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Feed Formulation and Feeding Practices in Fish Culture

Feed Formulation and Feeding Practices in Fish Culture

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Extension Bulletin No. 152

Fisheries Series No.7

Published by:

National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A key feature of scientific (technical) bulletins is that they usually contain information that are put together from different sources to address a subj ect matter. For this bulletin, the works of various authors was consulted in order to present fairly documented information that is simple to farmers in the art of fish feeding. These sources of information are referenced and duly acknowledged. The Management of NAERLS funds the publication, while the Publication and Publicity Programme together with the Publication Review Committee painstakingly did the editorial work and organization of the work to make it presentable to the intended audience. These are acknowledged.

Bolorunduro P.I.

................................6 Examples inFeedCompoundment.....................1 Fish Feeding Habits................1 Nutrients Requirement ofthe Fish....3 Processing of the Feedstuffs.......................................................4 FeedFormulation.........0 Choosing the feedstuffs.....3 Methods of Feeding Fish................ 2............................ 4......5 Production of Pellets and Ground Ingredients..... 5....... 4.... 3.................... 5........ 4................. 3..........................0 Bibliography...... Table ofContent....... 6...................................................................1 Trial and Error Method............................................................................... 5..... 4.............2 Nutrient Composition ofFeedstuffs.....................................0 Introduction........................................................ 5....................................................................................................0 Feedstuffsinfishculture.....0 Supplementary feed formulation............................................. 4.........2 QuantityofFeed.......... 5......... 2 3 4 5 8 8 9 12 12 13 13 13 15 15 17 17 18 20 24 26 2 ......0 Feeding the Fish.................................................4 Golden rules in Feeding Fish...............................2 Pearson's Square Method................ 3................... 1...................................TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgment....... 4................................................................... 4..................

1. copepods and molluscs are examples of natural foods. they have the following advantages in fish culture: 1. In the absence of natural foods. kitchen refuse. feeds that are manufactured or grown outside of the fishpond may be fed at regular intervals (daily. Enable high stocking density (stocking maximization) especially in Polyculture system. When fish have balanced diet to eat. 3 . weekly. insects. Rice brans. microscopic animals (zooplankton). oil seed cakes or other agricultural products and by products.0 Introduction Fish food consists of natural food and artificial (supplementary) feeds.8m-Imm) for fingerlings. Natural food organisms in the water will provide essential nutrients. They promote faster growth of fish. These are used in extensive or semi-intensive culture system. In natural waters and well-fertilized ponds. they grow fast and stay healthy. juveniles (2mm3mm)and adults (4. etc. These feeds supplement natural foods.5mm) depending on pellet sizes. Although the use of artificial feeds may be costly. 2. They are not nutritionally complete. and will not adequately support fish growth in the absence ofnatural foods. When natural foods are not available in sufficient quantities to provide adequate nutrition for fish growth. cassava leaves. especially the commercially compounded ration. since food will al ways be available. crustaceans. This is applicable to commercial oriented fishfarms or high technology based culture systems. Some examples of supplementary feeds that are acceptable to fish are commercially produced rations for chickens and pigs. Mash feeds are good for fries and pellets (O.). microscopic plants (phytoplankton). nutritionally complete manufactured feeds that contain all essential nutrients must be fed to fish. Artificial feeds are well-compounded mixture of feedstuffs and can be in mash or pellets form that could be fed to fish.

Protein Supplements. 4. This acts as fertilizer to promote plankton growth. They are essentially of plant origin. Feedstuffs are classified into major groups in fish culture . Generally in fish culture. Uneaten artificial feeds in the pond water will be biologically degraded. A fish farmer while feeding the fish can study the behavior of fish and monitor their health. stocking density. It can therefore be seen that foods and feeds availability and the feeding practices used by farmers will determine to a large extent the success or otherwise of a fish culture enterprise. the major factors affecting fish growth are stocking rate. wheat offal. etc.energy feedstuffs and protein supplements. Generally requirements are:. The dietary protein requirement of some locally cultured fish species are shown in Table 1.semi-intensive culture with natural foods (20-25%CP). Protein of animal origin are of higher quality than those of plant origin. 5. .High fish yield is guaranteed relative to the stocking density. Examples are cassava. These are feedstuffs containing less than 20% crude protein. Energy Feedstuffs. and the feeding method and frequency.0 Feedstuffs in Fish Culture. guinea com. 2. rice bran. the quantity (adequacy) and quality of feeds. the water temperature. Recommended dietary crude protein (CP) requirements for fast and healthy growth of fish vary with fish species. They are made either of plant or animal materials. maize. Examples of animal protein sources in fish culture are 4 3. intensive culture for fingerlings (40-48%CP) and juveniles/adult fish in intensive culture (30-35%). 2. 1. These are feedstuffs containing 20% crude protein or more.

etc. animal meals. High ratios indicate less efficient conversion.NIFFR Extension 5 .fish meal. bone meal. For example it takes about 4 to 6kg of ground maize.30 Alala Abori Tarwada 50. Table 1: Dietary Protein requirements of some locally cultured Loca/Names Fish Ibo Yoruba Hausa fish species %Crude Protein requirement. Soybean meal. The conversion ratio in Table 2 presents the dry weight of feed needed to produce one unit wet weight of fish. groundnut cake and cottonseed cake are some examples of plant protein materials. and on farm products are available in Nigeria for farmers to utilize in fish culture (Table 2). Tilapia (Oreochromis nitoticus) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Catfish (C/arias gariepinus) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) Fry Fingerlings Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Caprio) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Grass Carp (Ctenopharynglo n idel/a) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Ikpopo Epere Tarfasa 50-55 35-40 30.4 Source . A wide range of local feedstuffs such as agricultural by-products.55 40-45 35-40 Echim Aro Ramboshi 50-55 42 -45 35-40 50-52 38 30-35 25-30 50 41 -43 30 25 Guide Series No. A low conversion ratio means that fish will convert the feed into flesh more efficiently.35 25 . but 10 to 20kg of cassava peel to produce lkg of fish flesh. blood meal.

7 1.3 2.8 1.0 9.7 28.0 3.8 0.5 8.5 22.8 5.1 40.2 19.2 31.9 1.9 7.5 83.1 66.2 58.5 18.Table 2: Nutrient Composition feed to fish flesh Feedstuffs % Protein of some local feedstuffs and expected conversion ratio of %Fat %Fibre %CarboHydrate 70.7 7.6 Source .0 2.5 17.2 8.7 %Dry Matter 88.4 94.1 5.4 13.5 21.0 24.8 8.2 l.0 46.7 16.2 57.9 1.4 0.7 14.3 10.4 6.9 33.0 4.6 2.2 23.8 23.8 2.1 4.6 17.5 1.4 3.5 5.8 6.4 2.3 1.4 7.8 5.6 40.9 48.2 87.1 6.3 6.1 17.9 40.0 12.0 6.0 88 88 91 91 93 93 90 90 90 92 92 92 92 90 93 88 88 88 88 91 %Mineral Conversion Ratio 5 5 5 8 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 5 10 18 18 18 18 4 Maize (white) Maize (Yellow) Guinea Corn Palm kernel Cake Cotton Seed Cake Rice Bran/Husk GroundnutCake (Industrial) GroundnutCake (Kulikuli) Raw Soyabean Soyabean Meal (toasted slightly) Soyabean Meal (toasted severaly) Fish Meal (Tilapia) Clupeid (large size) Clupeid (Small size) Cow Blood Meal Millet Flour Mill Sweepings Brewers Waste Cassava (Peeled) Cassava (peels only) Cassava (Unpeeled) Cassava leaves Mucuna Water leaf 9.0 14.5 2.2 6.7 18.1 15.2 48.3 43.3 4.4 21.1 57.5 2.1 21.5 7.l 0.5 10.4 8.0 45.3 6.0 40.6 20.0 8.0 0.6 91.8 0.7 5.0 16.6 8.7 71.2 0.2 20.1 9.6 5.7 4.0 2.2 74.4 22. 6 .0 3.9 19.3 68.2 17.1 5.3 4.6 9.4 2.Compiled from various sources.8 11.9 12.9 71.1 0.7 46.5 86.

1 40 20 28 12 100 22.2 57.9=3.9 3. However. Single feed ingredients may be fed to fish to supplement available natural food in a pond.7 Note: To calculate the required % CP in feed. E.3. it is possible to choose a feed mixture of desired protein level when preparing supplemental feed.0 Choosing the Feedstuffs.8 46. These are discussed below: Trial and Error Method To chose a combination of ingredients that will provide a feed containing between 25 to 30% crude protein (from Table 2). Ingredient Rice bran Brewer Waste Soyabean meal Fish meal Total Amount of Ingredient (kg) % Crude Protein 9.96)4. combining ingredients may make better quality supplemental feed.g Rice bran =40x9. a 20 to 25% protein content is suitable. From Table 2. When natural food is abundant and fish are stocked at low densities. A 30% or more crude protein content is more suitable for commercial operations where fish are stocked at higher densities. of which 7 to 10% ofthe protein is from animal sources. Fish would grow well on a feed containing 20 to 30% crude protein.0 100 7 . Two simple methods can be used to determine how much of a selected ingredient should be used for making a fish feed with a desired crude protein content.

6. Subtract the desired protein level (30%) of the feed from the protein content of each ingredient. Examples of feed formulations with two and more ingredients are shown.4% protein content.7= 58. 57.Two Ingredients. Add the differences obtained at the right comers of the square (20 and 28) and record their sum (48) near the bottom right comer. In this case.2 Pearson's Square Method. Place the two ingredients on the two left comers of the square along with the protein content of each.4kg xl OOkg= 28. 30%. . 8 1. 2. This would make a feed containing approximately 28% crude protein by weight since 28. 3. The sum in the right comer should equal the difference in protein content recorded near the lower left comer ofthe square. Calculate the difference in crude protein content of the two ingredients (58 and 10) and record this number (48) near the lower left comer of the square. Ignore positive or negative signs. Example 1: .4kg of crude protein if 100kg of the listed ingredients were combined as indicated. The difference between percentages of protein in rice bran and in the feed (20) represents the amount of fish meal needed. The difference between fish meal and the feed (28) represents the amount of rice bran needed. This method may be used for two or more feed ingredients and is preferable to the trial and error method. For ease of calculations the %CP figures are rounded up e. 100 3. Draw a square (see Pearson's Square 1Diagram) Place the desired protein level at the center of the square.g.This feed would contain 28. Find the proportions of rice bran and fish meal (Tilapia) required to make a feed containing 30% crude protein. 5. 4.

find the proportions of soybean meal cake. The feed can also be described as being composed of 42% fish meal and 58% rice bran. 3) Calculate an average for the crude protein (CP) contents of each group of ingredients (Table 1). 9 . Divide the differences obtained in step 5.7.3 Difference = 48 Example 2: .------. yellow maize and brewers waste needed to make a fish feed with a 30% crude protein content. 2) Group the ingredients into energy sources (crude protein less than 20%) and protein supplements (crude protein greater than 20%). which were 20 and by 28 by the sum obtained in step 6. fish meal. (Pearson's Square 2 Diagram).7 30% Desired Protein Level Rice bran (10% protein) 28 28 x 100 48 Sum =48 = 58. Pearson's Square 1 Diagram .20 20 x 100 48 = Fish meal (58% protein) 41. 42kg of fish meal and 58kg of rice bran are combined to make 1OOkgof fish feed containing 30% crude protein. 1) Draw a square and place the desired protein level (30%) at the center of the square. Thus.Three or more ingredients In this example. which was 48 and then multiply each by 100 to obtain the percentage of each ingredient needed for the feed.

8) Divide the left side sum (35) into each difference obtained in step 6 (13 and 22) and multiply by 100 to calculate the percentage of protein supplement and energy source needed for the feed. respectively for the protein supplements and energy sources. 9) One half of the protein supplement (18. The respective answers are 37% and 63%. 4) Place the averages obtained above at the left comers ofthe square.5%) is provided by fish 10 . the answer is 35 on the left and 35 on the right side. 5) Calculate the difference in crude protein content between the protein supplements and energy sources and record this near the lower left comer ofthe square. Ignore positive or negative signs. 7) Add these differences and record the sum near the lower right comer of the square. 6) Subtract the desired protein level (30%) of the feed from the combined protein content of the protein supplements and energy sources and place the difference in the opposite diagonal comers. Results are 22 and 13. The answer in this case is 35. In this case.Protein Supplements: Fish Meal Soybean Meal Cake Total Average: 104-:-2 Energy Sources: Yellow Maize Brewers Waste 58%CP 46%CP 104%CP 52%CP II%CP 23%CP* Total 34%CP Average: 34-:-2= 17%CP * Note that Brewers waste has a slightly higher crude protein content as an energy feedstuff.

for body building. Essential nutrients required by fish include 1.5kg Pearson's Square 2 Diagram Protein supplements: (Fish meal + Soybean cake) ~ 52% . 11 .for needed energy in body activities. Protein and amino acid . growth mam tenance and reproduction. Thus.-----. One half of the energy sources (31.5%) is provided by yellow maize and one half is provided by brewer's waste meal.13% ~37% 35 ll_x 100 30% Desired Protein Level Energy Sources: (Yellow maize + Brewers waste) 17% 22% £2xIOO~ 63% 35 Difference: 35 Sum: 35 4. 2. a fish farmer must be acquainted with the following information: Nutrient requirement ofthe fish. soybean meal cake.meal and one half is provided by soybean oil cake.1 Supplementary feed Formulation For a successful fish feed formulation.5kg Yellow Maize 31. yellow maize and brewer's waste the following proportions would be mixed Fish 18. Carbohydrates .0 4.5kg Brewer's Waste 31. to make 100kg of fish feed containing 30% crude protein from a combination of ingredients including fish meal.5kg Soybean meal cake 18.

Refer to Table 2 for some locally available feedstuffs used in fish culture. Nutrient Composition of Feedstuffs These are either energy feedstuffs or protein supplements. 3. The best way to destroy anti-nutritional factors is to heat treat the feedstuffs. mixing and pelleting.for growth maintenance and reproduction. which will be harmful to fish. Figure 1. Hammer Mill 12 . The anti-nutritional factors are substances. 4.0 of this bulletin).2 4. Processing ofthe Feedstuffs Most feedstuffs have anti-nutritional factors. They prevent easy digestion of protein in the feed. Heat destroys such factors e. which alter the nutritional value of the feedstuffs and at the same time affect the health of fish. When feedstuffs for desired % crude protein content have been chosen (as in section 3. Vitamins and minerals .4.3 4. Feed Formulation This is the method of combining selected ground feed ingredients in varying proportions to comply with predetermined nutrient requirements. they can be prepared/compounded through a process of milling. They may be inherent in the foodstuffs or contaminants on the feedstuffs. Lipid also function as sparing nutrient for protein synthesis.4 Fats and fatty acids .g.Milling can be carried out with the hammer milling (Figure 1).for energy and normal body functioning. tripsin inhibitors in raw soybean or groundnut and gossypol in cottonseed.

The Product Research and Development Agency (PRODA). Figure 3: Kitchen hand Crack3er 13 .Mechanical Mixer Some companies are fabricating pelleting machines locally. (Figure 3). If cereals in the fonnular are not adequate to bind the particles of the feed mixture. The common kitchen hand cranker can also be used for pelleting by small-scale fanners.Mixing of ingredients including the premixes can be performed by hand before adding warm/hot water with stirring to form dough. A mechanical mixer can be used for large scale feed production (Figure 2). cassava starch may be added as a binder. Figure 2. Enugu fabricated some attached with hammer mill for ease of feed production.

ground maize and leaf meals. This ration may be stored in plastic bags or containers and divided for morning and afternoon feeding. whether floating or sinking types for surface feeders or bottom feeding fish respectively. Table 3 shows the standardization of home gadgets. V11 Moist rations can be prepared daily by adding about 350ml of water per kg of ingredients to form a dough-like mixture. dry place for several weeks. 111 Measured ingredients should be mixed thoroughly in desired proportions. For floating pellet.e. Portions may be taken as needed to feed fish. 4. v Particle size of pellets for most fish range from 2mm-9mm in diameter. using local measures (Tiya and milk-tin). add or spray oil. Fine grinding is preferable. Sand may serve as sinker when added to pellet.5 Producing of Pellets and Ground Ingredients Get good quality feed ingredients 11 Particle size of ground ingredients should be uniform. nylon bags.g. such as rice bran. VI Dry rations.After pelleting. This is to prevent attack by mould and other pests. 14 . the pellets should be dried in the sun or oven and packed in water impermeable bags e. may be stored in a cool. Leafmeals should be sun or oven dried before grinding. Examples in Feed Compoundment The examples illustrated below are based on the use of standardized weight measures (kilogram and litre) and equivalents. IV Determine what pellet type to produce i.

00m.00 Maize 6.25 Bonemeal 0. tin) 0.90 (2m.5 Red Pepper 0. 15 .tin) 35% CP for Juvenile/Adult Fish KG Tiya/M. Aduku (1992).5 Total 4.6 Fish meal 1.tin 0.50 Vit.00tiya 2. Premix 0.0 WoodAsh 0.2. Example .00 Salt 0.90 (2m.Table 3.6kg 44 % CP for Fish Fingerlings KG Soyabean meal 100.25 Example 3.00tiya 80.Tin 40. Standardization of Home Gadgets.tin Soyabean 32.25 Source.00 17.00m.5 tiya (1 mudu) Salt 2. Premix 1. Milk Tins 18 8 10 6 42 Milk tins Tiya/M. Volume Weight of Water Eguivalent 1 litre of water 1kg of water 1muduofwater(8milktin) 1kg of water 1tiyaofwater (16 milk tin) 2kgofwater 2 tiyas (1 gallon) 4 kg of water 1bucket (4 gallons) 16 kg of water 1kerosine tin (5 gallons) 20 kg of water 1head pan (3 gallons) 12kg of water Source:-Aduku (1992) Example 1.To prepare Vitamin Premix KG. Bloodmeal 2.8 2.5 Vit.tin 1.

e. the feed quantity as well as its palatability. Some are omnivores i. fish species can exploit different levels of the pond for food. Most fish under culture are able to feed on plant and animal food materials and accept supplementary feeds. they feed mainly on flesh foods like fingerlings crustaceans and worms in the water environment e. Hydrocynus forksali. 5.5. Tilapia. All things being equal. Grass carp. The quantity of feed fish would consume depends on various factors such as the fish appetite initiated by hunger for food. While some are herbivores i. mid water feeders include Clarias while Heterotis is a typical bottom feeder. a well-fed fish will grow well and a poorly fed fish will have retarded growth and prone to diseases. Fish Feeding Habits. 1. Surface feeders include the Tilapias. pen or other culture media. they feed on both plant and animal materials e.1 16 . Some fish are carnivores i.e. Generally.g. feed mostly on plant materials e. Farmers must supply fish under culture with nutritious diet on regular (daily or weekly) basis at the required level (recommended rates). v When fish are held in tanks.e. and are especially beneficial. A fish culturist should take these feeding habits into consideration in planning pond stocking. When fish are confined in a cage. Fish usually feed to satisfy their energy requirements. When fertilization is not practiced 11 When a pond does not respond well to fertilization 111. When fish are stocked at high density in a pond IV. In a polyculture system. the Tiger fish.0 Feeding the Fish Feeds are provided to mcrease fish yields. fish species have different feeding habits.g.g.

F 15x3000x5 2. Use the average weight of the sample to multiply the number offish stocked to calculate the fish biomass in the pond. F WxSxP 1000 x 100 kg/hal day Where.morning before sunrise and evening before sunset.13kg and fed twice daily . The quantity of daily ration at 5% body weight can be calculated as follows. Catch small number of fish and weigh them.5. 11. 1. 17 .2 Quantity of Feed Feeding rates may be adjusted on a monthly basis by estimating the fish biomass (total weight of fish in a pond). Then feed them at 3-5% of the biomass daily. There are several ways of determining this. The two most common ways are: 1. Daily ration for fry can be divided to 4 to 8 and fed at intervals.e. Another way to adjust feeding rates is to assume a growth rate for the fish based on previous experience that a farmer has. F W S Weight of feed Weight offish Stocking rate P Percentage body weight Example A farmer has 3000 fingerlings in an hectare of fish farm with average weight of 15g.25kg/ha/day 1000x 100 The feed should be divided into two equal portion i. Then use the following equation to estimate the quantity of feed required for daily ration. It is recommended that at least 100 fish samples per hectare of fish farm should be randomly taken.

18 .The value for w (average weight) is read from value for average length in Table 4. the stocking rate.5kg/ha/day 100 Note: . F s x W x P kg/ha/day 100 Weight of feed Stocking rate Average Weight of Fish (determined from average length reading) Percentage Body Weight s W P Example. This information may be used as a rough guide to determine feeding rates. F Where. The following formula can be used in calculating the daily ration (based on Table 4).Growth rate will differ depending on the amount of natural food in the pond. The quantity of daily ration at 5% body weight can be determined thus: F 3000x90x5 = 13. Table 4 shows what percentage of body weight should be fed to Tilapia of a certain size. the type and amount of supplementary feed given. A farmer has 3000 fingerlings ofTilapia in a hectare of fish farm with average length of 16cm. fish species and size. and the water temperature.

5 15.0 13.0 20.0 18.5 18. Fish Size (CIn) Average Individual Percentage of Body weight Fish Weight (g) 2.0 7.5 19.5 11.5 9.5 17.0 3.0 16.0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 175 185 200 Fed Daily 5% 4% 3% Source .Table 4: Appr-oxtmate length/weight relationships for tilapia and appropriate feeding rates.0 17.0 12.0 14.leA (1991) 19 .0 16.5 21.0 14.0 19.5 20.

This practice is however labor intensive. feeding frames can be placed at one or 2 spots in the pond to minimize feed wastage (Figure 5). When a farmer feeds the fish from one spot in the pond. 1.3 Methods of Feeding Fish Fish can be fed supplementary feeds in two ways . especially in large fish farms. 20 . Figure 4.e. Manual Feeding This is carried out by a process called broadcasting i.5.Manually or Mechanically. It is however very suitable for small-holder aquaculturists. throwing feeds into the pond by hand either on one spot in the pond or over a wide area (Figure 4). Broadcasting is a good method of feeding fish because the farmer can observe the behavior of the fish. Feeding Fish in the pond by broadcasting.

2. It operates through a simple funnel shaped device with a metal trigger hanging into the water. which could either be demand type or automatic. Demand Feeder. The method is capital intensive and is performed by mechanical feeders. A measured amount of feed is placed in the funnel and the feed is released when the fish shakes the metal trigger (Figure 6). This makes feeds available to fish on "demand".Figure 5. Feeding Frames in aFishPond. Mechanical Feeding This is suitable for large-scale commercial fish farms. 21 .

'':::' ~: ...:::~' ::.Figure 6._. $~~~~~:::.._ ~~ . ~#~ . It is highly capital-intensive and not suitable to small-scale fish farmers (Figure 7).. 11 Automatic Feeder This is a clock work programmed device that discharges a measured amount of feed at specified intervals in a day. -..- 22 . Demand Feeder.. .

5. Feeding should be temporarily suspended when dissolved oxygen is low to improve water quality. 23 . RULE 2: Never overfeed the fish Give only as much feed as the fish will consume in 20 minutes or less. Uneaten feed will pollute the water and increase the cost of raising your fish. These platforms can then be pulled up after feeding to determine the quantity of feed consumed. Steps must be taken to exchange or aerate the pond water. A farmer can walk into the feeding area of his pond 20 minutes after feeding and feel the pond bottom. If a large amount of feed is stirred up. A foul smell in the water when the bottom sediments are disturbed. Signs of overfeeding are listed below. When accumulated uneaten feed decomposes water may become low in dissolved oxygen. An obvious inability of the fish to consume all ofthe feed offered within a 20-minute period. too much feed is being offered. Overfeeding can make plankton become so abundant that a submerged object can only be seen at depths less than 25cm. Fish become trained and learn when and where they are fed. which are lowered into the water. They will die if the oxygen concentration in the water becomes too low. An overabundance of phytoplankton. 2. Golden Rules in Feeding Fish RULE 1: Always feed fish at the same time and place. Two feedings per day are normal. In such ponds.4 1. Feed may also be placed on trays or plat forms. A handful of bottom sediment picked up from the feeding area should not be black and foul smelling. This should be a warning sign to farmers that indicates possible overfeeding. Half of the daily amount is given about mid-morning and half in the early afternoon. fish will usually be seen at the pond surface in the predawn hours gulping air. 3.

Most tropical fish are off-feed when temperature is below 20"c 24 . It will also save feed. This allows them to clean their intestines and makes them better able to survive the stress of handling and transportation.RULE 3: Do not feed on harvest day Stop feeding fish 24 to 48 hours before they are harvested. continuous feed addition to the pond. since there will be low feed utilization. At such periods sinking pelletes are preferable. RULE 4 Regulate feed quantities at cold season The daily ration for fish should be halved during cold season «20"c temperature) Most fish will not feed on floating pellets at such season.

. 5 6 25 . Feeding Practices in Fish Farming. 2. Feeding your Fish. Technical paper for training of ADP Subject Matter Specialists in Monthly Technology Review Meetings. Technical Paper for training ofADP Subject Matter Specialists m Monthly Technology Review Meetings. Eyo. Zaria.A. 3. Fish Feed Formulation NIFFR Extension Guide Series NO. NIFFR Extension Guide Series NO. In collaboration with GTZ and NAERLS. GTZ. (1996). A.7. Auburn University. Bolorunduro PJ (1994) Feeding and Management ofFish in Po n d s . Water Harvesting Manuals.4. (1996). 4. A. Bolorunduro PJ. Asekome and Co.A.1. ICA (1991) International Centre for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments. (1995) Practical Method of Formulating Com pounded Feeds using Locally Available Ingredients for Small Scale Producers of Poultry and Fish.A.Publishers. In collaboration with GTZ and NAERLS. Bibliography Aduku. Eyo.O (1992). Practical Livestock Feeds Production in the tropics.

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