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As an education and training organization within the IT Service Management (ITSM) industry, we have watched with enthusiasm as Cloud Computing has evolved over the past few years. The opportunities provided by the Cloud have allowed for significant growth within an industry that continues to mature and develop at a rapid pace.
In this third edition, we’ve taken into account our previous student’s feedback as well as recent industry progress and developments to create an even better resource for your Cloud Computing studies. This certification kit now includes additional content in the following areas: • • • Risk Management and Disaster Recovery Infrastructure as a Service Glossary of terms for easy reference
Our primary goal is to provide the quality education and support materials needed to enable the understanding and application of Cloud Computing in a wide-range of contexts.
This comprehensive book is designed to complement the indepth eLearning Cloud Computing Foundation program provided by The Art of Service. The interactive eLearning program uses a combination of narrated PowerPoint presentations with flat text supplements and multiple choice assessments, which will ultimately prepare you for the Cloud Computing Foundation certification exam.
We hope you find this book to be a useful tool in your educational library and wish you well in your IT Service Management career!
The Art of Service
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.How does the Certification Kit work? Welcome to the Cloud Computing Foundation Complete Certification Kit. This book is part of the series of books around Cloud Computing and managing the services that are involved in or utilize Cloud Computing. The certification kits are in line with the Cloud Computing Certification Scheme.
you will achieve your Cloud Computing Foundation Certification.After you’ve read this book. The Art of Service has developed a series of books on the subject of Cloud Computing. studied the eLearning materials. All books are available as e-books. The following page explains how to access the program materials online. The Foundation certificate is a prerequisite for all other programs in the certification scheme. PDF downloads. and paperbacks. In addition to the certification kits. eLearning Component This certification kit comes with COMPLIMENTARY access to the eLearning program. and successfully passed your exam. Exam Details • • • • • • 20 multiple-choice questions The correct answer is only one of the four 30 minutes duration 16 out of 20 is a pass (80%) Closed book No notes . The Cloud Computing Foundation Exam Chapter 16 of this book provides more detail about the certification exam and what the requirements are to pass.
as it will generally provide the best performance when browsing the site or when playing presentations . Security settings 4) We generally recommend the use of Mozilla Firefox 3.If you are experiencing difficulties with the Flash Presentations within the eLearning Programs please make sure that: 1) You have the latest version of Flash Player installed by visiting the Adobe Flash Player site 2) You check that your security settings in your web browser (or corporate firewall) do not prevent these flash modules from playing 3) For users of Internet Explorer 7. Advanced.5 or later. Options. a solution involves DESELECTING ‘Allow active content to run files on my computer’ in Internet Explorer -->Tools.
3 What is Cloud Computing? Cloud Computing Services Why is it called a Cloud? 13 13 14 16 17 19 20 22 24 29 30 30 31 32 32 35 36 37 39 39 41 43 44 49 49 The History of Cloud Computing 2.1 Deployment Models Forms of Cloud Computing Related Concepts 5.1 NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) .1 1.3 6.1 6.2 5.5.1 Benefits Risks and Challenges Service Responsibility The Importance of Virtualization Vendor Approaches to the Management of Clouds Microsoft System Center 6.1 The Future of Cloud Computing Common Cloud Terminology 3.4 6.3 Virtualization Grid Computing Utility Computing Utilizing Cloud Computing Services 6.1 Migration Guide Cloud Computing Case Studies 8.2 1.5 6.Contents Introduction 1.2 6.1 5.5.2 VMware vSphere Migration from Traditional Model to Cloud Computing 7.
2 Examples: Cloud Service SLAs 11.2 8.2 Defining Functions 10.1 Scope of a Service Catalog 188.8.131.52.2 Benefits 11.1 Amazon S3 Service Level Agreement 11.2.4 Example Service Catalog Entries for Cloud Environment 11.3.3 Ipswitch Inc.1 Defining Processes 10.2 Microsoft Windows Azure Compute SLA 11.3 9. Utilizing Amazon S3 Cloud Kepner-Tregoe and Salesforce 52 54 57 58 59 60 64 67 70 72 72 73 74 77 77 78 82 82 85 91 93 93 94 97 98 100 IT Service Management 9.4 Demand Management 11.4.1 9.1 Goal and Objectives .2 184.108.40.206 10.3 RACI Model IT Service Management Principles for Cloud Computing 11.1 Service Level Agreements 11.3 Service Catalog 11.1 Service Level Agreement Structures 11.4 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM Benefits of ITSM Business and IT Alignment Good practices Terminology relevant to ITSM 10.3.2 What are Services? Processes and Functions 10.2.1.2.3 What Should the Service Catalog Represent? 11.
6.2.1 Cloud Computing Certification Pathways .3 Influencing Demand 11.3 Basic Concepts for Availability Management 220.127.116.11.5 18.104.22.168.8 Risk Management Disaster Recovery Supporting Cloud Services 12.1 Goal and objectives 12.1 Goal and Objectives 11.7 11.4 Availability Management Activities and Techniques 11.2 Incident Management 12.1 Goal and objectives 12.6 Dynamic Scaling to Meet Demand in the Cloud Availability Management 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 110 124 127 132 132 132 134 137 138 139 148 149 150 152 158 164 171 173 173 22.214.171.124 Google Response to Major Incident Review Questions Glossary Answers to Review Questions Cloud Computing Foundation Exam Tips Relevant Certification Pathways 17.2 Activities 12.2 Activities 11.1 Event Management 12.1 Roles and Responsibilities 12.1.2 Incident Management Metrics 12.2 Key Performance Indicators 126.96.36.199.3 Essential Areas for Event Capturing in the Cloud 12.6.1.
17.4 17.3 17.5 ITIL® Certification Pathways ISO/IEC 20000 Certification Pathways Customer Service Certification Pathway Help Desk Certification Scheme 176 177 178 180 182 184 References Index .2 17.
An organization using the traditional model of computing will purchased a server (or a few servers. 13 . which are described through this certification kit and expanded on in the next programs within the Cloud Computing pathway. Cloud Computing offers a huge array of services. which means that they do not own or manage the servers themselves. each claimed to be the most accurate by its supporters. However. rather than from a physical location or hardware (as is done in traditional computing models). as well as many others.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. storage. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. and they arrange that access via their account over the internet. depending on their capacity needs) that will support their new website. An important point to note is that the focus of Cloud Computing is primarily on the provision of services rather than physical resources. there is a common element or theme that runs through each of these definitions that refers to the method of offering particular services and applications online. webbased email and other applications. development platforms. An example of the difference between Cloud Computing and traditional computing is the different way in which an organization would provision capacity for a new website. It is a provisioning technique of computing where IT-related capabilities are provided as a service. including the provision of computing power. or cloud. An organization using the Cloud model of computing will purchase or rent access to servers through a provider. without knowledge of.1 What is Cloud Computing? There are many definitions for Cloud Computing. they only receive access to the capacity that they require. expertise with. allowing customers and users to access technology-enabled services via the Internet.
and security and management tools. and software as a service (SaaS). access. storage. middleware. virtualization. typically meaning that a large amount of resources and computing power provided by a supplier are pooled together and made available ‘on-demand’ for the customer when required. Different processes are required in order to manage Cloud Computing services and will be discussed later in this book. While most clouds mean that computing is no longer on premise. service capacity. just how to request. When you place an order for the particular coffee that you would like. As already mentioned. It makes a significant difference for how you view Cloud Computing. offering services that you will use but never actually see.theartofservice. and use the service. you generally will not be thinking about what happens behind the scenes to produce that coffee. Cloud Computing is not to be confused with the outsourcing of infrastructure. platform as a service (PaaS). comprising of software. the term ‘Cloud Computing’ encompasses many areas of technology. Each of these will be expanded on in Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. all delivered as services. Users do not need to know where resources are or even how they are configured. whether you look at it from a customer/end-user point-of-view or from an IT provider point-of-view.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . it can be generally divided into three main areas: infrastructure as a service (IaaS). Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. the term ‘Cloud’ does not apply when the organization is still responsible for the operational management of infrastructure that may be housed externally. Cloud Computing promotes a similar idea.com Web: http://store. You will be happy to be handed exactly what you asked for without needing to worry about how it came to be.2 Cloud Computing Services The Cloud Computing market is incredibly broad. In contrast.14 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION A useful analogy is that of ordering your morning coffee. 1. there is also a greater level of abstraction involved. however.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
what these Cloud Computing services have in common is that they are all delivered through the internet. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. from massive data centers. The diagram above demonstrates how the Cloud provider virtually assembles resource requirements. 15 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. such as computing and wide area network (WAN) bandwidth needs.theartofservice. on demand.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .15 later chapters. however.com Web: http://store.
Another explanation for the Cloud is that. Internet Protocol network with applicationspecific capabilities.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.3 Why is it called a Cloud? The Cloud is essentially a metaphor for something ‘somewhere’ in the Internet and is an abstraction for the complex infrastructure it conceals. you will understand the cloud’s advantage. At surface level. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.. an image that can be related directly to the Internet. however. There are a number of reasons or theories to explain the concept of the Cloud. In essence.16 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Some organizations will only require the basic capabilities available on the public Internet.com Web: http://store. a Cloud is very easy to draw. a Cloud seems to dissolve into an unknown haze. for the purpose of a quick explanation. instead of having clear boundaries and contours. Perhaps the simplest explanation for the use of the word ‘Cloud’ is that it suggests the unknown. Beyond that. from multiple geographic locations) to their subscribers.theartofservice. What may work for one subscriber of a Cloud-based service may not be appropriate for another. while others may require an overlay on top or even a private.g. 1. As such. Cloud Computing providers need to understand network delivery issues and be prepared to deliver multiple Cloud network options (e.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . an optimistic symbol of cash flow. If you have ever attempted to depict cyberspace or the Internet in a hurry. may be the Cloud’s ability to become a rainmaker. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. the computer functionality occurs ‘somewhere in the Clouds’.
As the cost of localized IT infrastructure and individual desktop machines was prohibitive. Mainframe systems still survived through the use of terminal emulation.Chapter 2 The History of Cloud Computing The concept of Cloud Computing dates back to 1960 when it was envisioned that computation would someday be organized and provided as a public utility. 17 . The term ‘cloud’ was already in commercial use in the early 1990s and.com has played a key role in the development of Cloud Computing. Amazon. by this time. by the arrival of the 21st century. Cloud Computing solutions had appeared on the market. So. the client-server model became the dominant form of computing architecture being used. businesses leveraged technologies that enabled efficiency in business processes in the most cost-effective manner. But with the decreasing price of personal computers during the 1980s and 1990s. the shift towards Cloud Computing offerings is somewhat a return of the old. Some aspects of Cloud Computing differ very little from the old timesharing and thin client models of the 60s. and 80s. 70s. as networks have become faster. but. The new Cloud architecture was resulting in significant internal efficiency improvements and so access to their systems through Amazon Web Services on a utility computing basis was provided in 2002. leaving the user to focus on the results rather than the technology. the reliance on central systems decreased as more functionality and performance became available on the user’s machine itself. in some ways. it is again easier to have someone (or somewhere) else do the hard work.
such as Google and IBM.com Web: http://store. embarked on a large scale Cloud Computing project in 2007 and. Amazon Web Services currently provide services for: • Elastic Computing Power—through the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2).com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Interest and activity continues to rise as more and more organizations recognize the benefits of the cloud. • • • • • • • • Content Delivery Databases E-Commerce Messaging Monitoring Networking and Load Balancing Payments and Billing Storage Global names. a number of Cloud Computing events had been scheduled. by mid-2008. The history of Cloud Computing demonstrates significant growth in internet-based services. which they can then run their own computer applications on. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. EC2 essentially allows users to rent virtual computers. which is a central part of Amazon’s Cloud Computing platform and was launched in 2006.theartofservice. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION At present.
1 The Future of Cloud Computing Cloud Computing has certainly seen incredible growth over the past decade.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and services. However. As with any technological endeavor. redefining hardware. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. providing solutions that have been talked about for a great length of time. and many are describing approaches to computing that will bring substantial change in application development and configuration. It is likely that Cloud service providers will soon play a predominant role in IT deployment.19 2.com. Cloud Computing is sure to see many failures that may seed doubts among potential customers. are developing plans to compete aggressively in the relatively new marketplace of Cloud services.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Google. management. those failures will bring about new improvements that will ultimately open opportunities for organizations looking toward Cloud Computing solutions. Companies such as Amazon. Microsoft and IBM. 19 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. while not as advanced in this area.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Salesforce. and eBay are a peek into the future of the new generation computing. software.
Chapter 3 Common Cloud Terminology
Critical to our ability to participate with Cloud Computing is the need to be able to speak a common language with other IT staff, customers, end-users, suppliers, and other involved stakeholders. Below is a list of some of the most common terms that are related to Cloud Computing.
Term Capacity Planning
Cloud Architecture Cloud Client
Cloud Computing Provider Cloud Infrastructure Cloud Platform
Definition This involves working out how many physical resources a machine will need in order to host a set number of virtual machines. It is an important process that is carried out at the beginning of a virtualization project. Leverages the Cloud in software architecture and often eliminates the need to install and run the application on the customers own computer, thus, alleviating the burden of software maintenance, ongoing operation, and support The systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of Cloud Computing Computer hardware and/or computer software that relies on the Cloud for application delivery or that is specifically designed for delivery of Cloud services Owns and operates live Cloud Computing systems to deliver service to third parties The delivery of computer infrastructure as a service Facilitates the deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the underlying hardware and software layers Software systems designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network, which may be accessed by other Cloud Computing components, software, or end users directly
Cloud Storage Emulation The delivery of storage data as a service and often billed on a utility computing basis This involves using software to run operating systems or applications on hardware that they were not originally intended to run on. For example, virtual machine software emulates x86 hardware to allow operating systems to be installed on them, even though they are not physical machines. This is a relatively new model based around virtualization and it involves using the processing power of a large number of geographically separate but networked machines to complete complex tasks in parallel. Grid computing is often used by scientific institutes to use the idle processing power of user’s machines. Some of the institutes that use grid computing include SETI and, more recently, the PlayStation 3 for scientific research. The delivery of computer infrastructure as a service An entire virtualized platform that includes one or more services, operating systems, and specific applications The ability to access software over the Internet as a service
IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service)
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CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION
3.1 Deployment Models
Throughout this book, the term Cloud simply refers to the provision of services like a utility via the internet. There are, however, many variants in terms of how these Cloud services can be managed and provisioned. The main deployment models used for Cloud services and environments include the following options.
A Public Cloud or external Cloud describes Cloud Computing in the traditional mainstream sense, whereby resources are dynamically provisioned on a fine-grained, self-service basis over the Internet, via web applications/web services, from an off-site third-party provider who shares resources and bills on a fine-grained utility computing basis.
A Community Cloud may be established where several organizations have similar requirements and seek to share infrastructure so as to realize some of the benefits of Cloud Computing. With the costs spread over fewer users than a Public Cloud (but more than a single tenant), this option is more expensive but may offer a higher level of privacy, security, and/or policy compliance. An example of a Community Cloud includes Google’s Government Cloud.
The Google government Cloud offers a version of the commercial Google Apps suite, which includes hosted e-mail, word processing, collaboration, and website creation services. The main difference is that the environment and management processes are tailored to meet specific public-sector requirements. The company plans to launch the new offering soon, and it will be available to federal, state, and local government agencies in the United States.
Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane, Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://store.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and manage them and. Private Cloud In recent years. They have been criticized on the basis that customers still have to buy. and reliability concerns during this time of transition from a product to a functioning.23 Hybrid Cloud A Hybrid Cloud environment consisting of multiple internal and/or external providers will likely be the most common choice in the future for enterprise organizations. By integrating multiple Cloud services. These offerings capitalize on data security. service-based industry supported by competitive marketplaces. do not benefit from lower up-front capital costs and less hands-on management.theartofservice. Another perspective on deploying a web application in the Cloud is using Hybrid Web Hosting. vendors such as VMware and Microsoft have increasingly sought to offer software and other technologies that emulate Cloud Computing on private networks. corporate governance. users may be able to ease the transition to public Cloud services. as such.com Web: http://store. build. where the hosting infrastructure is a mix between Cloud Hosting for the web server and managed dedicated server for the database server. 23 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. while avoiding issues such as Payment Card Industry (PCI) compliance. These (typically virtualization automation) products offer the ability to deliver some benefits of Cloud Computing while mitigating some of the pitfalls. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
The organization pays the service provider for the use of the equipment. and SaaS.Chapter 4 Forms of Cloud Computing As mentioned previously. or. or storage of data through the Internet. hardware. IaaS is also sometimes referred to as Hardware as a Service (HaaS). the Cloud is maintained internally with all international locations being supported from the central locations. servers. allowing users to access technologyenabled services from the Internet. computing power. without knowledge of. It is a style of computing where any IT-related capabilities are provided as a service. Cloud Computing can be generally divided in three main categories: IaaS. or Cloud. The cloud(s) can be provided by one or more external providers. IaaS is often referred to as utility computing because the user pays as they use it (much like utilities. meaning that the service provider houses and runs the equipment. and networking components. Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) Infrastructure as a Service offers organizations the option to outsource the equipment needed to support their business operations. but also includes other categories like EaaS and Storage as a Service. as well as being responsible for maintaining it. the user uses as much or as little as they need and are billed accordingly. in some cases. PaaS. This can include storage equipment. platforms. or control over the technology infrastructure that supports them. expertise with. and the service provider maintains ownership of and responsibility for the equipment. 24 . such as electricity and gas). Cloud Computing can refer to any service providing applications.
however. only paying for the capacity that they require at any given time. which can be an expensive and time-consuming exercise. however. the organization that uses traditional computing will need to purchase additional servers. adapted to countless needs and niches that the platform’s original developers could not have possibly contemplated.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . houses. The organization using the traditional model. attempted a distinction between application and platform. can simply log in to their account over the Internet and arrange for additional capacity. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. He suggests “a platform is a system that can be reprogrammed and. This will mean that visitors to the website will be affected by the poor performance of the site until the organization secures additional capacity. Platform as a Service (PaaS) Marc Andreessen. If the visitors to the site begin to reduce in number. therefore. In the event that the new website does exceptionally well and the increased traffic begins to put pressure on the server.” He defines an application as “a system that cannot be reprogrammed by outside developers. will be stuck with extra capacity that they may no longer need. whereas the other organization rents or purchases access to a server through a service provider.and in that way.com Web: http://store..” 25 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. The organization that uses an IaaS solution. It is a closed environment that does whatever its original developers intended it to do and nothing more. then that same organization can log in to their account and reduce the amount of capacity required. the co-author of Mosaic and founder of Netscape Communications Corporation.. therefore. which will be provided instantly without the visitors to the site noticing the change.25 In the earlier example of the difference between traditional computing and Cloud Computing.theartofservice. one organization owns. and maintains a server to support their new website. customized by outside developers.
These activities are crucial to the success of the application. the Internet is one giant platform where millions of applications. For example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Software as a Service (SaaS) Software as a Service is a software distribution model.26 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION The Andreessen definitions provide a step into understanding Platform as a Service (PaaS). No one can change the Internet. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. but even more important is the platform where these activities take place. This means that they do not own any software licenses and do not need to install the software on local machines. create. In one sense. and deploy their software to users. software developers plan. a platform can be loosely defined as a robust.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. SaaS offers access to applications that are hosted by a vendor or service provider. to facilitate their business operation needs. such as Microsoft Windows. For example. organizations using the traditional model will purchase software. they could access their email through Google’s Gmail and their database services through Salesforce. only those applications that can be found within the Internet. test.com. The organization essentially purchases a license that gives them ownership of a certain amount of instances of that application. and highly adaptable for whatever purpose the customer desires. are found. called webpages. an application is purchased and used in house by an organization. which are located locally and uploaded to as many machines as the application license allows. scalable. They could then use Microsoft Outlook and Microsoft Excel or Microsoft Access for their email and database requirements. Thus.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Contrary to this. fully featured space that is flexible. In traditional computing. design. Organizations using a SaaS model would access these services online. Customers gain access to these applications via the Internet.theartofservice. For the most part.
The solution is scalable to handle any growth to the business. The focus for storage as a service is the physical storage infrastructure with numerous layers of virtualization. Storage as a Service Storage as a Service solutions are another form of Cloud Computing. ensuring that the data is always available to the customer and that transfer rates are outstanding for the customer. as the service provider is responsible for this—meaning that the organization always has access to the most up-to-date version of the application and all users are using the same version. In most cases. and online collaboration efforts. which provide capacity to customers for a variety of uses. raw data for online databases of analytics. the provision of storage means supplying the necessary capacity required by the customer. From a provider perspective.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. backups for potential disaster recovery. archiving. Applications offered via a SaaS solution also have the benefit of being accessible anywhere around the world. They have continuous access to this data at any time from any location.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. they have a place to store their data without having to heavily invest in the necessary hardware and software to save this data. 27 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.theartofservice. From a customer perspective.27 SaaS takes away the hassle of managing software updates. The most prominent drivers for online storage are individual backups. data from multiple customers will be found on a single storage device with the appropriate volume separation to ensure that the data is kept secure and uncorrupted.
theartofservice. application functionality.28 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Everything as a Service (EaaS.com Web: http://store. platform space.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . XaaS) A more recent set of collective offerings from the major Cloud Computing vendors tout their ability to provide any aspect of IT computing power. This has come to be known as Everything as a Service (EaaS or XaaS). Unlike many technology innovations. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. or other IT solution from the cloud. EaaS offerings were accepted by consumers and small businesses first before pushing into the mid-sized and large enterprise space. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
Chapter 5 Related Concepts 29 .
com Web: http://store. Grid Computing has been used in environments where users make few but large allocation requests. is the emulation of one of more workstations/servers within a single physical computer. a form of distributed computing whereby a ‘super and virtual computer’ is composed of a cluster of networked. So only a few of these allocations can be serviced at a time and others need to be scheduled for when resources are released. This allows a single computer to take on the role of multiple computers. or 500. or 200. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. in its broadest sense. loosely-coupled computers. This results in sophisticated batch job scheduling algorithms of parallel computations. etc. virtualization is the emulation of hardware within a software platform. For example. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.2 Grid Computing Cloud Computing is often confused with Grid Computing. allowing one physical computer to share its resources across a multitude of environments.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. acting in concert to perform very large tasks. This type of virtualization is often referred to as full virtualization. 5. a lab may have a 1000 node cluster and users make allocations for all 1000.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Put simply. This means that a single computer can essentially take the role of multiple computers.1 Virtualization Virtualization.30 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 5.
com Web: http://store. finding it more costeffective to pay for what they use rather than implementing their own fixed infrastructure. and organizations are billed either based on usage of resources or through subscription. Utility Computing can be analogized to traditional computing.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . similar to power. 31 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Utility Computing Many Cloud Computing offerings have adopted the Utility Computing model. IT computing becomes a utility. This option has been successfully accepted by many organizations that have very dynamic or un-profiled demand patterns for IT.31 5. such as the consummation of electricity or gas.theartofservice.
software. Organizations utilizing Cloud Computing do not bear the costs of idle hours and. Cloud Computing offers many other benefits including: Speed Time and energy is often spent on defining the right infrastructure.1 Benefits The appeal of Cloud Computing is. including both infrastructure components. power. and space and people resources that manage and secure the systems. allowing for greater flexibility and scaling. allowing resources to be shared among different people. due to its obfuscated nature. in part. 32 .Chapter 6 Utilizing Cloud Computing Services 6. and software in order to deliver the services required. do not waste their IT resources. such as hardware. less of a concern and can be somewhat ignored by the individual or organization. The underlying delivery infrastructure is hidden in the Cloud and is. therefore. hardware. therefore. Cloud Computing eliminates the set-up and maintenance costs of an application delivery network. Cost-Efficiency The goal of Cloud Computing is to make the cost of resources less expensive than what you can provide for and manage yourself. Cloud Computing delivers faster application development speed.
Equality The capabilities of Cloud Computing mean that small businesses can benefit in the same way as large corporations. therefore. Environmental Factors Servers can be shared or virtualized for operating systems and applications in the cloud. such as a laptop. Cloud Computing aims to apply such power to business services.33 Control While some may argue that Cloud Computing takes away an element of control. The further benefit here is that it can be tapped into through an Internet connection.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . An individual does not need to be in the office to access files. Capacity Current super computers handle tens of trillions of computations per second. the control that is gained must also be recognized. In a climate that offers ambient or natural cooling. Without needing to fund and take the time to build their own infrastructures. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. it can be accessed from anywhere. rather than being provided by local infrastructure. Cloud Computing allows smaller companies to tap into the infrastructure of larger corporate giants. 33 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. With your data in the cloud. Cloud Computing allows control of whenever and wherever business occurs.theartofservice. less power.com Web: http://store. allowing computing capacity to rise dramatically. but can work with them from any mobile device. Cloud Computing minimizes energy usage. iPhone. Fewer servers mean less required space and. or BlackBerry. resulting in fewer servers.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . acquire. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store. These can include licensing for the number of concurrent users. lack of development and test environments. depending on the specific business requirements. Whether as a result of complex interdependency in IT services. risks. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Traditional software licensing models can also add to the reluctance to utilize new offerings. or requirement for uninterrupted service. the use of Cloud platforms can also offer other business and enterprise applications more readily than most organizations can effectively investigate.theartofservice. or per month user allocations. careful analysis should be performed as to the current capabilities of the IT group as well as the value (not just defined by cost-savings) of migrating to some form of Cloud Computing offering. test. effort. While an increase in agility may be found for some organizations utilizing Cloud Computing as part of their service delivery model. virtual servers/nodes allocated. others may find that giving up their operational control and ownership of the infrastructure may restrict their ability to provide the business with a source of strategic advantage. The promise of being able to provision and access significant resources on demand. a vendor lock-in.34 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Agility and Responsiveness One of the most pressing issues facing many IT service providers stems from the time. and implement into their own environment. so. As a result. a lack of agility and responsiveness to handle business change is seen as one of the primary reasons to investigate Cloud Computing platforms for many organizations. which was previously (financially) impossible.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. is highly alluring to many smaller organizations when compared with the traditional in-sourced or out-sourced offerings. the license models used by many Cloud Computing vendors may reduce the total cost of ownership. and costs associated with managing large changes to their services and architecture. While the agility of the IT service provider does in many ways tie-in to the financial issues already discussed.
Guidelines should be established to ensure that the organization receives the information that is required and understands the technology architecture utilized by the Cloud provider. Another important factor to consider with regard to Cloud Computing is how easy it may be to transfer data and other content from one site to another or one provider to another. as it usually does not need to have the same level of access as other data or services. Furthermore.com Web: http://store. a back-up plan should be in place to ensure that.2 Risks and Challenges While the benefits of Cloud Computing are clear. While organizations may view the Cloud as a standalone environment. but due diligence to security is required when selecting a Cloud Computing provider. It is not recommended that sensitive data be stored in the cloud. A hybrid approach is adopted by many companies.35 6.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . in the case of any breakdown or service failure on the part of the cloud. Data should not be in a format that few or no other clouds will accept. There are also concerns regarding the security of Cloud-based services. 35 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. particularly where employees and/or partners and customers rely on the application or system that lives in the cloud. The key challenge for corporate IT departments is deciding which services to hold onto and which services to let go.theartofservice. Organizations need to establish what it is they are using the Cloud for. Privacy of information can be combated with encryption. there are a number of risks and challenges to be considered. There will typically be resistance from a number of stakeholders (both IT and the business) that will need to be addressed carefully to gain support. whereby some computing services are performed internally while others are offloaded to the cloud. The nature of the Cloud means that many things are hidden both from the customer and the organization’s view. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. connections to other infrastructures may allow greater flexibility in the provision of services.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the organization has not become too dependent on its functionality.
3 Service Responsibility It is important to recognize that.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and time.com Web: http://store. 6. The customer does not care where the application physically resides. and delivery network infrastructure to meet the requirements of the organization. Providers must demonstrate the ability to react dynamically to changing conditions in the network and application infrastructure and that requests can be directed to relevant parties and responded to accordingly. and this increases the inherent risk of a Cloud migration. responsibility for ensuring that applications are delivered and performing to standard still lie with the organization. whether in use or idle. while the Cloud alleviates many costs. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. routers. Availability—a measure of overall application or service uptime. switches. No one can guarantee a company that they will not experience lock-in.36 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Many companies who have embraced Cloud Computing so far have experienced the problem known as lock-in. There are three quality components to consider when utilizing Cloud Computing services. Security—referring to the level of protection of data or resources at all times.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Cloud Computing providers need to establish reliable servers. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. but is concerned only with whether the application is secure. efforts.theartofservice. Reliability—a measure of how long a system remains available between failures or the ‘Mean Time Between Failures’ (MTBF). and available. fast. Any changes or maintenance is also required to be planned effectively as to avoid any unexpected disruptions. Lock-in is where data-loss occurs due to migration of data from one proprietary system to another one.
theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the organization is responsible for performance and availability and will be the first one to field the calls if customer expectations are not met. This approach does not always require virtualization. or Windows on the same machine created many compatibility issues. 37 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Virtualization and Cloud Computing are also so closely connected because the major hypervisor vendors—VMware.com Web: http://store. without affecting one another. 6.37 It is the responsibility of the customer organization to ensure that these quality components are addressed when choosing a Cloud Computing provider. Linux. administrators can monitor and manage entire groups of servers/workstations from a single physical machine.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . They have closely aligned their products with tools and complementary technologies that promote the adoption of private Cloud Computing. Some of the primary benefits provided by virtualization in the context of Cloud Computing are: Easier Manageability—through virtualization. These tasks can also be automated with greater ease using current virtualization tools. It uses a set of technologies that have been aligned to be highly flexible and provide a wide range of services. many different operating systems and applications can run on a single physical machine. running MAC OS. but virtualization does lend well to the core concepts of Cloud Computing.4 The Importance of Virtualization Cloud Computing does not rely on virtualization or any other one technology. By using virtual machines. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Elimination of Compatibility Issues—in the past. Ultimately. and Citrix Systems—are putting a lot of emphasis on the cloud. Microsoft.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Portability—virtual machine data is stored in files on a physical machine. For example. it will usually affect the entire machine. Furthermore. Efficient use of Resources—many virtual machines can run on a single physical machine. These can then be used to test the stability of certain applications or programs without affecting the functionality of day-to-day business operations. Problems are automatically isolated. using the virtual machines built in checkpoint feature. This prevents users from being able to access or view what they should not be able to. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I eLearning: http://theartofservice. any viruses or problems will be isolated within that virtual machine. Problem-Free Testing—one or more virtual machines can be set up as test machines. while all other systems and services continue normal operation. The physical machine and all other virtual machines will not be affected. therefore. This means that virtual machines can be transferred effortlessly from one physical machine to another without any changes to functionality. Virtualization also makes it easier to revert back to a previous state. they would now only require a single physical server. Increased Security—administrators can separate information and applications on a single physical machine into different virtual machines.38 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Fault Isolation—any kind of error within a virtual machine will not typically affect any other virtual machine. if a virus gets on to a physical machine. which can then be fixed or looked into by an administrator. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. an entire virtual machine could be backed up manually at regular intervals or.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. If a business previously used five physical servers to provide five different services. This one server would be much more efficiently used and its resources would not be wasted. Virtual machines are separate entities. utilizing that physical machine’s resources much more efficiently than if it was just running a single service or application. it could be reverted to a previous fully working state.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Networking costs are also reduced because fewer switches. therefore. System Center’s comprehensive management capabilities enable it to monitor and manage the entire IT infrastructure stack from traditional physical servers. Both heat and power outputs are also significantly reduced and again this helps to reduce the running costs for a business. Customers can use Microsoft System Center to manage both public and private Microsoft Cloud implementations. less power and cooling requirements. and all the way up to service-based Cloud components.microsoft.com/systemcenter/en/us/default.theartofservice. a business office and building costs are greatly reduced.aspx Date: 7/7/2010 **The following extract is for information only and not in any way an endorsement of the product.5 Vendor Approaches to the Management of Clouds 6. and wiring closets are required. hubs. and less staffing requirements. virtual machines. By using one virtual machine as a ‘template’ machine. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. less physical machines means less physical space is required. virtualized servers. 6. running workloads.com Web: http://store. The advantage of this is that an administrator would only have to carry out an OS installation once.1 Microsoft System Center Source: http://www. 39 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Reduced Costs—costs are reduced in the form of less physical hardware.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . This means that this hard drive can easily be duplicated or transferred to other physical machines. its virtual hard drive file can be used to rapidly create new virtual machine clones. less physical space. For a Cloud provider.39 Rapid Deployment—the hard drive of a virtual machine is often represented as a single file on a physical machine.5.
This forces IT staff into a reactive stance and may result in poor service levels. keeping administrators aware of application issues that may cause poor performance or worse. because of the multiple interrelated layers between the physical hosts up through the running virtualized applications. In environments that use virtualization. this shortcoming is exacerbated. reliable computing environment that allows internal customers to easily consume infrastructure. It provides deep visibility through comprehensive in-guest monitoring of running applications or services. Without this in-guest monitoring capability. organizations are lacking a crucial tool for infrastructure management. IT administrators need a single tool that can show the cause-effect relationships between all the components and layers of the stack.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. In addition. software. Because virtual machines can be so easily modified or migrated to new hosts. Without monitoring software that has visibility into the entire IT infrastructure from the hardware to the application level. networking. IT staff will receive notification of application outages or performance problems from users rather than from their monitoring software. thus. While IT staff are often focused on the availability and performance of supporting infrastructure. effective monitoring of the IT services infrastructure must include application-level monitoring. For this reason. like server hardware. and platform services.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Only comprehensive in-guest monitoring will provide information about these precursor conditions and allow administrators to take remedial action before performance is impacted. and Microsoft System Center does just that.40 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Microsoft System Center works closely with Microsoft’s Cloud solutions to help customers create and manage a flexible. precursor conditions that can lead to an application outage can easily be missed by monitoring tools that only view host memory and CPU utilization or a simplistic VM heartbeat.theartofservice. server virtualization requires effective management tools that provide timely system compliance and tracking capabilities. and storage.com Web: http://store. Furthermore. corporate users are only concerned with application availability and performance.
vSphere eliminates planned downtime and maintenance windows with live migration of virtual machines and shared storage. storage.vmware. improve business continuity. organizations can leverage the 41 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. streamline IT operations.com/files/pdf/vsphere_enterprise_datasheet. and networking hardware. Improve Business Continuity vSphere helps organizations reduce the cost and complexity of business continuity and disaster recovery with always-on IT capabilities and layered protection against service outages and data loss. In addition. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. In addition.5.pdf Date: 7/7/2010 **The following extract is for information only and not in any way an endorsement of the product.com Web: http://store. and deliver IT as a service.2 VMware vSphere Source: http://www. vSphere customers can slash IT capital expenses by an average of more than 70 percent and IT operating costs by more than 30 percent. Customers also use vSphere to create powerful multicore virtual machines and virtual machine clusters that span multiple physical servers to support even the most demanding applications. vSphere enables IT organizations to delay costly and disruptive datacenter expansion projects by making it possible to consolidate 15 or more virtual machines on a single physical server without sacrificing performance or throughput. VMware vSphere is an enterprise-class solution that more than 170.000 organizations of all sizes use to consolidate and optimize existing IT assets. vSphere reduces the complexity of hardware management through comprehensive virtualization of server. vSphere also helps to minimize unplanned downtime with hardwareindependent failover for virtual machines and fault tolerance capabilities that provide lockstep redundancy for the most critical application loads.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.41 6.
Deliver IT as a Service VMware vSphere is the only virtualization platform that gives customers the power to realize the benefits of Cloud Computing while maintaining security. such as advanced resource pooling.42 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION agentless backup and recovery capabilities of vSphere for virtual machines to prevent data loss with built-in deduplication to reduce data storage requirements.com Web: http://store. With an array of management and automation capabilities. and hardware platforms. automated resource allocation. making it possible to deliver IT as a utility-like service. QA and production IT environments that include a heterogeneous mix of applications.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. By adopting vSphere as an IT as a Service (ITaaS) platform. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. vSphere dynamically aligns IT resources with business needs. and self-service portals for end users. compliance.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. vSphere also simplifies the provisioning of IT services and ensures a uniform assurance of service levels. Streamline IT Operations vSphere lowers operational overhead and dramatically simplifies the management of large. and complete control over corporate assets. financial. geographically distributed development. role-based administration. operating systems. which in turn allows IT staff to move application loads from one virtual infrastructure to another without the need to reconfigure or customize policies or configurations. regardless of physical infrastructure or the actual location of the services. zero-touch infrastructure. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and environmental. organizations gain the ability to transform IT from a cost center to a strategic advantage that saves energy—human.
No one can guarantee a company that they will not experience lock-in. Whatever the reason. bandwidth issues. so plans have to include the possibility of migrating again in the future. Developing a strategy to get data to the Cloud is not the only issue. and this increases the inherent risk of a Cloud migration. Lock-in is where data-loss occurs due to migration of data from one proprietary system to another one. So why do companies move data to another platform? There may be uptime issues.Chapter 7 Migration from Traditional Model to Cloud Computing Moving data and applications from in-house servers is not an easy task for most organizations to undertake. this is not an ideal situation. Some argue that the only way this type of computing will be able to survive in the longer term is if these platforms are largely inter-operable. and application requirements. Many companies who have embraced Cloud Computing so far have experienced the problem known as lock-in. Some Cloud vendors are in a proprietary technology platform. The result may be more problematic than many would think because of different platform. Without inter-operability. or limited storage. infrastructure. For many IT professionals and CIOs. companies need to be prepared for the possibility of moving data. instead of being free of infrastructure you would be under 43 . What happens if data is lost? How will security be maintained? The discussions of these issues at many Cloud Computing conferences have led to the support for continued development of open standards for Cloud Computing.
However. Dealing with missing data and broken links for a period of time are issues to be considered as well.theartofservice. companies may weigh the risks and continue with the full migration.44 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION the control of the cloud. servers that administer network administration tasks. Some other ideas would be application development servers. corrupted databases. web servers. and malfunctioning programs. Retaining these systems can reduce the risk of data loss. and email servers. if an agreement regarding security and durability can be made. Any planning should also consider the cost of migration.1 Migration Guide Planning The first consideration when performing any migration to a Cloud resource is to ensure that some systems remain separate. including complex financial data. These servers would usually stay in-house. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. With all the potential risks inherent with a migration to the cloud.com Web: http://store. careful planning is essential to achieving successful outcomes. This could include several different systems.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. These are non-core functions that act as a support backbone and are great candidates to switch over to Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. In essence. and IT security functions. Data security is important and making sure that there is a contingency plan in place if something were to go wrong is an imperative planning measure. Common issues also include examples such as misrouted emails. but analysis should be more focused on the cost versus benefit equation.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . a large portion of an organization’s IT budget could become hostage to a Cloud Computing vendor. Some systems will ideally remain just where they are because of their secure nature. 7.
This is something that will require a lot of work and time. The consideration to move application servers to a Cloud environment would be a hard one depending on the organization. Execution After the planning phase. the vendor will charge a consulting fee for its services in guiding the organization through a successful data load.com Web: http://store. This phase is dependent on the Cloud vendor for their guidance.theartofservice. Some organizational cultures embrace the idea of having open source software. there are automatic programs that can help the progress of the conversion go smoothly. 45 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.45 Cloud Computing. all the back-up phases and other failover plans will be in place. If an organization is only interested in using proprietary solutions. Making sure data is in a form where migration runs smoothly is beneficial to avoid corruption of files at a later date. the execution of migration is something that may take some time to prepare. while others prefer the proprietary approach. Cloud applications will probably not work for them. and people will know what to do in case something goes wrong.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . These days. Legacy systems will require specialized data conversion. The first process of execution is usually known as data extraction. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. execution of data migration usually does not require a lot of people power in order to work. for larger projects. Any infrastructure problems that come up related to the servers on this end would be the Cloud vendor’s sole responsibility to manage. Often. If the planning phase was thorough. The next phase is known as data loading. Most of the time.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. This is where the data is systematically taken out of the old system and prepped for the new system.
The verification is usually a program that is able to vet the new data by asking a few logical questions. it could turn out to be quite costly. Often. being aware of incomplete data can save countless productivity hours in the future should an opportunity to fix the situation present itself early in the data conversion process. Once the data has finished loading onto the new system. although it is not as bad as translation issues. Emulation is when you are able to simulate an old system’s environment in a new system. and. it does not necessarily mean that all of the information being loaded into the new system is being correctly read. The first one is to check both sources to make sure that the extraction and the loading was properly translated. the next phase is the data verification stage. This is an important initial step. The reason for this is that it may be possible to troubleshoot the issue at hand.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. The next step is to check to see if all data is complete. if the data was not properly placed in the new system.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. older systems are not very efficient and new systems are unable to properly read what is fed into them. This is a way to remedy issues related to unreadable data by a new system that supports newer technology and syntax. Although the data is being correctly translated. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Many companies are able to bypass this situation by using a process called emulation.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .46 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION This is an ideal option because even the most seasoned IT professionals can come across unfamiliar bumps in the new system. Incomplete data is a frequent occurrence during a conversion. This process is important to make sure that the transition went smoothly. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
Secondly.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. that if data hosted on a Cloud environment is not easily portable. Emulation generally handcuffs users with arcane methods of access. It is always a good idea to keep close contact with the Cloud vendor to make sure everything is going smoothly. This was discussed previously. once again. organizations could stand a chance that their own data could be taken hostage.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and the user interfaces are notoriously hard to navigate around. often requiring commands not frequently used in the PC environment.47 Emulation does not always completely solve the issue. Some vendors might not be cooperative in helping with migration issues if they know that a particular system is going to be problematic. and emulation can help shoulder the burden of migration to a new system. the data is not portable in the environment. There can be several reasons for this. Although it is not always the ideal solution for a migration problem. you really are not taking advantage of the new system’s capabilities for that dataset because you are viewing the data through ‘old eyes’. 47 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Users are forced to use keyboard shortcuts that are difficult to back out of. Firstly. Training will be an important element of getting people on board and ready to move on to the new system.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. by using emulation. Data migration can be an expensive proposition. it is usually something where people can meet halfway and continue onwards. It can also save an expensive project from not going through to completion. but it must be pointed out. Another problem is access. Support Support after the execution phase is also very important to the success of migration to the cloud. It can be a tough road once the execution has begun. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
and other relevant stakeholders. This is an important requirement.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Cloud migration for most organizations will certainly be difficult and often complex. but. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Cohesion is imperative to the success in the long run.com Web: http://store. it has the potential to deliver significant benefits to the business. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.48 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION The leaders of both the planning and execution stage must have previously put together a successful support plan so that everything is capable of running smoothly in the end.theartofservice. when planned and implemented effectively.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . IT organization.
With a recurrent budget of $11.000 students are taught by over 50.Chapter 8 Cloud Computing Case Studies 8.pdf Date: 10/03/2010 1.2 million NSW school students move to Google Apps. colleges.2 million students across NSW. internationally competitive public education and training from early childhood through to secondary and tertiary education through their TAFE NSW courses. public or private. primary schools. DET is responsible for around 25% of the State’s total budget. The DET delivers high quality.200 NSW Government schools—including pre-schools. in Australia. Around 741.google. 49 . Organization The NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) is the largest single organization.com/en//apps/intl/en/business/case_studies/nsw_det. central schools.8 billion. high schools.000 full-time teachers in more than 2. reducing total cost of ownership by 66%. The DET are responsible for the education of 1. and specialist schools.1 NSW Department of Education and Training (DET) Source: www.
Following a successful tender response. and they can easily locate communications with teachers and other students through Google’s search technology within their inbox. to deploy Google Apps to their students.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. making the switch to their new email system seamless. The implementation and deployment process was divided into two phases and followed a detailed plan with business requirement and quality assurance deliverable constructed by SMS. Google and SMS worked together to ensure a successful Google Apps implementation.theartofservice. The students are now enjoying the benefits of the switch to Gmail. DET engaged with SMS Management and Technology (SMS). ensuring that functionality was available to DET to test and integrate the solution from the start. The number of students now using their DET email is increasing at a steady rate. Students were able to keep their existing email addresses.com Web: http://store. With 7GB of storage. An iterative approach was taken to the delivery.51 Solution After an extensive Request for Tender process to identify the options for student email services. ensuring a simple user experience was vital to the encouragement of adoption. DET found that Google Apps and Gmail was the solution they were looking for.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . particularly considering that we could roll it out in a few months. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. With students of all ages. user names. and passwords. 51 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. a local solution integrator.” The feedback from students has been very positive. they no longer have to delete their emails. Throughout the process.” “It’s going fantastically and without a hitch. Benefits The DET’s Gmail rollout increased the email storage allocated to students by a multiple of over 175 times from 35 megabytes to 7 gigabytes. DET CIO Stephen Wilson stated: “Gmail has been working flawlessly.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.” said Brad Senter. Google Apps proved to be the cost-effective solution they sought. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store. “This was critical—Amazon’s reliability and Sonian’s expertise is a winning combination for Ipswitch customers. Total cost of ownership was reduced by approximately 66%. secure instant messaging with 168 bit 3DES encryption.52 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION For DET. has recently begun offering Sonian Inc.amazon. Inc. Email data now requires Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com/solutions/case-studies/ipswitch/ Date: 03/07/2010 Ipswitch.2 Ipswitch Inc. 8. “Sonian’s entire system is built on Amazon Web Services. Email archiving is the latest feature Ipswitch offers its IMail customers.” This reduction in costs has allowed DET to inject their savings to other initiatives that will work toward the education of students across NSW. and integrated anti-virus software.” IMail is a messaging solution for small to mid-sized businesses.” Senter explained. © Copyright Google 2009. “There is a strong need for email archiving driven by the growing dependency on email and the many legal regulations requiring companies to protect it. IMail has over 60 million users worldwide.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Marketing Manager for Ipswitch Messaging Division. “We’ve modeled it so we can grow substantially on the current email traffic and still have a cost-effective solution. and options on top of the basic IMail backbone include premium anti-spam with automatic updates and language-aware technology.theartofservice. offering easy-to-use messaging with basic spam filtering. shared Outlook calendars and global address books with Web access.’s hosted email archiving solution to its IMail customers. Utilizing Amazon S3 Cloud Source: http://aws.
raising practical concerns over escalating storage needs and increasing capacity needs on email servers—as well as questions about secure storage.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and self-healing aspects. cloud-aware application: Amazon EC2 instances pull email data from a customer mail server and then compress and encrypt the data. the Amazon SQS runs internal job control and queuing. buy a company that makes it.0 technology and design methodologies. Elastic Computer Cloud (EC2). and Amazon SimpleDB stores document metadata.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.53 rapid retrieval and longer retention periods. or use a third-party option. Sonian’s solution is built entirely on the Amazon Web Services cloud—Amazon Simple Storage Service (S3). “The first step in the archiving process is collecting data securely from IMail customers. “We made sure that the collection process works perfectly. Sonian built its own automation. Ipswitch began investigating email archiving several years ago. based on market trends and customer demands.” 53 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Sonian technology easily handles the increase using the Amazon Web Services cloud. Flexible Payments Service (FPS). They looked at three options for an archiving solution: build it in-house.com Web: http://store. deployment. storing it on Amazon S3. an innovator in archiving technology.” commented Jeff Richards.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Sonian Hosted Archival Systems is the email archiving solution Ipswitch chose to offer customers seeking a hosted provider. and customers access archived data through a secure web portal hosted on Amazon EC2. Simple Queue Service (SQS). The Sonian system was designed to be an easily scalable. And as Ipswitch adds customers. and SimpleDB. Analyzing the market and competition convinced the company that the best choice was to identify an OEM that fit with its corporate mission and business model. Sonian. VP Sales and Business Development for Sonian Inc. Ipswitch and Sonian worked closely together to develop a seamless system and build APIs that allow the two technologies to connect reliably. used Amazon Web Services to create a leading-edge hosted archive service built using modern Web 2.
” © Copyright Amazon 2010.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. we can be absolutely certain that customers can transfer their data with complete security. 8.com/customers/business-services/kepnertregoe.theartofservice. “Ipswitch believes that Cloud Computing solutions will begin to fill critical needs in most markets. “We are actively researching other technologies to take advantage of the cloud and anticipate bringing major innovative technologies to the market in the near future.jsp Date: 10/07/2010 Challenge • • Kepner-Tregoe. With the reliability of Sonian and Amazon Web Services. urgently needed to upgrade its centralized system to manage pipeline and critical customer information. “Many customers want to move from their current solution to the IMail archiving solution and are asking how to transfer their data. government. “We’ve seen an immediate response from the finance. an international management consulting and training firm.3 Kepner-Tregoe and Salesforce Salesforce CRM and Force.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. The restructuring of the sales organization required a new level of collaboration and sharing. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. with sales continuing to increase after that. and education markets.” Senter said.com Web: http://store.54 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION A robust cross-section of Ipswitch customers is looking at its new archiving solutions.salesforce.” Senter said.com Deliver Visibility and Custom Applications at Kepner-Tregoe Source: http://www.” Ipswitch predicts ten percent of its customer base will purchase email archiving by the third quarter of 2009.
The CRM solution was rapidly implemented to meet tight executive deadlines. Solution • • • • • • • Kepner-Tregoe selected Salesforce CRM Professional Edition over SalesLogix. a custom application for KT’s instructors that automates a training attendee reporting process previously managed in Excel spreadsheets.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . collaboration. and Europe. Kepner-Tregoe implemented DeliveryForce. and sales effectiveness.com Web: http://store. A custom Forecasting System—which allows users to find opportunities easily on accounts they own—is used worldwide by everyone in the company. The company has seen increased success on an international scale since deploying Salesforce 55 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. DeliveryForce fosters CRM accountability. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Salesforce CRM’s cloud-computing model provides easy access to customer data from any location worldwide. The company now has multi-currency support for global operations.theartofservice. Maintaining a low total cost of ownership (TCO) was very important to Kepner-Tregoe.55 • • The company wanted a global CRM solution that could be rapidly implemented. Salesforce CRM provides complete visibility into all accounts and pipelines across the US.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. improves marketing. Kepner-Tregoe also built a License Query system that enables global licensees to log into a custom SharePoint-hosted site and search account information in Salesforce CRM. Results • • • Kepner-Tregoe now has the ability to manage information centrally for improved productivity. and generates new opportunities for the organization globally. • DeliveryForce integrates with Kepner-Tregoe’s third-party survey and learning management applications to further expand its scope and reduce workflow complexity. Kepner-Tregoe later upgraded to Salesforce CRM Enterprise Edition. Canada.
• Kepner-Tregoe is now deploying DeliveryForce to users in Europe and plans to roll out the application to Asia Pacific in the June/July timeframe.theartofservice.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Feedback for DeliveryForce has been very positive with users citing ease of use and the ability to track potential business opportunities that stem from training session participants as key benefits.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .56 CRM. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
Formal definitions of ITSM define it as. the importance of effective processes required to maintain control increases rapidly.Chapter 9 IT Service Management IT Service Management is an essential set of practices that should complement any use. The term IT Service Management (ITSM) is used in many ways by different management frameworks and the organizations that seek to use them. 57 . and communication networks. and other stakeholders The management of external suppliers (partners) involved in the delivery and support of the technology and products being delivered and supported by IT The combination of these elements provide the capabilities required for an IT organization to deliver and support quality IT services that meet specific business needs and requirements. applications. or management of services from a Cloud environment. including IT staff. While there are variations across these different sources of guidance. “A set of specialized organizational capabilities for providing value to customers in the form of services”. customers. common elements for defining ITSM include: • • • • Description of the processes required to deliver and support IT services for customers A focus on delivering and supporting the technology or products needed by the business to meet key organizational objectives or goals Definition of roles and responsibilities for the people involved. client relationships. Given the potential complexity in the infrastructure. provisioning.
9.58 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION These organizational capabilities are influenced by the needs and requirements of customers.theartofservice.1 The Four Perspectives (Attributes) of ITSM There are four perspectives (4Ps) or attributes that are important to consider in order for IT Service Management to be successful.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and skills.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. experience. the culture that exists within the service organization. and the intangible nature of the output and intermediate products of IT services. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. IT Service Management comprises more than just these capabilities alone. However. being complemented by an industry of professional practice and wealth of knowledge.
59 Partners/Suppliers Perspective: Takes into account the importance of partner and external supplier relationships and how they contribute to service delivery.theartofservice. Technology should be leveraged to both support and drive strategic opportunities for the business. knowledge and motivation to perform their roles.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. It is the same when designing new or modified services. and other supporting tools). customers. This requires IT staff. it will enable a more consistent. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Process Perspective: Relates the end-to-end delivery of services based on process flows. and other stakeholders to understand the purpose of ITSM and how it should be used within the organization. Quality IT Service Management ensures that all of these four perspectives are taken into account as part of the continual improvement of the IT organization.2 Benefits of ITSM While the benefits of applying IT Service Management practices vary depending on the organization’s needs. 9.com Web: http://store. People Perspective: Concerned with the ‘soft’ side of ITSM. and eventual use by customers. some typical benefits include: 59 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and measurable approach to the management of services. Products/Technology Perspective: Takes into account the quality of IT services and all the technology architectures (hardware and software) required to provision them. It will help to ensure that suppliers deliver value for money and provide services that are clearly aligned to business requirements. transition. in that these four perspectives need to be considered and catered for in order to enable success in the service’s design. Training and education should be provided to ensure staff members have the correct skills. guidelines. By having clearly established processes (with documentation. repeatable.
As perspectives will differ for each stakeholder.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the benefits provided by enhanced ITSM practices may apply to one or more of the following parties: • • • • • • • Senior management Business unit managers Customers End users IT staff Suppliers Shareholders 9. performance. incorporating lessons learnt into future endeavors Measurable quality.com Web: http://store. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and user demands Integrated and centralized processes Transparency of the roles and responsibilities for service provision Continual improvement. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. they lose sight of the actual purpose and benefit that their efforts deliver to the business and customers.theartofservice.60 • • • • • • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Improved quality service provision Cost-justifiable service quality Design of services that meet business. and efficiency attributes It is also important to consider the range of stakeholders who can benefit from improved ITSM practices. When staff members of an IT organization have only an internal focus on the technology being delivered and supported.3 Business and IT Alignment A common theme in any IT Service Management framework is to enable and demonstrate business and IT alignment. customer.
. 61 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. including improved efficiency of operations or ensuring accuracy in the records and information being managed. managed. and controlled processes used by the IT department that enables quality and efficiency in the delivery and support of the IT services above.com Web: http://store. the organizational objectives defined above would not be supported or achieved. IT services are used by the business to facilitate and enhance outcomes. they will not be a focus of this book’s content. ITSM is utilized to ensure that any resources and effort spent performing the technical activities are optimized according to the greatest business need or reward. IT Technical Activities: The actual technical activities required as part of the execution of the ITSM processes above. As these activities are technology specific (e.theartofservice. Australia I Email: email@example.com Business and IT alignment explanation: Organization: What are the key strategic goals and objectives for the organization? These objectives define who we are as an organization and where we want to be in the future.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . IT Service Management: Made up by the repeatable.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. CORE Business Processes: These are represented by the repeatable business activities that produce desirable results for the business.g. Without these results. IT Service Organization: Defines the IT services and supporting infrastructure that are required to enable the effective and efficient execution of the business processes above. configuring application server).
.g.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. At the same time. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. emergency health services) would result in highly resilient IT services being implemented. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. a business process that is required to be executed at all times without disruptions (e.62 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Each layer within this structure is utilized to support the layer(s) above. each layer will in some way influence the layer below them. For example.theartofservice. The following is an example of the above. supported by ITSM processes that reduce the risk and impact of disruptions occurring.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store.
Our Business: A Cloud services provider What are some of our organization’s objectives or strategic goals? • • We want to increase profits by 15% each year We want to increase our market share by being an industry leader
What Business Processes aid in achieving those objectives? • • • • Sales, Customer Management Marketing Procurement HR, finance etc.
What IT services are being provided to customers • • • • Webmail and calendaring (cloud) Platforms and environments Elastic Computing Power Billing services
We have ITSM in order to make sure the IT services are:
• • •
What we need (Service Level Management, Capacity Management etc.) Available to customers when we need them to be (Availability Management, Incident Management etc.) Provisioned cost-effectively (Financial Management, Service Level Management)
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CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION
If we don’t manage the IT services appropriately, we cannot rely on these services to be available when we need them to be. If there are too many disruptions, our services are likely to suffer, and we are likely to lose customers as a result. If we lose customers, we fail to support our organization’s objectives.
Also note the relationship between IT Service Management processes and the technical activities below. Used properly, ITSM processes can optimize the time, effort, and other resources spent performing technical activities, ensuring that all staff actions are working in accordance to agreed business priorities and objectives.
This is just a simple example used to illustrate the relationship between ITSM and the organization. Any approach used to improve ITSM practices should always be carefully considered to ensure that the plans suit the organization, in terms of:
• • • •
Size (number of staff, customers, IT devices etc.) Geographical dispersion Culture and ethos Current maturity and capability levels
9.4 Good practices
Organizations that choose to ignore public frameworks and standards place their organization at a disadvantage. Instead, organizations should seek to develop their own proprietary knowledge that builds on top of the knowledge they will acquire from using public frameworks and standards.
Public frameworks (ITIL, COBIT, CMMI etc.): Frameworks are scaled and adapted by the organization when implemented, rather than following a prescriptive set of practices (standards).
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Examples of public frameworks for ITSM include:
• • •
ITIL ® COBIT—The Control Objectives for Information and related Technology Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) for IT Services
ITIL® stands for the Information Technology Infrastructure Library. ITIL® is the international de facto management framework describing good practices for IT Service Management. The ITIL® framework evolved from the UK government’s efforts during the 1980s to document how successful organizations approached service management. By the early 1990s, they had produced a large collection of books documenting the best practices for IT Service Management. This library was eventually entitled the IT Infrastructure Library. The Office of Government Commerce in the UK continues to operate as the trademark owner of ITIL®.
ITIL® has gone through several evolutions and was most recently refreshed with the release of ITIL® 2011. Through these evolutions, the scope of practices documented has increased in order to stay current with the continued maturity of the IT industry and meet the needs and requirements of the ITSM professional community.
ITIL® is only one of many sources for ITSM good practices and should be used to complement any other set of practices being used by an organization.
Five volumes make up the IT Infrastructure Library (Version 3):
• • • • •
Service Strategy Service Design Service Transition Service Operation Continual Service Improvement
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operating models. Gartner). Unlike frameworks. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. methods. and practices. and tools. The structure of the ITIL® framework is that of the service lifecycle. At present. It ensures organizations are able to leverage capabilities in one area for learning and improvements in others. Generally. This consists of a complimentary set of publications with guidance specific to industry sectors.bestpracticelive. Examples of standards relating to ITSM are: • • ISO/IEC 20000—International Standard for IT Service Management ISO/IEC 27001—International Standard for Information Security Management Systems Proprietary knowledge of organizations and individuals: Specific expertise developed for internal purposes or developed in order to sell to other organizations (e. learning. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.. The framework is used to provide structure.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. good practices are defined as those formalized as a result of being successful in wideindustry use. This enables service providers to protect investments and provide the necessary basis for measurement. processes. and strength to service management capabilities with durable principles. there is also ITIL® Complimentary Guidance. In addition to the core publications. organization types. they are prescriptive in declaring mandatory elements that must be demonstrated. this complimentary guidance is available by subscription from http://www.g.com Web: http://store.com Standards: Usually a formal document that establishes uniform engineering or technical criteria. and improvement. and technology architectures.theartofservice. stability.66 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Each volume provides the guidance necessary for an integrated approach and addresses the direct impact that capabilities have on the performance of a service provider. methods.
This chapter documents the important common terminology that is used throughout the majority of IT organizations world-wide. e. The ability of an organization or any individual parts of an organization (for example. vendors.g. provides reasons for or against proceeding with any significant expenditure involved in taking that business action. in turn. Capabilities are not concrete assets of an organization. This. potential issues.) can collaborate and contribute effectively. Capabilities External Service Provider 67 . providing internet hosting solutions for multiple customers. etc. people.Chapter 10 Terminology relevant to ITSM Whether or not IT services are provisioned from the cloud.. a common language is required so that all stakeholders (users. An external service provider provides IT services to external customers. customers. IT staff. A business case includes information about costs involved. Terminology Business Case Explanations A tool for supporting decision-making and planning that forcasts the likely consequences of a business action. and possible problems. They will increase in sophistication and maturity the longer they have been in existence. rather they are something that needs to be created and developed over a period of time. or services) to complete an activity successfully. likely risks. suppliers. available options. expected benefits. processes. The aim of organizational capabilities is to enable the provision of services to customers in an efficient and effective way.
policies.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . tools. Some examples of functions are the Help Desk and IT Operations Management.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and this involves combining both the resources and capabilities required to carry out that process or set of activities. Internal service providers are embedded within a business unit. responsibilities. These groups of people are responsible for the required outcomes of those activities or processes. management controls.. they become strategic assets. The essence of IT Service Management is providing value to customers. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and work instructions if they are needed.theartofservice. Various activities come together to create a process. The aim of a process is to produce a particular outcome that should also give value to customers. one IT organization within each of the business units of an organization. Processes may define roles. The key factor is that the IT services that it provides within the business unit will provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space that the business exists in. IT Service Management is made up of the various capabilities within an organization that enable the provision of services to customers in an efficient and effective way. When processes enable an organization to compete competitively in the market. e. activities. Internal Service Providers IT Service Management Process Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. guidelines. standards.68 Functions CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Functions refer to groups of people who employ the necessary tools to complete an activity or a process.g.
It is essential to the success of the organization that these costs and risks are managed effectively.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. If possible. Services provide the valuable outcomes that customers desire.com Web: http://store.69 Process Manager The process manager reports to the process owner. the can be shared between multiple customers. 69 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. physical assets of the organization. The process owner refers to the person who assumes responsibility over a particular process. reducing the impact on the organization. the process manager is responsible for the actual operations involved in carrying out that Process Owner process. Like capabilities. and they are responsible for the outputs produced. or even the money that goes through the organization. while assuming the ownership of the costs and risks involved with delivering those outcomes. thus. Example: The owner for the Availability Management Resources Process Unlike capabilities.theartofservice. resources are the concrete. They can include anything from the IT infrastructure to the people employed by the organization. They must ensure that the process is appropriate for its intended purpose. Whereas the process owner is responsible for the entire process and its outputs.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . the aim of resources is to Service assist in the delivery of IT services.
But what does this actually mean? To explain some of the key concepts. one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization. while assuming the ownership of the costs and risks involved with delivering those outcomes.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . the service owner must ensure that both improvement and change are managed effectively. Shared Service Providers 10.g. Services provide the valuable outcomes that customers desire. is central to understanding both Cloud services and IT Service Management principles in general. incorporating the end-to-end service perspective for what their organization actually provides to its customers. an alternative outlook to be maintained. Example: The owner of the Payroll Service Unlike an internal service provider.theartofservice. as opposed to IT components. instead. I will use an analogy that most (food lovers) will understand.. a shared service provider provides shared IT service to more than one business unit. As services are continuously improved and changed. They must ensure that the service is delivered effectively and efficiently to customers. instead. The mindset requires. e. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. the service owner assumes responsibility for a particular IT service.1 What are Services? The concept of IT services. It requires not just a learned set of skills but also a way of thinking that often challenges the traditional instincts of IT workers to focus on the individual components (typically the applications or hardware under their care) that make up the IT infrastructure. IT services for this provider do not normally provide a source of competitive advantage but.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. support effective and efficient business processes across an organization. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store.70 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Service Owner Similar to the process owner.
Now. The alternative is that they can go to a restaurant that delivers a service that provides them with the same outcome (a nice meal) without the time. but also: • • • • • The cleanliness of the restaurant The friendliness and customer service skills of the waiters and other staff The ambience of the restaurant (lighting. relate this to an IT staff member’s role in provisioning an IT service.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . buy the ingredients. If they were to cook.) The time taken to receive the meal (and was it what they asked for?) Did they offer a choice of beverages? If any one of these factors does not meet the person’s expectations. take these ingredients home. the perceived quality and value delivered to them as a customer is negatively impacted. decorations. of course. If they focus only on the application or hardware elements provided and forget or ignore the importance of the surrounding elements that make up the end-to-end service. they also ensure that: • • • Communication with customers and end users is effectively maintained Appropriate resolution times are maintained for end user and customer enquiries Transparency and visibility of the IT organization and where money is being spent is maintained 71 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. set the table. clean up the kitchen afterwards. music. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and general fuss required if they were to cook it themselves. the customer experience and perceived quality and value will be negatively impacted. there are often times when they wish to enjoy quality food without the time and effort required to prepare a meal. they would need to go to a grocery store. and.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. prepare and cook the meal. then.71 While most people do enjoy cooking. effort. Now consider how that person would identify the quality and value of that service being provided. But if they take a service-oriented perspective. It is not just the quality of the food itself that will influence their perceptions.theartofservice. etc. ultimately.com Web: http://store. just like in the example of the restaurant.
and they are responsible for the outputs produced. and other resources used) All processes produce specific results that create value When processes enable an organization to compete competitively in the market. management controls. A process manager is responsible for the actual operations involved in carrying out a process. guidelines. activities.theartofservice.2 Processes and Functions 10.1 Defining Processes Various activities come together to create a process. The aim of a process is to produce a particular outcome that should also give value to customers.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . standards. There may be several managers for the one process or the same person may be both the process owner and process manager (typically in smaller organizations). Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. responsibilities. A process owner is the person who assumes responsibility over a particular process.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. they become strategic assets Processes may define roles. Some principles: • • • • All processes should be measurable and performance-driven (not just in regards to time taken.2. and this involves combining both the resources and capabilities required to carry out that process or set of activities. if they are needed. They must ensure that the process is appropriate for its intended purpose. tools.72 • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION The IT organization works proactively to identify potential problems that should be rectified or improvement actions that could be made 10. policies. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and work instructions. including cost. but also in regards to overall efficiency.com Web: http://store. effort.
theartofservice. it is important to consider both the physical and behavioral aspects that exist.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. rather than actively or passively resisting the organizational changes occurring. and opinions that might influence the way in which processes are designed. implemented.2. customers.2 Defining Functions Functions refer to groups of people who employ the necessary tools to complete an activity or a process. therefore. and users etc. there are behavioral components that are. and improved. and character of activities and subsequent outputs by shaping how they are carried out. tools.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . for the most part. These groups of people are responsible for the required outcomes of those activities or processes.g. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. staff members.) are appropriately involved in the design of processes so that: • They can communicate their own ideas. 10. Of particular importance may be current behaviors that have not been previously identified. Behavioral components have no independent existence that is separate from the work processes in which they appear. communication. concerns.).com Web: http://store. These types of components include decision-making. but. which may affect the design of the process and its implementation. substance. and learning processes. • • Stakeholder groups are provided adequate training and education regarding how to perform their role within the process and what value the process provides for. etc. are more likely to respond positively. not concrete or tangible and are part of an underlying pattern so deeply embedded and recurrent that it is displayed by most members of the organization. at the same time. Stakeholders generally feel to be empowered in the change being developed and.. This may be addressed by ensuring that all required stakeholders (e. they greatly affect and impact the form. So when defining and designing processes.73 In addition to the concrete components of processes (documentation. 73 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
3 RACI Model It is said that processes are perfect…until people get involved. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. This saying comes from the perceived failure of processes in many organizations. and management IT services. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 10.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.2.74 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Just like in many sporting activities where each player will have a specific role to play in the overall team strategy. delivery. IT functions define the different roles and responsibilities required for the overall design.com Web: http://store. which can frequently be attributed to misunderstandings of the people involved and a lack of clarity regarding the roles and responsibilities that exist.
75 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. is the RACI Model.) C—Consult (advice/guidance/information can be gained from this function or position prior to the action taking place.75 A useful tool to address this issue. assisting the definition of the roles and responsibilities when designing processes.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.com Web: http://store. This role implies ownership. even if they might not do it themselves. RACI stands for: R—Responsibility (actually does the work for that activity but reports to the function or position that has an ‘A’ against it) A—Accountability (is made accountable for ensuring that the action takes place.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.) I—Inform (the function or position that is told about the event after it has happened) A RACI Model is used to define the roles and responsibilities of various functions in relation to the activities of Incident Management.
theartofservice.com Web: http://store.76 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION General Rules that exist: • • Only 1 ‘A’ per row can be defined (ensures accountability.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. which in this case will be performed by other functional teams. with more than one being appropriate where there is shared responsibility In the example RACI model given. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. the Service Desk is both responsible and accountable for ensuring that incidents are logged and classified but not responsible for the subsequent investigation. more than one ‘A’ would confuse this) At least 1 ‘R’ per row must be present (shows that actions are taking place).
The typical contents for a Cloud Computing related SLA includes: • • • • An introduction to the SLA Cloud service description Mutual responsibilities of both parties Scope of SLA (e. In the case of Cloud Computing. then it is likely that each party will try to place blame on the other if defined targets are not achieved.Chapter 11 IT Service Management Principles for Cloud Computing The following section will cover some of the important IT Service Management principles relevant to the use or management of Cloud Computing services. If SLAs are viewed negatively.g. When SLAs are viewed positively as a way of maintaining and continually improving the relationship between the parties involved. may scope out connecting networks between customer and provider) 77 ..1 Service Level Agreements Although Service Level Agreements are implemented and used in a wide variety of fashions. The purpose of an SLA is to identify and describe the key service targets and responsibilities of both the IT service provider and the customer. It is important to remember that an SLA is an agreement between both parties—not an opportunity for one party to take advantage of the other. mutuallybeneficial agreements will be developed. the guiding principle is that they are a written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer(s). 11. this will typically be between the Cloud service(s) provider and the customer.
Monday to Saturday.g.. totaling 30 minutes in a working week) Customer support arrangements Contact points and escalation Service performance Batch turnaround times Security (e. customers.1.g. 11.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.. and business to be addressed by Service Level Management.com Web: http://store. The three common approaches include Service-based. SLAs are not used as legal documents for imposing penalties.. To assist in ensuring these guidelines are followed. Customer-based. Another mistake made by organizations in implementing SLAs is that they become too long and technically-focused. otherwise. 99% during agreed service hours) Reliability (e. 6am to 6pm) Service availability (e. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. data security and retention policies) Costs and charging method used Penalties or rebates The key criteria for any information to be contained within an SLA is that it must be measureable. and Multi-level SLAs. with all language used being clear and concise in order to aid understanding.g. there is potential for misunderstandings or even for the SLA to go unread.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . which can then be edited and reviewed.g. consideration should be made as to the most appropriate SLA structure that will meet the organization’s needs. it is useful to have an independent party. who has not been part of the SLA negotiation and development.theartofservice. no more than 2 disruptions. This can highlight areas of potential misunderstanding. it is in conflict with the goal of improving relationships between customers and the IT service provider.. to do a final check of the contents and wording within the SLA.1 Service Level Agreement Structures Due to the wide range of services.78 • • • • • • • • • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Applicable service hours (e. As already discussed. When this occurs.
The definition of multiple classes of service. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. with the SLA covering all the customers of that service. especially when they may be a relatively small customer In cases where there is a fairly consistent level of service required across all customers (such as e-mail). However. then service-based SLAs may be an efficient structure to use. such as Gold. there are potential disadvantages that may arise as a result of a service-based structure. may also be used within a service-based SLA to enable some flexibility in offerings. These include: • • • Difficulties faced when there are varying requirements across the customers involved for a service Deciding which customers will sign such an agreement.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . a Cloud storage service will have an SLA created that covers all the customers who use the Cloud storage as part of their own IT service provision.79 Service-based SLA This structure involves the documentation of an SLA for each service. Silver. 79 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. with no ability to customize the service offering for their own needs. as it may not be appropriate or feasible for all to sign Customers are forced to ‘take it or leave it’. It means less administration time spent in negotiating different documents with different customers and less time spent on worrying about accommodating different requirements among users. For example. and Bronze offerings.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. The service-based SLA is usually preferred by large external Cloud service providers as it allows a single document to cover a single service for all customers of that service.
com Web: http://store. an SLA is documented for a specific customer.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. a combination of both of these structures may be appropriate. where each layer has a different level of focus. This could result in the duplication of effort in defining and documenting SLAs for each customer. If this is the case. In effect. These targets should be set at a sufficiently high level to serve as a benchmark for all new services introduced. • Customer Level: all the SLM issues that are relevant to a customer group or business unit are covered by this level. then there would a requirement for ten SLAs to be created.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .80 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Customer-based SLAs For this structure. providing all services and customers are covered. While the layers chosen should be appropriate to most effectively meet the organization’s needs. with no overall duplication. and the service being used makes no difference to the SLA Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Multi-level SLAs Some organizations choose to implement a multi-level SLA structure. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. a common approach to multi-level SLAs is as follows: • Corporate Level: all of the generic SLM issues are covered by this level for all customers within the organization. The potential disadvantage in using customer-based SLAs may occur when there are common requirements for services across most customers. this is the preferred option for customers because it details all of their specific requirements in one document. covering all of the services they are provided with from the IT organization.theartofservice. this means that if the Cloud service provider is providing services to ten different customers. In most cases.
81 • Service Level: all the SLM issues that are relevant to a specific service that is being used by a particular customer group Other feasible options that could be used for multi-level SLAs include: • • • • Geographic region: covering all customers in that region. while reducing duplication and the need to update these contracts. instead. and Standard: where customers are defined. Organization: covering all customers that exist within an organization that is being provided with services. User group: covering all services being provided to a particular user group. in terms of the level of service being offered. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Enhanced. More specific details can then be provided at the customer level. Premium.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. The multi-level SLA structure ensures that SLAs do not reach an unmanageable size. 81 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. This is useful for international organizations where there are varying requirements between the regions being served.
Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. this SLA is subject to the terms of the AWS Agreement and capitalized terms will have the meaning specified in the AWS Agreement. This SLA applies separately to each account using Amazon S3. Service Commitment AWS will use commercially reasonable efforts to make Amazon S3 available with a Monthly Uptime Percentage (defined below) of at least 99.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.9% during any monthly billing cycle (the Service Commitment).2 Examples: Cloud Service SLAs 11.2. In the event Amazon S3 does not meet the Service Commitment. or we) and users of AWS’ services (you).theartofservice. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store. LLC (AWS.amazon.82 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 11. We reserve the right to change the terms of this SLA in accordance with the AWS Agreement.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . you will be eligible to receive a Service Credit as described below.1 Amazon S3 Service Level Agreement Effective Date: October 1. 2007 Source: http://aws. Unless otherwise provided herein. us.com/s3-sla/ This Amazon S3 Service Level Agreement (SLA) is a policy governing the use of the Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) under the terms of the Amazon Web Services Customer Agreement (the AWS Agreement) between Amazon Web Services.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Monthly Uptime Percentage Equal to or greater than 99% but less than 99. • • ‘Monthly Uptime Percentage’ is calculated by subtracting from 100% the average of the Error Rates from each five minute period in the monthly billing cycle. Service Credits Service Credits are calculated as a percentage of the total charges paid by you for Amazon S3 for the billing cycle in which the error occurred in accordance with the schedule below. Service Credits shall not entitle you to any refund or other payment from AWS. that we may credit back to an eligible Amazon S3 account. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. A Service Credit will be applicable and issued only if the credit amount for 83 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .9% Less than 99% Service Credit Percentage 10% 25% We will apply any Service Credits only against future Amazon S3 payments otherwise due from you. We will calculate the Error Rate for each Amazon S3 account as a percentage for each five minute period in the monthly billing cycle.theartofservice. The calculation of the number of internal server errors will not include errors that arise directly or indirectly as a result of any of the Amazon S3 SLA Exclusions (as defined below). provided that. calculated as set forth below.83 Definitions • ‘Error Rate’ means: (i) (ii) the total number of internal server errors returned by Amazon S3 as error status ‘InternalError’ or ‘ServiceUnavailable’ divided by: the total number of requests during that five minute period. we may issue the Service Credit to the credit card that you used to pay for Amazon S3 for the billing cycle in which the error occurred.com Web: http://store. A ‘Service Credit’ is a dollar credit.
you must submit a request by sending an e-mail message to firstname.lastname@example.org%. If the Monthly Uptime Percentage applicable to the month of such request is confirmed by us and is less than 99.84 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION the applicable monthly billing cycle is greater than one dollar ($1 USD). Credit Request and Payment Procedures To receive a Service Credit. in the body of the e-mail. then we will issue the Service Credit to you within one billing cycle following the month in which the error occurred. Service Credits may not be transferred or applied to any other account.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the dates and times of each incident of non-zero Error Rates that you claim to have experienced (iii) include your server request logs that document the errors and corroborate your claimed outage (any confidential or sensitive information in these logs should be removed or replaced with asterisks) (iv) be received by us within ten (10) business days after the end of the billing cycle in which the errors occurred.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Unless otherwise provided in the AWS Agreement. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. To be eligible. your sole and exclusive remedy for any unavailability or non-performance of Amazon S3 or other failure by us to provide Amazon S3 is the receipt of a Service Credit (if eligible) in accordance with the terms of this SLA or termination of your use of Amazon S3. Your failure to provide the request and other information as required above will disqualify you from receiving a Service Credit.com Web: http://store.com. the credit request must: (i) include your account number in the subject of the e-mail message (the account number can be found at the top of the AWS Account Activity page) (ii) include. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. software.85 Amazon S3 SLA Exclusions The Service Commitment does not apply to any unavailability.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . we may issue a Service Credit considering such factors in our sole discretion.2.com Web: http://store. If availability is impacted by factors other than those used in our calculation of the Error Rate.1 of the AWS Agreement caused by factors outside of our reasonable control.theartofservice. suspension. Definitions i.com/windowsazure/sla/ 1. “Claim” means a claim submitted by Customer to Microsoft pursuant to this SLA that a Service Level has not been met and that a Service Credit may be due to Customer.microsoft. including any force majeure event or Internet access or related problems beyond the demarcation point of Amazon S3 (iii) (iv) that result from any actions or inactions of you or any third party that result from your equipment.2 Microsoft Windows Azure Compute SLA Source: http://www. software. 11.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. or termination of Amazon S3 or any other Amazon S3 performance issues: (i) (ii) that result from Service Suspensions described in Section 7. the ‘Amazon S3 SLA Exclusions’). Standard terms applicable to all Service Levels outlined herein: a. 85 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. or other technology and/or third party equipment. or other technology (other than third party equipment within our direct control) (v) arising from our suspension and termination of your right to use Amazon S3 in accordance with the AWS Agreement (collectively.
The Customer can review the most current version of the SLA and related terms at any time by visiting http://go. “Tenant” represents one or more roles each consisting of one or more role instances that are deployed in a single package. x.com Web: http://store. ii.microsoft. v. “Customer Support” means the services by which Microsoft may provide assistance to the Customer to resolve issues with the Services. b. Microsoft provides this SLA subject to the following terms. “Microsoft” means the Microsoft entity that signed your Microsoft Online Subscription Agreement. the version of this SLA that is current at the time the renewal term commences will apply throughout the renewal term. These terms will be fixed for the duration of the initial term of the subscription. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. “Incident” means any set of circumstances resulting in a failure to meet a Service Level.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .86 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION ii. iii. ix.theartofservice. “Service Credit” is the percentage of the monthly service fees for the Service that is credited to Customer for a validated Claim. viii. the Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. If a subscription is renewed. “Service” or “Services” refers to the Windows Azure Compute service provided to Customer pursuant to the Agreement. In order to be eligible to submit a Claim with respect to any Incident. vi. “Update Domain” refers to a set of Windows Azure compute nodes to which platform updates are concurrently applied.com/fwlink/?LinkId=159704. “Service Level” means standards Microsoft chooses to adhere to and by which it measures the level of service it provides as specifically set forth below. iv.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Service Credit Claims i. “Customer” refers to the organization that has signed a volume licensing agreement (“Agreement”) under which it has purchased Windows Azure Compute Services from Microsoft. vii.
iv. the duration of the Incident. network traceroutes. Customer must provide to Customer Support all reasonable details regarding the Claim.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. detailed descriptions of the Incident(s). In order for Microsoft to consider a Claim. SLA Exclusions i. c.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . This SLA and any applicable Service Levels do not apply to any performance or availability issues: 1. 87 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. including but not limited to. by the end of the billing month following the billing month in which the Incident which is the subject of the Claim occurs.87 Customer must first have notified Customer Support of the Incident. Customer must submit the Claim. vi. Microsoft will use all information reasonably available to it to validate Claims and make a good faith judgment on whether the SLA and Service Levels apply to the Claim. Customer must contact Customer Support and provide notice of its intention to submit a Claim. v. using the procedures set forth by Microsoft.com Web: http://store. That resulted from Customer’s or third party hardware or software. 3. within five business days following the Incident. including sufficient evidence to support the Claim. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. To submit a Claim. That resulted from actions or inactions of Customer or third parties. In the event that more than one Service Level is not met because of the same Incident Customer must choose only one Service Level under which a Claim may be made based on that Incident. 2. iii. and no other Claim under any other Service Level will be accepted for that Incident.theartofservice. the URL(s) affected and any attempts made by Customer to resolve the Incident. Due to factors outside Microsoft’s reasonable control.
Or 6. as determined by Microsoft in its reasonable discretion. ii. For Services purchased as part of a suite. the Service Credit will be based on the pro-rata portion of the cost of the Service. agents.88 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 4. d. Service Credits are Customer’s sole and exclusive remedy for any violation of this SLA. 2. iv. The Service Credits awarded in any billing month shall not. 5. under any circumstance. v. as determined by Microsoft in its reasonable discretion.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Australia I Email: email@example.com. Attributable to the acts or omissions of Customer or Customer’s employees. Service Credits i. Monthly Connectivity Uptime Service Level Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. In cases where Customer has purchased Services from a reseller the Service Credit will be based on the estimated retail price for the applicable Service. contractors. Service Levels a. exceed Customer’s monthly Service fees. The amount and method of calculation of Service Credits is described below in connection with each Service Level description. Caused by Customer’s use of the Service after Microsoft advised Customer to modify its use of the Service. During beta and trial Services (as determined by Microsoft). or vendors. if Customer did not modify its use as advised. or anyone gaining access to Microsoft’s Service by means of Customer’s passwords or equipment. This includes charges associated with data transfers to compute nodes. iii. Service Credits for this SLA will only be calculated against monthly fees associated with Windows Azure Compute.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
95% <99% 89 Service Credit* 10% 25% Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Maximum Connectivity Minutes is measured from when the Tenant has been deployed and its associated roles have been started resultant from action initiated by Customer to the time Customer has initiated an action that would result in stopping or deleting the Tenant. 2.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . “Connectivity Downtime” is the total accumulated minutes that deployed Internet facing roles that have not been stopped by action from Customer have no external connectivity during a five minute period. Definitions 1. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://store. “Monthly Connectivity Uptime Percentage” for a specific Customer is the total number of Maximum Connectivity Minutes less Connectivity Downtime divided by Maximum Connectivity Minutes for a billing month for a given subscription of Windows Azure. as measured and aggregated in five minute intervals.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.89 i. Monthly Connectivity Uptime Percentage is reflected by the following formula: ii. “Maximum Connectivity Minutes” is the total accumulated minutes during a billing month for all Internet facing roles that have two or more instances deployed in different Update Domains. 3.theartofservice. Monthly Connectivity Uptime Service Levels Monthly Uptime Percentage <99.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Role Instance Uptime is reflected by the following formula: ii. 2. “Monthly Role Instance Uptime Percentage” for a specific Customer is the total number of Maximum Role Instance Minutes less Role Instance Downtime divided by Maximum Role Instance Minutes for a billing month for a given subscription of Windows Azure. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. “Role Instance Downtime” is the total accumulated minutes for all role instances during a billing month that had been deployed and started by action initiated by Customer which had not been running for longer than two minutes without detection and corrective action being initiated..org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .c. not Windows Azure Storage or other Windows Azure platform services) b. Additional SLA Exclusion 1.90 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION *Service credit applies only to Windows Azure Compute Services (i.e. “Maximum Role Instance Minutes” is the total accumulated minutes during a billing month for all role instances measured from when the associated Tenant has been deployed and its associated roles have been started resultant from action initiated by Customer to the time Customer has initiated an action that would result in stopping or deleting the Tenant.theartofservice.. In addition to the SLA Exclusions noted in Section 1. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store. Monthly Role Instance Uptime Service Level i. Definitions 1. 3. the SLA and any applicable Service Levels related to the Monthly Role Instance Uptime does not include any performance or availability issues to perform regular platform upgrades and patches.
com Web: http://store. As a service provider.91 iii. the principles remain the same.3 Service Catalog Imagine walking into a restaurant for lunch only to find there is no menu available for you to peruse. How will the staff provide you with information about what options are available to you? How will you know what ingredients and items are included with each meal? What will the price be of those meals? What about drinks or other items? Even if you manage to be served by a very efficient waiter who can recite everything to you flawlessly. customers can understand what is available to them and make effective choices in a simple manner. not Windows Azure Storage or other Windows Azure platform services) 11.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.e. but what mechanisms do we use to make these transactions simple yet effective for all parties? 91 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . how will you manage the large influx of information in such a small time and be able to choose what you want? While this example may be far removed from the running of a Cloud service or IT service provider. we are in the business of providing IT services to our customers.. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org% <99% Service Credit* 10% 25% *Service credit applies only to Windows Azure Compute charges (i. Monthly Role Instance Uptime Service Levels Monthly Uptime Percentage <99. A restaurant is in business to provide dining services to customers and through the use of their menu and the knowledge and skills of staff.theartofservice.
and other related items become all the more difficult. and.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . in many ways.theartofservice.com Web: http://store.92 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION For most service organizations the Service Catalog provides this mechanism.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and things only get worse as time progresses. A typical Business Service Catalog visible to customers and users Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. it serves as the foundation for much of the work involved within the scope of Service Offerings and Agreements. Service Level Agreements. the development and management of Service Portfolios. Without some agreed definition of what services we offer. We must also seek to ensure that the Service Catalog is continually maintained and updated to contain correct. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and which customers we provide them to. IT budgets. appropriate. and relevant information to assist communication and transactions with customers. But it is not enough to simply have some form of Service Catalog. what those services provide.
theartofservice.1 Scope of a Service Catalog The scope of the Service Catalog is to provide and maintain accurate information on all services that are being transitioned or have been transitioned to the live environment.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and status 93 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. including: • • An accepted. 11. Australia I Email: email@example.com. the size of the customer and end user population. which makes up the Service Catalog Developing and maintaining the interfaces and dependencies between the Service Catalog and Service Portfolio. their details. This requires the service provider to perform such tasks as: • • • • Communicating what is being provided by defining services Producing and maintaining accurate information. many benefits will be delivered to both customers and the service provider.com Web: http://store.3. and Configuration Items (CIs) within the Service Catalog and the CMS Depending on the amount of services offered and their complexity. widely-accessible.2 Benefits By ensuring the development and constant upkeep of an accurate Service Catalog.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. while ensuring consistency between the two items Identifying and documenting the interfaces and dependencies between services (and supporting services) within the Service Catalog and Configuration Management System (CMS) • Identifying and documenting the interfaces and dependencies between services. supporting components.93 11. and consistent central source of information Ensures all areas of the business can view an accurate. and what objectives have been defined for the process. well-communicated picture of all IT services. these activities and items may have little or a great deal of reliance on technology to be effective.
so should the associated definition for inclusion in the Service Catalog. Just like the design of services should be coordinated in a top-down approach. The policy should also detail how an organization comes to agree on that definition. In short. looking at services from only an IT perspective will lead you down a dangerous path and most likely cause you more headaches and grief in the process.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . each organization needs to develop a policy that defines what constitutes a service for their particular organization. such as software or applications. how they are intended to be used.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the recommended starting point is to look at things from the customer perspective.94 • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Contains a customer-facing view of IT services in use.com Web: http://store. From an IT perspective. This is normally performed by asking customers what they perceive to be the IT services they are utilizing and how those services support their business processes. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. the service will be seen to be composed of multiple services (which in turn are formed by one or more IT systems).theartofservice. Instead. In other cases.3. and the quality of service to be expected Reduction in the resources required for Service Level Management and other associated processes/staff in managing communication with customers in relation to information already captured by the Service Catalog 11. many staff will typically identify IT systems. business processes they enable. there will often be a lack of clarity in this regard. resulting in confusion and debate about what actually constitutes a service. as being the service offered to customers. While it sounds simple enough. for an organization with a long history and large amount of customers.3 What Should the Service Catalog Represent? The starting point for any Service Catalog journey is to begin identifying what services are being provided and who the customers of these services are. Regardless of exactly how this occurs.
g. Accounts System E. a clearer picture will emerge. qualifying types of services such as: • • Business Services—that what is used and seen by the customer Supporting Services. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Services E. Eventually.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .g. Intranet E. Internet Service x Service x Service x Accounts Sales Customers Marketing Legal Production Retail 95 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. providing the beginnings of a Business Service Catalog.95 The top-down approach may lead to the creation of a service hierarchy. including further definition as: o o o o Infrastructure Services Application Services Network Services Data Management Services • • Shared and Commodity Services Externally provided services—those provided/managed by a 3rd party organization As the definition of services begins to occur. Email E.g.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. consideration should be made as to who are the actual customers of these services. through a cycle of discussions with customers.g.
When this occurs and services themselves are represented as a configuration item (CI).com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. IT staff.theartofservice. the Technical Service Catalog includes details of the relationships that exist with other supporting services. components. then the technical level of detail provided should be appropriately expanded. the knowledge and information of the Service Catalog is logically divided into two aspects: • A Business Service Catalog: this aspect of the Service Catalog details the IT services that are defined in the context of customers.com Web: http://store. use of business terminology. as time progresses and maturity of Service Management develops. After the investigation and definition of services occur and discussions are held with customers. using appropriate communication (language. many organizations will begin to incorporate and maintain their Service Catalog as part of the Configuration Management System. and external suppliers. The Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. the need to ensure that modifications to the Service Catalog are controlled by Change Management significantly increases. and configuration items necessary for the delivery of the service to the business. the Service Catalog will normally be recorded by means of a table or spreadsheet. In cases where the customer is an IT organization themselves. not overly technical) to ensure its effectiveness. shared services. As this becomes more widely adopted throughout more Service Management activities. but. instead of detailing the relationships to business units and business process. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. In effect. This information is utilized to form the customer view of the Service Catalog.96 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Identifying customers of defined services In the earlier stages of process implementation.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . However. It also contains details about the relationships that these services have to the business units and the business process they support. • A Technical Service Catalog: This aspect of the Service Catalog contains the same information as the Business Service Catalog. it provides the capability for identifying and relating the effect of incidents and problems on services offered. the information and knowledge gathered will be structured to produce a meaningful Service Catalog.
In many cases.com Web: http://store. the key requirement is that the desired information is easily accessible by the authorized parties and communicated in a form that is appropriate for the audience. 97 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.4 Example Service Catalog Entries for Cloud Environment Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) Amazon S3 is storage for the Internet.3. It gives any developer access to the same highly scalable. 11. Regardless of the implementation method. inexpensive infrastructure that Amazon uses to run its own global network of websites. from anywhere on the web. secure.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . less mature organizations may choose to maintain these separately. unless specifically requested. the Technical Service Catalog is formed largely by the information contained within the Configuration Management System. Amazon S3 provides a simple web services interface that can be used to store and retrieve any amount of data. fast.theartofservice. The service aims to maximize benefits of scale and to pass those benefits on to developers. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. at any time.97 Technical Service Catalog should underpin the Business Service Catalog and is not always visible to customers and users. reliable. While more extravagant implementations of the Service Catalog delivered via extensive internet/ intranet solutions will maintain both aspects in an integrated fashion. It is designed to make web-scale computing easier for developers.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
To build applications and services on Windows Azure.98 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Microsoft Windows Azure Windows Azure™ is a Cloud services operating system that serves as the development.theartofservice. The reasoning behind this is that before we decide how to design to meet the customers’ capacity requirements. XML.com Web: http://store. decisions must be made regarding why demand should be managed in a particular way. as well as negatively impacting their customers. Windows Azure provides developers with on-demand computers and storage to host. 11.4 Demand Management Demand Management is an important strategic input into design and operation of Cloud services. Such questions asked here include: • • • When and why do our customers need this capacity? Does the benefit of providing the required capacity outweigh the costs? How can we best optimize the provision of capacity to meet the dynamic demands of customers? When Cloud service providers fail to manage demand effectively and efficiently. and service management environment for the Windows Azure platform. and manage web applications on the internet through Microsoft® datacenters. including SOAP. and PHP. REST. In addition. service hosting. scale. value will be delivered to customers in a costCopyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Windows Azure is a flexible platform that supports multiple languages and integrates with your existing on-premises environment. Windows Azure supports popular standards and protocols. they put themselves at risk of being negatively impacted. Australia I Email: email@example.com I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . When demand is predicted and managed well. developers can use their existing Microsoft Visual Studio® expertise.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
the customer will be paying for excess capacity without receiving any benefits from that capacity. This promotes the cost-effective use of IT when demand is low and customers are not likely to be negatively impacted. Two examples showing these differences are: • Health/Medical Organizations: It would not be advisable to utilize any Demand Management restrictions on IT services within organizations that support critical services being offered to the public because the impact of these restrictions could lead to tragic implications for patients being treated. and the service provider will aim to provide increased capacity during these times. 99 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. which go through peak and non-peak periods.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. can potentially limit service and organizational growth. Typically.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Any customer would be highly reluctant to pay for idle capacity without receiving value in return. they should be minimal. The aim of Demand Management is to find a balance between the prediction and management of demand for services and the supply and production of capacity to meet those demands. By being able to provide the right level of capacity. Keep in mind that Demand Management plays an integral part in supporting the objectives of an organization and maximizing the value of the service provider. IT can ensure that the required levels of quality and warranty in agreed services is maintained and reduce the amount of excess capacity provided. On the other hand.g.com Web: http://store. Christmas and Easter). if insufficient capacity is provided. • Commercial Confectionery Organizations: On the other hand. however.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. it can impact the quality of services delivered.99 effective and efficient way. which. in turn. however. This means that each organization will utilize Demand Management in a different way. If Demand Management restrictions are put in place.. can implement Demand Management strategies in order to reduce any excess capacity from being provided during non-peak periods. these types of organizations. when this does not occur. a confectionery company will have extremely busy periods during holiday times (e.
include techniques for managing demand Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and service level agreements (where appropriate). including a demand profile for the services used for each user type in order to understand patterns in user type and demand for services Capacity plans are developed that include details of business activity patterns and their corresponding workloads Capacity plans.4. Other objectives include: • • Identification and analysis of Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) and user profiles that generate demand Utilizing techniques to influence and manage demand in such a way that excess capacity is reduced but the business and customer requirements are still satisfied 11.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.4.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. as well as to understand how to meet that demand by providing appropriate capacity levels.1 Goal and Objectives The primary goal of Demand Management is to understand and influence the demand for services.2 Key Performance Indicators Some key performance indicators (KPIs) of Demand Management are as follows: • • • • • Analyze business activity for each relevant service in order to find patterns Translate business activity patterns into workload information (through Capacity Management) Document user profiles.100 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 11.
4.101 11.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. many related Cloud services and internal processes are being accessed across the provider’s infrastructure.g. e. using expensive charging for services near full capacity or over capacity quotas Providing user and customer education Example Every morning between 8:00am and 10:30am in the United States (WST).org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. approximately 15.com Web: http://store. users. 101 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. or running times Utilizing financial chargeback.g.000. e.000 users logon to use a Cloud-based webmail system. At the same time...3 Influencing Demand There are three primary methods used to influence or manage demand for IT resources/services from customers: • • • Placing physical or technical constraints on the use of services. restricting the number of connections.
Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.g. Outside of this time everything performs at acceptable levels.theartofservice. This is often referred to as dynamic or elastic scaling.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. reports and batch jobs failing). For some high volume (e. such as Amazon EC2 or Microsoft Azure. By changing the service configuration. support the concept of dynamic scaling through a pricing model that is based on hourly compute increments. those with highly dynamic usage patterns) applications Cloud Computing is becoming the only economically feasible solution to the problem. taking a long time to log on.com Web: http://store. so that resources are allocated towards email rather than other services Running non-time-critical reports and batch jobs at night or outside typical work hours Restricting any non-critical activities during peak periods Reduce the bandwidth allocated to each concurrent user 11. a key benefit of Cloud Computing is the ability to add and remove capacity as and when it is required. either through editing it on the portal or through the use of the Management API..5 Dynamic Scaling to Meet Demand in the Cloud As previously discussed. Being able to add and remove this capacity can dramatically reduce the total cost of ownership for certain types of applications.102 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Recently. What are some Demand Management techniques that could be utilized to address this situation? Possible techniques: • • • • Increasing the priority of webmail servers.. customers are able to adjust on the fly the amount of capacity they are running and being charged for. Australia I Email: email@example.com I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .g. the performance of the Cloud services and related infrastructure has been experiencing problems during this time period (e. Cloud Computing platforms.
days after launch. however. modify. is that there is no discerning between traffic that you want to accommodate. at a lower cost. No human intervention is necessary to add.6 Availability Management Availability Management is especially critical in the context of Cloud Computing. or remove this capacity. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . That is. etc. less time needs to be spent on checking logs and performance data manually. versus traffic you do not (e.g. which is the ability (with certain Cloud infrastructure management tools. therefore.theartofservice.103 A question that is commonly asked is how to automate the scaling of a cloud-based application. a denial of service attack).com Web: http://store. 11. like VMware’s VSphere) to add and remove capacity into a Cloud infrastructure based on actual usage. Another related term is auto-scaling. By automating the process. Each provider is responsible for documenting the framework and architecture used for dynamic scaling so that developers can optimize their applications accordingly. and there is no need for an administrator to manually intervene in order to add and remove capacity. 103 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. how developers can build systems that are able to adjust scale based on factors such as the time of day or the load that the application is receiving.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. The complaint about auto-scaling. Scaling can be as simple as running X number of servers during weekdays and Y number during weekends or very complex based on several different rules (number of concurrent users. as the ability (or inability) to meet the customer’s availability requirements will have a large influence on their satisfaction and long-term retention.. An automated approach also has the benefit of always keeping the instance count at a minimum.). It allows the application to be run with a smaller amount of ‘headroom’ capacity and. while still being able to cope with the current load.
when service not required 3: 30min outage on critical IT Service.104 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 11.1 Goal and Objectives The main goal of Availability Management is to ensure that all services are delivered at or above the required availability levels of the business. off peak. and that this is done in a cost-effective manner. 60min outage on non-critical IT Service 4: 30mins unplanned outage.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. urgent report required 2: 60min outage on weekend. overtime being paid to staff.theartofservice. maintenance) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.g. both now and in the foreseeable future. including assessing any changes in relation to the impact they have on the Availability Plan Provide availability advice and guidance to the business Ensure availability targets are met or exceeded Assist with diagnosis and resolution of availability related incidents and problems Ensure frequent proactive measures that are taken to optimize and improve the availability of services are implemented where it is cost-justifiable Question: Why could users be happy with a 60 minute outage and yet be unhappy with 30 minute outage? 1: 30min outage during peak time. Other objectives include providing the capabilities to: • • • • • Produce and maintain an up-to-date Availability Plan.. 60min planned outage (e. holiday. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
techniques. including supporting processes. its availability and reliability can directly influence both their perception of and satisfaction with the overall provision of that IT service. as well as the way in which these requirements are met • • • Development of a defined set of methods. and calculations for the assessment and reporting of availability Liaison with IT Service Continuity Management and other aligned processes to assist with risk assessment and management activities Ensuring consistency in the design of services and components to align with the business requirements for availability Reactive Activities: • Regular monitoring of all aspects of availability. 11. such as Incident and 105 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. the impact on the user population’s experience can be significantly reduced. reliability.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . when disruptions are properly communicated and managed effectively. However.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Activities Proactive Activities: • The development and maintenance of an Availability Plan. such as Event Management for timely disruption detection and escalation • • • Regular and event-based reporting of service and component availability Ensuring regular maintenance is performed according to the levels of risk across the IT infrastructure Assessing the performance of and data gathered by various processes.6. which details the current and future availability requirements for IT services.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.105 For a consumer/user of an IT service. and maintainability.
theartofservice.106 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Problem Management. Availability Explanations Availability refers to the ability of a service to fulfill its required and agreed purpose at any time that it is required.3 Basic Concepts for Availability Management The following concepts are fundamental to the understanding and application of Availability Management and will be referenced throughout the rest of the chapter. The following formula is typically used in order to calculate and present availability data as a percentage: Availability (%) = Agreed Service Time – Downtime ____________________________ Agreed Service Time x 100 % This means that if a service only partially fulfills its purpose at a time when it is required or the performance is degraded to a point outside of normal 2.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Involves all aspects of service availability and unavailability and the impact of component availability or unavailability on service availability. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Terminology 1.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Component Availability service operation. to determine what improvement actions might be made to improve availability levels or the way in which they are met 11.com Web: http://store.6. Involves all aspects of component availability and unavailability. Service Availability 3. then the service should be classed as unavailable.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. It is typically calculated with the formulas: Reliability (MTBSI) = Available time in hours _____________________ Number of service disruptions Reliability (MTBF) = Available time in hours – Total Downtime in hours _________________________________________ Number of service disruptions 5. This metric is typically measured and reported as the Mean Time to Restore Service (MTRS). which includes the entire time from the start of the disruption until the full recovery. This metric provides an understanding of the frequency of disruption and is typically reported as Mean Time Between Service Incidents (MTBSI) or Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF). Maintainability Maintainability refers to the measure of the time it takes for a service to resume normal operation after a failure.107 4.theartofservice. The following formula is normally used: Maintainability (MTRS) = Total downtime in hours _______________________ Number of service disruptions 107 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Reliability Reliability refers to the measure of the length of time that a service is able to fulfill its required and agreed purpose without interruption. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
including meeting agreed levels of availability. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: email@example.com. and/ or maintainability for a supporting service.108 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION The following is an example of availability.60% = 15 hours . reliability. as described above. Serviceability Serviceability refers to the ability of an external (third-party) supplier to fulfill their contract. including one disruption that lasted 4 hours and one that lasted 26 hours.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 x 100 % = 99. 7 days a week has been running for 7540 hours and has suffered two disruptions during that time. Availability (%) = 7540 – 30 __________ 7540 Reliability (MTBSI) = 7540 = 3770 hours _____ 2 Reliability (MTBF) = 7510 = 3755 hours _____ 2 Maintainability (MTRS) = 30 ___ 2 6.com Web: http://store. the resulting metrics would be represented as shown below. If a service that is provided 24 hours a day.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. reliability. and maintainability measures.
which include 8. including the use of redundant and highly resilient components. The purpose of the Vital Business Function is to define only those elements that are considered to be critical to the function of the business process. The ability of a service to withstand the effects of a component failure. meaning it continues to operate correctly. Effort and resources should be prioritized around supporting the critical elements. which are now used commonly in key infrastructure components (such as servers).109 7.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. An approach or design that enables an IT service to remain available during maintenance. This means that only individual components of the IT service are disrupted at any given time. including environmental and other factors. Continuous operation 11.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. An attribute of the IT service that reduces or hides the effect that component failure has on users of a service.com Web: http://store. Particular VBFs may require specialized designs. 109 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. High Availability 9.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . An approach or design to achieve theoretical 100% level of service availability. Vital Business Function (VBF) An IT service may support both critical and non-critical elements of a business process. but more stringent requirements will also be assessed first. Multiple design factors will support this to occur. Continuous availability the following four concepts. Fault tolerance 10.
Some of the elements required in order to meet increasing service availability levels include: • • • • • Quality controlled components and products Systems Management (including monitoring and diagnostic and recovery capabilities) Service Management processes (including Event. Designing for recovery These activities are concerned with ensuring that. and Problem Management) High availability-designs (including the elimination of SPOFs and the implementation of redundant components and systems to minimize or avoid disruption) Special solutions with full redundancy through the use of multiple redundant components. techniques. in the event of an IT service failure or disruption.4 Availability Management Activities and Techniques Planning/Proactive Activities and Techniques 1.com Web: http://store. processes. and sites with strict testing and quality assurance measures being used for each of these elements 2. Availability Management will utilize a number of components.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Designing for availability Once an agreed level of availability is defined by balancing the business requirements for availability against the resources required to sustain it. systems.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and supporting systems to ensure the service is designed appropriately and can be supported in service operation. the service and its various supporting components can be restored as quickly as possible so that business operations can resume.110 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 11.6. Incident. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
suitable availability levels may still be provided by swift and effective resolutions to manage any disruptions that do occur. there should be shared involvement in these activities. It can also be applied to determine the impact and reliance on the skills of 111 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. The results of this analysis help IT to identify the areas that require additional resilience or redundancy in order to eliminate or reduce any future impact of component failure on the business operation and users. This is a particularly important step during service design so that any potential impact on service availability. however. resulting from component failure. 3.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. CFIA is used to determine this information and is generally easy to use. there should be appropriate communication between both the design staff and the operational and support staff. can be predicted and assessed prior to the service being introduced to the live environment. there will not be any business justification to build a highly-available service.111 In many cases. Ideally.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA) Component Failure Impact Analysis (CFIA) can be used to forecast and analyze the level of impact that a component failure has on an IT service.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Some of the elements involved in designing for recovery include: • • • Implementing Systems management for monitoring and escalating any events that may lead to a service disruption Developing internal and external processes and procedures to be used to maintain availability and resolve disruptions Providing ongoing training and awareness sessions in order to improve the capability of the people involved in service operation To assist in this goal.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. These include: • • • • • The impact that component failure can have on users and business operations The dependencies on components and the people involved Relative component recovery sequence timeframes Identified areas where specific recovery plans and procedures may be required Identified components that may need some risk reduction measures implemented One of the main methods for performing a CFIA is by developing a matrix that illustrates which IT services depend on which component configuration items (CIs).g.112 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION IT support and the abilities of staff supporting the new service.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. redundant) to provide the service Place an ‘M’ in the box where the available substitute requires manual intervention in order to be recovered Configuration Item PC 1 Laptop 1 Switch 1 WAN Service 1 M M X X Service 2 M M X X Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. This matrix will be populated using the following rules: • • • • Leave a blank when a CI failure has no impact on the service Place an ‘X’ in the box where a CI failure renders the service inoperative Place an ‘A’ in the box where there is a substitute CI (e. The CFIA is usually performed in conjunction with IT Service Continuity Management and sometimes Capacity Management. The outputs of CFIA are used in a number of ways in both planning for availability as well as planning for recovery.. This may come from the Configuration Management System or from other sources of infrastructure information.com Web: http://store.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . mapping how the components of a single IT service relate to Vital Business Functions and various user groups. this might be based on the percentage of users from the entire user community being affected (e. can be completed from a different perspective. While this alternate perspective is valuable for understanding particular risks in the infrastructure and IT services.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice..com Web: http://store.25 or 25%) • Probability of failure: based on the reliability of the component or service. as above. • If an IT service has many Xs.theartofservice. including such fields as: • Component availability weighting: a weighting factor based on the impact of failure or service as a whole. an advanced CFIA can provide a more detailed analysis. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. instead. 500 out of 2000 users would be 0. It may also indicate that this particular CI is a potential Single Point of Failure. the following aspects should be considered: • If a CI has many Xs.g. typically measured in MTBF 113 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. it indicates that the CI is critical to a number of services and its failure can result in high impact to the business. it indicates that the service is a potentially complex configuration that has a higher vulnerability level to failure The same exercise. As an example.113 Switch 2 Switch 3 Data Centre Server 1 Disk 1 Disk 2 Application 1 Application 2 A A X X A A X A A X X A A X Once completed.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Fault Tree Analysis By performing a Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) either in the design of services or as part of a review of a major incident or problem. have been implemented independently Dependency: to show dependency between CIs 4. For any SPOFs detected. the information gained from a CFIA can be used to evaluate whether the cost for its remediation can be justified. The analysis makes use of Boolean notation for the events that occur in the fault tree. where necessary.com Web: http://store. and they are combined using a number of logic operators to understand the potential result. 5.theartofservice. it provides an understanding of the chain of events that lead to an IT service being disrupted.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. The typical logic operators used for understanding the combination of events include: • • AND-gates: where the result occurs only in the event that all input events occur at the same time OR-gates: where the result occurs in the event that one or more of the input events occur Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Single Point of Failure Analysis A Single Point of Failure (SPOF) Analysis can be performed in order to identify the components that have the potential to disrupt the business in the event of a failure because they do not have backup or fail-over capabilities.114 • • • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Recovery time: the predicted time it will take for the service or CI to be recovered Recovery procedures: to verify that an effective recovery procedure exists Device independence: used to verify CIs.
A generic framework that can be applied across all areas of an organization to assist in this is Management of Risk (M_o_R). Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Some of the key elements focused on by the M_o_R framework include providing direction for organizations to: • • • • • • Develop a clear and explicit framework that is repeatable and can be adapted where necessary Communicate the risk policy clearly to all staff and stakeholders.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . which is another best practice framework published by the Office of Government Commerce (OGC).theartofservice. and what countermeasures might be used to mitigate these risks in a cost-effective manner. provide analysis of vulnerability to these risks and the impacts associated with them. while also detailing its benefits Assign accountability and responsibility to key individuals in senior management Ensure the culture of the organization is motivated to embed risk management initiatives Ensure that risk management initiatives support the organization’s objectives Adopt an approach for monitoring and reviewing risk assessment activities that is blame free 115 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.115 • • Exclusive OR-gate: where the result only occurs in the event that only one of the input events occurs Inhibit gate: where the result only occurs in the event that the input condition is not met 6. Availability Management should contribute by identifying potential risks to and inherent in the infrastructure. Risk Analysis and Management As part of the coordinated approach in regards to Risk Analysis and Management.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. This framework adopts a systematic approach for the identification and assessment of risk and implementation of associated countermeasures. All organizations should define their own formal approach to Risk Analysis and Management to ensure complete coverage and sufficient confidence in their strategy.
CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Planned and preventative maintenance A planned maintenance strategy should be developed in order to handle all critical IT components. These differences result from differences in the technologies involved. Each component will have different levels of required maintenance.116 7. it will normally be documented in: Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. The introduction of planned maintenance activities assists the IT support organization in providing: • • • • Preventative maintenance Planned upgrades to software or hardware Requested changes to business applications New technology and functionality These provisions help the business to avoid failures and to access new functionality or extra capacity. Once the agreed schedule for planned and preventative maintenance has been defined and agreed. This will ensure that service availability is not disrupted during the hours of operation.com Web: http://store. resulting in degraded performance during those times being an acceptable outcome.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and the frequency with which this maintenance is required will also vary. and the potential business benefits that may be introduced. when it has downtime. thus.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. It is relatively easy to schedule maintenance outside of business hours when an IT service is not required during all hours of the day and week. maintenance can be scheduled during the most non-critical times. In the event that an IT service is required to be constantly operating at all hours of the day and week. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. criticality of the component.
com Web: http://store. any additional maintenance windows that might be required should be communicated by the Service Desk to all appropriate parties. Although under the overall responsibility of Availability Management.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. including those involved in service operation.117 • • • • SLAs. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 117 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and Underpinning Contracts Change Management Schedules Release and Deployment Management Schedules Intranet/Internet pages that communicate scheduled and unscheduled outages to the end user community 8.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . OLAs. Production of the Projected Service Outage Availability Management is also responsible for the documentation and communication of the Projected Service Outage (PSO) document. which includes any variations to the agreed levels of service availability within SLAs and is based on input from: • • • • The change and release schedules Planned and preventative maintenance schedules Testing schedules Continuity Management testing schedules The PSO is used to ensure that all variations to agreed availability levels are understood and agreed by all relevant stakeholders. that does include operational activities performed by a range of staff. The following activities are those that should be consistently utilized in the ongoing delivery and support of IT services in regards to availability. During its use.
118 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Monitor. These traditional measures include: • • • • • Percent available Percent unavailable—which might be better used to emphasize shortcomings of availability Duration of downtime (in hours and minutes) Frequency of failure—demonstrating the number of failures during the reporting period Impact of failure—the real measure of unavailability. analyze.com Web: http://store. measure. and frequency of failure. time lost. when the objectives for monitoring and reporting are defined in the context of the business and user perspective. They are normally based on a combination of this percentage.theartofservice. Some methods that might be employed with this approach include defining: • • Impact by user minutes lost—calculated by multiplying the length of disruption by the number of users affected Impact by business transaction—calculated by assessing the number of business transactions that were not processed due to the period of disruption Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . many organizations and businesses have realized that these traditional methods for reporting availability are no longer adequate in communicating the user and business experience of availability and unavailability. they have not necessarily been able to utilize this information to understand the business and user experience of availability. Typical traditional measures focus on different aspects of availability and are reported as a percentage. a more representative view of the overall quality of IT services is achieved. which requires close integration with effective Incident and Problem Management processes However. and report service and component availability While many organizations have monitored availability traditionally from a component perspective. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Alternatively.
analysis.com Web: http://store. Availability Management should seek to implement and integrate all useful (but cost-effective) monitoring systems. To enable efficiency of the process. it will also streamline the production of the agreed regular reports. and reporting. and CFIA reports. If there are a wide range of automated and electronic processing actions performed without actual user involvement.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. information sources. and reporting mechanisms to reduce the complexity and resources required for information gathering. Service Failure Analysis (SFA). The tangible costs are typically well-defined and understood.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the methods utilized by Availability Management should be appropriate to the organization’s business processes and operational models. analysis should be made as to the actual costs incurred during periods of disruption or unavailability. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. then simply measuring based on user impact will not be sufficient.119 In any case. including normal monthly availability reporting. When done effectively. the Availability Plan. such as: • • • • • • • Lost user productivity Lost IT staff productivity Overtime payments Lost revenue Wasted goods and materials Imposed fines or penalty payments Injuries or potential safety incidents caused 119 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Unavailability analysis As part of justifying the costs of implementing and executing the Availability Management process.
they should form part of the focus of customer and user surveys performed by Service Level Management. or staff training and education.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. negative effects on the organization and the service provider.theartofservice. reducing the impact on the associated business processes. By analyzing the various time elements making up those disruptions. Rather. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. there are still methods that can be utilized by which user and customer satisfaction can be maintained. additional documentation and procedures. thus. even when disruptions occur. there are also a number of intangible costs that can have potentially long-lasting. be it through technology enhancements. One way to help achieve this goal is by ensuring that the duration of disruptions (incidents) is reduced to the least amount of time possible so that normal service can resume as soon as possible. The Expanded Incident Lifecycle As already discussed earlier in the principles of Availability Management. Such intangible costs of unavailability include: • • • • • • Loss of customers Loss of customer satisfaction Loss of business opportunity Damage to business reputation Loss of confidence in the IT service provider Damage to staff morale While they may be difficult to measure. it will help Availability Management to target any improvement actions. these costs should not be ignored.120 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION While these are of course important. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . which breaks down all the major stages through which all incidents progress. This can be performed by analyzing the expanded incident lifecycle.
When implemented effectively. For critical CIs. Incident recovery 5. These improvements may be focused on the detection mechanisms. 1.121 The five major stages of incidents are: 1.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . or any other activity or task involved during the life of the incident. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. repair. A variety of tools and systems should be employed that have capabilities to detect events and incidents and. consequently.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Incident diagnosis 3. many incidents will be detected and resolved before the users have even been impacted in any noticeable way. Incident restoration The time it takes for the incident to progress through each of these stages affects the total downtime that the user and business experience. Availability Management needs to work closely with Incident and Problem Management to ensure any improvement actions optimize the use of resources and prevent the recurrence of the incidents where possible. the same systems and tools should also be utilized to trigger automated recovery with scripted responses. As a consequence. By evaluating each of the stages.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. Event Management may also be coordinated to ensure that CIs are appropriately covered so that events. it enables Availability Management to identify areas where the progression of the incident may be inefficient and results in longer disruption to the user. reduce the detection timeframe that occurs. Incident detection This stage encompasses the time between the actual failure or disruption to a CI or IT service occurring and the moment at which the service provider is made aware of that incident. the documentation supporting diagnosis. 121 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. which may lead to service disruption. Incident repair 4. the escalation procedures utilized. and recovery. Incident detection 2. are detected.
including both the automated and manual techniques that might be needed. including: • • • Actions to repair or restart a failed CI Activities performed by external suppliers for the repair of CIs under their control Documentation of the procedures used to assist in the future diagnosis and repair of similar incidents Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.122 2. with this stage focusing on the actual techniques that initiate the resolution of the incident. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. The repair time is shown independently from the recovery time. problem. along with general knowledge management systems that may have captured the criteria by which the incident has occurred before Manual observation performed by the various technical staff responsible for the failing CI(s) 3. Other than information potentially gathered from users. it will also enhance the capabilities for preventing the reoccurrence of those incidents. Incident repair This stage encompasses the repair time required for the incident. While capturing a range of diagnostic data will often extend the restoration time. there is an appropriate balance that needs to be developed between the need to capture diagnostic data and the need to have the incident restored. input for the successful diagnosis of the incident may come from: • • • Data captured by the failing CI(s) Incident. at this stage.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Incident diagnosis This stage encompasses the timeframe between when the IT service provider has been made aware of the incident to the time when the underlying cause of the incident has been determined.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Particularly.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. and known error databases.
In some situations.123 The agreed timeframes for the response and repair of incidents should be documented in SLAs. 5. Australia I Email: email@example.com I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . who simply call the affected users for confirmation that service has been restored to them. OLAs. In other cases. 4. 123 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. this will be performed by Service Desk staff. and Underpinning Contracts and continuously monitored for compliance.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. particularly those that support automated business processes. Incident restoration This stage encompasses the time from when the recovery steps are completed through to the time that the service provider has confirmed that normal business and IT service operation has resumed. a synthetic transaction or user-simulation test script may need to be executed to ensure that the restored IT service is working as expected. Incident recovery This stage encompasses the activities required to recover service availability (but distinct from the repair activities previously mentioned) and refers to the time that the component has been recovered. This includes activities such as: • • • • The initiation for backups to be effectively restored The activities required to recover lost or corrupt data Utilizing spare equipment (including those within the Definitive Spares) to be implemented in the production environment to facilitate recovery The actions and time required to restore an image to a desktop machine following a failure When designing new IT services the recovery requirements for each supporting component CI should be identified as early as possible to facilitate the development of the associated recovery plans and procedures to be used when failures occur.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .124 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Service Failure Analysis The purpose of the Service Failure Analysis (SFA) is to identify the root causes of service interruptions in an organized and structured manner. The staff utilized in an SFA would typically be those also involved in Incident and Problem Management. processes. and tools.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. procedures. It does this by analyzing data from a variety of sources.7 Risk Management Cloud Computing comes with its own set of risks. This approach enables a complete understanding of the causes of incidents. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. which aids in driving appropriate improvements to both technology and the IT support organization. which need to be acknowledged and prepared for before an organization decides to move their mission critical applications to the Cloud. which results in the identification of where shortfalls in availability are occurring and why. so the activities here will be jointly performed by these processes. Some of the key high-level objectives of SFA are to: • • • • • • • Ensure that the availability of IT services is suitably improved by producing a set of improvements for implementation or input into the Availability Plan Identify the root causes of service interruptions Enable enhanced levels of service availability without incurring major costs Assess the effectiveness of the IT support organization and key processes Develop cross-functional teams to reduce silos that may exist Produce detailed reports of major findings and recommendations Ensure that SFA-identified improvements to availability are measured 11.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. rotate staff using its own methods. The organization is still accountable for ensuring that appropriate security is provided to their customers. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 125 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.theartofservice. it is vital that organizations investigate all practices and procedures relating to accessibility of their sensitive data. these controls no longer apply because the service provider will have its own practices and procedures for carrying out their day-to-day activities.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . However. the organization has certain controls in place for the accessibility of that data. Access When sensitive data is located in-house. Accountability The migration of the organization’s data to the Cloud does not take with it the accountability of that data. including how the data is moved within the Cloud and which personnel are able to gain access to that data. Any issues with security or integrity will be followed up with the organization. and personnel aspects of accessibility. For this reason. when the data is moved to the Cloud. For this reason. not the service provider. it is important that the organization investigates the standards and procedures that the service provider has in place for moderating risk to their data and ensures that these standards and procedures are current and effective. For example. it will hire personnel according to its own hiring procedure. and implement its own controls for the access of stored data.125 The following is a list of potential risks involved with Cloud Computing. logical. This includes controls for the physical.
it is possible for the data stored within the Cloud to be lost. Acquisition Every service provider should be able to detail how an organization’s data will be handled in the event that their company is acquired by another.theartofservice. A service provider should be able to demonstrate recovery plans.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. or country. As these different geographical areas often have different laws to those that exist within the geographical area of the organization.126 Geography CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION It is not uncommon for the data of an organization to be stored in a different city. during these disasters. The organization should aim to fully understand the repercussions of a merger. Loss and Recovery Disasters do happen and. However. state. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. data is usually encrypted when it is stored in the Cloud in order to keep it secure. recovery procedures will need to take place. including how data is recovered in the event of loss and how long recovery will take. any contractual agreements about the privacy of data may be overridden.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . as well as determine whether their contract includes an exit strategy for this type of event. This can pose a problem when trying to recover lost data because encrypted data is more difficult to recover than unencrypted data. In this case. The organization should investigate this matter before deciding whether to utilize a particular service provider and whether to move their data to the Cloud.com Web: http://store. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
and storage components.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .127 Availability Various elements are employed in providing Cloud services. thus.com Web: http://store. the organization should determine the level of service unavailability they can handle and check that the service provider’s guaranteed uptime is in line with this requirement.8 Disaster Recovery As previously mentioned. In order to streamline processes and procedures in the recovery process.6.theartofservice. applications. the organization’s data may not be accessible. a disaster recovery plan (DRP) is an important tool for every organization to ensure they are prepared to cope with any unexpected and disastrous events. A disaster recovery plan differs from a business continuity plan in that it is a plan for dealing with events that cannot be anticipated. on the other hand. Therefore. Section 11. and. or human disaster occurs. deals with expected incidents and problems. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. like component or server failure. disasters can be a real threat to the safety of an organization’s data. 11. entire businesses can be ruined. 127 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. If any one of these elements fails to operate correctly. those businesses could end up losing everything. A business continuity plan. When a natural. if data is stored in-house.4 of this book provides further information on managing risk in regards to availability. including different types of equipment. making the recovery process difficult and long. Disaster recovery refers to an organization’s ability to minimize the effect of a disaster and resume normal business operation after a disaster has occurred.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. technical.
com Web: http://store. The safety of any critical data. documents. This involves determining the type of disasters that may occur and how they could affect each part of the business. Risk Assessment The planning team is responsible for conducting a risk analysis. should also be evaluated. files. Management should ensure that it is effective and suitable for the organization and that it is coordinated effectively and efficiently. Ten Steps to Disaster Recovery Planning 1. as well as a business impact analysis. the service provider will also need to have appropriate disaster recovery procedures in place in order to ensure that the organization’s data is protected in the event that a disaster occurs. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. should be responsible for overseeing the process of developing and implementing a disaster recovery plan. Commitment It is essential that management is fully committed to the development of a disaster recovery plan.128 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Cloud Computing can be an effective disaster recovery tool as data is stored off-site and is unlikely to be affected during these types of events. It also ensures that the planning process is managed effectively. etc. This ensures that every business unit is represented and is able to add valuable input to the planning process.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Planning Team A planning team.theartofservice. 2. including team members from every part of the organization. However. 3.
theartofservice. inventory of insurance policies. 6.com Web: http://store. Critical Requirements Each part of the organization will have its own specific critical requirements in order to maintain operation. documents. Information Gathering The planning team should amalgamate any critical information that will be useful during the disaster recovery process. processing systems. The evaluation will determine the duration that a business unit can operate without a critical element of its operation. temporary location specifications. Templates can be a useful tool for this part of the disaster recovery planning process. 5.129 4. hardware and software. that can make the recovery process shorter and easier. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. etc. data. communication. etc. telephone numbers. Strategy The planning team should determine what alternatives exist in the event of a disaster for things like facilities. etc. and off-site storage locations.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . For example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. equipment. vendor details. user operations. These should be evaluated and could include required personnel. 129 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. They should also ensure that any necessary contracts and documentation are put in place for these alternatives. functional operations.
during. 9. external.130 7. This ensures staff involvement and awareness. CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Outline The planning team should prepare an outline of the proposed disaster recovery plan. and after a disaster occurs. 8. In the above example of a new employee. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. This outline should then be submitted to top management for approval. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. internal. regardless of how many team members contribute to it.theartofservice. meaning that the DRP will need to be updated with the appropriate new employee’s details. for example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. which should remain consistent throughout each documented procedure. not only will the DRP need to be updated with their details.com Web: http://store. which should contain a list of inclusions and act as a roadmap for the development of disaster recovery procedures. Development The DRP can now be developed. Staff members within each business unit should be assigned specific responsibilities with regards to the disaster recovery plan. or system changes. For example. Training and Staff Involvement The DRP should be team-oriented. Each procedure listed in the outline should be thoroughly developed and include appropriate details about what should be done before.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . This is where the DRP format should be decided. as they are likely to affect the procedures within the disaster recovery plan. The plan should also contain procedures for handling change within the organization. a key staff member may leave and be replaced. This helps the plan to be clear and useable. the new employee will need to be trained in accordance with the established DRP.
Testing and Approval The DRP should include testing procedures.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice. It is essential that the disaster recovery plan is reviewed and updated regularly to ensure that an upto-date version is always available. Once the plan has been updated with any changes. A structured test of the plan should be conducted.com Web: http://store. 131 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. it can be submitted to top management for approval. which will highlight any areas for improvement. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.131 10.
1 Event Management 12. Event Management should be utilized to detect and communicate operational information. 12.1. understand them.1 Goal and objectives The goal of the Event Management process is to provide the capability to detect system events. It may be used for automating routine activities. or dynamic roles for balancing demand for services across multiple infrastructure items/sources to improve performance. so that input can be provided for reporting the service achievements and quality levels provided. These principles apply equally to both the staff working for the Cloud vendor as well as those staff working in the IT department of the customer organizations. and determine the appropriate control action. as well as warnings and exceptions. such as backups and batch processing.Chapter 12 Supporting Cloud Services The following section will cover some of the principles relevant to the high quality support of cloudbased IT services. Event Management will provide a trigger for many of the activities performed in the management and support of Cloud-based services. 132 .
A trigger indicates that an action needs to be taken in response to an event. component. a scheduled backup occurred successfully) Exceptional events that are a sign of unusual and unexpected activity (e. This type of event is a sign that some activity should be monitored to avoid a potential exceptional event (e.g.g.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice..com Web: http://store.theartofservice. a scheduled backup failed) Warning events that signify unusual operation that is not exceptional. no backup initiated within last 72 hours) 133 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.133 Term Event Definition An event is something that changes the state of an IT service.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . or configuration Alert Trigger item.g. some of which include the following: • • • Informational events that are a sign of regular operation (e.. There are various types of events. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. An alert is a warning that an event has occurred..
Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Scope Event Management can be applied to any part of the infrastructure making up the Cloud environment that needs to be controlled and managed. It will also assist in the automation of a range of processes and tasks.134 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 12. such as: Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.1. there would be a significant amount of events occurring everyday.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.2 Activities Note: In most organizations’ IT infrastructure.com Web: http://store. which may impact on the way in which events are correlated and provide triggers indicating if or when a response is needed.
which includes monitoring CIs that do not generate events or alerts. the root-cause of any problems. Monitoring. A Correlation Engine is utilized to perform this task.135 • • • • • Auto-detecting CIs—to provide visibility of functioning and failing components or to understand when other changes have occurred in the infrastructure Environmental conditions—such as increases in the temperature of servers and facilities Software license monitoring—used to maintain optimum licensing utilization Security—to perform security checks and to detect exceptions or intrusions Normal activity—such as tracking the activity and performance of an IT service It is important to note the difference between monitoring and Event Management. but the underlying reason for correlation is to separate high impact events from low impact events. the focus of Event Management is on the generation and detection of IT infrastructure and service status notifications.theartofservice. The rules may have either a technical or business focus. It uses specific rules and criteria to determine what level of impact an event will have on the business. consider what monitoring activities and techniques should be interfaced to generate alerts and notifications that will provide value to the IT groups and wider organization. The Correlation Engine then uses this knowledge to identify unusual situations or events. Event Correlation Event Correlation is the process that categorizes each event. has a broader scope.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. on the other hand. and to predict future trends. So when implementing Event Management.com Web: http://store. including: • • Event Categorization Frequency of similar events 135 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. While the two areas are related. and it does this by looking for relationships between different events and using the information within the events to gain a better understanding and knowledge of each event. Correlation Engines will use a number of factors to make decisions.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.g. with events providing information on the current (real-time) and historical status of CIs Service design processes. Event Management Interfaces Event Management should be developed over time to any service management process that requires monitoring and control. other possible interfaces that are appropriate include: • • Configuration Management. utilization levels) Whether further information is required to aid further investigate These factors should also be used to set a priority level for the event.com Web: http://store. Event Management should be utilized to generate events and response actions. While initially the focus will be on providing the foundation for service operation with input to Incident and Problem Management. such as Information Security.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . in order to define the appropriate level of response from the operations group. and Availability Management. where Event Management can enhance the capabilities to safeguard SLAs and reduce the business impact of any failures as soon as possible Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. • Service Level Management.136 • • • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Quantity of CIs that are generating similar events Indications of an exception A comparison against defined threshold levels (e.. Where thresholds have been set in the design of a service and associated components.theartofservice. Capacity.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .theartofservice.com Web: http://store. UDP MySQL POP3/SMTP/IMAP FTP. Telnet.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. SSH Server monitoring: • • • • • CPU Memory Storage Load Processes Application Monitoring: • • • • Java/JMX JRuby or other platforms MySQL Custom scripts 137 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.3 Essential Areas for Event Capturing in the Cloud Basic external end-user services monitoring: • • • • • • HTTP/HTTPS Ping TCP.137 12.1.
2 Incident Management Incident Management has developed over time to become one of the most visible and mature ITSM processes for any organization.138 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Advanced script-based real-browser monitors • • • Synthetic or Transaction Monitoring Elastic monitoring (automatically detects new instances and applies monitoring policy rules) Command line tools Mobile access • iPhone.theartofservice. Android. Blackberry.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. While any effective implementation does balance the efforts towards the various stages of the life of a service. as Incident Management can be easily demonstrated to have a business benefit. it typically receives more attention and funding than other areas of service management. largely driven by the need to reduce the business impact of disruptions to IT services. Symbian. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Windows Mobile agents Demand and load testing • • • • Web/HTTP Database transactions SOAP messages Running or executed scripts 12. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://store.
139 This ection will explain the activities and techniques that represent best practices for Incident Management. This ensures that business impact is reduced as much as possible. 139 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 12.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.1 Goal and objectives The goal of Incident Management is to effectively deal with incidents so that normal service can resume as soon as possible.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Incident Management (along with Request Fulfillment) provides a defined process that governs the activities in which Help Desk staff will likely spend the majority of their time performing. In the case of Cloud services. Incident Management techniques will be utilized by both the Cloud vendor and the customers to ensure effective reduction of any disruption to service(s).theartofservice.2. allowing the business to maintain service quality and availability. ** Normal service operation is defined as operating within the agreed Service Level Agreement (SLA) limits.
This means that incident records may be generated as a result of: • • End users calling the Help Desk to notify of a disruption to their normal use of IT services Events representing an exception that are resolved using automated means. how would we address the situation? Incident Management: Use techniques that address the symptoms but still allow the weeds to grow back (e. focused on addressing the symptoms as quickly as possible.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Incident Management only deals with those events that indicate exception to normal service operation and are significant (as determined by the Event Correlation engine).140 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION What is the difference between Incident Management and Problem Management? If our garden had weeds. dig roots out. whereas Event Management handles all types of events..g. The role of Event and Incident Management should be carefully differentiated because.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . instead.) Incident Management is not concerned with the root cause.. with an associated incident record also being generated for informational purposes Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. pull them out. use a hedge-trimmer. it is. concrete over.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. and buy a goat) Problem Management: Use techniques that address the root-cause of the symptoms so that weeds will no longer grow (e. re-lawn. Australia I Email: email@example.com. use poison. etc. Scope Incident Management can be utilized to manage events that disrupt or have the potential to disrupt an IT service and associated business processes. mow over them.
Incident Models should define the necessary steps for dealing with an incident.141 • • • An IT staff member noticing that a component of the IT infrastructure is behaving abnormally.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . as well as the required order of these steps. it only deals with service requests that do not involve any (potential) disruption to an IT service. Incident Models should provide the contact details and criteria for escalation. They are used to help provide efficient resolution to the most frequently occurring or specialized incidents.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Incident Models Incident Models provide a pre-defined set of steps and procedures that should be used to manage previously seen and documented incidents. despite no current impact on the end user community An end user logging an incident using self help means. In the event that an incident needs to be escalated. which is then resolved by IT operations staff An external supplier observing that a portion of the IT infrastructure under their control is experiencing issues and they log an incident ticket via email While the process of Request Fulfillment does typically operate in a similar fashion to Incident Management. Any service management tools that are used for Event and Incident Management should be utilized with the defined incident models that can automate the process. 141 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. It is also paramount that Incident Models detail procedures for preserving evidence. They should also specify who is responsible for each step and when these steps should be completed.
An example of this is for capacity related incidents.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. in which the model would define what impact reduction measures could be performed before routing the incident to Capacity Management. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. time should be managed effectively to ensure the incident is resolved as soon as possible. The Help Desk maintains responsibility throughout the process so that users are kept fully informed of the incident status and progress for resolution.g. When dealing with a major incident. Problem Management will typically be involved when major incidents occur. The key role of separate major incident procedures is to establish a fast and coordinated response that can manage and resolve the issues at hand. planning needs to consider how separate procedures should be used to provide appropriate response and resolution. This may require the establishment of a team with the immediate focus of resolving the incident and reducing the associated business impact.142 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Specialized incidents include those that need routing to particular groups or other ITSM processes.theartofservice. how this can be removed.com Web: http://store. The first requirement is to define what constitutes a major incident for the organization and customers with reference to the incident prioritization mechanisms that are used. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. and it should be given priority over other less significant incidents. Major incidents For those incidents that result in significant or organization-wide business impact. replicated infrastructure across multiple locations). though the focus is not the resolution of the incident. and if there are any other areas of the infrastructure where this could occur (e.. Instead Problem Management seeks to identify the root cause of the incident.
card failure.143 Incident logging All incidents. Incident categorization During the logging procedure. where the service management tool is populated with up to three of four levels of category details. The general formula by which to calculate incident priority is: IMPACT + URGENCY = PRIORITY 143 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. regardless of source. This information is important to allow effective escalation. It may also be necessary to record more than one incident for any given call/discussion so that a historical record is kept and that time/work tracking can be performed. While this can be easily managed for automated mechanisms.com Web: http://store. and future infrastructure improvements. memory board. a category is assigned. must be recorded with a unique reference number and be date/ time stamped. Incident prioritization An agreed prioritization matrix should be used to determine the appropriate timescales and effort applied for response and resolution to identified incidents. server. trend analysis of incidents. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. For example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . hardware incident. This will enable surveys to be conducted on the various types of incidents that have occurred in a given time and also the frequency with which they have occurred.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. positive behaviors need to be developed for IT staff and end users to ensure the consistent recording of identified incidents. Multi-level categorization is typically used for Incident Management.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane... entire business unit.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. payroll) has not yet affected business operations (but will if the service is not available in three days time). single user. in which case the urgency may be high. the business impact is felt immediately. In some cases. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. multiple users.com Web: http://store.144 • • CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Impact: Degree to which the user/business is affected by the incident(s) Urgency: Degree to which the resolution of the incident can be delayed The following factors are usually taken into account for determining the impact of an incident: • • • • • • The number of users being affected o (e. In other cases.theartofservice. the incident resolution can be delayed when the disruption to an IT service (e.g.g. organization wide) Possible risk of injury or death The number of affected services The level of financial loss Effect on credibility and reputation of business Regulatory or legislative breaches Urgency is calculated by assessing when the potential impact of the incident will be felt.
the Help Desk Analyst can begin to provide some initial support by referencing known errors and simple diagnostic tools. 145 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. At this point.theartofservice. escalation will be utilized to transfer the incident to the appropriate party or group. Rules for escalation should be defined when implementing Incident Management and agreed upon by all involved groups and stakeholders. Incident escalation If the Help Desk Analyst requires assistance from other groups due to an inability to resolve the incident or because of specialized circumstances (e. give the unique incident reference number. For incidents that cannot be resolved at this stage and the user is still on the phone.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Priority 1 = Priority 2 = Priority 3 = Priority 4 = Critical High = 1 hour target resolution time = 8 hours Medium = 24 hours Low = 48 hours Initial diagnosis For calls forwarded to the Help Desk. E.. and confirm user contact details for follow-ups.g.. the staff member will use pre-defined questioning techniques to assist in the collection of useful information for the incident record. VIP user). closing the incident after verifying the resolution was successful. Australia I Email: email@example.com The prioritization matrix above would be accompanied by agreed timelines for resolution. Where possible the incident will be resolved using these sources of information. the Help Desk Analyst should inform the user of the next steps that will be taken.
and 3 support Hierarchical: • • • For corrective actions by authorized line management Also known as Vertical Escalation When resolution of an incident will not be in time or satisfactory Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION The two forms of escalation that are typically used are functional (horizontal) and hierarchical (vertical) escalation.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Escalations can also be combined.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Functional: • • Based on knowledge or expertise Also known as Horizontal Escalation. 2. through level 1.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.147 Investigation and diagnosis The incident investigation normally includes the following actions: • • • • • • Finding the problem Determining the order in which events occurred Determining the level of impact Identifying triggers Searching for past occurrences of the incident using problem records and known error databases Employing the help of system developers to find a resolution Resolution and recovery All potential resolutions should be applied and tested in a controlled manner. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. The nature of the incident will determine which actions are required.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. but actions could involve: • • • • Guiding the user to perform specific actions on their own equipment Specialist support groups performing specific actions on the infrastructure (such as rebooting a server) External suppliers performing updates on their infrastructure The Help Desk or other specialist staff controlling a user’s desktop remotely 147 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
the incident should be closed via agreed methods. the initial categorization was correct). Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store. ensuring all required fields are completed satisfactorily. Data can be obtained using email or web-based surveys. should also check for the following: • • • • The closure categorization matches the initial categorization (i.1 Roles and Responsibilities Incident Manager: • • • Ensuring the Incident Management process is effective and efficient Manage Incident Management team Ensure SLA targets for incident resolution are met Skills: Analytical. Potential problem identification.. etc. users affected. Update if necessary. the Help Desk may be required to call the affected users and confirm that the users are satisfied that the resolution was successful and that the incident can be closed.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .2. whether automated or manual.1. business understanding. closure mechanisms may be automated and communicated via email. communication. assisting Problem Management in the decision of whether any preventative action is necessary to avoid this in the future.e. calm under pressure. Incident documentation. 12. When the requirements for incident documentation are complete. For other incidents. User satisfaction levels.). Closure mechanisms.148 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Incident closure Depending on the nature of the incident (level of impact. technical.
3rd line support groups (including Technical and Application Management): • • Incident classification Investigation and resolution of Incidents 12. a balanced range of metrics must be used to demonstrate that the Incident Management process is effective and efficient.1.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . for example.2 Incident Management Metrics Just like any process or service. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Help Desk: • • • • • Log/record incidents Incident classification and categorization Provide initial support Match to existing incident or problem records Manage communication with end users 1st.com Web: http://store. by impact code) Cost-per-incident average Total percentage of incidents that were closed without being escalated to other support levels Total percentage of incidents that were resolved remotely 149 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Some metrics include: • • • • • Quantity of incidents Percentage of incidents dealt with within agreed response time (incident response-time targets may be specified in SLAs.2.theartofservice. 2nd.
and Gmail’s web interface runs in many locations and just sends traffic to other locations when one is offline. and we take it very seriously when there’s a problem with the service.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.2. Google experienced a major outage that affected their Gmail service. September 01.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . right up front.2 Google Response to Major Incident In September 2009. The outage was quickly picked up by social networking services. I’d like to apologize to all of you — today’s outage was a Big Deal. with the following post being made on the official Gmail blog site on the day of the outage. such as Twitter. However. as we now know. lasting about 100 minutes. and we’re treating it as such. causing a few Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Tuesday.150 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 12. We know how many people rely on Gmail for personal and professional communications. we’re too slow!” This transferred the load onto the remaining request routers.com Web: http://store. we had slightly underestimated the load that some recent changes (ironically.theartofservice. The principles of Availability Management that are described earlier in the book can be seen in Google’s response to the outage. some designed to improve service availability) placed on the request routers—servers that direct web queries to the appropriate Gmail server for response. We’ve already thoroughly investigated what happened. At about 12:30pm Pacific a few of the request routers became overloaded and in effect told the rest of the system “stop sending us traffic. 6:59 PM Posted by Ben Treynor. and we’re currently compiling a list of things we intend to fix or improve as a result of the investigation. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Here’s what happened: This morning (Pacific Time) we took a small fraction of Gmail’s servers offline to perform routine upgrades. 2009. This isn’t in itself a problem—we do this all the time. with users complaining loudly of the impact the disruption was causing them. Thus. VP Engineering and Site Reliability Czar Gmail’s web interface had a widespread outage earlier today.
com Web: http://store. IMAP/POP access and mail processing continued to work normally because these requests don’t use the same routers.theartofservice.9% available to all users. and within minutes nearly all of the request routers were overloaded. increasing request router capacity well beyond peak demand to provide headroom. and we’re committed to keeping events like today’s notable for their rarity. if many request routers are overloaded simultaneously. we have concluded that request routers don’t have sufficient failure isolation (i. 151 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. it shouldn’t affect servers in another datacenter) and do not degrade gracefully (e.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Some of the actions are straightforward and are already done—for example. Some of the actions are more subtle—for example. What’s next: We’ve turned our full attention to helping ensure this kind of event doesn’t happen again.e.g. people couldn’t access Gmail via the web interface because their requests couldn’t be routed to a Gmail server. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. As a result.. and the Gmail web interface came back online. The Gmail engineering team was alerted to the failures within seconds (we take monitoring very seriously).. distributed the traffic across the request routers. After establishing that the core problem was insufficient available capacity.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . We’ll be hard at work over the next few weeks implementing these and other Gmail reliability improvements— Gmail remains more than 99. the team brought a LOT of additional request routers online (flexible capacity is one of the advantages of Google’s architecture). they all should just get slower instead of refusing to accept traffic and shifting their load). if there’s a problem in one datacenter.151 more of them to also become overloaded.
applications.g.g. platforms.. vendor. computing power. Rackspace. Microsoft 3) How does dynamically scaling assist in the provision of Cloud services? a) It reduces the complexity and time required to adjust capacity being provisioned in the Cloud by automating certain tasks and routines 152 . loosely-coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks b) The provision of a service (e. hybrid. computing power. Amazon. unsecured. platforms. open Private. utility Public. private Google.Chapter 13 Review Questions 1) Which of the following is the most correct definition for Cloud Computing from the examples below? a) A form of distributed computing whereby a ‘super and virtual computer’ is composed of a cluster of networked. community.. shared. or storage of data) to customers d) The provision of Software as a Service (SaaS) 2) The four main types of clouds used for the provision of services are? a) b) c) d) Secured. applications. or storage of data) through the Internet c) The use of virtualization to provide services (e. open.
153 b) It automates all aspects of the processes required to adjust the capacity being provisioned c) It utilizes virtualization to reduce the physical resources required to meet dynamic demand patterns from user d) It reduces the cost of acquiring Cloud services by charging by defined units. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . such as time or transactions 4) Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of Event Management in the Cloud? a) b) The ability to coordinate changes in events across the Cloud The ability to detect events occurring in the Cloud.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. A user is unable to access a service during service hours 2. analyze them. An authorized IT staff member is unable to access a service during service hours 3. A network segment within the Cloud environment fails and the user is not aware of any disruption to service 4. A user contacts the Service Desk about slow performance of an application Which of the above statements is CORRECT? 153 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and determine the appropriate control action c) The ability to monitor and control projected service outages affecting Cloud customers d) The ability to report on success of all b6atch processing jobs across the Cloud infrastructure 5) An incident occurs when: 1.
Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Web: http://store.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.154 a) b) c) d) CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION All of the above 1 and 4 only 2 and 3 only None of the above 6) Which of the following is the correct formula for the basic calculation of availability? a) Uptime – Downtime x 100 % __________________ Agreed Service Time b) Agreed Service Time – Downtime x 100 % ____________________________ Agreed Service Time c) Agreed Service Time – MTRS x 100 % ________________________ Agreed Service Time d) MTRS – MTBF x 100 % ___________ Agreed Service Time 7) Which of the following statements is true? a) All Cloud Computing services are offered through virtual Service Desks Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
shared computer or machine d) Grid computing can be analogized to traditional computing such as the consummation of electricity or gas 8) Which of the four service management perspectives is the most difficult to change when Cloud Computing services are adopted? a) b) c) d) People Organization Technology Processes 9) Which of the following is the most correct objective for the utilization of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for Cloud services? a) To ensure that the costs and charging mechanisms for services are clearly known by both customers and the vendor b) To ensure that the levels of service quality and associated costs are clearly defined and unambiguous for both customers and the vendor c) To ensure that penalties or rebates will be applied in the case of a service outage in the cloud d) To ensure that the architecture being utilized to provide Cloud services is adequate 155 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: email@example.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice.155 b) Software as a Service (SaaS) applications operate on a larger scale than Cloud Computing c) Virtualization aggregates multiple operating systems and applications on a single.
corporate governance.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and reliability concerns To increase the performance of Cloud applications such as email and data processing To spread the costs involved in managing Cloud environments across multiple customers 12) When determining the priority of incidents affecting Cloud services.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .156 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 10) Which of the following statements about Cloud services is true? a) b) c) d) They must deliver a business application in a cost-effective fashion The must deliver value to customers They must be available both online and offline They must be provided and charged for as a utility 11) The primary benefits of utilizing a private Cloud are? a) b) c) d) To reduce the costs associated with managing Cloud infrastructure To ease data security.com Web: http://store. which general formula should be used? a) b) c) d) Impact + Urgency = Priority Impact + Disruption = Priority Disruption + Time = Priority Disruption + Impact = Priority 13) Which of the following statements regarding the availability of Cloud services is FALSE? Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
157 a) b) Customer satisfaction can still be maintained in the event of disruption or outages Availability levels can be improved by increased skills.theartofservice. knowledge.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and documentation being made available to staff c) Availability levels can be improved by adding redundant components and by using enterprise grade (fault tolerant) components d) When attempting to increase availability levels. the ratio of costs to availability occurs in a linear fashion 14) The term ‘lock-in’ within the context of Cloud Computing refers to what? a) b) A fixed term contract with an external Cloud vendor Being required to adapt data and applications to suit a single vendor’s Cloud environment c) Open standards for Cloud Computing to increase the level of interoperability between vendors d) Data being retained by Cloud vendors for a period of 12 months or more 15) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between IT Service Management and Cloud Computing? a) IT Service Management is the most effective framework in assisting the migration of services to a Cloud environment b) c) IT Service Management focuses on the operational support of Cloud services IT Service Management provides a consistent method for the management of Cloud services d) IT Service Management provides a consistent method for controlling projects relating to Cloud Computing services 157 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Australia I Email: email@example.com I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
The ability of an organization or any individual parts of an organization (for example. A business case includes information about costs involved. provides reasons for or against proceeding with any significant expenditure involved in taking that business action. expected benefits. rather they are something that needs to be created and developed over a period of time. 158 . people. This. A tool for supporting decision-making and planning that forcasts the likely consequences of a business action. available options. It is an important process that is carried out at the beginning of a virtualization project. Capabilities are not concrete assets of an organization. and possible Capabilities problems. potential issues. processes. likely risks. Availability refers to the ability of a service to fulfill its required and agreed purpose at any time that it is Business Case required. They will increase in sophistication and maturity the longer they have been in existence. in turn. The aim of organizational capabilities is to enable the provision of Capacity Planning services to customers in an efficient and effective way. This involves working out how many physical resources a machine will need in order to host a set number of virtual machines. or services) to complete an activity successfully.Chapter 14 Glossary Terminology Alert Availability Explanations An alert is a warning that an event has occurred.
The delivery of storage data as a service and often billed on a utility computing basis. For example. Facilitates the deployment of applications without the cost and complexity of buying and managing the Cloud Service underlying hardware and software layers. ongoing operation and Cloud Architecture Cloud Client support. An event is something that changes the state of an IT service. component. Software systems designed to support interoperable machine-to-machine interaction over a network which may be accessed by other Cloud Computing Cloud Storage Emulation components. This involves using software to run operating systems or applications on hardware that they were not originally intended to run on. virtual machine software emulates x86 hardware to allow operating systems to be installed on them.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . The delivery of computer infrastructure as a service. Owns and operates live Cloud Computing systems to deliver service to third parties.159 Cloud Application Leverages the Cloud in software architecture and often eliminates the need to install and run the application on the customers own computer. or configuration item. or which is Cloud Computing Provider Cloud Infrastructure Cloud Platform specifically designed for delivery of Cloud services. The systems architecture of the software systems involved in the delivery of Cloud Computing.com Web: http://store.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. even though they are Event not physical machines. thus alleviating the burden of software maintenance. 159 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. software or end users directly. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Computer hardware and/or computer software which relies on the Cloud for application delivery.
These groups of people are responsible for the required outcomes of those activities or processes..theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Fault Tolerance Functions Grid Computing IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service) Internal Service Providers Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. This is a relatively new model based around virtualization and it involves using the processing power of a large number of geographically separate but networked machines. providing internet hosting solutions for multiple customers.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. to complete complex tasks in parallel. Some examples of functions are the Help Desk and IT Operations Management.g.g. Internal service providers are embedded within a business unit.160 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION External Service Provider An external service provider provides IT services to external customers. The delivery of computer infrastructure as a service. Functions refer to groups of people who employ the necessary tools to complete an activity or a process.. The ability of a service to withstand the effects of a component failure. Grid computing is often used by scientific institutes to use the idle processing power of user’s machines. meaning it continues to operate correctly. e. Some of the institutes that use grid computing include SETI and more recently the PlayStation 3 for scientific research. one IT organization within each of the business units of an organization. Australia I Email: email@example.com I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . e. The key factor is that the IT services that it provides within the business unit will provide a source of competitive advantage in the market space that the business exists in.
they become strategic assets. They must ensure that the process is appropriate for its intended purpose. and work instructions if they are needed.com Web: http://store. An entire virtualized platform that includes one or more services. The essence of IT Service Management is Maintainability PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service) Process providing value to customers. Process Manager activities. The process owner refers to the person who assumes responsibility over a particular process. policies. When processes enable an organization to compete competitively in the market. The aim of a process is to produce a particular outcome that should also give value to customers. Example: The owner for the Availability Management Process 161 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and this involves combining both the resources and capabilities required to carry out that process or set of activities.theartofservice. guidelines.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. the process manager is responsible for the actual operations involved in carrying Process Owner out that process. Various activities come together to create a process. and they are responsible for the outputs produced. tools. standards. responsibilities. Processes may define roles.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . operating systems and specific applications. The process manager reports to the process owner.161 IT Service Management IT Service Management is made up of the various capabilities within an organization that enable the provision of services to customers in an efficient and effective way. Maintainability refers to the measure of the time it takes for a service to resume normal operation after a failure. management controls. Whereas the process owner is responsible for the entire process and its outputs. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
Resources SaaS (Software-as-a-Service) Service Serviceability Service Catalog Service Level Agreement (SLA) Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. Services provide the valuable outcomes that customers desire. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Like capabilities. resources are the concrete. The purpose of an SLA is to identify and describe the key service targets and responsibilities of both the IT service provider and the customer.162 Reliability CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Reliability refers to the measure of the length of time that a service is able to fulfill its required and agreed purpose without interruption. or even the money that goes through the organization. They can include anything from the IT infrastructure to the people employed by the organization. and to which customers they are provided SLAs are a written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT customer(s).com Web: http://store. thus. while assuming the ownership of the costs and risks involved with delivering those outcomes. and/or maintainability for a supporting service. what those services provide.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . The service catalog is made up of the agreed definitions of what services are offered. If possible. including meeting agreed levels of availability. The ability to access software over the Internet as a service. reducing the impact on the organization. Unlike capabilities. physical assets of the organization. reliability.theartofservice. the can be shared between multiple customers. the aim of resources is to assist in the delivery of IT services. Serviceability refers to the ability of an external (thirdparty) supplier to fulfill their contract.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. It is essential to the success of the organization that these costs and risks are managed effectively.
IT services for this provider do not normally provide a source of competitive advantage but.. the service owner assumes responsibility for a particular IT service. As services are continuously improved and changed. a shared service provider provides shared IT service to more than one business unit.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. one IT organization to service all businesses in an umbrella organization. They must ensure that the service is delivered effectively and efficiently to customers.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . support effective Trigger and efficient business processes across an organization. the service owner must ensure that both improvement and change are managed effectively.g. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Shared Service Providers Example: The owner of the Payroll Service Unlike an internal service provider.theartofservice.com Web: http://store. A trigger indicates that an action needs to be taken in response to an event 163 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. e. instead.163 Service Owner Similar to the process owner.
g.. open. private Google. open Private. utility Public. Microsoft 3) How does dynamically scaling assist in the provision of Cloud services? a) It reduces the complexity and time required to adjust capacity being 164 . platforms. unsecured. loosely-coupled computers acting in concert to perform very large tasks b) The provision of a service (e. Amazon. or storage of data) to customers d) The provision of Software as a Service (SaaS) 2) The four main types of Clouds used for the provision of services are? a) b) c) d) Secured. vendor. community. applications. platforms. Rackspace. or storage of data) through the Internet c) The use of virtualization to provide services (e.g. hybrid.Chapter 15 Answers to Review Questions 1) Which of the following is the most correct definition for Cloud Computing from the examples below? a) A form of distributed computing whereby a ‘super and virtual computer’ is composed of a cluster of networked. computing power.. applications. shared. computing power.
and determine the appropriate control action c) The ability to monitor and control projected service outages affecting Cloud customers d) The ability to report on success of all batch processing jobs across the Cloud infrastructure 5) An incident occurs when: 1.theartofservice. analyze them. A user is unable to access a service during service hours An authorized IT staff member is unable to access a service during service hours A network segment within the Cloud environment fails and the user is not aware of any disruption to service 4.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. A user contacts the Service Desk about slow performance of an application 165 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 2.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.165 provisioned in the Cloud by automating certain tasks and routines b) It automates all aspects of the processes required to adjust the capacity being provisioned c) It utilizes virtualization to reduce the physical resources required to meet dynamic demand patterns from user d) It reduces the cost of acquiring Cloud services by charging by defined units such as time or transactions 4) Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of Event Management in the Cloud? a) b) The ability to coordinate changes in events across the cloud The ability to detect events occurring in the cloud. 3.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Which of the above statements is CORRECT? a) b) c) d) All of the above 1 and 4 only 2 and 3 only None of the above 6) Which of the following is the correct formula for the basic calculation of availability? a) Uptime – Downtime x 100 % __________________ Agreed Service Time b) Agreed Service Time – Downtime x 100 % ____________________________ Agreed Service Time c) Agreed Service Time – MTRS x 100 % ________________________ Agreed Service Time d) MTRS – MTBF x 100 % ___________ Agreed Service Time 7) Which of the following statements is true? Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.theartofservice.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. shared computer or machine d) Grid computing can be analogized to traditional computing such as the consummation of electricity or gas 8) Which of the four service management perspectives is the most difficult to change when Cloud Computing services are adopted? a) b) c) d) People Organization Technology Processes 9) Which of the following is the most correct objective for the utilization of Service Level Agreements (SLAs) for Cloud services? a) b) To ensure that the costs and charging mechanisms for services are clearly known by both customers and the vendor To ensure that the levels of service quality and associated costs are clearly defined and unambiguous for both customers and the vendor c) To ensure that penalties or rebates will be applied in the case of a service outage in the Cloud d) To ensure that the architecture being utilized to provide Cloud services is adequate 167 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .167 a) b) c) All Cloud Computing services are offered through virtual Service Desks Software as a Service (SaaS) applications operate on a larger scale than Cloud Computing Virtualization aggregates multiple operating systems and applications on a single.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. and reliability concerns To increase the performance of Cloud applications such as email and data processing To spread the costs involved in managing Cloud environments across multiple customers 12) When determining the priority of incidents affecting Cloud services.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. corporate governance. which general formula should be used? a) b) c) d) Impact + Urgency = Priority Impact + Disruption = Priority Disruption + Time = Priority Disruption + Impact = Priority Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.168 10) CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Which of the following statements about Cloud services is true? a) b) c) d) They must deliver a business application in a cost-effective fashion The must deliver value to customers They must be available both online and offline They must be provided and charged for as a utility 11) The primary benefits of utilizing a private Cloud are? a) b) c) d) To reduce the costs associated with managing Cloud infrastructure To ease data security.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
169 13) Which of the following statements regarding the availability of Cloud services is FALSE? a) b) Customer satisfaction can still be maintained in the event of disruption or outages Availability levels can be improved by increased skills. the ratio of costs to availability occurs in a linear fashion 14) The term ‘lock-in’ within the context of Cloud Computing refers to what? a) b) A fixed term contract with an external Cloud vendor Being required to adapt data and applications to suit a single vendor’s Cloud environment c) Open standards for Cloud Computing to increase the level of interoperability between vendors d) Data being retained by Cloud vendors for a period of 12 months or more 15) Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between IT Service Management and Cloud Computing? a) IT Service Management is the most effective framework in assisting the migration of services to a Cloud environment b) IT Service Management focuses on the operational support of Cloud services 169 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. and documentation being made available to staff c) d) Availability levels can be improved by adding redundant components and by using enterprise grade (fault tolerant) components When attempting to increase availability levels. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. knowledge.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org c) CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION IT Service Management provides a consistent method for the management of Cloud services d) IT Service Management provides a consistent method for controlling projects relating to Cloud Computing services Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
then you have to choose the most right answer Use strategies such as “What comes first?” or “What doesn’t belong?” to help with the more difficult questions Organizing your Exam The Art of Service facilitates the Cloud Computing Foundation exam. Please contact us on +61 7 3252 2055 or email exams@theartofservice. 171 .Chapter 16 Cloud Computing Foundation Exam Tips Exam Details • • • • • • 20 multiple choice questions The correct answer is only one of the four 30 minutes duration 16 out of 20 is a pass (80%) Closed book No notes Practical Suggestions • • • • • Read the question CAREFULLY At this level of exam the obvious answer is often the correct answer (if you have read the question carefully) Beware of being misled by the preliminary text for the question If you think there should be another choice that would be the right answer.com to arrange your examination.
There is one set date each month where Cloud Computing students can sit their exam online at a location of their choice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . The exam is delivered via the Internet Explorer browser. students need to complete the eLearning 5 days prior to the testing date. the office. i. local librarian.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Make sure that you prepare adequately in the lead up to your exam by reviewing your notes. reading any available material.172 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Further Details • • To be eligible to sit the exam. We wish you luck in your exam and future Cloud Computing career! Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. etc. students have the freedom to pick the time that they wish to sit the exam on this date.com/cloud-computing. The supervisor is simply a person who will proctor the exam—it could be a work colleague. All students must purchase a voucher for the Cloud Computing exam.com Web: http://store. • In order to be able to sit exams in the comfort of their own home or office.com. which can be purchased at http://store. Though the exam date is set each month. students will need to appoint a supervisor who does not have a vested interest in them passing the exam and cannot be a family member..theartofservice. and attempting the sample exams.html.au. home etc.theartofservice. so students must have access to the internet. so we can process all the paperwork as soon as possible. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. • • The supervisor’s name and email address must be emailed to email@example.com.
173 . especially in a rapidly changing area like Cloud Computing. be it virtualization or SaaS offerings. These days.1 Cloud Computing Certification Pathways IT professionals need to know a whole lot more about the various ways of delivering services to the customers and end-users. So with the change in computing and IT service delivery comes a whole new series of qualifications and certification. The Cloud Computing Certification Scheme has been created to support the IT Professional who needs to be a ‘niche generalist’.Chapter 17 Relevant Certification Pathways 17. It is no longer sufficient just to know the differences between Windowsbased or Linux-based architecture. most services will utilize some form of Cloud Computing.
com Web: http://store.174 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
The next level is ‘Managing Services in the Cloud’ and this program is specifically aimed at Service Managers and IT Service Delivery Managers who wish to add Cloud Computing as an option in their organization’s delivery model.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. This is awarded automatically upon passing the Managing Services in the Cloud exam. and Managing Services in the Cloud) and the associated exams successfully. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. the participant will be awarded the Cloud Computing Expert certification. How do I achieve my Expert level? By completing all programs (Foundation.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . and BASIC concepts used in Cloud Computing. This program earns you 2 points toward your Cloud Computing Expert Certificate. terminology. After this comes the Cloud Computing Specialization options.theartofservice. 175 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.175 How does the certification pathway work? First. Specialists. general knowledge. The three program areas are: • • • SaaS + Web Applications Platform and Storage Management Virtualization Each program in this series earns 3 points towards the Cloud Computing Expert Certificate. The pre-requisite for these programs is that you have the Cloud Computing Foundation certificate. you need to create the foundation—The Cloud Computing Foundation Program focuses on the fundamentals.com Web: http://store. The program is worth 5 points.
Currently it is intended that the highest certification is the ITIL® Expert.theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . considered to be equal to that of Diploma Status.com Web: http://store. Below illustrates the possible pathways that are available to you.176 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 17. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.2 ITIL® Certification Pathways There are many pathway options that are available to you once you have acquired your ITIL® Foundation Certification.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.
Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. please visit our website http://www.3 ISO/IEC 20000 Certification Pathways ISO/IEC 20000 Standard is becoming a basic requirement for IT service providers and is fast becoming the most recognized symbol of quality regarding IT Service Management processes.au 177 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.177 17. For more information on certification and available programs.com Web: http://store.theartofservice. ISO/ IEC 20000 programs aim to assist IT professionals to master and understand the standard and the issues relating to earning actual standards compliance.com.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.artofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .
The Customer Service Certification Scheme has been created to support students in their aim to gain relevant qualifications that practically apply to the ever-changing world of customer services.178 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION 17. which is why we have created a completely new series of qualifications and certifications. It is no longer sufficient just to know the basics. There have been so many changes in customer expectations and with service delivery. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.com Web: http://store.4 Customer Service Certification Pathway Customer Service professionals need to know a whole lot more about the various ways of delivering services to the customers.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
each Intermediate program earns you 3 points toward your Customer Service Expert Certificate (minimum 17 points entry requirement). The pre-requisite for these programs is that you have the Customer Service Foundation certificate. and BASIC concepts used in Customer Service. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. you need to complete the foundation—The Customer Service Foundation Program—which focuses on the fundamentals. After this comes the Customer Service Intermediate options. The next level is the Customer Service Expert program.com Web: http://store.179 How does the Certification Pathway work? First. This is specifically aimed at Customer Service Supervisors and Managers who wish to consolidate their knowledge and experience and achieve formal recognition of their skills. The program is worth 5 points. We appreciate that you do not need to know everything about each area of Customer Service. terminology. you will select a minimum of five programs to complete and progress to the Expert program.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . so this is where the programs become more specialized: • • • • • • • • Customer Service and Call Centers Customer Relationship Management Customer Service and Sales Communication Strategies Conflict Resolution Public Speaking and Delivering Presentations Retail Decision Making and Public Speaking From the eight Customer Service Intermediate programs available. 179 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.theartofservice. general knowledge. This program earns you 2 points toward your Customer Service Expert Certificate.
Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. we have developed a set of education programs that provides them with the skills and knowledge required for providing or managing Help Desk support services. Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . as to allow specific guidance for the individual based on their current career objectives.5 Help Desk Certification Scheme To assist an individual in gaining employment and developing their career. 17.com Web: http://store.180 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION How do I achieve my Expert level? Once you have gained your minimum of 22 points. Each of the three certification programs can be completed independently.theartofservice.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. you will have achieved Customer Service Expert status and you will receive your Customer Service Expert certificate.
Help Desk Analyst: Focuses on the necessary customer service. with additional focus on balancing workloads and improving efficiency 181 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. who may be responsible for second-line support as well as for performing specialist maintenance activities 3.com Web: http://store. Help Desk Technician: Provides an extension of the skills required by a senior Help Desk technician.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Help Desk Manager: Focuses on the skills required to manage a high-performing Help Desk team. IT Service Management.theartofservice. and technical skills required to provide quality first-line IT support 2.181 The following is a general overview of the content covered by the different levels: 1. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice.
jhtml?articleID=210602537 Higginbotham. How Cloud Computing is Changing the World.1902.wpcarey.thestandard.com/ article/0. S (2008).Chapter 19 References Carey. The Internet Cloud.informationweek.aspx Mathson. Cloud Computing: The Evolution of Software-as-a-Service. Found at: www.com/developerworks/linux/ library/l-cloud-computing/index. B (1999). Cloud Computing with Linux.businessweek.edu/article. Brief Introduction to Cloud Computing. R (2008).com/2008/07/01/10-reasons-enterprises-arent-ready-to-trust-the-cloud/ Jones. Found at: http:// gigaom.P (2008).cfm?articleid=1614 Foley. com/news/software/hosted/showArticle.asu.htm MacVittie.com/ weblogs/macvittie/archive/2008/09/17/3622. com/technology/content/aug2008/tc2008082_445669_page_3.00. The Three “Itys” of Cloud Computing. http://www. M. Found at: http://www. 20 Cloud Computing Startups You Should Know. J. Found at: http://devcentral. Found at: http:// knowledge. L (2008). W. J (2008).html 182 .5466. T (2008). 10 Reasons Enterprises Aren’t Ready to Trust the Cloud.f5.html King.ibm. Scanlon.H & Wieners. Found at: http://www.
Emereo Pty Ltd. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) ISO/IEC 20000 Foundation Certification Kit. Brisbane. Metrics and Measurements and Benchmarking Workbook. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) IT Governance. Wordpress (2008). The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008) Risk Management Guide. Brisbane. What’s the difference between Cloud Computing and SaaS? Found at: http:// web2.sys-con.com Web: http://store. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2008).com/node/612033 The Art of Service (2008) CMDB and Configuration Management Creation and Maintenance Guide.com/2008/10/01/clouds-dark-and-threatening-or-the-nice-fluffy-ones/ 183 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. ITIL® V3 Foundation Complete Certification Kit. Brisbane. Clouds: Dark and Threatening or the Nice. Fluffy Ones? Found at: http:// itsuperhero. Brisbane. Australia I Email: firstname.lastname@example.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . Brisbane.183 SYS-CON Media (2008).theartofservice. United Kingdom. The Art of Service The Art of Service (2007) ITIL Factsheets.
96. 95-7 business units 68. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 119. 163 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 63. 94. 80.theartofservice. 117. 160. 106. 144.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 124 AWS 82. 123. 110. 115. 96. 119. 70. 158 business continuity 41 business continuity plan 127 business processes 17. 121. 128-30. 132-3 billing cycle 83-4 business case 67. 103-4. 84-5 B backups 27. 84 AWS Agreement 82. 136 Availability Plan 104-5. 61-2. 114.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.184 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Index A Availability Management 10. 109 Business Service Catalog 92.
114. 168 cloud architecture 17. 47. 159 Cloud-based services 16. 134. 159 cloud storage 21. 159 cloud applications 45. 112-14. 173. 114. 103. 161-2 Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI) 64-5 capacity plans 100 Certification Pathways 10-11. 43. 45. 159 Cloud vendor 43. 48 Cloud Platform 34. 47. 136. 20. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 33-4.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 72. 139. 158. 121-2. 132. 121-2. 96-7. 57. 153. 176-7 CFIA (Component Failure Impact Analysis) 111-12. 57-8. 165. 41.com Web: http://store.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 96. 96. 132 cloud environment 9. 66-9.185 C capabilities 16. 157. 119 CI (configuration item) 93. 112 COBIT 64-5 Common Cloud Terminology 8. 169 cloud infrastructure 20. 104. 45.theartofservice. 79. 169 CMMI (Capability Maturity Model Integrated) 64-5 CMS (Configuration Management System) 93. 35. 157. 20 Community Cloud 22 185 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 159 cloud migration 36. 111. 132. 133. 156.
43. 49-52 disaster recovery 10. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 41. 53 Elastic Computer Cloud 53 Error Rates 83-4 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 47 datacenters 98.theartofservice. 28 EC2 18. 96-7.com Web: http://store. 151 Demand Management 9. 130-1 E EaaS 24.186 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Component Failure Impact Analysis see CFIA configuration item see CI Configuration Management System (CMS) 93. 112 Correlation Engines 135 Customer Service 178-9. 44 data migration 36. 98-100 deployment models 8. 45.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 181 D data loss 41-2. 22 DET (Department of Education and Training) 8.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 127 DRP (disaster recovery plan) 127-8.
140. 132. 137 Event Correlation 135. 160 Help Desk Analyst 145. 164 Grid Computing 8. 181 Hybrid Cloud 23 187 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 167 H Help Desk 68. 134-6. 145. 121. 145-6 Event Capturing 10. 147-9. 30. 21. 153. 105. 105. 142. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 160.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 165 F Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) 114 FPS (Flexible Payments Service) 53 FTA (Fault Tree Analysis) 114 G Gmail 51. 150. 139-40. 150-1 Google 18-19. 152.com Web: http://store.theartofservice.187 escalation 78. 141.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 140 Event Management 10. 51. 155.
124. 177.theartofservice. 136 incident classification 149 incident closure 148 incident detection 121 incident diagnosis 121-2 incident escalation 145 incident investigation 147 Incident Management 10. 136 Ipswitch 52-4 ISO/IEC 11. 9.188 I CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION IaaS 14.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 160 Infrastructure Library 65 input 117. 183 IT as a Service (ITaaS) 41-2 IT Service Management (ITSM) 1. 70. 181 ITaaS (IT as a Service) 41-2 ITSM see IT Service Management Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. 24. 138-41. 161. 128. 160 Incident and Problem Management 121. 148 Incident Models 141 Infrastructure-as-a-Service 21. 21. 157. 136 input events 114-15 interfaces 93. 77. 63-8. 169-70. 124. 177. 57-61. 66. 122. 75. 143. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 132.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 63.
com Web: http://store. 80 189 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 43.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 150 Mean Time 107 Mean Time between Failures 36 Mean Time Between Failures see MTBF Mean Time Between Service Incidents (MTBSI) 107-8 Mean Time to Restore Service see MTRS MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures) 36.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 157.189 K key performance indicators (KPIs) 100 KPIs (key performance indicators) 100 L lock-in 36. 166 Multi-level SLAs 78. 154.theartofservice. 142. 114. 169 M major incidents 10. 166 MTBSI (Mean Time Between Service Incidents) 107-8 MTRS (Mean Time to Restore Service) 107-8. 107-8. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 113. 154.
136. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 140. 115 P PaaS 14. 124. 165 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. 24-6.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 161 Private Cloud 23 Problem Management 106. 161 patterns 73. 49 O Office of Government Commerce (OGC) 1. 110. 65. 121. 72. 153. 115 OGC (Office of Government Commerce) 1.theartofservice. 65. 72.190 N CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION NSW Department of Education and Training 8. 100 Patterns of Business Activity (PBA) 100 PBA (Patterns of Business Activity) 100 PCI (Payment Card Industry) 23 Platform-as-a-Service 21. 142. 161. 163 Projected Service Outage (PSO) 117. 148 process manager 69.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 161 process owner 69-70.
162. 175 Salesforce CRM 54-5 scaling 32. 117.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 112 service design 60. 94. 162 Service Continuity Management 105. 96-7. 141 Risk Analysis and Management 115 S SaaS 14. 114 Service Desk 76. 165 service disruptions 107. 123. 164 Service-based SLA 79 Service Catalog 9. 164.191 PSO see Projected Service Outage Public Cloud 22 R RACI Model 9. 111. 26-7.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 103. 129 Request Fulfillment 139. 91-4.theartofservice. 21. 152. 155. 74-5 recovery process 127. 105. 121 Service Failure Analysis see SFA 191 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.com Web: http://store. 153. 65. 24. 167. 152. 111.
81. 120. 94.192 CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION Service Level 40. 169-70. 100. 162. 42. 155. 78. 65-6. 139. 162 SPOFs (Single Point of Failure) 110. 167 SMS 51 Software-as-a-Service 21. 84-8. 149. 57-60. 96. 92.theartofservice. 77.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store. 139. 155. 114 SQS (Simple Queue Service) 53 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 161. 85-8 Service Level Agreement see SLAs Service Level Agreements 9. 162. 181 service management capabilities 66 service management principles 77 SFA (Service Failure Analysis) 119. 157. 117. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 90. 124 Simple Queue Service (SQS) 53 Single Point of Failure (SPOFs) 110. 92. 87. 100. 77-82. 136 Service Management 1.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 123. 114 SLA Exclusions 83. 167 Service Level Management 63. 68. 138. 90 SLAs customer-based 80 multi-level 80-1 service-based 79 SLAs (Service Level Agreement) 9.
37-8. 106. 152. 155. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 27. 40. 175 Vital Business Function (VBF) 109. 164. 26. 45. 31 V VBF (Vital Business Function) 109. 30.com Web: http://store. 118-20 Uptime 154. 113 vendors 23. 160.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 169 virtual machines 37-42 virtualization 8. 164-5. 157. 152-3. 21. 113 VMware vSphere 8. 47. 24.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.193 T Technical Service Catalog 96-7 U unavailability 84-5. 14. 88. 166 Utility Computing 8. 67. 167.theartofservice. 41-2 vSphere 41-2 193 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 173.
theartofservice.org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 . 112 Windows Azure 86.com Web: http://store. Australia I Email: service@theartofservice. 90-1.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice. 98 X XaaS 28 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane. 112 wide area network (WAN) 15.194 W CLOUD COMPUTING FOUNDATION CERTIFICATION KIT—THIRD EDITION WAN (wide area network) 15.
org I Phone: +61 (0) 7 3252 2055 .com Web: http://store.theartofservice. Australia I Email: email@example.com I eLearning: http://theartofservice.195 195 Copyright The Art of Service I Brisbane.
Reviews: Superb Resource and Learning Tool My employer purchased a few of these books for us to use as resources.Cloud Computing: The Hot tech certification that will boost your career. practiced the sample tests and passed the Cloud Computing Foundation Certification exam with 95%. totally satisfied This is an amazing book for anyone who wants to explore what is Cloud Computing and how it works in the world of ITSM. Thought provoking questions to challenge your thinking and understanding. Cloud Computing Certification is one of the hottest tech certifications in today’s job market.000 IT professionals. But the title wouldn’t go anywhere unless its skills were seen as marketable. this is the best investment you can make. in-depth coverage of all exam objectives for the Cloud Computing Foundation exam in a systematic approach. this is the most comprehensive. I believe this is well worth the money and I am looking forward to advancing to the next level. I believe that having cloud computing certifications from the Art of Service will distinguish me from other IT professional having the same common IT certifications. Hands down. so you can be confident you’re getting the instruction you need: • • • • • • • Real-world scenarios put what you’ve learned in the context of service solutions. Key information and real world examples organized around the actual day-to-day tasks and challenges you’ll face in the field of IT Management. Exam Essentials in each chapter helps you zero in on what you need to know. the most valuable certificates today settle mainly into two camps: architecture and security. then you’ve got it. Technical certifications. It’s the one that will rise the fastest. covering some 170 certifications. the one that will grow the fastest. and The Art of Service is well known for the quality of its IT Certification programs. If you’re looking for yet another sign that Cloud Computing is becoming a real player. And high-level Cloud Computing skills may be more marketable than some might think. Includes practice exam questions. which tests candidates’ hands-on skills. Cloud Computing certification falls into the architecture category. Excellent book. Practice what you’ve learned with challenging Cloud Computing Foundation exam style questions. organized. Cloud Computing Certification is a truly challenging certification. . It carries a lot more respect than others in the market. These days demand for a great Service/Architecture/Cloud Computing person outstrips the demand for general Microsoft administration skills. I would definitely recommend this book to my colleagues and friends. Cloud Computing Certification is the most influential one for years to come. Cloud computing is an important transition and a paradigm shift in information technology services delivery. A Real World Guide to Cloud Computing Skills. You will use this as a guide for the rest of your career. The book includes some very detailed case studies from real world implementation. I deeply enjoyed reading this book and it really helped me understand the jargons about Cloud Computing. According to Foote Partners’ survey of more than 22. The trick is to get the one that will really help keep or land that job. also keep you employed. the ticket to higher pay and more prestige. In addition. the one that will show the true future of IT certification. once you purchase the book you also get access to their eLearning programs at no cost! Excellent resources. I read the book 2 times. So how did Cloud Computing Certification break through to the top? Having a stellar reputation never hurts. and well put together resource on cloud computing. easy to follow manner. This Study Guide and Online Course access provides complete. If your clients are looking to you to be an expert. Great Beginning! The material is presented in a logical.
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