FEED FORMULATION

AND FEEDING PRACTICES

IN

FISH CULTURE

Extension Bulletin No. 152

Fisheries Series No.7

Published by:

National Agricultural Extension and Research Liaison Services, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

2002

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT A key feature of scientific (technical) bulletins is that they usually contain information that are put together from different sources to address a subj ect matter. For this bulletin, the works of various authors was consulted in order to present fairly documented information that is simple to farmers in the art of fish feeding. These sources of information are referenced and duly acknowledged. The Management of NAERLS funds the publication, while the Publication and Publicity Programme together with the Publication Review Committee painstakingly did the editorial work and organization of the work to make it presentable to the intended audience. These are acknowledged.

Bolorunduro P.I.

..................................................... 4...........................................................................6 Examples inFeedCompoundment...............................1 Fish Feeding Habits....... 3...0 Introduction.......................0 Bibliography. 1..............................................................0 Supplementary feed formulation..............2 Pearson's Square Method.......................1 Trial and Error Method...........................................................3 Methods of Feeding Fish............. 4........................0 Feeding the Fish.........0 Choosing the feedstuffs.................. 5................................... 5....... 2........................................ 5............................................0 Feedstuffsinfishculture.............................1 Nutrients Requirement ofthe Fish...................................... Table ofContent..... 4.................................... 4........ 2 3 4 5 8 8 9 12 12 13 13 13 15 15 17 17 18 20 24 26 2 ................. 5..... 5...........4 FeedFormulation...................4 Golden rules in Feeding Fish............2 Nutrient Composition ofFeedstuffs..TABLE OF CONTENT Acknowledgment..........................5 Production of Pellets and Ground Ingredients............................................... 3................................................................. 6.................... 4........... 3.............. 4..............3 Processing of the Feedstuffs......... 4......2 QuantityofFeed........................................

especially the commercially compounded ration. feeds that are manufactured or grown outside of the fishpond may be fed at regular intervals (daily. 2. These feeds supplement natural foods.5mm) depending on pellet sizes. etc. These are used in extensive or semi-intensive culture system. Mash feeds are good for fries and pellets (O. copepods and molluscs are examples of natural foods. Artificial feeds are well-compounded mixture of feedstuffs and can be in mash or pellets form that could be fed to fish.8m-Imm) for fingerlings. This is applicable to commercial oriented fishfarms or high technology based culture systems. cassava leaves. When natural foods are not available in sufficient quantities to provide adequate nutrition for fish growth. microscopic animals (zooplankton). In the absence of natural foods. Although the use of artificial feeds may be costly. juveniles (2mm3mm)and adults (4. and will not adequately support fish growth in the absence ofnatural foods. crustaceans.0 Introduction Fish food consists of natural food and artificial (supplementary) feeds. In natural waters and well-fertilized ponds. They promote faster growth of fish. They are not nutritionally complete.). Rice brans. Natural food organisms in the water will provide essential nutrients. since food will al ways be available. insects. nutritionally complete manufactured feeds that contain all essential nutrients must be fed to fish. kitchen refuse. weekly. When fish have balanced diet to eat. they have the following advantages in fish culture: 1. Some examples of supplementary feeds that are acceptable to fish are commercially produced rations for chickens and pigs. oil seed cakes or other agricultural products and by products. 3 . Enable high stocking density (stocking maximization) especially in Polyculture system.1. they grow fast and stay healthy. microscopic plants (phytoplankton).

2. They are essentially of plant origin. Generally in fish culture. It can therefore be seen that foods and feeds availability and the feeding practices used by farmers will determine to a large extent the success or otherwise of a fish culture enterprise. the water temperature.High fish yield is guaranteed relative to the stocking density.energy feedstuffs and protein supplements. Protein of animal origin are of higher quality than those of plant origin. Recommended dietary crude protein (CP) requirements for fast and healthy growth of fish vary with fish species. stocking density. Energy Feedstuffs. . 4. The dietary protein requirement of some locally cultured fish species are shown in Table 1. Feedstuffs are classified into major groups in fish culture . These are feedstuffs containing less than 20% crude protein. intensive culture for fingerlings (40-48%CP) and juveniles/adult fish in intensive culture (30-35%). 5.0 Feedstuffs in Fish Culture. They are made either of plant or animal materials.semi-intensive culture with natural foods (20-25%CP). Examples of animal protein sources in fish culture are 4 3. This acts as fertilizer to promote plankton growth. the quantity (adequacy) and quality of feeds. the major factors affecting fish growth are stocking rate. 1. Generally requirements are:. rice bran. Protein Supplements. wheat offal. and the feeding method and frequency. etc. These are feedstuffs containing 20% crude protein or more. 2. Examples are cassava. guinea com. Uneaten artificial feeds in the pond water will be biologically degraded. A fish farmer while feeding the fish can study the behavior of fish and monitor their health. maize.

The conversion ratio in Table 2 presents the dry weight of feed needed to produce one unit wet weight of fish. but 10 to 20kg of cassava peel to produce lkg of fish flesh.30 Alala Abori Tarwada 50. groundnut cake and cottonseed cake are some examples of plant protein materials. animal meals.35 25 . etc. Tilapia (Oreochromis nitoticus) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Catfish (C/arias gariepinus) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Catfish (Heterobranchus bidorsalis) Fry Fingerlings Adult Common Carp (Cyprinus Caprio) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Grass Carp (Ctenopharynglo n idel/a) Fry Fingerlings Juveniles Adult Ikpopo Epere Tarfasa 50-55 35-40 30. A wide range of local feedstuffs such as agricultural by-products. High ratios indicate less efficient conversion.4 Source . For example it takes about 4 to 6kg of ground maize.NIFFR Extension 5 .fish meal. and on farm products are available in Nigeria for farmers to utilize in fish culture (Table 2). Table 1: Dietary Protein requirements of some locally cultured Loca/Names Fish Ibo Yoruba Hausa fish species %Crude Protein requirement. Soybean meal. A low conversion ratio means that fish will convert the feed into flesh more efficiently. blood meal. bone meal.55 40-45 35-40 Echim Aro Ramboshi 50-55 42 -45 35-40 50-52 38 30-35 25-30 50 41 -43 30 25 Guide Series No.

8 5.7 4.5 1.3 6.3 68.7 1.4 3.2 58.7 16.0 6.6 Source .7 28.1 15.6 2.0 4.5 8.0 12.3 10.3 4.5 2.0 16.4 2.7 71.2 23.4 13.5 86.3 6.1 5.8 1.9 33.9 1.4 2.5 22.2 l.2 0.7 18.Compiled from various sources.3 2.6 20.3 43.2 48.5 2.7 %Dry Matter 88.7 5.5 10.1 21.5 83.4 8.3 4.0 3.0 0.1 4.2 6.6 91.7 7.0 8.6 40.1 9.4 21.9 7.9 40.9 1.8 2.8 11.2 87.0 14.0 46.6 9.2 19.0 45.l 0.4 0.1 57.8 5.1 6.4 6.0 3.9 48.6 8.5 18.8 23.6 5.7 46.Table 2: Nutrient Composition feed to fish flesh Feedstuffs % Protein of some local feedstuffs and expected conversion ratio of %Fat %Fibre %CarboHydrate 70.0 40.5 5.5 7.4 7.7 14.9 19.2 20.9 71.1 40.1 5.9 12.3 1.4 94.2 74.0 88 88 91 91 93 93 90 90 90 92 92 92 92 90 93 88 88 88 88 91 %Mineral Conversion Ratio 5 5 5 8 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 5 10 18 18 18 18 4 Maize (white) Maize (Yellow) Guinea Corn Palm kernel Cake Cotton Seed Cake Rice Bran/Husk GroundnutCake (Industrial) GroundnutCake (Kulikuli) Raw Soyabean Soyabean Meal (toasted slightly) Soyabean Meal (toasted severaly) Fish Meal (Tilapia) Clupeid (large size) Clupeid (Small size) Cow Blood Meal Millet Flour Mill Sweepings Brewers Waste Cassava (Peeled) Cassava (peels only) Cassava (Unpeeled) Cassava leaves Mucuna Water leaf 9.8 6.2 57.1 17.2 31. 6 .4 22.1 0.2 8.5 21.6 17.0 2.8 0.2 17.0 24.8 0.1 66.0 9.0 2.5 17.8 8.

These are discussed below: Trial and Error Method To chose a combination of ingredients that will provide a feed containing between 25 to 30% crude protein (from Table 2).0 Choosing the Feedstuffs.0 100 7 . When natural food is abundant and fish are stocked at low densities.g Rice bran =40x9. A 30% or more crude protein content is more suitable for commercial operations where fish are stocked at higher densities.8 46. of which 7 to 10% ofthe protein is from animal sources. Fish would grow well on a feed containing 20 to 30% crude protein.3. Ingredient Rice bran Brewer Waste Soyabean meal Fish meal Total Amount of Ingredient (kg) % Crude Protein 9. combining ingredients may make better quality supplemental feed.1 40 20 28 12 100 22.9=3. it is possible to choose a feed mixture of desired protein level when preparing supplemental feed.96)4. a 20 to 25% protein content is suitable.9 3.2 57. From Table 2.7 Note: To calculate the required % CP in feed. Two simple methods can be used to determine how much of a selected ingredient should be used for making a fish feed with a desired crude protein content. Single feed ingredients may be fed to fish to supplement available natural food in a pond. However. E.

The difference between fish meal and the feed (28) represents the amount of rice bran needed.7= 58. Add the differences obtained at the right comers of the square (20 and 28) and record their sum (48) near the bottom right comer.4% protein content. 3.4kg xl OOkg= 28. This method may be used for two or more feed ingredients and is preferable to the trial and error method.2 Pearson's Square Method. 2. 6. Draw a square (see Pearson's Square 1Diagram) Place the desired protein level at the center of the square.Two Ingredients. Ignore positive or negative signs. Calculate the difference in crude protein content of the two ingredients (58 and 10) and record this number (48) near the lower left comer of the square. 100 3. Place the two ingredients on the two left comers of the square along with the protein content of each. Find the proportions of rice bran and fish meal (Tilapia) required to make a feed containing 30% crude protein.g. This would make a feed containing approximately 28% crude protein by weight since 28. For ease of calculations the %CP figures are rounded up e. Example 1: . Subtract the desired protein level (30%) of the feed from the protein content of each ingredient. 57.This feed would contain 28. Examples of feed formulations with two and more ingredients are shown. The sum in the right comer should equal the difference in protein content recorded near the lower left comer ofthe square. . 8 1. The difference between percentages of protein in rice bran and in the feed (20) represents the amount of fish meal needed. 4. 5. In this case. 30%.4kg of crude protein if 100kg of the listed ingredients were combined as indicated.

find the proportions of soybean meal cake. which were 20 and by 28 by the sum obtained in step 6.20 20 x 100 48 = Fish meal (58% protein) 41. The feed can also be described as being composed of 42% fish meal and 58% rice bran.Three or more ingredients In this example. which was 48 and then multiply each by 100 to obtain the percentage of each ingredient needed for the feed. Thus. yellow maize and brewers waste needed to make a fish feed with a 30% crude protein content. 3) Calculate an average for the crude protein (CP) contents of each group of ingredients (Table 1). 2) Group the ingredients into energy sources (crude protein less than 20%) and protein supplements (crude protein greater than 20%). 1) Draw a square and place the desired protein level (30%) at the center of the square. 42kg of fish meal and 58kg of rice bran are combined to make 1OOkgof fish feed containing 30% crude protein. (Pearson's Square 2 Diagram). 9 . Pearson's Square 1 Diagram .------.7 30% Desired Protein Level Rice bran (10% protein) 28 28 x 100 48 Sum =48 = 58. Divide the differences obtained in step 5. fish meal.7.3 Difference = 48 Example 2: .

In this case.Protein Supplements: Fish Meal Soybean Meal Cake Total Average: 104-:-2 Energy Sources: Yellow Maize Brewers Waste 58%CP 46%CP 104%CP 52%CP II%CP 23%CP* Total 34%CP Average: 34-:-2= 17%CP * Note that Brewers waste has a slightly higher crude protein content as an energy feedstuff. The answer in this case is 35. The respective answers are 37% and 63%. 9) One half of the protein supplement (18. 4) Place the averages obtained above at the left comers ofthe square. respectively for the protein supplements and energy sources. 5) Calculate the difference in crude protein content between the protein supplements and energy sources and record this near the lower left comer ofthe square. Ignore positive or negative signs. 6) Subtract the desired protein level (30%) of the feed from the combined protein content of the protein supplements and energy sources and place the difference in the opposite diagonal comers. 7) Add these differences and record the sum near the lower right comer of the square.5%) is provided by fish 10 . the answer is 35 on the left and 35 on the right side. Results are 22 and 13. 8) Divide the left side sum (35) into each difference obtained in step 6 (13 and 22) and multiply by 100 to calculate the percentage of protein supplement and energy source needed for the feed.

for body building. to make 100kg of fish feed containing 30% crude protein from a combination of ingredients including fish meal. One half of the energy sources (31.1 Supplementary feed Formulation For a successful fish feed formulation.5kg Soybean meal cake 18. growth mam tenance and reproduction.0 4. 11 .5%) is provided by yellow maize and one half is provided by brewer's waste meal. 2.5kg Yellow Maize 31.13% ~37% 35 ll_x 100 30% Desired Protein Level Energy Sources: (Yellow maize + Brewers waste) 17% 22% £2xIOO~ 63% 35 Difference: 35 Sum: 35 4.meal and one half is provided by soybean oil cake. a fish farmer must be acquainted with the following information: Nutrient requirement ofthe fish. soybean meal cake.5kg Brewer's Waste 31. Protein and amino acid . yellow maize and brewer's waste the following proportions would be mixed Fish 18.for needed energy in body activities. Thus. Carbohydrates .5kg Pearson's Square 2 Diagram Protein supplements: (Fish meal + Soybean cake) ~ 52% . Essential nutrients required by fish include 1.-----.

3 4.g. Figure 1. Processing ofthe Feedstuffs Most feedstuffs have anti-nutritional factors.Milling can be carried out with the hammer milling (Figure 1). The anti-nutritional factors are substances. 3.2 4.4 Fats and fatty acids . 4. Heat destroys such factors e. which will be harmful to fish. They may be inherent in the foodstuffs or contaminants on the feedstuffs. Refer to Table 2 for some locally available feedstuffs used in fish culture. Lipid also function as sparing nutrient for protein synthesis. Vitamins and minerals . which alter the nutritional value of the feedstuffs and at the same time affect the health of fish.for energy and normal body functioning. When feedstuffs for desired % crude protein content have been chosen (as in section 3. Feed Formulation This is the method of combining selected ground feed ingredients in varying proportions to comply with predetermined nutrient requirements.for growth maintenance and reproduction. Hammer Mill 12 . They prevent easy digestion of protein in the feed.4. tripsin inhibitors in raw soybean or groundnut and gossypol in cottonseed. mixing and pelleting. they can be prepared/compounded through a process of milling. The best way to destroy anti-nutritional factors is to heat treat the feedstuffs.0 of this bulletin). Nutrient Composition of Feedstuffs These are either energy feedstuffs or protein supplements.

Figure 3: Kitchen hand Crack3er 13 .Mixing of ingredients including the premixes can be performed by hand before adding warm/hot water with stirring to form dough. A mechanical mixer can be used for large scale feed production (Figure 2).Mechanical Mixer Some companies are fabricating pelleting machines locally. If cereals in the fonnular are not adequate to bind the particles of the feed mixture. Figure 2. (Figure 3). cassava starch may be added as a binder. The common kitchen hand cranker can also be used for pelleting by small-scale fanners. Enugu fabricated some attached with hammer mill for ease of feed production. The Product Research and Development Agency (PRODA).

Portions may be taken as needed to feed fish. VI Dry rations. add or spray oil. Table 3 shows the standardization of home gadgets.5 Producing of Pellets and Ground Ingredients Get good quality feed ingredients 11 Particle size of ground ingredients should be uniform. V11 Moist rations can be prepared daily by adding about 350ml of water per kg of ingredients to form a dough-like mixture. the pellets should be dried in the sun or oven and packed in water impermeable bags e. Fine grinding is preferable. v Particle size of pellets for most fish range from 2mm-9mm in diameter. using local measures (Tiya and milk-tin). Leafmeals should be sun or oven dried before grinding. Sand may serve as sinker when added to pellet. 14 . This is to prevent attack by mould and other pests. such as rice bran. IV Determine what pellet type to produce i. dry place for several weeks. 111 Measured ingredients should be mixed thoroughly in desired proportions. This ration may be stored in plastic bags or containers and divided for morning and afternoon feeding. Examples in Feed Compoundment The examples illustrated below are based on the use of standardized weight measures (kilogram and litre) and equivalents.g. may be stored in a cool. 4. For floating pellet. whether floating or sinking types for surface feeders or bottom feeding fish respectively.After pelleting.e. nylon bags. ground maize and leaf meals.

00m.5 Red Pepper 0. Premix 1. 15 .25 Bonemeal 0.00 Salt 0.8 2.0 WoodAsh 0.tin 1.00m.25 Example 3.tin) 35% CP for Juvenile/Adult Fish KG Tiya/M.00tiya 2.tin Soyabean 32.25 Source.2. Milk Tins 18 8 10 6 42 Milk tins Tiya/M.50 Vit. Volume Weight of Water Eguivalent 1 litre of water 1kg of water 1muduofwater(8milktin) 1kg of water 1tiyaofwater (16 milk tin) 2kgofwater 2 tiyas (1 gallon) 4 kg of water 1bucket (4 gallons) 16 kg of water 1kerosine tin (5 gallons) 20 kg of water 1head pan (3 gallons) 12kg of water Source:-Aduku (1992) Example 1.6kg 44 % CP for Fish Fingerlings KG Soyabean meal 100. Standardization of Home Gadgets.Table 3.5 tiya (1 mudu) Salt 2.6 Fish meal 1. tin) 0. Bloodmeal 2.00tiya 80.To prepare Vitamin Premix KG. Aduku (1992). Example .00 Maize 6.5 Vit. Premix 0.90 (2m.Tin 40.00 17.5 Total 4.90 (2m.tin 0.

feed mostly on plant materials e. Generally. The quantity of feed fish would consume depends on various factors such as the fish appetite initiated by hunger for food.1 16 . they feed on both plant and animal materials e.e. Farmers must supply fish under culture with nutritious diet on regular (daily or weekly) basis at the required level (recommended rates). All things being equal. 5.g. a well-fed fish will grow well and a poorly fed fish will have retarded growth and prone to diseases. Grass carp.e. Fish usually feed to satisfy their energy requirements. When fish are stocked at high density in a pond IV. fish species have different feeding habits. the Tiger fish. the feed quantity as well as its palatability. fish species can exploit different levels of the pond for food. When fertilization is not practiced 11 When a pond does not respond well to fertilization 111.g. A fish culturist should take these feeding habits into consideration in planning pond stocking.5. Tilapia. v When fish are held in tanks. Hydrocynus forksali.0 Feeding the Fish Feeds are provided to mcrease fish yields. they feed mainly on flesh foods like fingerlings crustaceans and worms in the water environment e. Some fish are carnivores i. 1. Surface feeders include the Tilapias.e. Fish Feeding Habits. and are especially beneficial. mid water feeders include Clarias while Heterotis is a typical bottom feeder. Some are omnivores i.g. In a polyculture system. pen or other culture media. When fish are confined in a cage. Most fish under culture are able to feed on plant and animal food materials and accept supplementary feeds. While some are herbivores i.

1. Catch small number of fish and weigh them. The two most common ways are: 1. 11. There are several ways of determining this. It is recommended that at least 100 fish samples per hectare of fish farm should be randomly taken. F W S Weight of feed Weight offish Stocking rate P Percentage body weight Example A farmer has 3000 fingerlings in an hectare of fish farm with average weight of 15g. Another way to adjust feeding rates is to assume a growth rate for the fish based on previous experience that a farmer has.2 Quantity of Feed Feeding rates may be adjusted on a monthly basis by estimating the fish biomass (total weight of fish in a pond).5. F WxSxP 1000 x 100 kg/hal day Where. Daily ration for fry can be divided to 4 to 8 and fed at intervals. Use the average weight of the sample to multiply the number offish stocked to calculate the fish biomass in the pond.13kg and fed twice daily . 17 . Then use the following equation to estimate the quantity of feed required for daily ration.morning before sunrise and evening before sunset.e. F 15x3000x5 2. Then feed them at 3-5% of the biomass daily. The quantity of daily ration at 5% body weight can be calculated as follows.25kg/ha/day 1000x 100 The feed should be divided into two equal portion i.

F s x W x P kg/ha/day 100 Weight of feed Stocking rate Average Weight of Fish (determined from average length reading) Percentage Body Weight s W P Example.5kg/ha/day 100 Note: . the type and amount of supplementary feed given. The following formula can be used in calculating the daily ration (based on Table 4). F Where. The quantity of daily ration at 5% body weight can be determined thus: F 3000x90x5 = 13.Growth rate will differ depending on the amount of natural food in the pond. This information may be used as a rough guide to determine feeding rates. and the water temperature. 18 .The value for w (average weight) is read from value for average length in Table 4. Table 4 shows what percentage of body weight should be fed to Tilapia of a certain size. fish species and size. A farmer has 3000 fingerlings ofTilapia in a hectare of fish farm with average length of 16cm. the stocking rate.

Fish Size (CIn) Average Individual Percentage of Body weight Fish Weight (g) 2.5 20.5 11.5 19.Table 4: Appr-oxtmate length/weight relationships for tilapia and appropriate feeding rates.0 20.0 14.0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 175 185 200 Fed Daily 5% 4% 3% Source .0 17.0 13.0 19.0 3.0 7.5 15.0 16.leA (1991) 19 .5 17.5 21.5 9.5 18.0 18.0 16.0 14.0 12.

feeding frames can be placed at one or 2 spots in the pond to minimize feed wastage (Figure 5). This practice is however labor intensive. 20 . Broadcasting is a good method of feeding fish because the farmer can observe the behavior of the fish. It is however very suitable for small-holder aquaculturists.5. Figure 4. Manual Feeding This is carried out by a process called broadcasting i.3 Methods of Feeding Fish Fish can be fed supplementary feeds in two ways . Feeding Fish in the pond by broadcasting. throwing feeds into the pond by hand either on one spot in the pond or over a wide area (Figure 4).e.Manually or Mechanically. especially in large fish farms. 1. When a farmer feeds the fish from one spot in the pond.

Figure 5. The method is capital intensive and is performed by mechanical feeders. 21 . It operates through a simple funnel shaped device with a metal trigger hanging into the water. This makes feeds available to fish on "demand". Feeding Frames in aFishPond. A measured amount of feed is placed in the funnel and the feed is released when the fish shakes the metal trigger (Figure 6). Demand Feeder. 2. Mechanical Feeding This is suitable for large-scale commercial fish farms. which could either be demand type or automatic.

$~~~~~:::.. -. .:::~' ::. 11 Automatic Feeder This is a clock work programmed device that discharges a measured amount of feed at specified intervals in a day..- 22 ._. Demand Feeder. It is highly capital-intensive and not suitable to small-scale fish farmers (Figure 7).'':::' ~: ..._ ~~ . ~#~ .Figure 6...

which are lowered into the water.5. Half of the daily amount is given about mid-morning and half in the early afternoon. Feeding should be temporarily suspended when dissolved oxygen is low to improve water quality. 3. Uneaten feed will pollute the water and increase the cost of raising your fish. This should be a warning sign to farmers that indicates possible overfeeding. RULE 2: Never overfeed the fish Give only as much feed as the fish will consume in 20 minutes or less. Golden Rules in Feeding Fish RULE 1: Always feed fish at the same time and place. An obvious inability of the fish to consume all ofthe feed offered within a 20-minute period. Signs of overfeeding are listed below. A foul smell in the water when the bottom sediments are disturbed. When accumulated uneaten feed decomposes water may become low in dissolved oxygen. too much feed is being offered. An overabundance of phytoplankton. Steps must be taken to exchange or aerate the pond water. 23 . In such ponds. They will die if the oxygen concentration in the water becomes too low. fish will usually be seen at the pond surface in the predawn hours gulping air. Feed may also be placed on trays or plat forms. Fish become trained and learn when and where they are fed. A handful of bottom sediment picked up from the feeding area should not be black and foul smelling. If a large amount of feed is stirred up. A farmer can walk into the feeding area of his pond 20 minutes after feeding and feel the pond bottom. Two feedings per day are normal. These platforms can then be pulled up after feeding to determine the quantity of feed consumed.4 1. 2. Overfeeding can make plankton become so abundant that a submerged object can only be seen at depths less than 25cm.

continuous feed addition to the pond. Most tropical fish are off-feed when temperature is below 20"c 24 . RULE 4 Regulate feed quantities at cold season The daily ration for fish should be halved during cold season «20"c temperature) Most fish will not feed on floating pellets at such season. It will also save feed.RULE 3: Do not feed on harvest day Stop feeding fish 24 to 48 hours before they are harvested. This allows them to clean their intestines and makes them better able to survive the stress of handling and transportation. since there will be low feed utilization. At such periods sinking pelletes are preferable.

Fish Feed Formulation NIFFR Extension Guide Series NO. NIFFR Extension Guide Series NO.7.O (1992). (1996). Technical paper for training of ADP Subject Matter Specialists in Monthly Technology Review Meetings. Water Harvesting Manuals. (1995) Practical Method of Formulating Com pounded Feeds using Locally Available Ingredients for Small Scale Producers of Poultry and Fish. ICA (1991) International Centre for Aquaculture and Aquatic Environments. Feeding Practices in Fish Farming. 3. Technical Paper for training ofADP Subject Matter Specialists m Monthly Technology Review Meetings. (1996). Feeding your Fish.A.A. Auburn University. Zaria. Practical Livestock Feeds Production in the tropics.4..Publishers. 4.A. 2. In collaboration with GTZ and NAERLS.1. Bibliography Aduku. A. A. Eyo. In collaboration with GTZ and NAERLS. 5 6 25 . GTZ. Eyo. Bolorunduro PJ. Asekome and Co. Bolorunduro PJ (1994) Feeding and Management ofFish in Po n d s .

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