70% of earth surface – 2. bathyal zone – dim sunlight 3. climatic conditions. temp.
Animals – Zebra. fox. Very cold winter and very hot summer dry summer fires do not allow shrubs and trees to grow – soil is quite fertile – cleaned for agriculture. Eg. Savannas in Africa. Biotic: grass. – fires are common in dry seasons – termite mounds produce methane – leads to fire – high in photosynthesis – deliberate burning leads to release of high CO2 – global warming. Components: Structural Components: Abiotic: soil pH. etc. 3. Temperate grasslands – flat and gentle slopes of hills. soil moisture. etc. – A thick layer of ice remains frozen under the soil surface throughout the year – known as permafrost – summer insects and birds appear. 2. birds. caterpillar. Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds insects Worms grass Energy flow: Grass worms Insects small birds huge birds . Tropical grass lands – found near the boarders of tropical rain forests. insects. etc. giraffes etc. nutrients. worms. climatic conditions.55 GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM: dominated by grass – few shrubs and trees are also found – rainfall average but erratic – overgrazing leads to desertification. temp. Three types – depending on the climate 1. butterfly. Polar grasslands – found in arctic polar region – organism – arctic wolf.
56 Decomposition sediments BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the abbreviated word for ―biological diversity‖ (bio-life or living organisms. from highest mountain to deepest ocean trenches. the total number of races. diversity-variety). Insects make up more than one half of all known species and may comprise more than 90% of all species on earth. ecological processes (which capture energy). only 10-15% live in North America and Europe. plants and animals (producers. topographic and soil conditions and roughly comparable biological communities (Eg. environment with similar climatic. colour and inter relationship). consumers and decomposers) in a system. The biomes shelter an astounding variety of living organisms (from driest desert to dripping rain forest. forest). including tropic levels. Biodiversity Hotspots: Most of the world’s biodiversity are near the equator especially tropical rain forest and coral reefs. Of all the world’s species. food webs and material recycling. life occurs in a marvelous spectrum of size. mainly in tropics. Thus biodiversity is the total variety of life on our planet. The sum of total of various types of microbes. Genetic diversity is a measure of the variety of versions of same gene within individual species. varieties and species. The variety of living organisms. . shape. taxonomists estimate there are between 3-50 million different species may be alive today. by research expeditions. the biodiversity. Biomes can be considered life zones.4 million species known presently. makes the world beautiful. Grassland. The concept of biodiversity may be analyzed in 3 different levels. There are 1. But based on new discoveries. Species diversity describes the number of kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems. They are 1 ecosystem diversity 2 species diversity 3 genetic diversity Ecosystem or ecological diversity means the richness and complexity of a biological community.
animals and microbes to be more than $30 billion per year. . It is the combination of different organisms that enables the biosphere to sustain human race. The United Nations Development Programme derived from developing world plants. Biodiversity is vital for a healthy biosphere. for instance. Now the remission rate for childhood leukemia is 99%. while Britain. high diversity may help biological communities to withstand environmental stress better and to recover more quickly than those with fewer species. Besides these biodiversity is so important due to having consumptive use values. solar energy absorption. Drugs and medicine: Living organisms provides many useful drugs and medicines. Significance of Biodiversity: Biosphere is a life supporting system to the human race. Areas isolated by water. of unique species and biodiversity. productive use values. Biodiversity is must for the stability and proper functioning of the biosphere. For natural medicinal products Penicillin – fungus is the source – Antibiotic Quinine – chincona bark . Ecological benefits: Human life is inextricably linked to ecological services provided by other organisms. Even insignificant organisms can play irreplaceable roles in ecological systems or the source of genes or drugs that someday become indispensable. New Zealand. once the drugs were not introduced.000 edible plants could be used by human. Each species in the biosphere has its own significance. air and water purification. desert or mountain can also have high conc. About 80. Soil formation.Malaria treatment Morphine – poppy bark – Analgesic Twenty years before. unusual collection of species. Food: Many wild plant species could make important contributions to human food suppliers either as they are or as a source of material to improve domestic crops. has only 1400 species. has at least 8000 species of flowing plants. Eg. Benefits of biodiversity: We benefit from other organism in many ways. nutrient cycling and food production all depend on biodiversity. childhood leukemia was fatal. with an area twice as large. ethical values and aesthetic values. social values. waste disposal.57 The Malaysian Peninsula. South America has 200 000 species of plants. South Africa and California are all mid-latitude area isolated by barriers that prevent mixing up of biological communities from other region and produce rich. In many environments.
the elimination of species. Human caused reduction: The climate change caused by our release of green house gases in the atm. Poaching of wild life Due to poaching. can support more individuals of given species and therefore less likely to suffer extinction due to genetic problems and natural catastrophes.58 Threats to biodiversity: Due to Habitat loss Deforestation activities (cutting trees for timber. A large island for example. discharge of industrial effluents use of pesticides. is a normal process of the natural world. Elephant – for ivory tusk. Sea Horse. many plant species become extinct Increase in the production of pharmaceutical companies made several number of medicinal plants and species on the verge of extinction. market hunting and habitat destruction caused the entire population to crash with in 20 years. could have catastrophic effects. Deer – for hides. Eg. Fragmentation Habitat fragmentation reduces the biodiversity because many animals like bears and large cats require large territories to subsist. construction of dam. (Extinction. Rhinoceros – for horns. In spite of this vast population. Commercial products: . illegal trade and smuggling activities most of our valuable fauna are under threat organised crime has moved into illegal wild life smuggling because of huge profit Eg. Tiger. Human disturbance of natural habitat is the largest single cause pf loss of biological diversity.) Hunting: Over harvesting is responsible for depletion or extinction of many species. Removal of forest-cover for road laying and also due to soil erosion Illegal trade of wild life Population explosion. Species die put and are replaced by others as part of evolutionary change. removal of medicinal plants) Production of hybrid seeds requires wild plants as raw material. Woodlands and grasslands are converted now use about 10% of the world’s land surface for crop production and about twice the amount for pasture and grasslands. Some forest birds reproduce only in deep forest or habitat far from human settlement. The American passenger pigeon was the world’s most abundant bird. Star turtle – sold to foreign market. farmers prefer hybrid reeds.
horns and folk medicines also affect the biodiversity in an abrupt manner. seed bank 5. In-situ or on-site conversion 2. 1. shortage term propagation and release 3. national parks and sanctuaries (Eg) Mudumalai. animal translocation and re introductions 4. Conservation of biodiversity In general biodiversity is generally disturbed by human activities. Methods: 1. long term captive breeding 2. To solve the problems. Ex-situ conservation In-situ conservation: Conservation of species in its natural habitat. it is essential to protect our bio diversity by two ways.situ conservation: It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plant and animal species under partially or wholly controlled conditions in zoos. vedanthangal 3. Nature or biosphere reserves (Eg) Nilgiri Bio reserve 2. on farm and home garden conservation for plants. reproductive technology (i) embryo transfer technology (ii) cloning Biodiversity and National Environmental law: . in place where the species normally occurs The strategy involves establishing small or large protected areas. Ex. called protected areas Today in world.59 Smuggling of fuels. there are 9800 protected areas and 1500 national parks Methods: 1. vegetables and fruits to maintain traditional crop varieties. hides. gardens and laboratories The crucial issue for conservation is to identify those species which are more at risk of extinction.
Define Ecology? Define Eco-System with an example? What are the structural components of an Ecosystem? Differentiate between Food Chain and Food Web? What are Ecological Pyramids. UNIT-II PART-A 1. Biosphere Reserve and the wild life (protection) Act 1972: Biosphere reserves are complementary to the existing network of national parks and sanctuaries. The habitat protection laws: This includes species protection laws and habitat protection laws which indirectly protect and conserve the biological diversity and its components. 8.60 All environmental problems are regional in nature but their effects are global. Give examples. for the protection of wild animals and birds and for all other matters connected there of or ancillary and incidental there to. Explain their importance? What is the significance of Ecological pyramids? Discuss about the prime characteristics of a.Forest Ecosystem b. 2. 6. What are Biochemical cycles. to protect biological diversity in particular and environmental protection in general. 7. The wild life (protection) Act 1972: Enacted 1.Grassland Ecosystem c. Hence environmental problems cane be resolved only by extensive co operation among nations. 5. The government of India has enacted laws for the conservation of biological diversity. Indian law for conservation of biodiversity: The wild species of the group and other related species constitute a rich gene pool in India. 4.Desert Ecosystem . 3. to protect wild animals and birds which are in the verge of extinction 2. this act is enacted to protect biosphere. 3. Laws serve to achieve global objective of environmental protection.
17. 14. 13. Explain the structure and functional features of Aquatic ecosystem. What are hotspots of biodiversity? 11. What are endangered species? Give examples. 3. 5. What are the threats faced by biodiversity. Bring out the classification of aquatic ecosystem. What are the solutions for the threats. Explain threatened species. 18. What is ecosystem diversity. Explain the Sulphur and Phosphorus cycles. What are trophic levels? Explain the flow of energy and minerals in ecosystem. Differentiate between biodiversity and ecosystem biodiversity. 4. PART-B 1. Explain the necessity to conserve biodiversity. characteristics and biodiversity of Forest ecosystem. 15. Bring few methods to conserve biodiversity. 19. 12. 6. 16. Explain biosphere. Explain In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Explain ecological. Explain the two models of energy flow in an ecosystem.Aquatic Ecosystem 9. 20. 8. 10.5. Bring out the Bio-geographical classification of India. Explain the components. What is biodiversity and its significance. pyramids with respect to pond ecosystem. 2. .(or) What are the measures recommended for conservation of biodiversity. Discuss the value of biodiversity.61 d. 7. Explain Carbon and Nitrogen cycles.
Tracer of O3. E.: NO/No2 Moist HNO3/NO3 etc. Automobile emission.78%. Pollutants: Radon gas in emitted by the building materials like bricks. Composition of air: N. UNIT-III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is defined as the presence of one (or) more contaminants like dust.62 UNIT III ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Definition – Causes. NO. E. Cyclone and Landslides. Argon <1%. He. CO2. Sources of I. . Earthquake. tiles which are derived from soil containing radium. SO2 etc. O2 – 21%. forest fires . agricultural activities. mist and odour in the atmosphere which causes damage to plants. forest fires. smoke.Floods. 0637%. Indoor Air Pollutants: These are primary air pollutants Important indoor air pollutant is radon gas. concrete. biological decay.(A) Air Pollution (B) Water Pollution (C) Soil Pollution (D) Marine Pollution (E) Noise Pollution (F) Thermal Pollution (G) Nuclear Hazards – Solid Waste Management:. Effects and Control Measures of:. fuel burning.A. secondary pollutions Primary Pollutants:Pollutants emitted directly into the atmospheres in harmful form.g. Secondary Pollutants: Some of primary pollutnts react with one another (or) with basic Components of air to form new polluants.Causes. (ii)Man-made: Thermal power plants. Effects and Control Measures of Urban and Industrial Wastes – Role of an Individual in Prevention of Pollution – Pollution Case Studies – disaster Management:. SOURCES: (i) National Source: Volcanic eruption. NH3.g. radioactive materials. animals and human beings. CLASSIFICATION OF AIR POLLUTANTS Primary pollutions.: CO.
O3. Human Source. No2 + Moisture ------> HNO3 Human sources: Fossil fuel burning in motor vehicles and power industrial plants. reproductive problems and cancer.Coal burning in power plants and industrial process. Environment effect – Reduce visibility. H2So4 damages trees. SO2.Highly reactive irritating gas in the troposphere. soil and aquatic life. Human Source. statues. SO2. Suspended particulate Matter (SPM) -It includes varieties of particles and droplets. which causes headaches and anemia. agriculture.Reacts with hemoglobin and reduces the ability of to carry O2 to body cells and tissues. unpaved roads construction.Breathing problems. ------------> 2CO Human Sources – Cigarette smoking. Health effects. burning fossil fuels. Lung irritation and damage Environment effect: HNO3 corrode metals and eat away stone on buildings. It is converted to H2SO4 in the atmosphere. Human Sources – Burning coal in power and industrial plants. cigarette smoke liberates pollutants like CO.Formed mostly by the combustion of sulphur containing fossil fuels like coal and oil. acid deposition & H2SO4 droplets damage trees. 2C + O2 exhaust. Common Air pollutants sources and their effects CO – formed by the incomplete combustion of carbon containing fuels. 77% Co comes from motor vehicle . Health Effect – Nose and throat irritation. Environment effect – Reduce visibility. It is major component of acid deposition.Chemical reactions with volatile organic compounds and nitrogen oxides. Environment effect – Moderates the climate. In atmosphere it reacts with moisture to form HNO3. Health Effect.63 Burning fuel in the kitchens. asthma. NO2 – It gives photochemical smog. lung damage. Burning diesel and other fuels in vehicle. It is major component of photo chemical smog. NO2 damages fabrics. Effect Health.
Some lead containing chemicals causes cancer in test animals. heart diseases etc. Use only unleaded petrol Use fuels that have low sulphurs and ash containing. lead manufacture. Scrubber. . 3. Emission rates should be restricted to permissible levels in all industries. 4. Air pollution control equipment should be incorporated in plant layout Monitering of the atmosphere for the pollutants should be carried out continuously to know the emission levels. 2. storage batteries.Paint. 5. Its formation begins inside automobile engines and the boilers in coal burning power and industrial plants. ENT irritation. Human Source. Controlling air Pollution Controlling at the sources: 1. 5. Environment effect – Smog can reduce visibility. bag house filter and electrostatic precipitators must be used in manufacturing process to retain harmful materials that must be disposed of safely. Health Effect – Mental retardness (in children) digestive and other health problems. Control Measures in industries: 1.64 Photochemical smog: Any chemical reaction activated by light is called photochemical reaction. Environment effect – Can harm wild life. 7 Lead – Solid toxic metal and its components emitted into the atmosphere as a particulate matters.. 3. 2. Photochemical smog is a mixture of more than 100 primary and secondary pollutants formed under the influence of sunlight. Plant trees along busy streets because they remove particulates and CO and absorb noise 4. cyclone separator. Industries and waste disposal should be outside the city area. leaded petrol. cough. The disposal of the collected air pollutants are equally important for controlling air pollution. Use catalytic converters to control the emission of CO and hydrocarbon. Health Effect – Breathing problems.
Damage nervous system. street wash. effluents. Health Effect – Depletion of dissolved O2 in water. pesticides. paper mills. bacteria. food processing facilities. liver & Kidney. Compounds of toxic metals like Lead. Health Effect – Causes skin caner & neck damage. such as animal manure & Plant debris that are decomposed by aerobic bacteria. chemical & biological characteristics of water which causes harmful effects on humans and aquatic life. arsenic and selenium. protozoa. parasitic worms Human Source. This causes death of aquatic life. Infections Agents: Bacteria.65 WATER POLLUTION The alternation in physical. Salts like NaCl in sea water and fluorides found in some soils Human Source. household waste. viruses. The major pollutants are sewage.Industrial effluents.harm fish and other aquatic life Organic Chemical Plastics. Inorganic Chemical water soluble chemicals like acids. detergents . Human Source.Human and animal works Health Effect – Variety of diseases. Oxygen demanding wastes: Organic wastes.Sewage. animal feedlots.
66 Human Source- Industrial effluents, household waste. Health Effect – Damages nervous system, causes some cancers Plant Nutrients- Water solublecompoundscontaining Nitrates, (NO4-3 ) phosphates (PO4-3) and NH4+ions Human Source- Sewage, manure, runs off of agriculture, urban fertilizer. Health Effect – Drinking water with high levels of nitrate lowers the O2 carrying capacity of Blood and kills urban children and infants Sediment – Soil, silt Human Source- Land Erosion Health Effect – Clouds water and reduces photosynthesis. Disturbs aquatic food web carry Pesticides, bacteria and other harmful substances. Radio active materials – Radio isotopes of I2, radon, uranium and thorium Human Source- I131, Co60, Fe55 Nuclear power plants, miningand processing of thorium. Health Effect – Genetic mutation, birth defects and certain cancers. Thermal Pollution Excessive heat Human Source- Water cooling of electric power plants and some types of industrial plants. Hence the temperature of water increases. The rise in temperature decreases the dissolved O2 and affects the aquatic organisms. Controlling of water pollution: 1. All domestic and municipal effluents be drained to water bodies only after treatment 2. Use of pesticides in agriculture should be limited. Only standard quality pesticides
Should be used. 3. Chemicals like potassium permanganate should be sprayed regularly to protect water from
micro organisms. 4. 5. 6. Radio active substances can be removed by Ion-exchange method. Plants, trees and forests control pollution and they act as natural air conditions. Bacteria are killed by passing chlorine gas into water bodies.
67 7. Highly qualified and experienced persons should be consulted from time to time for effective control of water pollution. 8. 9. 10. Inorganic wastes can be treated chemically. Acids and bases are removed by neutralization Sewage is treated by biochemical oxidation.The chemicals retards the growth of plants and
retard reproduction process.
Contaminations of the soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings.
Effects on living beings This may be due to the following factors. (i) Industrial wastes: Industries are the major causes for soil pollution Textiles, steel, paper, Cement, oil, dyeing and other industries are responsible for soil pollution. Toxic organic compounds and phenol destroy the fertility of the soil. (ii) Biological agents – Fungi, protozoa, bacteria are important Biological agents for soil pollution. The human and animal wastes, garbage, waste water generates heavy soil pollution. (iii) Radio active pollutants: Atomic reactor, nuclear radio active devices releases radio active pollutants. These pollutants enter the land and accumulate there by causing soil pollution. (iv) Pesticides: Pesticides pollute the soil. There are of two types (i) chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticide (2) Organic phosphorous pesticides. Common chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides are DDT, BHC. Organo phosphorous insecticides are synthetic chemicals like Malathion and parathion. DDT reduces the activity of sex hormones of male and female. The land with fungicides insecticides causes diseases to human beings.
into the soil. Some plants are very sensitive to soil PH and salinity. Na. Nitrates etc. Compounds containing As. K. Hg. Plastics & other water: These materials appear as garbage. 2. 6. Ni. soil erosion containing inorganic chemicals are causing soil pollution. pesticides. . Solid wastes and their quantities increase day by day. 2. 5. Fertilizers may be applied only after estimating the soil and crop measures. Apart from these farm wastes.People should be trained regarding the sanitary habits. The nitrate causes cancer. Bio pesticides should be used instead of toxic chemical pesticides.69 Fertilizers: These discharge N.Proper hygienic condition. Fluorides affect plant development Water logging and salinity increase the dissolved salt content in the soil. control soil erosion by tree plantation. Effect of soil pollution 1. plastic. metals. Polymer. Control of soil pollution 1. Pathogenic bacteria spread infection. 4. Thus land becomes unfit for irrigation.. They pollute the atmospheres. Agricultural practices: Modern agriculture practices pollute the soil to a large extent. 7Recycling and reuse of waster – The wastes such as paper. Zn and Fe are toxic to life. 3. manure debris. S. Organic wastes enter the soil pores and decompose. Production of natural fertilizers Excessive use of chemical fertilizers and insecticides should be avoided. Cr. glasses should be recycled and used. weedicides are added to increase the crop field. land and also water badly. Today huge quantities of fertilizers. Treat the sewage before land disposal Rotate the crop pattern to allow the soil replenish the nutrients. Preserve and protect top fertile soil. 3. 4.
70 Noise Pollution It may be defined as unwanted sound which gets dumped In to the atmosphere without regarding to it’ adverse effects. furnaces. and airports Effects of noise pollution 1. Annoyance A noise is said be annoying if the exposed individual or groups of individuals reduce the noise avoid or leave the noisy area if possible. Causes: Industrial noise Most affonding noise sources are compressors. other musical instruments. grinding mills. railwaylinks. Air conditioners. hearing loss. They affect users as well as the neighbors. . Traffic noise Continuous movement of vehicles causes traffic noise. generators power looms. TV. Physiological effects Headache increase in the rate of heart beat. emotional disturbances. 2. pain in heart. It affects not only those who are moving but also those who live near the roads. Domestic noise Transistors radio. These are used in many industrial processes and installed partially in closed and open sheds. washing machines. Both loudness and annoyance increase with increasing sound levels.
4. 5. Oiling: Proper oiling will reduce the noise from the machine. Control measures: Source Control 1. tamarind. Ultrasonic sound can affect digestive respiratory cardiovascular system and semi circular canals of internal ear. Planting of trees: Planting of trees like neem. Rivers on the way to sea carry huge amount of sewage garbage agricultural discharge pesticide heavy metals. Transmission path intervention: Containing the source inside a sound insulating enclosure. Recently it has been reported that the blood also thickened by excessive noise 4. Impulsive noise also causes psychological and pathological disorders. Sources: 1. Huge quantity of plastic dumped in to the sea. Modification of source such as acoustic treatment to machine surface designed changes limiting the operational timings.71 3. construction of noise barrier or provision of sound absorbing material along the path. 3. Dumping the wastes: Dumping of untreated wastes and sewages in the oceans by coastal towns. It causes muscle to contract leading to nervous breakedown. cities and industries. Marine Pollution The discharge of waste substances in to the sea resulting in harm to the living resources. Selection of machinery: Careful selection of machine tools and equipments to be used may help to lower the noise levels in machine shop. 5. hazards to the human health hindrances to the fishery and impairment of quality use of sea water. 6. coconut etc near schools hospitals reduce the noise to the extent of 8 to 10 db. 2.tension etc. .
This causes devastation of marine environment. Marine Debris: Garbage like plastic bags. Oil and it’s fractions are used in houses automobiles and industries. Oil pollution causes damage to marine animals and plants including algae bird. Effects: Oil spills inhibit photosynthesis and the growth of planktons. 5. Oil: This is discharged in to the sea as crude oil and as separate fraction. .72 Effects: Many marine birds ingest plastic that causes gastrointestinal disorders. Toxics: Toxic waste is the most harmful form of marine pollution. 3. 2. Heavy metals and organic pollutants damages birds by thinning of egg shells and tissue damage of egg. Radio active materials enter the ocean from nuclear weapon testing. 4. 2. ropes helium balloons Effects of marine pollution: 1. fish etc. All aquatic animals depend either directly of indirectly on planktons the basis of trophic cahin. Once toxic wastes affects an organism it quickly passes along the food chain and as sea food which cause various problems.
73 3. Sources of thermal pollution 1. Recreation beaches should be maintained to meet hygienic and aesthetic standard. paper and pulp release heat . Soil erosion in the coastal land should be arrested be suitable techniques 4. THERMAL POLLUTION Pollution due to heat which changes the physical and chemical properties of the water that affects man. Control of marine pollution: Nature and world conservation union suggest the principles 1. c) Chemical methods like dispersion . Industries like textile. Chopped straw and saw dust also used to absorbed oil from the sea water. Urbon growth near the coast should be regulated. Oil spilling in the sea causes abnormal low body temperature in birds resulting in hypothermia. Coastal waste are periodically analyzed for detecting pollution level 3. 4. Industrial waste water Industries generating electricity like coal powered and nuclear power plants need huge amount of cooling water for removing heat. Methods of removal of oil Physical methods. animals and the aquatic system. 2. Hydrocarbon and benzpyrene accumulate in food chain and consumption of fish by man may cause cancer. a) skimming the oil off the surface with suction device b) Floating oil can be absorbed using absorbing materials like ploy urethane foam. 5. Municipal and industrial waste should be treated before disposing in to sea 2. emulsification and using chemical additives are used to coagulated the oil Protective method: 1. During Exxon Valdez accident 150 rare species of bald eagles are affected by ingested oil. Oil films are able to retard the rate of oxygen uptake by water. The industrial unit on the coastal lines should be equipped with pollution control instrument.
Domestic sewages The domestic which contains high BOD. Change in temperature alters the seasonal variation in type and abundance of lower organisms. COD and low dissolved oxygen when discharged in to rivers and others water with out treatment raises the temperature of water bodies. Change in water properties Rise in temperature changes physical and chemical properties of water Food shortage for fishes. 3. This increases the temperature by 15˚C. Coal fired power plants These constitute the major sources of thermal pollution. a rise of 10˚ C doubles the toxic effect of KCN. Thus fish may lack right food at right time. nuclear experiments discharged large amount of heat with toxic radio nuclides in to receiving water sources. Effects of thermal pollution 1. 4. Their condenser coil are cooled with water froe near by lake from river are discharged hot water back in to the stream. Hydro electric power An electric power industry with cooling arrangements also causes thermal pollution in receiving water bodies. 5. This decreases the dissolved oxygen and killing the aquatic life.74 in water to lesser extent. than the receiving water. The discharged water will have higher temperature of 6 to 9˚ C. A rise of 80˚ C triples toxic effects of orthoxylene causing massive death of fish. Nuclear power plant Nuclear explosion. reduction in dissolved 02 as the temperature of water increases Increase in toxicity Increase in temperature increases the toxicity of the poison present in water Ex. Interference with reproduction: . A leakage of radiation from nuclear power plant raises the temperature water bodies. 2.
Direct mortality: The increase in the temperature exhausts the micro organisms and shortens their life span. . Change in temperature affects the above process. Artificial lakes: The heated effluents from the thermal power industries are discharged in to the artificial lakes at one end while cool water is transferred back from the other end. Cooling towers are used to spread the recovered waste heat to eliminate the problems of thermal pollution. Heat is evaporated through dissipation in this method. Types of cooling towers: Wet cooling Towers: Hot water coming from the reactor is allowed to spray over baffles .Cool air with high velocity is passed from the sides which takes away the heat and cools water.75 In fishes the activities like nest building. Cooling Points: Heated effluents on the surface of water in cooling points maximize dissipation of heat to the atmosphere and minimize water area and volume. Dry cooling tower: Hot water is allowed to flow in long spiral pipes. With the help of fan cool air is possible over these hot pipes thereby cooling water. Thus warm water wedge acts like cooling points. migration and reproduction depend upon optimum temperature. Above a particular temperature a fish dye due to the failure in respiratory and nervous system. Water is sprayed through nozzles as fine droplets. Control of Thermal pollution: Cooling towers: Cooling towers transfers some of the heat from hot water to the surrounding atmosphere by the process of evaporation. hatching. heat from the fine droplets gets dissipated to the atmosphere. Spray Points: The water from the condenser is allowed to pass in to the ponds through sprayers.
cross linkings within and between two affected molecules. Damages to enzymes. Control Measures: 1Nuclear devices should never be exploded in air. 2 . malignance and ulcerisation in intestinal tract. 3.76 RADIOACTIVE POLLUTION Radioactive pollution is the physical pollution of air water and soil by radioactive materials. chromosomes such as fragmentation mitochondria etc. 4. Leakage of radioactive elements from reactors and labs processing or using them should be totally checked. RNA through ionization. air radioactive Rd 222 also contain one or more radioactive substances. Effects: 1. 5.loss of sight. 5. Death or shortening of life span due to radiation changes in chacteristics due to mutation.Damage to cell membranes. nuclear accidents. If necessary they may be explode under ground.Disruption of central nervous system . Internal bleeding and blood vessel damage may show up as red spots on the skin. 2. thorium and preparation of radioactive isotopes. Urban children are vulnerable to brain damage or mental retardation if radiation occurs in early pregnancy. Sources: Natural source: The important natural source is space which emits cosmic rays. nuclear bombs. 4. inactivation of bone marrow activity resulting in blood cancer. Man made resources: Nuclear power plants X-rays. . 3. 6. Soil rocks. Nuclear medicines and radiation therapy should be applied when absolutely necessary with minimum dose. In nuclear mines wet drilling may be employed along with underground drainage. DNA. In nuclear and chemical industries the use of radio isotopes may be carried under a jet of soil or water instead of powder or gaseous form. Mining and refining of plutonium.
waste paper. SOURCES OF INDUSTRIAL WASTES The main source of industrial waste is chemical industries. wood. dried leaves etc. vegetables. thermal power plants produce fly ash in large quantities 3. Types of solid waste Urban waste and industrial waste. food. Sources of urban and industrial wastes Sources of urban waste: domestic waste like food waste. 1.Biomedical waste like Anatomical waste. glass bottles.Commercial waste like packing materials cans. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Management of solid waste is very important to minimize adverse effect of solid waste. polythene bags etc Construction wastes like concrete. Nuclear power plants generate radioactive wastes 2. Minimum number of nuclear installations should be commissioned. Non biodegradable waste.77 6. bottles.g. Biodegradable wastes – urban solid waste materials that can be degraded by micro organisms are called biodegradable waste.g. . Chemical industries produce toxic and hazardous materials. E. Tea leaves. infectious waste etc Classification of urban waste: 1. polythene bags etc . Urban solid wastes that cannot be degraded by microorganisms are called non biodegradable wastes. 2. In nuclear reactors closed cycled coolant system with gaseous coolants may be used to prevent extraneous activation of products. debris etc . E. metal and mineral processing industries. 7.
STEPS INVOLVED IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT Reduce. rubber. Old aluminium cans glass bottles are melted into new cans and bottles. other industries produce packing materials acid. scrap metals. glass wood etc EFFECT OF SOLID WASTE 1. This produces foul smell and breeds various types of insects which spoil land well. dioxins and poly chlorinated biphenyls which are harmful to human beings. alkalis. 4. Preparation of cellulose insulations from paper. Recycling is the reprocessing of discarded materials into new useful products. 2. Burning of some industrial waste or domestic waste produces furan.78 4. Ex. Preparation of fuel pallets from kitchen wastes. reuse and recycle: if the usage of raw materials is reduced the generation of waste also gets reduced. . Waste generation during manufacture of rubber bands is reduced by making rubber bands from discarded cycle tubes. Reuse of waste materials: discarded refillable containers can be reused. plastic.Biodegradable materials in the disposed municipal waste undergo decomposition. Recycling of materials. Industrial waste containing toxic metals and hazardous waste affect soil characteristics. Toxic substances name percolate into the ground and contaminates the ground water. 3.
. roads and small buildings.79 METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTES Land Fill: Solid wastes are placed in sanitary land fill system in alternate layers of 80cm thick refuse covered with selected earth fill of 20cm thickness. After 2 or 3 years solid waste volume shrinks by 25-30% and the land is used for parks.
Causes fire hazard due to methane formation in wet weather INCINERATION In this method the municipal solid wastes are burnt in a furnace called incinerator. Natural resources are returned to soil and reclyed . Compacting it and then covering it with soil at suitable intervals. The combustible substances such as rubbish. The non combustible can be left out for recycling and reuse. The temperature maintained is about 700 ˚ C and increase to 1000˚ C when electricity is to be generated.Hygienic point of it is safest. Sources of mosquito.150tons per hour. 2. This method involves spreading the solid waste on the ground. metals are separated before feeding into incinerator. Capital and operational cost is high. dust and ash causes air pollution. Needs skilled persons. The left out ashes and clinkers from the incinerator may be about 10-20 % which is disposed by land fill or some other methods. marshy waste land into usefull areas. Diadvantages: Large area needed. Incinerated plants of 300 tons per day capacity generate 3 MW of power. Advantages: 1. Bad odour.80 Waste disposal is dumping in sanitary land fill which is employed in Indian cities. 3. Advantages: 1 Simple and economical. and dead organisms and non combustible matter such as glass. . 3. Requires little space 2 .Converts low lying. flies. Segregation is not required. Formations of smoke. Insecticides and pesticides are to be applied at regular intervals. Disadvantages: 1. garbage. The wet solid waste is dried in pre heaters and then taken into large incinerating furnaces called destructors which incinerate 100. The heat produced in the incinerator during burning is used as steam power for generation of electricity through turbines. High transportation cost.
The organic matter decomposed by actionomycetes and lot of heat is liberated.P on 3rd December 1984 world’s worst industrial accident occurred.81 COMPOSTING: In this method bulk organic waste is converted in to manure by biological action. Use water energy and other resources efficiently. Compost able waste is dumped in underground trenches in layer of 1. Microorganism like actinomycetes is added for active decomposition. Case studies related to pollution: Bhopal gas tragedy: In Bhopal M. Within two to three days biological action starts . Use CFC free refrigerators. In occurred at Union Carbide India Ltd this manufactures carbonate pesticides using methyl iso cyanate. Role of an individual in the prevention of pollution: A small effort made by each individual at his own place will have pronounced effect at the global level. The compost contain N. Purchase recyclable. Increase use of renewable resources. recycled and environmentally safe products.P and other minerals. . Number of industrial solid wastes can also be treated by this method. Individual participation: Planting more trees. It is aptly said ―Think globally. Advantages: Recycling occurs. Reduce deforestation. Act locally‖ Each individual change his life style in such a way has to reduce environment pollution. The temperature of the compost increases by 75˚C and finally the refuse is converted to a brown coloured powder known as humus and is used in agricultural fields. Remove NOx from motor vehicular exhausts. Use of eco friendly products.5 meters and is finally covered about 20 cms and left for decomposition.
Man made disaster: Accidents. earth quakes. Lower concentration of MIC affects lungs. Types: 1. pollutions. Causes: . FLOODS Defined as a situation when the river over flows is banks and the water spreads in the surrounding areas and submerging them. Natural disaster: Floods.82 Effects of MIC. bomb blasts. landslides. 5000 people are killed and 65000 people suffered from disorders in eye. The burning the oil produced pollutants like CO2 and SO2 in the Atmosphere. Eyes and causes irritation in the skin. It usually occurs in rainy season. High concentration of MIC removes Oxygen from the lungs and causes death. During the war nearly 700 oil wells of Kuwait fired and the oil spills into the sea. Effects in Bhopal: MIC spread over 40square Km in area. respiratory. etc 2. fire accidents. This corrodes clean white marble. The floating oil covered nearly 80 Km long and 25 Km wide area. The SO2 from Mathura refineries combine with Oxygen along with moisture in the atmosphere forms H2SO4 called Acid Rain. The chemical and hazardous industries and the refinery at Mathura are major sources of damage to Tajmahal. Cyclones. Man made disaster. 1000 become blind. Effects: 1 million birds were killed due to oils slick. 1. Gulf War (Marine Pollution) The Gulf war between USA and Iraq took place from Jan16th to Feb26th 1991. Taj – Trapezium Case Tajmahal is the king emperor among world wonders. Natural disaster 2. The oil slick in the sea made the desalination plants ineffective. DISASTER MANAGEMENT Disaster is a sudden calamity which brings misfortune and miseries to humanity. gastrointestinal.
. animals and materials like food. warning and advice should be provided through media to educate aware people about steps to be taken on the event of mishap. Melting of snow combine with rains. A total of 36 million people suffered hardship and losses due disaster. 75. In India cyclone originates from Bay of Bengal are more in number and intensity. 2. 4. Valuable house hold items.000 died from subsequent diseases and starvation. medicines etc. Relatively less south-west Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea. Powerful swirling storm that measures from 300. In 1974 when flooding extended over nearly one half of the country and stagnated for more than a month. 5. rotating anti. Nearly 1200dead in the floods and 2. The wind in the centre of cyclone blows in the speed of 120km/hr.clock wise in the northern hemi sphere and clock wise in southern hemisphere . About 4. 4. 25. Melting of accumulated snow. By the construction of protective works. crops. clothes. over saturated soil when the ground cannot hold any more water. 3. 3. should be shifted to safe places. Heavy intense rain fall 2.500 km in diameter. In India cyclones occur during October-December or April-May. Cyclone is an area of low pressure in the centre and high pressure outside. transport. Case study: Bangladesh – 1974 Every year large areas are submerged during monsoon season.000houses were damaged. and communication could be heavy. CYCLONE An atmospheric closed circulation. Elderly people and children should be evacuated to safer place on emergency. Urbanization Control: 1.83 1. EFFECTS: Damage to human life. roads. Forecast.
9-destructive.In the central area in Orissa a powerful cyclone storm hit with the wind velocity of 260km/hr. Measure of Earth quake-Richter scale: Magnitude of earthquake is a measure of amount of energy released in the earthquake.great Primary effect of earth quake: Shaking . A focus of an earthquake is the point of initial movement. Above 8. EARTHQUAKE Sudden vibration caused on the earth surface due to sudden release of tremendous amount of energy stored in the rocks under the earth crust is called earthquake. 4-4.9-major.Two cyclone in Orissa occurred in 18th and 29th of October 1999. constructional dams. Radar systems is used to detect cyclone and cyclone warning. Management: Meteorological Departments forecast by satellite images the weather conditions which reveal the strength and intensity of the storm.Nearly 14 of 30 districts of Orissa went in severe damage. 5-5. Case study: Cyclone in Orissa 1999. Earthquake is recorded by seismograph. Epicenter is the point on the surface directly above the focus. The effect of cyclone is minimized by planting more trees on the coastal belts. 7-7. 500 local schools have been damaged. 6-6. wind breaks etc.84 Cyclone slows down developmental activities of the area.9-damaging.11. 15 million people were affected and 90-95% of crop yield was also affected.9-minor. Less than 4-insignificant.
People should come out of their homes and stay in the open till the tremors subside. Causes of erosion of the soil. 2.85 Some times a permanent vertical or horizontal displacement of the ground . Prevention: Revegitate the area to prevent the surface erosion . After the earth quake relief camp by the Government or other social groups should be conducted for the affected people. Land slides: A landslide is a sudden collapse of large mass of hill side. 3. Factors causing landslides: Caused by rain forces increasing top material weight. Collect runoff from roofs and improved areas and convey water from the steep slopes in a well designed pipe system.This affects people bridges.Inspect and repair all drainage system. Gravity-gravity works more effectively on steeper slopes Weather: Most slides occur during or after heavy rains. flood caused by the subsidence of land.Earth quake generated water wave called Tsunami and also called tidal waves that travel as fast as 950km/hr. dams. Precautionary measures: 1. Secondary effects: Rocks slides. pipe lines. Effects: Flow deposit blocks the road and diverts the passage. Case Study: . Types: Shallow disrupted land slide and decoherent landslide. trees and any tall objects that have chances of falling down. lubricating the material layer or making slope top steep. People already out of home should stay away from the building electric poles. coastal areas are severely damaged .
Ordinary eaves have the wavelength of 100 mts. Tsunami was extremely fast moving and high volume of water. Case study: Tsunami in India: . th Tsunami It is a Japanese word which means harbour wave. vertically displacing the overlying water in the ocean.905 dollars for relief and rescue operation. Effects: Tsunami attacks mostly the coastal lines damaging property and life. Phenomenon: Tsunami is not a singular wave but a series of waves like a ordinary waves one can see on a beach.86 Landslide In UP 20 August 1998. Tsunami is large waves of water generated when the sea flow is deformed by seismic activity.Finally the country make the people alert to make all necessary precautions. Management: Earthquake under the sea are monitored by sensors on the floor of sea. Malpa Village Pithoragrah district of UP on 18th August 1998 had a land slide. The speed of Tsunami waves across deep sea is 1000 km/hr. All member nations waning system are warned of the approaching danger . Kills lot of human being and livestock also spread lot of waterborne disease. Tsunami have a wavelength of 500 kms and there could be as much as a hairs gap between eaves. The state government has announced a grant of 237. The sensors send information of floating buoys on the surface whenever they detect the change in the pressure of the sea. The information is relied to satellite which passes it to the earth station.The energy lost by tsunami waves is inversely proportional to the wavelength.‖Tsu‖ means harbour and ―nami‖ stands for wave. The waves are several hundreds of kms of waves and traveling 1000 km/hr. At least 180 people including 60 kailash Manasorovar pilgrims and 8 Indo-Tibet border Police personnel were killed.
19. What are the measures to be taken to prevent soil pollution? th . Enumerate with example the major sources of surface and ground water pollution. What are the various types of natural disasters. Give the sources of radio activity.Mention the sources and effects of various air pollutants. 6. 5.87 Tsunami was formed on 26 December 2004 in Bay of Bengal and in the Indian Ocean. 18. What are the sources of soil pollution. Explain the method of sewage water treatment. Why do earth quake occur.Nagapatinam was worst hitted by Tsunami in India. PART. 5. 15. What are the major sources of soil pollution? 8. Describe the method of control of air pollution. What are the sources effects of marine pollution. 4.Briefly describe the sources effects and control of noise pollution. 7. 3. Wrtie short notes on a) Minimata disease b) blue baby syndrome c) itai-itai disease. Explain disaster management briefly. What are the types of pollutants. 6. Define BOD and COD. Classify solid wastes. About 6000 people were dead and huge property loss. 4.9 on Richter scale and striked northern Sumithra and Indonesia at 6. What are the control methods of thermal pollution. 7. The tidal waves occurred due to massive earthquake under the ocean floor of Indonesian coast. What are the sources of urban and industrial wastes.m. What are the roles of a citizen in reducing pollution. 11. 9. What is incinerators. How will you control air pollution. 2. The magnitude of earthquake is 8. Define Pollution. 2.Tsunami travels at a speed of jet engine (700-800 km/hr) and hit Tamilnadu and Srilanka coast about 2-3 hrs after the earthquake. 14. Mention the diseases caused by nitrates. Give the major water pollutants with example. 12. What is composting. 8. 10. What are the types of Air pollutants. 16.25a. 20. 3. Define soil pollution. UNIT-III PART-A 1. 13. 17.B 1.
effects & control measures of Water pollution. 11. effects & control measures of Marine pollution? 13. What are the sources. . Explain the various types of Radio-active radiations. Explain any two case studies on Nuclear pollution.Explain the methods of disposal of municipal solid waste. 15. Explain in detail the Solid waste management techniques. 14.88 9.What are the effects of improper municipal solid waste management? State the measures recommended for proper management of the solid waste. Explain the causes. Write notes on (i) Floods (ii) Landslides (iii) Cyclones. 12. 10. 16.
Watershed Management – Resettlement and Rehabilitation of People. Case Studies – Wasteland Reclamation – Consumerism and Waste Products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues Involved in enforcement of Environmental Legislation – Public Awareness. These are to be managed in a scientific manner for availing the generations to come. Rain Water Harvesting.Issues and Possible Solutions – Climate Change. Nuclear Accidents and Holocaust. Community development 3. It brings benefits to all not only to the present generation but also for future generations. Sustainable development: Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. Ozone Layer Depletion. Acid Rain. Economic development 2.89 UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT From Unsustainable To Sustainable Development – Urban Problems Related To energy – Water conservation. Global Warming. Environmental protection . Case Studies – Environmental Ethics:. He depends on his environment for basic things. UNIT IV SOCIAL ISSUES AND ENVIRONMENT Introduction: From Unsustainable to Sustainable Development Man is part of the nature and he is bound to obey the laws of nature. Important components of Sustainable development: 1. The Earth has limited supply of resources and renewable resources. Its Problems and Concerns. For that he uses the available resources. Hence developmental activities are to be taken with more care about the environment and its protection. More developmental activities are adopted in order to increase the quality of life.
healthy and resourceful environment to future generation. less resources and produces minimum waste. It reduces waste generation and pollution. Approaches for sustainable development: 1. 2. least generation of toxic by-products and maximum productivity. . Aspects of sustainable development: Intergenerational equity-it states stat we should hand over a safe. Intergenerational equity: A technological development of rich countries should support the economic growth of poor countries and help in narrowing the wealth gap and lead to sustainability. Providing environmental education and awareness-Thinking and attitude of people towards earth and environment should be changed by providing environmental awareness and education. minimum wastage.resource efficient and culturally suitable should be adopted. 3. Devloping appropriate technology-technology which is locally adoptable.Reduce .Reuse and Recycle (3Rapproach) –Optimum use of natural resources using it again and again instead of throwing it on wasteland or water and recycling the material in to further products. ecofriendly. It uses local labour.90 True sustainable development aims at optimum use of natural resources with high degree of reusability.
Residential and commercial lightings.Urban growth is so fast and is difficult to accommodate all commercial industrial residential and educational facilities within the limited area. 2. Urban sprawl: The phenomenon of spreading of the cities in to sub-urban or rural areas is called urban sprawl.91 4. Examples for energy demands: 1. 6. Solution for urban energy problems: 1. Industries using large proportion of energy. 3. Usage of fans fridge. Consumption of renewable resources. Energy demanding activities: Urban people consume lot of energy and materials in comparison with rural people. trade transportation.This is because urban people have high standard of life and their life style demand more energy. 3. Urban problems related to energy: Urbanisation –movement of human population from rural. medical facilities and employment. Public transportation should be used instead of motor cycles and cars. health. Non-renewable resources should be conserved by recycling and reusing. Causes: Cities are the main centers of economic growth.C. A. 4. 2. WATER CONSERVATION . employment etc. 5. washing machines. By population control we can make sustainable development. communication.It is very important to consume the natural resources in such a way that the consumption should not exceed the regeneration capacity. Energy consumption must be minimized in all aspects. areas to urban areas for want of better education. Control and prevention of pollution technologies need more energy. Production capacity must be increased. 4. Using of solar energy and wind energy.
Reuse of water Treated waste water can be reused for irrigation. Growing hybrid crop varieties also conserve water. Avoid discharge of sewage disposal into natural water resources should be avoided . liquid or solid. As the population increases the requirement of water is also more . Need for water conservation. As a liquid.92 The original source of water is precipitation from the atmosphere. Water from washings. 2. on most of the soils can be reduced by using contour cultivation (or) Terrace farming. the water forms hydrosphere. About 75% of the Earth’s surface is covered by the hydrosphere. Agriculture and Industrial activities require more fresh water. bath rooms etc. 1. 3.40%. gardening. The water available on the earth may occur in all three stages as gas. Strategies of water conservation Reducing evaporation losses Evaporation of water in humid regions can be reduced by placing horizontal Barriers of asphalt below the soil surface. Irrigation in early morning (or) later evening reduces evaporation losses. can be used for washing cars. Decreasing run off losses Run off . Temperature is the main factor in deciding the state of water. The process of saving water for future utilization is called conservation of water. Preventing of wastage of water Closing the taps when not in use and repairing any leakage from pipes . Reducing irrigation losses Sprinkling and irrigation conserves water by 30. Better life style requires more fresh water.
Rivers. concrete houses. water harvesting is the activity of direct collection of rainwater. In general. it is forgotten that rain is the ultimate source that feeds all these secondary sources and remain ignorant of its value. Therefore. Water harvesting means to understand the value of rain. we depend entirely on such secondary sources of water. footpaths and well –concreted courtyards have left few open grounds. In the process. In present times. The rainwater collected can be stored for direct use or can be recharged into the groundwater. water harvesting can be undertaken through a variety of ways Capturing runoff from rooftops Capturing runoff from local catchments Capturing seasonal floodwaters from local streams Conserving water through watershed management These techniques can serve the following the following purposes: Provide drinking water Provide irrigation water Increase groundwater recharge Reduce stormwater discharges. hence is a primary source of water for us. With the decrease in natural forest cover. and to make optimum use of the rainwater at the place where it falls. Rain is the first form of water that we know in the hydrological cycle. urban floods and overloading of sewage treatment plants Reduce seawater ingress in coastal areas. In the present age. It is a technique of collecting and storing rain water for use in non-monsoon periods. well-built roads. And taking measures to keep that water clean by not allowing polluting activities to take place in the catchment. Rainwater harvesting . lakes and groundwater are all secondary sources of water. increase in concrete .93 Methods of water conservation Rain water Harvesting and Watershed management It means capturing rain where it falls or capturing the run off in your own village or town.
To minimize water crises and water conflicts To reduce rain water run off and soil erosion. It is done through rain water harvesting. rain water is collected at the roof top or in an open well and then carried down for immediate use or it is directed into the aquifer. To raise the water table by recharging the ground water. Roof top method: collecting rain water from roof of the building and storing in the ground. 2. To reduce the ground water contamination from intrusion of saline water Concept of rain water harvesting Rain water harvesting involves collecting water that falls on roof of house during Rain and conveying water through pvc or Al pipe to a near by covered storage tank. Method of rain water harvesting 1. It is the low cost and effective technique for urban houses and buildings. artificial recharging of the ground water is extremely essential. Storage of rain water on the surface for future use 2.94 jungles and the decrease in exposed earth. The rain water from roofs. very little open ground is left for water to soak in and thereby increase the ground water table. play grounds is diverted into the surface tank or recharge pits. So. Rain water harvesting techniques There are two main techniques for rain water harvesting: 1. road surfaces. . The pit base is filled with stones and sand which serves as a 3. For the purpose. Sand filter. Recharge of ground water Recharge of ground water is a recent concept and the structures used for the purpose are: Pits Trenches Dug wells Hand pumps Recharge shaft Lateral shafts with bore wells Spreading technique Objectives of rain water harvesting.
deforestation . . Storage tanks should be covered to prevent mosquito breeding and to reduce evaporation losses. The first flush of rainwater after a dry season should be allowed to run to waste as it will be contaminated with dust. construction activities affect and degrade watershed. Roof gutters should have sufficient incline to avoid standing water. Minimising the soil erosion and flood Hazards. bird droppings etc. mining . Rainwater harvesting systems require regular maintenance and cleaning to keep the system hygienic. contamination and algal growth. Factors affecting watershed : 1.95 Advantages: Rise in ground water level. and large enough to carry peak flows. They must be strong enough. Scarcity of water is reduced Rainwater harvesting systems channel rainwater that falls on to a roof into storage via a system of gutters and pipes. Overgrazing . lake. Watershed management of rain fall and resultant run off is called watershed management. WATERSHED MANAGEMENT Water shed ( or ) drainage basin: It is defined as land area from which water drains Under the influence of gravity into stream. reservoir (or) other body of surface water.
Afforestation and agro-forestry help to prevent soil erosion and retention of moisture In watershed areas Reducing soil erosion : Terracing . Farm pond can be built to improve water storage capacity of the catchment’s area Maintenance of watershed Water harvesting: Proper storage of water in water shed can be used in dry season In low rainfall areas. RESETTLEMENT & REHABILITATION Based on the resettlement schemes proposed by each affected village and present policies. 2. the Resettlement Plan of Lauding Expressway Project was prepared by PPTA consulting team and the staff from NPAEC under GPCD assisted by design institute and Local County and township governments. To generate huge employment opportunities in backward rain fed areas to ensure security for livelihood. drought and landslides. laws and regulations of different levels of governments and the resettlement requirements of ADB. 3. . 4. Droughty climate also affects the water shed. Watershed management techniques Trenches (pits) were dug at equal intervals to improve ground water storage. To protect the soil from erosion by run off. To minimize the risks of floods. Earthern dam or stone embankment must be constructed to check run off water. Need or objectives of watershed management 1. contour cropping minimse soil erosion and run off on the slopes of water sheds/ Scientific mining and quarrying minimse the destructive effect of mining in water shed areas Public participation is essential for water shed manasement. Livestock population should be reduced in surrounding villages of water shed. To raise the ground water level.96 2.People should be motivated for maintaining water harvesting structures implemented by the government.
352 persons will need house relocation. According to the actual production and living standard among affected villages. social welfare level. in which 520 households and 2. natural environment and traffic condition etc. (2) The income per capita shall be recovered to the standard before resettlement. and the approved economic and social development plans for the relevant counties. school. hospitals. economic trees. and income and livelihood of affected people will be improved or at least restored to their previous levels before resettlement. At present. shall be improved after resettlement.829 households with 13. the affected labor force will be re-employed. there were 2. with most of their income coming from planting. the target of Resettlement and rehabilitation is set as follows: (1) The resettle’s grain production level will be self-sufficient after resettlement. the rural population of project impact area is mainly engaged in agricultural actives. and animal husbandry.97 Target and Task Resettlement Target The overall objective of resettlement and rehabilitation is to ensure that the affected production base will be restored.149 persons to be resettled or rehabilitated. Resettlement Guideline and Principle Resettlement Guideline . (3) The affected public infrastructures. Resettlement Task In 2005.
(6) Fully utilize local natural resource. a Practical and feasible resettlement plan should be developed to restore or improve their Economic production and create basic conditions for long-term development. (3) The resettlement plan should be based on the principle ―Beneficial to the production and Convenient for living‖. a number of resettlement and rehabilitation principles have been developed for the Project. Based on consultation of local Affected peoples. the economic rehabilitation will be based on developing replaced farming Resources within their own townships and villages. collective and individual. (5) Making overall plans and taking all factors into consideration. correctly handling the relations between the state. In other words. develop new farmland. Resettlement Principle Under such policy.98 The basic resettlement policy of Lauding Expressway Project is to respect the wishes of affected People and maintain their current production and living traditions. the cost for enlarging the scale. Combining the local development. . which will provide a long-term development potential by fully utilizing local land resources. Planting will be the focus of economic Rehabilitation strategy by developing new farmland and improving the remaining farmland in the Affected villages. (2) The resettlement shall be combined with the local development. raising standard and future plan shall be solved independently by local government and relevant department. and adopted compensation standards and subsidies. the resettlement and rehabilitation strategy will first to reestablish the physical production bases for the affected persons. Considering the local conditions. (1) The resettlement plan will be based on detailed inventory for land acquisition and houses Demolition. and supplemented by developing various other income generation opportunities in the project areas. build water conservancy facility. resource utilization and Economic growth as well as environment protection. (4) The re-construction standard and scale shall be based with the principle of recovery to the original standard and original scale.
A series of consultation meetings were held among affected villages and townships. which will be beneficial for them to restore or improve their production and income level after resettlement. Resettlement Carrying Capacity Analysis Natural Condition and Land Resource . redistributing remaining farmland and receiving their share of resettlement subsidy among affected village groups. living and social relationship can be maintained. The reconstruction of houses will adopt two approaches. For most relocated households. their rehabilitation will be carried out by local government in order to promote small town development and save farmland. so that their way of production. it will not have significant negative impacts on production and livelihood for most affected villages. (3) The rural relocated households will be resettled in their original villages. they will choose to rebuild their houses by themselves. (2) In order to reduce the impacts on the production and livelihood among resettle’s. and strengthen agricultural strength and make the resettler' living standard reach or exceed the original level step by step.99 improve land quality. they will be provided cash compensated based on replacement value and to purchase replacement housing in the urban areas. the basic rehabilitation scheme was determined as follows: (1) Project affected persons will be resettled within their original villages and village groups. and combined with the actual condition of affected area. 64 (4) For small number of urban relocated households in Kongdong District. and all salvage materials will belong to them. For those who lose some farmland. the demolished houses will be dismantled after the new houses built. According to the resettle’s opinion and suggestion. the land-based rehabilitation will be adopted with a combination of developing new farmland. Overall Scheme of Resettlement Since the construction of Lauding Expressway Project will only acquire limited land acquisition and demolition along the road alignment line. (7) Resettlement Plan will include measures to improve basic livelihood and assist relocation and rehabilitation for those vulnerable persons and extremely poor individuals affected by the Project. The second approach is for those who live near towns.
Through collecting local social and economic data for all affected villages. Since the amount of land loss in these villages are relativelysmall and since all these villages are located in the suburbs of county towns with relatively well developed non-farm activities. confirmed their remaining land resources and possibilities for farmland readjustment. Basic Characteristics of Resettlement and Rehabilitation Since most affected people have formed their unique production tradition and social networks through many generations. all affected villagers will be resettled within their existing villages in the resettlement plan. such amount of land loss will not result in any significant change of their livelihood. which was completed during detailed social economic survey among affected project areas. the resettlement planning team has identified detailed resettlement impacts within each village. with relatively large per capita of land holding (over 60 percent of them having more than 2 mu of farmland) andrelative small percent of land reduction. an analysis of the natural conditions and resources for carrying capacity was conducted. Through improving irrigation and farming conditions. the affected people will be given priority to be employed as low skill labors in the construction site in order to meet the needs of the . On the contrary. restructuring planting pattern. only four villages with per capita farmland below 1 mu. their impacts of farmland loss could be mitigated after providing adequate compensation and necessary land readjustment. For those villages with remaining land holding more than 1 mu after land acquisition. They include Wangping. and Nantai villages in Liuhu Township of Kongdong District. In addition. Most affected people in rural areas will still remain in agricultural sector. during the construction of the Luo doing Expressway.100 Since the project affected population will be resettled in their original villages. Among 93 affected villages. in order to avoid changing such custom. it is hoped that their agricultural income could be maintained or even improved even with loss of limited farmland. the amount of compensation received will allow them to more actively engage in various non-farm activities and open up new opportunities. and maintaining same farming distance. and conducting social economic survey for 32 key affected villages. the land acquisition will not cause serious impacts among these villages. According to local farmers. and obtained basic demographic profiles and agricultural production conditions among these villages. Baofeng. and Wulipu Villagein Chengguan Town of Jingyuan County.
sideline activities. the expressway will increase trade and promote regional development. However. 11 of them contain Hui nationalities. the resettlement plan will encourage the affected people and local officials to develop various in-farm activities and increase their income. in terms of economic rehabilitation. which could also bring cash income for most affected people. Therefore. among 93 affected villages. with improvement of transportation condition. In future. They live relatively concentrated in the same village groups. with 4 of them having more than 10 percent of minority population. Basic Infrastructure Conditions for Production and Living (1) Traffic Condition (2) Water Supply Condition (3) Electric Power Supply Condition (4) Medical & Education Condition (5) Fuel Supply Economic Development Potential of the Affected Area The rural economy in the project area mainly relies on planting except for migrant labors.101 employment and daily consumption. In addition. as well as industrial. various income generation opportunities should be developed by increasing input of science and improving production technical level of the masses in order to promote overall development of agriculture. all affected persons will be relocated or rehabilitated within their same communities. and housing styles. the resource advantage of local areas should be fully utilized. forestry. trade and transportation. festival. the total farmland reserve is rich in the area and is considered as great potential for developing animal husbandry and tourist activities. After completion of the Project. According to local conditions. The general economic condition is relatively low. In order to avoid any disruption of their customs and social network not increase distance to farm their field. and have some special traditions in terms of religion. Resettlement and Rehabilitation Plan Production Rehabilitation Plan . Hui people have lived together with Han nationality peacefully for a long time and their relationship is 65 harmonious. The Project will also provide agricultural technical training and non-farm skill training.
principles and guidelines related to human interactions with their Environment. . who is constantly working for the affected ousted tribal Tehri Dam project : This dam is being constructed across Bhagirathi and Bhilanganga close to Gashwal town of Tehri .64 meters.The water Is used to irrigate in Rajastan. village leaders and representatives of affected persons. and villager groups. indicative resettlement and rehabilitation approaches have been identified for project affected villages. An ethic is a principle or value that we use to decide whether an action is good or bad. Maharastra and Gujarat and merges in Arabian sea. 30000 families were uprooted due to PONG DAM. Now the Gujarat government has planned to incrase the height of the dam From 100 to 110. Environmental Ethics It refers to issues . 85000 families will have to be relocated. Including Tehri .This would submerge 100 villages. This became the a controversial issue as there is no proper Rehabilitation scheme for the allotted people.P . administrative villages. townships. Based on these consultations. Narmada Bacho Andolan was initiated against the construction of dam and Is lead by Smt Maedha patkar . consultation meetings have been held by the resettlement planning team of GPCD and PPTA consultants in the relevant counties. As a result of construction of dam 593 villages consisting of 10 lakh people were made homeless 45000 hectares of forest and 2 lakh hectares of cultivated land submerged in Maharastra. Ethics differs from country to country. Pong dam : It was constructed on Beas river in H . Case study : Sardar sarover dam River Narmada flows through M.P. The participants included officials from different levels of local government. It deals with morals and values.and Punjab. Sardar sarover dam is situated in Narmada valley. (OR) Ethics is a branch of philosophy.102 During the impact survey and the resettlement planning. Only 16000 families were rehabilitated.
Avoid over exploitation of natural resources. . 8. Reduce population and increase the economic growth our country. We must protect them. Involve yourself in the care of the earth and experience nature. 3It is the life supporting medium for all organisms. 7. The earth is the habitat of all living species and not of human beings alone. 5. We must be cooperative. 2. population growth and urbanization water Pollution due to effluents and smoke from industries. reserve scarce resources for the future and the future generations. Respect nature. seasonal variations of the region. It is the general weather condition.Prsence of green house gases in the atmosphere Increases the global temperature. you are a part of it. 3. 4. Keep yourself informed about ecological changes and developments. Natural resources and energies are depleting fast. Causes of climate changes: 1. Observe austerity. 2 A healthy economy depends on healthy environment. Minimse soil degradation. CLIMATE: It is the average weather of an area. air . Think of the global cause and act for local protection 6. Solution to environmental problems: Reduce the waste matter and energy resources. affectionate and polite to society and nature. water and other important natural resources to the human beings Environmental problems : Deforestation activities .Depletion of ozone layer increases the global temperature. Scarcity. Protect the biodiversity of the earth. Ethical guidelines on environmental protection: 1. 4It provides food . The average of such conditions for a long period is called climate. 2. honest. Recycle and reuse as many of our waste product And resources as possible.103 Functions of Environment: 1It moderates climate conditions of the soil.
3 and SO 2 act as serious pollutants causing global warming.As a result the earth surface and lower atmosphere becomes warm.This sunlight is radiated back as IR which is absorbed by gases. These gases allow sunlight to penetrate the atmosphere and are absorbed by the earth surface.This is called global warming.Progrssive warming up of a gas surface due to blanketing effect of man made GLOBAL WARMING: Green house gases in the atmosphere are transparent to light but absorb IR radiation. 3.104 Effects of climate change : 1. Small climate changes disturbs agriculture which leads To migration of animals and human. CFC Among these CO2 is the most important green house gas. 2.Nitrous oxide NO2. Green house effect : Green house gases are CO 2. . Methane .O CO2 atmosphere. Global pattern of winds and oceans currents also gets disturbed by climate change.Climate change may upset hydrological cycle which results in floods and droughts in different parts of the world.
Drought and floods will become more common.sea level increases as result of melting and thermal expansion of ocean. 4. 3.105 EFFECTS OF GLOBAL WARMING: 1. There would be increase in water-borne diseases. Global rainfall pattern will change . As the earth becomes warmer the floods and drought becomes more frequent. 5. Raising temperature will increase domestic water demand. 2. . more towering verities will thrive. Many will be at the risk of extinction. Many plants and animal species will have a problem of adapting. High CO2 level in the atmosphere have a long term negative effect on crop production and forest growth.
These gases reacts with water vapour in the atmosphere and from acids like HNO3. 3. SOx +H2O H2SO4 NOy +H2OHNO3 .106 MEASURES TO CHECK GLOBAL WARMING: 1. Plant more trees.6) because of Co2 present in the atmosphere gets dissolved in it.The pH of the rain is further lowered. Stablize population growth.Because presence of SO2 and NO2 gases as pollutants in the atmosphere. Formation: Acid rain means the presence of excessive acids in the rain water. 5.H2SO4.These acids descends on to the earth as acid rain through rain water. 4. CO2 emission can be cut by reducing the use of fossil fuel. Removal atmospheric CO2 by utilizing photo synthetic algae. Shifting from coal to natural gas. 6. 2.This type of precipitation of water is called acid rain. ACID RAIN: Normal rain water is always slightly acidic ( pH 5-5. Remove efficiently CO2 from smoke stocks. The thermal power plants industried and vehicles release NO2 and SO2 in to the atmosphere due to the burning of coal and oil.
On building: At present Taj mMahal in Agra is suffering due to SO2 and H2SO4 fumes from Madura refinery.spinach.Acid rain corrodes houses.statues . . Acid rain retards the growth of crops like beans potatoe . The dead materials are not rapidly decomposed.deer flies occurs largely which causes number of complications in ponds rivers and lakes. Activity of bacteria and other microscopic animals is reduced in acidic water. monuments . Terestrial and lake Ecosystem. Reduce the rate of photosynthesis and growth in terrestrial vegetation.107 EFFECTS: Effect on human being: Human nervous system respiratory system and digestive system are affected by acid rain.Hence the nutrients like N.It cause premature death from heart and lung disorder like asthma.black flies. Acid rain causes corrosion of metals. Acid rain rduces fish population .bridges and fences. bronchitis.P are locked up in dead matter.mosquitoes .carrot .
causes damages to the outer cell of plants and animals. Some times atmospheric sulfur dioxide Is converted in to H 2 S O 4 which increases the rate of O 3 layer depletion. air conditioners .) Cl O + O 2 (g) Cl O + O * -----------) Cl + O 2 Each chlorine atom is capable of breaking several O 3 molecules . BFC. CFCs releases chlorine which breakes O 3 to O2 Cl + O 3 ----------. It is a chain reaction. Liming of lakes nad soils should be done to correct the adverse effect of acid rain. aerosol sprays and cleaning solvents release CFC s into the atmosphere.It filters UV.B radiation. Because of this more UV –B radiation reaches the earths surface .108 Control of acid rain: Emmision of No2 and SO2 from industries from power plants should be reduced by using pollution control equipments. Ozone depletion chemicals CFC . 1% loss of O3 results in 2% increase in UV rays reaching the earth surface . Now a days certain parts of O 3 layer is becoming thinner and O 3 holes are formed. It causes skin cancer and eye disease in human beings. OZONE LAYER DEPLETION Ozone gas is present in the atmosphere. UV –B radiation affects DNA molecules. . Causes of O 3 layer depletion : Refrigerators . Formation of O 3 : It is formed in the atmosphere by photochemical reaction O 2 + hv ------------) O * + O * The atomic oxygen reacts with molecular O 2 to form O 3 O * + O 2 + M ----------) O 3 + M Where M = third body like nitrogen. Importance: O 3 protects us from damaging UV radiation of the sun. In thermal points low sulphur content coal should be used. It is highly concentrated at the stratosphere Between10to 50 Km above the sea level and is called as ozone layer. HCFC .
2.Increases the rate of non melanin skin cancer in fair colored people. Effects on aquatic system : 1. 2.UV rays causes skin cancer.3. phytoplankton consumes large amounts of CO 2 . Control measures : Manufacturing and using of O 3 depleting chemicals should be stopped.109 Effects ozone layer depletion: Effects on human beings 1. fish . Use of methyl bromide . Nuclear fission and Nuclear fussion are used to prepare nuclear energy.UV rays affects phytoplankton . . During nuclear accidents large amount of energy and radioactive products are released into the atmosphere.Prolonged expose to UV rays leads to actinia Katatities ( slow blindness) and cataracts.which is a crop fumigant should be controlled . This contributes to global warming.Decrease in phytoplankton results in More amount of CO2 in atmosphere. Ozone Depleting chemicals can causes global warming. Replacing CFC s by other maerials which are less damage NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS AND HOLOCAUST Energy released—during a nuclear reaction is called nuclear energy. larval crabs.3.
4.110 Types of nuclear accidents :Nuclear Test. Accidents during transport . Radiation affects DNA in cells.500 rds ) affect bone marrow . vomiting . Nuclear power plant accidents: Nuclear power plants located inseimic vulnerable area may cause nuclear accidents which releases radation .Exposure to low dose of radiation (100to 250 rds ) people suffer from fatigue. This is called Nuclear winter. Effects of nuclear holocaust.Nuclear explosions –release radioactive particles and radioactive rays into the atmosphere.and loss of hair.In stratosphere there won‖t be significant moisture to rain out the black soot. Nuclear bombardment will cause combustion of wood . Lower the global temperature. Effects of nuclear winter causing faminesAnd human sufferings. Exposer to high radation (400. forests etc. The major accident at a nuclear power plant is a core melt down. Nuclear Holocaust : -Destruction of Biodiversity by nuclear equipments and nuclear bombs is called nuclear holocaust. land and air. 1.blood cells . stored underground rust and leak radioactive wastes into water . There fore cooling will result.Crop productivity will be reduced . Due to nuclear explosion a process opposite to global warming will occur . plastics .2. Trucks carrying radioactive wastes (or) fuels in accidents. Black soot absorb all UV radiation and will not allow the radiation to reach the earth . 2. Exposure to very high dose of radiation (10000rds ) kills organisms by damaging the tissues of heart and brain. Improper disposal of radioactive wastes: Drums with radioactive wastes. This reduces evaporation of water . Large quantity of soot will be carried out into the atmosphere . Effects of nuclear radiation 1. 3. natural resistance fail of blood clot. Nuclear winter.
Impact : Chernobyl accident killed more than 80000 people and 35 million people have suffered ill because of The accident. Waste land is unproductive. WASTE LAND RECLAMATION Waste land. Nuclear holocaust in Japan In 1945 two nuclear bombs were dropped in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan . Cultivable waste land: These are cultivable but not cultivated for more than 5 years. 20% of the geographical area of India is waste land. Types of waste land: 1. Hiroshima and Nagasaki are examples of holocaust during Second World War. . This explosion emitted forceful neutrons and gamma radiation. At Chernobyl.111 Examples of nuclear holocaust: Nuclear war in Japan. Case study : Chernobyl Nuclear disaster. On April 28th 1986 the world worst nuclear power accident occurred at Chenobyl in Ukrain .Large scale bone deformities Occurred in the people of these cities.Uncultivable waste land . Nearly 135000people have to be evacuated at around Chernobyl. hilly slopes. unfit for cultivation Grazing etc. When the operators lost the control of water cooled graphite moderated reactor during low power tests At Chernobyl in Ukraine the nuclear reactor exploded. sandy deserts. About 100000 people were Killed and the cities were badly destroyed. Radioactive Strontium liberated in the explosion replaced calcium in the bones . Gullied water logged . This disaster was caused mainly due to poor reactor design and human error.2. The land which is not in use is called waste land . marsh lands .Ex Degraded forest land . Uncultivable waste land: Barren rocky areas. saline lands . Cultivable waste land.
. Leaching is done by dividing the field into small plots.3. salinity etc. Ca of gypsum replaces sodium from the exchangeable sites. Irrigation practices: High frequency irrigation with controlled amount of water helps to maintain better availability of water in the land .112 Causes of waste land formation: 1. To avoid over exploitation of natural resources. Social Forestry programme: These programmes involve strip plantation on road . Leaching: Leaching is a process of removal of salt from the salt affected soil by applying excess amount of water.0cm Water is required to remove 90% of soluble salts.Over exploitation of natural resources. To conserve the biological resources and natural ecosystem. water logging. deforestation.5to 1. Application of green manure and bio fertilisers improves saline soil. 4. Objects of waste land reclamation: 1. This converts clay back into calcium clay. degraded Forest land etc. In continuous leaching 0. 3. flooding and land slides. 2. Industrial and sewage wastes.canal sides. Application of gypsum: Soil sodality can be reduced with gypsum. This is for water logged soil reclamation. Methods waste land reclamation: Drainage: Excess water is removed by artificial drainage. 4. Mining activities destroy the forest and cultivable land. Due to soil erosion. To prevent soil erosion. To improve the physical structure and quality of the soil. 2.
4.It involves making manufacturer liable for the entire life cycle of a product 3. The right to introduce any product.waste : Electronic equipments like computer. industrial and municipal wastes. Sources of wastes are agriculture. plastic.113 COSUMERISM AND WASTE PRODUCTS The consumption of resources by the people is called consumerism. The right to change any price.Whether the product has been manufactured against an established law of nature or involved in right variation. E. IMPORTANT INFORMATION TO BE KNOWN TO BUYERS 1. 1. mobile phones. 2. Right to expect a product to be safe. 2. Right to expect the product to perform as claimed. It includes paper. The right to buy or not to buy. mining. Ingredients of the products. 2. calculator etc . glass. Manufacturing date and expiry date . 2. Scrap. food waste. Example for waste products. TRADITIONAL FAVOURABLE RIGHTS OF SELLERS 1. Objectives of consumerism. The right to use incentives to promote their products TRADITIONAL BUYERS RIGHTS 1. printers. It is related to both increase In population size as well as increase in our demand due to change in life style. Active consumerism improves human health and happiness and also it saves resources. garbage.It force the manufacturer to reuse and recycle the product after usage. If needs increases The consumerism of resources also increases. It improves the right and powers of buyers. construction and factory wastes. 3.
This situation occurs in less developed countries (LDC’s). pvc in cables. discharge of pollutant Toxic pollutant. Dumped wastes degrade soil and make it unfit for irrigation. The amendment act of 1988 requires permission to set up an industry Which may discharge effluent? . Consumption is more and waste generation is more. poverty and premature deaths. ENVVIRONMENTAL LEGISLATION AND LAWS Water ( prevention and control of pollution ) Act. 3. due to luxurious life style per captia consumption of resources is very high. Environment is also degraded. In computers lead is present in monitors. All these cause cancer and other respiratory problems if inhaled for long long periods. Features of water act. This act provides for maintaining and restoring the sources of water. The act is not clear about the definition of pollutant. Consumption Over population: It occurs when there are less people than the available Resources . Plastics are non-degradable and their combustion produces many toxic gases. This act aims to protect the water from all kind of pollution and to preserve the quality of water in all aquifers. E-wastes contains more than 1000 chemicals which are toxic and causes environmental Pollution. cadmium in chips and cathode ray tube . The states are empowered to restrain any person from discharging a pollutant (or) sewage or) effluent into any water body with out the consent of the board.114 After usage thrown as waste. Effects of waste: Waste from industries and explosives are dangerous to human life. 4.In LDC’s the percaptia consumption f resources and waste generation are less. Factors affecting consumerism and generation of wastes: People over population –Over population cause degradation of sources. The act further provides for the establishment of central board and state boards For prevention of water pollution. 1. 2.1974. It also provide For preventing and controlling water pollution.
For re-afforstation clearance of any forest land is forbidden. protected forests and any forest land. This act stops illegal activities with in forest area. 3. The forest land may not be used nonforest purposes. Violation of law is punishable with imprisonment for three months or fine of Rs 10000 or both. The central board co-ordinates and settle the disputes between state boards. 7. 8.115 State pollution control board The consent of this board is needed 1. To establish any industry Or any treatment and disposal system or any extension or addition which likely discharge Or trade effluent into a stream or well or river or on land.1. 2.Forest departments are departments are forbidden to assign any forest land by way of lease or to any private person or NG body for re. AIR PREVENTION ACT 1981 (PREVENTION AND CONTOL OF POLLUTION) This act was enacted in the conference held at Stock Holm.The central board may lay down the standards for quality of air. .afforestation. This act covers all types of Forests including reserved forests. With out the consent of the central board operation of an industrial unit is prohibited in heavily polluted area. 4. This act empowers the state board to order closure of any industrial unit or stoppage of water supply or stoppage of electricity. The state boards are to examine the manufacturing processes and control equipment for for the prescribed standards. The division of forest land for non –forest uses is punishable. This act applies to all pollution industries. The direction of central board is mandatory on state boards. To use any new or altered outlet For the discharge of sewage. Features of amendment act of 1988 . The central board provides technical assistance and guidance to state boards. 2. The state boards are empowered to lay down the standards for emission of air pollutants from industries or other resources. to begin to make any new discharge of sewage. water or any other service to the polluting unit. 5. 3. It aims to arrest deforestation. 2. 2. FOREST (COSERVATON) ACT 1980 This act is enacted in 1980. 6. Important features: 1. IMPORTANT Features of the act : 1. 2. Act also empowers the state board to order closure or stoppage of supply of Electricity. 3. It envisages the establishments Of central and State control boards to monitor air quality and pollution control. The reserved forests shall not be diverted or dereserved wit out the permission Of central govt.
Important Features1The act covers the rights and non. The rights of forest dwellers recognized by forest policy of 1988 are taken away by Amended wild life act of 1991. local environment and technological development. 4. I t also prohibits the collection of non timber forest. water. to lay down procedures and safe guards for The prevention of accidents which cause pollution and remedial measures if accidents occur. It allows restricted grazing in sanctuaries but prohibits in national parks. water. 1986. Wild life products like skins. 5 The act empowers the officer of the central govt. Objectives of public awareness: 1. to fix the standards for quality of air. formulates procedures and safe guards for handling of hazard substances. 3.to inspect the sight or the plant or machinery for preventing pollution and to collect samples of air . 4. 2 To organize meetings. group discussion on development. and noise. Important features: 1. To train our planners.116 WILD LIFE ACT 1972. Violation of the act is punishable with imprisonment for 5 years or fine of one lakh or both. India has 350 species of mammals. 4. have decimated the population of many species. This act was amended in 1983. this act empowers the govt. To focus on current environment problems and situations. Ivory etc. PUBLIC AWARENESS In order to conserve our environment each and every one must be aware about our environment problems And objectives of various environmental policies at natural and local level. 3. 2. Wild life population monitored regularly and management strategies formulated to protect them. 3. soil and other materials from any factory or its premises for testing. firs. 2 The govt. To create awareness among rural and city people about ecological Imbalance. feathers. soil. This act is aimed to protect and preserve all animals and plants that are not Domesticated. and 1991. politicians and administrators. If violation continues an additional fine of Rs5000 per day may be imposed for entire period of Violation of rules. Some of them are listed as endangered species in wild life protection act. 1200 species of birds and about 20000 Known species of insects. exhibitions.has the authority to close or prohibit or regulate any industry or its operation if The violation of provisions of the act occurs. ENVIRONMENT (PROTECTION) ACT 1986 This act empowers the central govt. The central govt. . tree plantation programmes. decision makers. Wild life is declining due to human action.rights of forest dwellers.
All the news papers and magazines must publish the environment related problems.Attreactive prizes should be awarded for the best effort. To eliminate poverty by providing employment that over comes the basic environmental issues. 14. Special audio visual and slide shows should be arranged in public places. 5. Bring out the reactions taking place at stratosphere. Name few Green-House gases. 11. Write a note on Earth Summit – 1992. What are the effects of global warming? 12. Write a note on 3R principle. Enlist the objectives of Air-Pollution Act. UNIT – IV PART – A 1. street plays. 4.117 5. 17. Mention the objectives of Environment Protection Act. 4. Mention few practices to reduce global warming. Arranging competitions like story and essay writing painting competition on environmental issues for student as well as public. METHODS TO CREATE ENVIRONMNTAL AWARENESS 1. What are the objectives (or) principles of watershed management? 9. 13. 7. Public leaders cine actors and popular social reformers can make an appeal to the public about the urgency of environmental protection. 15. Explain acid-rain and its effects. 6. Define Rain Water Harvesting. 10. NSS. Enlist the factors affecting the sustainable society. What is water Shed? 8. Bring out the important aspects of sustainable development. 8. 20. Cinema about environmental education should be prepared and screened in theatres compulsorily . 18. Differentiate between Re-habilitation & Re-settlement of people. and ROTRACT Club should be effectively utilized for creating environmental awareness.This films may be released with tax free to attract the public. documentaries. 3. 6. Compare Consumerism & Waste generation. 19. What are the effects of Ozone-Layer depletion? 16. 2. Define Sustainable development. . 3. Write a note on agro-forestry. What are the objectives of rain water harvesting? 7. 5. Environmental education must be imparted to the students in schools and colleges. 2. Voluntary organizations like NCC. Media like TV Radio and cable net work can educate the people on environmental issues through Cartoons.
13. Discuss the agenda for sustainable development. Describe about Water Act – 1974. 8. PART – B 1. Describe environmental ethics in detail. 4. What is acid deposition ? 33. 9. Explain the Wild-Life protection Act. Describe the important waste land reclamation practices. Write short notes on a) environmental ethics b) waste land reclamation. 15. 25. Define population explosion. 5. 6. 22. 30. 2. 32. 12. Explain the necessity of Environmental Legislation. 27. 10. Discuss the water shed management practices. Define environmental ethics. Mention any two control measures on acid rain. 23. Discuss the articles 48-A & 51-A of Indian Constitutional provision for Environmental protection. 26. Write briefly on community participation in environment management programmes. How does a climate change occur? 31. Discuss about the Forest Act. 11. Write a note on CPCB & SPCB. 14. Discuss the modern techniques of rain water harvesting. What is nuclear holocaust? How can it occur? 24. Discuss briefly of the Indian environmental Acts. 28.118 21. Write in detail about global warming. Explain the mechanism of Ozone layer depletion. State the important provisions in Environment protection Act . How can we achieve the goal of sustainable development? 29. Bring out the activities of NGO’s on environmental protection. 7. Write a note on crop rotation. 1980 and its amendment –1992. . Air Act Water Act. Discuss in detail about the water conservation methods. 3. Indicate some methods to create environmental awareness among public.
P. x Number of year x 100 .P. Field Study of Local Area to Document Environmental assets – River/Forest/Grassland/Hill/ Mountain.V Human population and the Environment Population:.Number of individuals of the population per unit area ® per unit-volume. Death Rate (OR) Mortality:. 2. Hill Slopes. x Number of years Infant Mortality = New born of babies died Number of babies born x Number of year Growth rate = Change of population x 100 O.Number of live births per 1. Variation Among Nations – Population Explosion – Family Welfare Programme – environment and Human Health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV /AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health – Case Studies.It denotes the disposal of individuals from the original population to new areas. Parameters effecting population:1.000 people in a population in a given year. etc Field Study of Local Polluted Site – Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural UNIT.119 UNIT V HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Population Growth.It denotes the arrival of individuals from neighboring population.Number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year Immigration:. Birthrate (OR) Nationality:. Field Study of Simple Ecosystems – Pond. Birth Rate = Number of births x 100 O.Group of individuals belonging to the same species which live in a given area at given time. Emigration:. River. Population density:.
People believe that it is because of God’s grace. decreases the famine related deaths and infant mortality. Doubling Time:. It is calculated as follows:Td = 70 / r When r = annual growth rate If a ration has 2 % annual growth its population will double in 35 years. Causes:.:Exponential growth:.G. Infant Mentality:Percentage of infant died out of those born in one year.India. In china the ratio of girls and boys is 100 – 140. Due to decrease in death rate and increase in birth rate.120 Population Growth :. 3.7 in developing countries.. immunization increased food production. Now the population in 6 billion. 4. It reaches 10 billion by 2050 as per the world Bank calculation.Results from the difference between the rate of birth and death. In 1980 the global population was about 1 billion people. Total fertility rates (TFR): Average number of children delivered by a woman in her life time. Male – female ratio has been upset in many countries including China . 104 etc. This ratio should be fairly balance in the society. The poverty and illiteracy lead controlled growth of population. 103. Which shows the dramatic increase in global population in the past 160 years. Demographic transition: . Availability of antibiotics. 102. In 1975 it reached 4 billion with in 45 years.Time required for the population to double its size at a constant annual rate. The TFR varies from 2 in developed to 4.1. People’s superstitions. clean water and air. This rate is decreased in the last 50 years. Characteristics of P. Child Marriages 5. This differs widely in developing and developed countries.Population growth occurs exponentially live 10. 2. In 1930 it reached 2 billion.
Europe and N. Canada. Pre. pre reproductive population and reproductive population is more (OR) less equal. When 20 million are residing. Asia. Hence the population increases. But is less developed countries the population increases by more than 1% / year. This pheromones in called demographic transition.G. Bangladesh. This results in low population growth. Kenya is the fastest population growing countries in the world. Less developed countries (Africa. Ethiopia.productive population (0 – 14 years) 2. Bell shaped variation of population: Eg: In France. S. accoents for 14% of world population. Its share is 1/3 of the world population. Sweden. is redacted to economic development.A) have 80% population while developed countries have only 20%. Pyramid shaped Variation of population (increase) Eg. 1. Italy. Algerian Reproductive population is more in companion to pre reproductive population and post productive population. USA. Australia population increases by less than 1%. Variation of population among Nation: At present the worlds population has crossed 6 billions.44 years) 3. Post reproductive population (Above 45 years) Variation of population is now explained based on the above three classes. . Variation of pollution based on Age structure Age structure of population can be classified into 3 classes. In India. UK. In most developed countries like USA. Urn shaped variation of populations Eg: In Germany. The birth rate and death rate full due to improved living conditions.121 P..H. Canada etc. China & India’s populate on was above 1000 million in 2000 years. Reproductive population (15 . Hence population growth in stable.
reduces the death rate and increases birth rate.In 1956. Population explosion leads to environmental degradation. which leads to population explosion. Population Explosion: The enormous increase in population due to low death rate and high birth rate is called as population expansion. 2. But now it is 61 years. Doubling time 28 years 27 21 87 231 117 Cause of population explosion: 1.122 Japan pre productive age group population in smaller than the reproductive age group population. . 3. In the next 10 years. The doubling time varies from country to country. Name of the country India. Effect of population explosion (OR) environmental and social impacts of growing population Poverty: 1. Doubling time: The number of years needed for a population to double in size. Invention modern medical facilities. Turkey Nigeria Pakistan USA UK France Population growth is highter in less developed countries. Increase of life expectancy is another important reason for population explosion. Eg:. The number of people in reproductive age group less than before resulting in decrease of population. the average life expectancy of the human beings was 40 years. Illiteracy is one of the reasons for the population wxplosion.
Population explosion causes over exploitation of natural resources. grass lands are under threat. 2. Educating vast population is a very big task. Developing countries: The ratio of developing countries is rearing 3 which in expected to lower down by 2025. Scancity of fuel is also due to population explosion. Objectives: 1. Family welfare programme Family welfare programme was implemented by Govt. Increase in population will increases diseases. Forests. Hence there will be a shortage of resources for the futune generation. 5. Pressure on the environment. Slow down the population explosion by reducing fertility. land. Population stabilization Ratio The ratio is derived by dividing crude birth rate by crude death rate. due to over exploitation of natural resources is reduces. 4. indicating zero population growth. Family planning Programme . economic in equity and command wars. Disposal of plastics and wastages is another problem of over population. water and noise. It is a policy of growth covering human health.123 2. Remedy: Fertility rate should be reduced by birth control programme. 9. 3. The main reason for the growing unemployment in growing population. 7. Stabilization in developing countries is possible only through family welfare programmes. Developed countries: The stabilization ratio of developed countries is 1. family welfare children and women’s right. 8. Population explosion is the main cause for pollution of air. 6. of India as a voluntary programme.
employment.124 If provides educational and clinical services that help couple to choose how many children to have and when to have them. 3. Objectives: 1. legally raized the minimum age of marriage for men from 18 to 21 and for women 15 to 18 years. 4. It also reduced the number of legal and illegal abortions per year and decreased the risk of death from pregnancies. More than 100 contraceptive method are on trial. deaths marriage and pregnancies. Constrain the spnead & Aids / HIV. Hence funding for FP programme has been increased. Achieve 100% registration of births. Fertility control methods Traditional methods It includes taboos and folts medicine. Family planning programme provides information on birth spacing birth control and health care for pregnant woman and infants. 7. Encourages breast feeding. Enables to improve woman’s health education. Encourages late marriages and late child bearing. In 1981 census report showed there is no drop in population. Prevent and control of communical diseases. Family planning programme in India 1. . In 1978 govt. Reduce infant mortality rate to below 30 / 1000 infants. 4. chemical pills and physical barriers to implantation. In 1970 Indian govt. In 1952 India started family planning programme. Modern methods It includes birth control techniques like mechanical barriers. 2. 3. 6. forced FP campain all the over country. surgical methods. 2. 5.
sex & language.125 Environment & human Health Healthy person:. Always wash your hand before eating. Biological Hazards and their health effects Refers T. Preventive measures: 1. Important Hazards and their health effects refer – bort Chemical Hazards and their health effects refer T. 3. 1. Do physical exercise to have proper blood circulation. Human right to freedom of religion.B. 6. psychological factors are called diseases. Under the Indian constitution the following fundamental rights have been guaranteed to human beings. 7. Eat food always in hot condition. Cut short and clean your nails systematic. Wash the vegetables and fruits a with clean water before cooking. The aim of Govt. chemical (or) Human Rights Human rights are the fundamental rights possessed by human beings irrespective caste. Human right to culture and education. is to ensure happiness to all the citizen with equal rights. Disease:. Drinking chemically treated and filtered water.B. 2. 5. Human right to constitutional remedies . Human right to property 3.Harmful changes in the body’s condition by nutritional. biological. 4. 5.Physically fit person with out suffering any disease is called a healthy person. 4. Human right to freedom 2. Avoid plastic containers and Al vessels. nationality.
sex (or) place of birth. 7. All the citizen has equal rights both in culture and education. educational and political rights. Freedom of choosing the religion according to his (views) wish. 4. 8. Freedom to form unions (or) associations. religion caste. Freedom to slant any profession. . 8. language and to established educational institutions of their own choice. 3.‖ All human beings have the right to get food. 6. All citizens are equal before the law. All religions are equal before the law. caste. Every human being has the right to earn property. Indian Constitution Indian constitution provides for civil. Article 14 – equality before law. 2. Human right to Equality 7. Muslims have their own rights to conserve the culture. Human right to health 1. sex (or) place of birth. Human right to food and environmental 9. social.126 6. There is no discrimination on grounds of religion. The minority communities like christens. Citizen can assemble at any place to express their views. Article -15 Prohibits discrimination on the ground of race. cultural. 5. safe drinking water and healthy environment. ―Every citizen has the right to fight against exploitation. Human rights to freedom Every citizen has the freedom to express his view freely. Human right to against exploitation.
forming association and union.(In this all leaning process are self related). practice and propagate a religion of one’s choice. Format Education:. will get good jobs and take with any problem with the help of formal education. Eg:. fundamental of environment and biodiversity. It teacher the youth the distinction between right & wrong. It creates sense of duty to care for natural resources and to mange them in sustainable key. All people will read write. Article – 20 Protection from connection except in accordance with the law of the land. Value education Education is nothing but learning through which knowledge about a particular thing can be acquired with the help of our knowledge and expedience we can identify our value to understand ourselves and our relationship with other and their environment. generous and tolerant.If a person is highly. Article – 22 – lays down the rights of a person in custody. Article 19 Provides for freedom of speech and expression. something he does not know how to behave with his environment.It is an instrument used to analyse our behavior and provide proper direction to our youth. Value based environmental education The provides knowledge about the principle of ecology. Value Education:. .127 Article 16 Provides equal opportunity for all citizens in regarding to employment. Improve integral growth of human being. to be helpful loving. Objectives: 1. 2. Article – 24 – prohibits exploitation of labour children. Article – 25 – grantees freedom to profess. Types of Education: 1. Qualified and well settled in life.
128 2. To create altitudes and improvement towards sustainable life style. 3. To increase awareness about our national history, cultural heritage, constitutional rights, national integration. 4. To understand (about the our) natural environment in which how land, air and water are interlinked. 5. To know about various living and non living organism and their interaction with the environment. Types of values: 1. Universal values (or) social values: These values tells about the importance of the human conditions. These are reflected in life, joy, love, tolerance, truth etc. 2. Cultural values: These values various with respect to time and place. These are concerned with rights & wrong, good & bad true & false and behavior of human beings. It is reflected in language, education, law, economics, philosophy etc.
3. Individual values: These are personal principles and the result of individual personality and experience parents & teachers are the main key to shape and individual values. I t is reflected in individual goods, relationship, commitments. 4. Global values: Human civilization is a part of the planet. Nature and natural pheromone on the earth are interconnected and inter-linked with special bonds of harmony. If this harmony disturbed any where leads to catastrophic results due to ecological imbalance. 5. Spiritual values These promote Aids / HIV – Discover in 1983. source of the virus is not beer identified spread through African monkey. Through vaccine programme – spread by small pox vaccine programme of Africa. Hepatitis – B Viral vaccine legmy and new York. World scenario 90% from developing countries. 13% of world’s population live is Africa. Almost all states & African countries were affecters HIV.
129 India ranks 2nd in the world with 5 million affects people.
Scenario in India: Large number of infected people are in Maharastra & Tamil Nadu followed by Delhi, UP, Karnataka & Goa. Till sept. 2003 24,667 cases are found in Tamil Nadu. Smog:- Mixture of smoke from coal combustion and fog in suspended droplets form photochemical smog cause irritation to eyes and lungs (ii) many damage plants (iii) Irritation to nose & throat (iv) asthma Role of IT in Environment IT plays a vital role in the field of environment education. IT means collection, processing, storage and dissemination of information. The internet facilities, information through satellites,www and geographical information provides up to date information on various aspects of environment, weather. Remote sensing It refers to any method which can be used to gather information about an object without coming in contact with it. Gravity, magnetic, electro magnetic forces could be used for remote sensing. Remote sensing covers various disciplines from laboratory testing to astronomies. Now remote sensing is used to denote identification of earth feathers by detecting the characteristic electro magnetic radiation. That is reflected by the earth. Components of a remote sensing system The system consists of a sensor to collect radiation. Other important parts are a platform, an aircraft, a balloon, rocket and satellite. The information received by the sensor is suitably manipulated and transported back to earth. The data’s are reformed and processed on the ground to produce photographs, computer compatible magnetic taps and digital storage medium. Functions 1. Origin of electro magnetic energy. 2. Transmission of energy from the source to the surface of the earth and its interaction with the intervening atmosphere. 3. Interaction of energy with the earth surface. 4. Transmission of reflected or emitted energy to the remote sensor an a suitable platform through intervening atmosphere. 5. Transmission or recording of the sensor output. 6. Collection of ground truth and other information. 7. Data analysis and interpretation. Applications 1 Agriculture: In India agriculture provides livelihood of 70% of population and contributes to about 35% of net nation product. We require optimal management of land and water resources along with high yielding variety seeds, fertilizer input. Remote sensing can provide valuable information for land and water management. 2. Forests: Remote sensing provides information clearly on the type, density and extent of forest cover, wood volume and biomass, forest fire, encroachment etc.
130 3. Land cover: Spatial information on land is required at different scales depends upon use remote sensing data is converted to map. The spatial resolution plays a role on the scale of mapping. 4. Water resources: Remote sensing data has been used in many application related to surface water body mapping, ground water targeting, wet land, flood monitoring, reservoir sedimentation, water quality monitoring etc. One of the most simple applications is inventorying surface water body. DATABASE It is the collection of inter related data on various objects. In the computer the information of database is arranged in a systematic manner. Applications: I The ministry of environment and forest. They are compiling database on various biotic components. Database is also available for diseases likes HIV | AIDS. Malaria, Fluorosis. National Management Information System (NMIS) : They compile database on R & D Projects along with information about research scientists and personnel involved. Environmental Information System : It functions in 25 centres all over the country. They generate net work of database in areas like pollution control, remote sensing, biodiversity, and desertification.
GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM (GIS)
It is a technique of superimposing various thematic maps using digital data on large Number of inter related aspects. Applications: Different thematic maps having digital information on water resources, Soil type, forest land, crop land, grass lands are superimposed layered form in computer using soft ware. Interpretation of polluted zones, degraded lands can be made on GIS base. 3. GIS can be used to check unplanned growth and related environmental problems. SATELLITE DATA: It helps in providing correct and reliable information forest cover Provides information of monsoon, ozone layer depletion Smog etc. Helps in discovering reserves of oil, minerals. WWW: More current data is available on www on line learning centre. Www .mhhe.com \ environmental science. Multimedia Digital content manager (DCM) in the form of CD ROMS. Application of computers in the field of Environment & human health: 1. Unknown parameters can be stimulated by computer techniques 2. EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment) problems can be analyzed 3. Inventories of emission sources are compiled and maintained
What is meant by value education? 15. Discuss the salient features of Draft declaration of Human Rights on environment.131 4. Define (i) Toxins (ii) Carcinogens (iii) Tetrogenic (iv) Neurotoxins. UNIT – V PART –A 1. What are the two important views of population growth? 14. They are also useful to access the loss of biodiversity/hot spots etc. What is meant by population stabilization? Discuss the family welfare and family planning in Indian context. Remote sensing-Graphical Interface System are useful for coral reef mapping and ocean resources. Define the term population explosion. 2. What is meant by population stabilization. Comprehensive administrative system can be developed by using computer network techniques. 2. Mention the applications of remote sensing on water resources. 5. What is GIS? 16. What are the objectives of Family Planning Programmes? 7. 5. 4. Mention the types of health hazards with examples. 11. . What kinds of problems are created due to Urbanisation? 6. What do you mean by remote sensing? 10. What are the objectives & elements of Value-education? How can the same be achieved? 8. Briefly discuss HIV/AIDS. 6. 6. What is Universal declaration of Human rights? What is its importance in achieving the goals of equity. 7. 3. What are the factors affecting population size? 3. statistical analysis and the status of environmental pollutions can be high lighted 5. State how environment & human health are related? PART – B 1. 17. justice & sustainability. 4. 8. 13. mode of its spread and its effect on environment. total fertility rates? 12. What is meant by population explosion? Discuss the Indian Scenario. Define Zero Population growth. Discuss the influence of environmental parameters and pollution on human health. Explain the population characteristics & variations among nations. What is the role of primary health care against AIDS? 9. What is doubling time. Write short notes on population dynamics. Net-work analysis.
*********************** . What is the role of NMIS. Discuss the factors influencing the family size. Explain the role of Information Technology in environment & Human health. 13. Write briefly on implementation of family planning programme. Discuss various issues & measures for Women & Child Welfare at International & National level. Discuss the environmental and social impacts of growing population. 12. 14. Write briefly on the effect of increasing affluence on environment. 16.132 9. ENVIS & GIS in dissemination of environmental information and environmental management? 11. 10. 15. Write a note on AIDS in developing countries.
Suggest few methods to reduce air pollution. 20. 15. Define Eutrophication. Answer All the Questions 1. . Name any four pollution control acts. 14. Discuss about various waste minimization techniques. 5. Why Ozone layer is getting depleted? 7.. What is the role of chemistry in pollution control? 4. 9. Explain the role of good environmental quality objectives in implementing pollution control policies. ―Control of pH reduces water pollution‖ – Justify this statement. 10. Explain the relationship between the various components and subcomponents of environment. Discuss the role of pollution control board in implementing various pollution control acts. 16. 3. 2. How biomedical wastes are disposed? 6. 13. List the various components of environment. Describe in detail how the engineering intervention reduces the environmental stresses. Explain how industrial and vehicular effluent causes air pollution. What are hazardous materials? Explain the methodology for hazardous materials transportation. Define the oretical oxygen demand. 19. Discuss how energy flow material cycling in ecosystem in disturbed due to pollution. What are green house gases? 8. Write short notes about environmental quality objectives. Explain the role of non government organizations to prevent environmental pollution. 12.133 Anna University questions PART – A (10 x 2 = 20). What are Freons? PART – B (5 x 12 = 60) Answer All the Questions 11. 17. 18.
3. 14. Define producers. (b) What are the major causes of deforestation? Discuss its consequences. (ii) Explain the strategy adopted to conserve bio diversity. . (a) What are the major pollutants of atmosphere? Enumerate the adverse effects Caused by these pollutants. 7. (a) Explain in detail the role of an individual in conservation of natural resources. 13. 12. 5. Enumerate the human activities which destroy the bio diversity. Population explosion effects the environment seriously Discuss. (a) (i) Discuss the threat faced by Indian Biodiversity. 6.134 CY 1201 – ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING NOVEMBER / DECEMBER 2005 PART – A 1. (b) (i) How will you take care of solid waste generated in urban areas? (ii) Explain Bhopal gas tragedy. Name the four ecosystems. State the role of information technology in Environment. 8. State any problem caused by the construction of dams. Define environmental issues. PART – B 11. Write any two causes of soil pollution. (b) What is an ecosystem? Describe the structure and function of various components of an ecosystem. What are the conventional sources of energy for the man kind? 4. When a sound causes noise pollution. 2. 9. What is acid rain? 10.
135 15. .(a) (i) What is meant by Rain water harvesting? Why is it necessary nowadays? (ii) Discuss about global warnings.
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