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Asian Modernities Appendices John Clark September 2010

Asian Modernities Appendices John Clark September 2010

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  • CHAPTER 9.1c Statements about art and modernity in the People’s Daily since 1990
  • Chinese Artists’ Materials
  • The Economic Base of Thai Contemporary Artists
  • Some Thai Art Educational Institutions
  • Thai Modernity – Modernity in Thailand
  • Baht Exchange Rates
  • Thai Population and Income Statistics

Modernities Compared Appendices

Country-Specific Studies 9.1 China a. Economic reform and modernity in Chinese art Josephine Fox, with John Clark b. The structure of the Chinese art world in the 1980s and 1990s from official and other sources Shao Yiyang, with John Clark c. Statements about art and modernity in People’s Daily since 1990 Lewis Mayo, with John Clark d. Chinese Artists’ Materials Josephine Fox, with John Clark e. Chinese Economic Statistics Josephine Fox, with John Clark f. Prices of Works of Art Josephine Fox, with John Clark 9.2 Thailand a. The Economic Base of Thai Contemporary Artists Chintana Sandilands, with John Clark b. Some Thai Art Educational Institutions Pattama Harn-Asa, with John Clark c. Thai Modernity – Modernity in Thailand Luckana Kunavichayanont, with John Clark d. Thai artists’ materials Chintana Sandilands, with John Clark e. Baht Exchange rates f. Thai population and income statistics g. Population of Japan 9.3 Interviews List 10. Bibliographies 2

29 47 112 126 162

175 236 263 311 333 335 338 339 341

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



CHINA Chapter 9.1a Economic reform and modernity in Chinese art. Josephine Fox (Australian National University), with John Clark The production of art in China since the death of Mao has taken place in the context of the rise of the Chinese art market. Until the late 1980s, the measure of success for a Chinese artist was a position in one of the Academies of Fine Arts or other public arts institutions and regular participation in official exhibitions under the auspices of the Chinese Artists’ Association (Zhongguo meishujia xiehui). That is, artists were sponsored by the state. For a student hoping to become an artist, the difference between becoming an amateur or a professional artist depended on the availability of public funding, first for tertiary art education and later for employment. For the established professional artist, societal influence on the form and content of art came in the form of recommendations and judgements by arts institutions under the authority of the Ministry of Culture. Successful professional artists, who took part regularly in national exhibitions, enjoyed only moderately high living standards, equivalent to those of academics, journalists or middle level government cadres. From the mid-1980s, and especially since the 14th CCP Congress of 1992, rising incomes among the well-off and easing of government restrictions on private enterprise and on economic contacts with foreigners have restored the status of paintings and sculpture as investment commodities. The art market evolved around and between the existing structures of the economic base of art production, rather than replacing them. As in other fields of state function, some component institutions of the Chinese arts bureaucracy are now operating quite profitably on business lines. A degree from the Central Academy of Fine Arts in Beijing is still the best guarantee of a well paid job for a young artist, and indeed improves the market value of their works, but that institution now charges undergraduate fees of 11,000 yuan per year. Provincial Academies of Fine Arts charge undergraduate fees of five or six thousand yuan per year. The former Organising Committee of the China Art Exposition was reorganised by the Ministry of Culture as a private company in 1995. The
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 2

Exposition is now run commercially, artworks on show are sold, and the management pay taxes. Public galleries still exist and are still the venue for local and national art exhibitions conducted by the Chinese Artists’ Association, but they also rent gallery space to artists approved by the Association for private solo or group exhibitions. The most important recent structural changes in the economic base of the Chinese art world are the reintroduction of the private gallery, and the introduction of the Chinese art auction company. The major qualitative changes are in the amount of money in circulation, and in the role of the foreign buyer. Societal influence on the form and content of art now comes in the form of market trends, interpreted in a relatively polycentric and informal way by gallery owners and other middlemen. The most successful Chinese artists are not now those who hold managerial jobs in state cultural institutions and exhibit at the National Gallery, but those who no longer need to work for a salary and exhibit only in Europe and America. Their incomes may be high by European and American standards.1 The following is an examination of the sources of current Chinese artists’ incomes. The issues are: how much do artists earn, how many work for pay and how many live by sale of art, who buys art, how do the institutions that structure the Chinese art market work, and in general, how the production of art may be supported, constrained or channelled in particular directions by the existing economic base. Art critics and educators who I spoke to in China generally expressed positive opinions about the impact of market economics on Chinese art, though not without reservations. The general picture of events that they presented was as follows. In the early 1980s, there was as yet no real art market. Chinese hardly bought artworks, not having the money for it, and what sale of art took place was typically to foreigners living and working in China. Paintings by artists of the first rank would be sold for 100 to 500 yuan. Now an established senior artist might sell paintings for 20,000 yuan, more or less. Though the Chinese art market was sparked off by foreign collectors, the main source of this improvement is the increased buying power of the Chinese, brought about by lifting of restrictions on private enterprise and increase in personal savings.
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 3

Artists were thought to be relatively well off, both compared to previous times and compared to the rest of the Chinese urban population. One critic gave a ballpark estimate of an average established artist’s yearly income of about $US 8,000, which would place them in the top decile of the urban population (for 1997) even with two dependants.2 The majority of artists had salaried jobs. Only ten per cent, or less, of established artists lived by sale of art alone. These included a minority of very successful artists, and a greater number of young artists who did not have families and lived by occasional art sales and casual work. Another critic estimated that there were probably 10,000 artists in China who lived by sale of art, and out of this number, about 1,000 who were on very high incomes, owning cars and country houses.3 Teaching in tertiary level art institutes and specialist secondary schools; zhuanke zhongxue, or zhong zhuan; was still the most common occupation of artists with jobs. Others worked in advertising or industrial design, some with their own companies, or did editorial work for art-related publications. There were about 6,000 members of the Chinese Artists’ Association in March 1999.4 Because artists’ incomes vary irregularly according to sales, commissions and opportunities to exhibit, even if they have steady jobs, and because some of this income may be “grey income”, the most useful source of information on this point is probably the artists themselves. Thirty Chinese artists in various categories; guohua or traditional Chinese painting, oil painting, sculpture, printmaking, photography, and conceptual and performance art; were interviewed in the course of this study, and their comments compared with what published information is available. The social and national status of the buyers of Chinese art appeared to be the focus of some uncertainty. This was understandable for several reasons. Chinese art educators, art critics and representatives of art auction companies, with reason for professional and national pride in the postCultural Revolution integration of Chinese art into the international network of exhibitions and art sales, would not want to give the impression that Chinese art depended on foreign buyers. Also, artists and dealers do not normally make public the identity of buyers, and comprehensive statistics of this kind are not generally available. Only Chinese citizens with incomes in the top few per cent are in a position to buy paintings and sculptures as investments, but that is a considerable potential
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 4

market given the size of China. Most important, in this context, is that the institutionally structured art market of China operates in a social environment in which private art production and art exchange are endemic. Painting and calligraphy are routine social accomplishments, to an extent comparable to the ability to play a musical instrument in less artistically minded societies. One informant estimated that fifty per cent of art exchanges taking place in China were gifts, not sales.5 China did not have to wait for the economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping to introduce the concept that art could be sold, as art buyers’ guides existed under the Tang.6 However, all sources referred to the role of foreign collectors in the recent expansion of the Chinese art market, sometimes in a rather contradictory manner. One auction company representative said that until the late 1980s, most oil paintings by Chinese artists were sold to foreign buyers, but the domestic market then overtook the foreign market - then said that until 1996, most buyers at auctions had been overseas Chinese.7 The relative importance of Chinese and foreign buyers can be assessed by examination of Chinese incomes and domestic savings rates, by movements in auction prices, and again by information provided confidentially and informally by Chinese artists themselves. Per capita incomes, per capita disposable incomes, and per capita expenditure for the 10th decile of the urban population of China between 1985 and 1997 are tabled below. Income of the upper 10% of the urban population of China, 1983-1997 (yuan) Year Household size Per capita Per capita Per capita income disposable expenditure income 1985 3.24 1,383.72 1,276.20 1,162.92 1986 3.19 1,478.04 1,347.12 1,262.88 1987 3.12 1,734.24 1,581.60 1,439.88 1988 2.97 2,093.22 1,976.95 1,854.61 1989 2.89 2,493.54 2,279.47 2,001.07 1990 2.87 2,675.64 2,447.92 2,039.76 1991 2.86 2,956.81 2,675.79 2,273.24 1992 2.80 3,663 3,322 2,6838 1993 2.82 4,905.77 4,502.02 3,533.49 1994 2.81 6,837.81 6,262.70 4,799.83 1995 2.79 8,231.31 7,537.98 6,033.10 1996 2.81 9,250.44 8,432.96 6,845.78 1997 2.72 10,297.45 10,250.93 7,314.81

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



All figures are from the Zhongguo tongji nianjian (Statistical yearbook of China). The rates of increase are tabled below. Year 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Rate of increase in per capita income 6.81% 17.33% 20.70% 19.12% 7.30% 10.50% 23.88% 33.93% 39.38% 20.38% 12.38% 11.32% Rate of increase in p/c disposable income 5.56% 17.41% 25.00% 15.30% 7.39% 9.31% 24.15% 35.52% 39.11% 20.36% 11.87% 21.56% Rate of increase in p/c expenditure 8.60% 14.02% 28.80% 7.90% 1.93% 11.45% 18.03% 31.70% 35.84% 25.69% 13.47% 6.85%

The aspect of the figures above most relevant for art sales is that the difference between disposable income and expenditure had risen to almost 3,000 yuan by 1997. Given the 1997 approximate urban population figure of 369,890,0009, this implies 36,989,000 urban residents with a yearly per capita average of 2,936.12 yuan of unspent income, including dependent children. This compares to a yearly average of 113.28 yuan of unspent income for this income group in 1985, an increase by a multiple of 25.92. Per capita income in yuan, in this income group, rose by a multiple of 7.44 between 1985 and 1997. Domestics savings in yuan for the urban population and rates of increase for 1977 to 1996 are tabled below. Urban savings (million yuan) Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 Savings 13,510 15,490 20,260 28,250 35,410 44,730 57,260 77,660 105,780 147,150 Rate of increase 14.66% 30.79% 39.44% 25.35% 26.32% 28.01% 35.63% 36.20% 39.11% Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Savings 265,920 373,480 519,260 679,090 867,810 1,162,730 1,670,280 2,346,670 3,085,020 Rate of increase 28.61% 40.45% 39.03% 30.78% 27.79% 33.98% 43.65% 40.50% 31.46%

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark






Figures from Zhongguo jingji nianjian (Almanac of China’s economy), Economic and Social Development Research Centre, Jingji Guanli Chubanshe, Beijing, 1997. These figures are not differentiated by income level. Savings for all urban income groups rose by a multiple of 29.16 between 1985 and 1996, a figure comparable with the 25.92 times increase in unspent income in 1985-1997 for the 10th decile above. The impression of rapidly rising affluence, at least at the upper end of the spectrum, given by the figures above can be corroborated by statistics on ownership of major consumer durables among the urban population. Four items have been tabled below by way of illustration: refrigerators, hi fi sets, motorcycles and pianos. Ownership of consumer durables per 100 urban households Year 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Refrigerators 19.91 28.07 36.47 42.33 48.70 52.60 56.58 62.10 66.22 69.67 72.98 Hi fi sets Motorcycles Pianos

3.99 5.69 8.68 10.52 12.20 15.32

2.80 3.53 5.26 6.29 7.94 11.60

0.50 0.55 0.65 0.72 0.85 0.93

Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian. The items above represent different categories of expenditure. A refrigerator is a relatively high priced consumer good valued for utility. A hi-fi set is a luxury item. A motorcycle possesses utility value and also involves running costs. A piano is a utility item for professional musicians, but more typically is a luxury item that confers cultural status. Pianos were not recorded in the Zhongguo tongji nianjian statistics before 1992. At a piano shop just off Wangfujing St, Beijing, which I visited in the course of this survey in April 1999, the upright pianos were priced from 9,000 yuan to about 20,000 yuan. The manager did not offer a precise figure for yearly piano sales, but estimated that the shop sold about 600 per year. As if to dispel any

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



they are investments that appreciate over time. paintings by mainland Chinese artists were auctioned only in Hong Kong. or refrigerators or hi-fi sets. auction prices will be analysed in some detail below. just under one in every 100 urban households owned a piano. They were criticised by artists interviewed in China for being “not very closely regulated” (bu hen guifan). The statistics quoted above indicate that there is sufficient disposable income in the top 10% of the urban population of China to support a domestic market for Chinese art. The note of caution is sounded also in guides to the Chinese art market for potential investors published in China. For this reason. he then sold one to a customer in front of me. or by private collectors having no business relationship with the artist. several dozen lots of oil paintings and sculptures or one to three hundred lots of guohua paintings and calligraphy reaching total sale price values of one to two hundred million yuan and determining the price ranges at private sale for the works of artists whose paintings or sculptures are auctioned. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 8 . by local companies and by the Hong Kong and Taiwan branches of Christie’s and Sotheby’s. Unlike pianos. The rise of the art auction company has drawn mixed responses from artists and critics. Art auctions have been conducted in China by Chinese auction companies since 1993. being unconcerned with artistic quality. They do not confirm that Chinese buyers actually outnumber foreign or overseas Chinese buyers. The Zhongguo tongji nianjian figures indicate that in 1997. typically. extent and reliability of demand.10 Before this. until the market expanded towards Europe and the United States in the mid to late 1980s. Auction companies exert considerable influence within the current Chinese art market. sculpture or photographs auctioned confirmed that these works had been put up for auction either by galleries or art dealers who handled the fee and commission (10% of sale price as a rule).doubt about this figure. Zhang Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Like pianos.11 Those who had had paintings. with auctions of. up to a point. at the prices suggested above. Taiwan and southeast Asia. people who can afford pianos can also afford paintings. Below. data on art prices and price trends is examined in detail for what it indicates about the source. and charging high entrance fees. According to all available information on current art prices. works of art confer cultural status on the buyer.

54 87.000 880. Below are tabled average sale prices achieved at auctions of guohua.600.1996 4.00015 286.000 Highest price 2.000 396.050.65 38. oil paintings and sculpture from company records supplied by China Guardian Auctions Co.1997 10. Sale prices at auctions of guohua (yuan) Date Company 11.389.000 APPENDICES 9 Sale prices at auctions of oil paintings (yuan) Date Company Average price 11.98 53.1997 6.1995 China Guardian 240.75 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.1997 11.944. These phenomena can be taken to affirm the economic importance.748.75 Highest price 5. in Beijing. and that prices vary according to factors as random as the weather and clashes with overseas auctions12. acrylics.1994 5.251.000 1.Ltd.000 6.000 3.1997 China Guardian 196.775.13 83.Ltd.000 6. Calligraphy is counted with guohua.058. list a number of abuses involving collusion between sellers and buyers by which sale prices can be effectively fixed in advance13. of the Chinese art auction.712.1997 6.1998 China Guardian Rongbao Rongbao China Guardian Rongbao Rongbao Rongbao Rongbao China Guardian Average price 183. if not the rationality.00014 418. contrary to the state of affairs in other countries.82 10.00 10.11 4.000 880.753.1997 11.860. Trends in auction prices. Only guohua paintings and calligraphy done after 1850 are counted.000 396.129.000 1. Chinese art auction companies follow the practice of auctioning guohua and oil paintings separately.Zhixiong points out that. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark .1995 Rongbao 56.1997 Rongbao 31. and Rongbao Art Auction Co.100.1996 11.67 4.000 462.986.437. should set a kind of ceiling on trends in the Chinese art market overall.1996 China Guardian 102.57 60. though they stress that these things are done “only occasionally”.360. Liu Gang and Liu Xiaoqiong.170.000 1.906.03 11.25 51. bearing Zhang Zhixiong’s comments in mind. drawings and collages are counted with oil paintings. so separate statistics are easy to compile.960.1994 China Guardian 140. Watercolours not in the guohua tradition.11 40.61 30.595.771.010.648. prices of paintings sold at auction in China tend to be 25% to 50% higher than those of paintings sold by private dealers.

1998 China 19 221 36 3 Guardian Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.800 Sale prices at auctions of sculpture (yuan) Date Company 10. Four years may not be enough time in which to measure price movements.000 and 990.221.76 32.43 29.883. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 10 .000.000 yuan and over.000 374.000 10.5. and the prices more even. All they demonstrate is that China Guardian tends to sell higher priced paintings than Rongbao.1997 Rongbao 40 99 6 0 10. and 1.756. none in the China Guardian records has attained more than 96.308.1997 Rongbao 36 99 11 0 6.1998 11.97 Average price 44.1998 China Guardian The figures above do not demonstrate any very obvious price movement in either direction between 1994 and 1998.1996 China Guardian 4. between 10. However.1996 Rongbao 37 98 17 0 11.800 yuan at auction. Even if the averages above are cut by a quarter or a half.1997 Rongbao 55 144 19 0 11.800 88.0001.00 1.000.14 35.000 Highest price 96. which raise the mean figure well above the mode.000 99.000 yuan.1995 China Guardian 4.000 and 99.000100. Auctions of guohua: distribution of sale prices according to price range (yuan) Date Company Under 10.1998 China Guardian Rongbao 147.160.000 990.1997 China Guardian 5.1996 Rongbao 52 194 27 1 4. between 100.1994 China 3 121 53 5 Guardian 5.671.000 41.000 yuan.33 28.1997 Rongbao 42 136 20 0 11.800 41.1997 China 12 158 21 1 Guardian 6.000 yuan. they are still very high when measured against the current Chinese income statistics.000 and over 11.157. as suggested by Zhang Zhixiong. The number of sculptures sold by China Guardian has been relatively small. Below are tabled the numbers of paintings sold at each auction at prices less than 10. the relevance of the average sale prices tabled above as a measure of art market trends is limited by the sale at many of these auctions of one or two exceptionally high priced paintings.

1997 11.3% 75.5% 82.3% 0.7% 0 0.1997 10.1998 China Guardian Rongbao Rongbao China Guardian Rongbao Rongbao Rongbao Rongbao China Guardian Under 10.1% Auctions of oil paintings: distribution of sale prices according to price range (yuan) Date Company Under 10.000.2% 100.6% 24.6% 6.8% 29.3% 67.5% 0 0 0 0 1.000 and over 11.3% 24.000990.1% 68.1995 4.1998 China 0 25 11 1 Guardian 10.3% 79.000 and over 2.2% 27.1996 4.8% 10.000 and over 2.1994 10.1% 12.000 990.1998 Rongbao 20 17 2 0 Expressed in percentages: Date Company 11.5% 85.1% 1.000100.000.1996 China 0 38 6 1 Guardian 4.000 29.3% 10.000 0 0 0 0 0 20.7% 5.7% 21.000. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 11 .6% 43.4% 67.1998 10.3% 2.2% 0 2.1% 8.8% 68.0% 84.7% 66.3% 19.5% 10.000 1.8% 82.9% 0 2.1997 China 0 51 9 2 Guardian 11.2% 25.000 10.1998 China Guardian China Guardian Rongbao China Guardian China Guardian Rongbao China Guardian Rongbao Under 10.1997 5.1995 China 0 29 4 1 Guardian 10.000 18.8% 10.7% 0 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.00099.7% 4.5% 64.1996 4.1996 11.000 79.2% 11.0001.8% 0 51.5% 70.1997 Rongbao 11 40 2 0 5.0% 13.9% 1.2% 11.2% 9.1997 11.3% 14.9% 10.000990.1997 6.9% 7.3% 90.000 99.0% 6.1995 Rongbao 0 27 3 0 4.1995 10.6% 100.1994 5.Expressed in percentages: Date Company 11.5% 3.1997 11.2% 3.1994 China 0 35 8 1 Guardian 10.1997 6.000 66.00099.

what size of canvas was required. Shanghai. Nanchang. and oil paintings by Wu Guanzhong and Chen Yifei. the close attention paid to surface area by participants in the Chinese art market was attested to by some of the informants in this survey.An evidently successful painter of political pop indicated that he was advised by representatives of an art dealer in Hong Kong. Jiangxi Meishu Chubanshe. 1998. Chu ru yishu shichang. 1996. Hongqi Chubanshe. who offered him a fixed price per square foot of material. ed. Another said that the two galleries in Beijing which he dealt with would only accept paintings up to a certain size. 1998. Shoucang touzi guwen. Li Keran.16 To gain a longer time frame in which to look for price movements. and the mixture of large and small paintings. One guohua painter mentioned a contract he signed with an art dealer in Taiwan. in response to the difficulties of 1997. Wu Lichao and Wang Ruijin. there is still no clearly demonstrated general price movement in either direction. Wu Guanzhong and Chen Yifei sold at auction in China and Hong Kong since 1980 is tabled below. 1996. ed. Yishu shichang. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 12 . Money value per surface area of paintings is a deeply un-aesthetic but functional measure of trends in the art market. Shanghai Shuhua Chubanshe. with whom he had a contract. Beijing. and to counter the random effect introduced by the large number of artists represented at each auction. Apart from the common sense principle that large paintings tend to cost more than small ones by the same artist. Shanghai Shuhua Chubanshe. 1997. and the auction Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Huhehot. Shanghai. Below are tabulated the average sale prices at auction per square centimetre of surface area of guohua paintings by Fu Baoshi and Li Keran.These figures provide a clearer impression of the kinds of prices attained by Chinese traditional paintings and oil paintings at auction in Beijing over the last few years. Yuanfang Chubanshe. Qing dai shuhua jianding yu yishu shichang. Zhang Zhixiong. The average sale prices tabled here have been reached by collating auction results published in Liu Gang and Liu Xiaoqiong. ed. All these figures reflect is the decision of the Rongbao management. to accept for sale a higher proportion of oil paintings by relatively young and unknown artists. Xiao Long and Wang Ming. between 1980 and 1998 according to the availability of auction results. Ming jia shuhua shichang xingqing. However. value per surface area of paintings by Fu Baoshi. Xu Jianrong.

91 Auction sale price per square centimetre of works of Li Keran Year RMB $HK 1980 6.39 1997 84.22 1987 14.23 $US 3.02 1995 95. Wu and Chen.43 1995 64.49 1994 71.40 1991 69.24 1992 58.44 1986 12.10 1992 89.77 98. Fu and Li were among the elite of 20th century guohua artists.74 1993 75. As Wu Guanzhong paints both guohua and oils. All cases where the sources disagree about the sale price have been left out.03 1996 73.00 1988 13.65 Auction sale prices per square centimetre of oil paintings by Wu Guanzhong Year RMB $HK TB 1993 55. whose oil paintings frequently sell for over a million yuan at auction.17 1989 37.88 1990 53.results supplied by China Guardian and Rongbao above.67 1991 81.51 1994 98. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 13 .23 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.49 46. paint landscapes of a conservative character.02 1989 56.33 1993 54.08 59.09 1996 146.37 1998 105.22 1981 12. whose works have been regularly sold at auction in China.21 34.47 1997 39. only paintings identified in the sources as oil paintings have been included.74 $US 21. Hong Kong and Taiwan. Auction sale price per square centimetre of works of Fu Baoshi Year RMB $HK 1986 32. which is significant in relation to the auction sales of their works in China.20 1984 10.33 1998 55.70 1990 65.54 1983 17.

55 182. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 14 .56 684.60 1997 178. at the time that art auctions begin to be conducted in the People’s Republic. compared to 296.9% in 1989. Per capita income of the top 10% of urban households.46 yuan per person or 7.68 105. The data on Wu Guanzhong and Chen Yifei present a more random appearance. from which the potential market for Chinese art is drawn.090 million yuan or 13. Each stressed that foreigners very rarely attended Chinese art auctions due to unfamiliarity with the market and fear of making expensive mistakes.29 98. Hong Kong prices start to decline in the mid-1990s.580 million yuan or 24.00 568. probably because the samples are too small to reflect market trends.55 1998 51.70% in 1988. The slump of 1997 looks like a direct result of the East Asian economic crisis of that year. In China. compared to Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.00 1995 34.79 1994 54. recovering somewhat in 1998. GDP in 1989 rose by 198. Third. compared to 358.32 yuan per person or 19.23 37. when mainland Chinese buyers stepped in. The boom of 1989 is more interesting.44 Three phenomena can be observed from the data on Fu Baoshi and Li Keran. then slump in 1997.1994 1995 1997 1998 379.12% in 1989. China prices initially tend to rise as Hong Kong prices decline. and the buyers at the auctions conducted by their companies had been mostly overseas Chinese until the crisis of 1997. in either Hong Kong or mainland China. Hong Kong auction prices take a sudden upward leap at the end of the 1980s. Living expenditure for the top 10% urban households increased by 146.98 yuan per person or 20. increased by 400. and was explained as such by personnel of China Guardian and Rongbao whom I interviewed in Beijing. Second.27% over 1988. as it does not coincide with a similar degree of improvement in the general economic indicators for that year.79% for 1988/1987. First.88 17.83 1996 139.25 Auction sale prices per square centimetre of works of Chen Yifei Year RMB $HK 1993 40.

unlike auction results.092 or 15. compared to $HK 66. Pan-Chinese cultural solidarity may also have come into it. suggesting caution or even loss of interest in the face of the political events of 1989.500 million or 15. Because private commercial galleries deal directly with artists.45% in 1989 compared to 59. Another had had contracts with galleries in China and Taiwan but found both unsatisfactory.1% in 1989. Artists interviewed this year in Beijing. which are a matter of public record.02% in 1989. Urban savings deposits increased by 107.778 million or 13. which supports the idea of a general drawing in and consolidating of personal resources.17 The people of Hong Kong were not depositing their money in local banks that year.73 yuan per person or 28. Fifteen out of thirty artists interviewed said they had contracts with galleries. subject to the reservation expressed by Zhang Zhixiong above. rose by $HK 32. though this figure is probably not exhaustive. Chinese artists deal with art auction companies only at two or more removes. However. what prices paintings by established Chinese artists are sold for privately in China.414. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 15 . However.61% in 1988. Out of those fifteen. averaged for the whole population.66% in 1988. The rise in auction sale prices may reflect the value of paintings as mobile investments conveniently free from the effects of political instability.97% in 1988.160 million yuan or 28.8% in 1988. and had no dealings with galleries at the time of the interview because he could sell his works without them. Domestic savings increased by $HK 3. they were paying higher prices for paintings by Fu Baoshi and Li Keran. Tianjin and Shanghai gave some information on their dealings with private galleries in China and overseas. Living expenditure. the prices charged by private galleries based in China are a better indication of artists’ incomes than auction results are.560 million yuan or a startling 40. They are not usually published.463 million in 1989. In Hong Kong. However.054 million or 17. eight had contracts with galleries in China. and indicate. two had Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. provided that it was kept confidential. Art auctions are the most visible and documented link between Chinese artists and overseas buyers. Neither are the commissions they reserve usually made public. GDP increased by $HK 65. compared to $HK 34.132 million in 1988. actual prices charged by art dealers are subject to all the requirements of business secrecy. compared to $HK 14.

and five had contracts with both Chinese and overseas galleries. Fees paid to exhibitors of installations and performance artists at Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Artist #24 said the gallery in China charged 40%. which exerted a monopoly over sale of this artists’s works throughout Australia on grounds of the relatively small size of the Australian art market. in China but owned by resident foreigners. or the artist might be approached after the exhibition by an interested person. Several of them mentioned commissions of between forty and sixty per cent. without mediation by an art dealer.000. In detail: Artist #3 said both galleries he dealt with. Artist #9 said the Chinese branch of an American art dealership with which he had a contract charged 50%. Participation in exhibitions was an important factor. Artist #15 said the Chinese (foreign-owned) gallery charged 50%. Singapore and the USA all charged 50%. Artist #16 said the China-based gallery with which he had an informal agreement sold two of his works to overseas buyers in 1998. The socially endemic character of art production and art exchange in China is useful in this respect.18 It is clearly in the best financial interests of Chinese artists to avoid selling their work through galleries. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 16 .000. charged 40%. Artist #15 also mentioned city-wide monopoly clauses. Liu and Liu (1988) also give 50% (or more) as a typical private gallery commission. Artists interviewed in this survey were recruited by means of visiting art critics and dealers and asking for introductions. for $US 3. First. internationally if possible. Artist #19 said the three galleries in Hong Kong. Artworks might be sold directly at commercial exhibitions. and the one in Hong Kong charged 50%. art sales and income is tabled below. a general breakdown of artists’ incomes for 1998 into salary and income from art sales. charged 40%. and to manage to be well known enough. except in the case of the Australian gallery.contracts only with overseas galleries (including Hong Kong galleries). and the other five. The information provided by 30 Chinese artists about employment. in the USA and Australia. Most of the artists interviewed indicated that their income from sale of work was either a mixture of private gallery sales and direct personal sales. to sell it through informal networking. and kept $2. or came entirely from direct personal sales.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 17 .invitations issued by corporations or government bodies to groups of guohua artists to compose paintings on a theme offered by the corporartion . and some artists did not wish to provide details of their incomes.is also counted with art sales. Income from bihui . As many of the artists had been paid American currency. Paid work of all kinds. this is converted to yuan at $US 1 = 8. Photographers are counted as avant-garde artists.29 yuan19. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.exhibitions of avant-garde art are counted with art sales. are counted as oil painters. or who use collage materials. is counted as one category. Amounts quoted are very approximate. Artists who usually work in tempera or acrylic paints. casual and permanent. but all information provided is collated here.

000 Art sales 23.000 373.000 ? 10.700 Amount not stated 248. Over 14.800 APPENDICES 18 Avant-garde artists Age group Artist #5 35-39 Artist #14 35-39 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.200 11.000 35.000 12.000 15.000 24.430 Total income ? 80.000 Amount not stated 94.000 None None None None 20.000 12.600 Art sales Amount not stated but more than pension.700 ? 248.900 248.000 16.000+ ? 218.500 Salary 9.000 1. less than 12.000 Salary 12.000 24.200 227.000+ 390.900 Art sales Amount not stated 70.000 None None 18.600 12.200+ 29.000+ 17.200 227.050 358.900 268.000 Total income 23.000 13. amount not stated 9.000 None Scholarship.700+ 35.000 Salary None 15. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark .050 358.000 13.000 Amount not stated 10.000 Art sales 40.500 Total income 49.000 Total income 561.Breakdown of artists’ incomes in 1998: salary versus art sales (yuan) Guohua painters Age group Artist #4 70+ Residence Tianjin Salary Cadre’s pension.000+ 69.560 Salary None 10.600 ? 107.000+ Amount not stated 200.000+ 18.200 Total income ? Artist #6 Artist #7 Artist #23 Oil painters Artist #1 Artist #2 Artist #3 Artist #9 Artist #10 Artist #11 Artist #12 Artist #13 Artist #17 Artist #19 Artist #20 Artist #22 Artist #24 Artist #25 Artist #27 Printmakers Artist #15 Artist #18 Sculptors Artist #8 Artist #16 35-39 40-44 40-44 Age group 35-39 45-49 35-39 35-39 40-44 35-39 50-54 45-49 40-44 30-34 30-34 30-34 50-54 35-39 25-29 Age group 35-39 35-39 Age group 30-34 40-44 Tianjin Beijing Beijing Residence Beijing Beijing Shanghai Beijing Shanghai Beijing Shanghai Shanghai Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Shanghai Tianjin Tianjin Residence Beijing Beijing Residence Beijing Beijing Residence Beijing Shanghai 24.700+ None None Art sales 549.000+ 81.

500 Amount not stated None None None 20. The remaining 13 taught art. Four of these earned very high incomes by their own account. one was moderately disabled and was supported by her family. Of the artists with jobs or other sources of regular income. formula landscapes and still lifes copied from a photograph on order from a commercial painting dealer. Artist #29 occassionally painted “commercial paintings”. Artist #5 did occasional casual work setting up galleries for exhibitions of sculpture and installations. though Artist #14 also did occasional interior design for corporate clients.000 yuan for 1998. Artist #4 was retired and on a pension. and these artists may be making money while they can and holding on to their jobs for the approaching time when they will need them. Of the artists without jobs. as did Artists #21 and #27. and Artist #10 was completing an MA on a postgraduate scholarship. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 19 . it looks surprising that many successful artists continue to teach. Artists #21 and #28 worked in the advertising industry. The remaining eight were solely occupied with art production.000 yuan a year.945 26.500 169. In view of this. Without this it would be only 4. and three did not state their incomes.380 165.700 from an overseas gallery which he had not yet received at the time of the interview.Artist #21 Artist #26 Artist #28 Artist #29 Artist #30 20-24 30-34 30-34 25-29 35-39 Shanghai Shanghai Shanghai Beijing Beijing 14.000 26.945+ 26. and Artist #26 was employed in a publicly funded arts institute.000 169. at tertiary level art institutes or specialist secondary schools. Artist #18 was a freelance industrial designer. considering that there are much more financially rewarding uses for their time. Apart from this unpredictability of Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 6. Artist #17 was on leave without pay from the provincial library where she was regularly employed.800+ Artist #29’s income above includes $US 2. The Chinese art market is still a new and unpredictable phenomenon. although these two also had regular work. and to keep her job available while painting and exhibiting elsewhere was obliged to pay the library 3.380 165. These figures confirm that established Chinese artists earn high incomes by any standards. and indicate that teaching or other salaries are not a very significant income component.800+ 14.

who was moderately disabled. had never been employed. like Artist #5. between March and May 1999. also sold approximately 10 oil paintings in 1998. washing cars. Artist Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. selling wooden theatre masks from a roadside stall. making stage scenery. The descriptions of artistic genre are not hard and fast. and still did occasional labouring work. painting commercial paintings. had had a long series of occasional occupations: being an artists’ model. though basically known as a lithograph printmaker. Artist #12 had achieved artistic and political notoriety in Shanghai in the mid-1980s. social and personal commitment to an institution. Artists #6 and #7 were guohua painters. as did Artist #27. or interest in teaching art for its own sake. where visitors register and state their business). the reasons that make most sense are extra-economic ones. Artist #9 made and sold prints as well as oil paintings. The amount of time that the self-supporting artists listed above had been self-supporting is significant. Artist #20. had supplemented his income from art with a series of casual jobs. making trips to buy materials from cheap sources for other artists on commission. At the time the survey was conducted. Artist #30 had worked in a tractor factory until 1995. had then spent a year at an American institution and had been self-supporting (in China) since 1987. helping an art critic build a house. Artist #11 taught privately until 1992. keeping watch in a chuandashi (the office at the gate of a Chinese production or education unit.the near future in China. Only one had been entirely selfsupporting for more than ten years. and four for five years or less. Artist #22 studied overseas in the early 1990s. sketching portraits in parks. Artist #1 had been an interior designer until 1994. who was mainly selfsupporting. Artist #15. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 20 . but their work was profoundly nontraditional in appearance. Artist #19 had taught in a middle school until 1993. Artist #5 was first and foremost a conceptual artist. Artist #29. but almost all of his income for 1998 came from sale of (non-traditional) watercolour paintings and small sculptures in red lacquer. construction work. so much so in Artist #6’s case that a job offer from the Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts was turned down in 1983 and he was sent to work in the Tanggu municipal library. working in a plastic factory. Artist #5. taught briefly in a specialist middle school on returning to China and left in 1995. Artist #9 taught at an Academy of Fine Arts until 1995.

a silk screen printmaker. Most of his income for 1998 came from sale of newspaper paintings. The only two oil painters interviewed who did not sell a canvas in 1998 lived in Tianjin. as a photographer. Out of the seven avant-garde artists interviewed. Sorting of the figures by artistic genre points to the rather trite observation that paint on canvas. and painting on newspaper and other non-conventional surfaces. photography. the other worked in advertising . is the most likely means towards earning a high income from the art market. usually overseas. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 21 . Artist #30.in Tianjin sold paintings to overseas buyers in 1998. Sorting of the figures by city of residence points to a few tentative conclusions. in Shanghai. Only one of the four artists .one was a teacher. four had earned most of their income from sales or commissions of painting or sculpture. regarded prints as a way of earning an income rather than genuine art. among younger artists. had been a self-supporting photographer since 1995. produced only collectable objects. performance art.two guohua painters and two oil painters . but divided her time between decorative sculpture done on commission for corporate clients in China and exhibiting installations.and one. two relied on their salaries . Artist #28 engaged variously in video and computer imagery. made any amount of money that year from conceptual art. Only Artist #28. Artist #26 had studied sculpture and was employed as a sculptor at the Shanghai Oil Painting and Sculpture Institute. then engaged in conceptual art for about 10 years between 1984 and 1994 before taking up painting again. Artist #10 studied oil painting in Shanghai. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and was preparing for an exhibition of oil paintings later in 1999. Teachers’ salaries in Shanghai are noticeably higher than they are in Beijing and Tianjin. after practising oil painting and then conceptual art for some years while employed full time as an industrial worker. Conceptual art is better established. who was awarded a $US 3.000 prize by an overseas contemporary art society in 1998. while conceptual and performance artists are required to have other ways of supporting themselves.#18. Artist #11 had started out as a lithograph printmaker but had successfully turned to oil painting. particularly oil paint.

$US 10. amount not stated 3 paintings. $US 3. less than 12.000+ 390.050 358. 70. $US 10. $US 35.In order to separate the domestic from the foreign component of the market for Chinese art.000+ 3 paintings. amount not stated 9. All other amounts are in yuan. domestic commissions. these figures have been retained in American currency. amount not stated None 10 paintings.700+ Artist #10 Artist #11 Artist #12 Artist #13 Artist #17 Artist #19 Scholarship.600 12.000 None None ? 248.560 Commission 4 paintings.000 Domestic sales 2 paintings. 100.000 12 paintings.000 None None None None None None Overseas sales Several paintings.000 5 paintings.000 None 20+ paintings.000 10 paintings.000 Total (yuan) ? 24.000 yuan Amount not stated None Amount not stated 10 paintings.430 Oil painters Artist #1 Salary None Commission None Artist #2 Artist #3 Artist #9 10.000 5 paintings.000 Amount not stated 20+ paintings. amount not Total (yuan) ? 80. Guohua painters Salary Artist #4 Artist #6 Artist #7 Artist #23 Pension.000 None Overseas sales Amount not stated None None 7 paintings.600 ? 107.000 ? Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. $US 10.000+ 17. 8 bihui. domestic sales and overseas sales.000.000+ and 110. 15. 100. Where artists have quoted earnings in American currency.000+ Amount not stated 5 paintings. 24.000+ ? 218. 15.000 None None 18. amount not stated None None None Domestic sales 14. the income of each artist is broken up below into salary.000 None None None 1 painting. $US 10.000 24.000+ Amount not stated 248.000 12. 55. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 22 .

000+: installation fee None None Art prize. 70.000+ 81. $US 40.000+: 2 sculptures. 13.000 and 6 paintings.000 Overseas sales None 3 sculptures. $US 17. 2. $US 3.000+ 169.500 and hua biao.500 Total (yuan) 49.600 6.000 13.400+ Amount not stated None None None 1 sculpture.000 Total (yuan) 561.000 None None None Domestic sales 40 prints.800+ Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 23 . 10. 3.Artist #20 Artist #22 Artist #24 Artist #25 Artist #27 Printmakers Artist #15 None None 20.000 40+ prints. $US 22.000+ None 1 mural. 11.000 and 7 sculptures. 10.500 None Overseas sales 2 paintings.000 35.000+ None stated None Several paintings. $US 25.000 Avant-garde artists Salary Artist #5 None Commission None Domestic sales 3 paintings.900 268. 75. 40.000 None Mural.945 26.000 13. $US 2.000+ 16.000 1. 1.700 Couldn’t separate domestic & overseas Total (yuan) 23.500 None 10. 2.380 165.000+ None None Overseas sales 25 prints. 40.000? Artist #14 Artist #26 Artist #28 Artist #29 Artist #30 15.000 None None None Commission None 10 paintings. 5.200 None 7 paintings. $US 45.000 Salary 12.500 Salary Artist #8 Artist #16 9.000 Domestic sales 3 sculptures.200 227. $US 3.200 Artist #18 Sculptors 8. 20.000 $US 30.500 None $US 20.200 10 paintings.700+ 35. $US 10.000 Commission None 1 sculpture.000 3 paintings.000 12.000 and 3 paintings.800 24.500 2 murals.000 29.

on the assumption that these sums were paid by foreign buyers in China. In 1998 he sold a few scenes of the Welcome Pine on Huang Shan to foreign buyers. including commissions.075 yuan for domestic sales.000 yuan each.500 yuan in domestic sales and 2.The initial difficulty with separating the domestic from the foreign market is that some artists regularly sell artworks through galleries in China to foreign buyers.888 yuan in foreign sales. and total foreign sales declared are added up. Artist #3 considered that Chinese. Artist #2 said both Chinese and foreigners bought his paintings. Foreign buyers included overseas Chinese. and 1.348. the figures are 616. but Chinese buyers preferred to invest in guohua. and excluding the $US 20. One was a gallery owner. while modern art looked incomprehensible and risky. Artist #4 painted traditional guohua. A 4 square foot landscape would cost $US 500. Artist #3 could only recall ever selling two paintings to Chinese buyers. Artist #3’s paintings were non-figurative.736. If the sale is made by a gallery. bought paintings for their value as investments.000. If amounts quoted in United States currency are included with foreign sales. They are summarised below.313 yuan for foreign sales. They understood it better. He had recently had two landscapes auctioned locally for 7. He described Chinese buyers as industrialists (qiyejia). the artist does not necessarily know the identity of the buyer. even though it appreciated slowly compared to modern art. like foreigners.000 that Artist #30 wasn’t sure about. The artists’ statements about what kind of people bought their artworks tend to confirm the impression of the preponderance of foreign demand. Artist #1 said most buyers of his paintings were foreign. Artist #4 said both Chinese and foreigners bought his paintings. He had sold one to a visiting American two days before being interviewed. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 24 . He thought his own hyper-realist style appealed more to foreign buyers. If total domestic sales declared. the figures are 2.

Artist #10 said he sold paintings mostly to foreigners in business in China. a guohua painter. and maintenance costs. entrepreneurs and embassy personnel. and cost more than the traditional ones: 6. Some also offered living expenses. and he himself had never received any.000 yuan for 6 square feet and 10. These were labour-intensive. and sometimes to young Shanghai people with money. and he sold those mostly to foreigners.Artist #5. they were high officials (gaoji ganbu).000 for larger ones. and had sold an installation to a public gallery in France. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. as against 3. commented on the relative convenience of exhibiting installations overseas. The shoucang fei (collection fee) offered by the gallery was well below what a private buyer would pay. but the prices put them off.000 to 7.000 to 4. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 25 . Artist #5 received an exhibitor’s fee from a gallery in Taiwan in 1998. Artist #9 said most of his customers were foreign.000 to 20. One had been collected by a Chinese public gallery. Some were interested in the modern ones. The modern ones were infernal cityscapes full of flesheating machinery and severed heads. and though this was related to the non-traditional character of his work. compared to China. Artist #6 said Chinese buyers preferred the traditional ones. The traditional ones portrayed birds and flowers. Artist #7 said his paintings were bought more by Western and overseas Chinese buyers than by Chinese. a conceptual artist. Artist #8 said she sold sculptures to both Chinese and overseas buyers. painted two distinct types of guohua: traditional and modern. necessary materials.000 for scenes of birds and flowers. artists participating in exhibitions of installation and performance art were hardly ever offered remuneration. Older Chinese weren’t interested in his paintings. His customers were either Chinese business people or foreigners resident in China. Artist #6. sometimes to art dealers. Overseas institutions provided the airfare. In China. If Chinese.

The character of his work made public exposure in China problematic. They used to buy guohua. but exhibited installations both in China and overseas. He considered that most Chinese did not have enough money. while those who had found other uses for it. Colour reproductions were circulated by galleries on the Internet. who painted political pop. Overseas Chinese bought modern art as well as Europeans and Americans.Artist #11. Artist #20 had sold paintings to both Chinese and foreign buyers. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Artist #19 had never exhibited or sold a painting in China.another artist. and art books containing illustrations of his paintings were available in China. only sold paintings overseas. Artist #18 made silk screen prints of minjian tese (folk character) . though this would change with time. but also performed commissions for Chinese local government organisations and private companies. Artist #15 thought foreign buyers’ tastes had changed. Artist #16 sold sculpture mainly to foreign buyers. Artist #13 had only ever sold one painting to a Chinese buyer . Art education was defective in China. but had sold paintings regularly overseas since 1994. Artist #12 said he occasionally sold paintings to Chinese collectors or galleries.and sold these more to foreigners than to Chinese. the Chinese buyers were not. though. Artist #11 considered the opportunities were better overseas. but most buyers were foreign. Artist #17 sold paintings to both Chinese and foreigners. but mostly foreigners. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 26 . Artist #14 did not produce art that was saleable. She thought that while the foreign buyers tended to be specialist art collectors. In 1998 he had been approached by a Chinese gallery but had decided not to sign a contract with it. In China they were bought by intellectuals with money. and a few public galleries.Beijing hutongs and old buildings . Artist #15 said his works were bought by both Chinese and foreigners. but now preferred modern art.

and did sculpture on commission for private clients in China. due to the awkwardness of exhibiting political pop. Artist #29 took part in exhibitions of performance art both in China and overseas. They were other artists. Artist #27 had sold paintings only to Chinese buyers. No nakedness was the only condition. who was less than 25 years old. Artist #23 thought Chinese buyers were more interested in guohua landscapes.Artist #21. Most foreign buyers were overseas Chinese. later in 1999 if he could obtain a passport. junk sculpture and performance photographs to both Chinese and foreign buyers. Not many were non-Chinese. had started exhibiting performance art in Shanghai and hoped to attend his first international exhibition. from Southeast Asia or the USA. other artists. Artist #25 had sold paintings only to Chinese buyers since 1995. critics. and sold paintings. He thought most or all buyers from the Chinese gallery were foreign. Considering performance art in China. the Maia Festival in Portugal. or collectors known to him through art circles. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. exhibited installations both in China and overseas. or art critics. However many exhibitions in Shanghai now opened with a performance. a conceptual artist. Artist #28 thought there were no political difficulties with it. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 27 . and had sold paintings only to overseas buyers in 1998. one in China and three overseas. Artist #23 sold paintings to both Chinese and foreign buyers. when his contract with a foundation in Taiwan lapsed. Artist #26. but sold newspaper paintings mainly to foreigners in China. but it was still incomprehensible and unheard-of for most people. Artist #24 rarely exhibited in China. Artist #28 exhibited conceptual art both in China and overseas. Artist #30 sold photographs through four galleries. Local Chinese buyers were businessmen with a liking for art. Artist #22 sold paintings to both Chinese and foreign buyers.

The dominance of overseas Chinese buyers at art auctions in China is reflected in the preponderance of guohua and oil painting of a relatively conservative character. and political pop. the difference between per capita disposable income and per capita expenditure for the same income group increasing by a factor of 25. the predominating styles were surrealism in the European tradition qualified by iconic Chinese elements.92 between 1985 and 1997. and present different prospects for recognition and cultural survival. but the alternatives bear different economic weights. The high prices paid by foreign buyers make it worthwhile for Chinese artists to do business with foreign art dealers based in China. Further analysis in this direction requires someone qualified to do it. an unprecedented variety of forms and styles. or create.000 yuan in Chinese currency. abstract minimalism. but are just as real. Present-day Chinese artists are able to choose from. in spite of the 50% commissions. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 28 .16 between 1985 and 1996. and domestic savings of the urban population in general increasing by a factor of 29. the high proportion of overseas sales reflects the difference that still exists between current Chinese incomes and prices paid for critically recognised works of art by European and American collectors. and these dealers act as conduits for overseas buying trends. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.In spite of the per capita income of the top 10% of the urban population increasing by a factor of 7. This state of affairs creates a complex of societal influences on the form and content of art that are probably less dangerous for artists than those of the 1960s and 1970s.44 between 1985 and 1997. Among the artists who gave their incomes as over 100.

500 undergraduate students 1986. 130 tertiary academies with art department. Wuhan. Shanghai Drama Academy. 6. Beijing. These offer 3-4 years training and the major aim is to produce art teachers for non-tertiary art schools and normal middle schools. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 undergraduate students 1999. Central Academy of Fine Arts*.CHAPTER 9. University of Sydney) with John Clark20 National data for tertiary art schools and other tertiary art departments There are 14 tertiary art academies (excluding performing arts). and 4 other visual tertiary art departments. Beijing Film Academy. Beijing Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts.000 undergraduate students These academies also had about 30-40 art research students per year. Guangxi Art Academy. Hubei Academy of Fine Arts. Sichuan Academy of Fine Arts. Chongqing. 1978. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 29 . Nanning. city educational committees. 145 tertiary academies with art department. Beijing. Jinan. China Academy of Fine Arts*. Other tertiary institutes with art departments: According to Beijing sources in the Ministry of Education. 10. Kunming. 200 tertiary academies with art department. Art Academy of the People’s Liberation Arour. The remainder come from other department or under provincial. Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts. Shandong Art Academy. Yunnan Art Academy. Central Drama Academy*. 170 tertiary academies with art department.1b The structure of the Chinese art world in the 1980s and 1990s Shao Yiyang (Department of Art History & Theory. Beijing Dance Academy*. Jilin Art Academy. Nanjing Art Academy. Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts. 8. 3. there are over 100 fine art departments in teacher’s academies in Beijing and in every province of China. Shenyang. Central Academy of Crafts. Beijing.000 undergraduate students 1993. Zhejiang. Luxun Fine Arts Academy. Those institutions which are directly under the Ministry of Culture are shown with an asterisk.

there were 2714 graduates in fine arts and 364 in crafts. In our understanding. and another 32 schools with fine arts departments. painting and dancing.000 students. There are 6 high schools attached to tertiary art academies. even to a normal Academy. when they had more pressure from other studies. accepting around 20. one of crafts.including six schools of fine arts. or those with fine art departments. This is a regulation set by the Ministry of Education. Art teaching at the Secondary Level In most junior high schools over a 9-year curriculum students have at least one class of 45 minutes per week on fine arts and musics. 1988-1996 1988 198 199 199 199 199 9 0 1 2 3 Attached School to 153 157 149 148 141 141 Central Academy Attached School 120 152 130 126 93 111 China Art Academy Attached School to 25 83 78 89 115 Hubei Art Academy Attached School to 126 132 127 148 155 Guangzhou Art Academy Attached School to 134 143 147 163 193 215 Sichuan Art Academy Attached School to 132 155 139 199 268 302 Xi’an Art Academy Total 690 780 841 938 103 199 4 145 131 93 181 199 341 109 1995 195 est. that is only to those with fine arts and excluding those in Guangxi and Xinjiang. more than 50% of children between the ages of 3 and 11 years in junior school in big cities are also sent to weekend art schools or have private class at home to study musics.There are also over 400 vocational or technical art schools.) 199 6 240 164 122 206 202 304 123 199 7 244 214 96 205 304 261 132 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. In 1998. in 1988 there were 116 vocational or technical art schools – with the number increasing every year . It is noteworthy that students who have a specalism in arts or sports are advantaged in gaining entry to a higher school. Under the Ministry of Culture. Number of students at attached high schools. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 30 . Many of them dropped when they were getting older. particularly if their parents understood they had no talent or interest in becoming an artist.





Number of graduates from attached high schools, 1988-1997 198 8 33 non e 20 19 35 31 138 27 51 198 9 35 42 199 0 37 35 23 40 29 47 211 199 1 37 23 non e 45 32 28 165 24 21 35 20 199 2 199 3 40 31 32 38 38 58 237 199 4 30 19 22 19 54 29 173 199 5 199 6 35 17 55 39 61 90 297 199 7 34 48 35 51 35 90 293

Attached School to Central Academy Attached School China Art Academy Attached School to Hubei Art Academy Attached School to Guangzhou Attached School to Sichuan Art Academy Attached School to Xi’an Art Academy Total

The above figures show that the number of students in attached schools has steadily increased. Blanks are for the data which unfortunately I could not obtain. The whole data in 1995 is missing. However, if we take the attached school to Central Academy of Fine Arts as an example, we find they accepted around 40 students from 1984-1994, but in 1995, this number must have jumped to around 80, since in 1996 there were 95 more students at school than 1994. Thus the estimated number at this school for 1995 is 195. There is no annual data evidence for intake of at tertiary art school from the attached schools, but it is normally taken to be the case that over 80% of applicants from each attached school are accepted by tertiary art school each year. Tertiary Art Academies Among all the attached schools, the attached school to Central Academy of Fine arts supposed to have the best technical level. Most teachers there graduated from the Central Academy, its students come from all over the country, and the entry examination is the most competitive. After four years strict art training, it is rare for its graduates to have a problem in reaching technical standards for acceptance at a tertiary art Academy. More than 80% graduates in their first year of

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



application to the tertiary Academy were accepted at the Central Academy or at other tertiary art schools such as the Central Academy of Crafts, or the art department of Beijing Drama Academy. If we include those applying the second year after graduation, 90% were able to be accepted, and they dominated the oil painting, sculpture and print departments since these departments have more demand on technical level. Perhaps the only reason they could not all be accepted by those academies is that less than 10% of them could not pass the examination in normal courses laid down by the Ministry of Education for all high school students who wish to go to university, even though the entry line for art students is much lower. Attached school students are less competitive in normal courses than ordinary high school students since they spend much more time on drawing and painting, but they are more competitive than other vocational school students. For example in 1988, of 65 students accepted in the Central Academy, 33 or nearly half, came from its attached school. Number of students accepted at tertiary art acade mies under the Ministry of Culture (total number including performing art, percentages rounded) Total Fine Arts Crafts Subtotal of Visual % of total Arts 1979 798 172 153 325 41% 1980 957 215 237 452 47% 1981 1362 365 285 650 48% 1982 1723 507 344 851 49% 1983 2159 691 372 1063 49% 1984 2965 983 431 1414 48% 1985 4587 1676 658 2334 51% 1986 3255 1053 636 1689 51% 1987 3886 1113 752 1865 48% 1988 4441 1502 900 2402 54% 1989 3897 1238 684 1922 49% 1990 3576 1311 775 2086 58% 1991 3708 1218 617 1835 49% 1992 4532 1501 751 2252 50% 1993 5783 2115 841 2956 51% 1994 5027 1285 1012 2297 46% 1996 5850 1681 1125 2806 48% 1997 5704 1569 981 2550 45%

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Number of graduates from tertiary art academies, 1979-1997 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997 Total 640 384 488 2849 861 1306 1892 2826 3910 3363 3578 3934 3893 3260 3157 3717 4625 4896 Fine Arts 158 61 164 706 169 372 752 944 1395 1110 1141 1311 1344 1149 1162 1128 1433 1452 Crafts 153 38 15 558 148 153 326 509 765 686 707 775 577 501 489 628 872 705 % of visual arts 49% 26% 37% 44% 37% 40% 57% 51% 55% 53% 52% 53% 49% 51% 52% 47% 48% 44%

Number of Research students accepted at Art Academies, 1979-1997 1979 1980-81 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997 Total 160 none 37 20 51 167 126 137 158 109 69 77 65 128 158 214 231 Fine Arts 96 19 7 25 70 54 54 51 34 22 26 21 62 63 86 87 Crafts 13 4 2 3 22 20 18 25 16 17 14 15 21 26 25 38 % Visual Arts 68% 62% 45% 54% 55% 59% 53% 48% 46% 57% 52% 55% 65% 56% 52% 54%

The above figures exclude overseas students, students for further professional study, night courses and correspondence courses (jinxiusheng, yedasheng, hanshousheng). The visual arts apparently takes an important role within the arts area in China, with around half the total students. In the past two decades, undergraduates in fine arts have increased far more than that of crafts. In 1979, the
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 33

number of undergraduates in fine art and crafts was not too much different when there were only slightly more students in fine art. However, in the 1980s, the number of students in fine arts increased to twice that of crafts. But things are the different in research area where postgraduate students in crafts increased comparatively faster than in fine arts. In 1979, the number of postgraduate students in crafts was much less than that in fine arts, but since 1988, nearly half of the research students in visual arts are in crafts, which used to be in a lower position. The crafts were taken more seriously in the mid-80s, possibly to some degree as the result of modernist art movement since 1980. A history and theory of crafts department was set up in the Central Academy of Crafts in 1983, and it started to accept research students in 1985. It was the only department to have PhD students on crafts in China until at least 1991. It is noticeable all the figures dramatically increase in 1985. This was apparently due to the government spending more money on art education and the overall expenditure on education dramatically increased in that year as well. The economic and educational reforms reached their highest level in 1985. Thus the ‘85 New Wave’ art movement was the result of the reform, but not the cause. The figures for art students have varied from year to year, and have not shown stable and regular increases but have dropped and jumped, partly because the number of graduates from high school has varied every year. In some years the number of graduates from high school are higher, since they were the born in a peak periods of new births. Teachers and other staff in (including performing art) Year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 tertiary art academies under the Ministry of Culture, 1979-1997 All staff 7953 8890 8845 10222 10788 10992 Teachers 3652 3893 3901 4770 5027 5135

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1996 1997

11210 10801 11128 11534 11676 11651 11711 11799 11814 11768 12075 11511

5222 5076 5144 5239 5433 5374 5338 5381 5445 5420 5632 5346

National Expenditure on Art Schools This information is not in the public domain. However, from many sources it is known that the government expenditure on art schools has been steadily increasing with strong economic growth. Most academies increased in size, particularly around 1985. The above figures also indicate that the number of students in tertiary and non-tertiary art schools has increased over the long term since 1979, with some short-term variation. One should note that since 1989, students have begun to pay a small part of their tuition fees. Since 1996, some students (in 1997, it was 20%) needed to pay full fees. In 1999, all students will pay full fees. The cost of educational fees has increased every year, and in 1999 these are expected to be 10,000 yuan per year. A teacher’s annual salary between 1979 and the late 1990s on average has also jumped from around 1,000 yuan to 20,000 yuan, although most of them do not rely entirely on their salaries to live, especially from the mid-1980s. Art Schools and Art Departments Compared First year students at some Institution 198 8 Central Academy of 138 Fine Arts, Beijing Central Academy of 133 Crafts, Beijing. China Art 123 Academy, Hangzhou art academies, 1988-1998 198 199 199 199 199 9 0 1 2 3 111 39 65 47 76 157 98 152 81 157 54 187 84 189 127

199 4 91 215 99

199 5

199 6 77 302 110

199 7 83 348 128

199 8

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127 105 891 912 104 128 110 124 134 4 4 1 5 5 9 5 The above figures include undergraduates, and also students in intensive technical upgrading courses which are normally 1 or 2 years’ coursework. For some years the number of students has dramatically dropped because the first-year students in that year were all undergraduate, such as 1990. Some departments also do not accept students every year, like the art history & theory department in Central Academy which accepted students 3 years within 5 years. Total graduates from some art academies, 1988-1997 Institution 198 198 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 199 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Central Academy of 65 67 88 98 77 78 40 46 98 Fine Arts, Beijing Central Academy of 186 231 147 153 128 149 157 183 179 Arts and Crafts, Beijing. China Art 136 141 93 101 92 52 69 63 97 Academy, Hangzhou Sichuan Fine Art 109 200 181 213 231 208 259 332 293 Academy, Chengdu?? Lu Xun Fine Art 290 246 318 273 149 172 103 198 278 Academy, Shenyang Guangzhou 319 197 298 230 188 190 199 205 228 Academy of Fine Art total 110 108 112 106 865 849 827 102 117 5 2 5 8 7 3 The above figures include undergraduates and students in intensive technical upgrading courses. Please note that the undergraduate course in the sculpture department is five years. Research students accepted at 1988 Central Academy of 16 Fine Arts, Beijing Central Academy of 15 Arts and Crafts, Beijing. some art academies, 1988-1997 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 6 4 6 5 9 11 12 12 10 16

Sichuan Fine Art Academy, Chengdu?? Lu Xun Fine Art Academy, Shenyang Guangzhou Academy of Fine Arts Total

205 360 315

230 241 217

203 199 217

167 238 231

279 227 217

328 273 292

379 147 174

373 170 217

369 210 207

1994 17 14

1996 8 18

1997 7 17

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China Art Academy, Hangzhou Sichuan Fine Art Academy, Chengdu?? Lu Xun Fine Art Academy, Shenyang Guangzhou Academy of Fine Art Total

7 2 6 9 55

5 2 6 7 37

5 2 4 4 31

5 2 3 5 33

4 2 4 5 30

4 3 8 9 49

14 1 7 10 58

23 4 4 14 71

18 5 11 12 70

There is no national data collection for the number of applicants to art academies but the number of applicants is limited, even if the qualification for application is highly competitive. Competition for entrance has been extremely high, both for undergraduate and postgraduate, especially during 1978-80, the first few years when the entry examination was re-instituted after the Cultural Revolution. For example, In 1978, there were 2000 applicants for Central Academy of Fine Arts with only 54 accepted. Until 1982, less than 4% of applicants could be accepted but this proportion decreased after 1983, since there is more limitation on the number of applicants(only 20% people who want to apply are qualified to do so, and the number of accepted students has increased. The number of applicants accepted each year is normally 5-6 times the number of students accepted. From 1978-82, many of those applicants may have spent the last 10 years in a factory, or laboured as a farmer. Some of them were former graduates of the attached schools, some of them learned art from an artist, some of them were taught in workers’ cultural palace classes. They obviously have much more social experience than those students who were to come directly from high schools in the following years. There were no applicants from attached schools at the Central Academy from 1978 to 1982 because those schools had no graduates. But since 1983, such schools occupied almost half of the Academy’s annual intake, as we saw above. However, in other academies, like the Beijing Teacher’s Academy, most applicants come from technical school or normal high school students who have studied art in their spare time. It is very rare that applicants from the attached schools ever apply to the PLA Art Academy, or to the fine art

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



departments of the Minorities’ Academy or other Teachers’ Academies, because these are considered as technically second-rate. Most applicants for research came from outside institutions before 1984. Later, the number of applicants accepted within and from outside an institution was almost same. In Beijing, the graduates originally coming from another place were more likely to apply to doing research, because this was the best way to have a job in Beijing and become a resident, since most research students could become tertiary art school teachers in Beijing. To our knowledge, more than 95% of Academy students who come from other cities want to stay in Beijing, because it offers the best cultural environment and research conditions. Before 1994, people got job offers from the government, and they had to go back to where they came from, and only the top students could stay. In the 1990s, the government no longer offered jobs to graduates. Moreover, people were able to survive in Beijing without a resident certificate because of the economic reforms. After 1994, there were more applicants for research, since teachers’ salary and promotion opportunities depended more on their education background. Before 1988, even undergraduates at honours level had the opportunity to become a teacher in the Academy, but after1989, mere undergraduates had no chance to become a teacher at all, and it became more and more difficult to find a professional job. In any case, art is a popular profession is China, especially since the 1980s when the art market was formed, and art students who come from academies have not much difficulty in finding professional employment even nowadays, if they do not always manage to stay in one of the big cities. Those artists jobs in big cities are able to live on their salaries like other professionals, but they also have other incomes from the sale of their works. Sometimes these incomes are much higher than their salaries. So the artist may actually make a better living than other professionals. The main challenge is to live in a highly populated modern city. Since Chinese people traditionally care for their children’s education, more and more of these have been sent to study art in their spare time. Since the mid-1980s in particular, most families have only one child and there have been more
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and more vocational art classes in workers’ cultural palaces and art academies. Many art teachers have become better off from the fees for these classes. But the increased demand has not necessarily effected the intakes of art academies since the number of students accepted in such an Academy is incompletely determined by the market, but is also due to government planning which is supposed to take consideration of broader social needs. Data on some Chinese Art Academies a. Central Academy of Fine Arts, Beijing The departments of oil painting, ink & colour painting, and prints were established in 1953, and the ink & colour painting department was changed to the Chinese painting department in 1958. The art history department was established in September 1956 and accepted students from September 1957. The sculpture department was established in 1955. The department of applied art was established in1950, and but the name was changed to craft art in 1953, and in June of 1956 it was moved out of the Central Academy on the establishment of the Central Crafts Academy. In 1960, three studios were established in the oil painting department, four studios in prints department, and the Chinese painting department was divided into sections for landscape, bird and flower, and figure painting. A department for new year pictures and serial pictures [narrative story-cartoons] was established in 1980, as well as a mural painting department in the same year. Department Heads: Chinese painting: Ye Qianyu, 1977­1983; Huang Runhua, 1983 Oil painting: Ai Zhongxin 1977­1979; Feng Fasi 1979­1983; Wen Lipeng 1983, Jin Shangyi. The fourth or experimental studio which was for the study of modernist art was established in 1988 and its supervisors in sequence were: Lin Gang, Wen Lipeng, Ge Pengren¸ Yuan Yunsheng. Prints: Li Hua 1977­1983; Wu Biduan, 1983­87; Song Yuanwen 1987-, Su Xinnping. Sculpture; Fu Tianchou¸ 1977; Qian Shaowu, 1983­87; Cao Chunsheng; 1987­98; Sui Jianguo.
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Art history: Jin Weinuo, 1977­87; Xue Yongnian, 1987­97, Luo Shiping, 1998­ New year and serial pictures: Yan Han; peputy head, Yang Xianrang, 1980Mural painting: Hou Yimin, 1980-87; Li Huaji, 1987­ (Deputy head, 1980-87) Director: Jiang Feng 1979­1982; Wu Zuoren, 1983­; Gu Yuan, 1983­ ; Jin Shangyi Deputy Directors, 1979-1983: Liu Kaiqu, Zhu Dan, Gu Yuan, Luo Gongliu, Ai Zhongxin, Zhang Qiren; 1983­1987, Hou Yimin, Jing Shangyi, Liu Buoshu. Party secretary: Chen Pei, 1979-1983; Hong Bo, 1983-85; Sheng Yang 1987-1991; Ding Shizhong, 1992-1999. Deputy party secretary: Hong Bo, 1979-83; Yang Li, 1983-85; Sheng Yang, 1985-87; Du Jian, 198694; Wang Hongjian, 1995In the 1980s and 1990s there were less than 10 students going to study abroad for a degree on government funds, and about 20 students on private funds. However, many teachers have had the opportunity to make short-term visits abroad via exchange programmes and for exhibition with government support. Since 1985, 8 teachers in the Central Academy have gone to a studio in Paris every year financed by an overseas Chinese businessman. A studio was also established in 1988 in Spain for teachers to visit and work there with travel and living costs being met by the artists themselves. b. Central Academy of Crafts, Beijing The dyeing and weaving, ceramics and decorative arts departments were established in 1952. The decorative arts department was changed to the decorative painting department with three workshops of commercial art, book binding and layout, and mural painting in 1959. In 1962, pottery, porcelain, pottery and porcelain carving studios were set up in the ceramics department. Since 1980 there have been eight departments altogether. Department heads, 1977­1997 Dyeing and weaving: Cheng Shangren, 1977-83; Wen Lianchang, 1984­ ; Ceramic design: Mei Jianying, Chen Ruoju, Yang Yongshan
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 40

Decorative design: Yuan Mai, A Lao, Qiu Ling, Chen Hanmin. Book art: Yu Bingnan Environmental art: Pan Changhou, Zhang Shili, Zhang Qiman Costume design: Yuang Jieying Industrial design: Liu Guanzhong Decorative art: Yuang Yunfu Craft art history and theory: Xi Jingzhi Director: Zhang Ding, 1979­1983; Chang Shana, 1983­1998; Wang Mingzhi, 1998­1999. Party secretary: Luo Yangshi, 1977­1982; Ji Xiying, 1982­84; Zhou Dongxian 1984­86; Zhao Long, 1987­1991; Lin Shaoyan, 1991­96; Zhao Hongliang, 1997- 1999. c. China Academy of Fine Arts, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (changed from Zhejiang Art Academy in 1993). There were only departments of sculpture and painting in 1952. But in 1955 the painting department was divided into the departments of ink & colour painting and oil painting, and a separate prints department. In 1957, the ink & colour painting department changed to that of Chinese painting which included studios for figure, landscape, flower and bird painting. In 1963 a calligraphy and sealcutting studio was added. The Craft art department was established in 1961, included weaving &dying, commercial art, and ceramics art courses. In 1983, departments of art history, art education and a computer art centre were established, with the addition of an environmental art workshop, as well as mural painting, and wall-hanging art studios . Director: Mo Pu, 1977-1984;Xiao Feng, 1984­95; Pan Gongkai, 1995­1998 Deputy directors: Li Binghong, Wang Bingsheng, Wang Dewei, 1977­84; Zhao Zongzao,Song Zhongyun, Gao Eryi, 1984­95.
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Party secretary: Gao Peiming, Zhu Chi, 1977­83; Chai Ji, 1983­1987; Zhou Yongxiang, 1987­91; Wang Bangfeng, 1991­92; XuJiamu, 1991­99 d. Sichuan Fine Arts Academy, Chongqing It was established in 1959, and the fine arts department included 4 courses in Chinese painting, prints, and sculpture. The craft art department included 3 courses in weaving and dying, lacquerware, and ceramics. In 1989 a Lingnan Group research studio was established. Director: Ye Yushan; Fan Pu, 1992­1997; Yang Guiyan, 1997­99. e. Lu Xun Art Academy, Shenyang It was established in 1958 with 6 departments of Chinese painting, oil painting, prints, craft art, sculpture, and teacher-training. Crafts were divided into 4 departments: weaving & dyeing, decoration & environmental art, industrial design, and custom design. Director: Zhang Wang, 1977-87; Song Huimin, 1987­1998; Deputy Director: Wang Shenglie, 1983­87. Party secretary: Wu Jian, 1977-82; Liu Pingzhi, 1983­87; Liu Wenfu 1987­ f. Guangzhou Art Academy, Guanzhou (Canton) It was established in 1958 with the 5 departments of Chinese painting. oil painting, sculpture, prints, craft arts. Director: Hu Yichuan, 1978­83; Gao Yongjian, 1983­85; Guo Shaogang, 1985­93; Chen Mingcheng, 1994­97; Liang Licheng, 1997­99. Party secretary: Wu Biaokai; Lu Simou, 1985­. Note: The post of director of an art Academy has normally been taken by a well-established artist, and the Party secretary has been assigned by the government, who does not necessarily have any specialism in art. But since 1987 the director has taken the major responsibility in art academies. The Artists’ Association and its organizational structure Director: Jiang Feng, 1979-85; Wu Zuoren, 1985-1989; Jing Shangyi, 1998
Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 42

Kan Fenggang. Kan Fenggang. Liu Kaiqu. Gao Yan Story Art Yongzhi Caricature 1986 Ding Cong Wang Fuyang Childrens’ Art 1987 Yang Zhu Yanling. Liu Dawei. Hua. Wu Guanzhong. Guan Shanyue. Dazhen Shen Peng Chinese Painting 1992 Pan Jiezi Yao Youdo The above committees have not changed until the present. Qin Zheng. 1985­89. Ye Qianyu. Jiang Yousheng. Dong Xiaomin. Lin Yong. Li Keran. Cai Ruohong. Yang Lizhou. Xiao Feng. though they have to be approved by the Propaganda Department of the Chinese Communist Party. Ma Ke. 1979-83. Yan Han. Zhan Jianjun. Li Shaoyan. The executives are not officials. Wu Zuoren. Li Zhonggui. He Kongde Jianjun Mural Painting 1985 Zhang Hou Yimin. Liu Wenxi. Cheng Yunxian. 1998. 1983­85.Deputy Directors: Wang Zhaowen. Li Huaji. Guo Zhenhu. and all members of the executive are artists or art historians. Zhang Ding.Yuan Ding Yunfu Prints 1985 Yan Han Zhang Zuoliang. Huang Xinbo. Cai Ruohong. Shao Yu. Dai Zhiqi. Lei Zhengmin. Li Huanmin. Ding Wu Yongqing Art Theory 1988 Shao ShuiTianzhong. Gu Yuan. Shao Dazhen. Wang Zhaowen. Yang Xianrang Illustration Art 1985 Zhang Sun Zixi. Guan Shanyue. Committees by year of establishment and chairman for each category of practice established Chairman Vice Chairman in Oil Painting 1985 Zhan Wen Lipeng. Yan Han. Ye Qianyu. Liu Xun. Liu Kaiqu. Xue Yongnian. Huang Yongyu. Wang Zhaowen. Yu Feng. Junwu. 1998. 1985­89. Party secretariat: Hua Junwu¸Liu Xun. Qin Zheng. From 1979-85. Cai Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1979­85. Kan Fenggang¸ Jiang Yousheng. Qin Shouyi Long Serial Picture1986 He Fu Shengfu. Hazi Aimaiti. Liu Boshu. Gao Hong. Chang Shana. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 43 . The Artists’ Association is not an official organization of the state.

though he was not elected. Shao Dazhen. 1983­84. Yang Yuefu. reminiscences by older artists.Ruohong. 1999­ . reports by artists (on foreign art after an overseas visit. Feng Boyi 1988 ­ The above writers are all from the Artists’ Assocation research studio. the middle-aged artist Liu Dawei took major responsibility. and reviews of exhibitions. Meishujia Tongxun has taken a more important role fin contempoary art during the 1990s when the public journal of the Association Meishu has had only limited information. 1988-1998. artist interviews. Cheng Liying. essay on current issues. The principle writer of this coloum is Zhang Xiaojun. Wang Chunli. and Hua Junwu were in charge. Ge Weimo took the major roles. publications. Circulation of other Art Media. 1980-1998. From 1994 -1998 there were frequently reviews younger artist activities in the focu on recent hot issues.000 > 60. even including mention of performance art and installation art. It is free for the membership of the Association and its contents include: commentary on exhibitions. focus on recent hot issues in the art world. Wang Qi took over the leadership. but was partly funded by the Association from 1994-95. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 44 . Gao Yan 1980­82. 1979-1985. Hua Junwu. conference records. and who also works for Meishujia Tongxun in his spare time. comments on past art movements).000 > Overseas Circulation 200-300 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. from 1985-89. 1990-1998 Note: here > indicates ‘declines to’ 1979-85 1985-89 1990-98 Meishu 180. who works in the Cadre Training Institute of the Ministry of Culture. and artist activities. The role of Meishujia Tongxun (The Artists’ Association Newsletter) Circulation of Meishujia Tongxun (Artists’ Newsletter) 1980-1987 3000 copies 1988-1999 5000-6500 copies In 1992 this newsletter received no funds from the Artists’ Association.000 > 70. Chief editor: Yang Yuefu. galleries. 1985-1989. Wang Zhaowen. After 1998. After 1990. Editors: Chi Xin. and has been fully supported since 1999.

000 > 50. and with the Chinese Art Promotion Center of Hong Kong.000 5. and there is also greater political sanction over it from the Propaganda Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. As the major magzine in Chinese art world it needs to give voice to all artists. ‘The 1985 New Wave’. Yishujia (Artists) and Xiongshi Meishu (Lion Art Monthly).000 > 50. and that the circulation of all art magzines has inevitably shrunk during the 1990s. ‘Contempoary Chinese-style Painting’. not just the avant-garde.and right-wing.000 50. ‘Realist art’.000 1989 80.000 25. Since 1989. art teaching and foreign art.000 up to 80. Meishu has also had exchange programmes with the prestige art magzines in Taiwan.000 > 30.000 up to 20.000 1985-1986: 10. ‘Nude Art’. Meishu used to dominate the art media before the early 80s. folk art. and ‘Oil Painting’.000 > 30. but alsoto the mainstream of both left.000 20. Since it is directed by the Artists’ Association.000 70.000 200.000 1987-1989 40.000 80. and it has still managed to keep the largest circulation.(Art) Meishu Yanjiu (Art Research) Shijie Meishu (World Art) Xin Meishu (New Art) Jiangsu Huakan (Jiangsu Art Pictorial) Zhongguo Meishubao (Fine Arts in China) 80.000 50. Meishu made great efforts to promote modern Chinese art.000 15. It has comprehensive content on traditional art.000 down to 30. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 45 . ‘The Art Market’.000 145-160 35-50 around 30 around 40 none 80.000 > 80.000 60.000 50. Since 1980s. It organized debates on many major issues at that time such as ‘Content and Form’.000 The above figures indicate the maximum and minimum copies circulated during the three periods given.000 > 25. the Chief editor usually is an important figure from it.000 > 14. and especially during 1985-1989.000 > 9.

according to Shao Dazhen. itselfunder the Ministry of Culture. and Shao Dazhen. Its main contents are Chinese modern art. The chief editor since 1985 was Liu Dianzhang and currently is Gao Yun. especially that of Chinese traditional art. but has discussed more current issues and contemporary art in the 1990s. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Zhongguo Meishubao was directed by the fine arts department of Research Institute of Chinese Art. It changed into new format in 1985. and since then has concentrated on contemporary art. It was established in July of 1985 and stopped publication at the end of of 1989. Jiangsu Huakan was established in 1974. The director was Zhang Qiang.Department of the party. art theory research. Meishu Yanjiu and Shijie Meishu are produced by the Central Academy and both are influential. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 46 . It has been published by Jiangsu Fine Arts Press in Nanjing and has much more freedom than Beijing. The Chief editor for both magazine has been Jin Weinuo. the highest among all art magzines at that time. Tong Jinghan. Shijie Meishu used to be the major venue for the introduction of Western Modernism. Since 1990. and the deputy editor was Yang Gengxin. Meishu Yanjiu focuses on art history and theory. traditional and modern culture. studies of new wave art. especially in recent years. especially Western art history and artists. the chief editor was Liu Xiuchun. It had also systematically introduced world art history. research on artists. During 198283. who was managing editor at that time. especially since the 1990s when conservative left-wingers were in control of that department. it has been the major magazine in promoting and surveying Chinese contemporary art. in that sequence. its highest circulation used to reach 200. vice director was Zhang Zuying.000 copies a quarter. contemporary theorists and critics. art criticism.

CHAPTER 9. More specifically. The practice of art and discourse about art since 1989 have taken place in an environment where the major project in which the forces of the state claim to be engaged is the production of a Chinese socialist form of modernity. but it has not subsequently been subjected to any serious organized challenge. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 47 . there is a rival consensus that culture is a system which functions to either uphold or challenge state power or relations of authority in society more broadly. What happens if we suggest that the project of modernization and material betterment is a drive to realize a particular ethical and symbolic order? Anthropologists take this way of viewing the relationship between cultural and material systems very much for granted: for many of them it amounts to a professional orthodoxy. this line of argument suggests. it has unfolded in the aftermath of the violent assertion of the Dengist vision of what that modernization programme should entail in 1989. The arts are to supply the spiritual staples whose nourishment will sustain a healthy Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Symbolic structures are systems for ensuring the stability of the foundational material order – control of the economy and the state. Those in power were faced with a challenge to their own authority. The repression enacted by the Chinese government in 1989 is habitually represented as a defense of a threatened privilege. to a general use of culture as a tool of political domination in totalitarian states. The ideological campaign that followed the crackdown therefore appears as an attempt to defend that privilege and power by the manipulation of the sentiment of the governed. It conforms. They are manipulated in the name of fulfilling the material drives of the programme of economic modernization. The ideals that this government-sponsored discourse invokes such as “spiritual civilization” are part of an apparatus of ideological concepts that are deployed to defend and justify power monopolies. The state’s monopoly on defining the project of Chinese modernization had to be defended with violence in 1989. In part this is because this is what official statements about culture and the arts tend to affirm: culture’s value lies in its ability to mould good citizens who will serve their country and their society.1c Statements about art and modernity in the People’s Daily since 1990 Lewis Mayo (Melbourne Institute of Asian Languages and Societies) with John Clark Prefatory Remarks Art practice and art discourse in China over the last 10 years has unfolded in the broader context of the project of socialist modernization with Chinese characteristics initiated by Deng Xiaoping in the period after the death of Mao. which they sought to crush. In the English language academic study of relations between the state and culture in the People’s Republic of China. to suppress dissent in the name of national unity.

I emphasize the socialist component here not to denote a strong commitment to the maintenance of public control of the economy and culture. and the fear was that the cultural system of Chinese socialist modernity was under threat. The arts as both makers and markers of that cultural difference became the focus of this struggle. Chinese socialist modernity was constructed as a cultural totality. present and future that are held to constitute an organic structure. which means affiliation to specific aesthetic histories. and it was held that a movement that initially arose from within that system was in fact going to undermine its integrity and replace it with a rival vision of modernity. which is the product of a particular historical experience – Chinese socialist modernization. The accent placed on aesthetic issues. but because modern China has a socialist history. Art has a major mission in articulating this vision. because ethno-national culture has come to be defined in terms of the history of Chinese 48 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. can perhaps be taken as something more than crude ideological co-ercion. and which differentiate it from the rival historical order of capitalism. Present-day social and cultural structures have emerged from that socialist order. was perceived as under threat in 1989. which was seen as the sole possible version of Chinese modernity. and strengthen the people for the work of building the nation. I would suggest that the coherence of this vision. just the incomplete modernity of capitalism. can be understood as an attempt by its perpetrators to defend a vision of modernization as a spiritual quest which would culminate in a state of disciplined self-realization of the national collective. in particular the attempt to draw a divide between socialist and Chinese/ethno-national cultural forms. or the action of cultural hardliners. a past. Prior to socialism. according to the official dogma. An aesthetic system which invokes forms of modernity that are not socialist is by definition not “Chinese”. The socialist component is important not because China’s present and future are supposed to be socialist in an institutional sense. is the socialist era. It means the conception of cultural production as part of a total historical order. above all that of the reform era – had its own aesthetic system. was emblematic of this structure of rival cultural totalities. practices or histories. Here I should stress that this notion of rival cultural systems and rival aesthetic projects is not simply a matter of stressing national differences in ascribed values. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . But the modernized nation is also a vehicle for spiritual transformation: it is a means to the realization of the awakened spirit. and modern culture in China is supposed to acknowledge that socialist past as its core history. The modern era in China. The totalitarian violence of 1989. there is no true modernity. in historical periodizaion. so often explicated in realpolitik or pragmatic terms.and strong body politic. Aesthetic choice. or perhaps even to the continuing dominance of a Leninist party. ideologies and social arrangements and those of a liberal capitalist West. I would suggest that Euro-American capitalist modernity and Chinese Socialist modernity were held to constitute different cultural systems. This vision.

The strength of Chinese socialist culture is to be registered in how successfully it can fend off these rival modernities or how successfully it can appropriate and therefore neutralize them. the specific and the general. Rather than a substantive difference in “real” patterns of economic organization. The modern and modernizing experience to which the cultural discourse in the People’s Daily chiefly refers is not so much a generic and global process or stylistic mode as one relating to a specific nation and a specific state. a decisive factor in the severity of the response in 1989 and in the cultural campaigns of the following period. but only as innovations or modifications within the established tradition. and the identification with the past that has produced the present. Questions about global or international modernity refer to how the art which has evolved from and records the experience of Chinese socialism which in the 1990s is increasingly understood as a struggle of ethno-national modernization. Modern art means Chinese (Ethno/national) socialist art. or commitment to communal rather than personal enrichment. Elements of foreign cultural modernities can be incorporated. harmony and radiance. and the ability to produce some form of “popular” engagement with it. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . seems to rest on making Chinese socialist culture into a central component of ethno-national culture. Art is intertwined with the fate of the nation and with the fate of modernization The art that is associated with the socialist project of modernity is the definitive form of modern art in China: Chinese/Ethno-national art means socialist modern art. The willingness to defend this tradition violently. but an ethno-national modernization which is understood as aiming to secure the achievement of the ideals of spiritual civilization. values which in the reform era coalesced around ideas like building spiritual civilization. Art has a key role in producing this imagination of cultural totality. the longevity of what appeared to commentators a decade ago as an ideologically bankrupt programme. At the same time. One can argue that there has been surprising success in creating a cultural identification with Chinese socialist tradition amongst the broader public in the 1990s.socialism. I would suggest. These partwhole relations clearly invoke elements from both socialism and nationalism 49 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. as well as on disseminating the notion of a Chinese modernity which would be distinguished morally and culturally from that of Euro-American capitalism – the core of this distinction came from the heritage of idealistic struggle for ethnonational liberation carried out in the name of socialism. and the perfect mediation of the relationship between part and totality. as much as any “real” demand that power be ceded. seems to me to arise from the conviction that Chinese socialist modernity and ‘Western’ capitalist modernity are imagined as rival systems of value. The threat to this imagined order and this mode of imagining. the central thing is the imagination of the system as a whole. was. Socialist art means Modern Chinese/Ethno national art. levels of inequality. a modernity which will offer wholeness.

I would argue. which is bound up with a particular set of art institutions. It is the set of representational codes and the history associated with the struggles in the name of the Chinese ethno-nation since the May 4th movement of 1919 and in particular those associated with the history of the Chinese Communist Party as a force of ethno-national liberation. which is the authoritative public version of the “official” formulation of these concepts (albeit hedged around with statements appearing in the same publication that do not so unequivocally constitute an “official voice” – the comments of journalists. Such a reading would see the greatness of the Chinese past as a way of legitimating a government which had blood on its hands. art lineages and art ideologies: those which have been formed in the 50 years since the foundation of the People’s Republic. provisional or contradictory. The discourse about modern art in China that has appeared in the People’s Daily in the years since 1989 is thus related to a specific history and a specific aesthetic system. But in simple historical terms the discourse of modernity and art that the People’s Daily deploys. the promotion of a private collection ethos. and it is this culture. It is this tradition. elements of this discourse that seem inconsistent. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . preserve and foster. art practitioners and members of the 50 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. under the guise that each version of modernity has its own autonomous logic. tradition and ideology which its writers want (by and large) to analyse.It is easy to read this as an attempt to stir up nationalism and foster a sense of national unity as a way of distracting attention from internal political division. and the standard bearer of Chinese cultural modernity. Once this is grasped. culture and ideology with which the People’s Daily is above all concerned. but it is this tradition with which the discourse is primarily engaged. The statements about modern art that have been made in the pages of the People’s Daily are. paired with frequent denunciations of “modernist art” (xiandai pai yishu). There is much scope for misusing the concept of alternative modernities and it may even appear as a justification for acts of repression. and the conception of art objects as commodities. such as the praise given to the use of “a modern art style” (xiandai yishu fengge) or simply “modern art”. (xiandai yishu/xiandai meishu). But if the core of the ethno-national culture being invoked is in fact modern Chinese socialist culture. socialist experience and its forms of art. best understood as a series of comments on this tradition. This tradition has a specific series of representational codes and a particular history with which it is engaged. There is intense concern with how this tradition fits in with other versions of modernity and other forms of art. academics. the ongoing stress on the preeminent mission of art being to serve socialism or to serve the people and the condemnation of crass commercialization coupled with the stress on art entering the market. it becomes clear that the thing being defended is not so much a great national past but a specific formulation and ideology of modernity. rather than the Chinese cultural inheritance which is outside of modern.

1 The aftermath of 1989 and the legacy of the 1990s Throughout 1990 and into 1991 the People’s Daily was replete with statements about the need for socialist Chinese culture to be reaffirmed as the central culture of the nation. such as the high price which some classic works of socialist realism command on the auction market in the 1990s or the co-existence of statements that reaffirm commitments to the values of Mao’s dicta about the mission of art issued at Yan’an with invocations of post-modern theory. is something that has emerged from within the structures and struggles of Chinese socialism. the movement from statements in the early 1990s which stress the values of ethno-national tradition to those of the late 1990s in which the May 4th critique of the traditional inheritance has to be reaffirmed against the charges leveled by those who see it as a thoughtless attack on Chinse culture. Rather it is a discourse produced by agents who have themselves arisen within that structure. Thus the campaign against pornography and other manifestations of ‘bourgeois liberalism’ with which this movement was directly associated was structured as an intensification of artistic activity rather than a constraint upon it. Rather than repression or limitation of artistic variety. socialist modernity. which took as one of its major targets the art and literature associated with western modernism. and at the same time that there should be a plurality of art products available. and a plurality of theories and interpretations. the project was envisaged as countermanding challenges to socialist cultural sovereignty through an increased output. explicitly represented as a production of new products and new objects (chuangxin). One form of this is an increased production of ‘critical’ work. As would be the case with official policy statements right up to the present. In other words. I would suggest that a close look at this discourse helps to explain phenomena that might seem paradoxical. the reassertion of the Dengist modernization program 51 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. both in terms of quantity and quality. the core of this program was the assertion of the need for art to serve the people and to serve socialism. provided that the sovereignty of socialism was accepted. This was a strategy to displace corrupt or anti-socialist art products by producing a vast outpouring of socialist art forms. It is not a discourse from outside that system which seeks to overturn it by stealth or force. c. Art practice and art discourse in the People’s Republic of China from the 1990s to now is a product of and an engagement with this tradition of Chinese. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . The major slogan under which this program was to be carried out was that of ‘making the arts prosper’ (fanrong wenyi). Likewise. can be grasped as part of an ongoing discussion about cultural modernity which has the Chinese socialist tradition as its primary referent. The project affirmed the need to increase creativity. Western modernism was stereotyped as the definitive form of bourgeois-liberal art.interested public).

With the attack on the Falun Gong movement of 1999 the validity of modernity and modernization itself had to be defended. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 52 .which connotes essentially the same domain as “the arts” in Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. with the ongoing insistence on upholding the cultural distinctiveness of the Chinese socialist modern order. which is both an index and a mechanism for increasing the prosperity of the arts. has been the fundamental element in structuring the discourse about art in the People’s Daily from the mid 1990s into the present. if it is not actively endorsed by the wider public.21 The co-existence of the market. While continuing to assert that China required and was producing a modernized culture.2 Arts policy Introduction As a matter of policy and administration the visual arts are classed in the broad category of “literature and the arts” (wenyi 文艺 . the art styles of western modernism were periodically denounced as exemplars of the failures of capitalist modernity. This position has been reiterated in general policy statements about the arts appearing in the People’s Daily up to the present. Beginning approximately with the death of Deng Xiaoping and the retrocession of Hong Kong in 1997. the cultural industries in all of their forms experienced tremendous growth. This was particularly the case in 1994 and 1995. Collectively. Particularly after Deng Xiaoping’s ‘Southern Tour’ of 1992.involved an explicit and radical contrast between Chinese socialist forms of modernity and those of the capitalist west. in contrast to the situation in the early 1990s when a modernist critique of Chinese ‘backwardness’ was the main force that the pronouncements of official cultural policy sought to refute. The great paradox of this period has been the ability of a government and an ideology which seemed in 1989 to be morally bankrupt and bereft of resources to preserve itself and to disseminate a model of culture which. is not actively resisted or resented by it either. c. these articles sketch a lineage and a prescription for the shape of a distinctly ‘Chinese’ version of modern culture whose chief thread is the history of Chinese socialism. much art discourse in the People’s Daily focused on narrating and summarizing the trends in art practice and theory that constituted a unique Chinese socialist modernity extending back to the beginnings of the Reform period to the early years of the People’s Republic to the May 4th movement of 1919 and beyond that to the first incursions of European industrial imperialism and its culture into China in the 19th century. particularly in the era of Reform. In 1996 and 1997 a new assertion of the need for ‘socialist spiritual civilization’ was manifested in renewed criticisms of the absurdities of ‘modernist’ art practice. In the early 1990s this attack on anti-socialist art forms was parallel with an increasing expansion in the market for cultural products. when a commercial market for and private investment in visual art products expanded enormously.

There are thus two possible tendencies within the orthodox socialist theories of art circulating in China over the last two or three decades: one which continues to assert the place of art within the general mission of creating forms of consciousness that conform with the overall structures of the socialist system (however much this system may be inflected with the distinctive characteristics of the “New Era” announced by the reformers and by the special features of market socialism) and another in 53 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It is the alienation of capitalism. sculpture. This is something that statements in the People’s Daily which can be categorized as statements of “theory” (in the Leninist party sense of ideas which have the characteristic of broad administrative orientations) are at pains to point out: socialist theories of art do not see cultural practice as outside of other social relations. film and television. printmaking and design. calligraphy. Culture. the arts are a major element in this project. the commodity form and private ownership which produces the false notion that culture exists in isolation from other types of social practice. a time when material forces no longer appear as limitations or constraints on the realization of human aspirations. Under socialism.most contemporary forms of English) – this includes oral and written literature. (Mainland Chinese Marxist terminology adheres closely to German in depicting the superstructure very concretely (sic) as a building (shangceng jianzhu). theatre. is misrecognized as a private. But at another level. As is well known. acrobatics) as well as painting. culture is not seen as an autonomous domain. locate the arts firmly in the domain of mobilizing the people for the achievement of socialism. one of the major “innovations” of Maoism was the stress on the transformation of consciousness as one of the prerequisites for the realization of socialism. but as part of a total social ideology. and beyond that. utopian socialism envisages an uncoupling of spiritual activity from bondage to material structures. public works and art. The arts contain within themselves the germ of this future. The revolutionary traditions of the CCP. part of the overall social system. As part of the ideological apparatus. In Marxist Leninist theory. the performing arts (music. reflecting and reproducing the logic of economic alienation in capitalist production and ownership. Architecture is perhaps a more ambiguous category as it is on the borderline between construction. the arts belong to the ideological superstructure erected on the productive base. Overall administrative responsibility for the arts is in the hands of the ministry of culture and to a lesser extent the propaganda ministry. and belongs within the domain of thought work and propaganda. as is well known. According to this reasoning the administration of culture is one of the tasks of the vanguard party. as a public good and a social product. individual entity. this is not supposed to be the case – culture will be recognized as part of the total ensemble of social relations and practices. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . in particular the subordination of spiritual impulses to the chains of the commodity form. At one level. and they are thus part of the overall structure – a fusion of mental and material element – through which socialism will be brought into existence.

and the only possible way of managing them. especially when so many of those to whom this rhetoric is directed find its 54 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. securely placed in the frameworks of “civilization”. the notion that historical conditions in contemporary socialist China are special. From a simple historical point of view. To stress that the form of modernity and the forms of art associated with it in Deng’s China have their own particular lineage. a deviation from some imagined standard of art and the modern. the modernity of the PRC in the last two decades has a specific historical lineage: it is a product of the struggles of Maoist modernity. a project its official spokespeople claim to inherit and to refute. and for producing assent to the established relations of administrative power.it presents some decree of theoretical coherence. and its apparatus of “theory” as merely post-facto justification for a compromise between the stereotypically opposed poles of hardline “leftists” and liberal reformers.the level that applies in People’s Daily articles . 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . official statements about art are formulations that arose from within institutional and rhetorical structures that had been evolving in China since the 1940s. were established under Mao. The autonomy and dignity of the spirit. both modernity art practice and discourse in China will only appear incoherent or imitative. art theory and institutions. and that the strategy of socialist construction announced by Deng is a response to China’s distinctive national circumstances (guoqing). the lineage of Chinese socialism. which are thereby presented as rational responses to this historical and national distinctiveness. articulated within the framework of spiritual civilization (jingshen wenming). the art market. something that marks off China in the New Era from other prescriptions for socialist development and from capitalist development. In this very concrete sense. which at the very least is a form of rhetoric that is widely disseminated. The conceptual vocabulary and administrative relations within which the “new” culture of the Dengist era arose.which art is envisaged as a presage of a future liberation of the spirit. are what the project of socialism will realize. Of course. The argument of this paper is that this makes for versions of art and modernity that are to some extent different from those of capitalist EuroAmerican artistic modernity. is one of the major ideological platforms of the Deng era. at the formal level of argument . and indeed the people who make and consume art – the entities who collectively constitute the world of modernity and art in contemporary China – are historically rooted in the structures of Chinese socialism. The problem is therefore one of trying to look at this rhetoric as a distinctive discursive system connected to a particular set of institutional arrangements without assenting to its own claims to truth. It has an obvious utility as a tool for deflecting criticism. While the Dengist formulation is easy to dismiss as “pragmatism”. If there is no acknowledgement that this is a particular historical formulation of art and modernity. is not simply a capitulation to these assertions. Deng and Jiang-era Arts policy. and their hegemonic or repressive effects.

This is the arena of generality – instead of specific administrative directives. and how it can be for some a dream of escape from current relations of power.) If we do not try to address this rhetoric as if it had some kind of logic. or on more abstruse areas like aesthetic philosophy. and for others a fulfillment and realization of the structures of order in the present which have not yet been able to exert their full potential? The People’s Daily and statements about art in the last decade. given by members of the leadership or by the senior administrative organs in charge of the arts. one in which the different sectors of the nation are brought into dialogue with each other under the overarching authority of the government as both the greatest co-ordinating force and the representative of the people. define its position as something which is authorized. including areas of policy. which is usually closely allied with prevailing theoretical and policy positions on maters of art and culture. and 55 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. profiles of artists. in the sense of being a legitimate discourse. The diversity of statements. Finally there is a whole body of reporting on art practice. usually by authorized cultural figures. the 1990s The pages of the People’s Daily have been home to a plurality of discourses about art and the arts in the decade or so since the political and cultural crisis of 1989. which set forth general comments on the arts scene and the direction in which it should move. what chance is there of explaining the peculiar power of the category “modern” in China over the last two or three decades. the question of the arts is dealt with as part of wider questions of national construction: developmentalist rhetoric is pervasive and the defining framework of the paper is the nation. which may seem at times to be mutually contradictory. the choices between loyalty to pure art and the market. the arts scene in general. is arguably the product of a publication addressed to multiple constituencies and which is home to several different histories of the present. There are also critical or theoretical articles. it can be argued that this diversity represents the fulfillment of the policy of ‘letting a hundred schools of thought contend’ that is a platform of the Reform era and which serves as a marker of the vigour and creativity of the Chinese socialist art tradition of which it can be said to form a part. The willingness in these ‘magazine’ sections to discuss collecting. less theoretically charged writing about what should be done in art. one that is attendant on any attempt to explicate a cultural system as something that can be explained in terms of its own internal logic. The People’s Daily is moreover conceived of as a public domain. reports on exhibitions and so on. Statements about art in the People’s Daily are spread through a wide variety of different kinds of writing: there are official statements of basic socialist principle.claims incredible. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . those that apply to the internal management of the relevant sectors. but which does not fall within the domain of official policy on art. the auction market. At the same time. (This is of course a classic anthropological problem. Given that the People’s Daily is not a specialist art publication.

In this way.specialist discourses. Given that visual art by and large has to be sold. it seeks to create an audience that recognizes itself in these products. and poses much less severe policing problems. This produces two kinds of audience-effects: specialists. film and the performing arts are far more numerous. as statements about literature. it also makes it possible for people to recognize and articulate what “Chinese” and “Socialist” mean by showing them examples of artistic production. In many cases. and their position as a constituent element of “the people” being affirmed. But statements about the arts in general. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . the mechanisms for shutting it down if necessary are much easier to enact than is the case with literature and the performing arts. visual art belongs to the larger category of literature and the arts. the provinces – and with the imagined totality which embraces and transcends all of these – “the people”. With the performing arts. may not be primarily targeted at the visual arts. with their kinship to other sectors. the question of social impact relates also to questions of crowd control and the uncertain consequences of the gathering together of an audience together with the difficulty of managing its responses (clearly an issue in the wake of mass protests). it seems that the prime referent of statements about the arts in general is literature and film and television. have a much more obvious and direct impact than those which involve images and where mechanical reproduction has the character of a secondary dissemination of the work. in this case art workers. If the People’s Daily aims to promulgate a culture that is irrefutably Socialist and Chinese. are made aware of the position of their activity in relation to the other domains which appear on neighbouring pages. With tape recording. As a question of shaping ideologies. Literature and the arts. media which are verbal and which are mechanically reproduced (and thus capable of mass circulation). film and the performing arts as more significant than that of the visual arts. as the pre-eminent and most readily identifiable manifestations of “culture”. art is encompassed within this sphere. the general public. the audience for art products. the military. the reproduction of music is something that can be easily done in an unauthorized way. adding a level of mediation between the work and its audience (in contrast to literature. and to a lesser extent. There seems little doubt that the leadership sees the social impact of literature. are brought into contact with arts discourse. science. television or the performing arts in which there is only one stage of interaction between a work and its audience). the performing arts. by contrast means that the illicit circulation of works of art is less serious an issue. Both at the top level of policy and the macro administrative level. and constituted as a participant element within this discourse. On the other hand. statements about art in the People’s Daily are things that exist at the public interface with other domains – such as the domains of economics. have a central place in the constitution of “cultural identity”. and in particular their social function and responsibility. The high cost of colour printing. 56 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. moreover. agriculture. As noted above. film.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . In particular there is not supposed to be corrupt art which threatens social cohesion. has reduced the coherence of the notion of wenyi. Artists are supposed to go deeply into life and produce works that fit with the reality of their lives Art is also supposed to reflect the distinctiveness of national culture and of the socialist system. art is a spiritual product and as such is part of the values of spiritual civilization.One consequence of this however is that statements which may relate to the literary field can be seen as relevant to the field of the visual arts – this is especially the case with such broad categories as “modernist” and “ethno-national/Chinese” art. Art is supposed to project ideals and fuse the depiction of reality and dreams of the future. One could argue further that the modernism of the 1980s in particular saw a close relationship between poetic and artistic modernism. There will be diversity of products in the arts field. There is not supposed to be art that challenges the ideological leadership of Marxism. One might argue that this is more than the simple breadth of the theoretical and administrative category of “the arts”. The state is to make art flourish (or prosper) and is supposed to endeavour to inculcate in artists an awareness of works of excellence. so that the spirit manifested in one field may be reproduced in another area.22 This was a major statement of the official cultural response to the crisis of 1989 and 57 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The basic official platform that has been promoted in the most formal of statements in the last decade is as follows (it is fairly consistent across the decade): Art is supposed to be socially responsible: it is supposed to serve the people and serve socialism. visual and to some extent the performing arts in China. and it reflects that system: for this reason art produced under socialist conditions ought to reflect the reality and the aspirations of those living in socialist society. Art should respond to the demands of the people but it should not become mindlessly commercialized. Art is a search for excellence and refinement. and that the cynical consumer art of the early 1990s had direct corollaries in literature. but it will be diversity under the centralized structure of Marxism. but is also part of the long established rapport and interpenetration between literary. promotes individualism and is affiliated to the value system of liberal capitalism Yet art has its own rules. they should struggle to promote products that are unique and are of outstanding quality. In contrast to the Maoist era politics is not supposed to command art. Perhaps the formation and strength of the art market as an autonomous sphere. At the beginning of 1990 the text of a speech given by Li Ruihuan at a national conference to exchange opinions on work in literature and the arts held on the 10th of January. which has to some extent removed the monopoly of the old arts administration. which is opposed to crass materialism. appeared in the People’s Daily. Art is part of the social system which gives rise to it. Art is thus granted relative autonomy. and administrators need to respect the distinctiveness of creative labour.

was intended to set forth a blueprint for cultural development which in many ways structured the cultural scene for the next few years and arguably up to the present. If not corrupt products will flood back. simultaneously stabilizing and invigorating. a spirit of struggle against obstacles. The core goal that this text sets forward is the necessity of strongly promoting ethnic/national culture for the purpose of making the arts flourish. (In other words. upholding the principle of serving the people and serving socialism. Cultural products must be healthy and must occupy the leisure space and spiritual space of the people. At this stage the party must simultaneously wipe out pornography and cause the arts to flourish. But he concludes that in the last 10 years. healthy and varied. (Art products thereby understood as part of the constitution of leisure as a governmental object: there is time outside work and spiritual space that must be occupied. the arts are at once a social cement and a social stimulus). spreading distrust towards the party. the 4th plenum of the 13th party committee having decreed that all party members had to join in the struggle against bourgeois liberalization. The influence of bourgeois liberalization is serious on the cultural front. to the self-respect of the nation. the stabilizing of politics. Educational instruction is to be grounded in pleasure: when people are happy they will be responsive to the lessons which they need to receive. with some cultural products violating the 4 cardinal principle. The arts have a special function in guarding social stability and in generating a fighting spirit. Art workers have scored successes in putting into practice the policies since the 3rd plenum of the 11th committee. the stabilizing of society first requires the stabilizing of people’s feeling: the solution of problems in people’s lives requires the creation of a stable atmosphere. In other pronouncements of the early 1990s. Success in the former has wrought a transformation in the cultural field. and a means to strengthen cross-straits links and to increase ethnic cohesion. a revolutionary spirit. a spirit of being unafraid of martyrdom. the question of amateur arts and spare time arts is also raised: arts policy. geared to the creation of ethnic awareness. based on the Yan’an talks and the directives of Deng Xiaoping. The promotion of the arts functions to stabilize society and to encourage the people. Making the arts prosper is both a means and an index of social stability – stability affects everything: the stabilizing of the economy. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . must engage the population as a whole). This is a matter relating to the unity of the country. This will be achieved by making the arts flourish and producing a multitude of outstanding art products to compete with their bourgeois rivals. with a small number of people from the cultural sphere participating in the chaos of the previous year. and cultural products will produce this – these products must be excellent. really outstanding 58 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. But the spirit is also militant – Deng Xiaoping has upheld a spirit of combat with all enemies. and conducting multiple explorations and attaining clear success in the depth and breadth with which they reflect real life and in the area of artistic expressive power. This is the spirit that art workers should display.

in other words. to promulgate ethno-national nihilism and historical nihilism. as well as his or her exalted sentiments and creative ability his her wide outlook and truth speaking spirit. it is presented. At the same time there should be positive borrowing of useful foreign culture to praise the socialist spirit of the age. modes of thought.works have been few in number. but overall a country’s culture still has a clear ethnonational distinctiveness. The practice of art is thereby constituted as part of a totality of practice which has an overarching distinctiveness). thinking. every ethno nation in the world has its own distinctive culture. habits. Bourgeois liberalization has upheld the doctrines of ethno-nationalist nihilism and historical nihilism. Culture art and literature are inseparable from the life. The new being is an ideal but a humanized one. There is increasing cultural interchange. (Art here is clearly part of a system of ethno-national constitution. emotions and language of the people. his/her inner life and heroic achievements. It claims that Chinese culture is dead and incapable of producing a new culture…they have fled overseas and sold out on their country…they insult their ancestors and worship and fawn on foreign things. and the job of art is to disseminate this ideal. The central part of this mission is the active promotion of the culture of the Chinese ethnonation. The socialist new culture with Chinese characteristics is a new culture formed from the fusion of our ethno-national form and socialist culture. and create historical works with a deep ethno-national character and local distinctiveness. as against the ethno-nation. To uphold ethno national culture is not to exclude foreign culture. they are inseparable from the ethnonation’s historical development. in which the ethno-nation is an ensemble of ways of living. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 59 . (The object that the art of the socialist new age is clearly mapped out: it is human and heroic – it is a depiction of a spirit and an emotional condition. But there has been indiscriminate borrowing and coarse products produced as a result. Art is supposed to depict the heroic persona of the socialist new person. expressing the scientific attitude and revolutionary thought of the creators of the new age. customs. the disposition towards the world of those who create the new age. systems of feeling and structures and patterns of writing and speech. and so they must seek to provide the masses with the finest spiritual grain and earnestly work to satisfy the endlessly increasing requirements of the masses. “To negate ethnonational culture. is part of the “total westernization” advocated by those who stubbornly maintain the standpoint of bourgeois liberalization” He said that regardless of whether it was the east or the west. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. In the last few years there has been a controversy surrounding the question of ethno national culture. comprising a major struggle of thought politics. producing a vivid image of a flesh and blood being.) At the same time art workers must research the habits of appreciation of the broad masses.

which is the literature of capitalism and its sympathizers. socialists.” This is in contrast to a capitalist literature of privilege. There is an ancient beauty.24 The writer asserts that the false newness and exploration of this work arises from failing to recognize that what is beautiful is not necessarily new. Ethno-national culture needs to be propagated and spread. One may note that national style painting. A new sentimental identification with this culture was to be promoted to promote a sense of social cohesion and participation in an ethnic totality. At the same time as this reassertion of the ethno-national there is a restatement of the centrality of Marxism and a stress on its centrality as an ideology for guiding literature and the arts. a literature of hotels. revolutionary realist spirit and ethnonational features. and work hard for the prosperity of the country. The dialectic of novelty and beauty is what is required in all creation. strange and filthy depictions. unlike the Chinese performing arts. which are half understood. and give them a spirit to advance positively. More extensive research on audience tastes would allow these national cultural forms to enjoy greater prosperity. In tandem with this is a denunciation of false visions of creativity and exploration that involves only ugly. could only have benefited from this stated concern to promote Chinese ethnonational art forms and to increase investment in them. including more payment for schools. as a form which.There should be a strengthening of party guidance. those who fail to recognize this are simply picking up on some of the remnants of western modernist thinking. Critics of the existing order of power were thus identified with a platform of total westernization. uncreative and unexploratory. and the ideal solution is that the new and the beautiful be discussed together. Deng comments “Our socialist literature and art need to reflect the nature of people in all kinds of social relations. an argument that surely mirrors the contrast between the supposed plurality of products on the capitalist market and the paucity of products on the socialist market.23 The concern here is to see Marxism as able to produce prosperity. and the new concepts of the 1980s. being seen as conservative. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. was already popular before 1989. to create a public opinion environment which stresses ethno-national culture. which are proclaimed to be marks of “contemporary consciousness” “the tide of the times” “avant-garde art”. The response to the crisis of 1989 from one of the government’s senior members was to intensify investment in the art and literary forms of the Chinese ethno-nation. with works and critical perspectives possessing Marxist. and linked with thought work to increase progressive thinking One key platform of the speech is that there will be increased investment in ethno-national culture. they express the need for the times to advance and the trend of historical development and to industriously use socialist thinking to instruct the people. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 60 .

an ascribed lack of responsibility to anything other than the self. that is. If the thrust of the 1989 demonstrations had been against the luxurious lifestyles and corrupt living practice of senior officials and those with access to economic advantage. Modernist art forms are stereotyped as anti-Chinese. bereft of any response beyond the restatement of dogmas whose popular appeal had long since been eroded. In this way. To some extent. Given that the early 1990s saw also the emergence of the consumer Mao cult. that of the imported avant-garde. than capitalist countries who are constructed as rivals. a populist rhetoric which drew on the residual rhetorical power of everything connected with speaking on behalf of the people might capitalise on this tendency. In particular. one which had only been able to enforce its rule by violent means. and wealth monopolies.The opposition that is set up here is not between modern and non-modern. that is to a Euro-America stereotyped as richer than China. this notion could claim the kudos of all causes which position themselves against privilege. the cultural proclamations of early 1990 and 1991 are part of a complex reassertion of the Communist Party’s right to define the attributes of “the people. private enrichment and the loss of national self-determination. The critique of modernist art practice is a critique that stresses the association between incomprehensibility. one might note that the figure of “the people”. as at once an ethno-national constituency and the community of those who have less . The critique of modernist art forms appeals to a notion of art’s accessibility by and responsibility to “the people”. linked them with wealth and privilege and placed them at odds with “the people”. and in some cases aggressors – is something that can be redeployed even in a structure where wealth differences and the structure of economic relations moves the system further and further away from anything that could be meaningfully called socialist. Chinese theatre and instrumental music. simply a modernist school. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . By invoking the promotion of ethno-national/Chinese culture (which for a long time designated so-called traditional art practices: National style painting. In trying to understand how this seemingly arid rhetoric might have been able to survive. the 61 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and calligraphy). the critique of western bourgeois liberalization was founded on the association between a particular cultural style. Yet such practices also appear as a paradoxical implementation of the cultural directives of an unquestionably unpopular regime. the socialist appears as much as a mark of an ethno-national cultural style as a compelling ideological platform. This discourse does not criticize the modern in itself.less. The rhetoric of the People’s Daily at the time seems intellectually barren. Some have argued that this was a system of complex revaluing.” The banishing of critics to overseas. partly parody (a claim to self-determination by laughing at the legacies of totalitarian rule) and partly a critique of current power holders by invoking an idealism and material restraint supposedly characteristic of the pre 1976 era. but rather a critique of a certain false modernity.

one could argue. which is a part of ideology. on the notion that the autonomy of art means that art systems can be detached from their social context. In place of the deliberate ugliness and perversity of western modernism.e. Chinese socialism is presented as a true successor to the great moments of “modern” western culture in the Renaissance and the Enlightenment. detached from socio-historical realities. was not primarily something that involved representing reality. as a reality which is yet to realize itself. The philosophies which are most thoroughly condemned as symptomatic of the alienation of western bourgeois liberalism are antihumanist ones (structuralism and Freudianism) which deny human dignity. (grounded. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES .leadership of the early 1990s sought to mark with greater clarity the cultural specificity of Chinese art practice. with its anti-humanist positions. refutes the stress on the inhuman and anti-social visions ascribed to modernism. the doctrine that art reflects the structure of the society that produces it. At another level. Underlying this critique of non-representational art was the dependency of the 62 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Chinese socialist modernity is one in which the new and the beautiful are harmoniously joined. Deng had conceded relative autonomy to artistic production – something that was of practical political utility in destroying the influence of the Gang of Four in the cultural arena. In the insistence on the theory of reflection as the basic principle of art. it was argued that modernism was a reflection of “Western” capitalism and its values and was therefore incompatible with the basic social structures and ideals of Chinese socialism. Clearly the aesthetic doctrine being invoked is a representational one. Not only did it supposedly have no history in socialist culture (Soviet constructivism and futurism were conveniently omitted in this discussion) and was thus in origin and ideology affiliated with capitalism. a category which simultaneously connoted an ethno-national totality (for whom patriotic capital acts) and those without administrative or economic power) meant that it was Chinese socialist culture of the Mao era which perhaps came to constitute the most popular form of ethno-national culture in this period. it was also non-representational. In stating that art has its own rules. in the enduring rhetorical power of the category of “the people”. the identification between the ethno-national and the socialist. where the doctrine of art directly reflecting class identity and the socialist system (as these were defined by the ruling party) was strongly enforced. It is easy to argue that the reinvigorated appeal of “old” Chinese socialist culture was that it constituted a form of modern culture in which “Chinese” sovereignty and dignity were not in doubt. The obligation of art to depict the socialist new person as both heroic and human. with representation an obvious corollary to the party’s place as a representation of the people. The denial of reflection is based. particularly Chinese theatre and instrumental music. It suggested that culture. party critics argue. by its denial of the “Marxist” theory of reflection (fanying lun). Although it is likely that what was meant in the first place was an increased investment in pre-socialist art forms. i.

party on a representational theory of reality and politics: if “modern” art could be argued to represent nothing but its own internal logic. or else to arbitrary cultural structures. political activists whom the ruling forces had defined as their opponents who in fact favoured an account of the world much closer to representational realism than to artistic modernism could be associated 63 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Stucturalism was the key target here. Humanism was not a true universalism. not to mention the more explicitly humanist Marxists like Su Shaozhi. Those who endorsed it were affiliated with the ethnonational and historical nihilism whose great incarnations were Liu Xiaobo and the writers of the TV documentary series River Elegy. One could suggest that the aesthetic unpopularity of modernist art. To deny the theory of reflection said that art had no such obligation and that an “imported” modernism was just as legitimate an artistic mode as forms of art that were rooted in national specificities. What was to be reflected was not only the socialist mode of production and the values which it endorsed and which contributed to its art. the critique of non-representational forms of art accompanies an attack on those who affirm the value of representation as both an epistemological system and a mode of political organization. but a code word for the intellectual hegemony of Euro-American capitalism. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . Because modernism was identified as the characteristic aesthetic style of bourgeois liberalization. Although the thought of such figures as Yan Jiaqi and Fang Lizhi is distinguished by a strong commitment to a scientistic Enlightenment rationality and to a positive account of modernity as effecting liberation through the production of a faithful representation of the true nature of the world: political institutions are supposed to conform to the same representative form. could it not then be suggested that “modern” political parties represented nothing but a closed system. it could paradoxically also be criticized for an excessive humanism.25 The importance of defending the theory of reflection was also a matter of arguing that art had to reflect national-ethnic circumstances. reducing art to either a manifestation of the conviction that the human subconscious was made up of bestial drives. If modernism could be attacked for its anti-human tendencies. (Fang is however renowned for having grown disenchanted with Maoism for its failure to take account of relativity theory in physics). Theories of “human nature” denied historical and national specificities in the name of a false universalism. but the structures of Chinese ethno-national historical experience. stereotyped as celebrating the ugly and the distorted. a structure with an internal logic. was deployed as part of a critique by association of the “liberal” forces calling for greater government transparency in 1989. The existence of two rival positions on the question of human nature was connected with this question of the relationship between art and national circumstances. Paradoxically. but with no ability to represent history or society? The implication of accepting modernist epistemology was that socialist ideology had no relationship to reality.

Artists’ practical life problems need to be solved. and secondly to call for people to pay attention to the achievements of the cultural figures of the Recent and Modern Eras. not cosseted in the studio. to prevent their being “trouble in the rear” (Here there is a practical recognition of the material factors in artistic discontent. and the solution of the practical problems of this region. pessimistic landscapes of modernist art denote a fractured reality.with the ugliness and distortion of modern art. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . Rather than beauty and cleanliness. Professor Liu Wenxi. emphasizing how the product of a rival modernity involves the articulation of another time. Liu argues that artists and the people should become as one. There is a stress on how this art and its creators contrast with the effete urban style of intellectual modernism. the advocates of bourgeois liberalization would produce a world that looked like the ugly landscapes of modernism. to go amongst the masses to carry out activities of art practice. It is an art formed by bold struggle in the open air. and they should get nourishment from life. and make an exhibit of them. they need to have clear standards. it might be argued. He said that when bourgeois liberalization was spreading osme people have made some works that depart from reality and depart from the masses of the people.26 A Zhejiang native who has lived for 30 years in Shaanxi. they need to make clear what they are promoting and what they are opposing. to collect their famous works and excellent products. His concern is with the cultural building of Northern Shaanxi. in order to create works that have the social effect of moving history forward. Third is to recommend to the relevant sectors that when they are deciding and enacting cultural policy. Whether as misrecognition of the true nature of human existence through the distortions of the commodity form or as a faithful picture of the woes of capitalist civilization and the spiritual crisis of a West which has abandoned the traditions of the enlightenment and the renaissance. and regard this as “creativity”.27 (We can note here the claim on an alternative form of modern time. One should encourage artists to get into life. 64 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. he is distinguished by a personal plainness and sincerity. which make people think he is an authentic native of Northern Shaanxi. For our young people this will also be a form of education in patriotism and in the excellent cultural traditions of our ethno-nation. As a mark of the kind of art that is to be upheld. artistic support is to be ensured by adequate funding). to make foreigners understand China’s modern culture and arts. artistic modernism is a metonomy for and a sign of a bankrupt and alien system. the People’s Daily of the 5th of April 1990 contains an article on the deputy director of the Xi’an Academy of Fine Arts. that under the premise of putting into practice the shuang bai and er wei policies. in the assertion that it is elderly painters of revolutionary realism that are in step with the times. We can extrapolate from the theory that art is a reflection of social reality that the broken. and a refusal to accept the hegemony exerted by Euro-American capitalism over the control and description of modern time).

soldiers and peasants appears periodically in the rest of the decade. cultured and disciplined socialist citizens. that the policy of ensuring the production of socialist art has been abandoned. but their cohesion and comprehensiveness was decreasing. “the field operations” school. collectively. but also that the artist is concretely located in a particular work environment and is therefore required to conform to the norms and disciplines of the organization in which he or she is placed. In this case. This of course is in line with the directives of the Yan’an talks and the constitution of the audience for art as. he was of the “open air school”. science and culture. to strengthen the building of thought and morality. nor one sponging on the powerful from the “hanger-on school”. In 1990 artistic production was still very much framed by these organizational forms. workers. is thus identified as a constituency for painting. Overall the stress on the answerability of the artistic consciousness to the society in inhabits should be seen not simply as a broad theory about ethical conduct in the arts. The insistence on an art that is for the classic Maoist audience of workers. to arm the people with scientific theory. to maintain the basic line and the basic overall policy of the party. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 65 . with its structure of subunits.28 “The Plenum clearly pointed out that the guiding idea of socialist spiritual civilization is: to take Marxism Leninism. is a particular localized administrative entity – the work unit. The general tendency is to stress the authority that the state has for ensuring that artistic production will help to strengthen the project of building ‘spiritual civilization’. It is simply that the object to whom this socialist art is directed is much less clearly articulated in the terminology of the Yan’an talks. It is notable here that the art referred to here is battle art – the army. to unify and mobilize the people of Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Mao Zedong thought and the theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics established by Deng Xiaoping as the guide. to develop education. the “group school”. One of the most explicit statements of this is the resolution passed at the 6th Plenum of the 14th Party Committee in October 1996 and stressed the overall mission of moral and spiritual governance and the complete interdependence of material and spiritual development. moral. to raise the quality of the thought and morality and the science and culture of the whole ethno nation. Questions of style must be resolved at this level. but it is replaced by the much more undifferentiated community of ‘the people’ or the ethno-nation. a group generally not catered to by modernist art. peasants and soldiers. to cultivate thinking. Society. as well as an abstract totality. to mould people with an exalted spirit to encourage people with excellent products. This transition does not mean. to guide people with correct public opinion.Ever since Shao Yu entered the arena of painting he has not been part of the “salon school” or “the hotel school”. the primary issue appears to be asserting that economic development should not compromise the fundamental mission of spiritual transformation. however.

In the aftermath of Deng Xiaoping’s death in February of 1997. Each province. uncovering the artistic rules which are those of socialist aesthetic ideology. and thinking through the parties art strategies and policies. and examine them together. The plenum emphasized that the crux of constructing material civilization is with the party. the comrades of the whole party and the peoples of each nationality in the whole country need to unite around the party central leadership with Jiang Zemin at its core and raise high the mighty banner of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.29 It occupies the position of an obituary. autonomous region and municipality can establish corresponding structures. and pointing out for us an even broader road for enriching socialist art. to take both kinds of civilization as a unified target of struggle. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. particularly socialist art ideology. to open up and advance. welcome the opening of the 15th assembly of national people’s representatives. constitutes a formal and public affirmation of loyalty to his legacy. civilized socialist modern country. His thought on literature and art is an inheritance and development of Marxist Leninist art theory and Mao Zedong’s theory. one presumes. Party committees at each level need to recognize and manage correctly the relationship between material civilization and spiritual civilization. and maintaining throughout.each nationality/ethnicity to establish our country as a rich. democratic. and deeply them together. and the crux of constructing spiritual civilization is also with the party. from the heights of a broad vision of the world and historical struggle. It is affirmed that Deng’s theory of socialism with Chinese characteristics is Marxism which contemporary China has developed. At no time can one secure temporary economic development at the price of sacrificing spiritual civilization. and with outstanding results in the construction of the two kinds of civilization. seizing with both hands and both hands needing to be strong. setting out from the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics. and. The clearest special feature of Deng’s thought is the use of dialectical and historical materialism to examine the development of art under the new historical conditions and to sum up the experience and lessons of the development of our country’s revolutionary socialist art. the myriad masses with one heart. put them into practice together. The plenum decreed. a restatement of the foundational meaning of his theory of literature and the arts was published on the arts page of the People’s Daily. and work solidly. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 66 .. The plenum decided to committee for directing the construction of spiritual civilization at central level. carrying on after Mao Zedong.

it is where the basic interest of the masses of the people resides. A discourse which is clearly governmental in the sense of being directed towards the larger question of population and its governance. as lazy. It tallies closely with the general project of improving quality that joined both population policy and cultural policy – the preoccupation with the suzhi of people. The enterprise of socialism is the enterprise of the people. by awakening the masses to their own excellence by showing them representations of their own qualities. they look at the overall situation and keep discipline…artistic creation must fully manifest the excellent qualities of our people. intelligent. Although art is an aesthetic ideology. peasants and soldiers”. and first of all the workers. Art therefore is part of the ability of the party to articulate the national character (and it is a representation of national character which systematically refutes the old colonial critique of the failings of the Chinaman. Because seen through the historical view of dialectical materialism. Our art ought to make even greater efforts in the area of describing and cultivating the socialist new person. steadfast. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 67 . bereft of authentic patriotism. just like each the cadres and masses on each front. they deeply love the motherland. The responsibility of art is to “manifest fully the excellent qualities of our people”: its job is indivisible from discourse about national character. Because Art belongs to the people it must project their qualities – the qualities that the leadership has named – that they are industrious and brave. they deeply love socialism. Our people are industrious and brave. idealistic. socialist art must necessarily reflect the socialist economic base and make its own special contribution to the consolidation and development of the whole socialist system. Deng stressed: “We need to maintain the direction that Comrade Mao Zedong put forward that art must serve the broadest mass of the people. stressing that art workers. the people are at all historical periods always the main body in the creation of history. idealistic. He said “Our art belongs to the people.” (Art here is part of the capacity of the leadership to name and describe the qualities of “our people”: its representations are meant to manifest the claims of the party to represent the authentic identity of the masses. Dengist modernization is about the Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. concern only with parochial self interest and without discipline). if examined as a whole it still belongs to the superstructure of a particular society. stupid. cynical and duplicitous. and socialism must protect the complete results of historical creation which the people enjoy. intelligent. thus translates neatly into a series of judgments about artistic worth. patriotic and loyal to socialism and disciplined. and achieve an even greater result. and praise the great victories attained in the revolution and in construction. which is also a moulding and shaping of that character. need to be the stimulating faction in the construction of the four modernizations. and indifferent to collective welfare in the pursuit of private profit. cowardly.The core of Deng’s art thinking is that art must serve the people and must serve socialism. and in struggles with every kind of enemy and with every kind of difficulty.

The vitalist eugenic concern here is very pronounced: the avoidance of vulgarity. It is a history that is recorded in the production of the socialist new person. patriotic. intelligent. and strenuously inhibit creating with crudity and excess. This system of character and quality enhancement. But art must also record the results of preceding struggles. wrought by healthy cultural products as much as by other modernized technologies and systems. socially responsible. and the achievement of national dignity and sovereignty. The qualities of the people that art must represent are not outside of history. Chinese socialist modernity involves the production of a concentrated essence. it is hoped ever greater levels of self discipline. and thus enslaved. to seek excellence/refinement amongst excellence/refinement in art. is like population control. John Fitzgerald has argued that realist fiction became central to the political projects of Chinese states in the 1920s: the core plot structure of realist fiction involves the awakening of the hero to the true nature of reality. not a disembodied history but one which is concretely manifested in the character of those who incarnate the virtues of diligence and discipline that Deng asserts are matters of national character. The internal plots of novels translate into the social function of art as an To produce art that is in some sense counter realist or anti realist is thus associated with reproducing the slumber of the unawakened. a matter of the concentration and Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.enhancement of the quality of the governed population. which is to be brought into line with the representations of its true nature as a disciplined. they need to conscientiously and seriously think through the social effects of their own products. He not only required that “Art workers who fulfill their responsibilities to the people. it must attest to history. steadfast body – with the ultimate aim of making this population self-governing. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 68 . nation. their progressive movement from obscurity to full manifestation. a history of victories against enemies and difficulties. something that is sublime. need to face towards the people without deviating. will produce. by acting on the conduct and thought of those who “people” that system. The character of the people is what has unfolded through history. Because modernization is the goal. the process of bringing this character into full visibility is identified with the generation of a true and complete modernity. Thus the insistence that art must reflect the excellence of the national character is linked to the conviction that art is an instrument of modernization. It reflects the socialist base and consolidates it. These national qualities are both the driving force of modernization – the things that make it possible – and what the project of modernization is supposed to realize. and strongly seek to offer the finest spiritual grain to the masses” (Here the project of social responsibility is one of creating refinement and avoiding crudity and roughness. Instead the movement of history is the unfolding of these qualities. excellent and refined. Art assists this historical movement and also records it.

this complex cultural labour.” But he also deeply knew the specialness of art. There would be no waste. What to write and how to write. “The people are the mothers of art workers. the vital essence of the nation had to be held back and cultivated. dreams. allows of course. high quality population that would be generated by the programme of population control. maintaining that art workers and party leaders all needed to respect/adhere to the laws of art. one should not wantonly interfere. Comrade Deng Xiaoping paid great attention toe the laws/norms/rules of art.conservation of life essences so that it will bring forth only the finest products – instead of the coarse and uncontrolled production of an over populated Maoist command economy. can only be progressively resolved by artists exploring it in their artistic practice. he pointed out. Seed will not be wasted here). It is worth noting the ambiguity of the term “the people” –does it connote a national body or a class group? In both cases the claim to representative powers permits the leadership of the party to present itself as the arbiter of both national and popular identity. as an aesthetic ideology/form of aesthetic consciousness. it is able to arbitrate over which works truly reflect how the people truly are. This recapitulation of the Yan’an rhetoric. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 69 . which show only the surface.” He said “ The people need art. The artistic life of all progressive art workers. permit attacks on pessimistic forms of realism. The rhetoric of the engineer of the soul and of spiritual grain has a new inflection in the age of population planning and light industry production. so that in the place of coarse grain and crude iron there would be refined concentrated products. He stressed the character of art as a social ideology. He adopted Lenin’s pronouncement. greatly needs artist to give play to their individual creative spirit. art would renounce coarseness and excess. the open space which possess thought. the truth of the peoplewho-are-not-yet-aware-of-their-true-nature. emphasizing that the socialist enterprise “absolutely must guarantee the open space of individual creativity and individual preferences. but art needs the people even more”. With great theoretical courage Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. simply the search for ever higher levels of refinement). Furthermore. and stressed that our art ought to “diligently use socialist thinking to educate the people. lies in their flesh and blood relation with the people. as the incarnation of the people to preside over the judgment of works of art: because the party is also the representative of the form of advanced personhood which has not yet come into existence. in the total social ideology. the call for refinement and the discovery (or recovery) of the essence. the party leadership. form and content. In this respect. At the same time as holding fast to the artistic direction of serving the people and serving socialism. including the special laws of socialist art. (Like the refined.” He pointed out that “art. The critique of coarseness.

who are progressive and revolutionary. The arts cannot part company with politics. The arts now serve not politics. fused into a single entity . completely elucidating the relationship between art and politics. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 70 . revolutionary worker in the arts cannot not think about the social influence of their works. and so they shine with the radiance of an irrefutable truth! (Art has an autonomous space.” These judgments are without profound conclusions founded on the lessons and experience of the development of revolutionary art. defined as “society” rather than a set of relations of power) and to the abstract totality of “the people”. In other words. but two different entities: the people and socialism. they are something produced on the basis of a deep understanding of the special features which an art that acts as a social ideology must possess. and we won’t continue to promulgate slogans like art belongs to politics. and the interests of the country and the interests of the Party. But. He said “ We maintain the guiding principle of “letting one hundred flowers bloom and one hundred schools of thought contend” and “the doctrine of “three nots”. because these slogans easily become the theoretical basis for wanton interference in the arts. art is moved to a space where what it is answerable to is the institutional structure and ethical programme of socialism (itself placed at a remove from politics – Dengist socialism being distinguished from the Maoist variety in that it did not place the political at the centre of the socialist. Here the position mirrors that of the relaxation of political controls on the economy as the centre of the reform: political interference is criticized because it was held to stand in the way of development. must contemplate the effect of their work on the wider constituency: they must think of its relationship to “society”. this is of course not to say that that the arts can part company with politics. or rather a semi autonomous space. and long practice testifies that they do more harm than good to the development of art. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and cannot not think about the interests of the people. an attitude towards the world. and its rationale is a developmentalist one: the old formulation of art belonging to politics caused wanton interference which obstructed artistic development. So long as art is engaged at some level in the creation of the socialist new person – the specific embodiment of “socialism” and “the people”. to the interests of “the people”. its existence is legitimate). the interests of “the country” and the interests of “the party”. but rather saw socialism as a system of organization for production and a set of values and commitments. The suspension of the slogan that art belongs to politics is not equated with a complete dissociation of art from politics – art is politics because it is part of building the socialist new person. Workers in the arts. Any progressive.he abandoned the formulation of “art belonging to politics” that had been circulating for many years. To build the socialist new person is indeed politics.and does not define itself against either “socialism” or “the people”. It is a process of self-regulation.

While abstract form may be targeted as denying the basic principle of art serving the people and socialism because socialism and the people are identified with linearity and a supposed ease of understanding. publicly proclaiming that the highest goal of are is to “express the self”. people are not alienated from the products of their own labour. in which. private interest is placed above the associative community – society as a whole or the nation – it is further affiliated with abstraction. a modernism of alienation can only appear as an imported distortion. dignity and beauty. opposing the false viewpoints of both “Leftism” and “Rightism”. can be called sincere and earnest wishes. since the portrayal of an alienated populace does not favour the production of a superior strain. through crudity and excess). patriotic and committed to the values of the collective. Almost a year and a half later. and where. disciplined. by definition. and with the dissipation of national vitality. The critique of the Western Modernist school is its selection of this sense of social disease as its subject matter.Deng “paid great attention to opening up the struggle against the corrupt thinking of the exploiting classes and anti Marxist thinking. The chief problem with this doctrine of affirming human dignity. that a few weeks after Deng Xiaoping’s death could still be cited as promoting discontent through a false representation of the real. for ever being an example to lead us on the path towards the future. his capacity to create the 71 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. which assign a permanent nature to human beings and place it outside of its concrete social environment. and echoes the critiques of national character which formed a rationale for imperialist incursion prior to 1949. humanism. a slur on national dignity. intelligent. considering that the so called alienation under socialist conditions ought to be a subject of creation. in the eyes of critics. and he resolutely opposed the remnant consciousness of feudalism and the thought vogues of bourgeois liberalization…” Some people. another tribute to Deng Xiaoping’s thought on the arts offered the following summation of his doctrines. one which is inimical to the project of modernization and which will produce not autonomy. If the real character of “the people” is that they are hard-working. and also dogmatism and vulgar sociology. it is the supposed connection between western modernism and the problem of alienation under socialism. by implication. is its suggestion that alienation is possible in a society where the means of production are supposed to be publicly owned. and various works also propagate sex” These earnest exhortations and criticisms. he noted. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . In this sense. modernist art is associated with the production of non-modernity in China.30 Its stress is on his creativity. wantonly promote the thought of the west’s so called “modernist school”. and with the purportedly ahistorical doctrines of humanism and human nature. a threat to sovereignty. (Western modernism is identified here with an ideology of self expression. but national backwardness. and potentially. or propagate abstract theories of human nature. remaining fresh in one’s memory. There is thus a false form of modern art.

the great change in which it was enmeshed. Art needs to be adapted not only to the socialist economy and socialist politics which are in the process of changing and perfecting themselves. The creativity of this thought. The author enumerates eight features of Deng Xiaoping’s thoughts on art: First: it produced new judgments on the path that the development of socialist art ought to travel. with a firm footing in China’s national conditions.” (The arts are a sector within the larger framework of enterprises which Deng Xiaoping theory is supposed to have encompassed as a totality. and artists need to increase their awareness of responsibility firmly and thoroughly. upholding the principle of comprehensive harmonized development. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES .new. a thought that is distinguished by its creativity is a product of its age. and was the basic point of departure for examining and analyzing the various enterprises and industries in China in the initial stages of socialism. research and critique: three kinds of activities are envisaged. Next to that in line with the core of the party’s work moving from taking class struggle as the guideline to making economic construction the centre. making them put the entirety of their energies into the creation of. Next to this socialist art has an important influencing function in the new era. (note the amibiguity here in the move from the maoist notion of serving he people and socialism to the 72 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the ensemble of institutions and structures. Second: Deng’s thought gives a new scientific definition to socialist art. the heart of socialist art work is liberating and developing the productive power of art. fully activating the positiveness and creativity of those in the arts. inseparable the larger environment in which it was found. The socialist arts of the new age in China ought to travel their own road and needed to have an ethnic/national style and the special features of the times. bringing a unified theoretical gaze to them all but recognizing their specificity). research of or critique on the arts. this theory implies. Third: in Deng’s thought can be seen the expansion or broadening of the scope of service. (Socialist art. distribution and sale). but it also needs to be adapted to the highly developed socialist democracy and the total/complete socialist legal system. activities which differ in kind from those thought of in the paradigm of production. This was the logical starting point for a series of Deng Xiaopings theoretical viewpoints on constructing socialism with Chinese characteristics. The post-mortem writings about Deng’s thought have the privilege of summation to which their ascribed author cannot respond: they may be reordered and represented according to the needs of the times. which necessarily included the arts. is distinguished from capitalist art because its place is one of harmony with the totality of other social activities. It is not in tension with economic activity or subordinated to it. (Art work is a matter of creation. but harmonized with it). Condensed and displaced from the context of their original formation – the struggle with an established concept of the arts with institutional vested interests.

His main contributions were. and then reacting violently as soon as you criticize. Art cannot sim. Deng seriously raised the issue that arts policy needed to be corrected in the latter phase of the Cultural Revolution and in the new era did work for rooting out chaos and returning to rectitude and developing creativity. that one should not continue to promote slogans like art should serve politics. separation/isolation. but ought to serve the entirely of the socialist enterprise. promoting free discussion of different concepts and schools in art theory. the tertiary sector into which economic analysis classifies art work): To make real the direction of serving the people and serving socialism. and upholding “understanding totally and correctly” second was a new interpretation of the concreted contents of guiding principles in the arts. One needs for establishing.y serve politics and co-ordinate with the centre. He put forth “ promoting the free development of different forms and styles in artistic creation. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . In facing new art practice he brought forth a way of thinking for resisting erroneous thought tendencies. Deng Xiaoping said. Four: Deng boldly rectified arts policy and injected new content into the arts policy of letting 100 flowers bloom and 100 schools of thought contend. making a new explication in the area of the function of art. emotionally expressive and rational. they all ought to have their own place in our garden of art. “majestic and fine.idea of the service industry. soldiers and peasants). the scope of the people has greatly expanded and so the object of service is to serve the very broadest masses of the people. through lively art criticism and other real 73 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. peasants and soldiers. and pay attention to the social effects of the art as and offer the finest spiritual grain to the people. Artists and critics should have a high degrees of create freedom and freedom of critique but that artists should treasure the glorious title of engineers of the human soul. which is especially unhelpful for the healthy development of the socialist art enterprise in the conditions of reform and openness and the market economy. (Thus a sociology which adopts an expanded definition of the people allows a space for the existence of types of art which do not serve the workers. and establish a strong sense of social responsibility. Five: Satisfying the different requirements of the masses of the people.” In the new historical era. (Art supplies understanding and education. so long as the people can obtain education and enlightenment obtain entertainment/pleasure and enjoyment of beauty. Deng pointed out. he conscientiously combed out a new path of thought for opening the struggle against negative tendencies. In the 1989 crisis it was possible to assert that the art production of the late 1980s had been transformed into an instrument of a small group of reactionaries rather than the mass constituency of the workers. He criticized the tendency of not daring to criticize mistaken tendencies. emphasizing that the key for pushing out the old and bringing forth the new is in daring to create. entertainment and pleasure and the enjoyment of beauty) Six: Starting from reality. opposing usurpation. serious and harmonious.

The question of respecting the rules of art and the labour of artists is a key question that relates to the prosperity of the arts. The arts of the new era needed both to dare to seek development in market competition. high culture and popular culture. a project which is best categorized as ‘decollectivisation’. Following a standard Marxist doctrine of the superstructure reflecting the base. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . to deprive it of political influence by claiming to rid it of political interference) One can argue that the transformation of the arts system is a corollary of the overall ideology which Deng pursued. and whether or not the CCP. one could hold that the semi-privatization of the means of 74 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. in particular its social effects and its economic effects. legal and administrative means to make the production of artistic products conform with the basic requirements that socialism with Chinese characteristics has for art. and exchange opinions with artists on an equal footing. this ruling party. One must abandon the Yamen style. Deng is credited with presiding over a change in values in relation to art (a change which it might be suggested may have arisen from the desire to neutralize the arts sector in the political struggles. culture’s character as an enterprise and culture as a matter of public benefit. he considered that the most important thing was to grasp the special features of art and the laws of its development…He thought that the party’s work in leading the arts. and also to resist and rectify the tendencies of “in everything search for money” and totally commodifying artistic products. is absolutely not a matter of making administrative orders. As part of the ideological system. the system of thought. One needs to correctly manage the long term development of the arts and short term consumption. The article gives rise to a number of possible observations. taking social effects as the highest standard. and healthily and in an orderly fashion develop into the future Eight: Thoroughly grasp the special features of art and raise to a new level the respect for the rules of art and the creative labour of artists.work. to deploy economic. critique and research. and one wants in all respects to guarantee that artists can give full play to their talent and intelligence. can properly lead artistic work. and at the same time raising the new issues that artistic development faced in the conditions of the of the socialist market economy. art falls directly within the domain over which the party claims sovereignty. The establishment of the socialist market economy system raised new and higher requirements for the development of the socialist arts enterprise. In the question of treating the concrete art creation. the new concept that “whether something is the beneficial or harmful to the realization of the four modernizations ought to be the most basic standard of truth and falsity for measuring all work” making people self consciously defend against and resist the influence and interference of all kinds of erroneous thought tendencies and causing socialist art to maintain from beginning to end a correct direction and to be full of vitality Seven: Correctly understanding the special character of art.

orthodoxies had to remain in place.production had its necessary parallel in the semi privatization granted to artists. but among the most fundamental is the expanded and reformulated definition of “the people” and the notion of art possessing its own laws and norms. since the production of art is not a key part of economic infrastructure. Rather than a false view of the world as it isn’t. which in the cultural field is above all the power to represent (in the concrete form of art products) At the same time. a rapid restructuring of preferences and 75 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Art had a powerful revaluing role. This is a specific type of historical awareness. and arguably. They offer a sense of the new. At the same time. rather than controlled by techniques of mass evaluation and critique (like the system for setting work points in the Maoist era). a system of sense which is prepared for the realization of these visions in the concrete stuff of the lived world. The original context for the propagation of Deng Xiaoping’s art theory is presumably one of a battle with the area in which Cultural Revolution ideologies and their supporters were most strongly entrenched: the cultural establishment. who were required to be self regulating. it can produce representations of modernization in other sectors which are in a very real sense. It could do so at low cost – it was cheaper to make the new in Art than in other areas (military technology or transportation for example). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . and with them a new system of sense. enchanting. effected by capitalizing on internal alienation and licensing a certain number of those previously denied the right to disseminate cultural products. With the revolution in the cultural sector. by repute a power base of the Gang of Four. driven by the unleashing of productive forces harnessed by the inflexibility of the system of class struggle and keeping politics in command. Images or descriptions of rockets or of nuclear power stations can be made far more cheaply and quickly than “the real thing”: they can effect a transition in representational codes. an ideology which increasingly focused on the party as the primary force of organizational coherence. In this official statement however. One can argue that to win this battle a cultural counter revolution had to be launched. This has a number of key points. formed by defining the character of the age. The modality of modernity that Dengist art produces is one of anticipation. by offering a space to those whom cultural revolution culture had deprived of power. and thus the suppression of unhealthy developments can be done without excessive damage to the overall functioning of the system. and implant a simulacrum of the modern very pervasively in social life. images structure expectations and preferences. Deng is credited not primarily with the transformation of artistic practice through the effects of the market but with an intellectual transformation of the place of the arts within the theory of socialist transition and construction. to ensure both the appearance of continuity and to uphold the central tenets of party ideology. and the representation of a socialist new era. cheaper in terms of political cost. a mechanism for representing transition.

socialist. it is argued. the socialist stands less for a non-competitive mode of economic organisation but for a particular stance towards the world which may be defined in contrast to a supposedly individualist ethic driven by the false interests of the self. Deng and his supporters. alienated consciousness purportedly at the heart of capitalist modernity. socialist and ethno-national As is well known. The aim was not to build a capitalist modern world but a socialist one. official rhetoric about socialist modern art distinguishes if from capitalist art in its animating spirit Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The socialist commitments of the approved forms of modernised and modernising art produced in China in the 1990s are supposed to mark it off in spirit from the art of capitalist modernity. What distinguishes it is supposedly an awareness of the social nature of human existence. Paradoxically. In short.expectations could be effected. Chinese/Ethnic-national formulation appeared first when Deng Xiaoping and his associates initiated the programme of structural reform in the late 1970s. But one can also assert that the project of the four modernizations was also something that needed to be represented – the revaluing that went on was a process of giving shape and names to things and of producing hopes. The job of culture. rather than the fractured. At the same time it was to be distinguished from other modernisation programmes by its socialist character and its distinctive Chinese qualities. the socialist and the Chinese constituted a distinctive moral order and set of commitments. As much as historical or institutional legacies. Modernisation was meant to produce and enhance Chinese and socialist distinctiveness rather than to erase them. This is now presented primarily as a response to concrete discontents over material conditions and political oppression. Modern. and an orientation towards the social and a sense of responsibility to it. Increasingly. simply tapped into pervasive desires for more consumer goods. which are by definition representations of hopes. The modernised. the project was constituted as simultaneously part of a universal modern order and as a special manifestation of the modern and the socialist: socialism and modernity had an alternative Chinese lineage. thus had a special responsibility for inflecting this modernity with the special marks of the Chinese ethno-nation and its socialist system. as one of the primary domains for the production of difference. It was supposed to break with the rhetoric and ideologies of the Cultural Revolution era by identifying modernisation rather than the struggle between classes as the central element in construction. the past two decades have seen art practice in the People’s Republic of China carried out within an official ideological project of “modernising socialist construction Chinese characteristics” (you zhongguo tese shehuizhuyi xiandaihua jianshe). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 76 . and it was to produce not a generic modernity but one which would exhibit special Chinese or ethnic-national qualities.

On the one hand. This difference is at once a fabricated or artificial break which invents discontinuities in institutions and practices where there is substantial continuity and a real break where ideologies and actions displace what they claim to inherit and uphold. Modernised. supplies and demands. above all in public meetings of committees and on the anniversaries which constitute the temporal order through which this construction project is reviewed. The modernising discourses of Menzies’ Australia or those of New Order Indonesia all stressed spiritual differences between themselves and their opponent modernities – godless communism or secular humanism. prices. producers and consumers and laws of transaction and economies are cultural systems in which economic behaviour is structured by the logic of culture. or in the account of historical processes which it offers. the governmental apparatus has shifted to being a market regulator. reaffirmed and remade. which must ensure fair trading and conformity with market laws and 77 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the job of cultural management is not simply to ensure that the right forms of culture are produced but also to ensure that expenditure is not excessive. modernisation is supposed to have thoroughly overturned the legacies of the Cultural Revolution (depicted as non-modern) and also upheld the underlying systems and principles of socialism. There is an increasing concern with the cost of culture and how these costs are to be sustained. with markets. Aesthetic value is both the exemplar and the agent of this production of spiritual difference within modernity. From being the chief sponsor and adjudicator of art production. Cultural practice both fabricates these institutional breaks and conceals them. socialist and Chinese construction has become a kind of catechism which is repeated in the annual ceremonial cycles. The Chinese socialist modernity of the Deng era is an historical transformation of the very different Chinese socialist modernity of the Mao period. exchange and ownership. in which culture and economics blur into each other: cultural systems are economic orders. It simultaneously ends global isolation and strengthens national integrity. this rhetoric resonates very strongly with that of other authoritarian modernisation programmes in their insistence on differences of spirit. institutions and ideas which it set out to reform rather than to overthrow. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . Over the last half decade or so official rhetoric is increasingly inflected with the language of an economistic managerialism. and that the market in symbolic goods is properly regulated. Conservative nationalist developmental regimes have all tended pretty much to say much the same thing about culture and responsibility.rather than in its mode of production. What distinguishes reformer art rhetoric and practice is its historical relationship to the forms of social organisation and ideology articulated in the cultural revolution. In the late 1990 they sit alongside other discourses about cultural markets (wenhua shichang) and cultural industries (wenhua chanye) and the processes of marketisation and industrialisation that these involve. On the surface.

produces ideologies which are without coherence. (This approach takes power to be simply manipulation. and the nature of those transactions. ought to make us look more closely at this project and its internal logic. modernised and Chinese as a pragmatic cliché. either through force or through deception. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . just like the economic mode it promotes – “the socialist market”. It is easy to see this mantra of socialist. content and the manner of its production different from those in Euro-American centres and indeed different from that in other centres of Chinese culture like Singapore. If this utopianism is heavily indebted to the prevailing ideologies of global cyber capitalism of the end of the 1990s it can also be seen as an extension and development of the alternative modernisation platform first articulated by Deng Xiaoping and others in the late 1970s. The contradiction between the notion of culture markets and the structure of Chinese socialist modernisation may thus be resolved at a textual level. then an examination of why art practice in contemporary China is in style. The argument that the current order in China is simply an incomplete modernity or an incomplete capitalism (or for that matter an incomplete socialism) can only treat the present in contemporary China as a mixture of pasts (or “traditions”) that have not quite gone away and futures that have not quite arrived. The desire to keep power. The economy-culture will ultimately constitute an organic unity. by insisting on the moral gap between being modernised. Transactions belong within a cultural system. If the question of why this seemingly unstable formulation has proven so durable is not sufficient to make us question this account of the official rhetoric of the reform era.regulations. one formulated in the era immediately after the Cultural Revolution to hold together an unstable collection of rival political forces and thus something riven with contradictions and essentially incoherent. in which economic and cultural action will fuse into one. The official claim that this kind of unification is possible seeks to challenge the dichotomy between culture and marketplace that supposedly characterises capitalist society. From the viewpoint of a sociology of culture this reduces social and 78 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. some statements in the People’s Daily suggest. forms part of an overall spiritual and material totality. the transactions of the market place may be identified as something more than simple acts of buying and selling. socialist and Chinese and the backward tradition. it would be argued. Yet the notion of cultural economics is not simply a matter of the economics of culture: if economic behaviour has a cultural logic. It might be argued that it as simply a device for “the party” to continue to “hold power”. and which manifest nothing more than primitive justifications for the continued domination of a particular authoritarian group). Power relations are held to be nothing more than a process through which power holders take and keep power from those over whom they rule. selfish individualism and loss of cultural identity and integrity to which these qualities are structurally opposed.

In other words. One can of course locate this articulation of art and the modernisation project as a matter of futures as an emanation of a series of personal and institutional mobility agendas. a rhetoric which to a great extent precludes any thorough analysis of relations of social power. depend on relations of cognition and recognition. titles and awards (the objective marks of reputation. sources of symbolic and material credit were primarily stateowned. rather than a creditor-debtor relationship of loan and repayment. This was a “social credit” in that the “loan” took the form of a permanent salary and housing to designated art producers. The trajectories of a career. (Curiously. in a way which seems ideological in the crudest sense – a systematic mystification of relations of production by referring solely to an imaginary order. To some extent this is a useful way to conceive of the issue – relations of knowledge. The focus on where the present is heading obstructs the moral critique of the present and the exploration of its relationship to a group of historical interests and structures. and the trajectories of a project of economic modernisation are both processes of becoming recognised. Art reputations in the official art economy were made and remade through the mechanisms of state 79 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and the state of attaining a recognised place in the world. shifts all attention away form the present and onto the future. which are fundamental to the production of artistic value (above all on the market place). to attain greater levels of recognition and dominance. a movement from obscurity to fame through the accumulation in the course of a life time of a personal capital registered in accolades. relations that are historical in origin. through the accumulation of credit and credentials. and those who were not sanctioned produced goods that were completely unrecognised because they did not circulate on any official market. in which people and organisations are driven by a relentless desire to get ahead. this kind of approach reproduces the developmental rhetoric of the government itself whose account of the present is saturated with movement towards the future. The state granted credit to artists in the form of affirming the status of those whose work was deemed the most creditable and in the material form of “loaning” them the resources to pursue their work.) At the time of Mao’s death economic and cultural capital were concentrated almost entirely in the public sector. Modernisation is both the process through which these relations of cognition and recognition are to be played out. of which “reputation” is the most explicit instance. This classic instance of the denial of the social. and the drive for reputation and the attainment of personal and national dignity is practically located in a future which has not yet arrived. Practically speaking the command art economy of the Mao era was one free of debt: sanctioned producers created with a full state subsidy. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES .cultural practices in the People’s Republic to transitional phenomena which are intelligible only within a framework of a modernisation. which in the art field are paradoxically likely to destroy ones reputation in some circles). which Bourdieu has suggested is one of the distinguishing features of the art field as a domain of practice.

and thus the process of establishing new credit regimes is something which the public art economy has itself presided over. in the late 1990s state forces are no longer simply those who regulate and control art production and judgment. it is the transfer of art resources from the state sphere (among which we may include objective resources like paintings. they maintain a credit regime which coexists with but is nonetheless distinct from the other modes for determining artistic value. What was valued under the structures of the planned economy continues to command high values in the reform era markets. This is partly an historical process – artistic capital and credit were initially concentrated in the state sector. Most overtly and obviously. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 80 . gallery space and art materials and also the embodied resources of artistic talents trained in state institutions) into the private art market. Coterminous with this is the declining rate of state support for full time artistic work.acclaim. The legacies of this earlier system of art credit and credentials survive not simply as the hoary hand of state interference in the work of art producers. since they translated the acclaim held within a specialised sector of the art economy (like an art school or a cultural troupe) into a public domain A social history of art which is framed as a history of individual and collective career trajectories is thus a history of the transformation of this state-owned credit and its transfer to other locations in the reform era. Through the course of the reforms these institutionally structured systems of aesthetic discrimination have been deployed on “the socialist art market with Chinese characteristics” both as systems of preference which govern acquisition choices and concretely as objects for sale. where the state can no longer fix the value of artistic reputations. this presence is marked by the high prices which famous socialist realist works from the 1950s. Given that this process of transferring the production of artistic credit away from the state is arguably the basic historical dynamic in of art economies in the reform era. but rather in the perpetuation regimes of taste and aesthetic judgment which were shaped by the planned economy. rather. studios. sculptures. They are now a market player whose systems of art preference they are naturally interested in promoting. 60s and 1970s commanded on the auction markets of the 1990s. Practically speaking. how can we define the place of the institutions which previously exerted the greatest authority in the production and ratification of artistic credit – the official media like the People’s Daily? The art credit institutions of the planned economy era have not simply gone bankrupt. Put simply those who sponsor or possess art works which have been produced by and for the institutional demands of socialist modern culture wish to see the value of these stocks being preserved and enhanced by the market. The market becomes an instrument for the ratification of “socialist” value. of which the major newspapers like the People’s Daily were the most overt and obvious form. Practically speaking. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

A contradiction like Socialist market economy is thus intelligible since it refers to something like a market economy which is supposed to engineer collective prosperity rather than individual enrichment. If the project of Deng Xiaoping is often seen as pragmatic and anti-idealistic in its goals. to displace that of the Cultural Revolution and to enlist and articulate a particular aesthetic of modernisation. one cannot interpret the art discourse of the reform solely through the categories of a political economy of art production and exchange. Socialist time and modern time were now sidereal and aestheticised rather than the command economy times of the factory shift and the annual harvest. In this sense the propaganda of reform was more than simply a window dressing. c. there is a strongly utopian element in it. The stars which are iconographically central to the early reform period are points of beauty. The popularity of socialist art rests not in a strong identification with anti-capitalist Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. a beauty which becomes a goal for collective striving. The act of accumulation it can be argued is motivated not by selfish interest but by a desire to add to the overall wealth of the nation. the reform sought to articulate an alternative vision. where gain is personal.At the same time. From the outset. Under this reasoning the vast amount of ink spilled about a socialist aesthetic is really a way of camouflaging political passivity. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 81 .3 Socialist art At the crudest level the service of socialism in art can be seen as ensuring that art works do not challenge the power of the ruling party or suggest that its monopolies of power should end. that the project of socialist art is meant to produce as well as envision. This unites the scientific-technical aspects of the reform. Modernised life was characterised by an aesthetic unity between the modern. It aimed to create a beautiful world. Beauty was central to the reform: the project of modernisation was not simply a technological or managerial one. Many would argue that it has no meaning beyond this. where the values of some imagined totality are constructed in opposition to individualism. the socialist and the ethnic-national. and the aesthetic preoccupation of artists from the “dissidents” of the New Stars group to those designing posters for the Four Modernisations. to its prestige. represented above all by space programmes. When the term socialist is deployed it connotes these values. or if not that. Hence the persistence of socialism as a concept may have less to do with the ideological weakness and simple repressiveness of the state than with a shift in its meaning. Perhaps the durability of the rhetoric about socialism in the 1990s connotes less a system of ownership distinct from capitalism but a category something like “societyism”. The critique of the cultural revolution and the critiques of culture in the 1980s were each of them indebted to a vision of stellar progress in which the stars are not simply signs of what is remote and what may be conquered by technology.

Interpretative monopolies and cultural economies In the immediate post Tiananmen period. Criticism is a mode for the production of a social art: art will be made by collective action through criticism and collective judgment of the individual work. The artist acknowledges a responsibility to the institutional structures in which he or she is working. Thus the reassertion of socialist management in art is practically speaking a call to hold more meetings through which the identity of art work and the social can be reaffirmed.ideologies but with the value of iconic representations of leaders distinguished by personal probity. but there is a contemporaneous sense of the culture of the economy. This is the basic position of Maoist art theory. conscious of his or her membership in the hierarchy. Here the analogy is clearly with engineering. but something that must be constantly improved upon. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the success of the seed strain or the deployment of a prototype all involve techniques of observation and advice which aim at further modifications. Built into this is the sense of an economics of culture. In the 1980s and the early 1990s. which means that it coheres with the organisational units in which the artist is working. The evaluation of the soldier’s performance. This contrasts somewhat with Maoist criticism where the act of critique is more or less coterminous with the human. This is the same principle as in the economy of the Cultural Revolution – criticism is carried out to achieve the perfection of production and producers within the unit. and the beginnings of a collective struggle for material betterment. and the military view of criticism in the production of soldierly conduct: growth is not natural. dominated by the rules of cultural costs. Criticism and production are fused into a single process in which they aim is the production of a perfected personality. The fiscal constraints on this system as well as the art desires of the rich lead to the displacement of this notion by an alternative model of cultural economics. the improvement of crops. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 82 . Criticism is designed to assist in the development and enactment of this sense of responsibility. criticism is a practical technique for the production of socialist art: art is supposed to respond to and correspond with social discipline. socialist and “ethno-national” – is to be achieved by having art administratively organised in a way that differs from the individualist structures of bourgeois liberal art. through which modes of economic behaviour do not conform to a single authoritative model – that of liberal capitalism. Yet the operation of this system depends practically on a fully subsidised art system where all workers are salaried employees. the aesthetic unity of the socialist life in the Dengist programme – modern. and where critique is part of action against the ever-present danger of bureaucratic consolidation. the society is a network of units and departments – its fundamental form is the meeting). the concrete site of the social (rather than an abstract collection of people who have never met each other.

The entrepreneur undertakes a responsibility to the collective patrimony. the glory of “the social” and “the nation” are the aim of accumulation.is rejected because of its attention to the arbitrary and constructed nature of cultural systems. above all in the removal of art treasures by foreign powers (the looting of the Yuanming yuan. Langdon Warner’s removal of the murals at Dunhuang etc) and the loss of important art works as foreign students took them abroad. There is a distinctive aesthetic that surrounds the unity of socialist. Those whose products are exceptional (jingpin) are those that condense a national essence (guocui). and of existentialism rest on the reassertion of an overall coherence to reality which is founded on the historical and the material. and because of the corresponding lack of human volition in them. dissonances and illogicalities. The specific dynamics of this are registered in a specific set of aesthetic preferences. Socialist modernity is articulated as a particular form of beauty. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . subjective extremism is rejected as a denial of the material determinates of individual psychology. Chinese art is part of a history of national shame. Critiques of the psychology of the subconscious.Rather there are different economic cultures – the Chinese socialist market has a cultural and economic logic which differs from that of “Western” individualism. This culture is supposedly registered in specific modes of conducting economic transactions. The Dengist modernisation project is designed to refute this nihilism through the affirmation of the beauties of the objective regularities which scientific observation brings to the surface. of structuralism. It marks people off from beasts At the same time. Art objects cannot be treated simply as things: they are emanations of mindsets. Hence the history of modern Chinese art is conceived simultaneously as one of the concentration of this vitality and of foreign expropriations of it. Art collecting can be phrased as patriotic duty rather than privitisation. In place of the health and happiness of a life lived in conformity with objective laws – the health and happiness of a scientific life – modernist subjectivity can only restate the emptiness of the world. The vitality of the economy allows the accumulation and concentration of this essence in art and in sites of vital power. The transformative power of subjective intent (central to Maoism. Structuralism’s “objectivity” – the confinement of thought by structure . upholding its value and dynamism. modern and 83 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The world art market serves both to exhibit this national essence and to deplete it. The divide between the modernities of science and technology and the grasp of autonomous and absolute regularities and the modernities of introspective subjectivity are to be practically and aesthetically integrated into a harmonious totality. Culture and politics must assert this organic unity. It is not the aesthetic of artistic modernism with its disjunctures. but also significant in the Dengist project) is asserted as an essential component of the distinctiveness of the human. in which. which is the unity of the subjective and the objective dimensions of human existence.

above all in the consumption of pornography and in corruption. Paraded collectivities. The socialist army is one of the major bearers of socialist history in the 1990s. because it is the history of wars that forms one of the major objects of commemoration that the modern Chinese art which the Party seeks to uphold should depict. To external viewers this aesthetic seems a pastiche or a sham. especially because of its sentimentality and its violation of style codes. The harmony and cleanliness of the well executed plan cannot survive the uncontrolled forms of non-useful growth that accompany it – rubbish or weeds that accumulate at the same time as the fertile forces of productive life are harnessed. which will promise beautiful forms of life. made it possible to see society as a governed structure. If the rhetoric of newspapers like the People’s Daily seems little more than a shallow and hollow defence of authoritarian political privilege. and ideals. and in other unstructured forms of assembly. The supposed purity and regularity that underpins this aesthetic of life cannot survive the challenges of impurity and excess. This might contrast with the forms of the social that were experienced and seen in crowds. related closely to the forms of more or less naked force which underpin it. In the wake of 1989. A socialist art constituency – the army The durability of socialist rhetoric is partly due to the durability of some of the institutional structures which are formally affiliated to it: the state art apparatus is one of these and so is the army. Perhaps the central position of the army in the entire modernization project creates one of the determining features of Chinese socialist art rhetoric and perhaps art practice as well.national-ethnic: it is an aesthetic that aims to articulate an entire mode of living. above all on national day. it is nonetheless notable that it strives to present itself as a complete and distinctive view of the world. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 84 . The difficulties of sustaining this aesthetic are registered in constant scandals. a modernity which has its own aesthetic unity and its own fusion of Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Socialism is an ethic of the soul rather than a crass materialism. Socialism may be the basis for denouncing philosophical idealism and forms of art that place intellectuality above social responsibility and comprehensibility. The anti-nationalist drives of modernist art are necessarily antagonistic to the disciplines. where it seems that the organic unity of a life regulated by adherence to historical and material laws is dissolved by corrupting influences. the need for the army’s artistic requirements to be acknowledged and catered to was pronounced. The critique of modernism is bound up with this assertion of a vision of beauty. technical advancements and organizational clarity that military systems entail. but in the mid to late 1990s what is asserted about socialism is the centrality of spiritual values. One experience of the modern is the well-organised ranks of soldiers on parade.

For them an assault on patriotic value is a threat to their entire organization. On the one hand the socialist market offers new possibilities for verification: real demand can be known through consumer choice – it is no longer the planners’ fantasy of what the masses want and need. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 85 . c. Modernization.4 Modern art Art has a profoundly developmentalist rhetoric: since the 1970s it has been saturated by the idea of development and progress. One can argue that the modernism of Europe and America in the 1920s was shaped by the effects of a loss of confidence in war.parades. It is part of ethno national progress and at the same time it must itself be forward-moving. but of an alternative account of the nation. and by the strategic deceptions of those who sell what does not deserve to be sold. Armies require patriotism. the market is constructed as a threat to the integrity and authenticity of creation. controlled marching and so on. it compromises integrity. after all. But the market is haunted by the fake. art is part of the production of the mental dispositions of those who will produce modernity in its socialist Chinese form. it is said. and most importantly. happened first in the army. At the same time. administration and distribution). creating a strong sense of alienation from the military domain. The project of modernisation and the discovery of the real The official modernity of the Deng Xiaoping era announces itself in terms of a quest for the real (shishi qiu shi) This association of the modern with a project of investigation has a complex relationship to the articulation of the modern as the market. commemorate its traditions and the institutions and entities it defends has a centrality in the PRC that it perhaps lacks in many other modern art contexts. modern and national. is one which is powerfully made by the experiences which constitute it. Art is itself being modernized following the Chinese dictionary definition of modernization as involving the application of the most advanced scientific techniques (which in this case refer less to representational codes than modes of technical reproduction. The effects of WW2 in China were perhaps rather different. of lineage and of the people. Given that the army is constructed as a socio-cultural constituency in China. the production of a modern art that will fit the needs of the army. The army is one of the premier sites not only of alternative modernity. but under the command economy art was produced and consumed for free. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. By the late nineties art discourse has begun to dwell on these problems: how can creativity be marketised? The market offers freedom. The “sense” of nationality or ethnicity in the army. and that the effects of war were profoundly influential in shaping Modernist Art in both the Soviet Union and Japan after World War 2. For art of course.socialist. The antipathy between art and the army is not so clearly pronounced in Chinese modernism.

The antipathy between contemporary art buying publics and military commemoration. This is a modern history which cannot claim the loyalty of an international art buying public: that art buying public is situated in opposition to this history.The modernization project defines modernity in terms of futures: its art as a system of ideals. both in the style of its representation. the form of emotion it involves. and the emotional investment in it. There must be modes of marking this history and this modernity which acknowledge difficulties (such as the Cultural Revolution) but which ultimately affirm it. Temporalities of Modernisation Modernisation is of course a preoccupation with time. which are now understood not as a history of liberatory struggle but as part of totalitarianism. The party is modern China. The global style of Euro-American and Japanese Modernism will not fulfill these functions adequately because a central fact of the party’s history is that it has been defined by the struggle against these imperialist modernities. or indeed any form of state sponsored heroism is a major element in creating an opposition between Chinese socialist art as a total system. It would admit that individualism and socialism had not distinguishing features. Rather than a complacent or pessimistic relationship to the present. and commemorates its history in a way that affirms its commitment to the people and to socialism: it must mark the specific dates of that history and the Modern history of which it is the telos. To surrender to them aesthetically will refute the revolutionary cause and concede the failure of the modernization project of the party. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . The notion of defending a tradition is the defence to large measure of this tradition. and the things it celebrates. Art was sought for commemorative purposes: in particular the various anniversaries that dotted the 1990s. so much tied to rituals of state celebration. Much of the official discourse about culture and socialist modernisations that would be called general policy statements appears within a particular calendar – it is dominated by anniversaries and a consciousness of decades and years. it affirms and re-affirms a particular grasp of time. had its own traditions and was literally co-existent with the history of the PRC state. Its command of this calendar is central to its practical monopoly on the modernisation programme: as it talks about culture. Modern History begins with May 4th and the culmination of May 4th according to orthodox party representation is the party itself. it understands time in terms of a quest. an endless searching for the future realization of ideals. 86 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. that the values of the ethno-nation were ultimately not of sufficient importance for their distinctiveness to be worth trying to represent. The articulation of an art programme is set forth within an account of yearly time over which the party presides. and the individualist art of the capitalist west. involves aspirations for their realization in the future. The party must have a commemorative art which marks its distinctiveness. This art.

The Chinese category of minzu (derived. it is something which is by definition ethno-national. It is not possible to raise the question of culture without reference to ethno-national or at the very least regional structures. the category nation refers quite often to a geo-physical entity rather than a group of people – people speaking of a nation often have something more like a place than a race in mind. This is especially true in the White settler-dominated societies in the Americas and Australasia. what would bring it about. what needed it and what modernization would be applied to. Closely bound up with this is that Dengist modernization is a project which had the ethno-nation as both its subject and object: the ethnonation was what sought modernization. Why is modern art discourse in China so powerfully linked to discussions of the ethno-nation? Writings about art that discuss questions of modernity in the 1990s have consistently discussed it in conjunction with the question of the ethno-nation. and Calligraphy. art was enlisted in the defence of scientific modern culture challenged by the ‘superstition’ of Falun Gong. When the term Ethno-national is used as an epithet in much of the material discussed here it refers to what in English would be called “Chinese” – things that are supposedly distinct from the cultural technologies which are identified as “imported” – above all oil painting and western classical and popular music. something outside 87 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Chinese painting. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . such as Chinese instrumental music. or they may refer specifically to “Chinese” forms of art and culture. Chinese theatre. In the late 1990s the problem faced by government propagandists changed from needing to defend ethno-national distinctiveness against critics who charged it with failing to produce full modernity to having to defend the modernization project against charges that it had compromised ethno-national tradition. from Japanese) is something which very clearly has in mind a nation as a group of people – for this reason I have used the rather ugly coinage of ethno-nation. Culture is not a system of symbolic representation which can be discussed without reference to location or history (as it can even in contexts as supposedly reflexive as English language Cultural Studies).The modern art of China in the People’s Daily is the art associated with this history. future and present of the ethno-nation). In particular. future and past of “national culture” thus involve two possible levels: they may be concerned with the state of culture and art in the ethno-nation (and in particular how the state of art and culture is related to the wider question of the past. Discussions of the present. The category Minzu is affiliated to but distinguished from StateCountry (Guojia) which is clearly geo-political entity. 31 c. as is well known. As part of the arsenal of socialist modernity the arts were required to affirm the socialist and modern vision and to reaffirm the validity of the tradition represented my May 4th. It is simultaneously an external object.5 Chinese / Etho-National In contemporary English.

The defining attitude of citizens guomin was their state (guo) not their ethno-nation. to produce self-identification rather than to corrode it. Modernization is a process designed to realize this collectivity more fully. the CCP succeeded in wresting the right to define the culture of the nation from the political force whose ideology stressed its identification with the nation as its defining feature – the “Nationalist” Guomindang. securing ethno-national sovereignty. or a modernity in which sovereignty was compromised by foreign domination. Its leadership is based to large measure on its claim to be not simply the representative of the ethno-nation but the key force preserving its integrity – particularly after 1989 it had to assert that its actions were justifiable in the name of long-term ethno-national integration. and as a result. but of the citizenry. Modernization could not be used to justify the disintegration of the Ethno-nation. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . If the socialism of class equality was quietly moved off stage. and the self itself. The modern is the socialist. the party had managed to define Chinese socialist culture as ethno-national culture. one should work. and the most powerful charge against critics was that they threatened the dissolution of the ethno-nation. Socialism has been the force which definitively threw off imperialism and feudalism. so even a concept like “Modern Chinese” (in the sense of the language) is inflected with the socialist. The CCP had made itself synonymous with modernity in China: the modern era in official periodisation begins around 1919 with the May 4th movement (The Xiandai Hanyu cidian of 1983 defines xiandai as 1 “the present era – in the periodisation of our country’s history it generally denotes the time from the May 4th movement to now” 2 “the socialist era” In official historiography. At the same time the project of modernization is one which introduces the notion of national backwardness: there cannot be modernization without some sense of being behind.oneself on which. socialist culture is Chinese culture. The alternatives are seen as either an unmodernised “Chinese” cultural tradition – that of the empire and “feudal” society. so the party is the incarnation and harbinger of the modern age in China. the great legacy of May 4th is the establishment of the CCP. The logic of this position is not hard to see: it follows directly from the modernization project. The establishment of modern China is a matter of national liberation accomplished by socialism: the Guomindang and other rivals had failed to achieve this. It intensifies a consciousness of national difference. If the guo was in the 1910s and 1920s as much an ethico-moral and spiritual entity as a political apparatus (visible in the 88 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The renunciation of class leadership makes the CCP primarily a party of Ethno-National salvation. and for which. It is worth reminding ourselves here that the Nationalist party is in fact a party that deployed the name not of the ethno-nation. The thing that is modernizing and is the object of modernization is the ethno-nation. In this respect.

then socialist culture can be constructed not only as the key modern culture. and in the wave of nostalgia for Maoist cultural products that swung up in the early 1990s and has not really abated. or “National” painting). the ethno-national cultural traditions to which they had been exposed were those of socialism. If this equation is convincing. This also follows when one considers that the pervasive way of understanding global cultural relations is of relations between ethno-national units: the contrasts between China and the United States. with 50 years of the People’s Republic. or else that ethno-national cultural boundaries do not matter and At the end of the 1990s. but also as the key ethno-national culture. the ethico-moral and spiritual entity that is most resonant in the 1990s is arguably the ethno-nation. The Chinese socialist cultural tradition is the defining form of ethnonational culture and its only authentic modern variant. ethno national culture cannot be a simple restoration of “traditional” forms: the Marxist doctrine of reflection – that art must reflect the society in which it is produced – bolsters this formulation. Renouncing this tradition therefore constitutes ethno-national nihilism. For most of them. something to which emotional attached. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . and it is the ethnonation on whose behalf modernization is to be undertaken. and to have brought them both into reality. or. has an obvious ideological utility. “the West”. In the reform era.category of guohua. presumably using resources from a more archaic cultural stratum. the constitution of socialist culture as the major form of ethnonational or “Chinese” culture. are not only those between different political and economic structures with different histories. when the state has perhaps rather less unambiguous appeal as a focus of cultural and symbolic investment. The socialist art tradition is the tradition which the party should uphold because the logic of the concept of the ethno-nation means that there is no other tradition to which one can authentically appeal: to do otherwise is to suggest either that the modern Chinese nation is without a past and must therefore create an ethno-national culture anew in the present. This of course is further heightened by emigration in the 1980s and 1990s. for that matter. Since the ethno-nation lives in the present. there was almost no-one below retirement age who had experienced pre-socialist Chinese culture as an adult. The aura attached to both the modern and the ethno-national necessarily favours a party which claims to represent both. in which there were modes of attachment and identification that were not limited by simple criteria of citizenship. but different ethno-national totalities. One effect of this is to identify ethnonational structures with state cultures: the culture which the socialist state has promoted is Chinese culture: a challenge to socialist culture can therefore be presented as a challenge to both modernity and to the ethno-nation This has fundamental importance for the reading of statements about promoting ethno-national culture in the early 1990s. This is particularly true with art: given the high cost of colour reproduction. the “Chinese” or ethno89 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

The market offered an injection of planted energies into the austerities of a diet based on grain. its ornamental codes and so on. This art moreover is an art which individuates: it denies collective character. c. but is depicted as part and parcel of an ethno-national totality. and a modernized version of existing art. its defining character being solely features from the past that do not belong to the modern world. an art that will attest to the project of modernization with difference. the idea of the modern is indivisible from the question of national destiny. modernization is supposed to produce a clearer sense of certainty about ethno-national distinction. Dengist modernization is one in which uphold sovereignty over the formation of the modern in the People’s Republic of China. These are both direct 90 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The advance of modernization is designed to bring the ethno-nation into parity with others. those often presented in English discourse as traditional.9 Rhetorical structures of art discourse Art is spiritual grain. and the essence of the ethnonation is participation in a collective history. and a shared identity. are “Western”. Modernist art is paradoxically presented as not ethno-national. an art which is seen as the identifying marker of a rival ethno-nation will be seen as anti-modern. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . Herein lies the paradox: ethno-national stands for non-western art forms. Unlike the “modernity without agency” of colonialism. It does not simply constitute a specific style of art. The first markets in China after the reform were agricultural. To deploy it is to sacrifice ethno-national distinctiveness. This accounts for two forms of discourse about modern art: an art form that has no heritage in China and cannot take shape there except slowly. The ethno-national discourse about painting is one which focuses on the question of ethnonational dignity and parity with world art. Since modernization is part of bringing about an ethnonational florissance. At the same time it must negotiate the idea that the symbolic system of modernity. but it also stands for a shared identity and thus encompasses all people.” – it defines and symbolizes the West which is categorized in terms of a group of countries and nationalities. The Chinese ethno-nation cannot by definition be un-modern. Rather than a condition of ethno-national doubt. So if modernization is a project whose primary concern is the fate of the ethno-nation. The market appeared first not in the profusion of manufactured goods but in the form of vegetables and fruit. Rather than the modern as a deracinated condition it is in these modernization drives something whose framework is the ethno-nation. and is the unit which is to advance towards modernization. Modern art is constructed as an ethnonational structure: it is “Western.national art with which most people were familiar was what had been produced from the 1950s onwards.

Calls to make art flourish transplant and transfigure the injunctions to plant in the years of collective agriculture. and responsibility for grain. The muscle and nerve fibres of the nation were to be invigorated by these new foods producing a vigor that was not only shared by directly invested in the individual body. sale and eating of vegetables. but rather out of the attempt to manage private nutrition through decollectivisation of the growth. But it is spiritual grain to which the official art discourse refers. distribution and storage of grain was supposed to be what the state ensured. The state art gallery has the same function. pollutants and weeds. Of course the connection between fruit and vegetables. as do the art shows which are part of the cultural work of state owned enterprises. the beginnings of capitalism and the earliest stages of European art modernity are exemplified in the still life and the simultaneous coding of an iconic system of references and resemblances and a presentation of the proliferation and concentration of plant life wrought by the energies of mercantile capitalism. The growth. distributed and consumed. to make an aristocratic monopoly into a collective patrimony (as is the case in the growth of the art museums of Europe). The regulation of the production. This monopoly on. is relinquished by the state.emanations of growth and abundance and instruments for the production of health and vitality. It is these bodies that would produce modernisation (and it was modernisation that would produce these bodies) This sense of organic profusion rather than the energy of exchange or the proliferation of consumer goods underpins the structures of official discourse about art. The privitisation of vegetable growth. those incapable of transformation into flourishing vegetable plots. distribution and storage of art emerges not from the attempt to provide public control over private art collections. The collective was ultimately collective access to grain through the public storehouse. The responsibility for and command over the sate the organisation of meals. which produces uniformity of diet. and the monopoly on and responsibility for culture as the source of national vitality. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 91 . On the one Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. are interlinked phenomena. The attacks on poisons. the source of the earliest forms of private wealth and the earliest forms of private consumption (since the vegetables bought in the market would be consumed at home rather than in communal spaces. are thus linked to a broader attempt to produce modernity and order in the economy and society which originate in the emergence of private vegetable growth. which are exemplified by works which show bleak and barren landscapes. The beginnings of modern art in the reform era in the late 70s are coeval with these transformations of the conditions under which plant foods were produced. Yet they are also deeply indebted to the relationship between marketisation and non-grain agricultural production in the reform.

The acceptance of small scale production – the capacity of artists to use public assets (including studio space. training and access to books) for private work – emerges slowly from the work of supplying the collective and public need. Art struggles are struggles over the spirit – performance art. The storehouse/granary must be replenished. The private collection – personal storage – is a transference of the collective stockpile in much the same way as the privatisation of state assets. Those forms of art which are most challenging. most “modern” – performance art. Often this has been phrased in terms of the durability of masterworks versus the ephemerality of contemporary art actions. the most dominated by a vital energy. In this sense art work (work in the art field) is all about the remaking of the spirit through new injections of energy. since it suggests a form of spirit which is not able to be stored. Of course. photographic technology permits the storage The struggles over access to galleries – which are spaces for the production of recognition. art made of organic materials that cannot be prevented from decaying – directly confront the notion of art as storable and stored value. Both ideologies are equally indebted to the notion of the spirit. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . the problem of storage is central both practically and economically: market value is a matter of the handling of stockpiles. The modernisation of grain production. and the dependence of the spirit and its nerve fibres on daily nourishment. in much the same way that the private supply of 92 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. vital energies and process are directly enlisted. like grain that will never rot and can never be used up. and thus the most challenging to storage: in these works. for it is relations of recognition that distinguish spiritual from material production – outlines the difference between art storage and grain storage. but this is also a matter of the preservation of the grain itself. from which a collective prosperity will be generated. and the site of struggles over public space – of which the art gallery protests and the Tian’anmen protests are both exemplars – it is also the mechanism through which art value is created. The master work is beyond decay. teaching jobs. recognition which is the life of the spirit and on which the spirit depends. Yet the acknowledgement of being stored in the public gallery is not simply a mechanism by which the public access to art is remade. But the notion of spiritual grain or spiritual food is frequently directly challenged by this. What it provides is vitality – the job of modernisation is to enhance and extend this. distribution and storage is a different modernity from the modernisation of technology and the circulation of information. For one thing.hand this produces and articulates the drives for differentiation which are at the heart of the practices of modern art production and consumption and the habits of the so-called middle class. or art subject to decay are the most detached from objectification. but it is defined in opposition to the concrete embodiment of all “spirit”. Performance art seems the furthest from material interest an assertion of the superiority of the spirit over the administrative practicalities of the storehouse.

The legitimation of initially illegal markets. as it is in pornography. the proliferation of rubbish. which is mere expenditure without issue. the activities of the spirit – which is the job of art as part of the overall production of a modern proliferation and bounty – is associated with the same states of energetic intensities that prescribe the male response to pornography. It is a task of managing the storehouse to ensure public access and to ensure that what is stored will not spread decay. The job of the state is to preside over and organise these energies. By the 1990s this emerges as a loss of the collective patrimony: modern China’s art history has been lost through the failure to develop adequate stockpiles. a threat to public order and dangerous to national vitality. and the fact that it produced little then judged of storable value means that it can be sold off overseas. in alleyways near state markets. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Those who accumulated at this time are now beneficiaries of this stored energy. a matter of public and private activity. is closely affiliated with the great symbolic gestures of setting up art galleries in alleyways near the great public galleries. The close relationship between campaigns against pornography and art rests in the common relationship that these two domains have to a male dominated concept of the spirit as seminal energy. In grain private storage was associated with the loss of public control of the grain market. the concentration of nervous activities. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 93 . capable of producing an endless spiritual charge. but will rather facilitate the endless renewal of energies. Vegetables cannot be stored – they simply rot . Art produced privately promises nutrition and diversity in a way that supplements what is available cheaply in public spaces. because the notion of the private stockpiling of grain was the great fear of the command economy. The art reform follows the agrarian reform rather than industrial reform because artists in public organisations can so easily produce products for private sale. The superior storage capacity of the state ensures the reproduction of a collective art patrimony in the public collection. and so there was no acceptable model of private storage that did not upset the public order of grain distribution. The paradox here is that items produced and sold as if they were vegetables are in retrospect understood as part of a national treasury. This energy should not be misdirected. Art as spiritual grain will be constantly re-invested in the production of more energy and vitality. This creates an export market ruled by the energies of private entrepreneurs: this market is generated first. The enhancement of energies. to direct the force of vitality and prevent profusion from becoming the choking growth of weeds.so there is no possibility for their long-term private concentration apart from in the daily labours of the bodies that produce them. The profusion of vegetables produced by the free market provides the space for the profusion of art.vegetables emerges from the sideline use of public land (chiefly intended for grain production) for land.

has an interlinked responsibility for art management and for art as a stored energy. which is of course a duty to the reproduction of the stored energy of grain. The vandalism of the Cultural Revolution is not merely an assertion of the power of the new over the old. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The unifying force in the account of socialist art is his notion of a harnessed vitality. but the most productive seed strain. or an attack on the way in which objects reproduce mindsets and ideologies. It is an assertion of the energies of the spirit against the inertia of things The new and the harvest cycle: an alternative source of “now” A bio-power account of the ethnic-national would grasp beauty as part of a eugenic structure in which the realm of private desires fuses with a collective organic vitality. This vitalism is present in Marx. and the setting of prices. Turbine and seed – the work of engineers and the qualities of grain – are both mechanisms for the storage and production of vital powers. The superior strain is not just the superior race. The notion of tradition as death that underpins Heshang and much May 4th movement discourse. in which modernisation is a harnessing and concentration of these energies and the forces which they involve. which is the essential function of art galleries in societies where artists are not full time salaried employees of public organisations – is less significant than the responsibility for the production and reproduction of art growth. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 94 . In part this is to do with Marx’s conception that the commodity form led to the misrecognition of social relations as things. Prosperity must be distinguished from waste and what distinguishes it is the way in which it permits the concentration of seed essences of the spirit. The storage of art – the recognition and creation of value by purchase.Clearly the spirit is organised within eugenic frameworks. capable of reproducing itself with the most spectacular and effective profusion and thus filling the granary without devaluing itself. and a stress on the importance of the vitalism of labour and life. and it is perhaps the notion that capitalism is a deathly enervating force that is the chief rhetorical legacy of socialist theory in the market era. These are not simply human but also floral. Art is much more an activity – a controlled discharging of energies of the spirit – than a production of things. and a growth regulated by law. The state as the agency charged with grain management. focuses on the new as growth. rather than the dead matter of capital and things. The socialist market is thus distinguished by a vitality and energy which is the centre of the modern.

projecting the visage of its own “innovators”. Now the tide has receded. predicting that it will certainly be “the eastern peak arising again”. created by New Wave Art and New Wave Art Theory. encompasses to a great degree the basic tendency of the Artistic New Wave. How to comprehend correctly the phenomenon of the Artistic New Wave.e. A large amount of similar 95 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. “Ping “Meishu xinchao”” [Evaluating new-wave art]. the theorists of the Artistic New Wave have continually trumpeted it as the vanguard or avant-garde of the reform/renewal of Chinese art. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . “On the great stage of Chinese culture in the New Era. there is perhaps nothing which surpasses “New Wave Art”. It started at the end of the 70s.” This clearly excludes Marxism. As to the scope of the Chinese culture and art tradition that this Artistic New Wave wants to completely destroy. the destruction of the Marxist centralized/unified varied socialist new cultural tradition and the socialist new art tradition. “The Artistic New Wave” puts “destruction” in pride of place. i. The “composite SinoWestern Art of the last 40 years” is the socialist art of “making foreign things serve China and making the past serve the present. Its theorists and artists all proudly say “There is a slogan that is collectively promoted and widely denounced – “wholesale opposition to tradition” “wholesale importation of western culture”. philosophy. attack and pulverize.6) Texts: Critiques of modernist art Text 1: Wang Zhong. now it is mainly the Western Modern Civilization of the 20th century which includes science. and its basic tendencies and nature.c.” Another was even more brief and to the point “The destruction of tradition is in particular the destruction of the centralized/unified new tradition that has been formed over the last few decades”. classical western art and the composite Sino-western Art of the last 40 years. rose to its renaissance in the mid 1980s and reached its greatest pinnacle with the 1989 “China Modern Art Exhibition” to the accompaniment of gunshots and the selling of shrimp. This slogan in which the two elements of “wholesale opposition to tradition” and “whole sale importation of western culture are fused as one”. One said “If you say that the weapon borrowed to oppose tradition at May 4th was the western civilization of the recent era (the 19th century). which included Marxism. People’s Daily 13 December 1990. For a few years. one must “launch a destructive move against tradition” “borrow foreign culture to make a total attack on the traditional cultural structure” “Use stones from the quarry of western culture to pulverize the solid structure of traditional culture. aesthetics and art. of the art which has the most explosive social effect. currently there are still people writing to affirm that it conforms with the direction of China’s modernization and the global tide. they haven’t made an extensive exposition. One said: the target of opposition to tradition includes classical Chinese art. is the topic this article will discuss The artistic tradition the Artistic New Wave wants to destroy.

modern art and avant-garde art was the true “cream” art. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . losing vigour and creativity. The Aesthetic New tide completely refutes the world socialist art tradition. it takes the Soviet and Chinese socialist realist art as being completely the artistic model of leftist dogmatism. aesthetics. This is unscientific and unfair. empty and pale” “When China entered the post-Mao era the popular mass culture which was strapped to the political battlewagon rapidly faded and broke up” “Cream” art needed to again be reborn. The art of the cream and even the culture of the cream entered a trough for a long period of more than a century. and it was not the sole school or method of creation for socialist art – socialist art ought to be socialist realism and romanticism adding beauty to each other. is thus of definitive importance in attacking these ideas about art – it is a heresy to dislocate the judgment of art from the historical struggles. is still full of vigour today and its is still a strong major force in socialist art. and so China’s “cream” art disappeared. The great historical achievement and mighty historical contribution which socialist realist art had in establishing and shaping the historical position of socialist art. Theorists of the Aesthetic New Wave have put forward a view of the history of modern art in China of “the dual variation of the art of the flower/cream genius-elite and popular art. art theory and socialist art. The Artistic New wave affirmed that “vanguard art.theoretical stances and their practice. plainly refutes Mao Zedong’s thinking about art and refutes over half a century of art serving the war of resistance. This kind of historical argument. and promotes an art that serves individualism and art for arts sake. and which have the leading position in socialist society – it is in the main the foundational principles of Marxist philosophy. in particular “in 1942 Mao Zedong promulgated the “Yanan talks on literature and art” . they think that the May 4th movement produced the upsurge of a Chinese art of the cream which took an “individualist worldview. History. creating “the upsurge and wild prosperity of mass popular art. the central meaning and power of the great struggles of the 1930s and 1940s. This is something no-one can erase. serving liberation and serving socialism. but “ after the anti-Japanese war broke out it was not the same”. ceaselessly developing a centralized/unified but diversified scenario with multiple schools and styles. view of life and value standard” as its core. and is not chiefly the vestiges of old feudalist tradition and the influence of “left” dogmatism which do not have a leading position in socialist society. but it is in the main the socialist new art traditions and socialist new culture traditions which have Marxism at their core. and condemns it out of hand. that 96 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the art which served the broad masses of the people was “absolutely the same in a thousand cases. express that the tradition the Artistic New Wave wants to destroy is not the old cultural tradition and old art tradition of the feudal society of the distant past. Socialist realist arte was indeed not perfect and flawless. giving the final word.

whose work is placed in opposition to the popular or readily comprehensible. styles. Jingying (which does not appear as a compound in the 1983 edition of the Xiandai Hanyu Cidian. or indeed. and the victory of modernism. it is a central category for describing art and those who produce it.is struggles for state power. Artistically expressing the people’s life and their struggle. or the 1978 Chinese English Dictionary. or view of the world. The conflict between modernist art and socialist art.” My comment on the text: Note here the category of jingying 精英. Outstanding artists and works are not closed in on themselves. which has built into it the notion of the refined and the excellent. and the institutions with which it is associated. which it has served. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 97 . Serving the people. although it does appear in the 1997 Revised Edition) is a word which occupies a space given to “elite” or “high” (in the sense of culture) in English language sociology of art discourse. What appears as the most radical and absolute conflict over artistic values –choices of subject matter. is the mark of and the basic difference between socialist art. The distinctiveness of China’s anti-imperialist revolutionary struggles creates for it a distinctive kind of art. is also a conflict between those whose artistic habitus and institutional position has been formed by the apparatus of state art and those whose art is oriented towards a global market. Doubtless it is a product of a way of categorizing and conceiving of “talent” that does not invoke the notion of a selected elite. socialist art will become invisible. which here is presented as a question of taste and ideology. Paradoxically then the cultural domain – the arena in which it would seem that socialist values and socialist ideologies were most likely to be challenged and overturned by the modernization project – was an area where the ideological system of socialism had to be upheld far more Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It will not have been unknown to artists in institutional positions in China that both modernism and classical style Chinese painting could attract international investment. It is no wonder then that socialist art must appeal to a distinctively socialist vision. they are things tested by history and approved by the people. Like jingpin. all progressive art and capitalist art and all corrupt and backward art of exploiting classes. general usage. the flower or cream of the society. This is an argument which deliberate produces novelty. while socialist art of the old style could not. It evades the question of inequality: it stresses the notion of something produced by a process – a distillation or refinement – not something of inherent/inherited value. individual talent of heroic qualities. serving socialism. will meanly literally the death of socialist art. a rare. their thoughts and feelings and their ideals and quests. because without this supposed mode of seeing. and modes of artistic existence: the traditions of immersion amongst the people and dedication to public value and artistic purity above commercialism and pessimism – is also literally a war to the death: the taste conflict with modernism is absolute.

even amongst those whose own behaviour might appear solely driven by self interest. Perhaps the great success of the 1990s has been the marketability of famous works of socialist art. but capable. would disappear.e. a set of “values”. and thus worth supporting. has meant that the alternative “socialist” modernity has indeed asserted itself as a specific variant of the Euro-American and Japanese model. and that the rise of an individualist system of values and social structure would lead to the exclusive triumph of individualist works. Far from the private overwhelming the public. the creation of capitalism out of socialism in Deng and Jiang China. 98 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the struggle between art modes is no longer a life or death struggle in which the world view and institutions connected with socialism had to be upheld in order to defend that art against its rivals. If art was to be made for and consumed within a communal structure of work units and other state organized forms of community founded on public ownership. or worldviews – would suggest that the destruction of a socialist system of values would lead to the destruction of a system of appreciation for socialist art. the products of modernism. now apparently disengaged from the structures of the planned economy. survives. i. together with the hypostasised category of “the people” makes socialism stand for an ethical commitment. but through its active support and collusion. of being conceived of as systems of value. or at some level the persistence of the socialist ideal as an enduring fantasy of an alternative present? As already mentioned. The argument that systems of art appreciation are conditioned by and emblematic of entire social systems – supposedly chiefly a matter of modes of production. Is this a matter of nostalgia and familiarity. and that those with private wealth are those who have done so through their close involvement with those in positions of power in the bureaucracy. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . The argument by those outside the art world that modernist art was undesirable because it served interests other than those of socialism and the people. Its aesthetic.aggressively than in areas like the military or industry: if socialist values were to be discarded the cultural logic that structured the system of perception within which socialist art works were beautiful and meaningful. makes for an art that is indeed that of a “socialist” form of modernity. The subtlety of the transformation which the CCP has effected in the 1990s. the pervasiveness of the critique of selfishness. could. one might argue. could it survive in a system where art was made for and consumed within a system of private ownership? If one accepts the argument put forward by Howard Wank and Andrew Walder that capitalism in China is not something that has arisen in opposition to the state. be understood with the art world in reverse: the survival of the socialist outlook and the idea of “the people” was needed to ensure the continued value of socialist art. through the idealist tendency in socialism. it would follow that the socialist art sponsored by the old bureaucrat class is art that is part of the cultural inheritance of those who now constitute the art buying public.

which fitted in with overall cult of energy. This encompasses a difficult process of artistic contemplation and artistic labour.10 “When the year of the rat started the painting realm circulated the following strange rumour: someone killed a big rat and took its blood to use for a painting. We of course don’t oppose selectively absorbing the concepts and techniques of modern art to enrich and develop the forms and meanings / connotations of our own ethnonation’s painting. I think that genuine artistic creation ought to be a kind of conscientious and real artistic labour produced after serious thinking. a kind of primal force. this playing to the gallery style of New Wave creation is as different as chalk and cheese from serious art creation it is kind of profanation of true artistic development. but it was a need to use it for oneself in the midst of absorbing. light and power in the reform. According to reports. If primitivism of any kind was invoked. feelings.The critique of science that is central to so much of modernist art of course runs counter to a technocratic ruling group. Text 2: Gao Songnian. you can’t truly grasp anything. then hasn’t it become really easy for Chinese painting to head to wards the world vanguard. if there is not serious and conscientious artistic creative attitude. and say that it is a type of artistic “creation” there are also people who inside the gallery use the action of firing with a real gun and bullets to completer their so-called works. Art is truly noble in the area of is creating. The Dengist modernization programme was strongly scientistic: it stressed spiritual refinement and sophistication in technique – it aimed to realize the sublime. With what kind of artistic attitude should one go to create. and you can’t have authentic creation in the midst of drawing on their experience. acts of “creativity” of the false New Wave school similar to this have been heard of in great number. People’s Daily 24 May 1996. and it is said that using this one could enrich the artistic intentions created for the year of the rat Recently. and it isn’t something that those trying to win favour by stirring up the crowd can just casually pick up by playing to the gallery or copying others. but the key is in how to create. it was to summon up an energy and purity. Some people hang an old shoe on a canvas. That is to say. it must be a new crystallization of thought about after digesting and blending it with knowledge. In fact. “This kind of ‘creating’”. p. 99 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Lu Xun early on raised the “ethos of bringing it here”. bold acts which cause our ethno national to close ranks with the world art avant-garde. but his objective was very clear – bringing it here was not a blind transplantation and not a superficial imitation. these are all outstanding works which have absorbed the acme of foreign avant-garde art. If there is no deep and pressing sense of artistic responsibility. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . If you say that to fire a gun to produce a work or to hang an old shoe on a campus or to catch an animal and kill it to use its blood to produce a painting is a kind of creative act which is moving towards modern art. ideas and thoughts of the people of our country themselves.

This was the result of the creator above falling in love in love with the east. and a few prejudiced western art historians speak gleefully when discussing Ancient Rome’s invasion of the East.In artistic creation there is a question of the artistic attitude. the more broadly the more completely and the more profoundly will the spiritual countenance of human kind be reflected. the wars of human kind always involve the invasion of the culture of the stronger party. If you say that to kill a rat in the year of the rat to use rat’s blood to paint a picture can truly increase the artistic content of a painting. Over a hundred different countries are distributed between these two blocs and several hundred different nationalities reside in them. speaking from the base it relates to the question of the artists “art virtue/morality. can never produce good works that have true artistic value and an artistic new meaning. then I would like some advice – what do we do next year and the year after? Kill an ox. For them to act like this is only to be the laughing stock of everyone. then each has its own distinctive character. The first three are all located in Asia. maestros of art and historians of art have long attained a consensus on this. The different features and mutual contrast between western and eastern art has formed the two great blocs of world art. The world art structure also needs to uphold this “ecological equilibrium” . This means the mutual dependence of the two great blocs of Eastern and Western Art. Each country and each different nationality. the valley of the Ganges in India. to only think of deliberately producing illusions to win the favour of the crowd. “the decline of the plastic arts of the nationalities of the ancient west . To lack a serious and conscientious sense of artistic responsibility. had when the East influences the West. and it ought to arouse a high degree of attention from people. This is the key historical background of the development of human civilization. Through history many masters of philosophy. thinking that the greater the diversity of the artistic differences of human kind. then the development of eastern art has its source in this historical background: if it is compared with western art. because this is beneficial to the material demands of human kind. In history. If we allow ourselves to shrink the concept of civilization and speak only of art. what’ll we do? When the time comes what can be supplied for you to kill? We know that the four wellsprings of human civilization are the yellow river valley in China. and the total combination of the art of each country and of the different nationalities. A western art historian once wrote. can strongly express its own artistic characteristics and its different aesthetic awareness and sentiment. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . The structure of the natural realm must maintain ecological equilibrium. they express their sorrow. kill a tiger? And when you get to the year of the dragon.the 100 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.this is beneficial to the needs of spiritual life. To respect and acknowledge this difference is a major factor that world out cannot do without. and the Tigris and Euphrates in Mesopotamia and the Nile valley in Egypt.

has made themselves uncertain of where the centre is. It can be said that this is different nation’s “genes” exerting their guiding effect. It has established the dense core of our tradition. the writer strongly begs to differ. beginning to make the first wave of experimental attack on some of the features of modernism (such as its loss of a collective or mass character) It seems that Post modern Art has made great progress and it is consider that is inevitably going to replace modernism in the future. The development of Chinese art ought to be a matter of Eastern and Western art drawing on each other’s experience. The victorious roman aristocrats being bewitched by the art of conquered Greece is an example of this. The west can be called great: but in which country should one place the unified center of the art world? The diversified arrangement of western art. the development of Chinese art is forever going to advance following its own tracks on the warm earth of the great land of sacred Cathay. In regard to this. But we can’t inflate the west to constrain ourselves. studying each with foreign elements being of use to China. An ethno nation’s artistic glamour cannot be belittled. used the experiences of others to fulfill ourselves. absorbing things from each other. and use the stones of the mountains of others to polish our own jade. it can conquer the conquerors in spirit. Bur recently some have said that for Chinese are to join its track with the international arena is to produce a single version of world art. Speaking from the overall situation. and has made its contributions. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the tide of post-modern thinking is already progressively giving a clue. Different countries and nationalities still develop their own through their own historical and cultural background. its influence is no small matter. although western modernism still hasn’t lost its mainstream position. We can earnestly study the whole essence of western art thinking. Furthermore. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 101 . and absolutely cannot easily become history. and all foreign influences can only have a secondary effect. Since it is the mainstream of the age. The birth and rise of the ancient civilization of the yellow river valley has made the long history and glorious culture of the Chinese nationalities. But modernism is the symbol of the modern western scene.progressive withering that began around 200 under the influence of the East – is one of the most visible phenomena in the history of art.

To mention modern art . installation and performance art. in some people’s eyes Chinese painting is already a dead end. Indiscriminately copying foreign forms in order to be in first. its abolition is inevitable. In an abnormal state of mind. When one has to create. needs to put in effort to research China’s Southern Song art – this is our most significant tradition. straight through to the overflowing vessel of the avant-garde post modern. and Chinese painters entering the 1990s. it is very difficult for it to be privately possessed by the painter. to rushing into the avantgarde and the post modern. The subjective view becomes miniscule and how can the form which has been copied across express the content which they have themselves experienced themselves. it denounces immaturity. From Japan’s toga [kara-e] (Chinese-style painting) and nanga they discussed China’s layered colour in the Han and Tang. The immaturity of children is indeed lovable. This spring the cultural exchange association of our eastern neighbour visited the Central Academy of Fine Arts. When entering installation and performance art. 10. if you don’t interpret tradition as a form. People’s Daily 25 April 1996. causing it to go backwards. form and content are not opposed. stifles the appearance of artistic modernity. the abnormal and the disordered. p. it is often easy to separate the two. Everyone knows. it progressively replaces creation. No wonder a famous art master said “ this kind of modern art is in fact the most unmodern of art. to know oneself is also difficult”. China has gone from straight sketching and installation. 102 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. To proceed with the analysis. a greater content. there are no works of children’s painting theory. run through in the space of just a few years the path trod by Western painters for more than a century. We can’t say this is not a fixed limit: art needs maturity. The best deployment of form and content is always the most entrancing. Form content. Painters of the 1950s swarmed to worship anatomical realism and perspective. Chinese painting was denounced as unscientific. and were deeply disturbed by the ignorance of young Japanese artists towards tradition. the painters Fujishima Hirobumi and Tezuka Hiroyoshi (?) discussed the history of Japanese painting. Up to now national art shows don’t exhibit children’s painting. it carries a feelings of hankering after fashion and moreover it introduces concepts of truth and falsity to produce mistaken understandings – this follows quite logically. there is no other conclusion that that this isn’t art of the modern era. the ink painting of the Southern Song and sincerely and earnestly said the development of contemporary Japanese art. tradition – these are indeed old topics. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . the absurd. If we take the understanding of content and give it a broader definition. In the 1980s anatomical realism and perspective were unfashionable.Text 3: “To know others is difficult. brings to some peoples minds an image of the strange.

If the paths of thought are different. There should perhaps be more reflection. If one is candid with oneself. and it ought to be that when its got to the stage of adulthood. The shared character within individuality. Just because our studies has already passed beyond the stage of copying the steps. and the point of entry different.Of course. the shared character in shared character. modern art shouldn’t take sacrificing individuality as its premise. then there is reason to believe that one’s work is modern. To know oneself again is not an easy matter. from going against one’s own mind and calling a deer a horse until finally seeing the emperor’s new clothes. and the individuality in individuality – these are areas where one can really put in some effort. the individuality in shared character. To know others is difficult. then the result will be very different An art of copying and art modernity are as incompatible as fire and water. Japanese artists can’t not know their own tradition: China’s painters ought to know their own tradition. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 103 . and of that shouldn’t even more be not just one mode of thought. We definitely don’t want to be in a position of only seeing the lustre of our own jewels when they shine in the home of another. A period of several decades doesn’t count as short . To know oneself is also difficult.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 104 . The appearance of these phenomena shows the consciousness of workers in the arts about creative individuality and their concern with spiritual freedom. bringing forth works and the raising of spiritual civilization cohere as a united force. mode. These phenomena have their laudable side. causing the Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. But if culture is to develop and the arts are to prosper. the search for the new and the search for change which creative labour has. But seen from the viewpoint of the current state of the arts and from the development of the arts. they also are deeply alienated in the area of choices of values. but it also promotes the already existing tendency towards dispersion. we ought. It seems that cohesive force is simply a matter for the political arena. form. and choosing for the self. I think there are at least three reasons for raising the matter of cohesion in the enterprise of the arts: One is the needs of socialist art in terms of objective and function. For the ethno nation to flourish and for the country to be strong and rich.Text 4: Wei Tianxiang. theme. it also has the phenomenon of designing for the self. subject. At the very least. cohere as a united force in a common quest and direction. whether or not spiritual production involves cohesive force seems to have no relevance to the wider picture and there is no need for the two to be put together. but they also have a side that is troubling. we ought on the direct and ultimate goal. the special feature of resisting duplication and standardized models. and individuality. spiritual production not only has a serious phenomenon of spiritual division. spiritual production’s quest for originality. Since we all acknowledge that the arts have the goal and function of moulding the soul of the ethno-nation and participating in the construction of spiritual civilization. The second is the need to overcome the phenomenon of the dispersal of spiritual production. one foot is in culture the other foot is in economics. that is. “Thoughts on cohesive force in the arts domain”. to raise this question has meaning. People’s Daily 21 August 1998. style and method etc. under the premise of protecting its pluralism and diversity of thinking. as well as the distinctive characteristic of individualized labour being “easy to divide and hard to unite”. Spiritual producers not only in many questions have different or even opposing understanding. The reason some spiritual producers choose “a space amongst the people” or “a popular standpoint” is that they want to preserve a distance from the “realist standpoint” or to resist it. freedom of creation. is a cohesive force needed? Up until now few people have discussed this. Currently. In artistic creation there are indeed many things that make it difficult for people to discuss the relationship between the two lightly. there must first be a force of cohesion: this is a fact beyond dispute. For example. positioning for the self. that is bringing forth talent. Not a few spiritual producers express a clear double martyrdom.

. people are not happy to submit to the value tendencies of worldliness. crass materialism. and then the healthy development of the arts will be just around the corner. Under the dual pressure of social metamorphosis and technical progress. the arts of different types and of different constituents are placed in different circumstances of existence. those who hasten after profit and those who stress practicality win the day and are full of the vernal glow of self satisfaction: those who maintain the artistic quest and human ideals walk alone. the two can close ranks to an appropriate degree. you won’t get a headache as soon as you hear someone talking of social responsibility. Where the place value system of spiritual producers. The large number of people participating in the discussion and the mass of respondents. and the survival of 105 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. then the next question is to fix the source of cohesion. you won’t be satisfied by describing the private life of an individual. The parity in the movement of talent is smashed. Its source and target was the tide of popularism and the retreat of the spiritual standpoint which appeared in the cultural realm in the early 1990s. was like a raging fire. to inspect a humanistic spirit into those who had lost their selves in the tide of the economy. If Art and Literature of an instructional and reflective character wants to escape from the malaise and seek development there is great need for it to cohere into a single force. you won’t say “patriotism is so exhausting”. and the production of good works is restricted. hedonism and consumerism being the supreme value. you can’t be satisfied in only describing life according to one’s own understanding. How to define values that fit the talents of our country’s artists. Two: the humanistic spirit.growth of talent and the production of good works to suffer relatively great influence in terms of energy and financial support The third is the need to overcome the current malaise. life’s grid. the private realm of the individual. The discussion about the humanistic spirit at the beginning of the 1990s. the minor sentiments of the individual. If you have ideals then you don’t indulge oneself in fleshly pleasures. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . If the necessity and possibility of cohesion can shape a common ethos. The change in the definition of values in the 1990s has had a decisive influence on the arts. If leisure and entertainment style art can make an appropriate adjustment. One: Human ideals. To inject a humanistic spirit into art works. the function and effect of art works can be fixed is a major question that relates to the basic structuring of art works and the path for the maturing of artistic talent. shows that this question was a focus of people’s concern. Seen from current conditions. living in straitened circumstances. In one respect. the following few points can perhaps become the source of cohesion for our country’s art and literature. had in fact become a force of cohesion for the arts in the 1990s. Ideals can make us escape from blindness in thought and action. Ideals are life’s compass. Three: the fixing of values.

The abundance or dearth of outstanding products. is also a topic which has been commonly discussed in recent years. decides the scale of the overall success of the arts.these are all questions related to value definitions. and verifies how much talent has sprung up. These matters affect the whole picture. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Grasping the awareness of excellent works. it not only needs to overcome interference from “left” and “right” it requires understanding and building up bit by bit in social practice and art practice. and concern themselves with the and concern themselves with the development of the country and the ethno-nation and what kind of cultural inheritance to leave to the next generation . Its success and defeat.good works. is a question that still awaits exploration. But the formation of a cohesive force. Four: Consciousness for outstanding works. it is also the general psychology of receiving the arts and being intimate with the arts. is not only the law of the development of art. and the height of creation. How to produce even more outstanding works. to sift the gold from the sand. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 106 . To get rid of the coarse and to attained the refined/excellent. the overall situation. equates with the bridle which leads the whole of the artistic scene. How the arts can concern themselves with the transformation of the collective personality. needs to undergo a long process. is closely related to whether or not there is a force of cohesion. it is a matter that requires everyone to deal with it collectively.

which disseminated the selling of art not only to foreign guests but also to in front of the eyes of many Chinese people. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 107 . The art galleries (Art corridors) were spread by the hotels. Old art shops didn’t do any marketing and relied on their reputation to attract customers and suppliers. art shops could only rely on two magic weapons – one was modern – wholesaling of crude. result of competition in the development of the art product industry. weakness of the management teams. but even more sudden is the surprise amongst the artists. sales records for China made on this market. collectors. the auction houses and the art exhibition houses – the galleries are the first level market. Liang Gang thinks that prior to 1994 there was a disorderly proliferation of art shops and art galleries and so the reduction was a natural attrition. damage wrought by disorder. “A Record of Laments about the Art Market”. managers and observers. difficulties in patching up this damage.Text 5: Shao Jianwu and Ding Cong. the inadequacy of supervision – created a very strong contrast. artists also lost trust and interest in them. Upsurge of market is sudden. dropping by 1000 every year. The involvement of the latter two in the first level market has caused the galleries to contract dramatically in the last 2 years. most sales of cultural relics are on the auction market. In the mid 1990s the great success and then failure of the Guilin art sellers damaged the reputation of the art shops. collecting changes from being the elevated matter of the literati and becomes fashionable. In 1994 there were 5000+ art corridors and art shops nationwide in China by 1997 the whole country only had 2000+. Firestorm on the Chinese art market the product of the auctioneer’s hammer.and Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Chinese art market made up of the galleries. caused buyers to step back from many art shops. without trust from buyers and the protection of artists. losing out to the more aggressive propaganda of the art exhibition houses and the auction houses. a sign of the progressive maturing of the art market. 70% of sales are on the auction market. disorder behind prosperity. People’s Daily 3 April 1998 (text is in note form) Unprecedented development of the art market and the sluggish management – inadequacies of the law. 6th Chinese art exhibition becomes an arena of struggle between different parties. the auction houses and the art exhibition houses are the secondary market. excessive low grade art . market share was taken by many auction houses after the rise of auctions. But great era was the 1980s and in the 1990s. beside the old art shops a new set of enterprises develop. Many artists have entered the prosperous stratum. Director of the market department of the Culture Ministry.

affects the operation of the market and its orderliness. because the reason that the auction market has exploded is that art products haven’t gone through clear evaluation and elimination through the first grade market Auction market – confusion of fish and dragons Falsifying of reputation of Chinese artists began in Hong Kong. Collectors tried to drive up the value of their own collections by getting bidders to purchase similar works or works by the same artist. media increased their reputations and created many master artists without any foundation. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . publishing art books. and got hold of countless contemporary art works. also got their reputations into specialist publications. In this way the People’s Daily is part of a regulatory mechanism since it presides over the making of reputations and presents itself as a guarantor of impartiality (if only because of the lack of any particular reputation for aesthetic judgment) Problem is that false lineages spring up because ordinary people believe in the reputations of the artists and go to buy their work. collectors and artists got together to push up reputations. and taking advantage of the loopholes in the tax system. not a few of the remaining 2000 shops would also be driven out. and taking advantage of the big gap between Chinese and foreign wages. can also affect the healthy development of the art enterprise Continuing underground trading: Auction business brought the underground market above ground. market value overturns academic value. to push up the prices. alliance of some artists and opportunist business people. Sometimes got friends to bid for their works to push up auction price. All basically commercial fraud. Artists without reputation sent forth their works on to the market. affects correctness of scholarly evaluation. sometimes Chinese state bureaux sold them for cheap prices 108 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Artists became celebrities and always in the media. Foreign collectors and art business organs took advantage of the looseness of import export laws. cash. and the artists’ yearning for wealth. Often alliances of entrepreneurs. Sometimes artists sold works cheaply to auction houses so that the market value of their work would grow. officials took them on trips to give as gifts to foreign organisations.the other was modern – don’t sell for three years and live for three years on the sale (annoying the customers ) – cheating themselves and cheating others If officials cracked down on low-grade products. pushing up the prices astronomically – same phenomenon not uncommon in other cities. became friends with artists by offering them trips abroad giving them appliances. invitations abroad. State lost a lot of money in Tax – will artists be fined for tax evasion? Foreign students took paintings abroad to pay for their living. Has effect on the 2nd tier market.

This has been a rhetorical thread since the mid 1990s. Capitalist mass culture is driven by the profit motive and abandons any sense of social responsibility in the pursuit of a market return. Socialism is supposedly dedicated to the creation of cultural products that are cheap and of high quality (jialian wumei). the failure to produce jing pin. the definitive incarnation of whom is poor peasants in remote areas. it is an art form for hotels and salons. the popular has become conflated with a worldly and cynical market oriented art which began to be produced in the early 1990s. Socialist ideology has an established rhetoric of presenting art as part and parcel. Material progress is achieved by harnessing the market. Worse than that it is affiliated with the world view of capitalist exploitation. to something which holds to spiritual values and which is concerned with integrity.My comment on text In the Dengist system. the market is the vector for producing Chinese socialist modernity. and they are what the healthy populace will want: the difficulty is that the populace finds attractive cultural food that has no nourishment. pursuing the notion of art for arts sake. This concept it perhaps applied more consistently to film. For an art to serve the people is its highest goal. It was art which denied humanity and social responsibility . The market is embraced because it is a tool for producing a modern world. dealers. The formation of the market is as much reported as a story of excess and error: fraud. which seems to have been stressed with particular intensity in the anti Spiritual pollution campaign of 1996 Ambiguities of the popular In the rhetoric of serving the people from the early 1990s there is a return to the Yan’an valuing of the masses. the performing arts and literature than to visual art products. Modernism is denounced as an art of privilege – perverse and abstruse. a cadre of critics. There is a debate about the value of art for the popular market. Good art works have nutritional value. collectors. and above all the apparatus of the market: these are all identified as definitively modern institutions – the appearance of these structures is seen as part of the modernization of art. The jingpin yishi [consciousness of excellence works] and the notion of jingshen shiliang [spiritual grain] both in a sense connote an opposition to the so-called cultural fast foods. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 109 . over inflated prices. The value of pure art begins to switch. Museums. but this commitment is supposed to apply to all forms of art and literature. By the middle to late 1990s. The socialist market is meant to provide an efficient communicative mechanism which will enhance distribution and ensure that the relationship between producer and Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. it is the house style of a decadent body of intellectuals indifferent to the special conditions of ordinary people.

As internal competitors for the attention of the Chinese masses. The excellent/refined product is defined in opposition to the products of mass culture. their stereotypical humility and plainness. produces a representation of the people which suggests that the people whom art is supposed to serve is in fact an entity which resembles Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. but its superiority consists in its uniqueness. “Mass culture” is a negative term. In the case of the latter. at some level art and literature products are required to be popular. To some extent vulgarity is something defined by state borders: Taiwan. The notion of jingpin 精品 assumes that the refined. the post 1989 art rhetoric is an attempt by the party to reassert its monopoly on defining “the people” : its conviction that it is the representative of the general will is manifest in the complete conflation of serving socialism. particularly those artists who are People’s representatives.consumer is harmonious – the profit motive is not supposed to be driving concern. Art and literature should not become standardized. inhabit the domain of capitalist mass culture. differs from material production. a cultural system which will turn people into things. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 110 . which will enrich their lives and be both the harbinger and the goal of modernization. In its attempts to portray artists that exemplify the values of socialists humanity. and of standardization and popularization (dazhong hua 大众化 and moshi hua 模式化). in Hong Kong or Taiwan. mass-produced. standardization. which are created outside the organizational structures of Chinese socialist art production are the definitive examples of the standardized. de-spiritualized and vulgar products of capitalist culture. serving the people and the fulfillment of party objectives. they constitute an intrusion of a non-socialist vision of the popular. Art products are meant to have “individuality” (gexing 个性). which is the antithesis of spiritual civilization. which differs in quality from the culture of “the masses”. Because socialist art is supposed to serve the masses. At the same time. as part of spiritual civilization. In other words. But there is also a critique of “pandering to vulgarity” (meisu 媚俗). the People’s Daily – whose name is of course founded on the notion that it is a tangible and coherent representation of “the people” – offers pictures of “the people” who affirm this identification. under the rubric of “making the arts prosperous” (fanrong wenyi 繁荣文艺) there is supposed to be a profusion of healthy products which the people may consume. Hong Kong and “foreign” cultural products. and the minimum possible investment of time and labour. In this way art production. the refined product is coterminous with socialist sovereignty over the Chinese nation: those outside the area of Chinese socialist sovereignty. Their dedication to a life of struggle in the open air. production aims for smoothness. Instead. The market mechanism is not supposed to undermine the spiritual character of artistic products which are supposed to retain some connection to the excellence of the individual producer. excellent product is distinctive – it may share a generic character of excellence with its peers.

such as literature. High price comes as a kind of reward for purity of intent. In socialist art. and there is a form of artistic modernity which is accessible and is part of a collective ethno-national possession. But good art must be produced without pecuniary motives: price gravitates towards quality. Jingying art.the descriptions/prescriptions of official rhetoric. Wealth is not directed into vulgar entertainment. However the drives of the market have produced other difficulties in China in the late 1990s. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 111 . for art which is mechanically reproduced. there is an art of mass appeal which is not vulgar or commercialized. Price and quality To some extent. but becomes part of the spiritually enhancing sphere of refined culture. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. film and television or recorded music. The moral and economic law of art is that works produced to make money will lack integrity. whom the party represents. If the cultural order is functioning properly good books will sell well: good music will be widely performed. To act according to the party’s directives. A healthy art market is also an index of modernity in that it is both the most efficient distribution mechanism and a sign of civilisational development. is to serve this constituency. and artistic obscurantism which defies easy understanding. the people. which was denounced as elitist in the post 1989 period is presented as an art of integrity. western cultural production is caught between a mindless mass culture driven by the profit motive. This is much more ambiguous for works of visual art: high price is an index of the recognition of merit. it is possible to achieve a balance between low cost and high quality – these are the cultural area to which the notion of jialian wumei primarily applies. The refined/excellent product is defined by the absence of any trace of corruption in the motivations that govern its creation. contributing to the vigour of national art and marking its parity with the global art system. As in the statements produced in the aftermath of the 1996 plenum. to produce art which conforms to these guidelines.

000 yuan. First sale of painting in 1993. Two paintings sold domestically. Born in Dandong. #2. First sale of work in 1985.000 RMB). Oil painter. graduated 1990. blocks of flats in the outer suburbs). others are introduced through art world contacts. designed advertising for toys in toy factory for 2 years. lives in Beijing. near Korean border. aged 14. 1998: No teaching or other salary. Graduated 1983. some years more. #2 chose this gallery because the terms of the contract were clear and unambiguous. but took part in one or two exhibitions a year from 1983 to 1995. most between $4000 and $5000 US according to size. graduated 1978 Stayed at Academy in lecturing post. old socks. Attended Shanghai yishu zhongzhuan. studied advertising design. and overseas Chinese and foreign collectors. #1 would call the sale certain when he received the money. Liaoning. First exhibited in 1993. One was passed in by China Guardian in 1994 (reserve 40. Several paintings sold overseas. Employed in 1992 as interior designer for International Club (Guoji julebu fandian). This was a private exhibition organised by #1 and a friend in the Ritan Pavilion. restaurants and hotels. 1994. This was not as good as 1997 or even the first three months of 1999. Does not have contract with gallery. Paintings have been auctioned by collectors.e. #3. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 112 . No overseas sales. has lived off income from painting since then. some years less. It was subsequently published in newspapers. Has sold paintings every year since then. for the first time in 1996 or 1997. This was a propaganda poster titled “Criticise the Capitalist Roaders”.Chapter 9. then turned to “landscapes” (i. but some buyers had not yet paid. Domestic sales: 3 small paintings. 1998: Taught all year at Central Academy of Fine Arts.000-50. Was riveter in shipyard for 2 years. Early ones sell for $2000 US. Rank of associate professor. Exhibited for the first time while a student in 1975. at the Ritan Pavilion exhibition. Still teaching there now in Department of Oil Painting. #1 has not had to organise exhibitions himself but has been invited to participate. #1. designing interior decor for company boardrooms.1d Chinese Artists’ Materials Structure of artists’ incomes Josephine Fox with John Clark Artist names are not given here at their request. Some buyers see his work in exhibitions. male. Painted “still life” (i. Department of Popular Art (Minjian meishu xi) in 1986. Studied painting after hours while in army. From 1997. Slightly over 10. also Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. lives in Shanghai. to Chinese industrialists and entrepreneurs. took part in official Federation of Chinese Artists exhibition. Said wanted to study art but advertising design was as close as he could get. Did not want to say how much his paintings sold for. Beijing.e. born in 1963. Has had works auctioned 3 times.000 US or more. when he decided to stop and revise his technique. Most buyers of #1’s paintings are foreign. No other income. Made prints (zhi zuo de tuban) from graduation in 1978 until 1986. Tempera painter. Went back to Beijing and painted. No domestic commissions. Went to work at Shanghai shipyard in 1971. very successful ones for $10. Worked in Shijiazhuang Institute of Industrial Design (Gongyi meishu yanjiusuo). born 1962. passed Shanghai University Meishu Xueyuan entrance exam. #1 thinks hyper-realist style appeals more to foreigners. Acrylic painter. No domestic commissions. out of interest. male. Has participated in fifteen or so exhibitions since then. at a private gallery operated by an American Chinese. Joined People’s Liberation Army in 1977. Left International Club in 1994. 1985. born in 1954. then started to paint in oils. Was preparing for a solo exhibition in Beijing this year. An American or Englishman introduced through art world contacts bought one large and four small pencil sketches. Served in army for 9 years. 70. but #2 had nothing to do with it. lives in Beijing. Entered Central Academy of Fine Arts. but left after 6 months. Enrolled in print department of Central Academy of Fine Arts in 1974. but spent one year preparing for study before attending: art technique. Has sold 15 or so paintings since then. #2 did not exhibit much before 1983 due to lack of opportunity.000 yuan total. broken panes of glass) until 1996. in Central Academy exhibition of students’ works. Then sold nothing further until 1989. male.

#5. Hong Kong gallery representative came to Shanghai. 1996. Overseas sales: Another 10 paintings. even though it appreciates slowly compared to modern art. Guohua painter. Both galleries take 40% commission. Deals with private galleries. signed contract with gallery in Beijing. No domestic commissions. Domestic sales: Did not give amount but said earned more from art sales than from military pension. Known to potential buyers by diverse means.000. returned to painting full time after retirement in 1984. selected 6 paintings for Post ‘89 Chinese Modern Art exhibition in HK. all 6 sold. Graduated from guohua department 1990.000 yuan. First sale of work in 1993. Supplies cost money. $US 10. history. Salary 17. Sometimes gives paintings away. Can only recall 2 Chinese buyers. but Beijing and Shanghai galleries cooperate. specialist literature. Domestic commissions: Works on commission sometimes. Is committed to avoid competition in same city. Both owned by foreigners. rendition of Hong Kong) and if the organisers don’t ask for a canvas. organised by themselves. male. Had painted since at school. Venice Biennale in 1993. First solo exhibition 1984. Has exhibited overseas more than 20 times including Mao Goes Pop. one by Tianjin city government. while travelling visits sites of natural scenery he would like to paint. Had 2 put up last year at Christie’s (London) auction of Asian art but they weren’t sold. From 1990. Oxford and Denmark) 1994. Day before yesterday sold one to visiting American. signed contract with gallery in Shanghai. Teaches private students. Two landscapes auctioned for 7000 yuan each. Modern art looks incomprehensible and risky. Rotterdam.e. born in 1962. but the actual execution of the painting is quick. but tutors individual students who come to his house. Domestic sales: 10 paintings sold through galleries. Jiefang Tianjin wushi zhou nian. Said foreign buyers liked those. Usually 8-10 times a year counting Chinese and overseas. Earns more from art sales in most years. Painted in leisure time. says too old for it. 1998: Taught at zhong zhuan. One conducted by Laonian shufa yanjiuhui. 1998: Did not want to give details of military pension. Has exhibited regularly since 1984. However has exhibited more overseas than in China since 1992. Exhibited irregularly through 1980s. Says conceptual maturing process takes time. on grounds that it was a state secret. born 1928. $9000 US received from gallery. through exhibiting. 4 square foot canvas sells for about $US 500. sold 4 more in Shanghai to foreign collectors. Institutions holding art exhibitions don’t do this often in China now. Studied art when young. doesn’t have to sell paintings to live comfortably. yinggai maide gao. Conceptual artist. Had recently been painting on tartan cloth. 1994. sold through galleries in Germany and Switzerland. Retired senior officer of People’s Liberation Army. #4. male. painted abstracts. both locally and in China-wide guohua exhibitions. Wo bi ni nianji da. but still can’t afford not to be commercial. mass media including TV. lives in Beijing. Chinese artists have little sense of how to estimate the value of their work. taught secai at Gongyi Meishu Xuexiao (with Yu Youhan. Doesn’t enjoy dealing with art auction companies. chose guohua to avoid immediate conflict with authorities. Bu hen guifan. can do one in a day if circumstances are right. First exhibition 1983. Two kinds of landscape.000 yuan a year on materials. or 30 small ones on paper. and as much again on books (illustrated). literature. One was gallery owner in Shenyang. No other income last year. Sydney Biennale 1998. or former position and rank. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Group exhibition with five other young artists. Spends about 10. Travels about twice a year. Had two regular classes of 30-40 students for some years. at Fudan University. this isn’t their first interest. but department then still under influence of Xu Beihong and later Soviet social realist style. Sell paintings often. comes from north himself (Shulu county. see below.politics. though there was still some resistance to it in the 1980s. English. Chinese buyers prefer to invest in guohua. Last year painted four scenes of Huang Shan on request. Hebei). because he was going there. wanted to enrol in oil painting department. They understand it better. Can paint about 20 large canvases a year. There’s no effective guarantee of quality of art. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 113 . also at Fudan. #3 didn’t know what prices they brought afterwards.) Still teaching there now. Had painting auctioned in Beijing in 1997 (Zhongshan) for over 50. Doesn’t teach group classes now. but “gave it away for other things”. Sold about 6 in 1995. lives in Tianjin. about 10 in 1996. Chinese Avant-Garde (travelled Berlin. Most buyers foreign. Went to Sichuan last year. but occasionally it’s still done. Doesn’t do these.000 altogether. Paints traditional landscapes. #3 says no political problems with abstract art now. then reputation and career picked up from 1992. Both Chinese and foreigners buy paintings. #4 prefers to paint Beiguo. days or weeks. Exhibits in China if the exhibition doesn’t have a subject (i. Overseas sales: Did not give amount but said had sold scenes of the Welcome Pine on Huang Shan to foreign buyers. Has army pension. Made $US 30-40. to exhibitions or art-related events. Took part in 4 group exhibitions last year.000 yuan. 1995. Beiguo and Nanguo.

local exhibition of children’s art. all traditional. 60007000 yuan for 6 square feet. #6 says doesn’t have to exhibit much now. As student. One was a gallery owner and another a partner or employee in a gallery. so it is possible with care to take money back to China. sold at exhibition. Taiwan. introduced by art world contacts. exhibitions provide an allowance based on estimate of German artist’s income. Chinese buyers prefer traditional paintings. In Germany. Teaches figure painting. but they only take small paintings. Job offer withdrawn. she is unemployed. Sold to friends and acquaintances through art world contacts. Sold paintings to overseas buyers 3 times. Has not had regular job now since 1986. First group exhibition 1985.000 yuan. in China and overseas. Installations are hard things to sell. in 6th All-China exhibition. Still teaching there now. However. Zhongguo Meishu Pipingjia Timing Zhan at Zhongguo Meishuguan . First sale of work in 1986. Also does photography. No other income last year. Graduated 1982. Paints 40 to 50 a year. sells these mostly to foreigners. sculptures 3000+ yuan. concentrated on installations. Renwu and chuangzuo. working in plastic factory. male. Still paints watercolours. Has visited Europe and Australia to exhibit. has painted more modern ones than traditional recently. by approval from 24 critics . Then took series of casual jobs: construction work. Is subject of book by art critic Lang Shaojun. infernal cityscapes full of flesh-eating machinery and severed heads (‘modern”). Domestic sales: 3 watercolour paintings. Then was criticised for painting of Tangshan earthquake of 1976. Some are interested in the modern ones. Finished school 1980. Assigned to job in Tanggu library. Paintings 5000+ yuan. Says he paints birds and flowers when exhausted by the other ones. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 114 . born in 1958. born 1960?. studied guohua. Altogether 13. Modern ones.and Shiji mo Zhongguo renwu hua . Ma still owes #6 money for several paintings. Overseas sales: 2 watercolour paintings and 2 small sculptures. 1998: No income from salary. Initially offered teaching post in Academy. male. Has been in major exhibitions each year. Currently sells small sculptures and watercolours. Has wife and son. didn’t do much oil painting. Partly because there were naked men and women in it.000 yuan for the paintings. but does occasional casual work. #6 paints two kinds of guohua. Has sold oil paintings to gallery owners and art world contacts. #5 didn’t go to Taiwan but was paid a fee by the gallery. won 3rd prize in Tianjin Youth Exhibition. Overseas exhibitions provide plane ticket and materials at least. Deals with 2 private galleries in Beijing. 1989. No domestic commissions. can paint 20 of these at most. 1990. Dangdai zhuming yishujia . for two years did not work but painted. labour involved in setting up galleries for exhibitions of sculpture and installations.Started painting at school. No overseas sales. Traditional paintings sell for 3000-4000 yuan. Also received some income from an exhibition of installations in the Taipei City Gallery. in group exhibitions in Singapore and Los Angeles. “Beijing-New York”. One bought by industrialist from Liaoning for 5000 yuan. recalled to Tianjin Academy to teach in guohua department. 1993. signed contract with Ma Wenpu of Ch’ang Chiang Art Centre. and birds and flowers (“traditional”). 1994. potential buyers know of him.000 yuan if larger. Had always wanted to be either an artist or a basketball player. First overseas exhibition 1988. solo exhibition in Taipei and group exhibition in Singapore. Has never worked on commission. After school attended Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts. 3 major exhibitions. 1993. sold painting in South Korea at exhibition. Different overseas. ostensibly because it failed to show the victims of the earthquake in sufficiently resolute light . 7 small sculptures. first solo 1986. especially #5’s meatworks. lives in Tianjin. Salary 800 yuan per month. Didn’t grow tall enough for basketball. but the prices keep them out of the market. #5 hasn’t been offered it. No domestic commissions. September 1985. #5 also knew these buyers personally. Sculpted in clay originally. Main income comes from art sales and remuneration from exhibitions of avant-garde art. to Taiwanese buyer who came to studio. Some also pay living costs. also by invitation. The modern ones take more time to paint. 10-20. Early 1990s. Contract became inoperative due to business troubles at Ch’ang Chiang. 1998. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1998: Taught in guohua department of Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts. took part in Victorian state government sponsored “Work in construction: The Bridge” event. small scale “figures”. After 1983. organised by Federation of Chinese Artists at Zhongguo Meishuguan. which would buy paintings for a set amount. #6. now does small lacquer figures.exhibition by invitation. #7. Started to work on sculpture in 1982. 2 bought by collector from Xi’an for 10. exhibitions of installation and performance art hardly ever offer any remuneration to artists. 2000 for the sculptures.Li Xiaoxuan. Domestic sales: 3 paintings. Guohua painter. In China. but has sold one to French state gallery. One solo exhibition at Central Academy of Fine Arts. First sale of work in 1989. In one year. First exhibited while in primary school. Guohua painter.general character of work too grotesque. Hubei Meishu Chubanshe. making stage scenery. Oil painting. USA. keeping watch in chuandashi. lives in Beijing.

which kept a proportion and provided LY with “living costs”. impressionistic figure painting. Made more from sale of work than from teaching. Still teaching there now in Department of Chinese Painting.000. Studied guohua painting at Central Academy of Fine Arts. Drew for 3 other magazines while studying at Academy. 1976-81. Representatives of Mingren in China bought several paintings after seeing them exhibited in China. Overseas sales: none last year. No domestic commissions in 1998. Beijing. Attended specialist middle school. First exhibited 1989 while student. Some works have been collected by the Zhongguo Meishuguan. #7 says his paintings are bought more by Western and overseas Chinese buyers than by Chinese. Returned to China and taught oil painting at Central Academy of Fine Arts for 1 year. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and sold no paintings overseas last year. Dealer took half. Has had 10-20 group exhibitions and one solo since return to China. more or less. Is married to another teacher at the Fushu Zhongxue. by dealer based in Beijing and New York. First auction sale also in 1996 (Sungari). suxie) at Zhongguo Meishuguan Fushu Zhongxue. #7’s customers in China are business people and resident foreigners (diplomats and entrepreneurs). Sold to overseas buyers in 1997. around 500 DM. Finds it fairly easy to sell paintings. While in Tokyo the College of Art and Design paid his salary back to the Central Academy. Galleries. Oil painter. 1998: no teaching or other income. Most sold for 3000-5000 DM. While at Academy supported by parents and did magazine illustrations. Had one collected by state gallery. Japan) since then. Has continued to sell paintings in China. Won silver medal for small oil painting. highest price 20. Resigned due to disagreement with Academy over teaching method. Started doing magazine illustrations while still at school. 1998: taught xieyi renwu at Central Academy of Fine Arts all year except for 3 months teaching at College of Art and Design in Tokyo by exchange agreement with Central Academy.000 yuan.000 for 1. #8. Domestic sales: 5 paintings. If Chinese. Swiss ambassador bought 2 for slightly over $US 10. Has done these. One sold for 230. diaosu. While in Germany.000 US. #9 says teacher’s salary wouldn’t even cover cost of paint.000 DM. born in 1965. Has lived by sale of art since. Started to paint then. and to corporate investors. After graduation studied at Hochschule der Kunst. and stayed at Central Academy as lecturer. academics. Berlin. several dozen. privately to Chinese buyer who had seen her work exhibited. put up by same dealer. or for how much. of which #9 received half. Lost count of number of exhibitions. collectors. two solo exhibitions at Gallery Taube. knows a lot of people in art circles. Exhibits in China more to make his art known than to market it. 1990-1994. lives in Beijing. Did not want to say how many paintings he had sold. #8’s regular income is her teacher’s salary but she also sells works irregularly. Singapore. Sold a few prints also. Enrolled in bihuaxi (Mural painting). Says they were down on previous years. about 20. First sale of paintings in 1986 or 1987. #9. Won prize at National China Youth Exhibition.000 HK. First exhibition 1994.After school sent to country to take part in production for 5 years. which he attributed to the Asian economic crisis. female. Teaches sculpture. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 115 .000 HK.2 x 1. for lower prices. clay modelling and sketching (sumiao. First sale of sculpture in 1996. and has current commissions but last year concentrated on preparing works for exhibition. Most buyers foreign. Did not want to detail domestic sales. No overseas sales in 1998. Best sale 160. Graduated 1985. Paints 10 a year.000 DM. Prices varied. Salary 700-800 yuan per month. “Sichou zhi lu” exhibition at Zhongguo Meishuguan. large ones up to $20. No domestic commissions. Beijing Secondary College of Industrial Design.000 yuan each. and considers the character of his paintings (guohua in a non-traditional post-impressionist style) leads to this. Teaches xieyi renwu. lives in Beijing. Sculptor. recruited #9 to draw illustrations. to a gallery in Taiwan (Mingren Hualang). First exhibited 1985. Domestic sales: Sold 2 pieces to private buyers. Have had works auctioned at Christie’s in HK. high officials buying art as investment. Mostly European and American. Friend of friend came to studio and bought one. always sells them sooner or later. Sells works to both Chinese and overseas buyers. Had 4 or 5 paintings auctioned by Sotheby’s in Hong Kong. Says art sales in China have only picked up in the last 1 or 2 years. about 1990. Chinese collector bought 3 for 110. Father was on staff of illustrated adventure magazine for young people. 1998: Taught at Fushu Zhongxue all year. First sale of painting in Germany. Small ones $2000 US. Sold about 20 paintings in Germany. born 1964. Berlin. Domestic commission: French ambassador and wife offered $US 10. which paid considerably less. at auction and privately. Has exhibited regularly in China and overseas (HK. then Central Academy of Fine Arts. continued while at Zhongyang Meishu Xueyuan. Salary 1000 yuan per month. Germany.4 metre oil painting. male. large ones 10. which was deciding factor behind offer of lecturing post at Academy.

After returning to Shanghai became better known. After graduating from Central Academy switched from printmaking to oil painting. born early 1960s?. contemporary art more appreciated by foreigners. Finished school in 1975. HK. and one large and 3 small paintings to former Swiss ambassador to China (who has also Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. turned to oil painting again. Taught fine arts after hours to senior high school students preparing for entry to meishu xueyuan. #11. Sold between $US 20. Initially small works.Overseas sales: Spent 6 months in Netherlands last year. Has lived by sale of works since. Doesn’t know who buyers are. male. 40 paintings in series. doesn’t know what it brought. painting sold to American English teacher in Ningxia.000. Now painting large canvases. still owed $US 20. Germany. Went to Europe last month (April 1999). painted more than 80 small Zhongguo Guniangs and sold all of them. USA. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 116 . Also sold few others through London and German galleries.000 and $US 40. all sold. Attending Venice Biennale this year. Travel costs paid.000 worth of paintings through Schoeni. enrolled in postgraduate degree in Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts. 1982. Mostly exhibits overseas now. Older people aren’t interested. about 20 in 7 years. Zhongguo jiushi niandai hou de xiandai yishu. No domestic sales. Have exhibited regularly since 1993. Writing book. took part in major exhibitions. Then assigned to car factory. No domestic commissions. with timber and New Year decorations. in the interim was supported by parents.000+. Oil painter. Group exhibition of political pop conducted by HanArt. Didn’t sell many works in West. No domestic commissions.1990-1991. museums. but they appear to be private collectors from USA. Sales picked up in Shanghai. Ningxia students very poor. Didn’t have job for 1 or 2 years. Organised group exhibitions of avant-garde art with young local artists. Grandmother painted guohua landscapes. Signed contract with Schoeni same year. returned to Beijing. tutored privately. Had painting auctioned at Christie’s in London in 1998. 1996. enrolled in fine art department of Shanghai Normal University. but married and became father. Sales handled by galleries. born late 1950s?. worked there 5 years. sold 12? paintings to Amsterdam Stellenmuseum. Also painting more than before. 1995. a few art dealers. Deals with galleries in Shanghai and overseas. Studied lithograph printmaking. #11 considers opportunities better overseas. Graduated in 1986. Hong Kong. Foreigners in business in China. overseas exhibitions since 1988. 1993. Total income about 200. 6-7 times while at Shanghai Normal University. returned to Shanghai. No other income. A few young Shanghai people with money. had always liked painting. France. After return to Shanghai. #11 kept one as memento. taught art at Shanghai Jiaoyu Xueyuan. Finished school in Inner Mongolia in 1980.5 x 2 metres. Most difficulties in the year after June 4th. materials of choice. Have also sold paintings through other galleries in London and Germany. Hasn’t been paid in full yet. 1. Galleries tend to wait until the last moment to pay. Worked on farm just outside Shanghai. designed banknotes. lives in Shanghai. This kind of art was not well received by teachers and gallery managers. Yinchuan Normal University.000 yuan last year. Reviews mixed. Continued to exhibit several times a year at Ningxia. galleries. Sent to country to take part in production for 1 year. solo exhibition of Xiaofei xingxiang series at Schoeni gallery. Why introduce avant-garde art to people with only 2 pairs of trousers in the family? Keyi wanquan gaibian tamen dui Zhongguo de zhengti renshi. Oil painter and conceptual artist. Buyers from Hong Kong. Europe. worked at mint. Taiwan. more opportunity to make a living as oil painter. Wife is company accountant but income from art sales is major income. five or six a year. Left after 1 year. though this will change with time. began to paint Zhongguo Guniang series. but oil paints were cheaper. Timber and copper pipe. Finishing degree now (May 1999). 1992. returned to Inner Mongolia from Beijing. Once security guards turned up and started to carry the installations away during #10’s address at the opening ceremony. Graduated 1987. Schoeni is still current agent. still painting these now. lives in Beijing. #11 considers not enough demand for lithographs. First sale of work 1988. Taught art at Ningxia College of Education. Ningxia University. Was approached by Chinese gallery in 1998 but didn’t make agreement with them. Main income comes from Schoeni. Painted 30 canvases in 1997-1998. which he defused by taking teaching job in Ningxia. Received $US 10. First exhibited 1993. watercolours and acrylics. spent 7 years in Ningxia altogether. exhibited in Germany (Sunny) and London. Cong ziji neixin yao gaibian ziji de shenghuo. Still creates installations sometimes. #10. 1998: received postgraduate scholarship of less than 1000 yuan per month. doesn’t work on commission. Sold paintings both in China and overseas. male. PJ organised exhibitions. Learned automotive engineering. 1994. 1998. First exhibited as student. didn’t want to say how many or how much. had contacts who made space available at universities. Can sell about 10 a year. were more expensive in Shanghai than in Ningxia. entered Central Academy of Fine Arts in 1983. HK. then things improved again. Chinese institutions and companies don’t usually commission political pop. While at university began to engage in avant-garde art and exhibit installations. $US 3000. 1998: No teaching or other salaried work. and caused conflict between #10 and family.

Painted landscapes and figures. born 1952. still teaching there now. Design. #12’s works are collages of xuan paper coloured. aged 17. After return to China in 1987. in 1994. sold paintings. QDS had nothing to do with it. another artist. Has exhibited in France. then founded Cao Cao. Domestic sales: 10 paintings.000 yuan. to German poet who saw it in Shanghai Meishuguan exhibition. school closed) assigned to work in leather factory. Was held back by cost of materials. See below). Small canvas bought by US collector. Zhongguo kaifangle. in watercolours and oils while working on people’s commune. founded Cao Cao Huashe. Did no work for salary or commission. followed own direction. #13.At Tufts taught students. Has had works auctioned at Christie’s (London) by China Contemporary Gallery. “Painting the Chinese Dream” in 1982. Japan. was introduced by him to other artists and took three of #12’s paintings to USA to exhibit. Spends 20-30. represented Shanghai at opening ceremony of Quan guo meishu zhanlan in Beijing. but they weren’t sold there either. in Germany. #12’s works said to be sources of spiritual pollution.m. organised private exhibitions. Schoeni always sends receipts but #11 doesn’t keep very close track of them. Worked there 9 years.000 yuan a year on materials. but these were put up by investors. 1998: Taught at Huashan zhong zhuan all year. but most buyers still foreign. Ceased to paint revolutionary art after transfer to Wenhua Guan. Returned to Shanghai and has been self supporting artist since. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. After school (1967. At machine tools research institute continued painting in this style.1995. Returned to Shanghai in 1975 and joined Diandong gongju yanjiu suo. painted large abstract mural for university. 1975. Sold canvases both in China and overseas. In 1990s. 1979. took teaching job in Huashan School of Fine Arts. Has exhibited regularly overseas since 1985 trip. after 1976. Solo exhibition in Shanghai Art Museum. Also about 100. Post-traditional collage landscape artist.) shanshui like landscapes. Residents working in China. Tubingen. Germany. Uses acrylic paint imported from USA. Left Wenhua Guan in 1985 due to major conflict over art tendencies of Cao Cao She. #12. Didn’t take part in government exhibitions with geming zhuti. First sold painting in 1988. Oil painter.bought 14 of Zhuang Hui’s photographs. Also criticised for contact with American artist Joan Cohen who met #12 in Shanghai in 1980. Exhibited this every year in Shanghai. more often as years passed. First overseas exhibition. Chinese with money find other uses for it. After that. Worked on farm for 6 years. “Grass Studio” as venue for creation and exchange of ideas by local independent artists. 1986-1989. Mixed tendencies. male. Why no Chinese buyers. One or two every year until 1980. New York and Boston via Cohen in 1982. galleries and museums as well as private collectors. or collectors visiting China to buy artworks. designed posters for films. painted shop signs. as result of contacts with other artists transferred to Wenhua Guan in Shanghai as publicly sponsored artist. First exhibited in 1985 or 1986. worked there 20 years on design of machine tools. revolutionary topics. Sold paintings every year since then. Salary 1500 yuan per month. and 2 person exhibition with Liu Kuo-sung of Taiwan in Zhuhai Gallery. Now occasionally sells works to Chinese galleries or collectors. Studied art at specialist middle school. less often through exhibitions. in USA. Otherwise has exhibited mainly overseas. Taiwan and Hong Kong. studied industrial design part time at Shanghai qinggongye zhuanke xuexiao. with support of danwei. No commissions. sent to country to take part in production. First sale of work in 1980. gave 2-3 exhibitions. all non-traditional. at least once a year. Self portrait in oil. Solo exhibition at Max Planck Institut. Finished school in 1969. born 1948. Teaches design. Painted propaganda posters. some overseas Chinese buyers as well. Art education is lacking in China. 12 classes a week. Known in USA since participating in “Painting the Chinese Dream” exhibition. can’t remember which exhibition. Spends about 20. all sold to foreigners including one or two Taiwanese. Sell paintings through friends or contacts in art world. Denmark. Has had works auctioned in China and overseas. First overseas exhibition 1988. First exhibitions of revolutionary poster art during Cultural Revolution. in 1985 started to paint abstracts. stuck to a canvas in layers and coloured over again to form large (2-3 sq. Paintings that didn’t sell from exhibition of SF’s at gallery in 1998 were auctioned. lives in Shanghai. male. Guangdong. Representative of Institut in Shanghai had seen solo exhibition of SF’s in Shanghai Meishuguan. Sold canvases occasionally while at Wenhua Guan and doing odd jobs. More with passing years. Could paint 20-30 a year. Western style realism. not enough money. Learned engineering. After leaving Wenhua Guan (1985). All sold to foreigners. Number varies. Personal aesthetic reasons.000 yuan equivalent. Overseas sales: 5 or 6 sold at China Contemporary Gallery exhibition in London. About 100.000 yuan per year on materials. machine tools research institute. Did not want to detail income for 1998. Painted from childhood. invited artists who hadn’t been able to exhibit before. torn up. 1976. Poland. lives in Shanghai. only to foreigners. Other artist painted nude which was confiscated. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 117 . Had sold only one to a Chinese buyer. Austria and USA. then within year invited by Tufts University to USA as visiting scholar.

Works bought by both Chinese and foreigners. 1994. to save money. Conceptual artist. 1987. 3-4 months’ work for 30.#14. Still there now. got job teaching at special middle school. Salary slightly over 1000 yuan per month. Hasn’t sold much since then as current works are not saleable. Overseas Chinese buy these as well as Europeans and Americans. won prize at allChina exhibition of oil painting. started MA in lithograph printing at Central Academy of Fine Arts. small. but doesn’t take photographs. Took part regularly in major exhibitions after this. If people offer money. but someone has since seen it in private collection in New York. In China buyers are mostly individuals. to be sold from supermarket shelves outside the installation space. Counting large. Lithograph printer and oil painter. Now the school has more specialist teachers. First major exhibition of oil paintings in 1998. Shared rented studio in country outside Shanghai with 2 friends from 1984. using the photos. Graduated 1984. pingmian sheji. Sometimes does performance art. various subjects. Salary $1300 yuan per month. Sold 20+ for 170 yuan each. mostly overseas. Used to paint at school and university. group and overseas exhibitions would be in 10-20 exhibitions a year. 1998: Taught at Huashan School of Art. in quasi-chamber music fashion. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 118 . Taught sketching and woodblock printing. remained at Academy to teach in banhua xi. Imported trade magazines and read them in the office. be socially impressive etc. “Zhongguo qingnian banhuajia da zhan”. lives in Beijing. Took part this year in Rock in/Rock out exhibition in Winnipeg. Graduated 1989. Domestic sales. born early 1960s?. then didn’t exhibit while at university. Doesn’t rely on sales. Huashan Meishu Xuexiao. First exhibited oil paintings in small exhibition in 1993 or 1994.Sporting Shoe Research Institute . 1987. lives in Shanghai. one of the sponsors. They used to buy guohua. Decided that when painting he developed ideas 1% of the time and performed manual labour the rest of the time. Now deals with 6 galleries. photographs from installation of orchestrated behaviour. so much the better. born early 1960s?. 1200 yuan. Didn’t know who bought it. Britain. Asia-Pacific Museum in Los Angeles. Galleries take large commissions. China-wide exhibitions. to do things like sleep. overseas galleries 30-40%. Shanghai Qinggongye gaodeng zhuanye xuexiao. Took part in various small exhibitions in 1980s. Once designed interior for disco. Each contract contains monopoly clause. left shoe institute. The only place available at the Academy was in the banhua xi. Germany and Sweden. No domestic commissions. intellectuals with money. Taipei. teaches only design. but hasn’t had solo exhibition yet. has lost count. Couldn’t afford canvas. Overseas exhibitions provide travel and material costs. Taught design and colour use. has co-artist do them. 1990 to now. First major exhibition. designed exhibition displays. during which he forgot the original concept. hyper-realist canvas in 1992 for 10. First sale of work. served in People’s Liberation Army 2 years. briefcase and blond hairdo. or to the country if the market is small (i. in fact no demand for this. Uses photography. This year (April) took part in “Art for Sale” at Shanghai Square shopping centre. Since started conceptual art.e.to design sports shoes. on average would sell somewhere over 50 prints a year. Doesn’t work on commission. has job anyway. now prefer avant-garde works. 1998: Taught in printing department at Central Academy of Fine Arts all year. 1979-1983. Won 1st prize. Couldn’t go if they didn’t. Youxiu jiang. Stopped painting on canvas in 1992. Exhibited in two successive Shanghai Youth Exhibitions while at shoe institute. did installations from then on. male. #15. No overseas sales. In army painted propaganda posters. but this is restricted in scope to one city. Foreign buyers’ tastes have changed. #15 says did not realise that art could be sold until then. In 3 years there didn’t design a single shoe. Designs for corporate clients sometimes. Conceptual art exhibition in which each installation was accompanied by a small “product”. Took part in exhibition of children’s art when 12 years old. Prints sell for $US 500-2000 each. Then lectured at Normal University of Inner Mongolia for 3 years. male. Finished school 1977. assigned to Jiaoxie Yanjiusuo . 1988. Painted on thick yellow paper used for models of soles. No domestic commissions. several other galleries. Studied surface design. Not even as good as Post Office paper. continued doing this at shoe institute. knew owner. 3 prints bought by Frenchman who had seen them in the gallery of the Academy. #14 contributed small fibreglass and plastic figures of himself with Zhongshanzhuang. also in USA. sold by gallery. 1992. and a few public galleries. First sale of art work while doing MA. 1992. After school went to university. studied woodblock printing at Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts. also from private collectors. solo. but mainly foreigners. Zhongguo Meishuguan and Shanghai Meishuguan. 1990. has exhibited several times each year. declaring “Welcome to Shanghai”. 2 person exhibition at best. Has had 20+ solo exhibitions. Redgate takes 50%. After 1992 sold mainly through galleries. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. travelled around China to shoe trade exhibitions.000 yuan. Oil paintings sell for 5-10 times as much as prints. After Taipei exhibition received expressions of interest from British Museum.000 yuan. signed contracts with Redgate and galleries in Sydney and USA. won prize at second. A “conductor” directed performers from a podium. Australia). Recently sold an album of photographs that were part of a complex installation including videotapes. Started to paint in oils after 1990.

Yunnan provincial gallery. 40. (“Qingdao Shi Gongren Zhanlan”).000 yuan. #17 earned about 24. Two abstract sculptures sold to overseas buyers in 1998 through Redgate. Domestic sales: 5 paintings. First participated in auction. Overseas sales: 20-30 prints and a few oil paintings. but these don’t amount to much. initially local or provincial exhibitions in Yunnan. Started to paint in 1984. Sculptor. at average prices as above. Customers were both state units and private companies. #18. Designed book covers and illustrations. Local governments pay commissions of 10. born early 1960s?. After school (1980) studied industrial design at Beijing Gongyi Meishu Xuexiao.000 for the five. No overseas sales in 1998. Left and worked as freelance designer until 1996 1997. Redgate kept $2000.000 yuan. and to defray this plus rent and social costs of living in Beijing must sell paintings. Silk screen printer and oil painter. 1995 (China Guardian). but also performs commissions for Chinese local government organisations and companies. returned to library to work. Oil painter/conceptual artist. advertisements.000 yuan). male. lives in Beijing and Kunming. $2500 US. 1998: taught clay sculpture at Central Academy of Fine Arts. First sale of painting in 1995 at exhibition. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 119 . The rest goes on materials. 4 sold to Chinese galleries. due to lack of time. but piece was passed in (reserve 18.Ltd. First sale of work in 1992. wages.000-25. Beijing. First exhibition 1976. Has done less of this since becoming head of the Department of Sculpture. then did undergraduate degree at Shandong Academy of Fine Arts and postgraduate degree at Central Academy of Fine Arts. and “Between self and society: contemporary Chinese women artists” at Artemisia Gallery.e. Two paintings sold in Germany. 1998: No teaching or other salary. 1997: took part in exhibition of Chinese women artists in Germany.3 x 1. Referred to entrance fee of several thousand yuan. After graduation (1989) remained at Academy as lecturer. floor and furniture. Supported by library through degree in librarianship 1981-1984. the Chinese buyers not necessarily so. Has exhibited sculpture every year since 1982. Other income: receives fees for guest lectures. Now working on (very large scale.Domestic sales: approximately 40 prints and 6 or 7 oil paintings. Has sold 18 to date. Sells mainly to overseas buyers. Is now on leave without pay from Kunming Provincial Library and living in Beijing. #16 did not receive the money until early 1999. One sold to German journalist working in China at exhibition at the German Embassy. One domestic commission: abstract stone sculpture commissioned by bank. Has had an informal contract with Redgate Gallery. #16 says there is not much of a market for sculpture in China. Chicago. #16 had no formal art education.. 20 4 metre bas-relief plinths) Government commission for memorial on Japanese invasion at Lugouqiao. worked at 1st Qingdao Cotton Spinning and Weaving Mill for 7 years. lives in Beijing.1. became more selective as standing in art world improved. born late 1950s?. Now head of Department of Sculpture. Bought by Chinese woman writer. One more (the empty Zhongshanzhuang) sold privately to American buyer. Has not had works auctioned. Left school early due to Cultural Revolution. 7 students. Taught for full year. To keep her job open she is obliged to pay the library 3000 yuan a year. shop counters. less commission. Kunming. lives in Beijing. 4 or 5 were sold at exhibitions. female. Worked 1984-1986 at Beijing Luxing Qiche Co. Salary 750 yuan per month.000 yuan. Subsequently joined Wenhua Guan in Qingdao. interior decor for businesses. and the cost of bronze casting. First exhibited 1986. Has taken part in several major and minor exhibitions a year since. studied sculpture and performed materials supply and maintenance work in Wenhua Guan after hours while working in factory. and two by friends of friends (both Chinese). Started to paint and do silk screen printing during career as industrial Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. who introduced prospective buyers. or any other income. Beijing since 1997. 17#J’s works bought by both Chinese and foreigners. The German exhibit was more installation than canvas: a representation of a tastefully furnished apartment in which swathes of mottled pink curled off the canvas on the feature wall and over the walls. #16. Took lessons after hours from friends who were artists. #17’s paintings are non-figurative. Others were sold through contacts in the art sphere. $3000 US. postgraduate level. One bought by a Chinese private gallery. of which SJG receives about 25%.6 metres) for 10.000 to 40. After school (1975) worked in Yunnan Provincial Library. male. #17 says living in Kunming has been inconvenient. then studied sculpture at Qingdao Academy and Central Academy. No domestic commissions. of Chinese watercolour landscapes painted while working in the 1st Qingdao Cotton Spinning and Weaving Mill. larger ones (i. In China. designing exteriors (“skins”) of cars and buses. one by a Chinese collector. The foreign buyers tend to be specialist art collectors and investors. No domestic sales in 1998. born in 1956. two in the USA following exhibition showings there. Smaller canvases sell for 3000-4000 yuan. #17.

Does not have job. Was jiaban sheng (irregular student) at the Academy: she would take tapes of lectures home and her mother would interpret.000 yuan from two murals. Last year earned $US 1000+ from it. #19. Has exhibited since 1993. female. #19 has never exhibited or sold a painting in China. Don’t do a lot of these as it takes time for not much money. weimeixing. i. or low prices to public galleries where they will be seen. First sale of painting followed her first exhibition at the China Daily Gallery in 1993. No overseas sales or other income. Relies on family support and income from sale of paintings. of which painting is the expression. to earn money. Domestic sales: 40+ silk screen prints. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. No domestic sales. 1998: No salaried employment. No overseas sales. Sold prints instead. Painted mural (shanshui) on commission for oil company in Inner Mongolia. USA and Singapore. Sells through print galleries. Has sold to both Chinese and foreign buyers. No domestic commissions. participated in the China Youth Oil Painting and 1st Dalian International exhibitions and the China Art Expo in 1996-1998. born in 1968. the worst are wretchedly sad naive copies of supermarket art motifs. Wife’s salary is only other income. or Ni wo de Yidian yuan . as he wants to preserve the option of deciding whether to sell paintings at high prices to private collectors. Prints runs of 30.) #19 first exhibited in 1994. Graduated from Capital Normal University (art education) in 1991. Has exhibited and sold regularly overseas since 1994. Exhibition being organised by art dealer through whom WQ sells prints. swimming pools. “folk character”. Studied mural painting and oil painting at Central Academy of Fine Arts and graduated in 1994. Both private collectors and public galleries bought paintings. or anything of popular visual appeal. but plans exhibition later this year to coincide with publication of book. Already had career. First exhibition 1992. Taught art in Beijing middle school for 2 years. 1998: Have patent right (zhuanli quan) on specialised mural process for marble walls. 1998: No teaching or other salaried work. Oil painter. Both exhibitions and sales are substantially the result of her mother’s financial support (with rent of exhibition space and other costs) and networking within artistic and literary circles. Has relied on sale of paintings from then on. and sold 20 or so paintings since 1993. male. Sold through print galleries. Beijing hutongs. Cheap ones 100+ yuan. Hong Kong and Singapore. who is a writer. Has not sold at auction. sold to an overseas buyer for $150 US. through the introduction of a representative of an overseas gallery who saw his work while scouting in China. Since 1997 has relied mainly on sale of silk screen prints for income. Colour reproductions of his works are circulated by gallery on Internet. on related themes. expensive ones 1000+ yuan. Sold 10 paintings to Chinese buyers. Most buyers European or American. public halls. as it features swarms of pale flabby figures partly dressed in cadres’ suits and PLA uniforms doing sexually bizarre things to each other against a background of misty mountains and bamboo groves in the guohua style. Prints scenes of minjian tese. Has not worked since graduation. Continued to paint oil paintings at slow rate. Wife handles correspondence with galleries. #20. Goes through dealer or approaches galleries directly. in fact impossible. #20 has had 3 solo exhibitions.200 yuan. The character of his work makes this difficult. #20 paints mainly portraits. No domestic commissions. can sell over 100 a year. Sells these more to foreigners than to Chinese. Did not exhibit after this. group exhibition on Buddhist subjects in China Daily gallery. which has also affected her capacity for independent contact and experience of the world in general. born late 1960s?. had painted 17-18 but hadn’t tried to sell them. First sale of work followed this exhibition. Did not want to declare prices. Wife is editor with publishing company and handles liaison with galleries through which #19 sells work. 20 paintings sold overseas through galleries in Hong Kong. First sale of work in 1992.e. after exhibition. lives in Beijing. Marketed through interior design co. Galleries keep 50%. dui minjian yishu you xingqu de. lives in Beijing. the technique sometimes botched. regular employment made difficult by severe deafness. then left regular employment in 1993 to concentrate on painting. referred to preoccupation since youth with religious and philosophical issues. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 120 . The best of these are routine Sunday art. Lives with mother. Overseas Chinese from Southeast Asia also buy them. libraries. (No children yet. Deals through three galleries. Domestic commissions: Murals for primary school and swimming pool. Oil painter. old buildings. Made about 10. Has not signed contact with any of the galleries.designer. If Chinese. Earned slightly more from print sales than from commissions. on theme of contemporary materialism and the meaning of life.publisher to decide .which should be published this year. for use in corporate offices. Has submitted book to publisher titled Ni wo de jiayuan. for a total of 10. in USA.

studied part time for 1 year at Central Academy of Fine Arts. 1 painting. then returned to Jiaoyu Xueyuan. Chinese Painting Department. Shanghai. and 3000-4000 yuan from commercial paintings. #21 was one of 3 principal organisers of this event. 1997: No teaching income. Returned to Shanghai 1997. while taking tuition informally from various senior artists. and regularly exhibits and sells overseas. Next exhibited 1984. opposite of xieyi).000 yuan from mural for state owned theatre. 1/2 payment for lot of paintings. The others were landscapes and were much smaller. Exhibited regularly after that. #22 knew the architect of the theatre. 600-700 yuan each for commercial paintings. Father recommended her for major mural commission in Beijing that brought 1 year’s income (1995-1996). #23. #22 taught briefly at the Zhongguo Meishuguan middle school on return to China but left after six weeks. Hasn’t sold artworks apart from commercial paintings. Will attend Maia Festival in Portugal this year if obtains passport. Oil painter. also an artist. A self-portrait was the highest priced of these 5. First exhibited while student. and have also been influential in introducing buyers for #22 and her husband’s works and arranging opportunities for work on commission. folk art (minjian yishu) and calligraphy. Studied industrial design at technical middle school. female. transferred to lecturing post in Central Academy. Has exhibited in Japan. Still lifes. gongbi renwu. 1990-1995. Won 1st prize in AllChina Invitational Exhibition of Chinese Painting. Travelled abroad again in 1997 with AG. After school. born 1969. Led groups of students on excursions to the country to paint landscapes. 1986. If they can’t afford Arches or run short they use a Nepalese make which is cheaper than Arches but more expensive than Chinese paper. and does commercial paintings. No domestic or overseas sales. Still there now. The imported paper they use for prints (Arches. Contributed video and “XiangXiang” double mouthpiece balloons. #22 and AG met and married while studying at the Surikov Academy of Fine Arts in Moscow. studied fine arts. worked in apple orchard on outskirts of Beijing for 18 months. mural painting. taught at Beijing Jiaoyu Xueyuan. #22 is the daughter of Yang Yuefei. born late1970s?. 50. No domestic commissions. took part in “Art for Sale”. #21 receives about 2000 yuan for storyboards. Hasn’t been overseas yet. landscapes. sculpture. This increases the capital component and price of the finished prints. for advertising agencies. Had 2 paintings in 1998 China Art Expo. sale of husband’s work and irregular commission work.conducted by Beijing Meixie. This year. had solo exhibition in Bulgaria where she sold 12 out of 20 works exhibited. copied from illustrations. won 2nd prize.000 yuan from industrialist in part payment for another 5. lives in Beijing. Taught clay modelling as well as guohua landscape.000 US from American Chinese collector. on freelance basis. which costs 7-15 yuan per sheet. Now has 2 year old son and runs print studio with AG. and confines the market for them to a fairly small scale. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. They select young but promising artists whose work is not overtly political or erotic enough to cause trouble. Finished school 1996. Entered Beijing Normal University in 1978. Lost count of number of times. Guohua painter. Performance artist. around 1980. No income from other regular work. lives in Shanghai. born 1959.#21. #22. Won various other awards but only one 1st prize. male. Probably spends less than 5000 yuan on materials in a year. 1982-1990. 1st solo exhibition 1997. lives in Beijing. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 121 . figures. With husband. 70. Her mother is also an artist. Husband is Bulgarian printmaker Angel Geshev who lives with #22 in Beijing. Belgian) costs 40 yuan per sheet. still doing storyboards. Hadn’t done commercial paintings in last 6 months. In Shanghai. another $US 10. $10. studied for 1 year at Central Academy of Fine Arts. 1990. Has not had salaried job since left teaching job. publicity both for #22 and her husband and for the artists whose works they choose for printing. runs a printing studio on the outskirts of Beijing. Department of Fine Arts. On #22’s account they run the business for publicity rather than for profit. Her parents assisted with the setting up of the studio. Does not teach or perform other regular salaried work. or 1000 yuan for a large one. Teaches landscape painting. does performance and videotapes only. male. She wanted to paint rather than teach and family connections made this a reasonable option. Zhuhai (Guangdong). bird and flower and figure painting (gongbi style. Has not yet had works auctioned. composes storyboards for TV ads.000 expected. Lives by sale of work. Private exhibition organised by #21 and 8 other artists. former vice-chairman of the Federation of Chinese Artists.000 yuan “shoucang fei” from the Zhongguo Meishuguan for 5 paintings. doesn’t do the kind of thing that can be sold. in group exhibition . Started painting guohua then for something to do. 1990.000 yuan from TV ad storyboards. 1998: Earned slightly over 10. They print and sell runs of 30. 35th anniversary of PRC exhibition run by Ministry of Culture.Beijing Shi Qingnian Meishu Zhanlan . 25. First exhibited 1998. Also taught Jiaoyu Xueyuan staff members who had been recruited in Cultural Revolution and lacked education.

Sao Paolo Biennial. stopped contacting #24 after initial sale of political pop in Japan. Chinese buyers prefer older styles of oil painting. Why Mao: you hen duo dongxi jiehe zai ta shen shang. Barcelona (1995). #24. though was still sick. born mid-1940s?. Has had informal contract with HanArt since 1992. Sotheby’s or Christies. 1966. then went back to Gongyi Meishu Xueyuan. tradition of painting in mother’s family. Doesn’t attract them. 1965. #24 started painting Mao Zedongs in 1988. that on those terms he should have made 50-60. Berlin in 1998. Hong Kong Chinese art entrepreneur living in France came to Shanghai and asked for landscapes and still lifes in Impressionist style to sell in France. introduced by Li Xianting. Overseas sales: Sold one painting to American Chinese. Sells paintings occasionally through art world contacts. After school (1961) joined PLA. Oil painter. doing publicity work. #24’s works sell for 15-30. Took part in “Mao Goes Pop” at Powerhouse. Had solo exhibition in Shandong. Mostly Chinese businessmen with a liking for art. about half of exhibitions introduced by HanArt. Worked there 4-5 years. Until 1990. Not many non-Chinese. spent time at home.000+ for paintings sold through Helbling and Johnson. didn’t know. exhibitor’s travel costs. Nature of paintings makes this difficult.First sale of work after winning 2nd prize at Ministry of Culture exhibition of 1984. Served in army 3 1/2 years. Has contract with Helbling at ShanghArt. conducted propaganda. Sold 35 or so all year. tutoring young and adult students. Had two small canvases auctioned in London last year. now school has professional photography teacher. Buyers are mostly Chinese. #24 not pleased with this. then Pacific Triennial in Brisbane with 2 abstracts. Stage school. 15 paintings. 1982. #23 said money often wasn’t forthcoming. Taught painting and photography at first. 1990. 1989. didn’t specify subject or type. Taught at Shanghai Gongyi Meishu Xuexiao (specialist middle school). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 122 . in Shanghai. about 5000 yuan from prizes. and six to US collector Gao Minglu. Some were copies. mainly overseas. Johnson of HanArt bought all 6 of works offered by #24. set of slides for use in schools. signed contract with Wang Jia Meishuguan in Kaohsiung. Chen Yifei. art not commercialised. Had earned 400-500 yuan from art sales.000 yuan or so from bi hui. conference fees. painting.000 yuan per year but Wang Jia paid nothing like that. you bawo. solo at Sunny Gallery. some own design. for several thousand US. Gao hasn’t sent the money yet but he has paid reliably before. lives in Shanghai. went to country with propaganda team. so they weren’t shown in Australia (all Maos). Helbling takes 40%. No domestic sales. Salary and benefits about 20. Says doesn’t need to. not too much work. 15. got hepatitis. Taiwan. Joined Red Guard unit. The French commercial art co. born early 1960s?. created by #23 and several other staff members at Jiaoyu Xueyuan. one sold for $US 800. #25. Pay wasn’t much. Still teaching there now. solo exhibition in Paris (1996). 1974. After school worked designing sets in local theatre company. guohua department) at Central Academy of Fine Arts. Several hundred yuan divided among them. lives in Tianjin.000 yuan. male. Hong Kong and USA. got married. #23 was required to send 5 paintings a month for 250 yuan per square foot. first major exhibition. Painted 15-18 of these. 1993. male. Closed contract after 2 years. Beijing (Department of Ceramics). 1989-1991. Domestic sales: 50-60. or Li Shan’s.000 yuan. HanArt put them up. HanArt much more. asked #24 for two paintings for Tokyo exhibition. or other artists or art critics with money. transferred to Renmin Wenhua Guan. 3 abstracts (non-Mao) in 1st Zhongguo Xiandai Yishu Zhan. earnings from winning awards in exhibitions was a more important source of income than occasional income from selling paintings. 1984. enrolled in Zhongyang Gongyi Meishu Xueyuan. though some are Southeast Asian or American Chinese. Took part in 8 or 9 of these. 1000 yuan for each session No domestic commissions. #24 can paint 10 per year usually. Assigned job in 1973.000 yuan. Painted after hours. Also taught two sessions of evening classes to private fee-paying students. had child. Would take $US 2500 for each painting. sold more than 20 paintings. Other income: Illustration fees for paintings reproduced in magazines. Painted while at school. Overseas sales: $US 30. pay went up to about 65 yuan. Approached then by Berlin World Art Museum and HanArt. Sold paintings through them to Singapore. No domestic commissions. Since then hasn’t sold much. #25 says life was different then. Says can sell paintings because wo tongguole Zhongguo zhe duan lishi. then sold 3 of them to friends in HK. Left agreement after 18 months. classes stopped. 59 yuan per month. Exhibited every year since 1993. figure painting. Attended special middle school (zhong zhuan) in Changsha. Acrylic painter. had contract with Beijing duiwai maoyi chuban gongsi. Representative of Tokyo city gallery there. receives 3500-5000 from Johnson. Small ones (about 1 week’s work) 60 yuan. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. was given $80 US for each by company but doesn’t know what they actually sold for overseas. has salary from Central Academy and saved proceeds of contract with Wang Jia. Next sale. 1993 through promotion of HanArt. large ones 300 yuan. Says Party and police have never paid attention to his portraits of Mao. Helbling sells more cheaply but pays more quickly. 880 yuan per month. Attended Venice Biennale same year. They didn’t sell. 1998: Taught all year (landscape painting. Doesn’t exhibit much in China. 1998: Taught at Gongyi Meishu Zhongzhuan all year.

Tamen dui wo you fangan. 1992 . Started doing this 1998. First sale of work in 1991.000 yuan per year now. No domestic or overseas sales. lives in Tianjin. Didn’t find job. taught there 3 years. Paints 10-20 oil paintings a year. moved to Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts. born early 1970s?. born late 1960s?. First overseas exhibition 1995. Did commercial sculpture for real estate agency in Shanghai.. Graduated 1990. Graduated 1991. First exhibited in 2nd year at university. has been in a few small exhibitions organised by self and other artists. taught in Dept. not paid while overseas. Taught sketching and secai (colours). Jijin hui gave ZHB 30.1995. Started in 1990. has exhibited every year. Not much chance overseas either. Went back to Wenhua Guan. #25 organised it himself. They didn’t ask for rent for the exhibition hall but claimed a small painting from each exhibitor. 6 or 7 exhibitions. This was state institution that sponsored professional artists. Conceptual artist. 3 or 4 exhibitions as student. Oil painter. #27. while student at Central Academy. Supported by parents. exhibited in USA. Painted two large canvases and a few small ones a year. taught in Department of Fine Arts at Tianjin Jiaoyu Xueyuan. Since 1996 has painted more. 1998. $500 US. Fees at the Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts are about 6000 yuan per year). Hunan. #26 and other young conceptual artists rented basement rooms in factories and office buildings for exhibitions on a theme of their choice. official exhibition. state institution sponsoring artists. made comment about being artist intended as a joke that was misconstrued. From 1993 has created installations. 1995. Income from private tuition about 25. #26 first contributed sculpture. including one larger one at the Tianjin Dangdai Yishu Guan. No student fees then. (#26 might give herself better chance if stopped working in ice). All this conflicts with purported work in Institute. After birth of son production slowed down. a private gallery. studied oil painting at Zhongyang Meishu Xueyuan. After starting at Institute continued to exhibit but only underground (literally). but without ill effect.1995. contacted while at Yuanmingyuan. Boss said “You’re not the Crown Prince” and told him to leave. and exhibited only in unofficial exhibitions organised by herself and friends. returned to Beijing intending to be professional artist and live by any means. 1992 . returned to Central Academy to do 1 year diploma in printing. One painting was kept by the Academy for national exhibition of modern watercolours. hukou transferred back to Hunan. (Fees at Central Academy can be 11. Given place in Shanghai Oil Painting and Sculpture Institute.000 yuan.000+ per year. 1995. in gallery of Central Academy. After birth of son worked in Hengyang City Institute of Painting and Calligraphy (Hengyang Shi shuhua yuan). Has place as sculptor. usually 5 . female. then installations. Sold self portrait to Taiwanese art critic Wei Tiancong. had contract with yishu jijin hui in Taiwan. Bijiao hunluan. 1986. In Tianjin. Studied sculpture. or overseas. No domestic commissions. Went to Hengyang. painted. Returned to Hunan. known personally through art circles.there was time to paint. or collectors. Buyers since then all Chinese. lives in Shanghai. expenses paid by Heinrich Boll Foundation whose representative had seen #26’s work in Shanghai. won prize. 20.000 yuan for 5 paintings a year. other artists and critics. 10. wife’s teaching salary and income from sales of commercial art #26. 1998: Taught oil painting at Tianjin Academy of Fine Arts. It wasn’t sold. Has painted 8 large canvases in last year. Haven’t sold installations.6 times a year. Didn’t last long. in Germany. lived on savings and sale of paintings but this soon became impossible. of Oil Painting.000 yuan. found job in Fine Arts Department in Hengyang Shifan Xueyuan. Not much chance of this in China. then returned to Tianjin College of Education. After school enrolled in Central Academy of Fine Arts. went back to Germany twice. xiang xianzhi er meiyou banfa xianzhi. took part in Zhongguo Youhua Shuangnian Zhan. After school enrolled in Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts. but doesn’t do sculpture. Began to be known in art circles after this. Still there now. Took part in a few exhibitions while a student at Central Academy. spent six months in USA. 1993. still there now. 1998: Salary at Institute 800+ yuan per month. 1997. Solo exhibition. Joined artists’ colony near Yuanmingyuan. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Also teaches private students. a fellow student. Still there now. Could only sell to museums and state galleries. Other income. moved to Tianjin. First exhibited 1991. with husband. No domestic or overseas sales. Had married fellow student at Central Academy. and by the College of Education. Shanghai Qingnian Diaosujia. she was now pregnant. Rents room privately and uses it as studio and classroom. had baby. took part in “Jianzhu gen yishu zhan” in Berlin. couldn’t stand the sight of old studio still the same after 4 1/2 years. Was in Germany for 4 months. Hasn’t sold much since 1995 when contract with Taiwan foundation expired. 1996. Now the market distracts artists from painting (“You fenxin”). 1987-1991. Department of Folk Art (Minjian meishu xi). 1996. 1994. They are expensive and difficult to maintain. at first exhibition. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 123 . Tamen bu guanxin qita ren zai zuo sheme. and if they buy installations prefer those by established European artists. Since then. took part in Hunan sheng wei exhibition. female. Took job as advertising agent for factory in Hengyang. 1999.

000 for the year. These were carried off by a creditor of the yishu jiaoyisuo. Later sold 6 more newspaper paintings to ex-secretary of same gallery. 1998. but it’s still unknown and incomprehensible for most people. No domestic commissions. Paid 2500 yuan after long dispute. Domestic sales: 7 paintings on assorted paper. Performance artist. Also performed other jobs for disco. ZTH says the medium depends on the concept. a bit over 10. Shiseido Gallery. 1996. does performance art and photography. #29. then did publicity videos for companies. Chinese traditional painting and Soviet social realism are the forms of art generally known. #28 didn’t know how much he spent on paint. Inner Mongolia. commercial paintings. Chinese conceptual art group show in Netherlands. May 1997. lives in Beijing. Didn’t do artwork while in Mexico or in first 3 years in advertising company. computer images for $US 26 a set of 6. decided to take up art again and make self known. These are copies (in oil) of landscapes and still lifes done from a photograph.in Guangzhou. Shanghai exhibition in German consulate. and wanted to go overseas. Other income: Won prize awarded by Swiss-Chinese Contemporary Art Society. Other income. etc. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 124 . press conferences. sold newspaper painting to French friend of friend. Conceptual and performance artist. lives in Shanghai. supported by family. 1992. Occupations include being artist’s model. which folded.zhiye gaozhong . seasonal work. exhibited 14 times. The Impressionists are now known a bit. 1998. Sold two watercolours and an oil painting. going to Venice Biennale and Maia in Portugal. Studied industrial design at specialist middle school . 1996. 1994. #28. Had bought computer recently for 10. 2 newspaper paintings. male. Says only 6 students in his class of 16 stayed on to graduate. Owner of gallery in China. Started performance art in 1997. About 3000 yuan for a video. Enough to live on. Newspaper painting and video. and #29 earned nothing. First exhibited March 1997. gathering wild (?) vegetables. Teaching salary 500-600 yuan per month. Only once in Shanghai. opening ceremonies. $US 3000. born late 1960s?. Left before completing.First sold painting in 1990 while student. Left Changsha for Beijing in 1991 intending to be artist and live by any means. Not permitted to leave China after 3 years’ study at the time. Designed advertisements for 2 years. Now sell paintings on mixed paper for $US 3000-5000. 2 newspaper paintings. lived with him for some months. Lately have done actual fake covers on commission from magazine publishers.000 yuan. 2000 yuan each.but didn’t pass university entrance exam. Tokyo. There are no political difficulties with performance art in China. “Another Long March”. found job in state run jishu jiandu ju . not much in winter. Started using video in 1996. First sale of work in 1989. not unclothed of course. $US 2000-3000 each. produces video and computer art. has other people photograph him. Made contact with gallery in Shanghai. Newspaper painting bought by German for $US 100. Nothing to do with older generation of artists or political events of 1989. sketching portraits in parks. selling wooden theatre masks bought in Changsha at roadside stall. about 600 yuan altogether. Xian you gainian.yishu jiaoyisuo . 1998: Doesn’t keep record of income from videos for advertising co. and went to Mexico. hongli 3000 yuan. helped art critic Li Xianting build new house. 1995. to foreign buyers. 3000 yuan for the year. see Zhang Huaibai above. After school enrolled in Shanghai Academy of Fine Arts. sold two prints through private gallery. However many exhibitions in Shanghai now open with a performance. was result of conflict within contemporary art world. making trips to buy materials for a friend for small commissions. ZTH doesn’t take photographs. but left after 3 months. No domestic commissions. though the magazines have downsized them and printed them on the back cover rather than used #28’s cover design. No future if not in critics’ good books. 1 video and I recorded sound work. Studied Spanish for 6 months in Mexico. In Tianjin. born 1972. Said catalogues were another major expense.quality control bureau . Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. commissioned for mural by disco in Baotou. October 1997. and has lived effectively by any means since. Still doing this. “Cities on the Move” in Vienna. Then returned to Shanghai. These are fake Newsweeks with #28 on cover. painted series of landscapes and still lifes for friend who had art exchange . A friend has a company that sells them. Started computer work in 1995. contemporary art still almost unheard of. 1 performance acted by co-worker. painted 18 more landscapes and still lifes for another yishu jiaoyisuo. students preparing for exams. They sold for 200-300 yuan each. 1997. in January 1990. 1998: Taught all year at Tianjin College of Education.designing commercial brand logos. Found job designing ads for private advertising agency. photography in 1997. No domestic or overseas sales. Also does private tuition. started painting shangpin hua. Overseas exhibitions pay travel costs. A friend worked in computer co. Decided to give up art in 1989. ranhou jueding you sheme fangfa biaoda zhege gainian. all the others overseas. Exhibited in Canada in January 1999. Still working there now. No overseas sales. male. washing cars. Have sold 8 for 1000 yuan each. Paints on newspaper.

apart from those painted for the art exchanges. No domestic commissions. Has exhibited every year since. One ambassador has bought 14 photographs. conducted first solo exhibition. First sale of work in 1996. after work. March 1999. moved to Beijing and established private commercial art gallery with friend. Has lived by sale of work since. and 3 sets of performance photographs in China for 1000 yuan each. born early 1960s?. 1991. laid off temporarily with 70% wages. The performance. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 at least. and first public performance. Has sold 4 paintings. Both buy art for its appreciative potential. sent videotapes of performances but did not go in person. in the exhibition hall. practiced alone. Worked in foundry. $US 600 for a long “panoramic” group photograph. 1998: did not work for salary. one in China and three overseas. then 7 or 8 last year. Never at work. male. required nakedness. to Taiwanese collector for $US 200. In first two overseas exhibitions. Overseas sales: 3 paintings bought by gallery in Zurich for $US 2700. Solo exhibition in Loyang Wenhua Guan. partly for lack of materials. Stopped doing junk sculpture in 1994 to concentrate on performance art. Loyang. by own account. First exhibition. various jobs. Beijing. mostly photographs. Germany and twice in Japan. Started photography in 1995. but thinks most or all buyers are foreign. was result of publicity through Beijing art circles. to foreign buyer at embassy. The exhibition. Beijing. Domestic. painted in oils. After move to Beijing did not paint or create installations. In 3 years has sold over 100 works. then left. First sale of junk sculpture in 1993. No domestic sales. like subsequent ones. Two domestic commissions. Photographer. but they were passed in. In first year in Beijing made about 20. 1998: No salaried work. Materials cost 80. of oil paintings. 1996. attended 6th Nippon International Performance Art Festival in person. When business was slow in factory.objects stuck to a canvas . Attended night classes in oil painting in Loyang for 4 years. Ran gallery for 6 months. in Loyang in 1988.000 yuan per year. but then not shown. Not sure if sales through Chinese gallery are to Chinese or foreign buyers. #30 quotes influence of gaige kaifang and of other artists he knew experimenting in similar ways. jailed for indecency in Beijing for three months. First sale of photograph. Income has gone up year by year. performance video accepted for VideoArt ‘97 China exhibition. overseas artists. At Dong Fang Hong. Collectors. The mural for the Baotou disco (2500 yuan) and a dragon on a column for a park in Chaoyang District. Made $US 20. #30. Sells work through 4 galleries. #30 considers that Chinese collectors are more conservative than foreign collectors. $US 1000. Has had work accepted in 7 exhibitions already in 1999. resident foreigners. of junk creations. Did not study conceptual art or photography. 1997. Attending 3rd Fukuoka Exhibition of Asian Art and Venice Biennale this year. in Guangzhou. lives in Beijing. to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Chaoyang District (1500 yuan). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 125 . could paint at home.with things found beside the road and on rubbish tips. started to work on installations. created junk sculptures and junk collages . but Chinese buyers don’t trust modern art to appreciate. overseas sales hard to separate. after moving to Beijing. “The modern art of Zhu Ming” at Zhongguo Meishuguan. 1994. Now sells photographs of the same style for $US 1500. Oil painting. Had not received the money yet (April 1999). 1993. Beijing.Early 1990s. Doesn’t work on commission. concentrated on photography. Has participated in five exhibitions since. though he had been asked not to. including two in Netherlands and one in Britain. After school (1979) employed in Dong Fang Hong tractor factory.000 yuan or $2000+ US from sales. must sell this much or more to work. Has had photographs auctioned. Fired from factory in 1995. Had painted from age 13. One or two a year until 1998.

730 512.120 21.970 498.04 96.500 696.210 1996 10.170 22.74 117.180 20.740 1978 962.76 1993 339.490 60.1e Chinese Economic Statistics Josephine Fox with John Clark Economic.740 807.74 77.720 333.400 807.50 129.620 22.640 841.26 55.016.400 74.32 25.760 59.37 104.000 1988 1.230 1992 1.050 1981 1.580 21.140 59.51 58.300 49.610 295.48 74.510 343.140 790.880 688.340 553.130 70.36 48.570 1985 1.96 77.940 263.250 452.68 1978 283.910 305.950 464.790 18.180 52.37 110.400 201.26 84.330 1991 1.990 848.830 543.17 1982 309.04 80.92 143.420 852.700 623.87 78.00 1981 298.700 59.37 71.950 23.79 73.120 112.71 24.470 795.29 75.21 26.82 1988 321.43 99. 1997 Employed population by type of industry: primary. zhixia shi lishi tongji ziliao huibian (Cumulative historical statistics for all provinces.740 240.320 602.62 23.040 1990 1.223.230 22.650 799.63 72. (These figures are in given in detail to facilitate future work by other scholars) Population (1.470 864.04 29.030.89 83.71 141.62 29.77 71.370 % 82.070 1987 1. Quan guo ge sheng.260 Zhongguo tongji nianjian.450 67.890 % 17.620 64.63 70.490 18.08 The table above displays Chinese employment statistics from two sources.68 74.360 481.02 1983 311.15 1994 333.23 28.970 59.700 17.800 23.92 Rural 783.660 56.70 183.770 401.07 87.51 69.40 Total 393.920 69.96 19.130 16.90 117.127.500 1995 1.520 410.060 855.55 17.200 614. educational and demographic statistics relevant to the market for art in China. zizhi qu.400 301.00 1985 311.690 21. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 126 .98 1995 330.260 1989 1.150 18.31 139.01 23.650 831.860 54.420 1980 987.52 25.370 21.17 1980 291.89 49.211.Chapter 9.660 276.63 28.13 1996 347.450 184.38 70.390 866.95 150.070 17.96 70.38 76.800 222.210 21.95 120.37 29.310 14.170 250.570 811.690 58.340 803.290 567.170 68.360 68.000 people) Total 1977 949.81 42.72 58.950 191.41 26.800 14.76 124.190 1987 316.610 437.010 801.000 people) Year Primary % Secondary % Tertiary % 1977 293.40 135.260 823.820 527.158.50 179. Beijing and Zhengzhou.000 Urban 166.043.50 161.92 18.08 81.330 18.320 18.690 12.690 172.410 816. autonomous districts and special municipalities in China).71 101.94 73.400 17.01 121.600 594.26 121.143.87 1992 347.19 73.170 68.710 1993 1.110.84 78.880 22.99 76.13 21. Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe.590 1979 975.800 847.150 22.13 1979 286.110 18.17 1984 308.740 359.16 21.920 12.90 164.570 1994 18.400 583.740 286.31 1989 331. National Bureau of Statistics.990 13. secondary and tertiary (1.43 105.240 423. 1990 and the Zhongguo tongji Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.510 88.59 73.198.890 1997 1.010 26.490 859.500 16.56 1991 348.750 26.500 369.540 1983 1.360 18.510 1986 1.610 22.010 351.61 79.420 19.690 50.550 24.45 127.570 13.050 62.81 26.181.45 82.220 19.34 1990 340.050 790.00 1997 347.080 13.080 1984 1.28 94.39 20.76 65.430 323.60 57.74 1986 312.710 214.37 27.720 1982 1.

082 1997 3.77 1987 1978 5. science. The post-1993 basic categories for subjects taught at university level are: philosophy.74 1995 1986 13. also published by the National Bureau of Statistics. Number of tertiary students (1.066 1996 3.782 19. and 1982 to 1997 inclusive. and 1982 1989 inclusive are identical. secondary or tertiary industry.37 0. according to which art was merged with literature as a subject of state education policy and funding. Number of postgraduates studying art (individual students) Year Year 1989 412 1994 504 1990 386 1995 636 1991 319 1996 755 1992 274 1993 356 Figures for 1989-1996 from Zhongguo jiaoyu tongji nianjian (China Yearbook of education statistics). Quan guo ge sheng.536 1978 856 1986 1. engineering.. published by the Economic and Social Development Research Centre..54 1994 1985 12.52 1989 1980 6.25 Figures for 1977 to 1993 inclusive from Zhongguo tongji nianjian..316 0.still current. State Education Commission.266 0.662 0. literature. 1998). Zhongguo Tongji Chubanshe. 1979..279 1989 2. such as Beijing University or Nankai University.880 1994 2.59 0..445 % of total enrolment 0.. People’s Republic of China. including art.685 19. agricultural science and medicine.936 17. consistently gives higher figures for primary and secondary industry and lower figures for tertiary industry than the Zhongguo tongji nianjian.91 1.020 1987 1.501 0.. law. The Zhongguo jingji nianjian figures represent the number of students enrolled at fine arts academies. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The 1999 yearbook (providing figures for 1998) is not yet (May 1999) in the libraries. 1980.799 1979 1. and may not include students of fine arts at major universities with a fine arts department or faculty.644 0. I have used the most recent set of figures (Zhongguo tongji nianjian. 1980.200 18. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 127 .48 1992 1983 6..227 7. Neither publication sets out the standards used to determine what kinds of work are classified under primary.66 1988 1979 5..308 38.92 0. The Zhongguo tongji nianjian figures represent numbers of students studying art at tertiary level.000 students) 1977 625 1985 1.12 1. and therefore of government statistical publications.52 1993 1984 7.175 0. Zhongguo tongji nianjian provides figures for 1978.53 1990 1981 7. Below the basic categories are 71 sub-categories comprising 504 subjects.207 1991 2.81 0. Quan guo ge sheng.72 0.959 1995 2. The Zhongguo tongji nianjian stopped publishing numbers of students studying art as a discrete statistic after 1993. 1983 .92 0.70 1996 Art students 14. economics.57 1991 1982 5.703 1993 2.063 1983 1.174 1982 1. and have interpolated figures from Quan guo ge sheng..023 0.154 1990 2. history. Beijing.540 0.044 1984 1.326 0. but the breakdown into primary. 1981 and 1982 as the Zhongguo tongji nianjian does not give figures for those years. 1980.144 1988 2.021 1981 1. Number of tertiary art students (individual students) Year Art students % of total Year enrolment 1977 4.396 1992 2. State Council. secondary and tertiary sectors is different. 1980 and 1983 to 1989 inclusive as Quan guo ge sheng.417 17.975 28. within which university administrations exercise discretion.and Zhongguo tongji nianjian.906 1980 1. Quan guo ge sheng..87 0.. Zhongguo tongji nianjian provides figures for 1978. edited by Department of Planning and Construction. The 1997 Zhongguo tongji nianjian gives the same approximate total figures for the number of working people in China in 1978. published by Renmin Jiaoyu Chubanshe. People’s Republic of China.783 0. This was a consequence of the State Education Commission passing the Subject index for institutions of higher education in July 1993. Figures for 1994 to 1996 inclusive from Zhongguo jingji nianjian (Almanac of China’s economy).012 16.184 Quan guo ge sheng. education. and 1983 to 1997 inclusive.provides figures for 1977 to 1989 inclusive.provides figures for 1977 to 1989 inclusive.nianjian (China Statistical Yearbook). for 1977. In this case the figures for 1978.

also from Zhongguo tongji nianjian. Figures for 1985 .061 1.16 0.878 2.450 1990 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.61 1992 11.04 1978 860 0.240 1988 1982 529.262 372.703 0.79 1983 4. from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.100 896. and again include only lecturers at art institutes.633 0.14 0.329 2.326 0.337 2.021 344.240 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.663.33 1993 11.810 3.000 1982 286.190 1984 1978 362.071 20.900 6. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 128 .020.410 % of total enrolment 0.676 0.567 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 390.470 1989 1983 593.10 1979 1. GDP 717.780 2.42 1989 10.04 1983 2.85 1984 5.66 1990 10.922 0.381 20.000 401.994 2.732 1.08 1986 8.30 0.810 6.29 1986 4.820 1986 1980 451.790 Year 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 GDP 2.540 10.905 22.000 403.352 393.518 2.67 Figures for 1982 .000 Tertiary art teachers (individual teachers) Year Art lecturers % of total Year Art lecturers % of total lecturers lecturers 1982 4.62 1991 11.770 1. The figures for 1995 .920 1.777 0.161.690.585 387. Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Overseas students 3.220 1.1984 inclusive. and do not include lecturers teaching art at major universities with fine arts faculties.410 4.958 3.771 387.919 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.250 1.18 0.185 397.118 2.71 Teachers in tertiary education (individual teachers.70 0.021 2.950 2.909 1.14 0.000 1979 237.073 0.1996 are from Zhongguo jiaoyu tongji nianjian.25 1987 4.908 1983 302.000 1978 206.45 1988 9.780 1987 1981 486.04 1985 4.440 1.69 0.463.196.04 1981 2.742 19.42 0. 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 315.04 1984 3.888 0.93 1985 8.897 2.39 1994 11.04 1982 2.431 385.Students studying overseas (individual students) Year Overseas % of total students enrolment 1977 220 0. The figure for 1994 is from Zhongguo jingji nianjian.830 1.1993 inclusive.788.000 405. include both categories of art lecturer.000 1981 250.460 7. represent teachers at art institutes.124 0.47 1995 5.000 1980 247.854.410 1985 1979 403.812 1.68 0.24 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.346 2.675.492.940 5.597 2.86 1987 9. Gross domestic product (million yuan) Year GDP Year 1977 320. some figures approximate) 1977 186.365 394.51 1996 5.17 1980 2.808 396.477.786 3.847.

28 963.44 1.154.85 3.618.24 1.054.92 1.04 1.65 848.854.32 1.351.48 1.47 3. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 129 .01 1.88 724.162.80 573.00 1.40 733.16 770.48 4.14 1.22 1.50 4.43 1.95 1.24 3.03 1.47 4.84 852.012.40 1.64 551.64 1.55 Per capita income 779.24 1.276.78 1.91 1.262.31 1.19 3.88 798.39 4.093.63 880.82 Per capita income 482.210.387.76 658.16 691.68 805.24 991.52 1.291.22 2.40 Disposable income 437.98 Household size 4.95 1.96 Household size 4.04 872.594.52 1.07 1.36 3.60 1.75 1.56 1.58 1.68 732.89 3.71 1.166.56 1.06 1.36 663.528.82 3.62 3.579.51 3.47 1.20 Disposable income 526.098.40 Living expenditure 455.42 3.57 1.80 Household size 4.76 599.96 650.76 2.352.141.581.36 855.24 1.92 905.96 1.96 Disposable income 446.24 987.51 2.42 1.049.74 Per capita income 595.22 1.37 3.28 626.33 789.99 3.270.12 3.40 570.006.230.82 1.67 Living expenditure 731.25 4.04 1.12 2.95 Household size 4.92 732.493.891.52 1.439.20 935.012.36 Living expenditure 657.12 Disposable income 625.80 3.19 2.228.05 908.52 897.54 1.20 752.82 Disposable income 761.48 3.76 1.75 1.16 3.478.56 1.86 931.62 3.347.193.036.19 3.76 981.09 Per capita income 859.976.61 1.16 Living expenditure 782. 767.48 929.24 772.51 Disposable income 692.30 812.07 3.73 3.92 3.12 827.88 Living expenditure 469.32 632.88 737.55 3.63 Per capita income 682.192.734.97 3.82 Per capita income 496.454.84 1.456.40 546.28 Household size 4.119.04 909.36 2.039.20 993.382.68 659.20 830.18 3.28 861.88 884.96 Living expenditure 548.279.373.92 850.44 1.72 632.45 1.60 915.94 3.72 821.63 3.260.92 1.76 3.32 1.45 991.88 747.719.383.Per capita income: urban households (persons/yuan) 1985 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1986 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1987 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1988 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1989 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1990 1st decile Household size 4.160.24 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

89 Living expenditure 938.12 3.68 1.045.734.322 1.27 Disposable income 887.851.446.17 2.30 3.32 3.665.56 2.24 6.439.68 1.278.66 4.02 1.70 3.67 2.80 3.039.81 1.14 2.708.23 3.64 1.42 6.675.36 3.65 1.79 1.841.147 2.44 1.96 2.70 3.336.958.56 2.75 1.529.144.92 2.359.66 4.671.87 1.63 2.86 1.668 1.107 2.54 Disposable income 1.799.453.905.52 2.266.87 3.79 3.68 3.707.05 2.01 2.351.718.03 1.565.83 2.505.08 1.685.36 1.683 1.76 3.24 1.12 1.127 1.363.28 1.404.30 Disposable income 975 1.097.13 2.583.90 3.57 3.41 4.040.80 2.28 Household size 3.12 4.934.50 Household size 3.675.460.37 2.43 Household size 3.071.57 2.12 4.041.303.512.16 3.956.49 3.59 3.67 4.22 3.826 960.721.56 2.99 Per capita income 1.05 1.007.28 2.72 3.99 3.61 1.489.882.2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1991 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1992 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1993 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1994 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1995 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 3.09 6.82 3.53 3.91 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.977 2.80 2.665 1.502.77 2.20 5.16 4.663 2.252.10 2.67 3.12 1.81 3.077.03 2.79 Per capita income 1.524.60 1.87 3.625.88 4.54 1.46 3.08 1.251 1.31 Per capita income 2.43 Disposable income 1.756.837.88 3.522.503.76 3.31 3.510.255 1.92 1.778.889.073.16 3.27 1.07 5.079.79 1.36 3.22 2.88 3.776 2.21 3.68 1.767.34 2.292.890 2.502.98 2.238.67 Living expenditure 1.86 3.85 1.16 Per capita income 1.239. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 130 .299.83 2.644.951.501 3.40 1.28 3.453.626.770.76 1.533.028.713.37 1.441.283.598.76 1.34 2.070.02 2.49 3.880.516.71 3.115.91 4.698.27 1.71 3.81 Living expenditure 1.330 2.923.179.10 Per capita income 1.494 1.72 1.62 3.387.12 2.060.22 2.985.409 1.29 2.31 Household size 3.40 3.262.447.02 2.107.15 Disposable income 1.08 2.011.44 3.43 1.29 3.264.767 3.351.036.72 2.006.49 2.52 4.032 968.49 3.94 2.051 1.180.15 3.81 3.39 3.64 1.672 Household size 3.007.81 Living expenditure 1.528.055.810.90 3.34 Living expenditure 2.

78 3. Grain 55.04 5.77 9.16 59.79 3.04 68.34 3.12 2.895.246.11 3.456.28 963.44 33.48 Books & papers 4.44 72.297.52 6.84 94. Food 278.08 6.826.52 6.32 3.17 4.24 1.16 204.72 3.453.36 9.64 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.52 10.190.98 5.76 74.52 6.15 5.96 1.07 2.12 9.3.68 8.265.23 Household size 3.56 5.88 38.18 5.80 49.80 473.28 626.045.075.68 8.08 56.04 49.24 6.30 7.52 3.32 34.780.54 7.81 4.92 732.162. The figures for 1992 in the 1993 Zhongguo tongji nianjian are presented in rounded off form without fractions of yuan.24 227.43 6.36 1.24 6.70 10.988.709.56 152.333.288. Tea.074.427.00 2.04 81.64 178.96 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.46 3.52 10.32 3.32 6.156.55 4.146.20 3.20 3.Clothing 60.4.460.599.39 3.432.08 63.45 4.24 6.75 3.66 6.00 81.919.779.537.17 7.36 118. Other foodstuffs 36.377.10 2.94 2.495.822.80 55.64 226.54 7.26 10.Medical 4.78 Per capita income 2.40 62.34 4.Entertainment 18.57 Living expenditure 2.47 3.45 5.922. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 131 .92 44.Houseware 35.94 Disposable income 2.204.96 81.10th decile Total 1996 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1997 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 2.28 6.96 7.2.88 724.19 8.56 5.Fuel 9.033.76 430.36 95.185.24 1.62 3.98 3.88 546.56 5.92 64.60 3.24 3.30 2.482.76 274.20 Household size 3.56 5.96 4.160.47 Living expenditure 2.92 Books & papers 4.231.09 Per capita income 2. alcohol 24.579.62 3. In 1994 the Zhongguo tongji nianjian resumed its previous practice of publishing statistical averages worked out to the second decimal place.88 319.64 551.12 390.816.52 130.16 96. cigs.148.88 248.20 830.12 37.00 28.12 62.23 4.88 77.93 5.844.250.96 7.314.15 Disposable income 2. Living expenses by category for urban households (yuan) 1985 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4.537.00 5.96 Total 455.81 3.20 320.76 Books & papers 4.04 1.68 112.28 1.31 4.82 4.35 6.44 3.44 4.808.37 3.327. Meat & veg 163.894.10 25.892.56 352.845.397.04 4.96 2.430.75 51.966.26 8.223.20 56.12 2.76 113.20 6.92 5.44 167.32 6.19 3.48 10.68 188.20 6.24 46.52 65.04 5.57 3.188.28 62.44 392.

32 5.08 63.08 4.84 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.64 356.Food 275.4 Other foodstuffs 33.00 3.68 7.60 53.72 45.76 7.52 3.Non-market items 36.08 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1986 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 0.84 77.44 6.24 987.28 6.16 85.24 6.92 1.88 6.52 6.24 46.00 10.24 160.84 Total expenditure 469.92 10.52 6.48 6.48 7.44 33.60 3.72 6.04 64.64 249.72 25.4 Post 7.56 88.32 5.68 8.16 9.24 6.84 2.08 Books & papers 4.96 650.56 78.32 113. cigs.20 129.262.52 7.76 434.52 6.32 37.24 6.08 6.84 71.56 4.96 7.88 798.92 2.20 8.52 69.12 6. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 132 .36 65.20 10.64 4.08 5.56 5.60 5.28 6.32 5.84 54.Houseware 36.60 10.08 8.52 10.28 11.96 4.96 7.28 6.48 93.80 12.08 227.64 7.08 8.92 334.56 5.36 8.52 3.80 108.36 855.92 67.80 62.24 124.28 52.64 482.32 5.52 323.76 97.24 67.Fuel 11.76 12.72 7.52 10.36 77.84 7.20 10.56 8.80 7.72 1.68 8.44 42.1 Rent 5.12 6.64 98.72 55.84 7.80 2.12 6.88 747.76 9.7 Entertainment 1.3 Transport 4.20 1.60 0.2 Meat & veg 158.52 6.16 9.36 0.76 6.44 8.84 8.6 Child care 2.68 8.96 63.64 120.96 7.72 13.44 141.92 15.32 1.64 31.56 5.80 10.48 1.04 8.40 7.20 10.16 4.08 1.20 205.12 6.08 7.00 44.04 8.36 91.72 60.Medical 6.12 7.20 242.84 7.48 7.68 63.84 277. alcohol 26.80 56.52 10.16 418.04 70.24 0.1 Grain 57.96 7.08 7.64 3.52 6.80 573.00 60.96 7.92 6.84 12.04 63.96 1.12 6.04 1.24 166.28 2.52 9.5 School 6.08 Books & papers 4.96 Books & papers 4.32 2.08 1.68 75.84 7.84 48.12 12.4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 68.68 44.Entertainment 15.24 50.44 6.28 395.2 Power 5.Clothing 58.96 7.80 0.00 Books & papers 4.76 55.60 6.3 Tea.96 Books & papers 4.00 6.52 1.88 190.28 572.

40 1.49 524.72 7.08 8.20 305.Medical 6.35 6.15 80.81 7.28 122.84 7.00 8.36 0.56 9.84 2.74 205.88 8.48 65.96 7.42 8.52 8.04 91.88 7.Food 333.20 14.81 7.56 8.26 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.76 3.28 61.24 9.92 2.88 8.96 Books & papers 4.72 64.72 3.1 Grain 59.44 276.71 7. Clothing 66.18 117.56 79.32 5.64 9.06 472. cigs.32 5.5 School 8.98 9.12 6.98 9.88 8.28 5.40 16.52 6.93 1.48 3.04 8.44 1.92 12.02 17.39 78.84 7.71 64.95 7.48 Books & papers 5.77 58.42 8.12 7.32 53.61 250.92 69.08 8.76 658.19 9.16 51.52 6.48 Books & papers 5.40 7.3 Transport 3.28 2.20 761.42 8.56 54.84 11.76 6.15 471.55 44.36 8.08 13.52 8.41 6.02 103.Non-market items 38.04 60.04 46.60 0.41 6.32 7.52 6.3 Tea.33 273.40 11.36 4.23 24.1 Rent 4.44 93.20 8.03 50.48 64.43 100.08 1.35 6.76 76.Housing 9.9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 79.36 9.12 3.31 64.04 872.44 46.97 101. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 133 .82 22.4 Other foodstuff 45.08 7.43 33.439.65 163.12 576.08 3.2 Power 6.04 8.00 57.56 2.56 5.36 0.43 5.40 8.82 Books & papers 5.2 Meat & veg 197.99 26.86 3.56 7.19 122.96 7.44 5.72 385.04 9.44 0.72 Total expenditure 548.12 9.Houseware 43.98 78.30 73.98 4.76 7.52 1.00 7.51 66.44 77.64 95.20 9.76 7.61 9.53 337.7 Entertainment 1.09 75.81 7.41 6.13 88.71 7.30 57.20 66.92 1.01 19.97 674.Entertainment 17.44 69.96 4. alcohol 32.49 142.48 6.04 8.61 121.72 1.20 8.57 6.04 2.80 428.09 1.35 6.68 2.28 6.6 Child care 1.72 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1987 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 0.20 1.64 3.52 8.16 7.4 Post 7.56 118.72 9.141.24 0.47 188.04 10.006.96 Books & papers 4.28 6.52 8.12 9.72 1.24 399.12 6.24 3.76 1.47 152.21 227.23 38.88 884.

43 75.27 3.61 3.48 Books & papers 5.97 6.75 75.49 282.98 9.66 4.8 Medical 2.50 11.87 9.48 8.6 Other transport 3.9 School 10.67 3.98 15.68 2.71 7.Food 393.48 Books & papers 5.65 8.81 7.35 6.58 11.71 7.28 8.01 Total expenditure 657.17 12.08 3.52 8.71 7.29 418.82 6.270.30 58.Non-market items 48.98 9.84 4.41 6.14 1.48 Books & papers 5.53 2.22 2.12 1.87 1.18 459.31 8.98 9.1 Grain 65.35 6.41 17.52 8.69 8.01 2.03 1.27 8.63 3.73 13.32 1.70 6.32 6.94 84.60 347.04 12.41 6. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 134 .98 9.77 7.21 7.69 6.47 9.41 690.35 2.15 1.36 9.41 7.80 0.52 313.31 120.96 10.35 6.65 2.73 15.71 7.2 Meat & veg 244.30 812.05 570.75 1.09 68.28 Books & papers 5.65 11.52 8.42 8.44 3.11 49.65 2.35 8.29 78.81 7.2 Water 1.49 2.22 1.99 3.35 Books & papers 5.47 83.Fuel 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 10.88 14.77 7.38 513.56 11.23 8.42 8.00 2.79 1.27 112.37 8.42 8.43 0.71 7.81 2.82 8.64 3.84 1.3 Electricity 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 8.19 2.4 Gas 0.10 Child care 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1988 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 2.58 74.74 8.90 2.69 92.79 3.48 22.11 11.13 8.67 2.11 Entertainment 1.12 Repairs & services 7.10th decile Total (d) 7.93 20.35 0.39 74.03 6.1 Rent 5.65 2.77 9.10 8.52 8.45 4.54 11.27 1.25 11.46 1.34 12.092.36 2.77 31.48 3.5 Urban transport 1.05 2.09 8.71 8.7 Post 0.45 8.39 4.07 66.56 8.70 7.53 11.35 6.15 2.82 3.81 7.71 7.34 2.76 1.13 3.86 931.61 0.48 8.48 11.06 1.34 4.70 1.35 1.15 9.454.04 1.46 11.42 8.22 12.57 12.41 11.13 631.41 6.51 6.54 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.21 10.92 383.45 72.01 11.11 2.

67 12.82 1.73 2.09 12.92 8.59 13.37 8.30 27.82 31.34 75.37 8.36 15.60 16.69 6.21 10.03 4.27 19.75 75.35 5.37 8.Clothing 77.66 66.68 0.91 2.21 1.23 3.55 9.43 2.36 815.71 86.69 6.Fuel 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 12.98 1.53 7.96 12.48 17.54 11.22 153.61 2.09 7.1 Rent 5.99 8.69 6.44 114.Houseware 57.69 6.51 41.43 4.39 1.68 8.34 0.21 496.47 248.87 88.70 9.12 8.13 133.87 228.77 142.14 141.6 Other transport 3.Non-market items 59.28 6.21 10.59 0.43 8.72 66.66 2.55 77.98 108.3 Electricity 8.54 90.15 9.Housing 12.18 3.10 12.55 3.47 14.46 3.77 7. alcohol 36.13 1.92 163.9 School 18.37 8.03 19.77 7.07 4.58 1.92 8.87 100.26 Books & papers 5.51 17.26 58.89 10.29 81.7 Post 0.48 2. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 135 .55 15.77 7.48 11.15 58.01 1.09 1.103.54 11.84 16.49 14.45 14.07 44.93 73.4 Other foodstuffs 47.26 Books & papers 5.92 2.58 9.79 187.95 6.65 0.70 79.15 18.40 4.26 4.5 Urban transport 1.98 35.26 Books & papers 5.Medical 9.69 5.8 Medical 3.75 107.10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1.14 14.15 108.07 6.15 9.06 567.64 19.38 182.82 6.17 102.16 18.21 10.92 8.78 89.62 6.08 19.25 2.66 8.37 1.26 Books & papers 5.96 7.97 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.25 115.76 346.50 148.77 2.21 10.15 9.81 11.76 66.54 11.07 8.Entertainment 19.19 2.68 2.77 7.57 8.54 11.59 11.00 18.07 91.92 8.2 Water 1.77 7.39 82.12 13.67 51.89 8.04 8.66 310.78 3.53 1.92 8.69 6.92 7.3 Tea.53 63.21 2.71 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 6.854.93 93.68 18.84 23.68 7.54 11.20 4.61 1.15 9.77 13.88 9.83 8.10 2.37 8.46 8.26 Books & papers 5.69 128.49 70.72 155.78 212.4 Gas 1. cigs.15 9.21 10.81 5.70 3.92 8.72 1.24 14.

29 89.34 595.78 8.00 3.60 13.Housing 4.07 1.78 1.80 103.2 Meat & veg 288.60 13.96 69.34 169.15 9.28 10.96 2.98 Books & papers 7.06 152.210.78 8.(g) 8.20 3.Other commercial 9.1 Grain 70.35 14.70 12.00 1.78 8.22 4.82 1.66 2.92 8.91 1.11 143.65 9.63 730.76 10.95 1.036.97 Books & papers 7.13 21.60 13.70 12.65 9.18 287.05 81.64 5. Food 456.72 169.67 172.88 1.Medical 11.98 6.76 10.382.88 74.10 Child care 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1989 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 7.02 202.90 10.23 8.22 4.55 406.193.69 6.59 Total expenditure 731.65 9.78 81.56 20.99 4.Entertainment 23.09 493.79 11.56 9.56 446.44 99.06 17.74 200.12 157.34 233.00 9.59 1.51 136.46 16. Non-market items 74.90 10.42 44.44 15.1 Rent 5.69 5.50 13.74 3.86 23.98 18.61 111.55 77.17 72.10 25.52 68.25 85.33 807.579.26 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.Fuel 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 14.32 5.30 2.48 117.51 77.00 955.77 7.82 Books & papers 7.76 17.12 Repairs & services 8.03 123.31 20.28 406.77 11.13 85.38 18.28 Books & papers 7.90 10.05 908.38 659.05 5.90 10. cigs.54 11.87 87.37 8.07 17.20 333.Houseware 51.56 106.90 76.92 13.4 Other foodstuffs 55.11 Entertainment 1.77 11.64 17.65 9.75 9.21 6.70 12.001.09 8.76 10.59 2. alcohol 41.96 1.76 10.60 13.59 12.64 37.66 22.91 14.50 94.77 11.58 8.84 7.96 24.02 19.59 4.06 9.69 53.56 5.56 17.11 4.15 3.63 107.70 12.78 8.47 18.01 76.3 Tea.59 127.82 102.66 537.64 105.88 133.09 4.74 178.61 Books & papers 5.90 62.69 130.34 121.00 14.64 585.29 2.45 15.51 1.21 10.97 31.48 91.73 44.28 8.42 109.08 87.03 18.47 368. Clothing 77.27 23.55 20. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 136 .72 70.47 36.03 59.15 149.77 11.09 15.13 24.12 663.84 17.

62 9.14 3.20 163.80 420.12 Books & papers 7.60 13.78 265.29 3.73 27.57 115.4 Other foodstuffs 62.12 9.84 1.00 3.75 59.3 Electricity 9.04 Books & papers 7.64 88.40 231.76 10.88 71.79 766.19 13.16 13.45 421.17 13.30 2.36 77.31 19.94 15.30 2.18 106.78 9.08 130.80 96.53 0.65 3.278.99 147.01 3.19 25.95 693.28 960.65 2.4 Gas 1.60 0.89 1.10 Child care 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1990 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1.11 4.68 3.10 23.34 31.16 119.05 11.53 7.22 346.65 9.59 1.68 24.19 858.59 Books & papers 7.70 80.52 111.77 11.70 12.62 18.78 8.456.64 8.29 11.44 12.54 43.17 14.16 991.90 10.60 13.35 76.57 9.65 9.44 12.Clothing 90.56 1.59 Total expenditure 782.097.59 19.82 5.3 Tea.28 2.73 10.50 4. alcohol 47.08 3.05 11.12 2.60 4.64 85.61 84.76 1.76 10.12 1.78 5.33 4.Houseware 51.24 9.07 9.66 5.9 School 24.77 11.83 564.01 10.69 114.76 10.685.09 82.5 Urban transport 1.33 7. cigs.08 9.36 21.275.60 3.72 3.83 5.94 5.51 627.11 10.69 129.05 11.60 13.72 1.70 12.26 97.35 4.88 271.64 4.93 518.40 25.91 696.89 601.1 Grain 70.13 Other non-market 6.57 9.26 9.33 2.47 95.52 2.039.79 67.99 25.Food 479.90 10.59 6.12 Repairs & services 10.90 10.00 5.01 1.59 Books & papers 7.18 83.73 174.43 2.58 17.45 1.48 2.80 Books & papers 7. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 137 .23 170.53 203.32 3.68 1.78 8.49 2.57 9.40 23.65 4.51 13.55 5.11 10.2 Meat & veg 299.85 3.77 11.65 9.51 11.83 13.11 Entertainment 1.73 4.40 169.10 3.78 8.51 13.89 25.04 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.33 5.88 19.88 1.05 11.65 9.88 1.38 4.6 Other transport 3.01 2.93 2.31 4.92 197.79 6.88 11.76 1.53 6.75 382.04 2.75 95.9.56 3.8 Medical 3.83 460.7 Post 0.78 2.72 1.94 15.59 16.2 Water 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 9.19 9.10 24.32 124.70 12.51 2.78 75.92 9.96 3.91 144.

83 24.22 8.64 9.04 9.54 143.51 13.10 17.45 9.21 3.51 15.25 4.13 7.57 9.40 20.65 22.1 Grain 1.21 5.11 10.Other commercial 9.88 35.51 13.44 12.30 9.00 17.88 26.96 23.30 18.39 14.91 5.3 Electricity 11.39 14.05 11.44 12.34 29.22 2.04 8.04 Books & papers 7.96 6.28 27.62 19.68 4.55 111.11 68.94 15.86 4.49 8.20 18.12 5.25 19.05 11.88 Books & papers 7.21 29.Fuel 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 16.99 33.89 * 9.57 9.9 School 25.44 12.2 Meat & veg Books & papers Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.05 11.94 15.63 3.39 28.03 9.05 11.44 9.60 16.36 9.92 6.04 5.68 9.86 17.12 Repairs & services 11.55 127.03 5.33 9.18 19.85 6.11 10. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 138 .46 16.83 30.42 163. Non-market items 82.05 5.04 20.57 9.05 11.13 Other non-market 6.02 11.66 24.95 6.47 28.49 28.72 9.41 3.08 16.5 Urban transport 1.Food 1.05 11.12 9.Medical 14.1 Rent 6.61 2.93 4.47 3.05 11.26 10.17 3.81 4.84 84.97 2.78 9.05 11.59 11.89 3.57 24.72 9.35 4.85 19.43 8.Entertainment 21.6 Other transport 4.11 Entertainment 1.33 16.53 6.8 Medical 4.91 3.13 2.51 13.05 11.11 10.39 6.03 3.11 10.54 100.11 10.08 16.52 14.09 6.20 9.Housing 8.51 13.7 Post 0.34 11.48 20.19 2.19 4.04 Books & papers 7.83 4.47 60.38 5.56 0.08 9.42 13.59 68.61 3.13 11.34 21.94 3.05 11.33 11.43 28.28 9.34 14.76 21.85 15.72 2.96 205.07 14.94 15.57 9.4 Gas 1.32 7.26 49.73 2.08 19.61 37.58 29.36 29.93 22.12 2.01 18.1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 7.64 5.08 46.44 12.75 5.31 7.10 Child care 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1991 (a) Total 3.13 2.91 1.82 19.83 3.2 Water 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 9.51 13.04 Books & papers 7.31 4.04 Books & papers 7.94 15.65 4.57 9.13 1.81 20.94 15.59 10.87 140.91 117.44 9.20 125.72 1.23 23.44 12.04 9.99 4.

46 199.27 9.77 24.96 110.60 11.12 787.00 31.97 68.87 4.Clothing 108.97 23.32 233.81 1.65 561.78 16.92 158.04 18.5 Urban transport 3.86 1.Medical 18.60 11.96 5.73 9.45 855.35 14.273. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 139 .71 10.453.92 27.05 509.7 Post 1.66 9.96 1.58 86.72 20.96 9. cigs.78 16.98 137.57 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.8 Medical 5.40 23.61 44.25 4.11 Books & papers 9.24 471.56 22.41 3.90 115.09 4.95 97.06 124.Other commercial 10.3 Tea.07 13.35 14.27 18.25 127.24 9.34 51.54 244.98 2.96 9.44 13.78 16.107.40 10.78 14.64 139.03 12.90 124.06 9.06 25.11 Books & papers 9.17 143.Non-market items 109.04 18.60 144.64 108.04 102.52 10.Fuel 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 21.60 11.43 16.07 13.50 9.00 87.54 24.44 13.28 6.69 81.51 28.37 22.06 24.17 65.52 14.90 9.01 188.63 175.2 Water 8.37 5.68 7.13 3.45 268.80 106.40 10.18 158.83 6.60 11.65 5.9 School 33.86 236.Entertainment 28.18 712.51 21.84 4.30 203.99 172.59 5.44 126.04 5.05 9.11 Books & papers 9.04 18.51 11.04 18.98 5.264.44 26.3 Electricity 14.60 11.01 16.20 96.12 17.53 2.1 Rent 8.00 94.Houseware 62.23 8. alcohol 55.85 93.31 165.07 13.40 1.53 9.21 15.37 645.37 3.44 13.51 106.625.89 68.13 782.24 1.35 14.87 270.46 4.65 19.66 9.94 4.09 202.30 19.31 562.4 Gas 3.67 4.07 13.6 Other transport 5.42 469.07 13.35 14.78 16.47 92.Housing 8.37 10.40 13.62 21.75 1.4 Other foodstuffs 73.04 18.44 13.12 129.74 4.39 6.07 20.40 4.64 344.46 79.19 944.40 10.06 4.61 1.32 39.98 29.115.44 13.03 85.50 1.45 27.07 3.03 130.41 4.34 159.35 14.40 10.77 25.78 16.1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) expenditure 938.32 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 3.40 10.14 16.882.51 35.47 23.83 146.01 4.52 102.02 1.50 34.06 428.441.17 390.95 304.11 Books & papers 9.13 85.39 663.91 102.11 Books & papers 9.

04 18.41 5.14 69.35 14.40 10.93 250.46 235.50 188.Houseware & services 60.73 26.21 9.69 208.051 1.23 4. Other c) eggs 30.61 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 39.17 199.70 53.76 5.46 6.96 99.23 10.40 24.14 6.251 1. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 140 .11 47.60 11.26 74.11 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1992 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 4.71 3.Medical a) grain 96.30 161.96 1.85 100.249.27 94.32 356.04 18.147 2.05 44.59 207.96 28.55 4.13 41.47 32.16 130.1 Clothing 63.84 138.49 208.57 12.82 190.56 165.01 Total expenditure 1.99 48.65 59.37 74.82 9.44 13.43 49.68 36.30 1.15 6.51 8.97 65.20 89.34 63.08 10.19 103. culture 86.86 34.55 40.77 61.19 55.74 99.93 171.97 20.40 9. education.51 7.683 1.44 29.88 7.52 7.90 194.36 9.90 140.50 7.08 11.98 1.20 146.99 42.11 6.78 33.52 24.30 3.07 13.90 725.14 9.39 182.78 48.10 7.5 Milk products 9.42 888.46 32.38 32.12 Repairs & services 15.49 284.Housing 18.Entertainment.1 Private housing Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.76 122.56 18.4 Seafood Food: including 632.05 27.67 6.66 15.17 10.58 17.78 16.31 31.10 Child care 1.890 2.668 1.1 Consumer durables 18.14 32.44 147.28 206.73 2.77 164.78 16.34 106.35 14.63 28.88 36.45 257.46 109.13 Other non-market 8.672 1.11 Books & papers 9.96 169.68 6.10 17.42 120.98 11.77 30.05 3.21 318.68 48.22 52.31 3.066.2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 7.66 23.21 133.49 35.38 44.11 Entertainment 3.54 8.42 2.88 2.433 1.45 883.55 6.26 42.82 9.53 40.05 15.56 316.01 74.44 965.39 8.32 37.67 20.19 63.75 40.63 59.03 6.51 59.92 282.40 132.50 2.38 6.17 7.40 6.33 23.Apparel 120.28 7.88 104.42 8.60 11.65 107.82 33.39 33.00 116.45 8.24 33.04 111.12 17.66 93.66 14.47 226.77 7.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 23.20 803.98 12.64 50.23 22.22 86.Transport b) meat & veg 147.34 82.44 13.65 1.30 34.32 245.42 44.00 15.07 13.

48 45.Transport 1.404.61 240.14 124.1 Clothing 77.16 80.27 212.32 367.86 126.96 6.20 418.26 147.29 136.99 124.27 314.058.41 105. Apparel 142.09 53.25 56.42 120.85 60.23 194.17 2.1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1993 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1.55 138.54 60.284.33 214.50 195.37 109.72 99.59 61.63 7.72 167.56 20.810.21 86.35 Total expenditure 1.76 2.68 20.40 1.04 68.07 16.4 Seafood 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 47.32 3.56 30.41 303.72 34.28 103.37 256.57 1.66 56.34 35.96 99.51 94.18 14.528.59 95.07 3.81 68.21 22.01 8.46 39.79 246.42 299.36 1.75 184.Houseware 66.09 71.28 57.74 119. Food 744.39 229. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 141 .20 1.02 44.16 492.770.92 50.69 278.10 207.Medical 1.45 114.43 182.80 79.39 47.67 47.20 25.71 41.1 Private housing 25.62 252.97 43.81 51.36 2.91 221.68 26.31 173.25 174.50 1.33 132.40 158.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1994 (a) 28.Entertainment.97 69.58 869.69 51.70 77.75 35.88 95.77 175.58 100.00 45.34 56.42 19.110.40 128.169.21 356.5 Milk products 10.80 36. culture 113.84 71.22 56.65 3.27 957.77 80.1 Consumer durables 14.72 2.61 57.30 83.43 303.17 88.13 101.10 220.57 141.87 75.20 1.61 5.60 127.07 84.3 Eggs 35.49 2.36 6.36 29.01 28.76 4.46 39.1 Grain 119.57 82.65 1.464.76 219.533.45 67.05 107.03 195.23 250.10 129.27 23.68 1.67 1.16 63.31 93.60 145.92 329.77 126. education.37 128.89 7.62 300.12 124.50 187.33 33.87 140.34 47.60 51.72 30.05 41.99 249.Housing 93.52 74.93 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.97 132.98 446.19 87.2 Meat & veg 178.04 52.40 49.51 168.13 2.Other 36.65 1.055.06 163.90 94.91 23.93 289.

82 26.48 82.15 121.12 30.41 79.58 86.12 3.2 Meat & veg 286.14 125. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 142 .97 109.54 309.85 117.30 340.40 138.1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) Total expenditure 1.82 60.921.40 179.252.16 7.42 6.1 Clothing 94.29 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 63.42 1.01 17.72 349.00 2.17 569.06 109.21 291.70 550.54 143.66 132.68 1. Other 46.98 193.29 6.851.58 183.89 96.127.12 266.24 335.08 416.58 154. Apparel 167.61 86.305.78 227.27 1.83 2.21 299.05 236.516.91 1.48 22.61 346.57 74.606.95 294.33 201.education.08 682.97 1.798.91 81.69 134.50 233.11 250.1 Grain 185.5 Milk products 14.18 422.17 118.45 55.Housing 121.226.92 3.11 75.03 278.028.665.41 150.21 127.56 1.52 200.563.43 628.63 67.62 479.1 Private housing 32.99 88.Entertainment.34 1.80 2.3 Eggs 52.16 3. Food 1.14 4.29 288.62 82.49 221.16 187.17 2.14 7.64 50.24 211.62 181.12 72.Food 1.53 1.75 8.72 251.47 244.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1995 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 34.04 1.58 153.37 1.96 2.22 2. Transport 39.537.41 259.15 370.69 62.56 2.44 310.31 230.005.95 496.80 174.033.06 1.91 4.29 292.57 254.54 57.060.51 36.70 335.58 47.42 2.39 78.766.38 355.799.Houseware 78.61 1.81 78.52 4.33 382.39 26.1 Grain 236.97 2.94 429.71 260.78 69.89 477.74 319.40 274.58 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Medical 53.15 1.60 63.56 95.24 95.81 1.4 Seafood 1.00 Total expenditure 2.12 1.18 133.2 Meat & veg 232.73 58.12 4.946.32 259.39 115.99 235.33 390.02 1.56 2.48 66.351.880.85 31.68 115.88 406.89 40.39 390.76 1.00 83.70 3.89 1.49 1.440.1 Consumer durables 16.727.770.culture 130.644.169.30 54.23 161.25 443.934.3 Eggs 43.05 70.10 3.24 30.04 66.62 192.30 67.422.70 435.65 67.87 275.44 206.40 132.32 199.431.01 210.40 212.71 215.60 52.446.50 67.57 1.462.98 161.045.79 3.59 54.38 5.20 424.41 1.17 192.48 62.91 6.38 254.30 80.67 462.

72 63.89 159.54 2.13 143.02 6.85 296.47 7.61 93.35 1.35 6.356.72 134.51 479.01 2.53 82.51 605.1 Consumer durables 14.80 1.28 214.culture 162.1 Clothing 117.98 131.70 400.14 156.64 443.45 40.284.93 133.40 385.34 253.89 526.81 175.00 29.65 36.88 296.113.902.71 78.74 688.49 36.04 149.62 252.64 31.77 107.919.4 Seafood 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 86.79 308.12 181.43 4.17 1.31 171. Other 56.42 312.14 238.06 75.80 526.67 831.27 26.97 139.86 637.204.20 271.09 135.27 95.31 108.64 1.28 180.92 425.71 1.39 288.67 120.19 270.57 85.5 Milk products 18.41 414.57 30.37 487.19 57.Houseware 107.79 2.3 Eggs 60.00 5.84 113.59 1.70 585.84 567.265.15 2.15 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1996 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1.85 189.71 438.77 42.25 527.28 358.21 110.96 366.28 277.68 234.99 443.61 144.58 343.87 522.49 163.56 265.65 293.94 78.78 3. Transport 62.31 222.1 Grain 254.21 95.85 242.33 196. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 143 .87 801. Apparel 232.30 2.88 208.62 8.96 121.77 925.904.39 93.327.68 49.724.22 56.54 186.63 380.95 1. Food 1.43 121.20 5.50 323.12 103.79 393.11 2.93 2.40 26.35 50.07 172.19 298.08 151.14 280.816.71 3.34 4.62 181.76 2.1. Housing 167.2 Meat & veg 312.85 483.75 3.99 205.04 77.Houseware 112.15 318.482.87 7.23 73.485.85 1.780.81 250.55 76.77 116.33 490.68 105.4 Seafood 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 3.1 Clothing 130.40 280.Entertainment.94 6.61 251.89 347.24 1.91 Total expenditure 2.education.55 597.80 261.02 362.21 245. Medical 67.09 288.36 213.94 490.98 36.02 90.77 79.99 769.89 32.1 Private housing 53.26 56.86 316.08 147.95 138.5 Milk products 16.89 185.18 47.38 117.15 731.14 79.45 353. Apparel 208.06 259.47 3.00 545.38 21.66 97.86 287.76 445.28 446.39 1.93 93.73 3.20 139.18 69.44 41.34 103.25 143.570.583.48 275.12 283.

89 41.427.11 1.95 220.1 Consumer durables 14.00 460.383. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 144 .21 1.41 2.Entertainment.15 293.35 93.(c) 3.18 126.62 135.43 532.28 374.09 238.55 375.151.40 69.35 36.81 218.culture 191.57 150.09 356.74 124.19 641.57 242.43 70.17 256.09 241.34 199.54 7.95 6.96 1.21 250.80 326.48 54.95 293.60 371.80 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.80 159.40 159.571.02 256.85 184.education.45 4.19 142.4 Seafood 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 3.94 34.64 184.07 610.22 1.29 107. Transport 75.39 6.99 65.725.61 91.332.50 528.04 61.96 82.895. Other 69.56 344.1 Private housing 64.1 Clothing 126.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1997 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1.71 1.64 1.45 46.43 73.29 41.43 885.76 514.60 166.16 556.41 355.08 163.80 78.36 244.43 143.59 1.60 151.54 28.42 376.81 4.culture 208.42 894.81 484.77 177.44 282.28 5.1 Consumer durables 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile 34.05 49.74 2.23 193.93 124.01 511.94 190.58 25.13 183.82 132.17 89.14 8.17 328.10 68. Transport 84.53 233.94 421.16 245.59 300.47 520.41 161.00 2.78 232.96 120.24 603. Medical 91.333.75 88.17 74. Food 1.56 142.822.57 86.71 310.88 336.34 511. Housing 198.99 2.24 96.24 274.52 1.751.1 Grain 222.91 2.45 277.02 148.78 192.49 735.90 459.36 6.55 7.17 3.40 116.40 490.185.74 431.11 671.63 116.00 53.15 5.50 49.05 110.19 289.1 Consumer durables 14.41 263.Entertainment.89 Total expenditure 2.88 67.86 410.Houseware 95.59 219.49 583.56 474.89 757.16 312.72 204.42 247.74 407.20 421. Apparel 220.949.50 140.90 140.21 912.27 4.82 144.55 4.92 89.30 316.31 4. Medical 95.314.35 2.72 467.95 381.22 5.52 307.94 214.10 117.5 Milk products 20.56 201.52 170.28 238.04 88.39 3.02 48.85 7.02 106.12 200.98 1.30 142.61 330.24 234.95 89.03 267.74 396.49 300.3 Eggs 57.42 133.942.education.064.709.12 6.2 Meat & veg 317.50 389.

94 368.86 109.6 18. Other 69.64 300.1 0.39 263.8 0.30 yuan and so on).35 179. 20 .9 3.50 7.2 8.28 358. school expenses and transport and communication costs. Previous to this spending figures were classified according to monthly cash income level (20 yuan and below.1 Private housing 72.38 112.4 20.64 7.3 4.2 15.30 296.3 14.77 648.8 33.5 12. categories of spending were classified under the broad headings of “market” and “non-market” items.88 227.6 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.4 4.Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 173.01 340.19 84.75 447.1 18.2 1. From 1985 to 1991. In 1987 the number of categories of spending was increased as rising spending in all income groups made greater statistical differentiation useful. the latter including rent.09 185.4 29.3 5.69 163.12 438.0 7.1 0.4 0. In 1992 the distinction between “market” and “non-market” was dropped. Housing 227. The statistical format under which spending figures are classified by quintile and decile of the overall Chinese urban income distribution was introduced by the Zhongguo tongji nianjian in 1985.7 7.2 Total 6.9 32.58 197.32 400.3 0.8 Urban 14.7 1.8 13.9 9.65 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.3 20. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 145 .3 23. Number of consumer durables owned per 100 households (item/100 households) 1978 Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Radios TV sets 1980 (urban and rural) Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Electric fans Washing machines 1982 Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Radios TV sets 1983 (urban and rural) Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Radios TV sets 1984 (urban and rural) Sewing machines Watches Bicycles 8.1 18.2 2.8 10.5 22.34 98.40 148.0 4.5 Electric fans Washing machines Refrigerators 4. In 1993 the practice of averaging total expenditure figures to the second decimal place was resumed.5 7.24 171.7 10.2 Rural 4.8 55.1 Refrigerators TV sets Cassette recorders Radios Cameras Total 3.90 448.03 Rural 2.9 0.64 128.6 29.7 12.7 Urban 8.66 8. and the total expenditure figures rounded off to the nearest yuan as in the income distribution figures printed above.2 1.02 0.76 123.8 1.5 8.9 0.68 232.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 146 .02 134.64 258.37 231.92 Stereo cassettes 17.6 9.7 8.97 20.42 93.64 123.69 79.06 74.12 13.1 4.9 10.77 176.13 Watches (digital) 63.57 181.01 Lounge suites 5.01 90.2 0.08 27.86 243.01 75.17 74.92 7.46 124.27 74.88 74.92 33.60 182.43 239.17 16.07 35.62 76.01 145.1 1.69 26.83 103.90 111.19 119.6 4.22 21.09 363.21 84.58 63.94 8.55 B/w TVs 64.71 14.53 93.68 9.70 284.42 19.64 97.41 185.63 392.77 Mono cassettes 21.15 59.9 24.59 28.25 105.39 183.25 171.36 179.95 8.18 313.36 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.24 68.77 117.4 34.16 23.03 Bicycles 152.83 139.68 105.24 78.16 109.7 3.01 71.44 228.77 69.0 24.50 104.19 78.16 93.57 154.4 6.18 Watches (mechanical) 209.23 19.91 63.3 39.85 359.32 241.75 24.34 498.12 75.9 0.79 12.44 263.41 144.56 7.49 91.43 12.52 99.89 30.49 105.1 2.06 66.42 125.53 Washing machines 47.92 75.5 23.61 10.46 Blankets 67.0 1.95 10.5 21.01 114.01 Sofas 100.70 10.88 Refrigerators 7.4 6.78 120.3 Woollen clothes 261.46 436.80 78.27 187.90 83.30 106.63 9.32 Mattress beds 6.00 80.71 103.60 10.1 0.19 87.68 74.04 15.19 172.17 69.12 Electric fans 78.46 22.40 98.26 139.87 158.66 65.82 11.91 Cameras 6.10 27.01 8.47 6.94 78.51 149.16 167.29 6.Radios TV sets 1985 (urban and rural) Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Electric fans Washing machines 1986 (urban and rural) Sewing machines Watches Bicycles Electric fans Washing machines 1987 (urban) (a) Overcoats 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) Desks 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile Colour TVs 14.77 70.37 29.85 164.79 27.1 Cassette recorders Cameras Refrigerators TV sets Cassette recorders Radios Cameras Refrigerators TV sets Cassette recorders Radios Cameras 2.65 40.27 33.7 4.48 Wardrobes 87.08 Sewing machines 70.3 8.42 73.95 193.18 137.68 108.00 75.

83 62.93 Overcoats 115.50 Watches (mechanical) 205.46 38.42 Mono cassettes 23.53 29.11 29.36 31.21 385.77 13.19 16.93 82.72 339.09 377.79 11.59 52.22 12.67 137.12 14.54 73.65 43.92 14.98 151.71 105.26 68.77 48.76 70.45 8.47 103.17 112.00 180.47 228.30 43.39 17.33 232.57 228.16 79.91 73.50 56.07 64.29 123.93 102.09 8.06 103.62 36.07 Cameras 7.48 63.44 141.86 42.34 183.59 18.30 66.99 354.75 Refrigerators 11.92 96.32 114.34 Overcoats 103.60 Desks Woollen clothes 224.27 219.81 177.16 146.53 55.15 38.21 16.22 146.02 20.41 70.71 137.18 Mattress beds 7.06 165.67 89.64 126.20 147.41 81.92 66. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 147 .45 B/w TVs 66.16 408.17 118.99 25.31 57.93 104.64 112.78 127.49 227.59 167.31 284.9th decile 10th decile Total 1988 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 47.39 58.07 67.64 Sewing machines 67.11 306.95 Sofas 100.75 51.07 30.30 428.24 33.09 239.86 28.07 134.87 Watches (digital) 55.01 Colour TVs 22.84 59.81 98.94 107.62 174.91 70.23 90.58 410.62 92.28 34.92 153.95 Lounge suites 7.34 29.28 163.18 36.69 316.68 172.19 123.03 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1989 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 69.83 18.35 95.51 14.60 120.38 347.26 181.54 75.10 69.53 103.68 Blankets 81.25 12.22 Blankets 74.44 34.90 79.14 39.71 66.90 77.77 34.18 27.38 151.95 100.84 22.72 60.53 40.51 Stereo cassettes 22.50 117.82 30.89 32.85 73.91 15.56 101.54 170.81 70.33 43.22 27.62 34.12 118.71 Woollen clothes 242.56 32.29 26.39 Wardrobes 86.10 104.98 84.75 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.63 61.47 124.07 28.20 277.80 133.93 176.93 70.18 11.46 15.84 64.72 Bicycles 154.56 96.52 70.58 28.21 Wardrobes 86.83 12.63 Electric fans 90.46 177.54 Washing machines 52.04 11.93 34.02 184.52 163.40 165.33 22.20 98.59 156.80 11.03 18.97 85.08 67.37 130.97 185.90 180.05 137.47 135.74 130.93 Sofas 108.64 97.32 180.99 238.39 65.50 27.

50 34.89 106.66 218.05 157.15 60.48 31.48 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.91 383.76 45.32 14.16 158.43 146.53 22.23 17.91 17.45 54.10 70.13 443.09 15.61 39.47 Overcoats 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 127.21 191.26 Blankets 85.61 91.85 Mattress beds 10.69 235.78 29.98 83.55 76.63 78.00 124.61 95.54 149.68 35.50 138.66 51.21 70.53 96.46 12.64 19.38 193.40 135.05 324.89 84.82 21.77 295.99 347.21 46.22 145.28 Desks 425.03 146.45 11.90 85.05 43.11 36.32 182.66 67.85 73.29 188.27 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 70.30 Sewing machines 68.68 Washing machines 57.10th decile Total (b) 188.84 188.20 15.33 36.05 69.75 78.78 147.84 91.23 14.35 Refrigerator 17.26 31.43 169.05 38.84 63.93 18.04 174.12 359.64 112.36 86.11 184.43 207.98 Sewing machines 67.90 185.71 144.86 20.24 32.46 99.18 97.23 77.44 15.75 16.54 109.47 160.91 227.50 12.88 82.85 18.70 36.13 70.71 64.12 Sofas 113.34 51.68 10.55 34.36 183.72 70.89 39.08 Watches: digital 52.41 70.71 Lounge suites 9.20 Lounge suites 12.68 Stereo cassettes 24.01 169.71 22.44 129.89 99.51 229.32 70.38 186.18 225.46 Electric fans 102.24 83.12 Colour TVs 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1990 (a) 27.18 184.00 B/w TVs 66.46 73.44 55.33 118.95 188.75 58.78 Wardrobes 89.76 234.35 71.40 413.60 17.96 68.90 192.69 72.34 90.08 69.69 14.95 188.63 19.43 157.87 70.36 15.57 59.25 28.89 100.19 194.98 Desks 73.47 Cameras 8.18 185.99 188.41 124.72 Mattress beds 8.94 63.16 64.01 29.80 44.73 105.52 179.17 354.18 14.70 61.58 52.34 128.07 94.06 21.76 39.71 59.87 131.94 Woollen clothes 255.85 Bicycles 171.90 70.68 12.41 52.46 19.71 49.00 158. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 148 .39 32.80 19.14 99.48 141.81 24.96 Watches: mechanical 207.65 18.33 82.15 232.35 68.43 114.09 34.68 102.81 101.62 87.21 Bicycles 167.36 32.21 Mono cassettes 25.33 16.

79 70.07 188.20 240.71 13.45 24.55 22.56 386.03 148.65 72.99 83.23 Watches: mechanical 208.45 Electric fans 107.13 70.67 91.99 59.10 135.55 233.62 66.59 43.48 126.14 189.85 70.05 32.41 85.23 65.35 299.22 Stereo cassettes 24.65 Sewing machines 62.39 147.30 Bicycles 170.84 61.08 413.82 42.21 16.76 160.96 19.96 (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile Desks 74.51 Overcoats 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 128.30 37.76 132.24 Sofas 116.68 366.01 93.81 180.89 30.19 23.77 119.84 16.34 54.76 22.36 Cameras 9.60 87. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 149 .91 121.42 192.32 36.53 163.05 27.70 76.09 29.39 126.11 52.37 Wardrobes 86.98 60.04 Mono cassettes 28.05 226.07 158.02 56.59 Washing machines 61.17 35.30 221.30 28.42 46.92 346.45 66.52 323.25 19.07 202.59 342.10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1991 (a) 98.58 78.41 73.09 87.59 71.16 43.43 74.00 95.33 B/w TVs 63.29 53.71 185.13 171.73 144.39 36.09 233.25 23.79 Blankets 92.48 195.56 135.74 89.57 66.96 172.60 78.87 52.27 44.51 93.75 50.31 66.12 51.71 53.65 Mattress beds 12.10 41.21 67.10 155.59 40.99 19.04 160.97 79.00 228.29 Watches: digital 56.35 29.32 Lounge suites 17.38 42.82 33.23 32.30 96.08 84.25 78.36 16.76 185.47 46.57 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.13 105.68 39.22 65.99 181.69 136.46 143.35 22.96 101.49 66.19 172.18 45.68 86.80 Radios 40.92 48.50 Colour TVs 33.26 24.82 187.04 187.14 103.96 94.26 35.25 30.19 227.61 22.46 43.42 80.14 Refrigerator 23.88 190.82 34.26 14.42 135.19 40.33 146.07 76.24 Woollen clothes 254.86 50.65 41.01 18.

00 56.30 155.13 153.08 142.77 223.26 185.74 90.08 148.29 90.34 84.74 37.83 39.10 62.68 70.03 Sofas 132.70 B/w TVs 57.62 Blankets 101.16 194.33 29.84 40.64 69.58 181.92 23.73 85.25 51.93 Cameras 11.76 48.22 32.08 35.92 Desks 76.41 Mono cassettes 29.05 36.09 76.12 35.54 39.85 43.43 39.51 217.68 88.26 41.97 67.05 74.75 98.41 34.47 171.11 37.92 35.89 193. 45.95 30.97 Watches: mechanical 197.53 34.20 32.80 53.94 34.23 229.86 166.20 63.36 35.10 Electric fans 121.98 46.09 209.83 68.37 19.86 Wardrobes 83.76 21.28 23.21 38.28 34.74 98.89 44.40 37.37 63.m.47 48.13 25.28 24.79 29.66 85.97 88.96 19.30 143.21 88.07 17.92 226.79 20.70 185.18 33.10 55.81 Carpets: sq.17 30.01 162.88 68.93 82.47 148.86 131.21 56.32 78.32 Stereo cassettes 26.74 92.98 45.87 163.64 Overcoats 140.48 35.54 55.37 64.16 213.68 Lounge suites 21.69 208.99 87.65 28.48 Colour TVs 44.49 91.68 66.15 30.83 38.92 28.72 15.70 143.59 78.93 224.42 101.85 97.58 128.92 91.27 85.68 217.63 34.55 165.20 183.13 138.64 136.72 86.54 112.87 118.24 35.10 25.72 94.85 38.71 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.57 42.43 Refrigerator 29.71 25.80 Watches: digital 47.58 80.52 81.39 32.59 58.10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1992 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 96.08 Radios 31.76 30.45 210.22 Mattress beds 16.51 Washing machines 65. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 150 .78 108.43 150.00 213.53 21.25 136.18 199.81 33.64 58.58 71.23 88.42 202.

97 65.42 68.02 65.69 0.32 Air conditioners 0.79 Refrigerators 33.70 28.48 Electric fans 123.47 2.88 10.23 83.67 1.60 0.30 Cameras 12.83 133.58 9.85 4.92 Freezers 0.16 146.07 1.87 Hi-fi sets 1.34 5.99 Pianos 0.33 194.62 74.61 37.08 156.72 52.78 87.34 15.36 4.49 86.84 2.87 1.85 1.53 0.77 0.38 1.89 188.07 12.44 63.00 40.09 71.69 63.71 Stereo cassettes 25.65 Sewing machines 62.04 47.08 42.65 11.00 5.86 0.21 1.50 14.72 8.06 85.07 2.17 24.91 8.05 32.56 11.94 5.22 11.24 15.03 43.03 B/w TVs 51.54 90.94 14.83 3.19 42.80 33.56 10.40 0.11 183.32 6.68 1.94 10.47 33.85 190.79 38.89 8.72 37.13 33.18 1.69 Space heaters 1.35 2.19 Vacuum cleaners 1. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 151 .51 20.73 3.89 54.37 24.41 Colour TVs 52.03 90.59 192.07 Electronic games 5.49 2.86 28.55 2.30 38.47 81.17 63.02 3.60 35.81 65.62 10.60 VCRs 5.30 59.28 9.45 146.74 58.87 3.50 Electric cookware 41.22 3 wheel cabs 2.18 154.38 65.59 11.51 3.38 139.67 7.97 15.95 2.1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile Motorcycles 1.76 7.31 Showers 5.48 44.21 1.75 3.15 1.16 31.96 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.33 0.42 39.98 66.91 69.41 1.29 7.67 0.17 2.68 6.26 2.87 1.87 41.80 0.04 Mono cassettes 35.83 2.62 54.80 Washing machines 70.70 12.76 35.87 7.52 85.13 3.44 16.50 1.40 6.25 33.90 Other instruments 4.31 197.34 36.11 11.84 49.54 9.52 36.00 36.47 0.17 0.16 64.32 13.57 3.02 194.15 2.06 77.16 1.66 0.01 77.31 Range hoods 6.29 36.60 81.66 17.13 Bicycles 173.48 163.75 1.

62 Electronic games 8.53 152.52 87.01 58.52 29.38 14.78 Sofas 139.45 95.78 68.70 66.83 239.49 17.66 12.91 72.68 188.52 4.45 10.31 73.34 102.72 75.66 76.44 138.17 2.21 15.55 165.83 30.71 86.72 210.64 B/w TVs 48.58 1.60 89.29 0.85 Sewing machines 64.09 43. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 152 .05 Desks 76.26 80.92 Carpets: sq.46 3 wheel cabs 2.29 146.22 173.54 28.19 1.59 188.70 94.84 14.18 Lounge suites 23.42 159.30 1.87 2.28 152.m.65 1.36 180.00 19.80 201.31 Overcoats 154.21 95.00 78.33 3.25 90.29 23.04 2.81 3.89 18.07 219.55 29.94 63.86 86.60 32.36 11.25 64.45 34.97 15.31 89.06 63.11 Mattress beds 17.65 92.85 Wardrobes 85.99 1.22 Refrigerators 39.76 43.09 34.35 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.50 117.52 18.36 Colour TVs 58.62 2.93 123.58 28.9th decile 10th decile Total 1993 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 66.84 58.14 174.94 36.16 Electric fans 129.61 6.08 102.46 Blankets 107.60 40.50 92.03 79.60 89.93 34.53 Washing machines 74.18 69.16 35.16 66.99 37.76 1.59 97.02 244.19 2.77 10.33 8.39 Motorcycles 2.69 222.50 66.43 83.06 33.58 VCRs 6.10 3.91 188.59 Bicycles 180.99 23.28 6.56 204.70 73.65 132.28 87.28 92.59 66.38 33.61 7.81 151.96 38.65 93.87 2.15 199.52 13.85 141.46 15.42 140.03 169.55 21.59 19.86 151.59 2.14 19.46 87.02 37.23 189.58 Freezers 1.20 167.20 109.11 197.96 203.69 85.92 2.75 31.85 231.77 205.72 159.52 90.91 22.89 2. 65.35 56.49 195.81 206.27 50.59 99.42 149.91 83.88 10.94 98.17 14.

13 130.13 34.31 Sewing machines 63.23 0.58 10.77 9.18 127.13 90.43 1.30 30.56 160.02 Mattress beds 20.84 1.08 145.95 0.70 49.78 101.11 35.91 34.27 41.19 27.94 3.74 Range hoods 9.37 12.36 29.40 61.33 Hi-fi sets 3.50 3.48 81.62 177.49 4.85 77.10 21.08 86.66 7.47 187.51 0.48 12.32 41.18 55.96 44.88 20.m.07 Vacuum cleaners 2.16 151.22 39.16 34.16 0.56 3 wheel cabs 3.69 Stereo cassettes 25.73 45.49 Pianos 0.37 197.62 Wardrobes 82.72 65.55 Other instruments 4.87 Electric cookware 47.10 92.16 26.95 4.28 172.96 25.50 Overcoats 157.54 8.08 5.31 2.88 40.10 38.72 Showers 7.65 26.65 19.15 89.43 0.65 5.96 17.11 1.43 88.52 93.87 214. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 153 .70 5.92 134.95 38.50 Cameras 14.41 202.10 2.57 227.90 70.55 24.78 47.09 32.94 66.40 4.24 5.75 3.19 88.59 9.93 39.08 84.61 142.11 3.27 47.40 Bicycles 174.22 204.48 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.53 93.08 17.34 Carpets: sq.40 Blankets 103.03 Mono cassettes 37.63 40.20 11.32 31.69 100.96 36.29 10.31 31.36 9.63 36.(f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1994 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile Motorcycles 2.39 10.84 247.30 27.51 235.73 7.84 68.21 43.33 39.98 0.90 203.24 15.78 206.33 5.71 0.02 269.52 83.02 188.53 12.53 Desks 75.08 21.70 222.41 90.45 13.97 207.87 2.79 35.13 2.20 17.02 86.85 147.48 Lounge suites 30.62 Space heaters 1.41 25.57 3.97 6.66 119.70 99.85 8.83 196.08 41.07 39.30 45.01 84.84 0.10 2.60 175.62 42.37 6. 63.60 Air conditioners 0.28 Sofas 149.01 3.

30 88.25 Electronic games 12.08 2.52 141.42 154.44 12.05 10.55 34.17 2.88 6.02 69.22 1.16 12.27 2.04 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.38 9.58 91.40 5.2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 4.92 63.24 3.46 76.23 10.81 30.28 32.65 Other instruments 3.41 11.59 6.07 0.45 8.85 15.87 19.51 64.45 0.15 12.49 86.10 6.50 199.35 27.47 Stereo cassettes 20.57 5.69 Range hoods 14.31 50.86 2.20 8.11 8.77 29.14 35.13 29.09 2.75 3.05 68.84 70.09 16.57 159.22 5.17 19.50 192.83 Air conditioners 1.91 43.62 4.12 81.18 13.71 Refrigerators 41.08 3.38 Freezers 2.03 56.46 62.06 36.95 94.62 5.31 Space heaters 1.60 0.77 38.24 79.15 2.29 149.97 19.00 33.28 63.03 1.84 0.31 94.15 8.88 5.80 77.03 25.14 19.35 2.80 172.79 28.95 2.10 VCRs 9.11 32.98 85.26 Washing machines 74.51 18.63 74. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 154 .10 5.80 66.45 153.25 0.41 19.99 2.44 18.21 64.54 22.88 1.40 0.66 29.39 193.38 87.91 28.57 22.08 29.13 196.84 11.35 82.83 6.81 190.47 20.14 2.46 27.00 91.29 Colour TVs 65.35 92.69 15.80 98.98 1.92 7.64 2.62 25.65 3.28 Showers 12.96 48.33 24.53 23.04 2.76 35.17 39.19 6.11 7.68 Pianos 0.85 38.49 16.26 Cameras 14.81 24.95 3.02 11.46 29.76 84.91 25.10 44.65 195.23 25.34 14.93 44.78 62.18 46.00 Electric fans 134.00 Vacuum cleaners 4.21 Hi-fi sets 4.69 47.32 73.98 40.16 2.32 2.91 8.35 63.95 10.79 B/w TVs 43.26 92.03 75.42 27.63 41.89 89.65 Electric cookware 56.85 7.43 162.78 30.95 15.37 4.96 Mono cassettes 39.34 23.29 48.

23 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.83 60.22 98.35 Refrigerators 47.07 14.84 206.18 63.26 3 wheel cabs 4.01 27.91 27.05 131.60 19.20 50. 63.60 106.24 47.88 5.57 Stereo cassettes 19.88 196.14 86.39 61. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 155 .30 Desks 77.04 19.19 Electronic games 12.78 153.47 68.71 23.07 85.56 158.26 204.44 167.74 3.02 88.49 Washing machines 78.98 195.26 4.77 22.79 B/w TVs 38.93 2.62 161.07 252.79 6.69 2.77 24.37 15.22 Freezers 2.94 Cameras 16.03 23.14 65.14 2.67 7.32 72.63 20.28 62.79 23.34 92.44 43.12 199.10 98.58 191.32 2.24 8.87 Motorcycles 4.16 38.70 211.03 246.58 8.m.12 153.14 82.75 Carpets: sq.38 90.52 91.85 172.46 91.62 2.51 96.63 200.88 67.62 167.15 2.46 Sofas 155.74 179.21 63.43 53.14 Overcoats 162.92 139.84 Mono cassettes 40.91 Colour TVs 72.26 17.14 43.66 52.15 Blankets 105.20 230.61 17.98 185.66 26.01 13.42 90.41 31.82 64.33 Lounge suites 35.49 85.78 88.93 42.99 3.14 5.13 242.88 33.29 Bicycles 179.81 86.74 6.36 93.45 2.53 177.41 210.80 19.67 Mattress beds 24.24 46.12 89.41 29.91 132.30 194.87 161.86 53.27 84.12 Wardrobes 84.32 116.02 Sewing machines 63.12 66.83 47.28 193.38 26.36 86.39 18.97 Electric fans 148.75 80.53 217.71 36.01 79.01 125.79 194.66 3.61 95.59 200.95 102.10 24.68 80.77 35.33 24.54 2.61 23.56 45.49 186.89 76.71 95.44 97.55 88.03 93.88 139.96 94.97 VCRs 10.19 3.56 173.76 166.26 176.04 2.37 5.1995 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile Hi fi sets 5.03 87.64 227.

52 0.83 1.86 10.32 141.22 6.31 156.68 29.53 13.99 9.11 Mattress beds 25.38 8.69 194.07 199.28 2.53 83.91 3.57 Blankets 106.02 200.61 67.33 206.46 62.66 31.75 248.72 38.79 9.56 0.30 196.43 0.99 39.19 87.84 Bicycles 177.45 4.25 197.41 4.58 2.16 155.31 8.m.70 156.71 83.68 43.86 27.89 24. 69.95 34.72 15.30 56.96 87.40 62.76 2.22 176.91 Carpet: sq.74 195.32 39.04 133.39 1.63 9.79 11.92 33.25 213.82 92.82 92.47 47.40 186.32 30.17 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.09 Vacuum cleaners 4.09 62.23 5.08 28.29 36.52 3.96 7.91 6.32 96.25 43.74 44.24 82.52 Other instruments 3.72 Electric cookware 65.48 36. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 156 .88 Range hoods 19.26 3.68 50.51 50.20 3.32 9.31 Space heaters 1.64 45.68 132.09 40.40 6.73 9.58 94.59 88.79 6.83 192.21 5.58 208.63 48.16 123.67 8.34 84.05 44.81 7.37 3.08 257.44 4.67 50.01 3.01 10.54 2.95 62.85 Overcoats 163.52 76.62 247.57 1.95 19.13 49.20 92.14 26.80 222.56 120.31 39.53 31.28 99.44 46.74 18.60 2.71 12.59 94.74 Wardrobes 80.28 36.95 Fur coats 27.92 63.56 Air conditioners 2.29 207.38 183.47 31.89 Sewing machines 60.03 30.33 104.05 55.47 25.00 9.89 47.60 46.22 47.12 5.06 23.04 87.00 175.44 190.2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1996 (a) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile 8.83 14.59 13.51 Desks 74.06 69.10 30.24 8.07 Lounge suites 38.90 239.79 41.56 0.60 50.81 11.80 83.16 18.29 36.21 3 wheel cabs 4.78 45.04 145.23 99.49 Motorcycles 4.95 Showers 15.05 235.13 69.52 Pianos 0.08 117.65 45.58 84.45 168.38 45.95 87.08 28.48 Sofas 161.04 45.13 61.73 30.11 53.11 0.

15 Mono cassettes 41.65 0.35 78.35 18.96 90.94 Washing machines 78.23 97.99 91.10 193.20 18.39 26.65 Freezers 3.79 5.42 38.58 23.68 7.55 26.70 75.22 85.92 Showers 18.42 62.34 94.66 8.01 3.06 22.69 45.77 10.40 59.56 5.62 0.01 168.42 24.35 9.53 Stereo cassettes 20.00 169.00 3.Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 1997 (a) 1st decile 7.42 8.31 32.16 3.40 Cameras 17.34 27.87 1.45 19.55 176.74 14.88 111.84 37.09 90.31 16.96 46.15 Space heaters 1.74 32.54 28.14 44.49 82.29 19.88 14.59 25.43 162.15 8.58 Overcoats 137.83 0.28 7.50 Hi fi sets 6.12 10.62 30.27 Range hoods 21.42 6.94 3.28 26.05 13.40 17.06 Colour TVs 74.56 188.02 98.13 Air conditioners 3.43 0.29 48. 58.84 3.77 Blankets 99.88 107.22 20.48 30.10 14.10 158.38 65.69 90.29 Refrigerators 50.92 22.68 101.41 87.61 Vacuum cleaners 4.40 101.85 20.34 10.16 5.30 22.43 2.35 Fur coats 25.60 21.55 93.75 40.14 48.34 30.55 21.55 84.42 90.69 15.63 2.70 1.12 10.07 B/w TVs 36.69 33.74 50.65 46.32 98.41 25.64 2.86 53.95 70.85 3.73 4.33 45.53 84.63 3.16 10.16 18.71 24.58 31.79 48.79 21.20 Pianos 0.85 37.90 24.15 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.98 49.m.24 46.24 173.08 3.05 5.30 69.86 26.20 95.83 11.81 23.97 28.81 34.60 12.77 94. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 157 .51 Other instruments 2.70 20.42 80.48 Electronic games 12.67 VCRs 12.26 22.65 10.41 Carpet: sq.72 27.36 44.66 12.39 23.85 Electric cookware 71.22 0.14 2.77 6.67 46.86 3.23 Electric fans 148.

26 61.12 Colour TVs 83.96 205.13 2.88 87.35 4.00 4.86 7.82 235.14 0.10 Electric fans 143.66 68.26 93.57 58.68 11.32 107.41 48.43 200.86 57.68 1.88 56.09 55.24 55.85 165.19 90.88 161.16 115.45 42.84 94.36 0.29 12.09 0.07 224.64 10.10 182.70 137.22 94.36 158.89 26.92 Sofas 144.58 10.04 45.25 23.63 16.53 105.96 192.07 16.09 110.87 Cassette recorders 46.72 18.04 186.97 7.54 72.00 256.33 56.56 3.57 62.22 1.19 3.17 89.15 174.82 1.21 178.97 84.52 79.2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (b) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (c) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (d) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (e) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (f) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile 34.37 61.99 100.43 2.46 Computers 0.38 81.52 15.62 Motorcycles 5.31 211.61 61.62 178.60 Washing machines 77.85 62.40 5.82 153.21 11.16 10.98 52.15 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.54 161.37 52.27 0.85 Mattress beds 26.64 28.75 13.11 126.19 Refrigerators 53.60 49. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 158 .30 85.98 VCRs 11.14 Sewing machines 56.77 83.19 54.61 170.07 43.48 48.48 Hi fi sets 7.61 173.15 182.88 18.28 81.86 8.31 171.56 90.10 4.57 Lounge suites 41.75 32.48 Freezers 3.62 3.63 86.96 139.77 21.05 41.41 21.42 Cars 0.86 85.07 0.31 13.60 Wardrobes 77.86 127.74 177.28 89.58 139.82 56.69 56.45 4.85 74.23 179.62 87.40 14.03 57.28 37.32 0.84 115.48 188.93 151.23 0.38 Desks 72.81 0.81 58.66 74.96 184.44 165.20 65.89 6.54 14.74 Video disc players 2.68 0.85 101.72 83.49 89.41 181.78 4.91 55.03 96.19 53.17 206.21 76.71 49.32 3.15 166.37 Bicycles 164.95 179.46 80.96 143.19 19.54 0.35 92.79 5.16 0.06 60.03 59.92 176.32 Video cameras 0.88 83.71 96.71 24.60 226.29 92.88 77.

44 50.60 Vacuum cleaners 3.35 31.81 10.02 8.60 Cameras 16.41 5.01 77.920 1983 6.329.962.20 Other instruments 2. 1990 (one category added).92 87.1 28.665 26. Production of refrigerators (1.55 38.1 36.9 4.70 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.83 1.04 1.699 4.344 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.07 3.41 92.32 4.7 32.28 12.68 38.92 50.051 27.05 7.0 1981 55.82 19.68 2. 1984 (five categories of goods added).35 57.418.6 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 25.93 Electric cookware 69.492 1981 5.88 101. 1992 (fifteen categories added and four dropped) 1996 (one category added) and 1997 (seven categories added and five dropped) in order to account for changing cost and availability of consumer durables.18 44.576.29 15.34 0.63 0.60 0.914.87 1.46 8.76 5.64 Air conditioners 5.68 Showers 20.08 1.6 34.75 6.858 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.51 18.17 5.98 3.92 6.42 36.34 0. The format changes in 1983 (rural and urban figures consolidated).28 Mobile phones 0.594 1987 19.631 4.77 45.94 28.09 2.832.48 11.94 0.4 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 7.13 29.329 1980 2.65 1.32 Pianos 0.47 7.678.27 16.98 11.08 3.59 1.30 2.26 11.11 2.840 1984 10.47 49.44 104.20 113. Production of TV sets (1.86 26.74 39.17 1.707.70 58.38 0.6 1978 28.40 14.52 33.13 90.69 15.48 43.000) 1977 24.98 42.847 26.0 1979 31.12 6.40 Range hoods 24.45 5.39 3.27 5.2 30. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 159 . 1987 (ten categories added and one dropped).53 3.18 22.34 33.3 35.3 6.Total (g) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (h) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total (i) 1st decile 2nd decile 2nd quintile 3rd quintile 4th quintile 9th decile 10th decile Total 2.66 Gym equipment 0.8 1980 49.58 1.79 23.95 33.40 2.677 1986 14.394 1982 5.27 55.000 sets) 1977 285 1978 517 1979 1.038 1985 16.44 54.82 Ovens 1.372.62 9.

19 65.444.060 28.1 1986 2.38 33.420 910.57 75.5 10.59 26.556 2.82 74.38 20.085.24 22.620 481.250 121.05 27.11 80.95 72.490 20.18 25.733 Total savings deposit (million yuan) (a) Total 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 (b) Urban Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 (c) Rural Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 Amount 13.5 1984 547.260 28.5 13.690 703.210 184.810 31.797 1990 1991 1992 2.81 34.2 9.250.2 2.16 63.41 73.9 1983 188.681.2 1987 4.780 147.84 36.07 34.160 231.10 70.920 373.91 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.4 1985 1.7 89.730 1.5 1983 4.160 21. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 160 .940 286.6 7.56 73.107.260 223.540 1.1982 99.62 79.162.204 9.62 66.070 % 30.876 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 5.89 19.250 35.370 67.880 2.476.225 3.239 2.020 % 69.76 77.4 9.90 29.650 5.510 15.480 76.870.151.330 % 72.24 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 380.090 867.730 57.467.45 27.796.960 22.154.260 679.990 43.93 65.23 64.670.55 72.44 26.966.77 35.09 Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Amount 114.43 24.730 357.760 Amount 4.470 162.71 67.0 Domestic sales of refrigerators (1.852.83 21.448.660 105.150 206.100 39.000) 1978 1983 1984 1988 34.7 1984 6.4 Figures from Zhongguo tongji nianjian.760 307.966.129.260 77.17 78.610 18.410 44.540 89.950 52.810 1.230 141.346.600 619.084 4.3 1988 1991 1992 11.185.1 2.560 767.28 % 27.627.280 2.480 519.700 16.700 1.9 9.840 11.980 Year 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 Amount 265.29 32.150 514. Domestic sales of TV sets (1.670 3.000) 1978 606.570 7.013.810 56.76 67.

72 Figures from Zhongguo jingji nianjian. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.1987 100. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 161 .570 32.

90 Hong Kong Hong Kong 3.5 Place Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Time 5.86 11.6 Wan gan yan Scroll 104.000 `` 600.000 `` 176.000 `` (WLC) 100.000 `` (XJR) 121.Chapter 9.5 x 48 Hong Kong 3.88 1.000 `` 70.000 `` 120.000 `` (WLC) 130.000 `` (XJR) 440.90 3.5 x 59. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 162 .000 `` (WLC) 60.000 `` (XJR) 110.87 1.500 902.90 80.90 Lushan shi yi 44 x 58 Hong Kong 3.89 3.3 zhong song tu Meiren Scroll 85 x 54.000 `` (WLC) 160.90 3.7 (WLC) 96.89 9.000 `` ((XJR) 176.7 Xi tong tu Scroll 137.000 `` 12.1f Prices of Works of Art Josephine Fox with John Clark Auction prices for works of Fu Baoshi Title Format Size (cm) Shi Gong Scroll 117 x 28.90 25 x 29 104 x 59.000 `` 75.89 9.000 `` 93.000 `` 300.7 Hong Kong 3.000 `` 70.000 `` (WLC) 140.000 `` (XJR) 82.000 `` 350.3 x 59.5 x 44.90 San lao guan pu Chun jiang fang zhao 44.90 Zhu lin qi xian tu You xian zhu qin tu Hong Kong Scroll Hong Kong 9.89 9.000 HK 150.86 1.7 yu tu Pipa xing xin Qiong fei qian chi zou lei ting Qiu pu yun piao tu Guan pu tu Scroll 57 x 33.600 `` Wen hui tu Chang bai fei pu Song feng gao shi Xiang jun Guan pu tu Fan 132.90 Reserve Sale price 105.90 11.90 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 `` 160.5 Mian bi tu Scroll 61 x 33.89 9.000 `` 154.5 x 44.88 5.5 x 43 132.000 `` (WLC) 110.5 x 86 Hong Kong 3.000 `` (XJR) 825.3 shi tu Fa zhou 76 x 40.5 Guan pu tu Scroll 104.5 x 33 (XJR) 78.000 ``(XJR) 66.88 9.000`` (WLC) 820.5 x 40 Shanlin gao Scroll 109.3 x 61.5 Hong Kong Hong Kong 3.

000 `` (XJR) 2.4 Hong Kong 5.000 `` 1.000 1.000 `` (XJR) 1.5 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 96 x 36.4 (ZZX) 20 x 30.000 `` 154.000 `` (XJR) 506.91 143.5 x 67.000 HK 12 leaf album Scroll 25 x 30.4 78.000 `` (XJR) 165. WLC) 150.5 x 56.2 Hong Kong 5.Zhui chi bi Xue yong lan tian tu Ju shi peng cha tu Dong hu you Shen shui gu miao Qiu shan tu Xue yuan feng hua tu Xiling Xia Feng yun xing zhou bing shufa Chi bi ye you tu Wen hui tu Shinu Fan Scroll Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 36 x 51.000 `` (ZZX.91 9.000 `` (ZZX.5 Hong Kong 5.91 3.000 `` (XJR) 264.000 500.000 `` 1. WLC) 1.90 3.92 1.000 `` (XJR) 550.90 11.000 `` 1.0001.000 `` 506. WLC) 150.91 9.000 `` (WLC) 700.000 `` 180.000 `` (ZZX.900.92 165.000 `` (WLC) 80.000 `` 66.000 `` 990.92 400. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 163 .92 Scroll 54 x 35.91 Xue xi gu (ZZX) Xue tu (WLC) Xue xi tu (XJR) Qian xian shi yi tu Shui ting gao shi Du Mu shi yi tu Chi bi ye you Scroll 159.000180.000 `` 484.000400.000 `` 350.200.760.000 `` 150.91 9.91 3.91 Guan pu tu Scroll 68 x 34 Hong Kong 9.000 `` 220.000 `` 308.500.000 `` Hong Kong 5.000.000 `` (WLC) 240.000 `` (XJR) 770.000 `` (ZZX. WLC) Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.5 Hong Kong 5.000220.056.090.5 Hong Kong 5.000 `` (WLC) 500.000 `` 440.91 Kan shan tu Scroll 85 x 55 Hong Kong 9. WLC) 500.000 `` Mounted paper Fan Hand scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Zhong Kui 117 x 53 Hong Kong 9.90 11.000 `` (ZZX.91 9.000 `` 132.5 x 229.200.92 Zhou ming dai jiu tu Scroll 84.5 Hong Kong 11.92 Scroll 203 x 125.4 (WLC) 33 x 39.5 131 x 53.90 11.91 9.000 `` (XJR) 88.320.

000250.5 87 x 56.000 `` 200. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 164 .000 `` (XJR) 52.000 (XJR) 69.94 3.93 120.93 3.000- 110.000250.5 Hong Kong Beijing Beijing Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 10.000 `` 88.94 5.92 6.000500.94 5.93 3.0001.000 `` 150.92 6.000450.8 68.000 `` 900.000250.8 61 x 36.000 ` 138.000 `` Scroll Transverse scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Fan Scroll Scroll 46 x 59 52 x 59.000180.5 87 x 27.000400.2 33 x 44.000 HK 400.93 3.000 `` 350.5 83.5 Hong Kong 5.94 5.000 `` 1.93 10.94 50.94 5.4 x 54.000 `` 200.8 x 39. tie lian ren Shuixiang Guan pu tu Guan pu tu Renwu Chi bi ye you Du chuan Qu Yuan Xue yong lan guan tu Ruan xian shinu Song shan Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll 23.000 `` (ZZX.000.200.2 x 34.000 `` 50.500 `` 880.000 `` 1.3 54 x 20 48 x 68.5 82 x 29.600.94 5.500 HK Not sold 230.000150.94 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.93 Fei ren lian tie.000 `` 138.000 `` (XJR) 253.5 82 x 150 68.000.000 `` 345.000 `` (PMH) 460.9 USA USA USA Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 6.000 RMB Not sold 126.000 1.8 x 48.000 `` 230.94 5.000 `` Not sold 570.6 177 x 97 Scroll Scroll 95.500.000300.000 `` 330.000 `` 200.800 US 12.000 `` (ZZX) 800.00090.000 `` 69.7 x 47.000900.0001.000 `` 149.92 10.92 9.Chi bi tu Mai cha tu Songlin yaji Jing po fei quan Mu nian liu yan dan kan shan Liu an qing zhou Qutang Xia Ruan qin shinu Qu Yuan Lan ting ya ji tu Hou chi bi Furongguo li jin chaohui Gao shan yang zhi Song xia fu qin tu Shan gui Scroll Scroll Scroll Album 169 x 71 77.5 x 89 97.5 x 30.6 x 52.000 `` 700.000 `` 150.100 `` 16.670.3 167 x 88 Hong Kong Hong Kong 10.000 `` 400.800.000 `` Fan 18.000180.0001.2 x 180.92 3.93 3.000 `` 115.8 85 x 54.000 RMB 800.0001.00055.000 `` 220.94 5.000250.6 x 57 218.200.7 116.000 `` Not sold Not sold (ZZX) 437.500.WLC) 1.93 10.93 10.500 `` 1.000 `` 250.93 3.9 67.93 3.000 `` 955.000 `` 70.1 x 62.5 x 44 56.

000 `` 345.00060.94 5.7 87.94 25.5 x 68 112.000350.3 x 28 110.94 11.7 x 33.5 67.000250.000 `` 28 x 38.000 `` 300.000 HK (LG) 154.5 x 60.000 `` 63.5 86 x 28 Hong Kong Hong Kong Shanghai 5.00030.000400.000 RMB 74.94 9.94 9.6 x 41.000 `` (ZZX) 150.94 11.000 `` 570.000 `` 143.3 Hong Kong Hong Kong 5.000 `` (XJR) 400.000140.000 `` 250.000 HK 300.5 Beijing Beijing Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing 9.000450.94 11.000 `` 126.8 x 82.00018.94 9.000 `` 92.000 `` 60.000 `` 140.94 11.000 `` Mei du zhuang guan Shan Shanshui Taozhou ming Ruan qin shinu Guan pu tu Yuan An wo xue Ping sha luo yan Ruan qin shinu Qiu ting xian bu Guan yunhai Bajiao shuang mei tu Dong Po ye you chi bi tu Dongting Xiang nu Shanshui Shanshui Mounted paper Fan (2 leaves) 27.000 180.000 `` 15.94 5.000 RMB 88.000220.000 `` 80.94 9.780.94 100.000 `` 352.00060.94 9.000 `` 1.000 RMB (ZZX.000280.000 `` 1.000 `` 120.1 x 33.00080.2 46.94 11.4 x 58.000120.94 9.5 x 34 28.750 `` 230.4 x 54.000 `` 92.800.000 `` 50.000 RMB 462. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 165 .800 `` Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Fan 119 x 65.000 `` Xue zhong xing Chun yu Shu zhong shanshui Mounted paper Scroll Scroll 109.000 `` 200.94 9.000 `` Changjiang san xia tu 172 x 104 Shanghai 6.94 11.5 25 x 54 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000100.000 HK (LG) 330.000 `` 100.000 RMB 200.000 HK 548.94 9.000 RMB (XJR) 506.000500.gao shi Qian shan jing xiu Guan chao tu (with Shen Yimo) Mounted paper Mounted paper 70.94 526.8 x 45.94 350.3 each 72 x 49.000 `` 330. XJR) 154.000350.000.5 x 59.000 462.5 48 x 61.5 68.94 6.5 68 x 45 137 x 50 73.0002.000 `` 345.000120.8 43.000 `` 209.000 RMB (XJR) 330.8 19 x 52 24.000 350.94 11.000 `` 300.000400.

000 `` 500.5 67 x 33.000 `` 180.000 `` 60.96 11.000250.5 x 51 15 x 11.000 `` 300.5 x 39 145 x 362 221.000 `` 140.5 x 52 110.000 `` 352.96 9.000 `` 180.000110.900 `` 352.000 RMB 3.000160.96 11.000120.renwu Song xia gao shi Shen shan fei pu Ping sha luo yan Wu xia yang fan Pan xi ting yan Zhuan shu Qu Yuan shi hua (with Guo Moruo) Shanshui Yun zhong jun he da siming Chun feng yang liu wan qian tiao Shi tao shiyi Furongguo li jin chaohui Chi bi ye you Jin xian jiu de Ting quan tu Gu jiu tu Xinzha Mao Zhuxi guju Gui Fei mi jun wang tu Yong qin fang you tu Tian chi pubu Jing bo fei quan Xingshu Xiashan tu Xiang jun Shanshui Qin Huai liu yin Shanshui Xuezhong fang you tu Fu qin tu Scroll 67 x 40.000 `` 352.96 5.96 11.000 `` 60.96 5.000200.2 x 61 31 x 37 106 x 40 Beijing Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong 11.000 `` 107.960.000 `` 50.000450.000 HK 120.000 `` 44.5 125.500 `` 1.000 `` 70.00020.5 x 61 31 x 98 34 x 46 63 x 35 72.5 109 x 31 105 x 65 97 x 39.95 5.800 `` (CG) 192.000 `` 140.96 9.000 HK 172.750 `` 57.95 4.97 4.000 `` 363.000- Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 `` Not sold Not sold 352.000700.700 `` 97.000 `` 10.000 `` 100.96 9.00090.7 x 20.000 `` 800.97 6.97 4.000 `` 160.000 `` 242.5 Hong Kong Shanghai Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Guangzhou Guangzhou Guangzhou Guangzhou Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing 80.000160.000 `` 3.000 Album Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Fan 350.000350.95 3.300`` (LG) 107.9/leaf 67.000 `` 180.97 4.00025.5 48.96 11.00-80.95 4. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 166 .500 `` 165.000 `` 1.94 3.5 x 132 39 x 52 145.000200.771.023.95 3.000 `` 600.95 4.000180.000 `` 350.000 `` 515.000220.000 `` Not sold Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Transverse scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll 200.97 Fan Calligraphy album 100.5 25.000 `` 308.000 `` 660.000 RMB 209.95 3.000 `` 20.95 3.00070.5 76.96 10.97 4.500 `` 20.5 18 x 49 99 x 58.96 11.5 x 87 68 x 91.000 `` 90.000 `` 374.000150.000 `` 85.000400.96 4.5 x 19 46 x 62.000550.97 6.000800.1 x 62.800 `` 20.000400.000 `` 300.95 5.000 280.5 95 x 33 180 x 58.96 9.300.500 `` 165.

1996. CG stands for auction records provided by China Guardian Auctions Co.5 97 x 40 100 x 59 123 x 66.000 `` 350.98 10.98 10. and XJR for Qing dai shuhua jianding yu yishu shichang.000 Not sold Not sold 220.98 10.000400.5 104 x 61 97 x 45.000 `` Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.81 1.000 `` 300.98 10.98 10. Hongqi.5 Beijing 10.000180.000 HK 21.5 zhao Mu Scroll 92. 1997.6 Mutong Scroll 68.000 `` 363.3 Place Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Time 5.00095.000 `` 90.000 `` Not sold Qu Yuan 67.000 `` 450.5 x 45 26 x 25 54 x 20 18.000 `` 400.Guan chao tu Er Xiang tu Yun shan fang you tu Shanshui tu Xiang furen Guan pu tu shanmian Shanshui shanmian Shanshui (with Guan Shanyue) Dantai yaji tu Guan pu tu Xiao se qiu feng Jin xian jiu de Xing zhou Guan hai Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper Scroll 66 x 45 60.000 `` 150.Ltd.800 `` yi ke (with 140. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 167 .000 `` 120.80 11.80 1. 1996.000180.500 `` 176.000 `` 150. Auction prices for works of Li Keran Title Form Size Huang Shan Scroll 66.000 280.98 10. 1998.000 `` 242.000 `` 28.000 `` 20. Shanghai Shudian.000 `` 85.97 6.98 10. WLC for Wu Lichao.000180.98 1.97 10. LG for Liu Gang and Liu Xiaoqiong ed.000500.8 x 60 Shu sha fei quan Scroll 69 x 94. Nanchang.5 x 34 33.000400.80 11.200 `` 38.000 `` 38.000320.00048.000 `` 154.80 11.000 `` 17. There is occasional disagreement between the sources about sale prices.000 `` 200.000 `` 160.000 `` 100.000 `` 462.8 x47 Huaguo Scroll 70 x 46 Shan Huang Shan Album 38.000 `` Guan Shangyue) ZZX stands for Zhang Zhixiong ed.000600.000800.81 Reserve Sale price 25.000300.000 `` 130.5 x 45 Li Jiang Scroll fengguang Mutong Scroll 68 x 42.000 `` 180.97 6.5 x 40.7 x 53 44 x 52.81 1.5 x 26.000107.000250. Chu ru yishu shichang.97 11.98 10. Jiangxi Fine Arts.5 Qiu lin xi Scroll 49.000 `` Not sold Not sold 913.000.000 `` xing yin tu ji xingshu (with Guo Moruo) Songyuan di Scroll 138 x 69 Beijing 10.5 88 x 45 Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing 6.80 5. Shanghai Shuhua.000180.000250.98 10.80 5.98 100. Yishu shichang.98 264.5 x 39. Ming jia shuhua shichang xingqing.000 `` 16. Beijing.000 `` 180.5 x 54 70.000 `` 15.000 `` 600.

Xue mu tu Qiu sheng tu Mutong tu Rong shu chang he Mutong tu Niu Zhong Kui tu Longjing jingse Xiao heshang tu Chun yu Jiangnan Meihua tu Mutong Xiong guan man dao tu Mutong tu Shuang niu tu Zhongxu song mei tu Li Jiang yu ji Chang mei Wu niu tu Shanshui Ku yin tu Huai su xue shu Mu yun tu Ying xi tu Huai su xue shu Song xia ou mian tu Mu niu tu Jiang shu fan jing tu Li Jiang sheng jing tu Qian yan jing xiu wan he zheng liu Jin Jiang ge Budai heshang tu Ceng yan jing lan tu Hu tang you ting tu Qian yan jing xiu tu Qiu feng hong yu Liu tang gui mu tu Li Jiang fan

Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Hand scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll

69 x 45.6 69 x 45.5 94 x 34 69 x 46.2 70 x 46.2 67 x 45 32 x 41 68 x 45.2 68 x 44.7 69.2 x 49.8 68 x 41.6 111.2 x 137.2 45.2 x 34.3 36.8 x 42.4 82.3 x 46.2 66 x 44 68 x 45 59 x 95.2 68.3 x 45.7 86.5 x 53 90 x 52 68.5 x 46.3 69.5 x 47.8 68.5 x 45.5 94.5 x 34.3

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong

1.81 5.81 11.81 5.83 5.83 2.84 2.84 11.84 11.84 11.84 11.84 11.84 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.86 5.86 11.86 11.86 1.87 1.87 1.87 5.87 11.87 11.87 1.88 1.88 1.88 1.88 5.88 5.88 11.88 11.88 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.89

28,000 `` 19,000 `` 30,000 `` 85,000 `` 25,000 `` 20,000 `` 28,000 `` 66,000 `` 33,000 `` 14,000 `` 15,000 `` 52,000 `` 30,000 `` 20,000 `` 50,000 `` 32,000 `` 13,000 `` 68,000 `` 40,000 `` 55,000 `` 38,000 `` 75,000 `` 34,000 `` 55,000 `` 40,000 `` 35,000 `` 80,000 `` 160,000 `` 130,000 `` 40,000 `` 65,000 `` 50,000 `` 28,000 `` 70,000 `` 40,000 `` 45,000 `` 100,000 ``

138.5 x 68 69.5 x 47 68.5 x 44.2 68.5 x 40.4 69 x 47 70.5 x 47 65.6 x 45.7 68.6 x 44.5

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



zhao tu Meiyuan tu Rong hu yi pie tu Gui mu tu Li Jiang tianxia jing Shanshui Yufu tu Shanshui Yuyu Shan Wan mu congcong cuiwei Yan Jiang xi zhao Kan shan tu Jiang shan sheng lan Yuyu Shan Xingshu Li Bai shi Huang Shan yan xia Li Jiang fengguang Wu niu tu Caihong shan se Yan yun shanshui Li Jiang tianxia jing Yu cun mu xun Mutong, lishu duilian Chun niu Tiao er tu Mu yin tu Sao bei tu Cang yan song cui tu Yu hou shan quan Na liang tu Xiao heshang Chun mu Huaguo Shan Huang Shan Qing Shan yu yu tu

Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll

70 x 45.7

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong

1.89 5.89 5.89 11.89 11.89 11.89 11.89 11.89 11.89 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.90 3.90 5.90 11.90 3.91 4.91 9.91 9.91 9.91 9.91 9.91 9.91 9.91 5.92 5.92 5.92 5.92 10.92 10.92 3.93 350,000400,000 `` 70,00090,000 HK 120,000150,000 `` 60,00080,000 ``

120,000 `` 110,000 `` 38,000 `` 180,000 `` 85,000 `` 10,000 `` 100,000 `` 230,000 `` 350,000 `` 1,100,000 `` 77,000 `` 198,000 `` 77,000 `` 52,800 `` 242,000 `` 330,000 `` 742,500 `` 121,000 `` 396,000 `` 400,000 `` 82,500 `` 165,000 `` 99,000 `` 104,500 `` 121,000 `` 71,500 `` 242,000 `` 495,000 `` 88,000 `` 121,000 `` 66,000 `` 209,000 `` 374,000 `` 287,500 ``

68 x 46 86 x 56 68.5 x 103 69 x 45.8 92 x 60 58.5 x 51 133 x 66 66 x 47 100 x 69

Scroll 92 x 55 70 x 89 Scroll Mounted paper (3 leaves) Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll 50.5 x 37 68.3 x 44.9 68.5 x 48.5 68.5 x 45.5 68.5 x 46.2 92.5 x 58.5

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Huang Shan lan sheng tu Qing Li yu chuan Shinu tu Yu yu quan sheng tu Fei pu qing yin Li Jiang tianxia jing Shuicun taohua yan yu zhong Shinu zhi shan tu Li Jiang fan jing Xi tong tu Qing Li yan yu Li Jiang caoping xi feng Lu zhong shui yu tu Shan jian qing yin Rong lin fei pu Mutong xi que Ying chun tu Qing tan yan yu Zhong Xu Qiu jing Mutong shuiniu Cang yan fei pu

96.7 x 60.8 Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll 69 x 45 91.8 x 34 83 x 51 68.5 x 46.3 84.5 x 51.1 91 x 56 137.3 x 34.5

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Beijing Hong Kong

3.93 10.93 10.93 10.93 10.93 10.93 3.94 5.94

300,000350,000 ``

368,000 `` 250,000 `` 170,000 `` 170,000 ``

120,000150,000 `` 250,000300,000 `` 700,000800,000 RMB 70,00090,000 HK 600,000800,000 `` (XJR) 80,000100,000 `` 90,000120,000 `` 80,000100,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 150,000180,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 70,00090,000 `` 45,00055,000 `` 90,000120,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 80,00090,000 `` 60,00080,000 `` 360,000400,000 RMB 8,000-10,000 US 60,00080,000 HK 40,00060,000 `` 50,000-

161,000 `` 172,500 `` Not sold 115,000 HK (ZZX), 63,250 HK (XJR) 103,200 `` (WLC, ZZX) 1,320,000 `` (XJR) 172,500 `` 86,250 `` 276,000 `` 115,000 `` 218,500 `` 299,000 `` Not sold Not sold 86,250 `` Not sold 172,500 `` 57,500 `` 528,000 RMB (WLC) 528,000 HK (LG) 480,000 RMB (ZZX) 69,000 US 184,000 HK 36,800 `` 57,500 ``

Transverse scroll Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper

68 x 137.2

Hong Kong


65.5 x 37.2 70 x 46 55 x 44.2 70.5 x 34.7 69 x 46 69.6 x 46.7 100.5 x 51 67.2 x 47 70 x 46 66.7 x 48 40.5 x 59.1 67.6 x 44.6 139.5 x 68.8

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Shanghai

5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 5.94 6.94

Qiu lin fang mu Shuhua Xingshu Mutong wan

Scroll Fan

69.3 x 46

New York Hong Kong

6.94 9.94 9.94 9.94

138.5 x 69.5 63 x 57

Hong Kong Hong Kong

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



niao Shu miao bai zhong quan Qing yin xi zhao Wu niu tu Xingshu Yu hou qing yin Liu xia mu niu Qiu mu Xingshu Song xia ou mian Xing hua chun yu Jiangnan Wu xia fan jing Fang Song ren biyi shanshui Song yin mutong Yu hou xie yang Wu xia fan jing Qing Li fengguang Bai miao renwu Mutong niubei xian hua Shi sun feng Zhi yin Xingshu Luotuo feng Xingshu duilian Han shan she de Niubei xian hua tu Li Bai shiyi tu Gao lin mi ju tu Shaoshan Album Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Mounted Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll

94.5 x 66.5 68.2 x 43.5 87 x 50 134 x 65.5 137 x 68.5 70 x 37 69 x 45.3 69 x 101 95 x 34 79 x 49 69.5 x 45.8 34 x 104 68.2 x 45.4 69 x 45.5 69.5 x 45.8 120.5 x 144.2 47 x 42 58.5 x 45 44 x 34.5 70.8 x 34.5 67.7 x 41.5 59 x 74.5 35.5 x 34 64.5 x 37 69 x 46 68 x 47.5 68.5 x 43 141.5 x 243.1

Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Sichuan Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Shanghai Beijing Beijing Beijing Guangzhou Beijing

9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 9.94 11.94 11.94 11.94 11.94 11.94 11.94 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95 5.95 5.95 5.96 5.96 10.96 10.96

60,000 `` 700,000900,000 `` 150,000180,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 40,00050,000 `` 600,000700,000 `` 50,00070,000 `` 60,00080,000 `` 40,00050,000 `` 400,000450,000 ``

790,000 `` 161,000 `` 103,500 `` 43,700 `` 625,000 `` 40,250 `` 63,250 `` 99,750 `` 143,000 RMB 748,000 `` 484,000 ``

65,00075,000 100,000150,000 `` 320,000350,000 `` 300,000400,000 ``

Withdrawn 165,000 `` 308,000 `` 484,000 `` 2,420,000 `` 154,000 `` 77,000 ``

50,00070,000 HK 60,00080,000 `` 30,00040,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 26,00032,000 RMB 40,00050,000 `` 130,000150,000 `` 1,800,000-

51,750 HK 97,750 `` 34,500 `` 218,500 `` 35,200 RMB 143,000 `` 77,000 `` 132,000 `` 99,000 `` 1,540,000 ``

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Jiangnan shuixiang Shaoxing cheng Xinghua chun yu Jiangnan Mu niu tu Mu niu tu Zhuo Zheng Yuan Xinghua chun yu Jiangnan Zhong Kui Wang shan tu Mu niu tu Huan que tu Gui mu tu Jinggang Shan Qiu mu tu Qiu mu tu Wuxian fengguang tu Ku yin tu Muse tu Bai shi tu Yu hou xia shan tu Mu qu tu Xinghua chun yu tu Mu niu tu Wan shan chong die yi jiang qu tu Yu guo xiyang hong Xia yu shan ju tu Qing jiang sheng jing tu Li Jiang bianshang Gui mu tu

paper Scroll

69.5 x 46



2,000,000 `` 180,000220,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 32,00042,000 `` 50,00060,000 `` 50,00080,000 `` 70,00080,000 `` 65,00080,000 `` 18,00025,000 `` 65,00070,000 `` 50,00060,000 `` 1,800,0002,500,000 `` 35,00050,000 `` 75,00090,000 `` 260,000290,000 `` 150,000200,000 `` 40,00050,000 `` 90,000150,000 `` 80,000100,000 `` 45,00060,000 `` 40,00060,000 `` 42,00050,000 `` 250,000360,000 `` 100,000150,000 `` 120,000150,000 `` 250,000300,000 `` 70,000-

715,000 ``


47 x 44.5 32 x 44 68 x 45.5 43 x 46.5 67 x 40 67 x 44 68 x 45 32 x 44 70 x 46 69 x 40 117.6 x 128 18 x 51 70 x 46 77 x 49 79 x 50 45 x 34 68 x 47 69.5 x 46 38 x 47.5 69.5 x 46.5 49.5 x 45 45.5 x 82 51 x 41 68 x 47.5

Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing

11.96 4.97 4.97 4.97 6.97 6.97 6.97 6.97 6.97 6.97 10.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 11.97 1997 10.98 10.98

154,000 `` 35,200 `` 33,000 `` 88,000 `` Not sold 69,300 `` 154,000 `` 35,200 `` 77,000 `` 82,500 `` Not sold 49,500 `` 88,000 `` 308,000 ` 198,000 ` 41,800 `` 96,800 `` 101,200 `` 77,000 `` 66,000 `` 46,200 `` 396,000 `` Not sold 154,000 `` 3,080,000 `` Not sold Not sold

Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll Fan Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll

Mounted paper Scroll

69 x 46.5 66.5 x 49.2

Beijing Beijing

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Kan shan tu Fang mu tu Gui mu tu Xie niu tu Shanshui Chun mu tu

Scroll Scroll Mounted paper Scroll Scroll Scroll

69.5 x 46 68.5 x 45.5 69.5 x 46 68 x 46 69 x 46 68.5 x 46 137 x 33.5 69 x 46

Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing

10.98 10.98 10.98 10.98 10.98 10.98 10.98 10.98

Qi yan Scroll xingshu duilian Chun yu Scroll Jiangnan Sources as for Fu Baoshi above.

90,000 `` 70,00090,000 `` 85,00095,000 `` 50,00060,000 `` 80,00090,000 `` 150,000180,000 `` 60,00070,000 `` 20,00025,000 `` 120,000150,000 ``

Not sold Not sold 52,800 `` Not sold Not sold 66,000 `` 46,200 `` 407,000 ``

Auction prices for oil paintings by Wu Guanzhong Title Form Size (cm) Place Jiangnan Hong Kong chun Zhu lin 75 x 75 Hong Kong Zhu hai 75.5 x 75.5 Hong Kong Baiyang yu shantao Lu Xun guxiang Fuchun Jiang Fuchun Jiang shang dayu chuan Shaoxing Hu Fengjing xiesheng Shaoshan 65 x 46 46 x 61 46 x 61 45.7 x 61 46 x 61 54.5 x 38.5 70 x 50 Taipei Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Taipei Beijing Beijing

Time 10.92 10.93 10.93 4.94 5.94 5.94 4.95 5.95 10.95 4.97


Sale price 440,000 HK 57,400 `` 570,000 `` 1,700,000 TB 1,340,000 `` 790,000 `` Not sold 1,920,000 TB Not sold 638,000 ``

500,000600,000 HK 1,155,0001,500,000 TB 500,000550,000 HK 300,000350,000 ``

Oil on paperboard Oil on board

Ruijin Oil on board 46 x 61 Beijing 5.98 275,000 `` fengjing zu hua zhi yi Jinggang Oil on board 61 x 46 Beijing 5.98 250,000275,000 `` Shan 280,000 `` fengjing zu hua zhi wu Wu Guanzhong has painted both guohua and youhua. The paintings listed above are the ones described unambiguously in the sources as oil paintings. Sources are Zhang Zhixiong, Chu ru yishu shichang, Shanghai Shuhua Chubanshe, 1997; Liu Gang and Liu Xiaoqiong, ed. Yishu shichang, Jiangxi Fine Arts, Nanchang, 1988; and auction results supplied by China Guardian Art Auction Co.Ltd and Rongbao Art Auction Co.Ltd. Auction prices for works of Chen Yifei Title Form Size (cm) Weinisi Yingsu hua Huangjin suiyue Place Hong Kong New York Hong Kong Time 10.92 11.92 3.93 Reserve 40,00060,000 US 800,0001,000,000 Sale price 154,000 HK 110,000 US 1,230,000 HK

240,000250,000 RMB 480,000580,000 `` 250,000280,000 ``

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



HK Suzhou qiaojing Ren xiang Yu tang chun wan Dai yue xi xiang Shan di feng Zhang chao Minnan xilie Huang He song Suzhou shuixiang Xizang jiating Meng huan qu Hepan yinyue Chun feng you lu Jiangnan Weinisi shuixiang Shanghai tan Hong Kong 169 x 242 169 x 242.5 179 x 160.8 Oil on canvas 188 x 255 81.3 x 116.8 380 x 160 Oil on canvas Oil on canvas Oil on canvas Oil on canvas 112 x 107 66 x 66 105 x 75 56.4 x 66.5 120 x 150 Hong Kong Hong Kong Hong Kong Beijing Hong Kong Hong Kong Beijing Hong Kong Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing Beijing 3.93 10.93 10.93 5.94 11.94 3.95 3.95 10.95 3.96 4.96 4.97 4.97 5.98 5.98 380,000450,000 `` 380,000480,000 `` 600,000800,000 `` 320,000380,000 `` 780,000980,000 `` 450,000550,000 ‘’ 800,0001,000,000 `` 600,000800,000 `` 600,000800,000 RMB 354,000 `` 1,670,000 `` 1,670,000 `` 1,065,000 `` 2,600,000 RMB 138,000 HK 1,285,000 `` 418,000 RMB 460,000 HK 1,100,000 RMB 858,000 `` 2,310,000 `` 330,000 `` 1,221,000 ``

Oil on 87 x 61 canvas Oil on 200 x 150 canvas Sources as for Wu Guanzhong above.

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Introduction Thailand is a country with relatively open borders and has managed to remain an independent state for many hundreds of years.51 4.25 5.85 4. on the other hand.85 -2.76 5.78 4.46 -30.59 1. The pattern of economic growth in Thailand since 1971 can be seen in Table 1.81 1. ruling class and upper classes.90 18.24 2. and to promote modernisation programmes under both the absolute monarchy and later democratic administrations.88 -8. particularly in terms of production and trade and in the financial sector.09 4.57 -11. have played major roles in the economy since the early Rattanakosin period and continue to do so in the present time.54 7. Many of them now are financially and socially well-established and recognised as upper class Thai nouveau riche. in conjunction with the socio-economic and political reforms in the Rama V and Phibunsongkram ruling periods and the implementation of various Economic and Social Development Plans since the early 1960s aimed at modernising Thai society. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark . on the other hand.45 -0.92 0.32 42. Table 1 Growth.38 -11. This was followed by other treaties in the same vein. The influences of foreign nations and cultures have nonetheless still played a part in various aspects of Thai society.2a The Economic Base of Thai Contemporary Artists Chintana Sandilands (National Thai Studies Centre.35 4. are at the present becoming increasingly commoditised and commercialised.58 APPENDICES 175 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. has led to wide spread emergence of social attitudes favouring consumerism and materialism. The Rattanakosin period saw the introduction of a market-driven strategy of economic development. This. a trend particularly clear when Thailand had high rates of economic growth in 1973-78 and 1987-1990. 1971-1990 (percent) Year Real GDP Growth Inflation (CPI) Rate of Change of Real Investment Private 1971 1972 1974 1975 1980 1982 1985 1986 4. Traditional Thai artwork in various monasteries is still recognised as being “common goods” for public appreciation and are mostly free of charge.96 4. Chinese immigrants and Sino-Thai. Art and architecture have often been used as tools to propagate nationalism. and continue to be. This pattern of modernisation and economic development has had significant impacts on art. Inflation and Capital Formation.06 3. Australian National University) with John Clark I.19 0. after the signing of the Bowring Treaty in 1855 in the reign of King Rama IV. Both Thai and foreign artists and architects have historically. Luxury arts. in the past used to serve the monarchy. The role of state intervention in Thailand has existed only to a certain extent. commissioned to fulfil court and state requirements. The state of the arts in Thailand changes in line with movement in socio-economic and political conditions.37 5.42 1.51 Public -2.36 19.07 4.41 -8. first applied both officially and in practice.05 24. including the arts and architecture.THAILAND Chapter 9.43 6.

47 13.52 3. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.55 3.24 22.17 35. distributors and promoters.13 7.08 2.13 3.180. artists and art producers. collectors. speculators. patrons. The Structure of the Thai artistic network Virginia Henderson (1998) clearly presented a macro-structural view of the social dynamics of the production of art in Thailand which will be used as the basis of analysis in this paper as shown in the following diagram. and the demand side. p. better education and international experience.50 11. different levels of public and private educational institutions.90 10.59 11.65 7. However for simplicity.71 0. art consumption can also be utilised to serve and upgrade the social status of the Sino-Thai nouveau riche to be equivalent to the by-birth Thai elite.71 13. art consumers.66 Warr.22 12. (1996).89 6. However there are some agents in the network who have multiple or duplicate functions as art producers.88 9. (Henderson. interwoven within the Thai art world.00 10. collectors. both art critics and various forms of artistic publications and finally local and foreign individual collectors.05 10.35 11. It is composed of various groups. speculators. Most actors within the Thai artistic network have had to voluntarily or involuntarily adapt to an increasingly market-driven and globalised environment. while at the same time many artists are also trying to conserve their localisation in their artwork. hotels. Tourist Authority of Thailand (TAT) and Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA). relative to the diminishing role of the public sector.79 15.31 6.Low Growth 1979 1981 1983 1984 Medium Growth 1973 1976 1977 1978 1987 1988 1989 1990 High Growth Source: 4.60 8.98 6.33 7. encompassing artists and their families. art conservers.03 9. decorators and architects. Thai upper class as well as Sino-Thai corporate groups. Thailand’s macroeconomic miracle: Stable adjustment and sustained growth. G. art patrons and promoters. The private sector.21 21.14 18. art galleries some of which also act as art dealers and art distributors for foreign tourists.22 32.87 12. speculators and other buyers. the term “Thai artistic network” will be used throughout the text to refer to this system of social organisation.07 -9. Appendix 1) The Thai artistic network can be roughly divided into the supply side.49 45. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. government bodies like the Office of the National Cultural Commission (ONCC). competitions.10 -13.51 9. and Bhanupong Nidhiprabha.45 10.86 9.01 32.66 -17. exhibitions and sponsorship. art distributors.25 7.38 29. ‘Thai artistic network’ refers to all of the various agencies.13 6. Due to their high financial status. These developments have also led to fears about the over-commercialisation of contemporary and traditional art forms and a loss of local validity and integrity. performing diverse roles.62 8. P.48 7.87 26. 1998.70 3.41 5. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 176 . media. royal and private patrons. conservers.38 4.44 5.07 24.24 21. art consumers.95 2.36 5.39 13.84 5.30 7. The socio-economic and political developments since the early Rattanakosin period have yielded both financial and non-financial benefits to the arts and have enhanced the development of both traditional and contemporary art styles. II. corporations and banks as predominant organisers of commissions.13 6.44 9.58 -1.66 1. have become increasingly dominant as art consumers. and consumers.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 177 .Table 1 Suppl y Side / P rod ucer : Structure of Thai Artistic Network Artist Institution Individual Dema nd Side / Con sume r Artist Royal Corporation Bank Gallery Collector Speculator Customer Foreign Tourist Hotel Dealer Museum Government Body Educational Institution Art Distributor Artist Artist’s Family / Heir Museum Gallery Auction Company Speculator Collector Decorator Architect Art Promoter Media Art Critic Publication Exhibition Curator Contest Commission Work Special Occasion Special Training Self Promotion Advertising Art Application Art Publisher Art Patron and / or Art Conserver Monarch Royal Family Member Individual Corporation Bank Government Body Gallery Embassy Educational Institution Source: Compiled by the author Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

2000. these 24 artists comprised of 19 artists from public universities and 5 independents. The social production of art in Thailand: Patronage and commodisation. These Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the influence and actions of other actors within the Thai artistic network will also be considered. However. Unpublished Master Thesis. The information presented in this paper was collected between December 1999 and September 2000 during a total of 28 interviews with various people involved in the Thai art world. if and when necessary. (1998). This paper will mainly focus on the economic base of Thai contemporary artists during the 1970s up until September. Those interviewed were predominantly established Thai artists. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 178 . 1980-1998.Table 2: Source: Henderson. Thailand. Chulalongkorn University. Appendix 1. V.

Spiritualism Conclusion MARKET STRUCTURE OF THE THAI ART WORLD V) VI) I) The type of market in which any given firm operates within the wider economy can have a number of different structures. oligopoly and monopolistic competition. 1989.those characteristics of markets that influence the behaviour and performance of firms that sell in that market….) Corporate and banking sector c.) Education d.) The illegal economy b. p. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 179 . from neo-traditional painting. Government University Instructors a.. Public Servant Artists in the Department of Fine Arts B. p. 201).) Silpakorn University Camp b. Customers a. Economic theory focuses on four types of market structure.. Others are the ease of entering the industry.artists cover a range of artistic styles and media. namely 1 artist’s heir and 3 gallery owners. Society a. prints.)The Monarch b. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.The number of sellers and the nature of the product are important characteristics of market structure. Income distribution and Poverty Incidence B.) Art galleries d.) Social attitudes . Market structure refers to “. namely perfect competition.” (Lipsey. 201). modernist or academic painting.) Srinakarinwirote University Camp C.) Chulalongkorn University Camp c.) Laws and regulations concerning the Arts e. some additional library research both in Thailand and Australia was required. which are believed to “represent a high proportion of the cases actually encountered in market economies. 1989.” (Lipsey. Due to the limitation of time and difficulties with disclosure of information. the nature and number of purchases of the firm’s products and the firm’s ability to influence demand by advertising.Consumerism and materialism . In addition to these artists. monopoly.) Political stability c. Independent artists Factors related to the economic bases of contemporary Thai artists A. sculpture and installation works and avant-garde. The presentation in this paper is divided into following topics: I) II) III) IV) Market structure of the Thai art world The composition of contemporary artists in Thailand The geographic distribution of Thai contemporary artists The economic bases of select Thai artists A.) Amateur artists C. select others involved in the Thai art world were interviewed.

like doctors and lawyers. they should belong to the informal sector. awards and exhibitions. Nevertheless. However it is widely acknowledged within both the artistic networks themselves and by outsiders that the figures are rarely accurate. both explicit and implicit forms of advertising have significant roles in influencing demand. apart from financial considerations. journals and magazines and through interviews. There were previously records of artists within Thailand. the sources of finance and amount of income earned by both artists and other actors in the Thai art world are not publicly disclosed as they are regarded as personal information. was one of the first events that systematically recorded the details of a large group of recognised artists within Thailand. 397 Thai and 4 prominent foreign artists. However when considering their earnings. once established as professional and popular artists. both domestic and international. In particular. artists. Therefore artists. ‘differentiated’ with an image of “no perfect substitution”. through the collection of primary and secondary sources of data and information such as is available. held during December 1996 to January 1997. notably a study of “Art since 1932” published in 1982 by the Thai Studies Institute at Thammasat University which recorded the names of a number of artists in Thailand although with few details. with only 25 180 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. (Appendix 1 ). The most up-to-date and comprehensive was the publication released at the Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition mentioned above.000 Thai artists.Study of the market structure of the Thai contemporary art world is unique and rather complicated due to a variety of factors. II) THE COMPOSITION OF CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS IN THAILAND The Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of His Majesty the King Bhumibol Adulyadej’s Accession to the Throne. However. The informal sector is characterised not only by the small size of the firm. The catalogue from the Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition collected detailed biographies of 401 artists. defined the differences between the formal and informal sector by using the size and earnings of a given firm as important criteria. since consumers/buyers in the Thai art market. N. should be considered part of the formal sector. Another aspect of the art market worth considering is the size of the organisations. The Bangkok Metropolitan Authority (BMA) holds records of 3. Kakwani. Nevertheless the price of art works. There are a number of producers/sellers and consumers/buyers with relatively few barriers for entry into the industry. is still determined by market mechanisms even though both producers/sellers and consumers/buyers have claimed to be price-maker and price-taker on occasion. There is a deficiency of official and systematic collection and recording of data and information related to the network. Competition in the Thai artistic market is mainly in the form of non-price competition and only occasionally in the form of price competition. the Thai artistic networks seem likely to have a monopolistic market structure when considered in terms of the following important characteristics. like other professionals such as doctors and lawyers. thus generating potentially monopolistic power for some artists. we can generalise from the collected data and information that their earnings. being either overstated or understated. but also by low earnings as is demonstrated by many employees in the agricultural sector. belong to ‘small firms’ (less than or equal to 10 employees or employers). even though we can not precisely know the earnings of Thai contemporary artists. The majority of the artists in the Exhibition Records (376) were still living. Only occasionally is some financial information released. a famous economist in income distribution studies. in general. The artistic products are distinctive or. or firms (and in some cases individual artists) and the amount of their earnings. Discriminatory pricing is also often applied. Overall it is fair to say that Thai artistic networks are neither transparent or accountable. There is also a low degree of government intervention due to the continual underestimation by the government of the role and importance of art in the public sector. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . have imperfect knowledge and information. ‘leaked’ either intentionally or unintentionally to the public through media such as daily newspapers. are generally high or very high. so by definition. economically speaking. Concerning the size of the firms. recording their outstanding works.

14% were over 55 years of age and 332 or 88.86% were under 55 years of age. Table 5 Age Distribution of Thai Artists (Deceased) Age 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89 Not available Number of Artists 1 1 2 1 1 3 4 3 1 3 2 3 Total 25 Minimum age 39 years old Maximum age 89 years old Source: Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. 506-593. 1996.3% of those living (376) were male . Table 3.76%) 25 (6. Among those 376 artists. pp. pp. 506-593. 1996. They are also predominantly male. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. 4 and 5 present details of the gender and age divisions revealed in the Golden Jubilee Study.02%) (11. the range of ages of the artists was between 22 and 89 years of age. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. pp. Table 4 Age Distribution of Thai Artists (Live) Age Less than 55 More than 55 Number of Artist 289 87 Percent 76.14 Total 376 Minimum age 22 years old Maximum age 89 years old Source: Compiled from : Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Arts Catalogue. 1996. 506-593. experience and are socially well-established.86 23. Table 3 Gender Distribution of Thai Artists Status Live Deceased Total Male 332 21 Female 44 4 Total 376 (93. A preliminary analysis reveals that the majority of recognised Thai artists have maturity.97%) Source: Compiled from : Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art’s Catalogue. 23. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 181 .deceased artists included. 76.23% 353 48 401 (88.

records up until 1996 show that 39. Only 1. That makes the number of artists who live/work in Bangkok nearly double (76.90 Northeastern Region 12. The studies clearly reveal that at the end of the 1990s Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity. The overwhelming majority. There is also some movement to the larger provincial cities with regional universities. but 63.33%).Bangkok Metropolis and the rest.09% of the artists studied were born in the region of the Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the number of artists who were born there (39.26 Southern Region 11. The reasons are many fold.12 1. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. the two most favoured being Chiang Mai and Khon Kaen. Northeastern and Southern regions (14.09 76.77 4. Northeastern Region and Southern Region. As is shown in Table 6. the Sub-central Region. Tables 6 and 7 show clearly that artists in every region except Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity are living and/or working in regions other than their own place of birth. 1996. With this fact in mind.19 1. There is considerable geographic mobility among Thai artists.38 1.05) (13. This is true also of the Bangkok Metropolis itself.04%). and particularly Bangkok Metropolis itself. 1996 By Place of Birth and Place of Residence / Work* Place of Birth Place of Residence / Work Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity 39.III. Western Region. were the most favoured places for established artists to live.60 Western Region 6.12 1.86% of Thai artists live and/or work internationally. Since the region of ‘Bangkok Metropolis and Vicinity’ and in particular the Bangkok Metropolis. Northern Region.60 Northern Region 14.33%. but the security of economic and social bases available to artists there is certainly a large factor.06 Eastern Region 6. This preference for living in Bangkok appears to hold true regardless of the geographic spread of birthplaces. • Source: Compiled from Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art.77% and 11. and indeed the majority of recognised contemporary Thai artists were born outside of the Metropolitan hub of the country. is significantly more developed than the other regions.63 10.04% of artists in the list were born there.04) (63.03) Sub-central Region 6.30 % live and/or work there. Eastern and Western Regions.33 Bangkok Metropolis (34.06 • Excludes 25 deceased artists. the economy of Thailand is recognised as a dual economy .26 1. Considerable numbers of artists also originated in the Northern.44% were born in the Northeastern and Southern Regions respectively) and the remaining 18% were born in the Sub-central. The Geographioc Distribution of Contemporary Thai Artists The Thai Kingdom can be geographically divided into 7 regions.09%). we can examine the geographic distribution of Thai artists recorded in the biographical records complied by Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. 506-593.44 1.86 No Information 3. Table 6 Region Percentage of Geographical Distribution of Some Thai Artists. 34. predominantly in the Bangkok Metropolis itself (34. the Eastern Region. these being the Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity.33 Other Countries . approximately 6% in each region.30) Others (5. prefer the Bangkok Metropolitan region. at 76. pp. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 182 .63% were born in the Northern Region while 12.

1996 By Place of Birth and Place of Residence / Work Region Place of Birth 147 128 7 2 2 5 3 24 11 3 3 5 2 23 7 6 4 4 2 23 7 1 5 4 4 2 55 15 3 4 2 2 6 1 7 1 2 5 5 2 48 11 2 1 Place of Residence / Work 287 238 6 30 8 5 4 2 1 1 6 5 Bangkok Metropolitan and Vicinity Bangkok Metropolis Samut Prakan Nonthaburi Pathum Thani Nakhon Pathom Samut Sakhon Sub-central Region Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Ang Thong Lop Buri Sing Buri Chai Nat Saraburi Eastern Region Chon Buri Rayong Chanthaburi Trat Chachoengsao Prachin Buri Nakhon Nayok Sa Kaeo Western Region Ratchaburi Kanchanaburi Suphan Buri Samut Songkhram Petchaburi Prachuap Khiri Khan Northern Region Chiang Mai Lamphun Lampang Uttaradit Phrae Nan Phayao Chiang Rai Mae Hong Son Nakhon Sawan Uthai Thani Kamphaeng Phet Tak Sukhothai Phitsanulok Phichit Phetchabun Northeastern Region Nakhon Ratchasima Buri Ram Surin 1 6 3 2 1 41 32 4 1 1 1 1 1 16 3 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 183 .Table 7 Distribution of Some Thai Artists.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 184 . 1996.Si Sa Ket Ubon Ratchathani Yasothon Chaiyaphum Amnat Charoen Nong Bua Lam Phu Khon Kaen Udon Thani Loei Nong Khai Maha Sarakham Roi Et Kalasin Sakon Nakhon Nakhon Phanom Mukdahan Southern Region Nakhon Si Thammarat Krabi Phangnga Phuket Surat Thani Ranong Chumphon Songkhla Satun Trang Phatthalung Pattani Yala Narathiwat Other Countries USA China Germany Others No Information TOTAL 4 6 2 1 3 3 4 4 2 2 3 43 18 2 3 6 1 1 3 3 3 1 2 1 1 12 376 3 5 1 1 6 1 1 3 1 1 7 5 1 1 4 376 Source: Compiled from Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art. Table 8 Place of Birth of Deceased Artists* (UPDATED TO YEAR 2000) Thailand Bangkok Metropolis Nakhon Pathom Lamphun Phetchaburi Ubon Ratchathani Samut Prakan Nakhon Ratchasima Phrae Other Countries Switzerland Japan Italy No information TOTAL 14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 25 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 506-593. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. pp.

The artists will earn income according to their classification level while the quality and quantity of their work is used as criteria in consideration for their annual promotion. there is no information of their places of residence / work except for some artists who passed away after 1997. The economic crisis since 1997 may slow down demand for artworks in the public sector as well as demand for sculptures from the private sector. In general. their monetary returns are generally determined by market mechanisms and are possibly vulnerable due to higher competition. Occasionally they will get a double promotion. They are also constrained in their art insofar as they. the artists in this group can not afford to have a luxurious lifestyle since their economic base is mainly their salary. Chulalongkorn and Srinakarinwirote. In the past two of the most secure and popular means of securing additional income were being public servants in governmental bodies concerned with the Arts or being instructors in various government universities. people like Silp Bhirasri and Paitoon Muangsomboon. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 185 . The higher return from privately commissioned works may encourage them to take early retirement and do private commission work. at least a minimum level of income sufficient to allow them to continue to produce their art unhindered. There will be competition between the public and private sectors. and Thai artists in general. but a demand for monuments and sculptures still exists. the stability of financial earnings can also help them to conserve their professional ethics and morals. All camps share basic similarities. However information from other sources shows most of them lived and / or worked in Bangkok Metropolis. 506-593. In cases where some are able to earn extra income from privately commissioned works and other fringe benefits prior to and/or post retirement. Since the Thai government is downsizing the public service. Even though their incomes are relatively low. like others. In addition. so this economic base will be vulnerable in the future. established sculptors in the Fine Arts Department will become a scarce resource. The government bears all of the costs of artwork production and the artworks are mainly for public consumption and free of charge.* For deceased artists. the instructors and professors are expected to perform similar basic duties that university instructors are normally Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. are relatively selfreliant and able to enjoy freedom of expression. At the same time. 1996. Surprisingly. they can do other activities as well as being professional artists and it is these supplementary occupations that determines their economic base. must make a living. Source: Compiled from Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition: 50 Years of Thai Art. There. This analysis will place significant emphasis on these two groups in consideration of the economic base of Thai artists. B) GOVERNMENT UNIVERSITY INSTRUCTORS Being a university instructor is a very secure position for Thai artists. III) ECONOMIC BASES OF THAI CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS The artists in the biographical study cited earlier. Some prominent artists from the Department are also occasionally selected to serve the monarchy directly. they are secure. The lack of financial support from the public sector combined with a knowledge of the importance of financial stability if their integrity in their art works is to be maintained has resulted in most Thai artists having supplementary sources of income to support themselves and their art. both economically and socially. It is regarded as an honourable and prestigious experience. the opportunities are rarer for “young blood” sculptors to become public servants in the Department. then their lifestyle may be somewhat higher. pp. A) PUBLIC SERVANT ARTISTS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF FINE ARTS Sculptors who work in the Fine Arts Department are limited by the frameworks formulated by the government. Bangkok: The Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. Academic artists in the government universities in Bangkok can be divided into three camps: Silpakorn.

G.12 0 43.24 22.000 20 1.100 4.255 17.200 30 1. p.090 Date of Enforcement 1933 12/28/36 10/07/39 10/24/42 01/01/48 05/18/51 05/16/54 11/01/59 10/01/67 06/01/73 01/01/74 10/09/75 10/01/78 01/01/80 01/01/82 01/01/89 04/01/90 10/01/94* Sources: Warr.80 0 0 0 0 2.05 0 43.71 0 C 11 42. (Table 10) Table 9 Nominal Monthly Salaries of Civil Servants.600 750 9.100 25. the instructors in all these camps also receive ‘position bonuses’ according to their rank in the teaching hierarchy.08 12.180 6.72 0 48.85 0 46.820 12.410 10.855 750 10.820 10.42 0 C 11 29.76 14.980 9. * Royal Thai Government Gazette.780 9.22 0 0 0 0 2 4. differing from other faculties where pure research and academic work is considered. 23 . p.400 5.690 1.200 5.000 540 8. In addition to their salaries.98 0 0 0 0 0 3.800 5.17 0 0 0 0 0 4.500 5.39 0 0 0 0 3 4. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 186 . (Table 9).63 19.64 0 0 0 0 1.460 6.190 10.880 7. Chairpersons.12 13.37 0 26.80 20.100 59.300 5.350 30. Specifically for art professors.28 21.5 4.69 0 30.94 0 34.580 9.36 0 32.07 0 33.41 20.530 7.46 17.600 5.000 20 1. (1996).24 18.000 30 1. Some art professors are elected members of various committees. 112. (1995.900 6.5 4.68 16. 6. the income rates between the three camps are similar as they are based on the government standard.79 0 27.40 15.20 23.000 20 1. Deputy Rectors or even Rectors of the universities.07 17.44 14.60 13. for example teaching and some doing some administrative work.52 0 31.96 0 29.98 0 44. January).360 7.040 11.86 13.000 2. and Bhanupong Nidhiprabha.870 8.72 22.700 8. date of enforcement 10 /01/ 1994 C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 C6 C7 C8 C9 Rank 1 4. Thailand’s macroeconomic miracle: Stable adjustment and sustained growth.300 11.78 0 47. Serial No. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.900 900 12. These differ little from other faculties.assigned.600 6.23 0 28.600 4.745 2.72 15.600 600 8. Theoretically their annual promotions and criteria on which their performances are judged are also according to a central standard.190 7. P. 1933-1990 Nominal Monthly Salaries Lowest Rank Highest Rank 20 1.36 16.69 0 30.08 0 26.040 6.740 7. 1A.82 0 35.34 12.020 7.380 9.610 10.66 0 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.76 21.210 8.400 450 8. Table 9 (continued) Nominal Monthly Salaries of Civil Servants.51 0 28.77 0 0 0 0 0 C 10 25.080 15.560 11.320 6.5 4.21 0 33.02 19.57 0 0 0 0 0 4 4.85 18. the artwork which they produce is one means by which their promotions are evaluated and awarded.400 30 1.5 4.040 8.16 24.04 16.225 1.08 14.91 0 45.700 5.68 24. For holding those administrative positions and performing their duties.

66 0 24.12 0 19.430 7.200 8.02 0 10.13 0 15.960 6.12 0 11.72 0 16.01 0 32.96 0 36.69 0 30.58 0 27.93 0 21.29 0 56.19 0 42.85 0 50.05 0 26.91 0 45.32 0 14.67 0 51.38 0 11.720 7.05 0 43.39 0 48.65 0 11.5 18 18.76 0 10.19 0 58.080 6.79 0 28.10 0 40.54 0 51.860 7.84 0 15.740 8.56 0 23.26 0 11.56 0 13.73 0 12.94 0 45.140 7.19 0 49.57 0 47.92 0 16.53 0 19.44 0 53.11 0 10.52 0 24.90 0 12.61 0 37.00 0 14.54 0 10.09 0 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.72 0 21.42 0 10.590 6.43 13.200 5.360 8.03 0 38.17 0 42.13 0 36.55 0 21.85 0 31.68 0 12.59 0 17.44 0 53.680 9.730 5.34 20.96 0 15.49 0 22.02 0 16.80 0 17.56 0 12.020 6.65 0 19.27 0 35.270 9.48 0 24.05 0 11.35 0 40.42 0 32.41 0 11.5 14 14.88 0 41.05 0 32.71 0 24.32 0 21.28 0 14.19 0 18.66 0 37.320 6.88 0 23.5 17 17.620 5.57 0 17.5 12 12.97 0 25.60 0 36.440 6.40 0 28.900 5.17 0 24.72 0 48.11 0 40.99 0 27.32 0 12.64 0 25.22 0 10.89 0 12.68 0 11.12 0 43.51 0 28.75 0 46.90 11.64 0 21.86 0 43.88 0 18.48 0 27.50 0 52.580 7.12 0 15.92 0 20.34 0 38.040 8.380 7.47 0 11.5 7 7.50 0 52.10 0 12.39 0 19.95 0 17.60 0 50.08 0 22.49 0 52.26 0 17.80 0 13.27 0 23.36 0 18.710 6.94 9.60 0 30.58 0 26.16 0 31.83 0 23. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 187 .64 0 33.520 8.300 6.42 0 15.21 0 49.87 0 29.11 0 25.54 0 20.29 0 18.86 0 12.75 0 19.27 0 41.01 0 14.000 7.19 0 11.040 9.39 0 54.49 0 36.33 0 34.00 0 27.910 9.82 0 14.28 0 15.47 0 43.78 0 47.97 0 26.86 0 15.86 0 35.640 9.5 6 6.13 0 29.730 7.16 0 12.39 0 54.56 0 16.260 6.5 8 8.46 0 27.75 0 34.04 0 28.42 0 12.12 0 34.580 6.18 0 27.840 6.93 0 28.05 0 13.5 16 16.95 0 34.21 0 30.29 0 44.400 5.300 5.97 0 18.38 0 15.56 0 14.05 16.60 0 22.20 0 13.94 0 13.830 10.60 0 15.840 5.82 0 38.5 19 19.32 0 20.720 6.46 0 25.33 0 16.34 0 37.060 8.90 0 32.50 0 18.04 0 23.280 7.10 0 22.31 0 33.090 9.570 8.900 10.64 0 14.55 0 44.34 0 14.23 0 17.12 0 21.5 15 15.60 0 14.33 0 40.02 0 19.31 0 12.08 0 37.34 0 55.56 0 39.29 0 56.97 0 22.250 9.73 0 14.37 0 25.00 0 24.550 7.84 0 11.97 0 11.5 13 13.26 0 23.24 31.59 0 33.43 0 39.52 0 38.58 0 29.03 0 49.470 9.17 0 33.000 5.09 0 12.5 4.63 0 10.30 0 13.24 0 16.46 0 13.77 0 20.00 0 29.64 0 16.68 0 33.98 0 26.450 6.60 0 50.14 0 59.58 0 17.400 8.41 0 40.510 5.08 0 14.54 0 51.68 0 14.48 0 42.160 6.79 0 41.24 0 57.11 0 44.66 0 49.14 0 19.64 0 11.5 9 9.27 0 30.450 9.89 0 17.66 0 42.690 7.13 0 21.120 7.31 0 53.43 0 32.71 0 22.52 0 26.890 8.980 7.5 5.91 0 35.38 0 34.07 25.72 0 39.15 0 20.81 0 31.880 8.5 11 11.39 0 22.98 0 44.200 6.61 0 35.93 0 18.64 0 15.52 0 12.39 0 29.85 0 46.5 10 10.19 0 17.230 8.81 0 19.24 0 57.33 0 10.34 0 55.100 5.

74 0 0 24.5 37.p.41 0 22. Serial No.79 0 23.000 Vice-Rector.03 0 21.) SILPAKORN CAMP Silpakorn University is recognised as one of the most conservative and well-established universities in Thailand.16 0 0 19. Serial No.600 Head of Department Source: Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai) (1995. In addition.500 Rector 15. An important one is participation in the annual National Exhibition of Art. p. Deputy Dean. Many artists have been awarded major monetary prizes.900 Associate Professor ( C 7-8 ) 5.5 38.72 0 22 39.5 41. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 188 .48 0 24 42.000 Associate Professor ( C 9 ) 9. January).15 0 0 16. Other secondary sources of income still follow the traditions originated by Silpa Bhirasri.600 Assistant Professor ( C 6-7 ) 3. 5. January). These training courses are a popular source of additional income for young alumni and senior students.5 40. Deputy Director.81 0 Despite these similarities in tertiary education salaries.17 0 Source: Royal Thai Government Gazette (in Thai).0 0 36. with the administrative costs kept very low. and which are also arrayed in ideological and social terms as well as economic ones. Director 10.65 44. (1995. with the majority of the professors and lecturers being alumni themselves. 0 13.600 Assistant Professor ( C 8 ) 5.600 Professor ( C 9-10 ) 13.10 0 23 40. 112. 18. 1A.34 0 21 38.000 Rector Assistant. a.44 0 0 29. 15. 1A. the staff and students also participate in two other prestigious art exhibitions. 112. Dean. The alumni of Silpakorn University continue play significant roles within the University. Some of these staff members join with some senior students to arrange various kinds of low cost intensive training for the secondary students who aim to pass the special entrance exam organised by Silpakorn University. The maximum Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 6. which is done by ‘word of mouth’ and the site used is a public lawn in the University and so free of charge. the Bua Luang Exhibition of Painting organised by the Bangkok Bank and the Contemporary Art Exhibition organised by the Thai Farmers Bank. 20 Table 10 Supplementary Incomes of University Instructor (baht / month) Professor ( C 11 ) 15.93 0 0 20. there are significant differences between the three ‘camps’ in the art world which are associated with specific tertiary educational institutions. No costs are incurred for advertising.

000 20. (Table 11) Table 11 Year 1974 1979 1991 1995 Bangkok Bua Luang Prizes First Prize 15.000 10. and are a considerable source of social prestige. The social production of art in Thailand: Patronage and commoditisation. This causes anger among well-established artists. competed and won awards in these exhibitions in the past.000 30. This results in accusations that some competitors will lower their professional ethics by creating their artworks to appeal to the individual judges. p.000 100. giving them opportunities to have their art exhibited overseas regularly. 2 Interview with Prinya Tantisuk in February 2000. for both established artists and ‘young blood’ artists. resulting in discouragement for the young.2 However some people consider these types of exhibitions to be unfair competitions as the majority of the members of the selection committees and judging panels are associated with the Silpakorn Camp. and the wide social networks that come with academic positions there. Established academic artists in the Silpakorn Camp generally stop sending their artworks to contests and became honorary artists. Preecha Thaothong. There is a tendency among previous winners to use the prizes as a base for quoting the price of their artworks and sometimes the quoted prices are higher than the artwork price of senior and well established artists. although artists such as Chalood Nimsamer. All of the artists interviewed for this study have participated. Some academic artists are able to form long term relationships with foreign institutions.000 baht. In addition. The composition of the selection committee changes only a little between each exhibition. The artistic selection criteria are also criticised as inflexible and out of date. and some continue to do so. 152.000 Source: Henderson. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 189 .000 Second Prize 10. Pishnu Suphanimit and Preecha Thaothong still continue to contribute by being on selection committees and exhibiting their work in prestigious art exhibitions.000 70. Due to the well established status of the Silpakorn University. Thailand. academic artists in Silpakorn relatively speaking do not face many difficulties in obtaining sponsorship for solo and/or group art exhibitions both internationally and domestically. V. simply for not understanding the value and nature of art prizes. Unpublished MA Thesis.000 25.000 Third Prize 5. particularly among those receiving awards. 1980-1998. These sponsorships are obtained from the public and private sectors. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 40. the composition of the selection committee is fixed and publicly announced a long time in advance. Significant fees can be earned by being on a selection committee with art exhibitions in the private sector paying up to 10.1 Only Prinya Tantisuk continues to send his work for competition in those prestigious art exhibitions regularly since he regards this as a required duty of an artist.000 50. Chulalongkorn University. with recorded prizes of up to 100. like Thavorn Ko-Udomvit whose economic base seems to focus on the overseas markets more than the domestic markets. Many see the exhibitions as spoiling the individuality of the “young blood” artists by encouraging conformity. and the expensively prices artworks often are unable to be sold. These exhibitions are important sources of income for established academic artists because they are opportunities to advertise.000 baht.000 510.monetary awards for these types of competition are continually increasing.000 Total 70.000 660. It is hard to avoid allegations of nepotism and favouritism in their judgments. promote and sell one’s artworks directly.000 170. Sawasdi Tantisuk. Nonetheless. However sale of art work 1 Interview with Charood Nimsamer. the awards can pave the way to increased sales of their artworks. (1998). Pishnu Suphanimit and other academic artists in December 1999 and January-February 2000.000 70. He has won the Thai Farmers Bank art exhibition major prize nine times between 1979 and 1991.

and the far higher prices that art work can attract internationally. and also use their domestic income and savings. Chalood Nimsamer is one of the most wellestablished and successful. Pishnu Supanimit and Panya Vijintanasarn can usually earn “millions” in commissions and can earn “many millions” depending on the size and type of the artwork. a wellknown one being the Mahajanaka Project. at least domestically.70 % is earned as gross income. 7 All interviewed artists. It can be assumed that the pricing and payment for works exhibited overseas is more systematic and transparent than in comparative Thai exhibitions. mainly in Italy. they gain public recognition and prestige as other forms of return. but it can also be seen as a chance of losing some good artworks to overseas consumers as well. therefore a profit of between 60 . When they are studying abroad. Unsold artworks may be left overseas as Thavorn Ko-Udomvit has done.5 Others like Preecha Thaothong. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. price or image of the art they are buying. the United States of America and Japan.4 Their attitude is consistent with the statistics reflected in the artists’ biography complied by the Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. Of 401 artists in the list. 6 Interview with many artists and other artistic network in December 1999 and January-February 2000. The status of Silpakorn artists is such that they can receive commissions yet create according to their own tastes. Nonthiwat Chandanapalin. regularly managing to obtain “many millions” of baht worth of artwork commissions from both the public and private sectors. Academic artists often face difficulties with customs both at entry and exit as custom officials usually do not have any knowledge about the artworks and the law and regulations about sending art works overseas are ambiguous. However most of the established academic artists in the Silpakorn Camp do not see a PhD level of education as a necessary pre-condition for being a successful artist. 8 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer in June 2000.6 Particular to the Silpakorn Camp is the fact that customers or buyers approaching the artists to produce commissioned work will not be accepted as customers if they try to dominate the style. 8 These established academic artists and others are sometimes selected for prestigious Royal Projects. There is another noteworthy factor of concerning the incomes gained by artists through commissioned work. though these quoted prices are generally negotiable and there maybe some discriminatory discounting after the exhibition. they are sometimes asked to pay tax on their own artworks. Chalermchai Kositpipat.9 They can use this experience. there is a tendency to over quote prices during exhibitions. only a small number of them have a PhD level of education. some manage to earn extra income by selling their work and saving their continuing domestic incomes and salaries. Most of the established academic artists interviewed in Silpakorn Camp have commission works mainly from the private sector as their economic base. Preecha Thaothong and Panya Vijintanasarn. 5 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer in January 2000. The taxation rates for art works is very different from taxation rates for other 3 4 Interview with Thavorn Ko-Udomvit in February 2000. France. Those who get a lesser amount of scholarship income may have to produce extra artworks to make a living and support their own education and training abroad. Most academic artists in the Silpakorn Camp are also able to get scholarships from both the Thai and foreign governments for further education and training overseas. To avoid these troubles these academic artists and other artists who have the art exhibitions overseas carry their artworks personally and/or use personal connections. 9 Interview with Nonthiwat Chandanapalin. Pishnu Suphanimit. Even though the income they receive from these projects is negligible. Apart from filling out the necessary declaration forms.internationally must occur through art dealers. resulting in a loss of around fifty percent of the sale price. and the prestige it brings. to smooth their artistic path in the future. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 190 . Preecha Thaothong and other academic artists in January 2000. Interview with Chalood Nimsamer.7 Some artists have said that the usual cost of these commissioned works is around thirty percent of the allocated price.3 International art exhibitions can be viewed as a means by which to raise the profile of artists. At the present time. The real benefits come from increased social prestige in Thailand. gaining international recognition for both the artists and the country.

000 up to baht 3. Apart from his art works and research work. February and June 2000. Pishnu Suphanimit focuses his writing on art criticism and helping the public “getting to know” artists and the themes of their work in some prominent Thai magazines like Silpa Watthanatham and Praew. and is occasionally invited to have exhibitions abroad.000 baht monthly to support them and their continued art production. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 up to 3. 16 Interview with Panya Vijintanasarn in January 2000. The tax will be calculated from seventy percent of the cost price.000 baht per article. His semi-documentary pocket books are very popular and have been reprinted many times. Preecha Thaothong and other artists. 12 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer. since their retirement from the faculty. when the time comes. on the other hand. he is widely popular amongst the readers. He also regularly receives commissions for artworks. Many of his pieces have been duplicated and sold out.16 The artist himself and Silpakorn gain social prestige in return. The gallery is expected to serve both Thais and foreigners who are genuinely interested in art. Pishnu Suphanimit and Chakkrabhand Posayakrit in January. around 10% of the cover price. Some of established academic artists in this Camp are also occasionally invited to be guest speakers by public and private organisations. Amnart Yensabai and Wirun Tangcharoen in June 2000 13 Interview with Prinya Tantisuk in February 2000. Recently Damrong completed his own art gallery in Nakhon Chaisri District. in Nakhon Pathom Province. if they 10 11 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer and other artists in December 1999 and January-February 2000. 14 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer.14 due to the low cost of photocopying and the availability of their books in the library this style of writing can slow down the volume of circulation in the market. although after the 1997 economic crisis. supported mainly from his personal budget and limited donations. On average they can earn between baht 2. While Chalood Nimsamer focuses on writing mainly text books. a significant form of supplementary income. the maximum rate dropped slightly to 2. from both the Silpakorn Camp and elsewhere.12 For many years Prinya Tantisuk wrote occasional articles for the weekly Siam Rath. for both these artists. 17 Chamluang Vichienkhet. while in other production the tax rate is calculated from as low as thirty percent of the cost price. He is well-known amongst foreign artists. Normally the authors will receive a set portion of the price of each book sold. Interview with Chalood Nimsamer and Pishnu Suphanimit in January and June 2000. In the near future. 15 Interview with Chalood Nimsamer. it will also be a place for doing library research about art.occupations and products. It is set to be free of charge and he plans it also to be free of all vices.15 Some academic artists like Panya Vijintanasarn voluntarily contribute to society by training potential young artists at Surat Thani Province occasionally. However it is a long term income source for them. can earn extra income of between 8.13 The returns possible from writing books depends on the volume of printing and reprinting. On average. both from the public and private sectors. being informative. 10 Some of the established academic artists in this Camp also manage to gain additional income by writing. Damrong Wong-Uparaj and Chamruang Vichienkhet are two well-established academic artists from the Silpakorn Camp who.000 baht. 18 Interview with Chamruang Vichienkhet in January 2000.000 per time. he also compiled and submitted copies of these articles to the Faculty for his annual promotion.18 Well-established academic artists. This situation results often in art sales being under reported. concentrates more on commercial art production. 17 Interview with Damrong Wong-Uparaj in June 2000. Some may earn more from private enterprise. Writing compulsory textbooks like Chalood and semi-documentary pocket books at affordable prices can earn artists large lump sums of money. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 191 . creative and attempting to be objective. Writing is. Pishnu Suphanimit. 11 Using simple language. writing an article for magazines will earn approximately 1. Pishnu Suphanimit. and for their heirs when they inherit the copyright. have lived simple lives and been able to survive very well.

and initially focused solely on Thai disabled children. He distinguished himself by writing books about Thai art in English. Tawee Nandakwang was widely recognised as doing art for arts sake. It is useful particularly to people with little or no background knowledge of Thai art. (Appendix 2 ). p. with one of the most popular being Modern Art in Thailand: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. now widely renowned. one of whom is Apinan Poshyananda. 151-158).20 His art works. (Art for All. Some of the Thai volunteers are art teachers from throughout Thailand and the organisers view the project as having an important role in the development of future techniques for teaching art within Thailand.The new generation of artists in general regard Tawee as a case of artistic mismanagement and mistakes and try their best not to imitate him in this area. Due to a lack of concern for marketing.22 B. systematic and very informative. The project was established in 1999 in The Celebrations for the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s Seventy Second Birthday Anniversary. 20 Interview with Tawee Nandakwang’s wife in February 2000.000 and it was auctioned at baht 1.000 to 1.are recruited as National Artists. In regard to now-deceased artists in the Silpakorn Camp. 21 Interview with Sombat Wattanachai in December 1999 and January 2000. are well known in foreign countries. Kamol Phaosavasdi and Channarong Pornrungroj. His style of presentation is clear. still living. In addition to this Channarong 19 Interview with Chamruang Vichienkhet.500. he always underquoted the price of his artworks.000.000 while he was alive and he and his family had continuous financial problems. Only one piece of his art was ever sold for more than baht 100. The artworks of other Silpakorn Camp artists. Kamol has very strong connections with Japanese art museums and galleries and is often invited to have regular art exhibitions there with full sponsorship. 1999. have become scarce and in high demand. two other academic artists from the Chulalongkorn Camp. The project receives sponsorship from a number of domestic and international organisations.200. Chamruang Vichien-khet and Damrong Wong-Uparaj are amongst the artists who have received this accolade. 22 Interview with Tawee Nandakwang’s wife in February 2000. A prominent gallery like Sombat Permpoon Gallery can mark up the prices of his artworks many times and make huge profits. one of the most famous of the Chulalongkorn artists.23 Channarong Pornrungroj is internationally recognised for his “Art for All” project which primarily targeted disabled Thai children. the Gallery is generally accepted as the best in Thailand. are quoted and sold with baht 300. At the present time.21 The July 2000 Christies auction had set one of his artworks between baht 1. Now there are only a few left in the Gallery and worth many millions of baht apiece. Charood Nimsamer and Damrong Wong-Uparaj in January and June 2000.) CHULALONGKORN CAMP Academic artists belonging to the Chulalongkorn Camp try hard to differentiate themselves from the Silpakorn Camp. (Please refer to the ‘Independent Artist’ section for details). The stated aims of the project are to introduce various forms of art to children in a fun way and to encourage interaction between children with and without disabilities. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. This book gives an excellent background of the nature of Thai artistic networks. He is an internationally recognised professional art curator in Thailand.410. Sometimes his style of administration has created conflict with conservative members of his committee as happened with the Vasan Sitthikhet Art Exhibition in August 2000. This year the project emphasised incorporating both able-bodied and disabled children. with future plans for expansion to include disabled children in all ASEAN countries. With his modern and western style of gallery management.000 as the maximum. 23 Interview with Kamol Phaosavasdi in February 2000. he is the key supervisor of the Chulalongkorn Art Gallery. and is staffed by both international and Thai volunteers. He is also used as a warning for emerging artists.19 Chalood Nimsamer. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 192 . Many of the staff have graduated from prominent universities abroad. aiming for international reconciliation and cooperation.

particularly those artists from well-to-do families.Pornrungroj also does some academic research as well. The students in the Faculty are encouraged to dress up in a neat. Both of them write art criticism for the weekly Matichon magazine. The recruitment process places more emphasis on the intellectual capability of students. Wirun Tangcharoen and Amnat Yensabai. their articles are simple. is unacceptable.25 New styles of extracurricular activities are encouraged. polite and clean style of uniform. However it is generally well known that the cost of his art production is higher than most others. 40 art students and 60 out of 945 inmates participated in this program. secured and organised. but customers can expect high quality artwork for their available budget. on one day projects without interfering with the prisoners’ imagination.27 Similarly to Pishnu in the Silpakorn Camp. although to date he has yet to sell a piece. So their economic bases are quite similar to some of the academic artists in the Silpakorn Camp. His family is financially well established and has fully supported his interests and education. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. He is a career artist.24 It is clear that the sources of additional income for academic artists of the Chulalongkorn camp differ from those of the Silpakorn camp. C.28 C. The emphasis on an ability to present their artworks in words and writing is aimed at improve art appreciation among Thais. a radio program broadcast which he produces from his home.29 Like most Thai artists. a male juvenile remand centre close to the University.30 Although he does not create his artwork with the intention of making commercial or expensive art for sale. 30 Op. gradually they are becoming more well known. focusing on contemporary issues. One of the most famous is Chakrabhand Posayakrit.) INDEPENDENT ARTISTS The majority of independent artists encounter financial instability and many of them have had to sacrifice artistic development and production of artworks and compromise their professional integrity for survival. The surroundings of the Faculty and offices are very clean. some of them can maintain artistic integrity and continue artistic production. informative. his status as 24 25 Interview with Channarong Pornrungroj in January 2000. It was a small and low-cost project but received very positive feedback from both sides.) SRINAKARINWIROTE CAMP The Srinakarinwirote Camp has tried to differentiate itself from the others by creating what it sees as a ‘new image of art’. 27 Interview with Wirun Tangcharoen and Amnat Yensabai in June 2000. up-todate and attempt to be objective. The project was sponsored by private organisations.cit. The opposite style of dressing. Interview with Wirun Tangcharoen and Amnat Yensabai in June 2000. Art education here is also integrated with other subjects with more recognition of the importance of the Thai language. The students can develop their artistic skills as well as be able to apply art to their every life. However this is not all independent artists. He uses the available budget of the customers as an important criteria in production of commissioned works. have distinguished themselves in more academic ways. A single art work can be upwards of “millions of baht”. 28 Interview with Amnat Yensabai in June 2000. A particularly notable one has been the recent art exhibition at “Ban Karuna”. They have also written a number of textbooks and popular art texts. Although some people do not agree that their writings are objective.26 Two academic artists here. often the highest. who has been able to sell his work continuously since he began his career until the present time. 29 Phone interview with Chakrabhand Posayakrit in February 2000. Amnat has an additional form of supplementary income. 26 Interview with Amnat Yensabai in June 2000. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 193 . and survive relatively comfortably. he requires no official contracts. Amnat also continues to produce his artworks from his home. The students can utilise their knowledge and skills for guiding the detainees in the various kinds of art they are interested in. as observed at Silpakorn University.

an artist is such that his art is recognised as top quality and will sell easily. Prices are discriminately allocated and normally not negotiable31Most of his customers are the upper and noble classes, and the wealthy. His fame and security as a recognised artists is such that there are many people who use his artworks as investments or speculatory purchases. His work is also occasionally auctioned for charity and in the past has always ended up drawing many millions of baht. The July 2000 Christies auction saw a piece of his work gaining the highest bid, 5.5 million baht, while its estimated preauction price was 3,800,000 to 4,800,000 baht. (Appendix 3 ). This is one of many like occasions. In addition, he also earned extra income from non-academic writing for some Thai magazines, and from his well known pocket books.32 Occasionally he does some work for charity purposes as well as being guest speaker or guest judge in some exhibitions. His economic base is particularly solid and stable with average minimum earnings of more than 100,000 baht per month.33 Even so he still lives a simple and quiet lifestyle. Chalermchai Kositpipat is different. He has had to struggle for a living and to study since he was young. He is well known as an informal, outspoken, aggressive artist who enjoys swearing and has a popular sense of humour. Chalermchai is viewed as a self promoting artist. His artistic style is neotraditional Thai and with an interest in Buddhism and he has used this art style to pave his way to becoming a prominent contemporary artist. His earliest art works in a Thai monastery in London he claims yielded nothing to him and his friends in monetary return,34 but it can be considered as their stepping stone. Their experiences in London led to a better social and financial position very soon after returning to Thailand. Fortunately for him, he was one of the artists selected to serve the monarchy in the Mahajanaka Project. The social prestige and renown accompanying this enabled him to become well known amongst Thais and a corresponding increase in the price of his work. Estimates are that most of his works are now worth anything up to or beyond a million baht.35 Apinan Poshyananda (1992), a Chulalongkorn professor and famous art critic and international curator, has said that Chalermchai’s work averages between baht 100,000 to baht 300,000. (Apinan, 1992, p. 198). This is consistent with the July 2000 Christies’s auction, where one of his works was quoted at 100,000-150,000 baht, with bidding reaching 282,000 baht and the other one was quoted at 50,000-80,000 baht, with bidding reaching 94,000 baht. (Appendix 3). Recently, Chalermchai cooperated with the “daw lan duang” TV program, Channel 3, to produce a small piece of artwork for a charity auction. It sold for around 120,000 baht. At the present time, his economic bases are viewed as solid and stable, and he says himself that he has earned “enough”.36 He is now, as a guest speaker, utilising his unique knowledge and experience to encourage art appreciation among primary and secondary students in various provincial and rural schools. He is also a volunteer in Channarong’s “Art for All” program. He has sponsored the rebuilding of the Buddhist Hall of a monastery in his home town and in doing so invented unique types of artwork for decorating the Hall using the local craftsmen as labourers. The funds for this rebuilding are being raised through the sale of two books written about the life, experiences and art of Chalermchai. Chalermchai is similar to the Silpakorn artists, as he will also not accept commissioned works if the style, size or nature of the art is predetermined.37 Another three independent artists have biographical records available to study, Thaiwijit Puangkasemsomboon, Kamin Lertchaiprasert and Vasan Sitthikhet, and among these Kamin appears to have the most stable economic foundation. He is able to draw support from his family business and so continue to produce his artworks without worrying too much about financial considerations.

Op.cit. 32 Phone interview with Chakrabhan Posayakrit in February 2000.


Interview with Chalermchai Kositpipat and Panya Vijintanasarn in December 1999 and January 2000. 35 Various sources. 36 Interview with Chalermchai Kositpipat in December 1999. 37 Interview with Chalermchai Kositpipat in December 1999. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 194

His art works are often difficult to sell, as he produces large sets of works which require a lot of space for exhibition. This means his art sells only occasionally, but is purchased by both Thai and international institutions such as the Australian National Gallery of Art and Bangkok University.38 Kamin also teaches at Chiangmai University as a casual staff member. Minnie O’Shea, one of the Australian students who enrolled in a combined degree at the Institute of Art and Faculty of Asian Studies, ANU, studied contemporary art with him and gave very positive feedback on his style of teaching.
His way of teaching emphasises the process of making art, and the experience that the artist has - from the start point of the idea to the finished work. He encourages students to explore and analyse their own ideas and way of working - and how these change and develop in the process of art-making. He teaches that the ideas and processes behind an artwork are also important - not just the finished product. He measures the success of student’s work in many ways - not only by how it looks. Some of the ways of measuring success include the process and experience of making it, what effect it has on the viewer, whether the effect on the viewer is the effect the student wanted, and whether the work leads to a new point of view or new understanding of the world.

He has also received invitations for guest lecturing at Bangkok University, but has expressed a preference to continue as a casual instructor rather that become a permanent art teacher. (See also Appendix 3) Another independent artist, Thaiwijit Puangkasemsomboon found that he did not enjoy teaching at all and so gave it up. Now he concentrates on his art work, using low cost materials and recycled objects, and earns extra income by designing and producing furniture worth around 40,000 baht for his friends.39 Although he does not earn significant income through his art, the extra income from furniture production, combines with other sidelines, provides a reasonably steady source of finance. His wife is also employed in the private sector which is an increased source of security and his wide social connections means he is able to find financial assistance through friends when necessary.40 Vasan Sitthikhet is quite different. He is a confrontational and radical artist whose work both attracts wide audiences and can create serious difficulties for him, and for galleries exhibiting his work. His artworks always reflect what he sees as contemporary problems, and encourage the audiences to think or be more concerned about those problems. The latest one, “mii arai nai hua raw” (What’s In Our Head ?), created problems for the conservative supervision staff of Chulalongkorn Art Gallery since his art presentation encouraged the audiences to think more about the administration of the Chuan government. The work in question was an installation featuring fifty human figures with the faces of prominent government figures painted on the heads, in dirt. The materials used were cheap, and the fifty figures were strung up, with nooses around their necks. After the installation had finished being exhibited, the work was taken out the front of Government House and large groups of people gathered. Any passing or interested member of the public was invited to join in, and a twenty four hour vigil was kept. People were encouraged to play with the figures, and they were finally burnt. This art installation was a clear example of the role that art can, when the artists so desires it, play a significant role as a form of social commentary. In this instance the issue raised was ineffective administration of the country by the Chuan Leekpai government. This installation was initially banned but Apinan Poshyananda later convinced the administrative officials to approve it. Since the media publicised the conflict, the exhibition of Vasan became widely known and attracted many visitors. (Appendix 4) The art work of Vasan is not uniformly appreciated in Thailand, with some being unsure if the proper role for art is such a confrontational one. The younger generations tend to enjoy and support his artwork far more than the elder generations. His slightly abstract renderings of figures and strong political statements are also more in line with some foreign contemporary art, and not surprisingly he
38 39

Interview with Kamin Lertchaiprasert in January 2000. Interview with Thaiwijit Puangkasemsomboon in January 2000. 40 Op.cit. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 195

is more popular overseas, with around 30% of his artworks sold to foreign customers.41 As much of his art is not produced for commercial purposes or sale, he also produces ceramics for income, and was a construction painter for a number of years in Germany to support himself.42 He is unusual among the artists interviewed for another reason also, he is the only artist who uses a domestic art gallery, the owner of which he is close to,43 to trade his works, preferring not to be involved directly himself and accepting the agent fee charged. 44 He enjoys a simple lifestyle, and strikes one as very down to earth. In general, the economic foundation of the artists interviewed here, and thus the majority of established and recognised artists in Bangkok, are secure. The average income of all can be assumed to be above the adjusted poverty line, though by varying degrees. The estimated minimum monthly income for these artists appears to be around 30,000 - 40,000 baht, although when combined with the salary of their spouses. The minimum costs for an artist’s family living and producing artworks in Bangkok were estimated to be at least 40,000 baht per month.45 Given two incomes, few dependents and a simple lifestyle, these established artists range from comfortable, through to wealthy. V. FACTORS RELATED TO THE ECONOMIC BASES OF THAI CONTEMPORARY ARTISTS V.1. INCOME DISTRIBUTION AND POVERTY INCIDENCE Historical Background Economic development has been seen as the primary means by which to reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for all Thai people. Since the early 1960s economic development has been a continuous and changing process within Thailand. Accelerated growth has been the focus of all Economic and Social Development Plans since 1961, and continuing at the present time with the implementation of the Eighth Plan (1997-2001). Bangkok Metropolitan Region (BMR) is considered the centre of national development and will continue to play this key role, although there is some movement towards the recommendation of the Metropolitan Regional Planning Study (Dixon, 1999), a decentralisation of the development process to the outer regions. The mission sent by the World Bank to Thailand in 1958 had an enormous impact on the economic and social development planning that was to emerge in Thailand. An import-substitution policy was recommended for industrialisation and adopted in early 1960s when Field Marsh Sarit Thanarat was the Prime Minister. The role of the government was altered from direct participation in industries to indirect, by supporting the private sector through provision of infrastructure. At the same time various investment incentives were provided and tariff protection was adopted to promote domestic manufacturing industries. The government refrained from establishing new state enterprises or supporting them to reduce the influence of Chinese capital as in the Phibunsongkram period.(Ikemoto, 1991, p. 5) Since then, there has been and continues to be a relatively low level of government intervention and Sino-Thai interests in the private sector have dominated the nonagricultural sector development process. Development within the agricultural sector development has received little economic or other support from the government or the private sector, despite the fact that more than 50% of the population are employed in this sector. As a result of this, the agricultural sector has both attained benefits from, and participated in the economic development of the nation to a far smaller extent than the urban and industrial sectors. The promotion of agricultural and manufacturing exports together with the provision of export incentives adopted in early 1970s continued to generate rapid GDP growth, but the income gap
41 42

Interview with Hongjorn Saneh-ngamcharoen in January 2000. Interview with Vasan Sitthikhet in January 2000. 43 Interview with Hongjorn Saneh-ngamcharoen. 44 Interview with Vasan Sitthikhet in January 2000. 45 Interview with many artists. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 196

between Bangkok and the other regions continued to widen. The agricultural sector was still under developed and was more affected by impacts from external factors. Growth and income in the agricultural sector was more vulnerable and this sector has had to bear a greater incidence of poverty than the manufacturing sector. Fortunately, after the 1973 Revolution up until 1976, Thailand was ruled by democratic and more welfare-oriented government which was concerned about the welfare of Thais in rural areas. There were several measures implemented to improve rural development and welfare, including capital transfer payments from the central government. In addition the value of agricultural and commodity exports had increased and the first oil shock in 1973 did not affect the agricultural sector, resulting in an increase in agricultural income. However, the private sector saw the student uprising in 1973 as an event of political instability, and private investment in 1973-1976 decreased accordingly. Due to these reasons, overall income disparities between agricultural and non-agricultural sectors became narrower. 1978 was another transition period because the role of government in the development process changed. The government began to utilise public funds as a mean to intervene in and support the state enterprises, resulting in government budget deficits. The second oil shock in 1979 and lower commodity prices brought about trade deficits. This severely affected the Thai economy and the government sector, and both public and private debts increased. The national budget deficits and level of public debt was the greatest concern of the Prem government. Tightening of government expenditures was applied which affected capital transfer payments from the central government to rural areas. In addition to unfavourable commodity prices, the Thai economy in both the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors was affected, but the effect was most severe on the former sector. Undoubtedly, during this period, the regional and sectoral income disparities worsened. The global adjustment of the Thai economy after the Plaza Agreement of 1985 brought about the recovery of the Thai economy in 1986. The growth of exports and foreign direct investments were some important factors leading to a double digit growth rate in 1988 and higher per capita income, and income inequalities decreased accordingly. The change from a battle field strategy into a trading field strategy by Prime Minister Chatichai Chunhawan was implemented during 1988 and 1990. The foundation of political stability laid in the Prem government was an important additional factor in the record growth rates of this period. In the early 1990s the economy of Thailand was in a positive condition due mainly to trade liberalisation. The policy of financial liberalisation initiated in 1993 provided for greatly increased mobility of capital, particularly through the Bangkok International Bank Facilities (BIBF) and the stock market of Thailand. This policy led to rapid increases in levels of foreign debt, mainly in the private sector. Easily obtained credit the financial sector together with lax and obsolete laws governing credit facilities led to unproductive loans and excessive borrowing in the private sector, particularly to fund land and real estate development in Bangkok and the Bangkok Metropolitan Region. The government sector overspent in investment in infrastructure and over subsidised some public enterprises relying on foreign loans. Both public and private debts increased. Influences external from Thailand played increasingly large roles in the Thai economy enabled through the free trade and financial liberalisation policies of the government. These policies have the potential to generate economic development and growth, as they have done, but they also have the potential to contribute to economic crisis in the country, as they did in 1997. It is clear that the import-substitution focused strategy of the 1960s has generated rapid economic growth in the country. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) grew at consistently high rates, per capita income and rates of savings generally increased. Gross Capital Formation also rose. These statistics are undeniable, and impressive. At the same time the manner of economic and social development followed generated enormous poverty, and a huge disparity of income distribution in Thailand. The distribution of income within Thailand has been an issue of continual concern to both Thai development planners and the World Bank since the end of the 1960s, when the impacts of economic development planning began to be seen. Lack of available data at that time,

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



however, lead to studies into income distribution being initiated in the early 1970s, by both Thai and foreign economists. Income Distribution and Poverty Incidence : Pre-1997 Crisis Two main indicators are generally used to study income distribution and the spread of the burden of poverty, these being the Gini Coefficient and the ‘poverty line’. The higher the Gini Coefficient, the greater the inequality in relative distribution of income. The ‘poverty line’ is determined by World Bank criteria, used as a cut off line to reflect the proportion of the population whose incomes are insufficient for a normal life, who are below the poverty line. This proportion is referred to as the ‘poverty incidence’. Yukio Ikemoto had presented the review of Gini Coefficient of past studies on income distribution in Thailand during 1962-1986 for comparison. (Table 12)
Table 12 Source Oshima Whole Kingdom Kerdpibule Rural Areas Urban Areas Chantaworn Whole Kingdom Rural Areas Urban Areas Meesook Whole Kingdom Rural Areas Urban Areas Wattanavitukul Whole Kingdom Rural Areas Urban Areas Krongkaew Whole Kingdom Rural Areas Urban Areas Hutaserani and Jitsuchon Whole Kingdom Ikemoto and Limskul and Author’s Study Whole Kingdom Rural Areas Urban Areas 0.414 0.361 0.405 0.414 0.361 0.405 0.5 0.436 0.448 0.414 0.361 0.405 0.466 0.379 0.434 0.429 0.381 0.429 0.429 0.381 0.429 0.429 0.381 0.429 0.499 0.466 0.433 0.451 0.395 0.435 0.473 0.437 0.447 0.443 0.366 Review of Gini Coefficient of Past Studies 1962 1969 1970 1971 1975 1981 1986





0.426 0.384 0.439

0.417 0.392 0.403

0.441 0.413 0.428

0.471 0.439 0.466

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Source: Ikemoto, Yukio. (1991). Income distribution in Thailand: Its changes, causes, and structure. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies. p. 11.

Among the various studies done regarding income distribution and the incidence of poverty in Thailand, the studies and findings of Ms Oey Meesook are almost always mentioned. Oey Meesook is an economist working with and for the World Bank, who studied poverty and income inequalities in Thailand in the early 1970’s. From her early studies we can see that the incidence of poverty in Thailand decreased during 1962/63 and 1975/76.
Table 34 Poverty Incidence between 1962/63 and 1975/76 1962/63 (a) 1975/76 (a) 1968/9 (b) 1975/6 (b)

Whole Kingdom 57.0 33.0 39.0 31.0 Urban Area 38.0 22.0 16.0 14.0 Rural Area 61.0 37.0 43.0 35.0 Note: The sanitary districts in 1975/76 (a) were classified as urban, but in 1975/76 (b) were included in rural areas. Source: Oey Astra Meesook. (1979). Income, consumption and poverty in Thailand, 1962/63 to 1975/76 (World Bank staff working paper No. 364). Washington, DC: World Bank, cited in Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon. (1988). Thailand’s Income Distribution and Poverty Profile and Their Current Situations (1988 TDRI Year-End Conference) Bangkok: Thailand Development Research Institute. p. 15.

Medhi Krongkaew (1993, p. 142) refers to the studies done by Meesook, and cites four important findings as follows:
“ from the early 1960’s to the mid 1970’s, households throughout Thailand experienced a continuous increase in their real incomes, resulting in a steady decline in the incidence of poverty; average household income disparities between rural and urban areas narrowed over this period; the improvement in the status of households in rural areas came as a result of increased average farm commodity prices and the switch to new crops with higher returns; rural households earned a greater proportion of their household incomes from non-farm activities”

Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon (1988) studied the distribution of income within Thailand after 1975 and the changing characteristics of the poor. They found that inequality in distribution of income increased significantly between 1975/76 and 1985/86. (Table 35)

Table 35 Quintile

Income Share by Quintile Group of Population (% of Total Income) 1975/76 1980/81 1985/86

1st 49.26 51.47 55.63 highest top 10% 33.40 35.44 39.15 second top 10% 15.86 16.04 16.48 2nd 20.96 20.64 19.86 3rd 14.00 13.38 12.09 4th 9.73 9.10 7.87 5th 6.05 5.41 4.55 second bottom 10% 3.62 3.28 2.75 lowest bottom 10% 2.43 2.13 1.80 Total Share 100.00 100.00 100.00 Gini Coefficient 0.426 0.453 0.500 Source: Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon. (1988, December). Thailand’s income distribution and poverty profile and their current situations (p. 17). Paper presented in the 1988 TDRI Year-End Conference on Income Distribution and Long Term Development, December 1988.

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



Most of the increases in real per capita income during this period were found in the top quintile of the population. By 1985 this group were receiving 50% of the income in the nation. Restricting the group further to the top 10% of the population makes the division in real income starker. In 1975, when Suganya and Somchai began their study, the wealthiest 10% of the population received 33.4% of the income, up to 35.44% by 1980 and by the end of the study in 1985/86 39.15% of the income earned was received by this ten percent. Correspondingly, the lower four quintiles received lowering percentages of the net income of the nation, reflected in the Gini Coefficients of the three periods, from 0.426 to 0.453 to 0.500 by 1985. In terms of per capita income, the top quintile earned the greatest net amount, and had the highest growth rates of per capita income. (Table 36). By contrast, the lowest two quintiles actually had negative growth rates during this period, -0.6 and -1.1 respectively in 1975-80 and 1980-85. If occupation of the head of the household is taken into consideration, we can see that professional, technical workers and executives earned the highest incomes, and enjoyed the highest rates of per capita income growth. Specific to the salaries of executives, the income growth rates during this period were extraordinarily high, 17.8% annually between 1980-1985. On the other end of the scale, the agricultural sector saw negative growth of per capita income (-0.2) because of declining crop prices and a declining agricultural sector. The recession period of 1980 - 1985 saw the brunt of the burden resting on the agricultural sector, where negative impacts were far more apparent than in the non-agricultural sector. (Table 36)

Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared, 1980 to 1999 © John Clark



4 3.3 17.1 8. Paper presented in the 1988 TDRI Year-End Conference on Income Distribution and Long Term Development.962.4 1.0 34.4 13.794.0 6.818.284.0 6.343.387.955.2 9.4 18.8 2.2 16.0 Annual Growth _______________________ 1975-80 17.8 5.4 9.0 2.0 17.847.9 2.404.0 14.1 -1.404.196.057.2 15.472.3 -0.7 19.9 12.484.1 8.035.6 10.161.532.6 9.2 5.8 6.0 5.1 1.474.0 5.056. 19).0 3.0 18.2 14.518.5 7.484.373.962.239.0 8.684.8 13.9 9.9 19.056.873.1 23.3 10.4 10.380.0 19.4 15.3 1980-85 4.7 9.702.685.810.4 23.2 6.6 7.692.6 0.9 11.9 0. City Core Bkk.634.0 2.4 12. although at a Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.2 8.0 1.8 -0.2 6.2 6.0 9.5 5.6 -1.0 5.8 4.032.0 1985/86 27.4 2.988.0 14.6 17.4 16.937. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 201 .0 5. during the boom 1975 1980 years.195.0 7.4 2.720.9 13.8 2.472.916.8 7.933.0 20.474.2 6.308.9 2.2 5.2 2. close to 20% annually.2 10.0 10.0 11.2 12.0 5.267.8 25.9 2.2 2.5 0.2 1.8 8.920.0 13.9 3.141.8 5.0 9.274.9 3.268.4 5.4 5.474.934.8 4.4 1.5 18.4 1980-85 10.8 7.0 10.8 10.0 2.768.116.0 4.5 2.0 6.8 18.8 2.6 1.864.0 Sector Production Community Type Village Sanitary District Municipal Area Area and Sector Inactive Rural Agri Rural Non-agri Urban Agri Urban Non-agri Occupation of Head Professional and Technician Executives Clerical Workers Sales Workers Services Workers Agriculturists Labourers Inactive Region North Northeast Central South Bkk.5 15.752.6 3.850.0 16.0 3.0 14.4 29. Suburb Bkk Fringe Non-Poor Poor Poor Status Whole Kingdom Source: Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon.0 13.6 8.6 10.444.406.0 15.4 14.0 15.036.0 15.0 6.1 11.481.1 -0.054.1 15.1 Quintile Quintile 1 Quintile 2 Quintile 3 Quintile 4 Quintile 5 Inactive Agriculture Nonagriculture 10.5 6.6 5.186.422.6 23.908.0 2.4 5.8 16.0 4.6 18.8 5.5 4.5 19. These households continued to grow during the recession years to follow.222.112.111. (1988.1 11.0 15.1 14.5 10.5 16.2 17.5 9.5 6.848.6 8.2 10.0 25.6 9.546.0 5.3 16.6 5.6 11.0 20.983.0 14.8 11.152.1 13.Table 36 Changes of Average Income Classified by Various Factors Factors Per Capita (baht/year) _____________________________ 1975/76 1980/81 22.933.918.744.0 22.6 3. Comparisons between the various regions of Thailand in Table 36 clearly show that the BMR sustained high growth rates for household income.4 5.0 7.8 8.993.4 18.5 8.2 5.280.0 9.094.840.0 15.0 4.0 7.0 13.3 15. Thailand’s income distribution and poverty profile and their current situations (p.586. December).8 8.8 5.4 16.1 2.4 11.5 7.412.994.6 7. December 1988.971.148.468.944.0 12.940.3 11.920.956.8 6.6 5.859.9 19.7 29.004.0 18.9 14.0 7.4 7.488.6 12.0 9.754.2 5.926.149.6 16.252.8 8.4 8.

78 4.Service Workers 6.00 4.21 3.49 13.51 18.Professional & Technician 2.Executive 3.25 48.13 1.Sales Workers 5.Agriculturists 7.55 3.Clerical Workers 4.02 1980/81 21.Clerical Workers 4.Agriculturists 7.Labourers Northeast 1.13 23.73 17.90 44.93 1.81 7.99 7.76 25.36 4.39 10.00 0. 44).00 0.Sales Workers 5.45 32.15 30.Agriculturists 7.97 20.Labourers Whole Kingdom Source: Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon.50 0. Paper presented in the 1988 TDRI Year-End Conference on Income Distribution and Long Term Development.28 30.86 11.48 7.Clerical Workers 4.Sales Workers 5.Agriculturists 28. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 202 .40 37.00 3.00 4. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.58 10.55 0.58 9.92 20.20 13.12 40.Service Workers 6.62 14.Agriculturists 7.00 3. December 1988.89 0.17 1.17 0.Executive 3.02 11.54 0.65 3.Professional & Technician 2.Sales Workers 5.75 5.33 24.40 29.92 30.27 0.00 0.23 4.Professional & Technician 2.46 25.71 1.00 0.98 9.74 13.Clerical Workers 4.79 0.00 2.48 23.23 3.Executive 3.99 23.Professional & Technician 2.Executive 3.Clerical Workers 4.61 15.00 0.02 0.00 0.63 0.88 0.88 18.50 12.00 11.30 51.57 8.Service Workers 6.54 16.51 7.Labourers 27.00 0.73 1.92 38.69 0.93 0.63 20.44 11.Labourers 1. December).15 3.73 2.00 0.00 1.04 3.Sales Workers 5.51 7.00 2.22 6.13 19.00 8.12 1. (1988.35 0.62 3.Table 37 Region North Poverty Incidence by Region and Occupation of Household Head Head’s Occupation 1975/76 33.34 28.02 17.00 3.33 27.00 0.Service Workers 6.55 13.Professional & Technician 2.23 21.04 1985/86 25.24 1.31 34.73 7.Executive 3.85 2.00 0.17 18.82 3.49 14.87 10.18 1. Thailand’s income distribution and poverty profile and their current situations (p.27 30.37 0.61 35.95 2.34 12.00 0.Service Workers 6.00 15.83 51.59 1.Labourers Central South Greater Bangkok 1.30 44.54 0.

(Table 37). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 203 .21 2. The highest prices received were in 1981.40 13.10 1. however both the high growth years and the economic slump years to follow were characterised by disparate growth.60 3.44 7.99 1980/81 0.35 11.50 5.01 0. These disparencies existed both between the BMR and the outer provinces and regions and between the agricultural sector and non-agricultural sector.04 1.25 3.60 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.44 81.09 2.80 1.96 15.45 0.53 80. Those living under the poverty line in the north and south were also large proportions of the regional populations.63 6. although still significantly lower than the poverty incidence in the agricultural sector.04% in 1980/81 followed by a rise back up to 29.13 2.02 8.56 5. resulting in an increase in disparity of wealth and income throughout the country. Only the central region and the Bangkok Metropolitan Region recorded levels of poverty significantly lower that those cited above. with average growth rates in total household income around 16%. Table 38 confirms that approximately 80% of people living under the poverty level were involved in agriculture and an estimated 15% in non-agricultural occupations.1980 did benefit the country as a whole.52 91.00 12.1980 but during the recession years to follow recorded no growth whatsoever. the poorest section of the population in every region of Thailand were those involved in the agricultural sector.00 1985/86 0. These economic slump years between 1980 and 1985 were caused by a combination of the second oil shock and large fluctuations in agricultural product prices.05 0.45 8.07 0.86 88. the percentage of people living in poverty in the kingdom decreased from 30.49 78.62 4. Table 38 Characteristics of the Poor 1975/76 Occupation of Head Professional & Technician Executive Clerical Workers Sales Workers Service Workers Agriculturists Labourers Inactive Sector of Production Inactive Agriculture Non-agriculture Community Type Village Sanitary District Municipal Area Sex of Head Male Female Age of Head 7. with almost every household living under the poverty line having a household head with no more than elementary schooling.04 2. The combination of these two factors lead to slower economic growth in that five year period that ever had been.08 0.95 15.52 14. since 1960.01 10.01 0. The significant reduction in farmer’s incomes meant that a number of people existing just above the poverty line fell under it.24 5.34 0.80 80.4% per household income between 1975 .16 86.82 82.85 82.66 89. As shown in Table 37.02% in 1975/80 down to 23. This compares with the northeastern region which enjoyed a growth rate of 14. Education levels also emerged as defining factors.more modest rate of 6% annually.51% by 1985/86. by 1986 they had reached their bottom level. The large proportion of the Thai population that remained involved in and dependant on agriculture meant that fluctuations in agricultural incomes had significant effects of the incidence of poverty in Thailand as a whole. around 30% in both. The boom years of 1975 .19 87.80 0. (Table 36) With regard to the incidence of poverty. The labourer group is the occupational group with the second highest incidence of poverty.53 5. with the incidence of poverty as high as 50% in the northeastern region.87 89.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 204 .84 28.4 (12.05 0.499) Note: Figures in parentheses are from Somluckrat. The Gini Coefficients and relative share of income presented in these tables clearly illustrate the worsening trend of income distribution in Thailand.21 12. 1979. 222.1 (4.81 60 and over 14.0 Source: Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon.50 30-39 26.82 80. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.0 100. “Industrialization and Welfare”.31 Education of Head No formal education 18. 1995: p.36 40-49 33.32 27.5 20.5) (5. Paper presented in the 1988 TDRI Year-End Conference on Income Distribution and Long Term Development.55 17. St.5348 (0. December 1988.4 5. but the general trend continues to be that a huge proportion of income rests with the top 10% of the population. Thailand’s Industrialization and Consequences.less than 20 0.78 50-59 17.5) 60.19 Higher than bachelor 0. Martin’s Press.13 20.4 (61. The situation improved slightly in some periods.5) (6.0) 64.64 24. December).2 10.4822 (0.4559 (0.576) 0.90 16. 1962-1963 to 1971-1973 1962-63 2.00 0.0) 0.97 1.5) 1971-73 2.7 (2. figures not in parentheses are from Medhi. 1978.414) 1968-69 3.09 Bachelor 0. in Medhi Krongkaew (ed).30 0. 45). Table 39.82 Secondary 0. (1988.74 Total 100.06 9.97 16.9 6.67 31.24 20-29 7.00 0.5 0.6051 (0.5627 0.0 100.4) 10.2 (20.4 6.20 0. and changes in this distribution pattern between 1962-63 and 1988.545) 0.5550 (0.76 Elementary 79. New York.9 (57.9 59.1 9.4) (10. Thailand’s income distribution and poverty profile and their current situations (p.4 (19. 40 and 41 show the income distribution as shared across the quintile groups.35 11.04 0. Table 39 Quintile 1 (Lowest Income Group) 2 3 4 5 (Top Income Group) Gini Coefficient (money income) Gini Coefficient (adjusted income) Income Share by Quintile Group.5) 19.00 Unknown education 0. (original quotation) Source: Pranee Tinnakorn.466) 18.0) 0. such as the 1968-69 year and in 1988.40 Vocational * Technician 0.

higher incomes were achieved and the overall Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. in Medhi Krongkaew (ed). The relative population and income levels were reasonably even between the northern region and BMR.479 Note: Bangkok and vicinity includes Pathum Thani.Martin’s Press.79 20.63 0.64 51.479 Source: The 1975-6. “Industrialization and Welfare”. New York. when the price of agricultural commodities was at its highest. the 1988 data are from Medhi. Pranee and Suphat.00 20.27 20.55 7.68 18. and lowest in the BMR.96 49.439 Whole Kingdom 100. in Medhi Krongkaew (ed). 1975-76 to 1988 Quintile 1st (Lowest Income Group) 2nd 3rd 4th 5th (Top Income Group) Gini Coefficient 1975-76 6.Table 40 Income Shares by Quintile Group. Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan.10 13.20 21. 1981 and 1986 data are from Suganya and Somchai. New York.09 12. at 11.43%.41 9. 1988 Distribution of: Household 16. many studies revealed that it is the agricultural sector that has the highest level of poverty. As displayed in the Gini Coefficients. 222. (Table 40) Table Region Bangkok and Vicinity North North-east Central South 41 Income Share and Gini Coefficients by Region. The southern region of the country has the lowest population.36 11. Cited by Pranee Tinnakorn.63 Population 14. 1995: p.43 18.43 Gini Coefficient 0.26 0.05 9.09 19.73 14.479 showed a better income distribution in 1988 compared to 1986.453 1986 4. although only 14. Thailand’s Industrialization and Consequences.69 30.58 19.47 0. The fluctuations of the market price of agricultural products means that the incomes of people within the agricultural sector also fluctuate.385 0. With regard to the incidence of poverty. BMR also earns 32% of the income earned within the country.6% of the country’s population lives there.53 12. the inequality of income is highest in the northern region.89 Income 31.6 in Medhi. In 1981.38 20.80 12. On a national level.00 100. Martin’s Press.73 34. 222.99 17. 1988. Regional disparities in the distribution of income also exist. 1992.426 1981 5.27 18. after the Thai economic recovery period of 1987.43% of the national income. Cited by Pranee Tinnakorn. 1991. 1995: p.00 0.86 55.50 8. St. the lowering of the Gini Coefficient by 0.87 12. Pranee and Suphat. In contrast to this. “Industrialization and Welfare”. but also saw the lowest level of income. 1991.88 0.00 100. the northeastern region with 34% of the population earns only 20.410 0. St.408 0. Thailand’s Industrialization and Consequences.500 1988 4. Source: Table 2.26 54. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 205 .453 0. but the Gini Coefficient of the north was far higher displaying a greater disparity of income in the northern provinces.

9 North-east 44. The poverty line for rural and urban areas increased almost threefold. dropping to 23% by 1981. standing at 12.8 13.5% of the population in the BMR was considered to be living under the poverty line. the ‘adjusted poverty line’. 1988) Table 42 is shown the calculated ‘poverty lines’ and the incidence of poverty from 1975-76 through until 1988. Cited by Pranee Tinnakorn.9 3.9 South 30. the actual incidence of poverty did not vary much between 1975 and 1988.6 Central 13.2 21. poverty incidence was calculated by applying the rural poverty lines to sanitary district areas.4 27.0 23.3 35.2 All Villages 36.5 21. the sector remains important in the determination of the incidence of poverty in the country at large.5 3. In 1988.2% by 1988. Sharp declines in the price of agricultural products in 1978. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . The northern and southern regions were similar to each other in patterns and levels of poverty. the region remaining second only after BMR with a low level of poverty. In urban areas it increased from 2. a fact reflected in these tables. Thailand’s Industrialization and Consequences. 1995: p. 222.poverty incidence dropped. Table 42: Poverty line and Poverty Incidence.0 29.981 baht up to 4. 1991. For the entire kingdom.5 7.9 35.203 baht for a single persons annual income.9 6. Rapid recovery saw this percentage drop sharply to 21. Rural areas saw an increase from 1.4 Bangkok and Vicinity 7. In the central region.961 baht to 6. The municipal areas in each province and region averaged 6. However.6 15. Pranee and Suphat. and those for 1988 are from Medhi.5 25. These adjusted poverty line indices take into account the changes in population structure. in Medhi Krongkaew (ed). nutritional requirements and consumption patterns that occurred between 1975-76 and 1988.5 18. only 3.9% by 1988.2 27.3 By Region: North 33. “Priority Issues and Policy Measures to Alleviate Rural Poverty: The Case of Thailand” (1991).076 baht per person. Pranee Tinakorn and Suphat Suphachalasai in their research report. as it is based on the 1976 calculation of what constituted ‘basic needs’ with the only adjustment from this time being for yearly inflation. Although a relatively small proportion of the overall income in Thailand in earned within the agricultural sector. The recession hitting Thailand in 1981 and continuing through until 1986 saw the incidence of poverty increase back up to 30%.7 20. 1975-6 to 1988 19751976 1981 1986 1988 Poverty Lines (baht per person per year): Urban 2961 5151 5834 6203 Rural 1981 3454 3823 4076 Poverty Incidence (%) By Community Type All Municipal Areas 12. St Martin’s Press.9 48. led to a sharp fall in agricultural incomes.1 All Sanitary District Areas 14. 1988. per year.0 13. on the other hand. 1981 and 1986 are from Suganya and Somchai.5 Whole Kingdom 30.2 34. New York.2 Note: In both of the studies cited below.6 12.5 19. “Industrialization and Welfare”.1% of the population living below the poverty line. The poverty incidence recorded is significantly different when the criteria used are those recommended by Medhi Krongkaew.5 5.8 26.6 12.8 3.2 19. These adjusted poverty lines 206 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the level of poverty reported in these tables is now acknowledged to be an underestimation. the incidence of poverty in 1975-76 was calculated at 30% of the population. Sources: The data for 1975-6. The northeastern region has long been recognised as the poorest in Thailand. (Suganya Hutaserani and Somchai Jitsuchon.

to determine the relative differences in cost of living throughout the different regions and areas. 473 baht per person.944 10. The price and quantities of 321 different consumer items was recorded and compared.536 1999 886 10. resulted in huge income disparities both between regions and between classes. 1995. The new criteria that they had developed were adopted and implemented.200 7. with the incidence of poverty more than doubling from the rates reported in the unadjusted poverty line data. enabling an accurate calculation of the true incidence of poverty. This manual is able to be up-dated monthly if necessary. In 1988. developed by Kakwani and Medhi Krongkaew in the Development Evaluation Division of the Thai Cabinet. This shows that the level at which a ‘basic needs’ existence could be fulfilled rose twofold in ten years.resulted in startlingly different conclusions from the earlier ones. The richest 20% continue to gain by far the highest percentage of income.632 8.3 (1). across municipal and regional areas. Table 43 Average Poverty Line for the Whole Kingdom Unit: baht/month/person -------------------------------Poverty Line 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 473 522 600 636 737 878 Unit: baht/year/person* -----------------------Poverty Line 5. The incidence of poverty in the entire kingdom jumped to 48. over the course of the last thirty or more years.264 7. intended to address the serious weaknesses noted in the World Bank calculations of poverty level that had been used since the 1970’s. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 207 . Using these adjusted measurements. The adaptations included measures such as using the nutritional norms of the Ministry of Public Health to determine calorie requirements for people of differing ages and genders. p.632 Source: Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis. Table 43 displays the corrected levels of poverty and patterns of income distribution under this adapted measurement method.8% (Pranee. per month was sufficient to meet basic needs (averaged Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.676 6. and almost 50% of the kingdom live in poverty. 4 (1). Income Distribution and Poverty Incidence: Post-1997 Crisis In 1998 the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB) recommended that an adaptation of the ‘poverty line’ criteria be adopted. or the different patterns of regional consumption was taken into consideration. economic development in Thailand has. to enable a fuller picture of the relative differences in cost of living. * Compiled by author. ‘Non-food basket’ prices were also computed. including 125 items of food. 225). 2. The new criteria on which the poverty level is calculated is a result of sharing information across government ministries and is recognised as the most accurate measurement of the poverty threshold at the current time. 2. The composition of ‘food baskets’. Kakwani and Krongkaew are widely recognised both domestically and internationally for their expertise in the study of patterns of income distribution. The poverty threshold in terms of the minimum income of baht per month for people of differing ages and genders is published in the poverty line manual by the NESDB.

A similar pattern can be seen in the per capita welfare index.4 million people under the line. Not only did general poverty increase. a drop of 4. and the severity of the poverty index.3%. the both the per capita real income and per capita welfare would have presumably continued to grow at pre-crisis rates. 886 baht was needed.throughout the kingdom) while in 1999. It is clear that the rapid growth of income and standard of living in Thailand was disrupted by the 1997 economic crisis.4 1996 to 1998 -2. as reflected by the various means by which economic wellbeing is measured. pre-crisis. Using the adapted criteria for the calculation of the incidence of poverty in Thailand.2 -4. 1. Using these new calculations of the level at which poverty begins. it is clear that the numbers of poor has decreased rapidly in the ten years from 1988 to 1998. but the numbers of people classified as ‘ultra poor’ Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Without the intervention of the crisis. of poverty levels put around 6.2%. real income levels almost doubled between 1988 and 1999. but also increased the poverty gap ration. The crisis of 1997 pushed more that a million into poverty.997 2.449 2.632 baht per person. 19.4 million in poverty then increased during and after the crisis to 7. despite the interruption of the 1997 economic crisis.2 16.997 in 1988.2 Expected Value 4.9 401 Per Capita Real Income 1. Table 44: Average Standard of Living: Whole Kingdom Unit: baht/month Period 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Percentage Change 1988 to 1990 22. If using the crisis index.0 Crisis Index -6.830 3. Continuously rising from 1988.6 1990 to 1992 18. The net effect of the crisis on Thai people was not simply a net drop in income but rather the net drop.3 (1).9 million to 7. a drop from 32% of the population to just 12. down to 3. as the estimation. This represents a net increase on annual income from 5. the economic crisis increased not only the net number of poor by 22. in addition to the loss of predicted growth. 3.830 baht in 1996 from the initial level of 1. average real income reached 3. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 208 .000 Source: Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.676 baht to 10.9 million. The 1997 economic crisis caused a drop in real income. This figure of 6.0 1994 to 1996 12.5 million extra.9 million. per month in 1998.9 1992 to 1994 17.753 baht per person.407 3. we can examine the standard of living of Thai people prior to and post 1997 crisis by using the following three measurements: Per capita real income Per capita welfare Crisis Index Considering the per capita real income generally first (Table 44).911 3. an increase from 212 baht per month to 386 baht per month.5 12.753 Per Capita Welfare (%) 212 254 295 344 386 370 Reviewing the results of the last thirty years.2 -7. before a drop to 370 in 1998. the net numbers of people living under the poverty line dropped from 17.9%.9 16.

8%.8 2.8 22.9 15.1 1.increased.9 -19. marginal poor showing an increase of 17.1 3.2 Severity of Number of Poor Poverty Index in Million 4.9 -33.2 23.7 3.6 16.5 24.9 3.7 1. between 1992 and 1996 the relative Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Marginal Poor represents those earning income between 80-100 percent of the poverty line.1 Crisis Index 19.1 1990 to 1992 -14.9 14.3 6.7 8. In regard to the relative distribution of income during this last decade.8 -8. -28.3 (1).8 4. (Table 46) Table 45: Incidence of Poverty Percentage of Poor 32.2 -2.3 11.3 2.5 9.3 13.7% and the near non-poor showing an increase of 5.3 -15.6 27.2 5. Source: Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.3 2.9 Period 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Percentage change 1988 to 1990 -16. (Table 46) However.8 1.8 4. the inequalities continued to be apparent.4 8 6.6 -37.6 15.3 (1). 4.4 million people.5 -29. 1988 .4 17.7 3.6 -23.1 -20.7 -5.7 1996 to 1998 12.4 Table 46: Ultra Poor.4 3.0 5.9 million.9 Poverty Gap Ratio 10.8 -28.7 -15.0 1994 to 1996 -30. 5. The crisis index divides the classification of ‘poverty’ into a further three bands.9 16.7 22.4 12.8 3. the lowest of which is ‘ultra-poor’ as mentioned.9 5.0 1992 to 1994 -29.2 17.0 4. resulting in there currently being in Thailand 4.4 -23.8 -13.8 -3.9 -33.9 3.5 1.1 Ultra Poor represents group of people earning income below 80 percent of the poverty line. Near Non Poor represents those earning income between 100-120 percent of the poverty line. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 209 .7 0.2 4.9 -34.6 13.2 -39.1998.5 5. Marginal Poor and Near Non-poor: Number of poor in million.9 3.8 3.6 Percentage Change -20.7 6.6 3.2 16.3 3. Without the crisis.3 million people living in ‘ultra-poverty’.6 Non- 12. Period 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1988-1990 1990-1992 1992-1994 1994-1996 1996-1998 Crisis Index Expected Value Note: Ultra Poor Marginal Poor Near Poor 5. a figure increased by the crisis by 0. it is estimated that the number of ‘ultra-poor’ in the country would have been 3.0 -14.5 -11.9 9.5 4.8 7.5 Expected 10.6 Value Source: Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.2 5.2 -34.7 3.6 7.

5 -0. by 1998 a mere 0.1 2.1 53.5 14.6 47.7 in 1996.2 4.8 20.7 -6.3 -0. from 53.9 4.2 54. The 1997 crisis has had a far more severe impact on the southern and central regions than the northern and northeastern. the richest quintile is now earning over 50% of the income in the country.7 -1.6% of the population of Bangkok were living in poverty.2 12. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 210 .distribution improved according to declining Gini Coefficients.7 12.9 0.6 in 1994 and 47.3 53.2 11.4 -5.1 19.2 -42.3 (1).7 2.3 11.2 -27.7 -5.9 12.9 19.6 13.1 0.9 -15.1 48.4 12. from 49.2 -1.4 -5.6 54.8 -2.8 0.2 Southern 32.0 23.0 0.4 43.4 23.3% to 53.1 3.2 22. Table 46 Period 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Inequality of Per Capita Welfare in Thailand Gini Index 48.3 1.9 Percentage Change in Inequality and Quintile Shares 1988 to 1990 1990 to 1992 1992 to 1994 1994 to 1996 1996 to 1998 Crisis Index Expected Value Source: 0.0 8.6 19.6 0.1 -0.8 Percentage of Poor by Region Central 26.5 1. (Table 47) By the above calculations.0 3. Although average income distribution appears to have evened out over the course of the last ten years.5 4.3 9.7 48.4 -1. there was a recorded drop from 48. A smaller increase of 25.7 17.8 2.9 -5.3 20.8 4.9 28.5 Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.3 13.5% was recorded in the northeastern region and no impact at all in BMR. 5.9 48.7 Quintile 4 21.3 7.8 -0.1 by 1998.8 47.4 Quintile 3 13.7 4.8 Quintile 2 9.2 8.0 Northeast 48. The crisis saw a worsening of the income distribution levels as the poor segments of the population absorbed the bulk of the crisis.8 53. The implementation of economic and social development plans since 1961 up until 1998 has yielded benefits for the population living in Bangkok and the surrounding metropolitan areas.8 0.8 -1.6 4.4 2.6 -1.6 22.2 6.3 8.9 8.2% in 1998.6 -1. Table 47 Period 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 Percentage Change 1988 to 1990 -16.9 -3.7 12.1 49.6 19.1 39.8 Bangkok & Vicinity 6.7 -2.9%. even in the northeastern region which has always recorded the highest levels of poverty.5 8.8 4.5 5.7 -8.6 1.7 1.0 3.4 7.4 12.4% in 1988 to 23.5 20.1 Quintile 1 5. with net increases in poverty in the southern and central regions of over thirty percent.9 0.7 Northern 32.9 in 1992 to 48.2 9.5 27.5 20. After the crisis the percentage of income earned by the wealthiest actually increased again. the Gini Coefficient rising to 48. The net numbers of people living in poverty in all regions has decreased sharply over the course of the last decade. even after taking the crisis into account.1 55.2 Quintile 5 51.6 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.5 4.4 -10.

65 6. (Kakwani.4 21.5 3.8 1.8 1999 100.1 1996 100.5 18.0 21. The agricultural sector remains as the sector with the least real income per capita.7 18.9 26.7 73.8 8.8 1.1990 to 1992 1992 to 1994 1994 to 1996 1996 to 1998 Crisis Index Expected Value Source: -40.4 32.1 5.5 1998 100.6 19.3 (1).928 1981 4.262 8.7 -2.9 24.190 10.31 1992 3.779 14.5 -28.8 -19. The impact of the crisis is harshest away from the BMR.492 7.5 80.0 4.0 73. returned home in the aftermath of the crisis.5 -28.88 1990 4.3 1. Table 48: Average Monthly Income and Expenditure of Household Year Average Household Size Average Percent of Monthly Income Change per Year of Household (baht) Average Monthly Expenditure Household (baht) 2.783 4. a far greater decline in lower socio-economic groups.378 11.87 10.7% in the first quarter of 1998 and a further 12.3 -33.9 -44. and harshest in lower educational groups among construction and other manual positions. Household Socio-economic Survey.0 1. The crisis led to a decline in income in all areas of life.6 -41.90 -1. Topic 10.4 -54. Despite the fact that the financial crisis began in the Bangkok Metropolitan Region.0 1988 100.374 3.66 1996 3. Professionals and technical workers have suffered far less. and by migrant workers who.1 10.7 -15.04 14.161 5.625 17.0 98.8 1992 100.5 80.3 1.238 Percent of Change per Year of 1975-76 5.20 1998 3.3 -12.0 1.34 4.45 2.2 5.0 98.3 3. losing short-term construction work. Bangkok: National Statistical Office.7 12.32 1999 3.062 12.2 79.5 70.5 1.5% in the third quarter for the administrative and executive staff who had the highest pre-crisis average incomes.3 -32.529 7.58 1994 3.5 18.0 98.1 1981 100.2 25.0 98.4 28. small employers.0 98. Table 49: Percentage of Average Monthly Income of Household by Type of Income Type of Income Total Income Current Income Money Income Income in Kind Other Money Receipts1 19751976 100.45 * Data collection period was from June-September 1999 Source: Thailand.7 27. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 211 .8 -14.1 1.437 6. its impact has been far more severe in up-country areas.6 -12.7 -22. but also the relative consumption levels of Thai households.8 -2.5 1.106 6.9 72.16 7.2 18.004 3.631 1.8 1.9 7.5 1986 100.5 77.4 0. 7.0 98.7 12.6 Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis. Real income dropped 7.05 9. National Statistical Office. The impacts are felt by small firms.0 19. The research and study of Kakwani (1998) into the net effect of the crisis on the standard of living in Thailand reveals some very interesting trends.4 25.3).31 1988 4.389 10.9 79.5 1994 100.0 99.7 10.2 2.567 9. various issues.6 -7.729 1. in the financial sector.3 10.98 1986 4.4 -30.0 97.4 -31.7 -27. The various tables and statistics displayed below present the distribution of not only income. but importantly.2 76.22 10.3 1990 100.7 36. 1998.0 98.5 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.0 98.

8 21.0 1. 1986.5 63.2 1.2 1992 7.3 17.1 Such as insurance proceeds. 1986.0 26.7 Total 100. 1994.5 1. 1992. Non-farm Profits from Farming Property Income Current Transfers Income in Kind 19751976 1.5 1. * Data collection period from June-September 1999. 1990.2 66. 1998 and 1999 Household Socio-economic Survey.6 7.0 100.7 17.9 8.0 100.0 90.8 1988 4. Source: Thailand. lottery tickets and other gamblings.0 100. Source: Thailand. Bangkok: National Statistical Office.5 1.9 1.6 9. 1981.2 18.262 100.0 1998 12.062 100.3 87. The 1975-1976. 1994.1 38.5 11.0 100.0 100.9 18.4 90.6 21.4 15.8 3.8 64.3 15.7 15.1 20.8 0.625 100.8 33. lottery winning and other windfall receipts. gifts and contributions.1 5.6 1.631 100. 1986.1 11. 1981. Bangkok: National Statistical Office. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.3 12. National Statistical Office.0 100.0 34.378 100.0 6.9 61.2 34. 1996.4 92. 1988.5 1999 12.9 8. 1994. The 1975-1976. etc. * Data collection period from June-September 1999. 1996. * Data collection period from June-September 1999.0 18.1 19.0 Consumption2 Total 100. 1990.3 67.4 0. The 1975-1976.3 20.8 1.3 Other Money 1.6 15.928 100.6 7.7 13.9 7.7 87.3 1996 10.1 63.9 26.1 19.0 100.2 13.0 40.0 100.0 1981 3.779 100.8 65.0 1 Excluded alcoholic beverages and tobacco products 2 Such as taxes. 1996. Source: Thailand.0 41.9 55.9 5.729 100. interest.0 Consumption 96.4 1.492 100.0 100.6 19.1 1.6 25.2 89. 1992.6 18.7 1.9 0.8 1986 3.0 100. insurance premiums. National Statistical Office.2 9. lottery winning and other windfall receipts.0 100.5 12.7 17.1 1994 8.0 100.7 32.0 100.0 39.9 66.0 100.0 100.0 100.2 35.0 100.0 41. National Statistical Office.1 1.0 Non4.0 33.1 7.0 36. 1992. 1990. 1998 and 1999 Household Socio-economic Survey.2 27.0 28.3 0. 1981.0 24. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 212 . Bangkok: National Statistical Office.8 1990 5.9 5. Table 51: Percentage of Average Monthly Expenditure of Household by Type of Expenditure Expenditure Type 19751976 1981 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999 46.1 9.1 91.0 39.9 11.5 36. 1988.1 33.9 19.9 36.2 18.8 1.8 86.2 19. 1998 and 1999 Household Socio-economic Survey.8 10.3 Food1 Non-Food 53.5 5.1 1.1 44.106 100.5 1 Receipts 1 Such as insurance proceeds.0 93.3 2.0 100. Table 50: Percentage of Average Monthly Income of Household by Source of Income Source of Income (Value: baht) Total Income Wages & Salaries Profits.9 7. 1988.

4 Income from Their 8.5 2.7 1.6 1.2 1.3 0.2 2. lottery winning etc.2 1.713 35.510 35.7 3.6 1.4 6.7 0.1 Level 6-8 (baht) 35. Report of the Civil Servants’ Living Condition Survey 1999.301 566 414 1.406 26.5 6.4 589 175 168 137 1.4 Level 3-5 (baht) 18. National Statistical Office.6 7.2 3.650 1.653 252 196 Total % 100 78.2 3.7 0.7 8.249 22.5 0.8 0.126 27.383 35.Table 52: Average Monthly Income of Civil Servants’ Family by Type of Income and Group of Position Level in 1999 Type of Income (baht) Total Salaries. Tips Hardship Allowance or Other Benefits Own Account Profit Rent Received from Renting out Assets Contribution from Other Persons Others1 Income from Civil Servants themselves 23.6 12.698 34 206 % 100 77.148 2. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.548 218 411 666 12.6 96 31 52 140 601 39 427 234 6.056 7.616 2. Wages.933 689 158 % 100 79.740 324 413 834 15.4 945 255 178 156 2.6 0.6 73.4 4.313 2.696 18. money gifts.6 64.861 14.1 0.8 Level 1-2 (baht) 9.9 0.5 64.7 0.3 1.6 Spouses 1 Interest.6 6.9 0.1 0.0 0.4 1.4 2. Pension Allowance for Work Position Meeting Allowance/Overtime Premium Housing Allowance Medical Expense Assistance Bonus. Bangkok: National Statistical Office. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 213 .7 3.7 0.5 0.6 1.5 64.039 3 305 % 100 77.3 0.4 442 145 174 127 1. Source: Thailand.7 2.

6 1.045 Source: Thailand.5 68.5 4.781 592 1.0 10.993 % 100.0 75. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 214 .415 231. Report of the Civil Servants’ Living Condition Survey 1999.076 Level 6-8 63.4 27.5 77.272 2.721 1.412 588 1.1 10.3 (baht) 25.6 72.4 3.089 517.2 64. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.985 1.0 100.0 76.023 Level 3-5 69.004 2.6 (baht) 15.7 3.172 3.9 67.353 2.570 104.289 1.4 10.4 73.2 30.8 11.5 100.468 363.124 2.8 134.5 127.0 10.Table 53: Average Monthly Expenditures per Family by Group of Expenditures and Group of Position Level in 1999 Group of Expenditures Total Level 1-2 Level 3-5 Level 6-8 (baht) Total Housing Food and Beverages Drugs and Medical Care Education Transportation Expense Recreation and Reading Purchase of Vehicles.375 265.658 6.769 % 100.0 77.7 (baht) 8.2 9.0 58.2 7.133 293.2 1.997 366 7.2 9. Table 54 Percentage of Civil Servants Having Debt and Average Amount of Debt by Group of Position Level: 1991-1999 Group of Position Level Percent of Civil Servants Having Debt 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 Average Amount of Debt (baht/family) 1991 1993 1995 1997 1999 Total 65.299 359.2 70.844 263.3 2.2 8. Source: Thailand.3 77.5 11.554 1913 5.8 100..2 809 15.619 175.3 12.1 71.3 15.6 54. Report of the Civil Servants’ Living Condition Survey 1999.3 15.064 Level 1-2 55.0 70.058 72.690 1.169 300.126 754 1.4 723 1.3 29.7 278.6 78.814 504 1.1 Hire Purchase and House/ 2.9 15.781 102.1 11.853 171.2 100.2 3.5 33.6 1 Personal supplies and services.033 202 6.9 7.386 6.593 4.7 10.873 3. interest.597 % 100.907 257 625 847 320 922 % 100.681 2.0 11.9 433 16. National Statistical Office.1 11. Bangkok: National Statistical Office.919 127.590 and mortgage Saving-Life Insurance Premiums 250 Provided Funds 546 16.7 4.2 75.1 62.548 2.0 74. Bangkok: National Statistical Office.9 77.968 5.1 224 29.115 750 439 87 8. insurance premiums and miscellaneous. National Statistical Office.959 801 2. contribution. Furnishing and Household Equipment Contribution and Transfer Payment Others1 Capital Formation Expenditures 18.8 60.5 7.583 2.967 225.0 10.668 2.7 3.2 3.816 3.3 7.994 358.2 11. tax.1 10.6 994 2.

31%. purchased with excess funds or with savings. while the average monthly expenditures also increased. this increased level of savings per capita is insufficient to produce a group of art customers. Wage and salaries. of particular importance for Thai artists is the startlingly low levels of personal savings per capita seen across the board. (Table 48) These expenditures are mainly for daily consumption (Table 51). In regards to the level of personal savings per capita in Thailand from 1970 through to 1998. The portion of the population with sufficient ready cash to patronise the arts is therefore not a broad cross section of the community. Both the average monthly income and monthly expenditures of the household sector can be seen to vary in correlation with the prevailing economic conditions.04% in 1990. as the tables below clearly show.88% to 14. such as civil servants. throughout both the household sector in general and the higher income groups such as civil servants. During the economic boom of 1988-1990. but rather predominately corporate businesses and some sections of the royalty and higher noble classes. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 215 . Artwork is considered to be a luxury item. the growth rate of average monthly incomes increased almost threefold. also have high levels of debt (Tables 53 and 54). accumulation of savings within households and families is rare. As stated. particularly uses such as food. from 4.We can see that despite average household size from 1975 through to 1998 being smaller (Table 48). However. there has been a certain amount of growth in the levels of savings. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. (Table 50). together with pensions were the main source of monetary income for the average household.34% in 1988 to 17. The average monthly expenditure. the average monthly current income of those households was mainly from money income (Table 49) in the form of wages and salary (70 %) and a further 20 % coming from income in kind. when compared to the high increase in the cost of artwork seen earlier. after the 1997 economic crisis the average monthly income and expenditure still increased but at the slower rates. slightly dropped in 1999. from 6. It is interesting to see that those with higher fixed incomes. In contrast to this. However. housing and transportation.

338 8.545 5.732 5.643 9.652 34.199 12.416 14.357 16.518 861.975 667.586 12.504 3.173 2.406 18.727 16.320 1.319 1.048.385 Personal Savings Personal Income per capita (baht) 3.471 952.093 2.517.181 1.066 15.180 1.247 2.169 6.515 4.094 32. Bangkok: National Economic and Social Development Board.471 8.729 161.871 44.192 49.005 3.193 178.765 6.476 297.527 5.087 14.403 1.501 9.092 839.851 2.236 Disposable Personal Income per capita (baht) 3. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES .660 2.674 2.537 9.981 12.970 4.562 238.925 61.229 8.364 10.739 512.420 2.635 16.851.161 7.164 13.315.706 3.721.377 1.619.899 27.435 213.859 40.716 1.164 743.080 26.887 814.934 2.521 2.045 9. Table: 56 Savings of Corporations.503 975.205 1.648 120.375 2.134 14.268 901 14.806 4.477 702.731 Savings Cooperatives 27 34 40 61 45 44 63 89 123 167 188 203 229 of Total 3.370 10.171 2.485 36.987 17.275 45.036.937 13. 1970-1999 (millions of baht) Year 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 Savings of Private Savings of Public Corporations Corporations and Government Enterprises 1939 1.207 3.526 2.250 3.465 5.190 122.809 134.496 40.224 211.098 42.168 255.104 1.981.820 Personal saving per capita (baht) 356 413 394 685 733 630 774 939 1.664. 1970-1999 (millions of baht) Year Personal Income Disposable Personal Income 116.544 5.047.558 6.528 11.018 3887 4.422 23.403 427.181.577 1.323 2.878 49.435 35.409 460.449 653.575 3.816 26.772 30.794 1.307 2.270 3.826 20.485 5.685 1.528 49.770 44.918.104 319.973 22.417 27.521 6.844 3.138.671 12.690 51.011 96.385 13.936 11.050 718.124 8.486 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999p 118.235 113.254 8.029 13.434 267.725.160 270.082 3.414 32.348.283 400.730 1.756 435.313 38.850 2.858 6.947 15.135 5.270 792.096 12.822 3.505 4.559 590.758 4.566 3.261 10.678 15.817 133.166.455 276.974 124.138 267.689 220.164 12.265 314.104 47.220 2.109.409 7.357 15.858.421 14.411 263.386 38.499 7.521 24.818 4.253 75.611 1.451 51.799 2.791 16.008 13.135 2.600 42.526 4.908 7.003 13.402 1.260 176.476 4. National Economic and Social Development Board.679 2.545 13.661 4.339 29.088 2.635 6.080 242.619 49.667 762.000 1.826 223.285 3. Nati ona l Incom e o f Thailand 1951-1996 and 1999 editions.621 272.996 285.251 20.051 24.290 7.651 2.663 4.282.128 3.360 1.344 326.409 15.057 1.504 11.459 1.102 105.Table 55: Personal Income and Personal Savings.850 Source: Thailand.563 135.118.479 60.434 33.117.474 2.491 5.598 26.536 18.256 79.048 216 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.180 30.265 521.934 379.364.470.937 29.701 8.466 15.981.282 3.695 14.809 16.306 Personal Outlay per capita (baht) 2.981 51.105 9.652 385.284 42.998 580.

544 1. National Economic and Social Development Board.956 184.300 30. The burden of poverty is spread unevenly among the regions.915 691 1991 101.530 398 1988 43.347 -21. however.494 11.311 88.600 134.861 Source: Thailand.071 3. a decrease in demand for decoration of office premises. resulting in the information displayed above.583 223 1985 15.622 15.050 33.087 3.161 3.231 1996 249. This has led to a decrease in building and thus. has felt serious impacts.420 358 1987 31. than in the provinces.666 1995 255. Their financial status remains stable and wellestablished.193 2.345 69.1983 16.045 112.301 322.843 of Thailand 1951-1996 and 1999 Many studies conducted.821 30.406 306. 24. the monarchy and the upper class will continue to be the major purchasers of Thai art as they continue to be the group with enough financial resources to be both customers and patrons of the arts. This top quintile has also felt the effects of the 1997 economic crisis. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 217 . Bangkok: National Economic and Social Development Board.298 33. where the majority of contemporary Thai artists live and work.827 90.427 1. but far less so than others in Thailand. and therefore the real estate industry. Thai artists can not rely on the majority of Thai people as the bulk of the Thai population continues to be concentrated Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.666 41.636 1997 134. The construction industry.590 95.393 45.455 313 1986 17. What the studies revealed was that the pace and manner of development in Thailand was generating disparities of wealth and large income inequalities.463 2. or the top quintile.785 1999p 78.336 1994 245. The richest 20%.730 572 1990 91.186 28. most notably between the Bangkok Metropolitan Region and other regions of Thailand.282 14.668 225.221 1. perhaps.328 468 1989 61.062 42.047 221. The economic crisis has had a far less severe impact on the economy of Bangkok and Bangkok vicinity.794 25.110 1993 168.796 315. However.569 63.393 181 1984 16.400 50. the corporate and banking sector.372 65.272 144. National Income editions.931 963 1992 137. of the population still gain the highest share of income as they have done through more that thirty years of the conscious implementation of economic and social development strategies in Thailand.612 7.643 51.445 1998 107.414 59.417 18. resulted in almost as many means by which to measure poverty incidence and income distribution as there were studies.

1988.8 Quintile 2 8.5 Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.0 Gini Coefficient 0.1) (10%) (3.5 58.4 51.7) (33.6 11.4) (2.389 (baht/Month) Note: Data collection period from June-September 1999.431 0.429 0.3) (2.4) (35.1 7.1 13. the most unstable and economically shaky of the production sectors in the Thai economy. Source: Thailand. 1990.7 5.445 0.0 4.6 8.0 20. Thai artists must continue to rely on the wealthy top 20% for customers.8 11.394 10.5) (3.0) (16.in the agricultural sector.0 7.0 100.7 51.6 (10%) (16.2 9. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 218 .421 0.0) (15.6 7.5) (3.1 49.9 50. As long as the pattern of income distribution in Thailand continues to generate disparities as stark as the ones currently in place.8) (35. Table 56: GINI and Quintile Share of Income 1988-1999 Year 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999 Source: GINI 48.3 8.3 21.2 3.8 59.9 5.5 13.3 4 21. The 1975-1976.1) (16.3 7.1 9.9 11.283 3.5 52.8 19.5 11.166 2.3 (10%) (2. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.9 19.2) (3.3) (2. 6. (Tables 56 and 57) This leads to the majority of Thai artists choosing to live in Bangkok.9 5. 1998 and 1999 Household Socio-economic Survey.2 4.4 53.7 21. 6.6) Total 100.5 51.6 52.448 1999 679 1. Table 57: Current Income Share of Households by Quintile Group of Household and the Gini Coefficient Quintile Group 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999* 5. 1 Table 58: Average Per Capita Income by Quintiles (baht/person/month) The bottom 20% The second 20% The third 20% The fourth 20% The top 20% National Average Source: 1998 726 1.741 3.7 556. National Statistical Office.508 Indicators of Well-being and Policy Analysis.9 5 50.2 7.429 0.4) (34.1 53.2) 2 9.3 Quintile 5 54.7 56.315 2. Bangkok: National Statistical Office. for the security of their economic foundation.258 2.012 3.3) (3. and to achieve success and prosperity.2 3.6 19.3 Quintile 4 20.9 3 13.7 13.0 19.190 3.9 4. 4(1). 1994.4 5. 1981.9 9.0 100.047 3.0 100.3 Quintile 1 4. 1992.444 Per Capita Current Income 1. 1996.4) (16.0 100.1 11.4) (2.5 21.330 1.1 Quintile 3 12.8 51.6 4.2 19.0) (10%) (34.2 13.8) (34.7 19.6 13.0) (16.3 (1).2 57.4) (3.410 9.2 20.6 5.785 2.5 11.0 100. 1986.0 57.5 7.890 3.2) (2.4 50.

and there are almost no reliable published accounts of what it owns and why. These are changes that have direct impact on the art market in Thailand and thus the artist population. The king and the immediate members of his family directly hold shares in several Thai listed companies. 249) Backman has also studied the royal businesses of the King Bhumibol Adulyadej.” (Backman. and continues to be able to accumulate wealth from various domestic sources. a personal mutual fund for the royal family concerned with a variety of enterprises and businesses. It is worthwhile. and consumers.).’ Forbes. Cited in Backman. 1999. the role of art galleries as intermediaries in art trade. a. The Monarch. 1998.” ( The global power elite. 249) Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Dhana Siam Finance and Securities PLC boasts the king and his daughters..B. But the great bulk of the family’s private wealth is managed by the Crown Property Bureau. presumably on accounted of the effects of Asia’s economic crisis. Backman (1999) was convinced that the king’s private wealth was under-estimated due to the following reasons: “ Crisis or no crisis. the monarchy became increasingly involved in business administration directly. As mentioned above. 1997. and referred to the wealth of the Thai monarchy. had been Regardless the 1997 economic crisis. and members of the wealthy upper classes. the monarchy was. 1989.) CUSTOMERS The economic foundation of Thai contemporary artists rests on the economic foundation of other related sectors of the artistic network shown in Table 2. July 6. the monarchy and the corporate and banking sector have been the most prominent consumers and patrons of the arts throughout last two decades and it seems likely this will continue to be the case. and the changes in their economic stability or status. 48) Sources of income available to the Monarchy altered after a provision in the Bowring Treaty signed in 1855 and other Treaties followed in the same vein precluded any form of royal monopoly. These have been historically important state activities and state revenue also provided considerable revenue for the king and his treasury. July 28. p. aiding individual Chinese businessmen and also providing personal incentives for domestic enterprise. Successive Thai monarchs and their family members accumulated wealth for many centuries.8 billion in 1997. but by 1998. he bumped off the list. A consequence of this is that obtaining information on its holdings is difficult. and as consumers of art themselves should be considered. the financial base of Thai monarchy is predominantly managed by the Crown Property Bureau (CPB). 249 ). who have become ‘amateur artists’. to consider the main sources of income available to these customer groups. the current King of Thailand. Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn and Princess Chulabhorn. on its share registry. The true figure of the family’s personal wealth is likely to be closer to US$8 billion (split roughly between Thai blue chips and Bangkok real estate. Part of the bureau’s strategy is to keep a low profile. (Hewison. p. 1999. Currently. the king’s private wealth seems to have been wildly under-estimated. p. In addition to these two major groups of ‘consumers’ of art within Thailand. “The Bureau was established in 1937 to ensure that the Thai royal family could be financially independent of the state. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 219 . Real estate investments and massive holdings of Thai blue-chip stocks have underwritten much of the Thai royal family’s private riches.(Hewison. “Forbes magazine estimated King Bhumibol’s private wealth to be US$1. Particularly during the reigns of King Rama V and VI. It also helped keep the family’s assets out of reach of Thai politicians and the military. 1999. predominantly through monopoly of foreign trade and taxation. 1989. by becoming significant investors in various business enterprises. citing Forbes statistics.. as should the emergence of a relatively new group of artists who straddle the division. therefore.” (Backman. p. Despite this. 33-50). This new group of Thai artists is a relatively new phenomenon and consists of members of the corporate and banking sector.. and Thai Insurance PLC can claim the king as a significant direct shareholder. being both producers of art.

2 billion in response to the crisis”. 251). is largely in land and real estate development in Bangkok. reflecting the glory of the institution of the monarchy. 1999. was forced to issue new shares in order to double its capital base to cover dramatic increases in bad debts. but also own significant amounts of valuable commercial property in Bangkok. but it has since bounced back. Asia’s economic crisis saw the Stock Exchange of Thailand’s market index decline by around 60% in the 12 months to March 1998. Additionally. 1989. 1999. and shareholders in real estate development in Bangkok. In addition to commercial rental properties in Bangkok. p. p.(Backman. “Dhana Siam Finance and Securities. which would have seen the family’s holding of Thai blue chips decline in value to about US$1..its first loss in almost a century of operating and the largest loss ever made by a listed Thai firm” (Backman. through the CPB. The hotels fully or partially owned by the CPB. 250) In 1997 the Thai baht collapsed. (Hewison. and have done so on many occasions. Due in part to this accumulation of wealth. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 220 . The 1997 economic crisis had severe affects on the market value of stocks in the Stock Market of Thailand.6 billion.6 million in Thai stocks held directly by the king and his immediate family. 1999. in which the monarchy hold direct equity. joint venture businesses and owning hotels in many overseas countries. can still be viewed as indirect ways in which the king and the royal family are able to patron the arts through commission work. 42). 253). It has been said that “King Bhumibol most probably holds prime Bangkok land that has a long. it is certain that the Thai monarchy remain an extremely wealthy institution.During the reign of King Rama IV the rights of the monarchy to land and resources was significantly changed. the companies referenced above.” (Backman. affecting many corporations and large numbers of the big investment projects under the supervision of the CPB. Artists are also able to support the monarchy. and the bureau also announced it would cancel or drop investment projects worth a total of US$3. like the Siam Commercial Bank and Siam Cement. the King and royal family members can indirectly generate demand for artworks used in the decoration of modern offices buildings. which are then leased through the bureau property’s arm. the present King and the royal family are likely to continue to be significant consumers and patrons of Thai art both personally.” (Backman. p. both domestically in Thailand and internationally. It is clear that the financial base of the king and royal family. also hold enormous amount of agricultural land in most of the provinces. As prominent contributors to. he declared. the equity held in blue-chip Thai stocks had a then market value of at least US$4. These properties annually generate huge amounts of rental income for the family. both through direct patronage and indirectly supporting Thai art in general. at the present time. through the CPB. In early 1998. 253). the CPB and hence the royal family.002 billion. the monarchy. through direct projects under the monarch such as the Mahajanaka Project. 1999. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. With the US$77. as the following estimation of the extent of the affect illustrates: “In the beginning of 1997. p. in which the bureau and members of the royal family directly hold equity. and indirectly through maintaining reverence and respect and participating in auspicious occasions. Despite these effects.term market value of approximately US$5 billion. and in part to their personal interest in art. and indirectly through the CPB. p. sponsorships for art exhibition and sponsored art contests. Additional wealth is also generated from investment. can be used as places for the promotion of Thai arts. A secure financial base in the monarchy can contribute to the security of Thai artists. However.19 billion loss which was considered as “. the king should pay a ‘fair market price for land’”. Except for those lands set aside for royal duties. the immediate royal family’s total investments in the Thai stock market stood at a minimum of US$4.079 billion and possibly much more. so the US dollars debts in baht term of Siam Cement exploded. it was reported that Siam Cement had US$1. The net value of the monarchy’s properties was certainly detrimentally affected by the crisis. is not only the largest landowner in terms of area. “the monarchy should no longer have an absolute right to all land.

police. This was intended to gain prestige for the enterprises. Thailand’s central bank spent large sums of public money to attempt to bail it out. or by the decorators and architects to be suitable for individual preferences. Hewison. “. The air-conditioned modern and western style of buildings and offices are considered as fundamental to the image of the banks and large-scale enterprises. the publicly listed company that is building major tollroads through Bangkok. 1989. 1989. Of course. and each of these has significant other nonbank interests. One of the more spectacular bank failures in Thailand in recent years was the collapse of the Bangkok Bank of Commerce. 1999.In Thailand. a sharing of financial benefits. If they have education or experience overseas where art appreciation is widely accepted and respected. The two senior managers at the bank. so it should be of surprise to no-one that there is a lot of it. hired and paid to decorate business premises as a source of prestige for the business. senior public servants or politicians as “passive” members in their Board committees. Many continue to act as sources of “petty cash” for various members of some political parties. Particular banks are rarely referred to simply as a bank. They also provide space for artistic decorations considered a sign of prestige. including commercial banks. but it also has important stakes in other major companies such as Bangkok Expressway. and protection for the firms. and particularly notably. controlled by the Thai-Chinese Sophonpanich family. There are more than 30 companies in which it has a precise 10% stake and which operate in anything from textiles to food trading to chemicals. lent about a third of the bank’s total loan portfolio to themselves. budgets and surroundings. Since the connection between business and the political system is generally perceived and accepted. success is seen to be displayed as well as achieved. the banking sector. and a significant source of income for the artists. able to maintain its value and appearance and not contentious.) It has been customary for large scale business and financial enterprises. It is here that the connection between businesses and the arts is most clear. The Corporate and Banking Sector The pace and style of economic development in Thailand has generated large amounts of wealth for business in general. Bangkok Bank itself has significant interests in companies that operate in non-financial sectors. embezzled the bank’s funds. but old habits are hard to break. and important rice-trading interests. to have influential military. a property arm. Its demise provides a textbook example of all that is wrong with Thailand’s banking system. The art decorations may be selected either by the owners or the senior executives.. This is the form and structure of the corporate and business sector in Thailand. 1992). In this way.” (Michael Backman. and fabricated its accounts. the banking sector could indirectly influence the formulation and implementation of some policies. 1981. but more usually as their bank. and Ockey. (Krirkkiat. When the bank was on the verge of collapse with around US$3 billion in bad debts. both inside and outside the buildings. this is also a channel for some bankers and wealthy businessmen to become politicians. Most wealthy businessmen and bankers have built and maintained personal connections with bureaucrats and politicians for long time. rather than allow it to close. 83. Artists are commissioned. Asia’s economic crisis of 1997-1998 delivered a shock to Thailand. Art is also selected to be compatible with the working environment. The wealth is concentrated among a limited number of Sino-Thai families who own commercial banks. Kirkkiat Jalichandra and Rakesh Saxena. A certain style of art. every single major private bank is dominated by a single shareholder. they are more likely inherit the Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The rewards for imprudence can be high in Thailand. The country’s biggest bank is Bangkok Bank. p. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 221 . Akira.. They also lent to senior politicians. other forms of financial intermediaries and family businesses directly funded by their own banks.b. Asian Eclipse: Exposing the Dark Side of Business in Asia. City Realty. The family’s core business is banks. one of the largest sources of custom for artists also. In the past these ‘business politicians’ have then directly formulated and implemented policies favourable to their own businesses and networks. and is widely regarded as being a source of “petty cash” for many politicians. Corporations and businesses in Thailand have a clear understanding of the importance of the image that they portray. The banking sector has been particularly vulnerable to this. The amount and style of art purchased by these big corporations also depends on the educational and artistic background and preferences of the owners and senior executives.

religion and monarchy or with contemporary social problems like deforestation. personal investments and also for perhaps excessive art consumption and patronage. Rangsan Thanapornpan. although this is changing slowly. both public and private the art galleries do not have standardised and modern administrative procedures. aids. From the artists’ perspective. and the crisis in 1997 has led to the restructuring of large enterprises throughout the financial sector. has named them. with less protection from the Bank of Thailand. The banking sector have had favourable financial status from the manner and pace of economic development. pollution. galleries are not yet recognised as qualified agencies in Thai artistic network. The exchange rates were also less variable due to the implementation of conservative monetary policies by the Central Bank. transparency and accountability. There were undeniable affect though. c. including banks. mostly dealing either with the three key important institutions of Thailand: nation. Thai Farmers Bank. relatives. they have become more liberalised and globalised. Most of the artworks on display in the gallery start from prices of “many ten thousands of baht” up to “many millions”. From the present time. with looser laws and regulations. The role played by this gallery. The banks become important art collectors and an important source of sponsorship. Therefore in the past many commission works were produced to serve them. the banking sector in Thailand had a family business structure and was relatively secure due to the over protective policies of the Bank of Thailand. The financial liberalisation will generate more flexible capital movements and exchange rates. In the past.attitude and continue to be art consumers and/or patrons. but along with this. time. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Even though she does not have a background of formal art education. so they will require good corporate governance. The banking sector continues to have a favourable financial status. Instead of remaining structured as family businesses. is a good example of the potential future role of art galleries in Thailand. instead of being viewed as “leeches that suck blood from the society” as a prominent Thai economist. she has over twenty years experience in supervising and managing the family gallery and has been extraordinarily successful. This restructuring of the banking sector has the potential to affect their expenditures for art consumption and patronage and thus the economic security of Thai artists. Some of the banks have became multinational. She acknowledges the value of the artist’s imagination. The owners and senior executives of the Bangkok Bank. The administrators of the banks had freedom to allocate banking funds to their own businesses. There will be more competition and risk than before the crisis. both domestic and international. 1998). This acceptance of the mutual roles of artists and galleries is important to the economic security of both artists and art galleries. She prefers to buy the artworks directly from the artists and prefers not to bargain. The studies of Kakwani revealed this to be untrue. However. Patronage of the arts in this way was considered a way in which to contribute something back to the society and creating a new image. effort and creative thinking. One of the most well-established and successful galleries is the Sombat Permpoon Gallery in Bangkok. They also organised art exhibitions and contests on special occasions. There are not many pieces of artwork at her gallery worth “thousands”. as mentioned earlier. the artists are able to state their price. Art Galleries There is growing recognition among contemporary Thai artists of the important role of art galleries as intermediaries and traders in art. The solid economic and social foundations of the banking sector have in the past contributed to the economic security of contemporary Thai artists. The public in general tends to think that the 1997 crisis must have seriously affect the banking sector since the crisis started from that sector. influential persons. (Kakwani. There was low risk and bankruptcy was almost impossible. friends. artists need to accept and quote “possible” prices and leave some rooms for art galleries to make profit for the survival of both sides. and the market focus of the gallery are well-to-do people or corporations. and the owner and informal curator. and Siam Commercial Bank are notable among these. the banking sector must be more cautious in allocation funds. Sombat Permpoon. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 222 . To certain extent.

such as Burapha already realise the importance of art administration in a society that favours consumerism and materialism like Thailand. we can hope that through the education system. rests partly on the many factors mentioned above. informal curator. Every piece of art displayed at the gallery is presented in the appropriate frame and displayed to best advantage. she also regards psychological books as among her favourites. but as she is able to use the gallery and artworks as collateral for obtaining credit she was able to weather the crisis. However also important has been her personality. One other aspect of Sombat’s management technique is worth mentioning. One area of skill which is essential in the running of a successful art gallery is art appreciation. Fortunately she has proved to have the excellent artistic and commercial instinct in selecting the right pieces of artworks from the right artists to ensure continued profit. she never yet selected a piece of artwork with no value in the market. Survival of an art gallery. This is an excellent example of successful art gallery within a specifically Thai art environment. These pieces of art work she receives in this way are worth at least many tens of thousands of baht and represent the trust links that are possible to build between galleries and artists. If the art dealers/speculators misjudge an artwork. finally failed. Sombat also has other family businesses which help to support the gallery. and her gallery has become their trading network. Operating a successful gallery for more than 20 years is not easy work and Sombat spoke of the many difficulties she has encountered in the past. even if the customer does not purchase any artwork. the near future will see an increase in art Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. From Sombat’s point of view the greatest barriers to successful running of art galleries in Thailand. The selection criteria she uses is based on the quality of artwork. The natural temperature is set for preserving the quality of artwork. The right pieces are presented at the right places in right order and with proper lighting. Sombat raised this as a concern of gallery owners who. and hers in particular. In more than 20 years of managing an art gallery. She is also very social and open-minded. Some artists also regularly send artworks to her. Art appreciation alone is not enough. In the long run she would like to establish the international standard art gallery like in many developed countries. teamwork together with the moral support and also occasional financial support from her family. and a closer relationship with artists. presenting or proposing pieces of artworks appropriate to the preference and budget of the customer. the name of the artist and an estimation of the potential mark up in price. are the artists preferences for direct sale. she can choose the right topics for discussion. It is a good way for creating friendly relationship with the potential customers. building a rapport that will result in friends and personal connections. then they must to bear the costs for a long time. Many artists including Chatchai Puipia tried to open their own art galleries but he. However there is good potential in the near future as some universities. but she managed to survive. Sombat acts as a saleswoman. artists with whom she has worked for some time. One reason may be the lacks of market-oriented mind and lack of experience and skill in art administration. the efforts that she focuses on building rapport with her customers. as others. In these ways. She always gains knowledge and inside information of art prices and art markets from her friends. Art administration must be considered as well. She has also established her own private art gallery with works for her personal appreciation. however. strong determination. as a business administrators. Through this channel. The 1997 economic crisis definitely affected her business. must have profit for survival.Speculation on artworks in Thailand requires significant capital and flexibility as some artworks can take time to sell. Sombat has demonstrated exceptional art appreciation and art administration. particular when the interest rate is high. but art history and other art-based subjects are becoming compulsory courses for the art faculty. Not only is art administration now included in the curriculum. art promoter and art distributor and dealer. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 223 . She not only updates her general knowledge about art through reading materials and other sources. Sombat Permpoon is not simply involved in the purchase of art. Therefore when she meets the customers. Sombat can get some information from them which she can utilise for running her art gallery and her supplementary businesses. personal contact and the occasional dishonesty of artists.

Wider changes in social perception that have accompanied the economic crisis of 1997 are important. all basically referring to economic activity not included in GDP statistics. such as “underground economy. or through courses organised by some private art galleries Some prominent academic and professional artists are able to earn significant amounts in this way. They form an enclosed market. Harding and Jenkins 1989 cited in Pasuk et al. The illegal economy.. who just found out their hidden talents. The rise in attitudes of consumerism and materialistic tendencies. Art production for this group of artists is purely for enjoyment and there is less concern with ‘paying the expenses’. and have high levels of education. 3.generating benefits for the country as a whole whether they are artists or not. 1998: 5). the illegal economy can theoretically be divided into five major categories namely: (Pasuk et al. Many of them have been. has a perhaps unexpected influence on the economic situation of Thai artists. trading of conserved species of plants and animals. a former architect. levels of political stability and the manner and means of enforcement of laws and regulations. Income from corruption both in the government and the private sectors. According to Pasuk. including businessmen. illicit logging.) SOCIETY The Thai art world is significantly influenced by many facets of the society in which it operates. Surprisingly there are many wealthy people. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 224 . The art produced in this way is mainly for self-appreciation and their own collections. and the continuing though lessening role of superstition in Thai daily life. are also significant influences that must be considered. Activities which are illegal such as drug trafficking. and prostitution and gambling where they are banned by law. Roemer and Jones 1991. trafficking in humans. are important influences not only on the art market. although some is sold or auctions and exhibitions are organised for charity purposes. The growth of amateur artists may also affect the economic stability of professional or career artists because these amateur artists themselves are both art producers as well as art consumers. 2. can utilise art as a spiritual settlement when he faces the problems of business crisis. black market. smuggling. as the art produced is either for private consumption or for close acquaintances. With their favourable financial status they can develop and lead some trends of art consumption among wealthy people. It has become a form of creating image and prestige among the upper classes. a. which more or less will affect the art production and economic bases of professional artists. many are self-taught. ‘Illegal’ can be referred to by other names. and also the style and genre of art produced. or are successful business people and need not worry about making a living. shadow economy. d. Amateur artists There is an interesting emerging trend in Thailand now. It is interesting to know that some businessman like Rangsan Torsuwan.appreciation among Thais . 1998: 6) 1. These artists are typically from well-to-do. especially concerned directly with art. Not all of the emerging amateur artists study in this way though. a large part of the Thai economy. Tax evasion. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. C. The Illegal economy The pace and manner of economic development has also resulted in the growth of the illegal economy in Thailand. The circumstances facing society in general. as these wealthy patrons can afford high fees. the growth of male and female amateur artists. They are able to spend time and money learning art directly from prominent artists. well-established and nouveau riche families. informal economy or parallel economy” (Thomas 1992. as explored below.

33 6 . the number of art commissioners. girls. it does have significant impact on the growth of the Thai economy. collectors. as they result in substantial profits which then require ‘laundering’. For the purposes of this analysis it is the first three categories of the parallel economy with which we are concerned. other forms of investment in the entertainment industry and other businesses. p.277 (81-98) (12-16) (45-163) 286 . sponsors and art galleries exploded between 1988 until 1997... This is in line with the economic development of Thailand as a whole. trading in contraband arms. ganja : Thailand’s illegal Economy and Public Policy. diesel oil smuggling.4. The average prices of high quality. Informal sector activities such as vending.6 million baht a year. 5) economy. casual work. self-employment.457 Drug trafficking Trading in contraband arms Diesel oil smuggling Prostitution in Thailand Trafficking in people Illegal gambling . pp. Even though the growth of illegal economy is not included in GDP statistics.” (Pasuk Phongpaichit et al. 1993-1995 Value-added (billion baht / year) 28 . (Pasuk et al. The close connection between political life and these three forms of illegal economic activity has been commented on in “Guns. income generated through illegal activities. Chiang Mai. It is possible that the Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and those able to purchase these art works. gambling. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 225 . They dispense protection. and illegal gambling generated 286-457 thousand million baht of value-added per annum in the period 1993-1995 or equivalent to 8-13 per cent of GNP. Ganja: Thailand’s Illegal Economy and Public Policy”. 1998. (1998). but may also have a connection with the corresponding growth of the illegal economy. 7-8). Thailand: Silkworm Books. and many household chores which are important to the well-being of household members. 8. and From their studies as shown in Table 13. drug trafficking.football gambling . Guns. Source: Pasuk Phongpaichit et.casinos Total Note: Thailand’s GNP between 1993-1995 averaged 3. 1998. Girls. prostitution in Thailand.al. trafficking in people. mediate access. well-known Thai artwork are relatively high compared to comparable artwork in other countries. Table 57 The Estimated Size of the Illegal Economy in Thailand.31 9 100 5-7 138 . they also found out that the six major activities of Thai illegal economy. patronising the arts in various forms. p.underground lottery . This holds true regardless of the source of income. general consumption expenditures and purchase of artworks and patronage of the arts. The number of people interested in purchasing art works. where Pasuk et al reports that “ Many politicians and public servants are implicated in the illegal often become directly involved as investors and managers. are the upper classes and the wealthy. Activities popular for this sort of money laundering are investments in the banking system. Through the process of cash laundering. stock market. 5. It is clear that the target market. and household industries which are not captured in the official statistics and are often not covered by taxation. or “dirty money” can be cleaned by being channelled into certain legal activities. Household work carried out by family members but not included in the value-added of the economy. those directly and consciously contravening the law. Gambling. real estate. such as the care of the sick and aged.

through auction houses. but the allegations of price manipulation mean that the prices should be taken with some caution. The development of uniquely Thai art genres. and thus more secure. The auction prices for art works in the Christies auctions do form good guidelines for Thai artists in quoting prices for their own works. This system of lump sum payments means that it is possible for ‘dirty money’ from illegal activities to be channelled into art purchases. and other forms of speculation on art work.1-4 and Conclusions). but the Thai people. A number of wealthy people. The focus on the teacher as the repository of knowledge. This is especially true during periods where interest rates are depressed. continued political stability and an effective democratic system can be assumed. as artists chose to remain in Thailand and develop their art there. although it has always remained the favoured residence for the majority of Thais. allow speculation and profits can be made if clever purchases are made. could in the future be one means of ‘cleaning’ income from illegal activities. (Mulder. open the opportunity for international standardised art auctions in Thailand. convert their investments into cash to support their businesses when facing severe financial difficulties. After the latest Constitution of Thailand was proclaimed in 1997. due in part to the inefficiency of the education system in Thailand. one of the most important groups of art consumers. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 226 . Political stability and political freedom are likely to promote the role of art in Thailand. As the levels of art produced for the commercial market increase in a stable political system with assured freedom of expression. Sotheby’s Auctions International provides some credit services for their customers who do not have high amounts of ready money by using the auctioned artwork as collateral. Thailand has been through many periods of political unrest. The establishment a Thai branch of the Christies Auction Company International. and the development of upcoming artists within Thailand is far more likely given the stability of present day Thai politics. 1997: Ch. These auctions. which are guaranteed to retain their value over a period of time. and higher incomes for artists. In regards to art education. officially first opening its doors on 28 April 1999. However it has been reported that there was some price manipulation in these auctions. Political stability results. Freedom of expression. and some corporations and companies who collected. The Christies Auction Company does not provide this kind of service. c. if all else is equal. The quoted prices of each piece of artwork including the administration fee were quite high. restricting the customers and participants in the auction to the wealthy or very wealthy. If any successful bidder does not collect the artwork and pay the total costs within one year. is also assured by the new constitution. as in all countries. on personal styles. Students are considered passive learners and are encouraged to memorise their lessons. invested in or speculated with art works during the ‘bubble economy’ are able to. competition among artists is likely to increase. teaches the children to obey and never to question or argue. particularly the latest one. then regained through sale of those art works at a later date. a fundamental precondition for a flourishing art world. instead all bidders are required to pay a lump sum amount of money after the auction. Political Stability In the past. in increased levels of domestic investment and employment. like Christies. students learn to copy objects assigned by the Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Political stability has the added benefit of increasing confidence within the private sector. b. in July 2000. Christies can sue to regain damages. as they did in a famous case in 1992. Greater emphasis will be placed on distinguishing art works. Education Thai people in general are lack of art appreciation and creative thinking. a situation that can only generate higher demand for artworks. as was done in the Financial Restructuring Authority Auction in 1998. and important patrons of Thai contemporary art. not to think for themselves.purchase of expensive art works. Conflicts still occur in Thailand. in small groups and through larger pressure groups such as NGOs are increasingly relying on democratic means to solve conflicts between different segments of society. a possible reason for the great success of the art auctions organised by Christies in 19971999 and in 2000.

It is hoped that through creative education. to promote pride in being Thai and pride in using the proper Thai language. 1997: pp. Sangkom uses his own monthly salary to purchase these local materials for his students use. Silworm Books. Even worse is the lack of support and understanding of the importance of art from senior administrators. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 227 . The stress is on rote learning. the role of the teacher becomes one of mentor. perhaps leading to a better and more sustainable economic foundation for the future. at Loei province who encourages the students to use local materials or any material they would like. not originality. and teaches creative thinking and problem solving throughout all subject. The reforms are intended to create an education system that teaches the principles of democracy.. a softness can be encouraged in the hearts of businessmen and others exploiting both natural and human resources. and some students have managed to win large prizes. not on understanding. and to value the opinions of others. . Niels Thai Images: The Culture of the Public World. supervisor and commentator . There are some teachers who encourage students to work in natural surroundings outside the classrooms and create from their own imagination. The reforms will also place an increased important on Thai language and culture. It is hoped that art patronage will increase. This foundation of creative thinking and confidence can be considered the root of successful art production and creation. It is also a necessary pre-condition for the appreciation. One of these teachers is Sangkom Thongmee. many university instructors and artists arrange special training courses for both interested art teachers and students. The development strategies recommended by Thai economists in the Eighth Economic and Social Development Plan emphasises the development of human resources and science and technology. on cramming. both in Thailand and overseas. So in the future Thai people in general will be able to appreciate art. in itself. This is an area of development that will be greatly aided by an increased recognition of the importance of creative and innovative thinking. Thailand. 336-337) In the new Constitution. Nevertheless we can see that if the new education system yields benefits as we expect.” (Mulder. enjoyment and critique of contemporary art. This is linked closely with the policy of self-reliance Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and it is yet too early to expect these things from the new education system because many programs were delayed due to the impact of the 1997 economic crisis. and individual maturation. However there are many teachers who recognise themselves the importance and value of art seeking their own ways to encourage students. and art appreciation. In these cases. then benefits will be gained by artists and other segments of the art network in Thailand. especially in rural schools. I think such teaching kill curiosity and initiative. It is common also for there to be shortages of materials and insufficient facilities. and thus obedience. as long as elementary is so wasteful of the talents of its students. or hope. ‘a child the nation desires”.. Mulder also expressed some very interesting points on the elementary level of education: “ Elementary school teaches how to be a good subject. without necessarily being artists themselves. it is hoped that politicians will have vision and both formulate and implement policies that benefit artists and other segments of the Thai artistic network. one of the aims of the new education system.not dictator as before.. Chiang Mai. but inappropriate for the levels of education and different development stages of the students. patronage both directly and indirectly. Occasionally students join in art exhibitions and contests. where students will be encouraged to be more active. to express their opinions. and the reforms are expected to encourage creative thinking and imagination. Many of the art teachers are not trained in teaching art. I fear that ‘Botan’ [a novelist] is right: it stunts personal growth. Expanding the years of compulsory education from six to nine does. The teacher-focus of the current system will be replaced by a student-centred system in the future. As mentioned earlier. reform of the education system is recommended. encouraging creativity while not increasing the expense of art lessons for the schools. drilled in through repetition. The grades attained rest entirely on copying skills. self-responsibility.teacher. on discipline. as the value of art is recognised. For example. not solve any problem. or are partially trained. However these are hopes. This means that it suppresses initiative. Only occasionally are the students allowed to use their own imagination.

there are few incentives to pay tax. Even though the Prime Minister himself claims to be an artist.321 1. Thailand.537 2. school and university students.144 4.516 3.230 1. d. Thailand (Ho Silpa) January-August 1999 Month January 99 February 99 March 99 April 99 May June 99 July August Public 448 376 1. The location and atmosphere does not attract either local or foreign visitors. The national government budget allocated for support of the arts is relatively low.896 1.112 1.271 3.286 671 678 1.promoted by His Majesty the King. Certainly private sales result in the government incurring some leakages in taxation of art sales each year. any normal senior public servant can be a curator.450 435 854 1.32% of the total.947 2. are scornful of the performances and abilities of curators at government art galleries. In 25 years over one third of the visitors were school and university students.363 1. followed by the public at 25. visit the gallery on school expeditions.337 1.256 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.575 1. September . They feel the government does not recognise the importance and the role of art in Thai society. we can develop our own human resources as well as technology and science appropriate to Thailand. as Chuan Leekpai does. there is no concrete evidence such as receipts or contracts to prove the real value or cost of the transactions. Knowledge or special training are not considered to be necessary criteria. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 228 . In these instances.357 1.069 2. Artists in general.014 364 403 726 676 959 Foreign 479 574 617 380 329 297 456 582 MonkNovice 7 6 10 13 17 9 4 9 Student &Uni. but it is more common for both sides to reveal the approximate monetary value of commissioned works to the public. usually around 10 baht for local and 30 baht for foreign visitors.995 4.604 Total 3.153 880 1. and other sections within the Thai art world. Students Official Visitor 899 713 856 1.136 3. Table 58: Number of Visitors at The National Art Gallery. by developing ourselves in this way.787 Table 59: Number of Visitors at The National Art Gallery.657 September 98 1. Artists continue to lack both space and professional curators for the organisation of standardised art exhibitions.164 642 1. 624 visitors).650 41 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah. Foreign visitors and official visitors were around even at just below 20% each and a small number of monks and novices (only 523 of the total of 300. it does not seem to help to improve the state of art. by encouraging creativity and imagination.858 3. these statistics display a lack of art appreciation within Thai society. usually through the direct sales and personally commissioned works between artists and customers. When we consider that the largest percentage. Loopholes remain by which Thai artists are able to avoid taxation. tend to understate their income in order to pay less income tax.250 500 12 October 98 343 239 13 November 98 589 384 9 December 98 303 437 7 Total 2.December 1998 Month Public Foreign MonkNovice Students & Uni.250 2.746 3. as they consider the government to be an ineffective or non-existent patron of the arts. Thai artists in general. Laws and Regulations concerning the Arts The laws and regulations concerning the sale and production of art remain unclear and ambiguous.125 11. Student Official Visitor 1. despite the fact that the entrance fees are cheap and discriminatory.152 3.529 Total 3. 1999 Annual Report. Large corporations may have some contracts of this type also. From the artists’ point of view. 1. In the government’s view.759 1. This can be both intentionally or unintentionally.

759 1. January-August 1999 Month Public Foreign MonkNovice Student & Uni. Student Official Visitor 28 7 32 8 75 Total 737 561 500 286 2.650 41 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah.516 3.575 1.125 11.363 1.153 880 1.250 500 12 October 98 43 239 13 November 98 589 384 9 December 98 303 437 7 Total 2.858 3.003 Official Visitor 7 17 21 7 4 6 30 110 202 Total January 1999 194 33 February 1999 167 30 3 March 1999 159 70 April 99 1999 122 14 May 99 1999 95 11 June 1999 121 16 July 1999 96 13 August 1999 92 26 2 Total 1. 423 369 372 316 176 251 258 302 2. Student Official Visitor 1. 1999 Annual Report. (Silp Bhirasri Memorial) September December 1998 Month Public Foreign MonkNovice Student & Uni.153 January 99 448 479 7 February 99 376 574 6 March 99 1. Thailand.657 September 98 1.256 8.286 671 678 1.537 2.337 1. Thailand.153 Table 60 Number of Visitors at The National Art Gallery.966 3. Month Public Foreign MonkNovice 305 265 217 120 907 Student & Uni. Student 189 152 122 169 66 114 119 72 1.152 3. Student Official Visitor 899 713 856 1.250 2.164 642 1. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 229 .238 Total 3.995 4..084 September 98 342 59 3 October 98 257 32 3 November 98 216 35 December 98 142 16 Total 957 142 6 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah. 1999 Annual Report.Total 4.467 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.143 11.143 Table63: Number of Visitors at The National Art Gallery.046 213 5 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah. 1999 Annual Report. 1999 Annual Report.450 435 854 1.604 Total 3.704 75 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah.529 11.704 75 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah. Thailand September .144 4.230 1. 8.069 2.014 617 10 April 99 364 380 13 May 403 329 17 June 99 726 297 9 July 99 676 456 4 August 99 959 582 9 Total 4.947 2.896 1.238 28.136 3.December 1998 Month Public Foreign MonkNovice Student &Uni.787 Table 62: Number of Visitors at The National Art Gallery (Ho Silkpa). 1.271 3.321 1. 1999 Annual Report.746 3.357 28.966 3.112 1. 1.

and an increased number of exhibitions and art work presentations from established artists.914 10. There are a number of other interesting observations able to be made about the pattern of donations to support the arts. Ithipol Tangchalok.Table 64: Number of Visitors at the National Art Gallery of Thailand. This is in contrast to the post-crisis donors who were majorly corporate sponsors.933 19. the image of a company supporting society at large. This was particularly true just before the crisis in 1995 when the bank donated over one hundred thousand baht to the Gallery.938 5.562 6.085 8.905 28. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. with over one hundred thousand baht donated. and both domestic and international donors.750 4.398 251 5. and a new donor. donations were regular and the Thai Farmers’ Bank was one of the most regular and highest donors. to the National Art Gallery are also interesting.044 4.207 4. However after the crisis. especially Ithipol Tangchalok in 1992.948 10.166 915 1. Some artists consider the gallery practise of low quotes before sale and significant mark-up at point of sale to be detrimental to the status of the artist.023 12. During the economic boom.920 17.760 6.505 33.291 26. Established artists were also significant donors. was the highest donor.405 11.624 Total 76.A.018 6. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 230 .966 Foreigner 500 485 647 1. teenagers.269 523 109. Cumulative 1979-1999 Year 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 N.651 5.341 3. underpricing art work and overcharging administration.782 8.541 Total 12.653 19.105 5. a year famous for the May tragedy. but Sermsuk Thianthavorn and Charnvit Kuncaethong also donated significant amounts. or intermediaries in art sales. The pattern of donations from art patrons between 1990 and 1999 from both corporate and individual.320 13.016 2.104 55.406 4.246 11.645 13.433 4. The year with the highest total donations before the crisis was 1992.279 4. the Kong Thun Nam Jai. a fact that has caused some anger among the established Thai artists interviewed for this study.126 300.380 4.450 21.620 baht.113 5. 1999 Annual Report.831 4. the number of donations dropped to a total monetary value of only 36. totalling 163. the Phillip Morris Thailand Ltd.476 7. 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 N.458 1.411 28. a yearly donor with 1998 being the only exception.516 3. By 1999 only two donors remained.296 27. as mentioned.406 9.390 6.A.723 10.276 4.280 8.655 4.890 4. It was perhaps the political tragedy that prompted these unusually high donations from members of civil society.250 3. There is a view of gallery owners as being inefficient dealers.106 3. while presenting a clean and generous image.238 59.996 9. Many artists are also sceptical of the quality and performance of private art galleries.084 16.010 4.600 baht. Phillip Morris donated the largest amount ever given to the Gallery.119 4.670 17.026 Source: 25 Year Ho Silp Chao Fah.674 7. over five hundred thousand baht.704 MonkNovice 5 5 9 143 108 108 70 75 Student & University Student 6. in both 1998 and 1999.398 16.143 Official Visitor 6 75 17 27 114 80 15. 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 (Jan-Aug) Public 6. it was the established artists in Thai society who donated large amounts of money to the Gallery. In this year. They view the donation as an attempt to target a new customer group.

e. when compared to the rest of the population.. 1998. In addition the laws and regulations do not state clearly the situation regarding taxation on the sale of artworks and artist’s income. This case remains. which she interprets as a by-product of the implementation of policies focusing on industrialisation. There is another possibility though. However foreign products are expensive due to high import taxes and there is no subsidy from the government. pleasure and social recognition. with inner harmony and contentedness. far more than spiritual development. once it is sold. and to a host of spiritual and psychological problems.Private art galleries and dealers also tend to understate their incomes in order to pay less taxation. drinking.. material comforts. In contrast urban Thais were found to be self-oriented and concerned with personal happiness. and to a lesser extent. direct sales with no financial record are generally the preferred means by which artists. A well known example of this was the case between of a dispute between the painter Preecha Thaothong and TISCO over copyright after sale of the work. (Henderson. either for themselves or for their families.That of rural Thais was characterised by ‘other-oriented’ mutually helpful community values and a characteristically profound religious faith and spiritual life. means that they cease to have income... unsolved. 1997. Some of the interviewed artists mentioned the additional medical costs. “. The causes of this are unknown. In the long run factors such as this can only be detrimental to the artists long-term financial and artistic success.. which is seen by many as a barrier for them.. 257) Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.environmental pollution and the man-made. alcoholism and crime. “. 251-252) Komin’s studies also reflected a clear difference in the world-views and social attitudes of urban and rural Thais. and not being able to work. and no source of government advice on the appropriate way to use those materials. Short term economic gains are clearly increased by this. The studies of Suntaree Komin clearly reflect the new wave of social attitudes which is the outcome of rapid economic development in Thailand. These attitudes will affect the characteristics of urban and rural Thais in the future. forwarded by the artists.There has been a growing emphasis on self-indulgence. The ambiguity of copyright laws concerning both the images and actual body of art works sold causes some misunderstandings. It has also led to the discarding of religious and spiritual belief. In the course of this study it was noticed that an unusually high proportion of Thai artists have contracted cancer. as an inefficient social welfare system in Thailand means that artists must cover all the costs of their medical treatment. however in the long-run they may detrimentally affect the artists both economically and artistically as direct sales and personal contacts means that the responsibility and organisation is completely the artists. chemically induced health hazards associated with industrialisation” (Suntaree..” (Suntaree. It is not clear what rights an artist retains over the use of their work. Some poorer artists and beginning art students may gain more short-run profit by using low quality materials but overcharging their artworks for ill-informed buyers. p. Art students and artists have to bear their own costs. Due to weaknesses and loopholes such as these. 1997. Some artists have been able to receive help in this area from His Majesty the King. that the content of some art materials have a dangerous chemical mixture. to a higher incidence of drug abuses. Illness severely affects artists. There are no laws and regulations to control the chemicals in art materials.. that they must pay additional to other living expenses. smoking or stress. perhaps leaving less time for the production and development of their own art work. it may be the behaviour usually associated with the artists life. pp. which has led to the exploitation of whatever resources are available to achieve material success. Social Attitudes Towards Consumerism and Materialism Both the conceptual direction and the practical implementation of the successive Economic and Social Development Plans of Thailand have generated consumerism and materialism among Thais. or produce art. Only occasionally will they use local materials.. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 231 . avoid taxation. 166) It should also be noted that many Thai painters prefer to use materials from Italy and France as the quality is higher and the art works tend to last longer. as yet. art galleries. p. with a drastic reduction in religious values.

Commercial artists may mass produce certain artworks or pictures to satisfy the demand. are usually well-established artists. national art galleries. The continuing strength of superstitious beliefs could imply a lack of selfconfidence. art is purchased without knowledge or real appreciation. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 232 . and plan to leave their artwork. Provided the buyers genuinely appreciate the artwork and are collecting them for their own appreciation or for public display and enjoyment in museums. Suntaree and Sanit conducted studies of these changes during the rapid economic and social development and change in Thailand. education institutes. or buyers. These artists will check the attitude of the customers. Some artists. Spiritualism There is a mixture of religious beliefs in Thailand. Both implicit and explicit competition between buyers has emerged. and this will be on long-term benefit to them. seemingly to prove that one has the wealth and ability to do so. and being a commercial artist in this way can greater improve their levels of economic stability. then this group of artists will sell the artworks to them at a reasonable price or even give them away for free. In this way. These artists. more than on oneself.However. he would prefer to keep it within the country. Despite the focus given above to trends of consumerism and materialism. but is buying it for speculation purposes. have resulted in new attitudes toward Buddhism and ‘spiritualism’ or superstitions. Concerning this group of established and conscientious artists. the trends towards increased consumerism and materialism have also yielded benefits for the economic stability of contemporary Thai artists. some artists can also be considered art consumers. There is a preference for relying on supernatural powers. may not be established or well-known yet. In this way. have stated that their art work is only for Thai customers. and the majority of Thai people identify themselves as Buddhists. many of these same artists will refuse to sell their art if they believe that the customer does not genuinely appreciate the art. This may be reflected in the Thai tendency to distrust the government. if there are no Thai buyers. However this is not as clear as it may seem. and a fall in demand for their works. Some artists view their artworks as “treasures of the land and people” and prefer domestic customers to foreign customers. fate or luck for success. and indeed a lack of belief in ones self. many artists remain who love and value art outside of any economic considerations. by the artists. Artists filling this market niche. effort. or incorporate superstitions. and an increased income is of little use if living expenses increase at a greater rate. he says. the trends toward consumerism and materialism do not yield significant benefits to them economically. and they speak of the value of their time. may result in many debt-ridden artists struggling to continue to work. As artworks are used to increase or demonstrate social standing and are treated like economic objects. as by products of modernisation and the implementation of various social and economic plans. invention and imagination in their art. Changing social attitudes and trends towards consumerism and materialism. but they are proud of their commitment to what they regard as their professional ethics and integrity. without due consideration of the quality of the art. as they will wait until the “right customer” comes. to the nation. By contrast. after their death. private art galleries.* A number of artists have developed this idea of responsibility to the nation. otherwise preferring to keep them for occasional solo or group exhibitions or for their personal enjoyment. everyday life continues to revolve around. The fall in demand for art was said. like Chalermchai. who expressly reject the trend of consumerism. allowing increased income for struggling artists. as it belongs to the land. as was seen after the 1997 crisis. What their studies revealed is very interesting: Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. as trends of consumerism and materialism are emerging in the art world as much as else where in society. The trend towards consumerism and materialism has been of great economic benefit to Thai artists in this way. to ensure that their art will be in Thailand for the enjoyment of the next generations. sales have increased. Although the state. to have fallen up to fifty percent from pre-crisis days. the increased incomes of artists from the economic boom may not always result in more sustainability for individual artists. before agreeing to sell.

Materialism is sweeping through Buddhism in the form of luxurious monasteries and materialistic behaviour.. 16 March 1989. which could reflect the growing spirits of neophilia or novelty. with support from other agencies within the artistic network. cited in Suntaree. (Sinlapa Watthanatham. over consumption and materialism.. Some sculptors are able to earn extra income from producing amulets and small-scale sacred objects. cited in Suntaree. pp.. A prominent and well-established female artist. These trends in social attitudes and beliefs. There is an increasing tendency in Thailand to use art to comment on contemporary issues as well as the dangers of superstition. 1997. to reveal the true financial status of artists and artistic networks. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES . Generosity among and between artists is needed. For many others. Continued belief and spiritualism has. and the importance of these three themes above others reflects contemporary values in Thai society.” (Suntaree. 1996.. The form in which the beliefs emerge appears to be unlimited. can. There has been a proliferation of new sects and cults.Without doubt. creating large-scale popular sacred objects and figures. 257) “. or it could also be reflecting the growing psychological needs of modern people living in societies oriented towards materialism and consumerism . Therefore Buddhism is viewed by many as a mere tradition. This cooperation can develop a more systematic and standardised relationship between art producers and their markets. VI.. pp. in order to share knowledge and information about changes in the art market. prosperity. Artists have also. for Bangkok people the importance of religion has dropped a significant level. banks and other organisations have chosen to emphasise these themes in their sponsorship of art exhibitions and contests. Bangkok Post. be of economic benefit to them. Conclusion There are many interrelated factors that influence the economic foundations of contemporary artists in Thailand today. A more stable economic base for artists requires increased cooperation instead of competition among artists themselves. Suntaree. pp. 1979. yielded benefits to those artists involved in making sacred religious or worship images. spiritualism. and from the sacred objects the artists produce.Religious leaders have tried to translate important traditional religious elements into modern terms in an attempt to make established religions more relevant. consumerism and materialism. pp. used their art as a means of social commentary about these very social trends. when they are considered the right media in which to explore concerns about social changes. Buddhism has been reduced to a psychological refuge.. 245-320). Jackson conducted similar studies. Lawan Daorai. In general three prominent themes emerge from the superstitions still followed.. Some artists also claim that their personal belief in spirits contributes to the art their produce. p. Some sculptors can gain significant income from commissioned works. 258).while rural Thais continue to place religion at the top of their priorities. without them having to fear excessive taxation. 1991. p. namely wealth.“. 257-258) In Sulak Sivarak’s view “ the inability to make Buddhist teachings socially relevant accounts for the decline in its influence in the face of the current tidal wave of consumerism and materialism” (Sulak Sivarak. and clear laws and 233 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1997. with similar results. and the potential result of a more equitable and ultimately sustainable market system. and the worship objects themselves may change. (Jackson. however. (Jackson. 1990a and 1990b. All three themes are deemed to be the realm of ‘luck’ in which the spirits hold influence. on the other hand. This forms another way in which social changes can be of economic benefit to artists. 1997. “ (Suntaree and Sanit. and safety.. has said that she received the aid from spirit mediums to produce portraits of past Thai Kings. 245-320). Many corporations. It would also require transparent and accessible information for the public regarding sale of art works. At times these trends were consciously created and maintained. industrialisation and materialism have brought spiritual emptiness to the people. but religion has instead become more private and individualised. but the three main themes remain constant. 154-157). 1996. as in the Rama V cult and worship of Kuan Yin. January.. from the artist’s points of view.

Finally. and as promoters of national sentiment within Thailand. with a greater emphasis on individual imagination and innovation. have responded positively to this proposal of HM the King’s. and ability to communicate pride in language and culture is an important attribute for Thai artists. painters and related artists’. The regulation and systemisation of the Thai art world is progressing with the Thai government accepting the International Labour Organisation criteria for various occupations. In addition to the difficulties with transparency and accessibility of the Thai art world. there are additional challenges facing contemporary artists. including those of ‘sculptors. systematic and standardised prices and administration fees could be set up to yield economic benefits to every agency within the artistic network. This is made more complex by the emerging trend of globalization and the challenge becomes. harmony between Thais and people throughout the world. to see how they will participate in this. but wider society could also be improved in its appreciation of and understanding of the art that contemporary artists produce. must find a way to produce and develop their artistic styles and works in a manner suitable for the market in which they operate. and are attempting to implement the strategy in a number of ways. Contemporary artists in Thailand. comparison and use of data about artists in the future. ISCO-88. This is part of why the art section of the curricula. Puey Ungphakorn. and other details of the Thai art world. The education system also needs to be improved in its teaching of artistic skills. Changes such as these would allow a greater level of regulation. Art is intended to promote peace and understanding. it is essential for this pride to be realised. under the constrains of the market as all producers are. In the aftermath of the 1997 economic crisis. Mainstream Thai society. both in the public and private sectors. and artists and the international art world will be easier to promote and maintain. As ‘ambassadors’ for Thai culture globally. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. HM the King proposed a policy of self-sufficiency or ‘back-to-basics’ for restoring the economic and spiritual wellbeing of the Thai people and nation. the adoption of a standard like the ISCO-88 will allow easier collection. and that art fulfills its potential role in society. Provided that Thai artists cooperate and work together with the government agencies concerned with support of the arts. within the Thai education system. requires updating and re-thinking. These have been improvements or developments necessary within the art world itself. The emphasis on spiritual development can be a counter-weight to the emergent trends of consumerism and materialism in Thailand. the relationship between artists and the public. and still compete in a globalised market. to find a way in which the art produced can retain its local validity and integrity. Perhaps placing renewed emphasis on the importance of spiritual development and faith in Buddhism is a possible role for upcoming artists. an enjoyment for all people that individuals can purchase and enjoy without having to bear the extraordinary costs of Thai art currently. This cooperation can occur only if the artists in Thailand are willing to become more transparent and open about their economic status. They need to convince the Thai people that contemporary art is a necessary good. A strong pride in. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 234 . code number 2452 ( Appendix 10). This is one of the concerns that the new education system is intended to address. It is a challenge for the Thai artistic establishment.regulations governing art transactions so each actor in the art network can be sure of the position they hold. It has been said that Thai people are losing faith and lack proper understanding of the principles of Buddhism and current artwork revolving around Buddhist themes. as much of traditional Thai art has done. and for individual Thai artists. or art world. If the true data and information is available and accessible. there is a challenge facing Thai artists that can be found reflected in countries all over the world. to ensure that the value of art is recognised. as suggested and supported by the prominent Thai economist. artists and the government. Additional fears have been raised that the younger generations of Thai people do not value their language and culture as they should. The challenge facing Thai contemporary artists is to find a way to ensure this happens. is not achieving the popularity that might have been expected.

Asian Development Project. Ikemoto Yukio. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson. October 1996. N. Wikhro laksana kan pen chaokhong thurakit khanat yai nai prathet thai. 2744-THA. Asian Eclipse: Exposing the Dark Side of Business in Asia. 1991.. 1998. pp. 1980-1998. 1992 Backman. Causes.REFERENCES: Apinan Poshyananda. New York: St Martin’s Press. Kakwani. Chinese Gods.A. 1981. An Introduction to Positive Economics. Pothong. Thammasat University. Income Distribution in Thailand: Its Changes. The Thai Economy: Uneven Development and Internationalisation. Henderson. Girls. Chiang Mai: Silworm Books. 245-320. Bankers and Bureaucrats: Capital and the Role of the State in Thailand. “Royal Spirits. Mulder. Richard G. Peter G. and Banuphong Nidhiprabha. Tokyo: Institute of Development Economies.. Suntharee Komin. “Industrialization and Welfare: How Poverty and Income Distribution are Affected”. Impact of Economic Crisis on the Standard of Living in Thailand. Modern Art in Thailand: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 1999. Washington D. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books. Warr. Warr.).C. Chulalongkorn University. Gambling. National Economic Development Board: T. London: Routledge. and Magic Monks: Thailand’s Boom-Time Religions of Prosperity” in South East Asia Research Journal. Connecticut: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies. Pranee Tinakorn. and J. 1995. Thesis in Thai Studies. 1999. 1989. 1997. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 235 . 1998. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press. Jackson. for the World Bank. NO. Medhi Krongkaew. Thailand’s Macroeconomic Miricle: Stable Adjustment and Sustained Growth. Kevin.. Channarong Pornrungroj (ed. The Thai Economy in Transition. Lipsey. Michael. 7. Thailand: M. Institutional Strengthening of Development Evaluation Division.R02-01-39. Hewison. Economic Research and Training Center. “Changes in Social Value in the Thai Society and Economy: A Post Industrialization Scenario” in Medhi Krongkaew (ed). 1989. Thailand’s Industrialization and Its Consequences. 1993 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Bangkok. Thai Images: The Culture of the Public World. Bangkok: Thai Khadi Research Institute. Krirkkiat Phipatseritham. The Social Production of Art in Thailand: Patronage and Commoditisation. Virginia. Research Report No. Pasuk Phongpaichit et al. Gun. and Structure. Peter. 1998. Chris. Hong Kong: Cambridge University Press. New York: St Martin’s Press. Dixon.A. Singapore: Oxford University Press.3 1996.. Ganja: Thailand’s Illegal Economy and Public Policy. Bangkok: OS Printing House.. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pty Ltd. Thailand’s Industrialization and Its Consequences. 1995. Art for All. Faculty of Economics. 1996. in Medhi Krongkaew (ed). Niels. Thammasat University. Peter G. Thailand: Poverty Assessment Update. 1999.

The providers are constituted not only by twelve universities but also by the various campuses of the Rajabhat Institute (the former Teacher Training College). Overall. As their curriculum aims are not to fine arts. as well as by some campuses of Rajamangala Institute of Technology. the study will exclude these branches. Chiangmai. Songkla  Faculty of Humanities. There are different types of providers. or at Silpakorn University. [See the diagram in Appendix 1]. and the Department of Fine Arts beneath the Faculty of Humanity. Northeastern Thailand  Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts Chiangmai University. some providers operate different kinds of faculties involved with fine arts such as the Faculty of Fine Arts. Moreover. The nine Public Universities are: Silpakorn University (also provides a Diploma in Fine Arts). Sculpture. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 236 . King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology categorises photography in the Department of Communication Arts instead of the Department of Fine Arts. and a variety of curricular arrangements. Bangkok  Faculty of Painting. For example. which offer Fine Arts. Mahasarakham. two private. Bangkok  Faculty of Fine Arts Taksin University. Department of Visual Arts Mahasarakham University. Khon Kaen.CHAPTER 9. the situation at present as follows. Chonburi. North Thailand  Faculty of Fine Arts Burapha University. and Graphic Arts Chulalongkorn University. Besides. Bangkok  Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts Khon Kaen University. There are eleven Universities. nine public.2b Some Thai Art Educational Institutions Pattama Harn-Asa (Faculty of Education. Department of Applied Arts. University of Sydney) with John Clark Tertiary Art Schools The tertiary fine arts education system in Thailand is complicated. Eastern Thailand  Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts Srinakharinwirot University. Northeasthern Thailand Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. ceramics is fitted in the Faculty of Interior Design. some providers have different ideas in boundary of fine arts.

Twenty six campuses provide a major in fine arts via the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science37.52 596 Table 1.33).1 Statistics of students and graduates35 in the field of Fine and Applied Arts36 in Thailand in given years.412 2.682 % from all 1. Nakhonratchasima. Dip. Mahasarakham. They are Rajabhat Institutes. 195 196 360 Bachelor 160 242 Master 0 5 51234 (exclude graduates from Rajabhat Institute at least 102) 1996 999 3. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. & Dip. there are also tertiary institutes that provide fine arts education. Phetchaboon. Kanchanaburi. Ladkrabang. Department of Photography Bangkok University [in Western Bangkok]  School of Fine and Applied Arts. Year No. Chiangmai. Surathani.d. Mu Ban Chombung. fine arts educational statistics in Thailand are as follows. Songkla. Bureerum. Nakonsrithamaratch. Rumbhaiphanee. Beneath the Office of the Rajabhat Institutes Council of the Ministry of Education. Department of Visual Arts In terms of the International Standard Classification of Education32. Bangkok  Faculty of Architecture. Department of Fine Arts The two Private Universities are: Rangsit University [in Northern Bangkok  School of Fine Arts and Design. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 237 . of Graduates  Students 1971 1974 1987 1993 185 n/a 480 728 884 n/a 1. Their eighteen campuses operate the Department of Arts Education in the Faculty of Education (Refer to Table 4.550 0. of Existing Students No.4933 n/a 0.22 0.41 Grad. Chandrakhasem. Derived from reports by the Ministry of University Affairs (n. of Freshmen No.This university currently has a project for the establishment of a Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology. Udonthani. Leay. Kampaengpetch. They also provide a diploma in fine arts. Sakonakorn. The campuses that operate a Department of Arts Education within the Faculty of Education are Chiangrai*. Surin.).

and Pak Tai. Suan Dusit. Phranakorn. and Nakhonsrithamarat. Surin. Chandrakhasem. five campuses of the Rajamangkla Institute of Technology also provide a vocational curriculum in fine arts. Phetchaburi. Colleges of Fine Arts. Phranakonsriayudhaya. Lampang. Bureerum. Leay. and vocational schools. Beneath the Rajamangkla Institute of Technology. Vocational curricula in fine arts are also found in both public and private vocational schools. [Advanced Vocational Certificate]. Kanchanaburi. Nakornprathom. Phaktawunokcheanghnua. Udonthani. Rajanakarin. Nakhonratchasima. and Suan Sunantha. Mahasarakham. Suphunburi. Baansomdejchaophraya. Thonburi. Sakonakorn. There are three types of educational institute which provide arts education at this level: Rajamangkla Institute of Technology. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 238 . Although these schools are beneath the same ministry. Nakonsrithamaratch. Poh Chang campus. They all are beneath Ministry of Education. Vocational Art Schools The vocational curriculum for fine arts in Thailand provides two different certificates called Por Wor Chor [Vocational certificate]. Department of Fine Arts. At present there is also a college called Sathabunphatthanasilp or Advanced Arts Institute38 beneath the Department of Fine Arts. whereas Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and Por Wor Sor. Payap. Chiangmai. it has yet to provide enrolments. the public vocational schools are operated by Department of Vocational Education which accounts directly for these vocational schools. and Payap campus. Yala. They are certified by the Fine Arts Institute. Ministry of Education. Phranakhontai. Beyond the level of tertiary education in fine arts. Ministry of Education. Kampaengpetch.The campuses that operate a Department of Fine and Applied Arts within the Faculty of Humanities and Social Science are Chiangrai. This curriculum is applied at the following colleges: Poh Chang. Thepsatree. there are three campuses which provide a two-year Bachelor of Fine Arts: Khlong Hok campus. However. Rumbhaiphanee. Colleges of Fine Arts are located as individual schools at Ladkrabang.

the private ones are grouped in the Office of Private Education Commission whose responsibility covers all private schools. art tuition schools and two art educational institutes may serve as equivalents to attached high schools substitutes. this school was as important as Silpakorn University or College of Fine Arts. and College of Fine Arts. In producing human resources for Thai fine arts production. There are a number of ‘special schools’ or ‘art tutoring schools’ to seriously train students who would like to have a further education in the fine arts area. It was the first art institutes in the modern educational system in the kingdom and was established in 1913. Poh Chang Campus. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 239 . Furthermore. two institutes had historically played important roles in fine arts human resource production for universities.. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Whilst. Attached High Schools There are no attached schools at tertiary institutions. The rest are crafts graduates. Tangcharoen has shown its importance as an attached school for Silpakorn University42. 2000)39 with 2. Rajamangkhla Institute of Technology.594 graduates in fine arts field in 199840. He has also commented that the potential of this art academy was destroyed by the centralisation of Rajamangkhla Institutes of Technology43. was initially called the Rongrian Poh Chang or the College of Arts and Crafts. However. They are Rajamangkhla Institute of Technology. there are about 51 public vocational schools (Department of Vocational Education. and there is the Bangkok Silpakum as well as others.158 studied applied arts involved majors. There is for example the Samudthai Art and Design Instruction [School] which now has five branches in Bangkok. Unfortunately the number of private vocational schools is unidentifiable. 1. Within these graduates there are 990 graduates in fine arts involved majors41. The first group of graduates from Rongrianpraneetsilapakam (now Silpakorn University) were all graduates from Poh Chang. as were many artists and people of influence in Thai Fine Arts education. Poh Chang Campus.

E. As in Table 1.74 7.Almost four decades later. a high school attached to Silpakorn University. called Rongriansilpasuksa. Information derived from the table on pp. Poh Chang Rajabhat Institute.50 1.78 0.E. it was only an attached high school from its establishment in 1952 until 1960. Some College of Fine Arts graduates were able to enrol in private universities such as Bangkok University.2541 College of Fine Arts.45-47 in Annual Information of College of Fine Arts B.2539). around 33% of seats at Chulalongkorn University. and Rangsit Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Ministry of Education. Phranakorn Tota l 5 8 2 3 3 72 2.2.67 Chulalongkorn University Khon Kaen University Chiang Mai University Mahasarakham University Srinakharinwirot University Silpakorn University King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology.69 1.67 10 16 24 46. Since then it has operated alone beneath the Department of Fine Arts. almost 50% of the fine arts freshmen in King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology. and about 7% at Khon Kaen University were successfully occupied by the college’s graduates. Despite its separation an astonishingly high percentage of the school graduates become freshmen in tertiary institutions as shown in the following diagram.n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a .81 4.2 Number and Percentage of “Por Wor Chor” [Vocational Certificate] Graduates who continuously attended tertiary institutions in 1996 (B. 1998. 10% at Mahasarakham University. However.78 No.25 6.14 46. Suan Sunantha Rajabhat Institute. Name of Institution No. of available seats for entry44 B 15 14 30 10 25 50 30 Percentage from available seats B/A x 100% 33. or Art Education School (now the College of Fine Arts) was founded.12 1.81 0.56 7.56 2.69 40.33 7. Lad Krabang and in Chiang Mai University graduated from the college.n/a Table 1.2945 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a . 16% at Srinakharinwirot University. Lad Krabang Bangkok University Rungsit University Rajamangkla Institute of Technology. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 240 . Furthermore. and almost 25% in Silpakorn University. of graduates able to enter A 5 1 14 1 4 12 14 Percentage of total graduates from Vittayalaichangsilp 2.

Suan Sunantha campus and Phranakorn campus.19 0.6 257.7 1. art plays the role of a vocational subject and is compulsory-selective. in Mathayom 3 [Grade 9] art becomes a selective subject for a maximum of six periods [It became compulsory as two periods a week where one period equals 45 minutes in the 1979curriculum (revision 1990)].752. Art is compulsory in the early years of school but not in the later.000.000. Budget Allocations In order to examine the status of fine art within cultural expenditure.22 0.554.0 800.0 825. Students in the vocational stream have to enrol in the arts workshop or other five subject sets: industrial workshop. commerce. Art is still compulsory in Mathayom 1-2 [Grades 7-8] as two periods a week where one period equals 45 minutes. namely Rajamangkhla Institute of Technology. Poh Chang campus.9 1. and art craft. agriculture.05 0.1 1.767.81 0. However.3 320.03 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. annual expenditures of Department of Fine Arts and the Office of the National Cultural Commission will be considered as in the following table. we may understand that the status and periods for art subject differs according to level. In high schools.21 0.1 1.6 0.6 148.233. and in other tertiary art institutes.2 151.000.13 1.15 329.17 0.04 0.University. Rajabhat Institute.19 0. Primary level students have to study an art subject for at least 25% of school time in Prathom 1-4 [equivalent to Grades 1-4 in the American schools system]. General Education By reference to curricula46 at Thai schools since 1979 to 1990.173.577.0 156.04 0. housework. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 241 . Fiscal Year Total Government Budget Budget for Ministry of Education Million Baht Million Baht Million Baht % of MOE % of Total Budget for Fine Arts Dept. Budget for Office of National Cultural Commission Million Baht % of MOE % of Total 1997 1998 1999 925. and at least 20% of school time in Prathom 5-6 [equivalent to Grades 5-6].

Comparison of University Fine Art Departments The comparison will be undertaken into two distinctive ways. compared to the whole Ministry of Education.25% of the total government expenditure. and the years they have worked in the governmental system. and Doctoral graduates receive about 9. Rajabhat Institutes. Master degree graduates begin at about 8. [or even in secondary schools] teachers’ salaries are set by the same ratio depending on the level of their university degree. One should note that all public university teachers are civil servants in Thailand.5% in every year of the total Ministry of Education budget.000 [around A$360] each. For example. and Office of National Culture Commission. Data derived from Table 9. It was initially established as a school called Rongrianpraniitsinlapakam or School of Fine Arts in 1934. I will now chronologically clarify how the Faculty of Fine Arts was established in each university. During 1997 to1999 this was less than 1. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 242 . The first dean was the Italian sculptor and art professor. and then in 1943 was converted into a university with only one faculty.3 Annual Expenditures by Department of Fine Arts. the Faculty of Painting and Sculpture. and the total government budget from fiscal years 1997-1999. or less than 0. During 1971 to 1974 Chalood Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Fine arts departments in Thai universities have been gradually established to the network art institutions.000 baht per month [around A$240] 47. The first is through its foundation. an alumnus who had gained a scholarship to study at the Academy of Fine Art of Rome49became the dean from 1964 to 1971. it is obvious that there is very little government budget for the cultural units.Table 1. Bachelor degree graduates begin with about 6.7 Summary Of Budget Expenditure By Ministry. It is still the only one whose first faculty focuses on fine arts. Tertiary Art schools’ teacher salaries In public educational institutions including to universities.000 baht [around A$300]. Corrado Feroci. Thailand’s first higher education institution teaching fine arts was Silpakorn University. The second is via curricula. Department And Independent Public Agency by the Bureau of the Budget. and Rajamangkla Institute of Technology. Office of the Prime Minister (2000) From the table. who later changed his name to the Thai Silpa Bhirasri for political reasons48. Then Khien Yimsiri.

has been dean. Bachelors and Masters graduates are shown in Appendix 2. Although its structure was developed from that of Silpakorn University54. As a result. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 243 . The following deans all also graduated from the Faculty beginning with Kritsanha Kotchaseni (1974-1976). a university which had itself been founded in the 1950s. a graduate of Silpakorn University and then the Academy of Fine Arts. was the dean. followed once more by Nonthivathn Chandhanaphalin. and 155 students in other years majoring in Painting. The number of Diploma. Sculpture. Pishnu Supanimit (1991-1996). sculpture. then a Master in Sculpture in 1975. Prasert Yuchareon (1985. graphic arts. then Prayat Pongdam in 1991. The present [2000] dean is Preecha Thaothong who is also an alumnus of the Faculty. Nonthivathn Chandhanaphalin (1984-1988). The faculty’s deans were Chaiwat Panploy (1982-1984). the monopoly status of Silpakorn University as being “the” university that had a Faculty of Fine Arts ceased with the establishment of the Faculty of Fine Arts at Chiangmai University in 1982. The Faculty consists of five departments. Ananda Chankhunthod (19881992). Since 1992 until present (2000) Pongdej Chaiyakut. The Faculty’s personnel comprise 40 lecturers: 25 lecturers are in the Modern Fine Arts. Thai arts. with 11 administrative and technical staff52. Krakow. Suthep Sunthornpesuch (1985-1988). the staff-student ratio for the whole Faculty is one to seven. the ‘teaching of contemporary art is imbued with influences from the folk. 55 . A Master in Graphic Arts was introduced in 1974. also an alumnus who had graduated with a Diploma from L’Accademia di belle arti di Roma. and a Master in Painting since 197651. a graduate from Silpakorn University). Prayat Pongdam (1980-1984). painting. followed by the further incumbency of Chalood Nimsamer (1976-1980). music. and dance traditions of the Northern region’. After four decades. and Art Theory50 It also provides postgraduate courses. or Graphic53. Moreover. in 1998 there were 291 students consisting of 112 freshmen. It was the first regional fine arts faculty in the kingdom. Poland.Nimsamer. Surasak Charoarnwong (1988.1991).

and Architecture. Even though it is the third university to have a Fine Arts Faculty. Currently. The faculty’s personnel includes 54 lecturers. Thai Arts. The deans of Chulalongkorn University’s have been Songkuun Autthakorn (1984-1988. Furthermore. In the Department of Visual Arts. 1983 saw the establishment of the Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts at the premier university. and the current dean is Chamnong Sangvichien (1997-2000. Much evidence positively supports this emphasis in the 1990s. Furthermore. no information of graduation). the faculty is unique by two reasons. but most staff are expected to have an MFA or PhD from a university overseas. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 244 . As a result the staff student ratio is 1:12. The first is its academic independence from Silpakorn University and the second is its emphasis on Euroamerican artistic traditions58. the faculty has academically cooperated with a lot of overseas universities with cooperative agreements both within Asia and other continents including Australia and Europe. The department of architecture is at stage of development to be a faculty where as there is also a plan to found the department of design56. 19 teaching fine arts. whilst there are some lecturers who have graduated domestically. from available information one can see that the faculty has been headed by deans who graduated overseas. the faculty contained three departments. 32 have overseas degrees. Chamnong Sangvichien (1992-1996. only one lecturer has no overseas degree. with 46 staff. of which 136 were freshmen and 250 fine arts57. Suraphol Wiroonruksa (1988-1992. Chulalongkorn University. Graphic Arts. music and creative59 Also the faculty was the first in Thailand to establish a Department of Creative Arts in 1988. and Sculpture. Painting. graduated overseas). In 1999 there were 651 students. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Of the Faculty’s 46 lecturers. The other important difference with Silpakorn is the Chulalongkorn faculty’s widening of the fine arts curriculum which includes all visual arts. from 11 lecturers. also graduated overseas). graduated overseas).In 1999. no information of graduation). Keukdech Guntamara (19961997.

the Department of Art Education.The faculty comprises 4 departments: Department of Visual Arts (Painting. Art History). Sculpture. and 3 staff62 for 157 bachelor students and 46 master students63. contemporary with Department of Arts Education. The department provides an arts degree with a major in fine arts66. there was a unit established to teaching fine arts education in tertiary level. not on one of ‘top-down’ requirements64. the Department of Art Education in the Faculty of Education was transformed into the Department of Arts and Culture. He was followed by Piyachati Sangaroon. Photographic art. the staff student ratio is 1:8. The faculty was initially the Department of Art Education on the university’s Faculty of Education which had been originally established in 1968. the rough staff-student ratios are 1:14 for bachelor students 1:4 for master’s students. followed by Burapha University [formerly its Bangsean Campus] in 1995. The department’s personnel includes 11 lecturers. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 245 . 80 of them in the Department of Visual Arts61. the faculty was not the first with a fine arts instruction unit of the university. and Department of Dance60 There are 16 other staff in the faculty. Nonetheless. Department of Music. Then in 1975. Department of Creative Arts. may be called the era of the establishment of fine arts faculties by Srinakharinwirot University [the former Teacher University] from its previous campuses. Umpai Teeranasarn. The 1993 establishment by Srinakharinwirot University of its Faculty of Fine Arts differs from those of other universities because it was based on a system of ‘bottom-up’ demand. When compared statistically with number of lecturers. with 357 students overall. Faculty of Humanities. Suluk Sriburi. Its only Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Printmaking. and Umpai Teeranasarn is the present head. Faculty of Education. The 1990s. Surat Wunno. Therefore. In 1969. New Forms and New Media. Sunya Wongaram. and by Mahasarakham University [its previous Mahasarakham campus] in 1998. Faculty of Education. In 1993 the Fine Arts Faculty was founded in Srinakharinwirot University. The first head was Virat Phichayapaiboon. Chulalongkorn University65.

that is a staff-student ratio of 1:13 for ordinary students and 1:2 for postgraduate students. there were 600 bachelor students and 100 master students.dean has been Wiroon Thangchareon. This number excludes the number of students who were still registered in the Faculty of Humanities (1 bachelor) and Faculty of Education (106 bachelor degree students. a graduate from Department of Music Education. Department of Performing Arts. The faculty has since 1996 also provided master courses in visual arts and since 1985 in art education68. Chulalongkorn University. and from Srinakharinwirot University itself. Overall. The first Dean was Suwit Satithwittayanand (1996-1999). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 246 . Chulalongkorn University . Department of Communication Arts Design. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Department of Sculpture. a graduate from Silpakorn University. whereas there were 46 lecturers.and 27 staff. Department of Visual Arts Education. and 100 master students). The faculty consists of 11 lecturers and 8 staff the staff-student ratio is 1:19. There are 4 departments. Department of Music. there are 12 fine arts lectures. The faculty had 493 students in 199869. Department of Visual Arts. the premier university in the Northeastern Part of Thailand. and Department of Music. Thus. Faculty of Education and was established in 1986 with the first 30 71 . It is taught in Department of Art Education. The faculty is consists of six departments. The 2000 dean is Chalermsak Pikulsri. and the Department of Visual Design67. the Department of Painting. and there were 218 students in 199872.coincidently equal to those of Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. the Department of Thai music. there is also another unit teaching fine arts in the university. a graduate from Poh Chang. 1994 saw the establishment of Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts at Khon Kaen University. However. Of the 46 lecturers. The faculty personnel consists of 46 lecturers . From the faculty curricular documents it is clear that the faculty intends its graduates to have knowledge and skills in local arts as well as contemporary and Thai arts70.

In 1995. (p. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Counsellors of the two universities both signed for cooperation as in a sibling relationship’74. Although it was a campus of Srinakharinwirot. which had itself become an autonomous university in 1990 having formerly been a campus of Srinakharinwirot University since 1955. When fine arts became a project for development into a faculty it was leaded by Suchart Thaothong (1992-1995). When fine arts was the Department of Art & Culture. a Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts was founded for Thailand’s eastern Region in Burapha University. there are no students studying in these departments in the name list of 1999. the faculty has been academically more influenced by Silpakorn University. Department of Design Arts. The future operation cannot be alone. It then transformed into a faculty with the first dean being Suchart Thaothong. Half of the lecturers graduated from Silpakorn University as did its current leaders. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 247 . As a result. The faculty consists of three departments. The confirmation of this close relationship can be seen in the following statement by Thaothong. to be followed by Thepsuk Thongnoppakun. Its development is similar to that of its former main campus. ‘The project for cooperation in academic fine arts is one of urgent produced projects in order to create reliability. [I] use my personal connection with Silpakorn University to “create a picture of fine arts cooperation between Burapha University and Silpakorn University”. Although the Department of Performing Arts and the Department of Fine Art Theory are identified in the faculty reference’ book. Thepsuk Thongnoppakun (a Silpakorn University alumnus.students studying for a 2-year bachelor course. fine arts was a subject division in Faculty of Education. followed by Marut Ummaranon (1979-1982). Initially. Department of Visual Arts. and then Suchart Thaothong (also from Silpakorn University. It launched a four-year bachelor course in 1992 with its first 6 students. 1983-1986). The weak foundation will encounter only plethora of obstruction. Then in 1974 the division changed to be the Department of Arts and Culture in the Faculty of Humanities and had their first art major students in a weekend 4 year curriculum in 197873.52). and Department of Music.19871991). it was headed by Chumni Suwannachang (1975-1978).

Another former campus of Srinakharinwirot University. Tuksin University which is located at Songkhla in the southern part of Thailand was originally founded in 1996. Dance. The department consists of 9 lecturers. so the staff-student ratio is 1:20. There is Department of Visual Arts in the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences. Tuksin University. Ladkrabang. In the Student Manual for 1998-2001. These are the Department of Fine Arts in the Faculty of Architecture. in the year 1998 it would appear there are 488 students in the faculty77. It was only recently in 1998 that the project just became a full-fledged Faculty. These numbers indicate a considerable overload of students for each teacher. from Ministry of University Affairs’ statistics. was established in 1992 78. 4 of them teaching fine arts80. and Architecture. There were 143 students in 199879. Faculty of Architecture. Mahasarakham University. and has attempted to establish a Faculty of Fine Arts for several years. Creative Arts. with a staffstudent ratio of about 1:50. Additionally. Ladkrabang. Six of them are fine arts graduates. was founded in 1994. Astonishingly. and printmaking. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology. with a major in Photography. The department includes three divisions. Instead they operate as fine arts departments within another faculty. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 248 . there are two other public universities where no fine arts faculty exists yet. and the Department of Visual Arts in Faculty of Humanities and Social Science. sculpture. Music. The Department of Fine Arts in King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology. there are 10 lecturers teaching fine arts in Faculty of Humanities and Social Science76. which also has a Department of Visual Communication Arts. The faculty is composed of various departments. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Since then its head has been Kiettisak Chanonnart who is a Silpakorn University graduate as are the other 6 lecturers. painting.The faculty personnel includes 16 lecturers and 10 staff. Visual Arts. There were 286 students in 199875 which gives a staff-student ratio of about 1:18.

Among heads of these departments were Pitukphol Visutiumporn.Not only public universities have fine arts faculties but. Jedsada Phunakad (Printmaking). Painting. Apichai Sriduang. A pioneer private university which established a Faculty of Fine Arts was Rangsit University in by Bunchob Palawongse81. statistical information of these universities is not publicly available. In comparison with Rangsit University. less than or equal to 145 credits. University Period of study Number of credits for Bachelor Degree Curricula Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. the similarities are in characteristics and structure. the School of Fine and Applied Arts. and more than 160 credits curricula. Yet. For instance. Sculpture. Curricular Comparison After roughly compare fine arts curricula in Thailand by consideration of subjects provision by each university. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 249 . However. some of private universities have been able to establish them as well. Potchamarn Tharanachedsada. From 1987 to 1991 the faculty had five departments. The faculty includes 58 lecturers82 Bangkok University is the other private university teaching fine arts. these departments except that of Photography were contracted into one Department of Visual Arts during 1992-1996 (headed by Virasuk Panarom). Printmaking. Also there are other universities which have fine arts departments or even faculties none appear to have visual arts in their curricula. and this remains the subject division at this moment. the Faculty of Fine Arts at Mahidol University. had its first students group of 29 students83. and the Faculty of Fine Arts at Thammasart University has performance arts and clothing design. there are both convergence and divergence . there are two kind of Bachelor of Fine Arts degree curricula. there is support from some executives of Bangkok University to provide overseas experience for lecturers84. If we use amount of credit points as a criteria in curriculum consideration. Niphol Samarnmitr (Sculpture). Virasuk Panarom (Painting). and Ceramics. As a consequence the main data sources are from their bulletins and interviews. However. teaches only music. In 1995 the Department of Visual Arts. due to market constraints. The differences are in quantity and details. Photography.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 250 . For free elective subjects. further than limited knowledge only in the fine arts field. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology Rangsit U. and students gain a wider range of knowledge considered beneficial for everyday life. Tuksin U. and languages. As a result. Bangkok U. also have free elective subjects which are a matter for individual students. if we want to see what makes fine arts graduates from one university differ from another we may refer to the focus on fine arts specialisation subjects. The combination of these types of subjects leads fine arts degree in Thailand to be regarded as multidisciplinary curricula. and free elective subjects. humanities. Chulalongkorn U. the credits required for fine arts graduation ranged widely from 132 to 180. When examined in structural detail. as indicated by this name. Burapha U. Specialisation subjects contain fine arts courses both in theory and skills. science and technology. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. (Years) 5 4 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 (3 terms a year) 4 General Education 30 30 30 30 38 32 30 32 30 40 36 Fine Arts Specialisation 120 96 144 96 95 105 102 95 10285 116 98 Free Electives 1086 9 6 6 9 3 3 18 6 8 6 Total 160 135 180 132 142 140 141 145 138 164 140 Table 1. Srinakharinwirot U. From Table 1. They are generally composed of subjects in the field of social science. the widest range in credits is in specialisation subjects at almost 50 credits. Khon Kaen U.Silpakorn U. students can select freely any subjects in any fields. specialisation subjects. The highest amount of credits is required by Chiangmai University and the lowest is by Khon Kaen University. As we can see. Chiangmai U.4 The required amount of credits for Bachelor of Fine Arts degree of universities in Thailand Examined in total amount. we also can see that the curricula comprise three types of courses: general education subjects. General Education subjects although they contain subjects in the same fields from different universities. General Education Subjects refer to subjects outside the fine arts field. Mahasarakham U.4 above.

painting. However. introduction to photography. and Thai art history and composition are taught as basic subjects for fine arts students. The curriculum for each university will be analysed in this category in order of the credits required as follows. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. First year ceramics major students have to study similar basic subjects. They are research in Thai arts. they are Chulalongkorn University. Thai art and Thai art Paritad as well as two subjects of art composition. basic design. Oriental art history. such as Isan arts and craft. and research subjects. seminar major in contemporary art. Here. in later years. They are introduction to drawing. they have to study the same basic art subjects including aesthetics. art fundamental subjects. creative drawing. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 251 . sculpture. there are interesting courses that are distinct. contemporary art. art criticism. Moreover. Eastern art history. The two majors of painting and sculpture are provided at Khon Kaen University. two anatomy subjects. modern art. They also have to study professional subjects including three subjects of drawing. However. three universities have no clear major and instead provide a degree in Visual Arts. Western art history. and thesis. multimedia. Various basic fine arts subjects are proposed in professional subjects. and Bangkok University. printmaking. and major subjects (and for some universities also minor subjects) such as painting 1-4 for painting majors. technology and fine arts creation. aesthetics. at Khon Kaen University. there are three majors provided. art history. and ceramics. thesis. Mahasarakham University. they have to take more specific courses than painting and printmaking. Like others. art composition. fine arts students are required to study basic subjects which are aesthetics. At Burapha University. and Thai arts. and the five subjects of their major. fine arts management. Western art history. and seminar subjects. Successful graduates also are required to study minor subjects for at least 18 credits. seminar. Also five research subjects are required for graduation. and perspective. research methodology. The are also required to attain a research capability in subjects such as research projects.Subjects87 in specialisation themes can be categorised into three: professional subjects. Professional subjects comprise subjects for artist work such as exhibition. printmaking. Whatever major or minor subjects the students take.

special problems of art creation. professional practice in visual arts. aesthetics. creative drawing. art criticism. research subjects have to be passed. Lastly. Tuksin University [Thakhsin] can provide one more major than Srinakharinwirot University. Thai art history II. all other subjects are the same in name and credits. and thesis. seminar. that is in sculpture. drawing I and II. advertising and arts. research and report writing. and other two subjects in major. and graphic design II. Thai folk art. Thai art II. drawing mechanical introduction. and in six major subjects. ceramics. Srinakharinwirot University provides three fine arts majors: painting. art history I.introduction to photography. four major subjects. exhibition. Chulalongkorn University graduates have to successfully complete subjects in all three different categories. Research subjects are project. painting I. introduction to visual arts & creative arts. introduction to painting. introduction to musical & dancing. introduction to visual art. sculpture I. Western art history I. art criticism. architecture & urban & environment. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 252 . two subjects of drawing. experience in visual arts. Minor subjects at 18 credits are also required for students to enroll. The fundamental courses include aesthetic philosophy. but their curricula are intertwined. modern and contemporary art history. illustration. a photography subject. They also have to enroll for a major thesis. a printmaking subject. Thai art I. Similar to Chulalongkorn University in its major provisions. introduction to printmaking. three painting subjects. two sculpture subjects. exhibition. Thai art history. art history II. thesis. They have to select nine out of the following twelve subjects. introduction to printmaking. creative thinking. and introduction to visual arts. introduction to drawing. They include research methodology. Mahasarakham University also provides only a visual art major. Western art history. and ceramics. art criticism. Isan art and culture. The students have to study introduction to aesthetics. Basic subjects are aesthetics in fine arts. two subjects of sculpture. criticism in major. Except for three design subjects required by Tuksin university. and printmaking. Professional subjects are two drawing subjects. and thesis. introduction to sculpture. The professional Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. introduction to Thai art. writing in art. creative design. fine and applied arts introduction.

introduction to photography. The research subjects are a seminar subject or independent study. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. In each major. sculpture I and II. and Thai sculpture as basic. Rangsit University provides a fine arts major in photography. Oriental art history.subjects consist of drawing I and II. and a thesis. visual concepts. For research purposes. and a thesis. students have to study art theory. seminar. history of photography I and II. two seminars. there are three fine arts major and minors provided. IV. and seven other major subjects. The research subjects are three projects. and in thesis subjects. III. Silpakorn university. and art criticism. provides four majors and minors in fine arts. design I and II. III. motion picture & video production. graphic arts (printmaking). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 253 . painting. The basic courses are aesthetics I. painting I and II. two of sculpture. III. II. basic design I and II. II. visual arts I. At King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology. Ladkrabang. Its photography students have to enrol in Western art. sculpture. computer for design I and II. basic art I and II. Western art history. art criticism. animal anatomy. and Thai arts. business & marketing. Thai architecture. Sculpture. students have to enrol in a research & methodology. printmaking . The Faculty of Painting. sculpture. II. art philosophy. The other requirement from the faculty is that in every subject in major and minor degrees students must attain a Grade C to pass. and printmaking. composition I. two of painting. and V. Thai painting. Chiang Mai University provides four majors and minors of fine arts: drawing. photographic appreciation. two of printmaking. and Thai arts. The basic subjects are three composition subjects. professional practice. sculpture. painting. psychology of art. They are also required to study professional subjects: drawing I and II. Professional subjects include three subjects of drawing. and Printmaking. photo workshop I. The professional subjects comprise the six subjects of drawing. For professional subjects students have to study drafting. and color theory as basic subjects. photography I and II. and other seven major subjects. modern art in European history. art basics I and II. five major subjects. aesthetics of Eastern world. human anatomy. and IV. material & process. three composition subjects. Art history I and II. four subjects of drawing.

creative drawing I and II. three projects. Srinakharinwirot University. art criticism. digital imaging. II. architecture. three-dimensional design. printmaking I and II. They also have to finish research subjects: research. Actually Chiang Mai University and Silpakorn University also emphasize specific fine arts skills. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. thesis preparation. computer for design. Most of these are due to response to market demand such as management subjects. and degree project. visual arts. and printmaking. For professional subjects. However. King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology is the most focused on fine arts skills. Oriental art history. history of art I and II. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 254 . and film & video. a seminar. Design subjects are provided at Burapha University. Tuksin University. photo. sculpture I and II. Students have a wide knowledge includes music. In their specialization category. multimedia. photo presentation. they do also provide other art theory subjects. sculpture. but as seen above they exclude other branches of fine arts except painting. two-dimensional design. painting. sculpture. and fine arts management at Burapha University. seven major subjects. photo studio I and II. contemporary art. two seminar. business and marketing at Mahasarakham University. the most multidisciplinary curriculum is provided by Mahasarakham University. and Chulalongkorn University. anatomy. design subjects. The business subjects are business and photography at Rangsit University. their students study no basic r art subjects other than composition I. there are many applied subjects provide in various universities. painting I and II. and a thesis. Western. business in photography. photographic filing. II. In fact. and study six subjects of drawing. and computer for design at Mahasarakham University. III. and Isan arts. and IV. Thai art history. Thai. dance. and computer subjects. motion picture. the visual arts students have to study aesthetics I and II. individual studies. Mahasarakham University. and thesis I and II.and IV. and color theory as basic subjects. photographic tools. they have to study drawing I and II. Comparing all the universities offering fine arts. They also have to enroll in degree project preparation. and visual arts I. photographic illustration. Computer subjects include multimedia at Burapha University and Rangsit University. Bangkok University. At Bangkok University. photography for beginners. and III.

to expand and exchange arts works and artist domestically and overseas. Chalern Nakeeruks (vice president). Chat Pratinuksorn. Vinit Sriyaphan. The club arranged 27 exhibitions. Wit Phinkunngern. Sawang Prapun. D. However. there was the establishment of another national artists club named Samakom SilapakumThai or Thai Association of Fine Arts. Artist Associations There are a plethora of artists clubs in Thailand. Among other committee members were Vichit Supayotin. Somkit Suksiri (registrar). Poh Karnnut. Its committee included Chit Buabuts (president). and Isan arts and culture at Mahasarakham University. and to honour the dignity and culture of Thai fine arts95. However. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 255 . there were only four founders of the national artist club whose details are given below. These subjects’ provision may indicate a tendency for fine arts curricula development in Thai Universities to move towards more applied subjects. Suwat Gaysornkul (secretary). In 1954. Therawal Siripok. Benja Disawat (treasurer). Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Its aims were to refurbish and support knowledge of international and traditional arts. Kong Samingshai. For example. Chamnong Punkabutr. Narong Chanphen. Suwaphan Milinchinda. it provided a space to create and present art works 91. the club’s weekly newspaper called Rung Aroon was founded for authors to publish their work 92 or for reports of art gallery exhibitions. Phanat Suwannaboon. It was founded by literary artists and visual artists from Poh Chang89. Its main objectives were to fight for fairness between the needs of arts creation and wages.Subjects in response to particular regional demands are Isan art and crafts at Khon Kaen University. Wanna Keysayanon. The first club was established in 1944 named Chakrawad Silapin or the League of Artists88. Also. Phanom Suwannaboon. and Siri Mahanon 94. due to the shortage of budget for its operation and in the market for the art93. the last held in November 1964. Thamrong Komolbutr. the League of Artists and its newspaper had to close operations three years later. and to keep dignity of the creative90.

this may be called its ‘reincarnation’. There is also an international artists’ club called the IAA or International Association of Art with headquarters in Paris. The academic publications included are 13 exhibition flyers. the club encountered many problems which may be distinguished as those of shortage of resources. and 2 national-level children arts exhibitions. However. However. Silpakorn University100. Burapha University. and administrative difficulties. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 256 . the club came to an end due to the mutual distancing of members because of political constraints during that time96. However. Sculpture. the club changed its status to an association and its name to Samakom Silapakum Thai or Thai Association of Fine Arts.During 1973 to 1976 there was another artist club called Naew Ruam Silapin Hang Pratedthai or Group of Thailand Artists. It was again left to the enterprise of the artists themselves to find their own patrons’101. and many seminars and discussions99. The club’s secretariat office is located at the Faculty of Painting. a meeting to establish which was held on May 30. The exhibitions included 5 national-level arts exhibitions. In 1983. and Graphic Arts. designers. It aims to press for the development and progress of Thai arts 98. 10 issues of the academic magazine called Loksilpa or Art World. artists. art students and the general public’97. former dean of the Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. In 1979 Chomrom Silapakum Hang Pratedthai or the Arts Group of Thailand was established by various groups of people including ‘university art professors. 3 national-level youth arts exhibitions. 1998 at Burapha University. art teachers. its president was Suchart Thaothong. 2 academic books. There is now an association called the Art School Deans Council of Thailand. the club performs few functions for its members for as Kririksh and Thongjeur state: ‘Although Thailand is a member of the International Association of Art since 1953. that body has done little to promote Thai art internationally. The group enabled various art exhibitions and a number of academic publications. In 1999. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

and sometimes includes frankly critical articles which do not appear in Thai. Public art publications include are the academic bi-monthly Silpakorn Journal by the Department of Fine Arts. There is some doubt how well these articles may be understood by most Thai artists.rama9art. However. Matichon Group plc. It is edited by Niwat Kongpean and owned by the media network company. Misiem Yipintsoi ). there are a lot of magazines and newspapers which are published with an occasional arts column. except those with overseas training and experience. Other weeklies with an occasional arts column in Thai are Sakulthai Sutsaphtaa and Sayamrat Saphtaa Wicaan. E.Its presidents until 1982 have been Silpa Bhirasi (1957-1962). it would appear the English-language press and Thai weekly magazines are not where art Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. That company’s Matichon Sutsaphataa or Matichon Weekly. and is heavily subsidized by the Mercedes car dealership which owns it. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 257 . The Muang Boran or Ancient City journal is published by the specialized publisher on pre-modern art and architecture Munag Boran. Ministry of Education. popular history type including heritage or archaeological descriptions. There are recently as well some interesting websites as an information source for of artists. but is oriented to the expatriate and foreign language-speaking Thai communities.C. such as www. The general art and culture monthly magazine called Silapawattanatham or Arts and Culture tends to have articles of a conservative. providing one of the few regular public sources of art criticism in Thai. there are currently there are no significant arts publications that circulate arts news among artists. However. and Thaweesak Saenanarong 1981-1982) 102. M. Press and Magazine Circulation Although previously there were some private arts magazines circulating in Thailand such as Art Record. also often has articles on art.org. Karawik Chakrabandhu (1962-1977). There are as well journals of fine arts tertiary educational institutes such as Srinakharinwirot University and Chulalongkorn University. Coverage by the English languages newspapers such as The Nation or the Bangkok Post can be more informative. (1977-1981).

and some investigation of their informal information networks appears to be required. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 258 .news circulates among artists.

by degree type 1945 8 0 0 1946 1 0 0 1947 7 0 0 1948 5 0 0 1949 0 0 0 1950 2 0 0 1951 5 0 0 1952 15 0 0 1953 11 0 0 1954 16 1 0 1955 18 1 0 1956 23 0 0 1957 16 0 0 1958 18 4 0 1959 18 8 0 1960 17 7 0 1961 11 5 0 1962 20 10 0 1963 21 0 0 1964 23 8 0 1965 24 6 0 1966 18 8 0 1967 26 16 0 1968 24 14 0 1969 26 17 0 1970 27 19 0 1971 21 11 0 1972 24 14 0 1973 27 17 0 1974 30 19 0 1975 20 14 0 1976 6 29 1 1977 23 13 0 1978 28 21 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Structure of Fine Arts Institutions in Thailand The Cabinet Kana Radthamontrii M inistryofUniversityAffairs ThabuangMahaaw idthayaalaj PublicUniversities Mahaaw idthayaalajRadthabaan PrivateUniversities Mahaaw idthayaalajEkkachon Officeof RajabhatInstitution Council Saphaa Sathaaban Radchaphat M inistryofEducation K rasuangSyksaathikaan Vocational EducationDepartm ent K Aachiiw rom asyksaa R ajabhat Institutes SathaabanRadchaphat FineArtsDepartm ent* K Sinlapaakorn rom PublicVocational Schools RongreanAchivasuksa Officeof Priv Education Com ission ate m Samnakngarn Khanakammakaan Kaansyksaa Ekkachon FineArtsC ollege W idthayaalajchangsin Institute ofD evelopment Fine A rts SathabunPattanasilp PrivateVocational Schools RongRianEkkachon Tutorial Schools RongRianPhised * The Fine ArtsDepartment isalso responsible for archaeologica l work and conservation R ankhlaInstitutesofTechnology ajam SathaabanTheknooloojii Radchamongkhon Appendix 2 Annual Number of Silpakorn University Graduates.Appendix 1. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 259 . 1945-1999.

No. Ekkasaan Vicaj Majlek 7 Sathaban Thaikhadiisyksa Mahaawidthayaalaj Thammasart. 1992. References Books and Articles Art School Deans Council of Thailand (1999) Sketch and Models: An exhibition of Sketches and Models in Celebration of H. Modern Art in Thailand: Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. 1999. The integrative art of modern Thailand. & Thongjuoar. Singapore: Oxford University Press. 1992.P.1979 7 28 15 0 1980 10 19 4 0 1981 2 17 1 0 1982 1 28 2 0 1983 2 29 0 0 1984 4 37 4 0 1985 1 29 4 0 1986 3 28 6 0 1987 1 41 11 0 1988 3 40 1 1 1989 0 49 9 0 1990 0 36 6 0 1991 1 46 8 0 1992 1 47 2 0 1993 1 49 8 0 1994 1 50 7 0 1995 2 55 8 0 1996 0 56 23 0 1997 1 45 19 0 1998 0 46 11 0 1999 0 62 19 0 Total 620 1099 170 2 Source: verbal discussion by Pattama Harn-Asa with a Silpakorn administrator. Thammasart University] Phillips. the King’s 6th cycle birthday anniversary on the 5th December 1999.M. H. California: The Regents of the University of California. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Institute of Thai Studies. (1982) Art Since 1932. Apinan. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 260 . ‘Professor Silpa Bhirasri’s Centennial’. 1992. 7. Poshyanada. P. Bangkok: Amarin Printing and Publishing PLC. 1982 [Kririksh. Research Doc. P. Art Since 1932. Piriya Kririksh & Phaothong Thongjuoar. July 2000.. The Silpakorn Journal 35 (5). Chuleerat Somabutra.

1999] Rangsit University (n. Burapha University.E. Burapha. 1999] Mahaawidthayaalaj Khon Kaen (2540) Nithadsakaan Sinlapakam Kanaachaan Naj Okaad Wan Khlaaj Wan Sathaapana Kana Sinlapakammasaat Krop rorb 4 pii. Nontaburi: S. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 261 . and Graphic Arts. 2542.E. missions.d. Widthayaalaj Chang Sin Sathaban Sinlapakam Krom Sinlapaakorn Krungthep: Rongphim Chanarak [College of Fine Arts.E. Chulalongkorn University. Thailand TABLE 9.2542. Ministry of Education Bangkok: Rong Pim Karn Sasana. Bangkok: Odeon Store Printing Group. Modern Arts in Thailand. Planning Division. Sculpture. S. Tuksin University.2542. 1999] Government Reports Bereau of the Budget. 2536-2542. 1993].d. Mahaawidthayaalaj Mahasarakham [Mahasarakham University (n.d.) Bachelor curricular Khon Kaen University B. Statistics of Council of Rajabhat Institute B. Report of Faculty of Fine Arts Srinakharinwirot University B.d.E. 1998] Department of Art Education (2000) Department of Art Education. 1998] Mahaawidthayaalaj Mahasarakham (n. Khon Kaen : Khon Kaen Kaan Phim [Khon Kaen University. Department of Vocational Education. Chulalongkorn University (n.E. Chonburi: Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. Silpakorn University. Faculty of Painting.) Kuu Myy Mahaawidthayaalaj Tuksin 2542.th Access Date: 8 July 2000 Kana Sinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Srinakharinwirot (2542) Raj Ngaan Kana Sinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Srinakharinwirot B. Ministry of Education Bangkok: Rong Pim Gurusapa. Student Manual.go. Viroon. Council of Rajabhat Institute. Burapha University.2541-2542. Srinakharinwirot University. and Graphic Arts. Khon Kaen: Khon Kaen Printing. Burapha University (Bangsaen)] Viroon Tungchareon (2534) Sinlapa Samaj Maj Naj Thai. Silpakorn University.) Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. Data of Graduates B.) Annual report B. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.2542-2544 (2000-2001). Mahaawidthayaalaj Sinlapaakorn (2543) Khuu Myy Naksuksaa Kana Cidtrakam Pratimaakam Lae Paabphim Pracam Pii Kaan Syksa 2543 Ngaan Borrikaan Kaansyksaa Kana Cidtrakam Pratimakam Lae Paabphim Mahaawidthayaalaj Sinlapaakorn [Silpakorn University.2539-2540 Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts.) Mahasarakham University: Manual of Bacherlor Curricular B.) Raj Ngaan Pracham Pii 2539-2540 Kana Sinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Burapha.Suchart Thaothong (n.d. Srinakharinwirot University. Chiangmai University] Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. DEPARTMENT AND INDEPENDENT PUBLIC AGENCY: FISCAL YEAR 1997-1999 Access by e-mail contact with Statistical Information Service Section (binforser@nso. Krungthep: Samnakphim Odiansatoo [Tungchareon. [Online] Available: http://www.2541-2544.) Tuksin University Manual B. Project of Academic Magazine.) Mahaawidthayaalaj Mahasarakham: Khuu Myy Laksuud Parinyaa Trii B. 25412544. Bangkok. 2000] Mahaawidthayaalaj Tuksin (n.E. Khrongkaan Waarasaan Wichakaan Kana Sinlapakammasaat Mahaawidthayaalaj Burapha (Bangsean) [Thaothong.d. Chulalongkorn University [Online] Available: http://www. Thailand: Faculty of Fine Arts. Arts Exhibition of Lecturers in occasion of 4 years of establishment day Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. Kana Wicidsin Mahaawidthayaalaj Chiangmai [Faculty of Fine Arts.d. Burapha University (n. Department of Fine Arts Bangkok: Rong Pim Chanaruk.d. Faculty of Painting.E. Fine Art Institute.7 SUMMARY OF BUDGET EXPENDITURE BY MINISTRY.welcome.to/artedchula Access Date: 28 July 2000 Kana Sinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Burapha (n. Krom Aachiwasyksaa Krasuang Syksaathikaan Krungthep: Rong Phim Karusaphaa [Department of Vocational Education.E. Krom Aachiiwasyksaa (2543) Thamniab Sathaansyksaa Pii Phudthasakkaraad 2543. ca 1998] Kana Wichidsin Mahaawidthayaalaj Chiangmai (n.faa. (n. Ministry of Education Bangkok: Rong Pim Gurusapa. 1999] Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat (2536) Sathiti Khorng Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat 2536 Ngaan Thurakaan Korng Phaenngaan Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat Krasuang Syksaathikaan Krungthep: Rong Phim Kaan Saadsanaa [Office of Rajabhat Institutes Council.2543.ac. Chiangmai University (n.E.E. Mahaawidthayaalaj Khon Kaen [Khon Kaen University (n.d.d. and development trends. 1997] Mahaawidthayaalaj Khon Kaen (n. College of Fine Arts. Sculpture.2542 Administration Unit.d. Office of the Prime Minister.) Rangsit University Bulletin B. Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. Chonburi: Kanasinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Burapha [Faculty of Fine and Applied Arts. Krungthep: Kana Sinlapakammasaad Mahaawidthayaalaj Srinakharinwirot [Faculty of Fine Arts.E.E. policy. Printing Mass Products Ltd.E. Annual Information of College of Fine Arts B.) Written for Fine Arts. 2000.th) Correspondence date September 7. Academic service Unit.2543. 2541-2542. Academic Year B.d.) Sathaanaphab Padchuban Nayoobaj Pawmaj Lae Thidthaang Kaan Phadthanaa.) Khian Thyng Sinlapakam Burapha. Khon Kaen University. Department of Vocational Education.R.E. 2000] Krom Aachiwasyksaa (2542) Khuu Myy Phuu Samred Kaansyksaa Pii Kaansyksaa 2542. Mahaawidthayaalaj Tuksin [Tuksin University (n.) The current status.) Laksuud Parinyaa Trii Mahaawidthayaalaj Khon Kean B.d. 1991] Material on Fine Art Educational Institutes Widthayaalaj Chang Sin (2541) Saarasonthed Widthayaalaj Chang Sin Phrachumpii 2541. Faculty of Fine Arts.d. List of Institutes B.25362542.chula. Mahasarakham University. Faculty of Education. Krom Aachiwasyksaa Krasuang Syksaathikaan Krungthep: Rong Phim Karusaphaa [Department of Vocational Education.

2514. Educational Report of Public Tertiary Institutes in Ministry of University Affairs B. Thailand. Thailand.2542 Administration Unit. Silpakorn University. Educational Report of Public Tertiary Institutes in Ministry of University Affairs B. Telephone Communication of 14. Brief students statistics during B. Thailand.E. Educational Report of Public Tertiary Institutes in Ministry of University Affairs B. Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. Planning Division. 1988] Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (2536) Raj Ngaan Kaansyksaa Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Khorng Rad Naj Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Pii 2514 Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.) Sarub Khormuun Sathiti Nisid/ Naksyksaa Naj Raya Pii Kaansyksaa 2535-2539 Khorng Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Khorng Rad Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Suun Saarasonthed Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. Thailand.E. Anonymous respondent from King Mongkut’s Institute of Technology.E.2000 by Pattama Harn-asa. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. Educational Report of Tertiary Institutes in Ministry of University Affairs B.d. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.E.Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat (2542) Sathiti Khorng Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat 2542 Ngaan Thurakaan Korng Phaenngaan Samnakngaan Sapaa Sathaaban Rajabhat Krasuang Syksaathikaan Krungthep: Rong Phim Kaan Saadsanaa [Office of Rajabhat Institutes Council. Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. Thailand.2519. Information Technology Center.2541. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. 1977] Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (2531) Raj Ngaan Kaansyksaa Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Khorng Rad Naj Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Pii 2514 Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.E. Ministry of Education Bangkok: Rong Pim Karn Sasana.2000 by Pattama Harn-Asa.2530 Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. Thailand. about 1990] Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (2515) Raj Ngaan Kaansyksaa Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Naj Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Pii 2514 Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. Ladkrabang. 1999] Other documents Interview of 6.2539 in Public Tertiary Institutes of Ministry of University Affairs. 1993] Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (2542) Raj Ngaan Kaansyksaa Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Khorng Rad Naj Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Pii 2514 Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. Interview of 12. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs. 1972] Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (2520) Raj Ngaan Kaansyksaa Sathaaban Udomsyksaa Naj Sangkad Thabuang Mahaawidthayaalaj Pii 2519 Samnak Nayoobaaj Lae Phaen Udomsyksaa Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj [Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.7. Samnakngaan Paladthabuangmahaawidthayaalaj (n.2535 – B.E. Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. 1999]. Anonymous respondent from Rangsit University. Anonymous respondent from the Registration Office. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.7.E.E.2000 by Pattama Harn-Asa. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 262 .2536 Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. Statistics of Council of Rajabhat Institute B.7. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Council of Rajabhat Institute. Division of Tertiary Plan and Policy. Educational Report of Tertiary Institutes in Ministry of University Affairs B. Secretariat of Ministry of University Affairs.

103 The late Saengchai Soonthornwat. a rural leader who has long been working on utilising local wisdom for the development of rural communities pointed that Thai people are not proud of themselves and thoroughly favour foreign goods. and the new world power. are in summary ‘things from other places’. once expressed his worries over the changing life styles of the Thais. Modernity also incarnates different designations as being farang. Modernity and ‘otherness’ apparently stand on the opposite side to ‘oldness’. He thought that Thai people are now embracing wholeheartedly the eating and living habits of farang. language and education. They have been well incorporated into despite being extremely alienated from the existing cultures of Thailand. who had long studied and lived in the U. since Thailand started to open herself to the West in Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.CHAPTER 9. the Thai term for foreigners which mostly refers to Euro-American nationals. France. medical technology. things from ‘outside’ or overseas. ‘Being Thai’on the contrary is considered old fashioned and outdated. and even sometimes look down on them. In the realm of visual arts. science.S. The entertainment industry and other related circles all go after luk khrueng (people born of cross-national parents. Most suburban residential villages have English names so as to fit their Euro-American architectural presence. traditional values and customs. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 263 . Young people hardly learn old Thai values and wisdom. The particular styles and features of art in each period throughout the course of Thai history emerged from the assimilation of different external influences and indigenous characteristics. Western Modernity and Modernism. In the Thai context. a famous columnist of Thai Rath Newspaper and former director of TV Channel 9. modernism releases artists from the restraint of the realistic copy of nature. half Euro-American). particularly European countries such as England. Anything which looks appealingly Thai is totally outdated. Since Siam [the name usually referred to this territory before the official change to Thailand after 1939]. and khong nok.104 The manifestations of Thai modernity may differ from that of the original models belonging to the West. It could be fairly described that the difference of ‘Western Civilisation’ and ‘Thainess’ lies in the differentiation of ‘being modern’ and ‘not being modern’. the United States of America. Beautiful solid Thai faces are absolutely out. Art and culture of the past Kingdoms in Thailand were originally built up in the form of importing and borrowing from other civilizations. when speaking in regard to the notions conceived in the late 19th and early 20th century which were principally associated with industrial and scientific revolutions. Western Civilisation which catered to broad areas of new knowledge including arts and culture. especially. Bangkok) with John Clark 1. one must speak Thai with a combination of English words. the denotation of antiquity. some of which are occasionally embraced in the name of ‘being Thai’. Wibul Khemchalerm. and questions the rigid practices of academic art and functions of the established art institutions. which is relatively new and modern. the foundation of ‘modernity’ has always been deeply associated with ‘otherness’. ‘Year of Thai Culture’ in 1994. During the seminar ‘Is Thai Culture in Crisis?’ held in conjunction with the commence of the government campaign. To be trendy.A. fully opened its doors to Western influences in the reign of King Rama IV [1851-68]. Introduction In Thailand.2c Thai Modernity – Modernity in Thailand Luckana Kunavichaiyanont (independent curator. and was regarded as a specialist in American language and culture. mainly half Thai. the most prominent ‘otherness’ to the nation of the Thais is ‘Western Civilisation’. Italy. Germany. which includes items shipped from countries in the West.

This concept is destructive as it praises greedy desire. Constitution Fairs (1937. royal palaces and temples. paintings in impressionistic style and realistic portraiture still largely appeal as modern art to many Thais who are more familiar with Thai traditional painting.1 The Representation of Modernity Before the national was changed from an absolute monarchy to democratic rule in 1932. was established in 1910. while that of foreign people is to get. This new norms [of the foreigners] create human inferiority. civil government and its branches of administrations had became the representatives of modernity. the King and his court had also taken the leading role in introducing and initiating new ideas and developments. the Victory Monument (1941) and the art-deco styled buildings along Rachadamnoen Avenue (completed in 1948). However. In the case of King Chulalongkorn. Among the monuments and major cultural events were the Suranaree Monument (1935) and Democracy Monument (1939). since the period of King Chulalongkorn. whose period witnessed the most aggressive development of Western thought and practice in all areas. Chulalongkorn University. The growth of modern education which started to take its form since the reign of King Chulalongkorn had given rise to the increasing power of the middle class. Even at present. Prince Phra Pinklao. The Thai Kings and their courtiers who ruled the national from the 19th to early 20th century were the modern Siamese who had truly led Siam to become a modernizing state. 1939) which featured competitions of modern paintings.’105 1. before being vigorously adopted by the social elite. It was clearly evident in their new political and cultural policy which fostered the massive construction of national monuments. sculptures and photographs. For example. They had extensively adopted the modern ideas of the West and used them as model for the national’s development. reigned 1851-1868] and King Chulalongkorn [King Rama V. originating from the courts. He gained his education in English and Western knowledge through English-speaking teachers brought in by King Mongkut to teach all princes and princesses in the palace. King Mongkut [King Rama IV. reigned 1868-1910]. In addition. Among the significant figures were Prince Borom Maha Srisuriyawongsa. the horse drawn carriage in the reign of King Rama IV was a representation of modernity at the time. the statue of King Rama VI at the front of Lumpini Park (1941). high-ranking officials and political leaders from both central and provincial governmental levels down to commoners. In 1933. mainly sculptured in realistic style (considered to be very modern in Thailand). modernity in Thailand may not be something new and may even regarded as old in the West. They played the leading role in the national's change and development and served as an official patron of arts. crown princes who were potential heirs to the throne were all sent to study abroad. the pride of Thai people lay in their will to give. On the difference of being Thai and farang Praves Wasi once noted that ‘in the past. we praised those who gave to others. These individuals had exposed themselves to and favourably made contacts with Western people and their culture. Prior to the present. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. if we credit the ‘Bowring Treaty’ made between Siam and England in 1855 as the starting point. since those other painting styles are new and different to what they are used to seeing. The execution of perspective painting in various temples by Master Painter Khrua In Khong under the same monarchy was also considered very modern to the period. the King himself had never received education in the West. and mostly in European countries After the 1932 overthrow of the absolute monarchy. Nevertheless.the 19th century. Thammasat University was set up as a centre for the study of political science and law. Thai monarchs had served as the principal patron for the preservation. creation and promotion of arts and culture. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 264 . the first institution which offered a tertiary level of education. and the newness or the foreign modernity. there are many traces of clashes and of the uncompromising coexistence of the oldness or Thainess. It has been in fact for over 147 years that Thailand has maintained diplomatic relations with Western countries.

and resulted in the economic and infrastructure development which lacked a firm basis in knowledge and in the understanding of historical and cultural background of the national.106 The above factors have clearly contributed to the rapid increase and expansion of private enterprises and national economics gross. an NGO whose mission is to encourage new thinking towards social development of Thailand by means of organizing various activities and publishing journals. The population in Bangkok had sprang up from a million in 1947 to over two million in 1960 and has greatly increased every year ever since then. Industrial factories replaced gardens and rice fields in Bangkok and its outskirts. They were welcomed back by the government as co-builders of the national’s development at the end of 1970s. This led to the increasing strength of the private sector both in terms of capital and professionalism. Instead it had became the spokesmen of primitiveness. instead of using military force as undertaken by former leaders. Cars became the main vehicle of transportation. He went on to state that Thailand. contributed greatly towards the developing steps of the national’s democracy. the alleged communists and the government. The growing numbers of intellectuals.91].These institutions turned students from working class and rural families into the national's intellectuals and middle-classed citizens within a brief period. Nonetheless. resulting in continuing fights between the revolutionaries. The establishment of Sapha Phat and this one-dimensional development direction were modeled after that of the U. especially Bangkok. Canals were filled up to make more roads. The national’s development priority was set on industrialisation. had led to the political uprising in 1973 when totalitarian military government was overthrown by pro-democracy university students and ordinary people. The implementation was obviously undertaken from top to bottom and completely centralised and monitored by the National Economic and Social Development Board [abbreviated in Thai as Sapha Phat] in correlation with the new Investment Support Bill. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The growing numbers of educated people and intellectuals and demands for a modernising state. which was set to represent the modernisation of Thailand and stand as model for other urban developments. who has obviously replaced the state as the leader of modernisation. resulting in the return of university students and people who had left the capital to join the Communist Party in the forests during 1975–1980. The Communist Party of Thailand was finally obliterated. the democratic movements were massively and severely cracked down on in 1976. had undergone drastic change after the endorsement of the Investment Support Bill. The totalitarian military government and technocrats under the dictatorship of Gen Sarit Thanarat endorsed the Plan. The political upheavals in 1973 and 1976 as well as series of successful and unsuccessful military coup attempts reflected the failure of the State and its governing structure in both military and civil domains. that the fast and aggressive modernisation in Thailand during the 1960s was a direct result of the implementation of the 1st Economic and Social Development Plan since 1961. In 1989.S. and 30% of them were non-registered residents from the rest of the national. middle class people and the private sectors resulted in a challenge to the previous centers of power such as the military and a shifting of the role of leading progress and modernity away from the Government and its agencies. The modification of Bangkok. has according to Chaiwat become only a second-class ‘foreign’ city. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 265 . The political stability established during the government of Gen Prem Tinnasulanonda which lasted for over eight years. elaborates in one of his articles. It intricately indicated the State and government authorities’ power decline and failure to maintain as the representative body of modernity. Chaiwat Thiraphandhu of Bangkok Forum. The city greatly expanded. It had laid solid foundation for the forceful economic boom during the short period of the succeeding government of Gen Chatichai Choonhavan [1990 . The political tension gradually lessened when the government under the leadership of General Prem Tinnasulanonda [1980-1988] adopted political methods in dealing with the circumstances. it was estimated that there were six million people living in Bangkok.

These individuals criticised all governments during the period as wholeheartedly adopted Western economic and political theories and putting them into practice without appropriating them to suit the local needs and situations. These governments were chronologically under the leadership of Chuan Leekpai [1994-95]. lies in the strong professional development of commercial and finance sectors as well as the embrace of globalisation which has provided more opportunities for Thailand to build extensive diplomatic and commercial ties with other nations. mobile phones and faxes. The policy in question was traced back to its initiation under the military Government of Gen Sarit Thanarat [1959-63] when Thailand had to pay high price through destruction of various traditional arts and customs as well as natural resources. In the area of the economy. As a result. economic practice with Buddhism thinking. the economic growth rate was still reportedly extremely high. especially the military establishment which used to be the center of Thai power. This democratised political maturity had led to people’s demands for new constitution drafted by people’s representatives in 1997. It showed that the rising power of the middle class from all professions. As series of new reforming ideas and theories had been proposed such as the return to grass roots. were finally brought to an end when the people rose up to overthrow the absolute military government in 1992. academics.Although the pro-democracy movement may have ceased to develop after the military coup attempts known as Ror Sor Chor Revolution in 1991. The demonstration against the military government took place in Bangkok and major cities throughout Thailand.Chatichai Choonhavan [1988-91]. The economic growth and incomes figure did not represent real economic stability and finally led to the national’s biggest economic recession after the currency crash of 1997. Most importantly. or CNN’s satellite news via the cable TV network had been alternative channels for information dissemination. was liberal and progressive. stocks and property markets. although the boom during the government of Gen Chatichai Choonhavan may have stumbled briefly after the coup in 1991 and bloody political riots in 1992. and the new power which was a liberal movement of middle class people. the clash between old power which operated under the name of the State and government agencies. It was evident that the people formed their own information network through the wide uses of pagers. Period films like Song See Khao Khao Anthapaan Krongmuang (Daeng Bailey) and Naang Naak both directed by Nonsri Nimibutra have become blockbusters and also won several local awards. in distributing news during the demonstrations and the government’s violent crack-down. the state and its government could no longer withstand the increasing role of the middle class. Thai politics had thus further developed towards the pro-democracy movement. or theory of economic self-sufficiency. down to the period of the leadership of Gen. Real-time reports through mobile phones. which had stressed turning Thailand into the new Asian economic tiger. business employees. the NGOs who represented modernity. which were democratically selected by the people. Banharn Silpa-archa [1995-96]. They had more advanced communication technology which became the tool used to challenge state power. The constitution. whereas the State controlled and distorted reports on local radio and TV channels. Wisit Sasanathieng (scriptwriter of the two Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. has been officially in use from 2001. The ‘newness’ of modern Thailand during late 1980s to mid 1990s had then been challenged by the ‘oldness’ which manifested itself in the form of regionalism and Thainess. the growth was actually driven by frauds and bribery in banking. as has usually been done in all previous coups attempts. The major factor which has contributed to this fastest ever growth in the history of Thailand. Chavalit Yongchaiyuth [1996-97]. The power and modern authority of the state were crucially challenged. Since 1992. the search and preservation of local wisdom. alternative ways to Western thinking for the sustaining of national development. which has tended to focus on modernisation. Thailand has had civil governments. medical doctors. which took over four years to complete. The economic crisis has raised questions among academics. and Gen. In 2000. social leaders and NGOs officers regarding the national’s development policy. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 266 . Such trend is apparent in local film industry that has started to regain its popularity with the emergence of young new directors in late 1990s.

Chomrom Oomchoo Thai Isaan [Thai – Isaan Nourishing Group]. a leading NGO for the development of community cultural activities in big cities proposes Palang Tuan Krasae109 [Countercurrent forces]. etc. the subsistence economy has then been re-invoked in the current of postmodern thinking. forecasting a recession in 1997 and acutely proposed various solutions. They want the same camera view and to bomb 50 cars. They are all overwhelmed by its influence. We left everything at the corner of the room… [I] have tried to bring it back. My question is how we could modify it to suit the present situation. Moolnithi Yaadphon [Yaadphon Foundation].’110 Chaiwat pointed that Thai farmers and villagers have created their own network as means of selfreliance. I felt that the transitioning period is missing. This so-called Palang Tuan Krasae is the only force to introduce an alternative paradigm and direction to the society. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 267 . Once Thai films had started to possess its own style but then this ceased. Among notable groups are Klum Hak Muang Nan [Love Nan Province Group]. a challenging theory to modernism under the authority of Thai elite.films mentioned) wrote and directed Faa Thalaichoan (Tears of the Black Tiger) with the strategic use of the old-fashioned that overrides coolness. Film producers think similarly. film makers most want to make Hollywood films. after the outbreak of a biggest ever recession in Thailand. During an interview he revealed that ‘I wanted to introduce Thainess through my work. They have just tried to maintain power in their hands. We left it to imitate foreign films. Klum E-toh Noi [E-toh Group]. I went back to study old Thai films and started from there. Samakhom Fuenfoo Chonnabot Songkhlaa [Rural Revival Association of Songkhla Province]. Chaiwat remarked on the direction of national development. That job may not necessarily contribute to economic growth but to social fulfillment. We’ll never win. It’s not our battle… My way is to find a wooden stick and be sharp at one shot. If we fight with Hollywood films. Thai society is an agricultural society that used to depend on this system.’107 He further commented on the struggle of Thai films in the midst of Hollywood films dominance. The question is how the majority of the people who live in rural areas could possibly adapt this ‘postmodern’ or ‘post industrialised’ concept in Thai society. Klum Ormsap Kiriwong [Kiriwong Savings Group]. we must do it their way. ‘Now everyone realises that linear economic growth is impossible in the present world.114 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It makes me think of the way of the past. which has been swept away under the current of new scientific and technological thinking. There are conflicts in Thai society in many respects. It could be the style. They bomb a hundred cars at one time while we can only do two. He stated ‘Technocrat businessmen and politicians have all set out their objectives towards the national development at becoming a modern state.111 He suggested that ‘If we employ post-modern ideas and theory of chaos which recognise the coexistence of differences and pluralities under efficient and updated management. They have machine guns when we are armed with wooden sticks.113 The ‘subsistence economy’ that Chaiwat mentioned in 1993 is the ideological key to King Bhumibhol’s ‘self-sufficient economy’ suggestion which was delivered in a live nation-wide broadcast of the King’s speech on the occasion of his birthday in December 1997. philosophy or whatever that has Thai features. forest and natural resource preservation. They have been chasing industrialised developing countries…but they have never undertaken any social and political reforms to be modern as the leading Western European industrial societies have. of the subsistence economy. society of Siam will thus be able to make it through the present crisis. ‘In fact. ‘(we) might have to provide a new job definition.112 This tendency to fight ‘newness’ with ‘oldness’ and proposal of Buddhist economy and selfsufficient economy has been highly echoed in academic world in the past decade. We could imagine that rural organisations that continue using local wisdoms in solving community problems use information technique to create their networks and possibilities to merge old agricultural system and high technology. an academic and founder of Bangkok Forum.’108 Chaiwat Thiraphantu. During his lecture ‘Chaos Theory and the Future Path of Thai Society’ in 1993.

Red signifies the nation. This is necessary because Bangkok is likely to become a socio-economic and political subsidiary of New York.R. proposes that Thai society needs to be well-balanced. It significantly serves as the core of the society as the constitution does in the U. (Kanarat. Blue Nation. social relations and social norms? The self-sufficient economy succeeds in old rural communities…. challenge and examine the state’s policy and practices. belief in which is now declining’. At least. it has been so changed over different periods that it has loosened its basic principles. For example. hitherto believed to be custodians of the forest. The only solid and stable institution in Thai society is the monarchy. Villagers from several districts have more advanced thoughts than the state. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 268 . National Ideology 2. social attitudes. The problem is whether villagers are able to adapt to change. This new understanding will consequently be incorporated into formal learning education. the villagers of Thung Yao request a local forest law to protect the forest as a replacement to phii (spirits).116 Likewise. Nithi meant that the belief that constitution is the supreme law is purely Western that has no relations to Thai culture.118 2. Tokyo and London. the royal monarchy.Wibul Khemchalerm. These features are symbolised by the national flag the Thong Tri-rong which features bands of three colours.120 This implied the failure of Thai constitutional system.S. Only under such circumstances will Thai culture be validated and proudly represented in world forumsz. What should the community do? How could they resist the coming of foreign investment that threatens to destroy four cultural aspects: ideology. was a political grouping which consisted of progressive civil and military officers) added the Constitution as the fourth ideological support.117 Although these academic movements may not produce substantial change in the national direction towards Western modernisation. Tongnoi Tongyai’s statement123 that ‘the constitution is a mere document that has no life in it.’115 While Praves Wasi has proposed the initiation of research on history and culture of each province so that they would not be mismanaged as Bangkok’s subsidiaries. People should learn and always be updated about the world’s trends and new technology and be able to adjust and assimilate these new features with what existed before they arrive at suitable formulas for the national development. the house of the people.119 After the overthrow of the absolute monarchy by Kanarat in 1932. White.1 The Symbolic Red. As Nithi Eiewsriwong from Chiangmai University pointed in his 1999 lecture ‘Miti thang manusaya vidhaya nai yuksethakit-porpieng’ [The anthropological dimension in a self-sufficient economic age]: ‘In the age of globalisation and global trade that has been forced by world economic leaders.122 former student leader of the October 1976 student political uprising cited M. there were Thai people (especially intellectuals) who were not fully receptive to the idea of modernisation without examination and criticism.121 Thongchai Winichakul.’124 He commented further that ‘the constitution has a foreign face and originated from the West. a head of a rural village stated on the revival of local wisdom that ‘If there’s not much of a problem we should step back to prepare for solid ground. a highly respectable academic in education. white symbolises religion [mainly Buddhism] and blue. but this was discarded after the coup in 1947. the Thong Chang Puek. the state has almost had no control in the protection of the self-sufficient economy. religion and royal monarchy have been three pillars of national ideology set out since the reign of King Rama VI (reigned 1910-1925). Once the people develop their appreciation and pride in their own locality’s valuable history and culture. might be deemed to show the backwardness of Siam. In addition. they will try to preserve and learn about them. King Rama VI thought that the former flag which had displayed an elephant in the middle. It is a foreign seed planted in Thai culture that resulting in diverse international trees according to Thai Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. it has posed alternative ways and forces which continue to question. Akavit Na Thalang..

’128 A single person or Thai people as individuals who are from diverse origins. Social leaders and country rulers of different periods have all stressed on the significant of national ideology and patriotism in different degrees. croons in a recent Chang Beer promotion song. may be simple questions that are difficult to find answers for. 1976 and 1992. The most strikingly famous are Europeans who croon Thai country songs without an accent. most of the community members we are conceiving about are those we do not know. right or left wing parties. will never get to know nor learn anything. democrats. have never been recognised on the level of official or national ideology. this inbred constitution has never been truly part of Thai culture such that it has been incorporated into national ideology. She is a club singer and recently released her album which features the nationalist song Kha khu khon Thai [I am a Thai]. but we believe that they exist and are members of the same community. which has become a key force of the national development. Examination of the question of nationality in literary circles can be traced back to the time of King Rama VI (reigned 1910-1926). Their albums have been well received by the Thais. Nithi quoted Anderson in one of his article to the effect that ‘National ideology and nationalism is a cultural invention. ror the evolutionaries of historical political upheavals of 1973. An excerpt from Nai Busaya’s poem Niras Sampeng [Depart from Sampeng] says: Thais and Chinks crowd small alleys.129 Thus. banging one another chaotically. However. the questions that who are Thai people. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The famous Thai musician.126 2. kanarat. who are considered as being Thai or who are the real Thai. social elite. government leaders.climate. coup leaders. These singers are Chinese. Thai country song singers who look ‘Thai’ and are sole representatives of original Thais who have recently been challenged by non-Thai singers who ask for market share. some academics suggest that perhaps the answer lies in the character of Cheon Cheon Bunsoong-neoarn.’ He further cited Anderson’s elaboration on the statement: ‘When we think about the people living in the same community called nation. before giving an answer to his own question that ‘those who have naam jai [generosity] are surely Thais’. This national built ideology has been examined by leading Thai intellectuals. established national ideology has always been associated with nationality and national characteristics. Indians and Europeans. Cheon Cheon is a Chinese name. police. they have often been cited to represent the integrity of the nation. are blond and blue-eyed. whose views are commonly based on the national ideology theory of Benedict Anderson in author of Imagined Communities127. We’ll never know whether they exist in reality. the Swedish Jonas and Christie Gibson. a nation is only so in the imagination. As to the question of who the real Thais are. Kasien Techapeera and Thongchai Winijakul. be they were from the royal family. The national ideology has apparently been associated with the construction of patriotism. Nithi Eiewsriwong. Add Carabao. Cheon Cheon is a male transvestite. while Bunsoong-neoarn suggests an Isaan [Northeast Thailand] origin. ‘Whether the characteristics may exist in reality or the imaginary. government officials. ‘how are we to know which one is Thai?’.130 This reflects a broad definition of khon Thai (people) and the insubstantiality of criteria to assess it.2 Thai Nationality and Identity The state’s national ideology does not recognise ‘people’ as individuals but as parts of the nation. their moving makes one unable to detect. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 269 .125 However. military. Therefore. Difficult to differentiate the Thais from the Chinks.

Kasien Techapeera who seen himself as ‘a descendant of migrated Chinese’ said that his national patriotism was aggressively provoked when he met with mainland Chinese who kept talking on the greatness of China. October 14. to create a puzzled and conversing nationality Kasien Techapeera from Thammasat University cited the poem to question the distinction between the Thais and Chinese living in Siam.? How different is it to being Thai?’. Kularp Saipradit. Only such physical change ‘…made it unable to differentiate the Thais from the Chinese.133 He cited Jiang Pai Chao. Asanee Polachant. and of May 1992. Kochlin’s The Two Nationalities of Chinese Immigrants in Thailand of the1960s and William Skinner’s Chinese Society in Thailand: An Analytical History published in 1957. ‘Firstly. a Chinese Thai has discovered is ‘…the ‘Thai quality’ that we witness in the national significant revolutionaries who were never tied down by the suppression of greater powers but dared to fight for changes. Chinese immigrant descendants become Thai. ‘Can anyone deny that all these fighters against totalitarianism were not Thais?’132 Kasien commented that it is a failure to conclude that problems and conflicts in Thai society resulted from the circumstances of ‘being Thai vs being Chinese’. 1973. they realise that they are not Chinese the way they used to think. However. It is an ‘incorrect term’ that has been used to conceal problems connected to relations between the government and private enterprise. although Chinese immigrants were forced to cut off their pigtails and the decision to become either Thai or Chinese citizens was less imposed. Jakraphan Amaraj. That quality has been passed down through generations as evidenced in the historic political upheavals of Kana Kokmeng. they probably find that they are more Thai than they thought they were. Talad Noi. to join Chinese society and remain wholeheartedly Chinese or to assert themselves into Thai society and became huang nang [Swatow Chinese dialect used by Chinese immigrants in Thailand for Thais]. Bangrak. Jira Bunmak. Charupong Thongsin. It is the ‘Thainess’ which can touch by their hearts. especially on the phenomenon of the Chinese abandonment of customary pigtail-wearing. Rachawong. more Chinese are settled in Thailand and there were less Chinese speaking people in Thailand. the origin of all conflicts. Even more so.131 Many half Thai – half Chinese or half-farang in Thailand may think that they are different from other Thais. Such a multi-functioning process. 1976. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 270 . Songwad. we must have clearer views of the revolution in bourgeois culture. Chinese cut off their pigtails. etc. when they travel or live abroad for some time . Chine tang dao [non-registered Chinese immigrant] are getting old. the ‘Thainess’ shown by Tienwan.’134 Jiang Pai Chao remarked that the illusion of ‘Chinese communities living in total dissociation from the Thais’ was created in writings such as those of Richard J. What is the essence of ‘being Chinese’ in Siam in the localities of Sampeng. Sahai-charnchai. Skinner further noted that the other alternative for Chinese descendants had yet to be found. This is evident in four changing aspects. a Chinese economic consultant of Bangkok Bank that ‘In fact.Modernity confuses the localities. no ethnic groups in Thailand have totally been dissociated from Thai society nor any Chinese communities have been living in complete separation from the Thais… ‘Chinese community in Thailand’ is a true illusion. Chinese-origin residents were left with the same options. October 6. Yaowarat. It was too easy to blame on cultural differences between the Thais and Chinese. Jitr Bhumisak. Jiang Pai Chao pointed that Skinner concluded that during the end of Phibunsongkhram’s government. The ‘Thainess’ that Kasien.as in most half Thai–half Chinese cases who think that they are more Chinese than Thai when having experience of the original Chinese traditions and culture in China. that of the chance to construct societies that homogeneously blend Chinese and Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Charoenkrung.

Chinese descendants residing in Thailand who wanted to live in peace and succeeded in their business had to try hard to adapt to Thai culture. due to the political situation prior to Siam in 1939 were likely to be forced to choose between Chinese or Thai citizenship. Indian and Thai audiences. They have implemented it in formal education system. It was located in a small road connecting Charoenkrung and Yaowaraj roads in the heart of China Town… It was Texas Movie House which has now become a Suki Yaki restaurant. though it does not and will not exist. Such people. Her broken Thai speech had also appealed as charming to many Thais. which will enhance the unity of Thai culture.S. especially in the entertainment business. the name of a state in the U. ‘However. It virtually exists by force’.’136 The only sathaban [institution. ‘It sprang up from the nourishment of Kok Min Tang [Guomindang] and Thai nationalist policies at one time. lie individual attempts at looking or acting in a non-Thai way which are a factor guaranteeing their success. The old assumption that Chinese immigrants and descendants in Thailand. Porntip may not look Caucasian but being brought up in America had clearly distinguished her from other Thai contestants with regard to her modern attitude and English fluency. All lyrics were dubbed in Thai. The Thailand beauty pageant reached its high time in XXXX when Pornthip Nakhirankanok. like the chameleon. unlike the nonpreferred off-Central Thai accent of the Northeast or upcountry Thais.’ In the view of Kasien. A place that featured entertainment from India for Chinese. Nithi Eiewsriwong concluded that ‘there have never been such integrity. We’ll never get to sense the real ‘Chineseness’ that existing in Thailand. On the contrary side of Thai society. they have tended to turn blind eyes on diverse cultures of different regions of Thailand. was selected as Nang Sao Thai (Miss Thailand) before she went off to take the crown of Miss Universe that same year. change their colour to suit their surroundings. the self-entitled leaders of ‘Modern Thought’ the demagogues and journalists of Bangkok…We can not accept those who call themselves ‘Chino-Siamese’ as genuine Siamese. that they have never fused with any Thai features is ‘merely illusive and invented to deceive themselves and others. During the past two decades. but when they go among the Chinese they become Chinese. In other occasions.‘One is either a Chinaman or Siamese. ‘Power leaders have laid a mixture of royal and urban cultures as foundation of national culture. mass communications and other funding activities. which seems to promote the ideas of nationalism.’139 In the past century. based on the assumption that Chinese and Thais have never mixed. no one could be both at the same time. On the contrary.’138 Thai society has many aspects of identity conflicts. and people who pretend that they are so are apt to be found to be neither. institute] which Kasien Techapeera viewed as offering diversity of the many cultures of Thailand was ‘a leisure place that had a foreign title. Kasien elaborated Skinner’s conclusion as in line with the early Siamese patriotic conception as it had been stated in an issue of Siam Observer: . the import of Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It does not exist and will never be possible in Thailand. In the circumstances. kwaam pen uean – mai pen tha’ [being other – and not being Thai] becomes a factor leading to success. when they come among us they are Siamese. At particular times and places kwaam pen thai – mai pen uean [being Thai – and not being other] is considered necessary for some Thais. that ‘there was no middle path for an expression of their identities…but being marginalised on the rim of the two societies is unusual. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 271 Thai cultures. a Thai-born person who was living in the U. After that. the belief that Chinese in Thailand have purely retained their ‘Chineseness’.S.’137 Kasien sees that there is an ideology of kwaam pen chine [‘Chineseness’] which has never really existed in Thailand. These latter are usually the ‘politicians’ among the Chino-Siamese community. this does not suggest that such an imagine identity has no impact on our culture. Therefore. those who were born luk khrueng [half-Thai half-farang] have been widely recruited. this imaginary ‘Chineseness’ is densely in the air.’135 This abstraction obviously emphasized on the integrity of the Thai nation through discrimination of nationality. blocking our eyes and ears unless a blow is made to dust it all away. while many of them also owe their allegiance to some European power.

’142 To many Thais. ‘I look more like a luk khrueng. Apparently. a genuine Thai look (without anything ‘half’) has become an obstacle in making a fortune in big city like Bangkok. Thus. half-American. I’m proud to be Thai. ‘We should put more emphasis on developing real Thai talent. Tata seemed to think that the suggestion is unfair. It could be said that their unique identity and glamour come from being a mixture of Thai and foreign cultures.’141 Willy McIntosh. was willing to pay a lam sum of money to have nose and breast plastic surgery.’144 2. This had been attended by many journalists but there were no published reports of his speech. Sivalaks [Sivaraksa]. an outspoken intellectual who has often criticised the Thai monarchy which is an institution customarily exempted from public criticism. To the standard of most Thais. That is. their English is much better than their Thai.half American. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 272 . such contestants they can now also be considered Thais.’143 It is obvious that both Thai and Western taste in beauty do not always run in parallel. a renowned actor and emcee. it scares me. Lek. that most Thai beauty pageants have become more friendly to luk khrueng participants. religion and politics in Thailand are not as violent as those occurring in other Asian countries such as Indonesia and Cambodia.3 Royal Monarchy in Modern Time S. The new image of an urban girl (not from countryside) is more salable. I speak fluent Thai and I sing in Thai. The Thai tradition that I’m most proud of is disappearing. When I meet Westerners. won the title of Miss Thailand World in XXXX and represented Thailand in the Miss World Beauty Pageant. Therefore. In addition.Thai beauty contestants from overseas has become a trend. an escort of Rainbow Bar. the Thais will seek farang beauty as seen in the present craze of luk khrueng in many business areas. It was until a blue-eyes half Thai. and that luk khrueng have made it very difficult for normal Thais to compete. it is understandable that whitening skin care products have gained large profit sharing in cosmetics market.’140 The popular employment of luk khreung is considered offendsive by some from the entertainment business. they say I’m more Thai than American. and that’s more beautiful. all these exotic girls and boys look very unattractive and baan nok [upcountry]. especially of those urban middle class. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. it is not surprising to see that many Westerners who seek their summer holidays in Thailand will usually look for ‘exotic’ girl and boy companions of dark skin complexion. Although the conflicts of identity. ‘I wan born in Bangkok. Tata Young. their complexity still remains a challenging topic for discussion and dispute in Thai society at different levels. On the contrary. a famous pop music teen idol in Thailand gave an interview with Time Asia about her life and career as being half-Thai. Sirinya Vinsiri (Cynthia Carmen Burbridge) who had grown up in Thailand. who is half-Scottish and half-Thai said about his Thai quality that ‘More than anything. no-one has ever dared to review his other book titled Modern Thai Monarchy and Cultural Politics published in the same year145. Her ethnic Isaan (Northeast) flat nose had stopped her from being a sophisticated escort. Many Westerners prefer a dark complexion while most Thais who normally have dark skin will try so hard to have a whiter skin. Kwaam pen thai or kwaam pen khon thai [Thainess and being a Thai] have been actively examined and redefined by many Thais in various levels. Thongchai Winichakul proposed that: ‘Isn’t the unknown self among the qualities carried by members of a society which has gone through rapid change after other cultures? Is it valid to give an account where the unknown self is a quality of present Thais? It may be a tradition that has been passed down for many generations. stated as such in the preface of his book entitled Sathaban pramaha kasat kab anakhot khong prathet thai [The Monarchical Institution and the Future of Thailand] which was derived from a 1996 speech. When I hear that people are dyeing their hair or putting in contact lenses to look like me.’ However.

He noted that King Rama V (reigned 1868-1910) was very intelligent but had made mistakes regarding the appointment of his successor. When we speak about the monarchy. there were many product trademarks and logos displayed all along.’148 Sivalaks quoted Sir Edward Cook. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 273 . senators and councils of advisers played a significant role in countering the royal’s control. Korean or Filipino counterparts. However.’149 When Somdej Phra Pokklao succeeded the throne and became King Rama VII (reigned 19251935).He pointed that the mirage set upon the mis-led king of royal sovereignty since the period of Gen Sarit Thanarat (around 1958) has been successfully emphasised by every absolute totalitarian government thereafter. that would suit a modernising nation. especially from those who want to see the monarchy’s ability to update itself to present and changing situations. the key forces of national development who had inherited some political powers since the reign of King Rama V. Its status must be above all political encounters. businessmen or overseas entrepreneurs. You may notice that when they erected the images or signboards praising the virtue of the king. However. the American advisor and Phraya Sri Wijanwaja thought that the people were not ready. Because if he had still lived the country would face worse economic problems. it must not fall into being a utilitarian tool for politicians.D. the Kabot Ror Sor 130 [the rebellion of Ratanakosin 130. economists. ‘With respect to the principles of government there were other royal members at the time who were more competent than Samdej Phra Mongkut Klao or Somdej Phra Pokklao. After his first son and potential heir to the throne passed away.150 As to whether Thailand should continue to maintain the monarchy. The author claimed that during the reigns of King Rama II – King Rama IV.Sivalaks in reviewing the ruling authority of King Rama V thought that he did not encourage an establishment of a parliament which would have countered his power.146 Sivalaks criticised the role of the monarchy by tracing it back to the early Ratanakosin period in the 19th century.. Once King Rama V completed his political revolution which resulted in the ruling state of an absolute monarchy. It was no surprise that less than a year after he was crowned. as reporting upon the King’s passing away that ‘he exclaimed that “the King dies to save his country” ’. As revolutionaries of the epoch ror sor 130 [or the 130th year of the Ratanakosin dyanasty130. It must be an Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. I believe that the non-sensible praise many university members have offered to them have been in disregard for their own wishes. we do not stand comparison with our Burmese. we must understand that it is necessary to have this central body which may not possess power or wealth. This is because the monarchy is an institution functions as the soul of the nation with an elevated sublimity. Sivalaks commented that King Rama VII truly wished for a change but he was too weak to resist his relatives’ disagreement which stopped him from making a concrete move. they could not break the King’s vow which regarded during the ruling period of absolute monarchy as a holy command. 1912] pointed out that the people thought his successor should have been on of his other sons. he asked his American foreign affairs advisor and Phraya Sri Wijanwaja to draft a constitution for democratic rule under monarchical supervision. an English finance advisor to King Rama VI. equal to A. Sivalaks expressed a proposition during his speech at Thammasat University: ‘…we must accept that the king is human and so are his clans. that is to say. The king would welcome all criticism based on respect and without bias to the monarchy. the queen etc. In terms of ethical bravery. he announced that the next successors would only be selected from those borne from Queen Saowapaa Pongsri. He spent carelessly. We should question if this was an expression of loyalty to the monarchy. he ceased to enhance development of the democratic system that would have seen monarchy as the sovereign of the state. in 1912] took place. he always suspected his relatives. Prince Chakrabongse or Krom Luang Ratburi Direkri who had actually led the country as princes. Besides. He loved theatrical performance as if the country was his theatrical stage.’147 S. ‘…it has made those who claimed themselves to be academics hide in the shades. Indonesian. The author also severely criticised King Rama VI for having ‘ no qualifications of being a leader.

In 1957. Even thus the country was still far behind the world’s changes. The section of the law forbidding verbal insult to the monarchy should be annulled. and had seemingly fallen into the hands of Field Marshal Plaek Phibunsongkhram. In the political area. the parliament and leading scholars must work together in determining that the king would only be responsible for his role and duties in the state’s significant ceremonial events. especially during the most severe political crises. Sivalaks also quoted Elliot Kulick and Dick Wilson from their Thailand’s Turn: Profile of a Dragon that ‘The modernity of Thailand had been entwined with that of the monarchy. If we accept this as a truth. General Sarit’s praise and the restitution of power and assets to the king had damaged the royal monarchy’s stability in a long run. an independent administration. economical and military conflict. Sivalaks also thought that the operation of foundations and projects related to royal family members must be transparent and undertaken by non-royal family members. the kings were in an excellent position. General Sarit Thanarat succeeded in his coup d’état attempt. being able to settle two confronting forces. As the time when King Chulalongkorn did not comprehend Prince Prisadang’s contend that he must reduce his sovereign power to pave the way for the national change to democratic rule. He thought that the institution’s righteous force would lead the country through all turbulence. Besides the above Sivalaks suggested an opportunity for creative criticism of the monarchy should be opened up. Sivalaks saw that this had caused a long term effect on the validity of the institution. After the overthrow of the absolute monarchy in 1932. especially when Geneneral Sarit approved the Office of Royal Assets. They learned that their king was confined to Bangkok and only had the duty of attending and performing official rites. The king had even less control of the national politics. the Royal Secretariat of which was under the directorion of the government. royal monarchy will surely continue to remain the national anchor. His role had been so extended that it has become hardly visible but it is greatly functional in Thai culture. his funds and property were under control of the Office of the National Budget. the monarchy’s power and assets Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. This suggested a revision of the sacred tradition of appointing a Crown Prince as successor. before being slightly restored in the reign of King Rama VII. tradition and modernity.institution that earn respects of all people. He clipped the dominance of the monarchy’s foes and returned power and assets to the royal family. ‘Someone mixed poison in syrup. If the tradition was to be maintained.’ In his book. The monarchy must remain above all political.’152 At the end of his speech.151 Sivalaks traced the political situation from after the end of King Rama VII to the beginning of the reign of King Rama IX (the reigning monarch) around 1957. the Royal Property Bureau.’154 The Thai monarchy was at its low spirit during the reign of King Rama VI. Those who drank syrup liked its taste. ‘We will be in great danger if the fact has yet been realised. It was less even than at the beginning of the reign of King Rama V after 1868 when Somdej Phraya Maha Srisuriyawongsa had absolute control over the throne. It is apparent that other countries which lack the benefits of a monarchy have been diminished without any replacement of other equal values. ‘The monarch153 should have no privileges over any laws or cultural practices. Sivalaks thinks that the powerless state of King Rama XI at that time in the 1950s became beneficial for the institution as it earned sympathy from the subjects. It was not until the monarch’s power was challenged by military in 1932 that they could no longer control the national situation. Even the office of royal assets should be listed under the supervision of the government. future kings who were proved to have broad knowledge should be able to comment and criticise the performance of the government beyond public’s knowledge. Besides. In the early 20th century. The present-day king serves as a negotiator of conflicts in Thai society. the economy and the military. and encouraged the king and queen to make local and overseas visits as well as to build various palaces. Sivalaks made a proposition over the future of the monarchy that successor of the throne must be selected from Princes and Princesses in regard to their competence. an inherited custodian of ethics from the last century. They hardly knew that it would eventually lead to the end of their life. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 274 .

’155 The national ideology has been passed down through promotions of all state media and the education system156. Sivalaks. it emerged during the threat of Western colonialism in this region. The royal family members including King Bhumibhol and Queen Sirikit will attend the world premier screening. Suriyothai. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 275 . The Thai military has been familiar with this term since the beginning. and kob kue chaat[restore the nation]. represented in state monuments157. serving the right wing government’s policy during the late 1960s to mid 1970s.were greatly diminished before they were returned during the period of government by General Sarit Thanarat. theatre. Nonetheless. Chaat served as both a new vocabulary and a political strategy to unite people of different communities.Laos relations. a prominent cult writer and composer. It has stirred opposition from the Laotian government because the content of the film is likely to leave a negative impact on Thai . they employed this ideology to maintain their power. or how the monarchy will maintain its revered status. The pre-production news is that this film that will show the heroic victory over Laotians. are rarely raised in public dispute or publications except those expressed solidly by S. agriculture. Set in the mid-eighteenth century. In 2000 and 2001 a series of patriotic mood films have been released in Thailand. The historical film Bangrajan strongly provoked the Thai nationalistic trend when it was launched early in 2001. Theerayuth Boonmee remarked that chaat [nation] was a new word created in the reign of King Rama V. cultures and languages into sharing the same duty to protect the country from foreign invasion. or kongthap mee parakij unsaksit pue raksa chaat[the military has the holy task of protecting the nation]. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. and particularly for his active pursuit and commitment to the improvement of living qualities of his subjects. fear about for the people as in chongrak pakdi tor chaat [be loyal to the nation].4 The National Ideology After the 1932 overthrow of absolute monarchy. when they took control of political situations. 2. Suriyothai is the name of one Ayuthayan Queen who fought tirelessly along with her husband during a war with Burma. and music. The questions of how well Thai people will receive their future kings after King Bhumibhol. especially during the reign of King Rama IX (King Bhumibhol. Since the word was created as a fighting tool against ‘harms’ intruding from outside Thai territory. it features the last small Thai village to have fought bravely with Burmese troops before the total defeat of the kingdom of Ayuthaya. This is apparent in the famous slogans of Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram. ‘it had been often used with a feeling which evokes patriotic ardour. as well as arts in various related fields such as art competitions. Thus. Thanom and Prapas up to the present. These phrases have been used throughout the periods of rule by of Generals Sarit. Although there is no evidence indicating the first user of this word. the most disputable film project of the same tendency Hetkerd thee thung samrit [The History of Thung Samrit]. literature. pitak raksa chaat[try to protect the nation]. sin chaat[national loss]. and which saw Luang Wichit Watakarn. the monarchy has regained its stability and respect. However. She was killed on the back of an elephant while trying to protect her husband. …This ideology coincided with the King (Rama V)’s establishment of modern military. the biggest budget film ever made in Thai film history with production costs of about 400 million baht will be screened. Since 1957. under the leadership of heroine Thao Suranari of Korat. ‘the state’ and especially ‘the military’ were held responsible for the construction of the national ideology. science. A special lyric genre known as pleng plukjai[patriotic campaign songs] started to be produced from the period of King Rama VI down to the period of Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram in the 1920s and 1930s. pai khong chaat[threat of the nation]. it could be said that this stability awaits a vulnerable future since the Thai people are more attached to the person than the institution. reigned 1946 – present) who is highly revered by his people for his broad knowledge of arts. chuea poo-nam chaat ponpai[to save the nation. the nation will remain integral]. In August 2001. trust the leader] or chuea Phibunsongkhram chaat mai taeksalaai[trust Phibunsongkhram.

Jai Ungpakorn. and re-examining modern Thai history including the meaning of Thai nation and ideology. The phenomena of clashes between people’s desires. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 276 . between on the one hand to pen farang [to become a Wetserner]. From the end of the 1960s to 1970s. and the revival of Thai wisdom and nationalism at all social levels. state officials all said that they did not know how to stop those khon rakchaat [people who loved the nation= patriots]. the word pue chaat is being used for the benefit of the political elite rather than the people’. religion and the monarchy’. the promotion of patriotism in versions approved by the state and the military has not always operated smoothly and without being challenged by other powers. Thailand has been confronted with an identity crisis. reigned 1851-1868). ‘Rakchaat pai thammai… lerk therd’ [Why love the Nation … Give Up!]. They also alleged that these students were not Thais but Vietnamese and Chinese and that it was presumably righteous to eliminate them. he noted that during the political upheavals of October 6. Kasien Techapeera coins a term for this conflict which he called Pom nang Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. are often considered nak paen din[aliens thus are not under the responsibility of the Thai government] and deprived of their homes. Krongkarn anurak paa pue chaat [the national forest preservation project] always ended up in lands being taken away from poor people who used to live in the areas long before the project started. 1976. He criticised the state policy on nationalism which claims to always to be utilised pue chaat[for the good cause of the nation] by giving example of two incidents. to be modern. ‘Thus. Perhaps. Firstly. to ‘go inter’ or be recognisable internationally. He commented that businessmen always gained authorised approval for their activities in the forest while poor villagers. Thai society has been faced with growing psychological conflict. artists and cultural people have continually taken part in re-writing. wrote an article. Besides. by implication. there has never been a proposition that more tax be retrieved from the rich to support the poor pue chaat [for the sake of the nation]. ( I ) urge you to stop loving the nation … but the people instead. Before the outbreak of World War II. reflects the tension of conflicts that are hard to bring to a conclusion in this stage. from hurting the students and poor people living in the forests.Nevertheless.’158 In this age of globalisation. there have been ongoing rights violations of the majority upon the minority. ask yourself what you are paying respect to. pleng pue cheevit [songs for life] confronted the nationalistic tunes of the military government.1 Thai Culture amidst Thai Mo dernity Ever since Thailand fully opened its doors to Western Civilisation during the period of King Mongkut (King Rama IV. these ongoing conflicts may co-exist indefinitely. kwaam pen thai [being Thai]. and a continuing deprivation of the minority culture…However. intellectuals. Jai further proposed that ‘next time when you’re about to stand up for the national anthem. 3. which opposed the power of the military regime and the national participation in war. and on the other hand the state’s implantation of udomkarn chaat thai[Thai national ideology]. Nor have the assets of privileged people been seized and disseminated to majority of the people pue chaat [for the sake of the nation]. Secondly. Thainess and Thai Modernity 3. When the violence broke out resulting in the bloody massacre of students. a professor of political science from Chulalongkorn University who claims to be a Marxist. some government officials urged the Thai people through state TV and radio to annihilate university students since they were communists threatening to destroy unity of ‘nation. especially those who are not of Thai nationality. If the word ruk chaat [love the nation] means ‘love the political elites’. Jai Ungpakorn thought that ‘In the name of kwaam rak chaat[loving the nation=nationalism] either of the past or present. Pridi Bhanomyong had produced a nationalistic film entitled Phrachao chang puek [White Elephant King]. Nor has the state had to provide social welfare including free education and medication to all citizens pue chaat [for the sake of the nation].

The home return of urban migrant labourers during Songkran days is mainly to celebrate and to release the stress of city life through excessive drinking of alcohol and careless Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. An awareness of the significance of water resources. Thus. Athachak Satayanurak. Nithi Eiewsriwong has suggested that new traditions and social consciousness must be constructed from the reconstruction of old traditions. There have been concerns about the loss of Thai identity.wanthong (Songjai) [Wanthong Complex]. a custom of placing one’s belongings on a small krathong or leaf container and floating it in a river as a symbol of releasing bad luck and sorrow. Songkran days have become a holiday when people go sight-seeing. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 277 . Only those modern thinking people who live in distance from Thai traditions will attempt to find Thainess on a rational and conscientious basis. It no longer marks the start of a Thai New Year and the celebration of the event seems to have lost its original meaning. Songkran163 on the contrary does not hold its traditional function at present. Since Songkran holidays have become the longest holiday that city workers and construction laborers get. a demand for the abandonment of polystyrene foam in the making of krathong. The traditional merit-making and transporting of sand to temples are rarely seen in major cities. It has recently been incorporated as an act of environmental concern. the reconstruction of meaning and function of old national leaders and intellectuals are ways out for Thai society to consider traditions and values suitable to modern day’s practices. In 1994.’162 The balance of the old and the new. Those who practically live the normal Thai way have no reasons to bother searching for Thainess. Thus. As we saw above patriotic sensibility has apparently been well preserved and endorsed in the film industry. has become the new meaning of this custom. It has thus witnessed patriotic campaigns launched successively by state governments. and not as a sign of exchanging mutual concern or respect. This is evident in successive releases from different studios of period films yearning for nostalgic past and old values as well as historical films picturing the courage of Thai ancestors in battles against foreign invasions. Nithi thinks that city people have paid less attention to the old Songkran tradition and values. Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai announced the campaign of Year of Thai Culture. they all seek this opportunity to rejoice with their families upcountry. an art historian from Chiangmai University has criticised the modified function of Songkran since it coincides with the decline of rural communities.160 Such circumstances have led to a discourse about the definition of ‘Thainess’ or ‘being Thai’. like Westerners’ families get-together during Christmas Eve. which will have harmful effects on the river. to be like farang.159 It is used to explain the state of the Thais who attempt to preserve their Thainess while keeping up with modern Western ways of living. During the reign of King Rama VII (reigned 1925-1935). Attempts to create new meaning for Songkran days as family reunion days have been undertaken by city dwellers. He referred to the recovery of the custom of loy krathong by the private sector with an effective new meaning. After the biggest economic recession broke out in 1997. the government under the leadership of Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram manipulated patriotic impulses as a political strategy. A series of public campaigns urging for the purchase of local-made products and an imposition of increasing duties on imported goods have been successfully launched by the governments.164 Likewise. The custom of gentle pouring of water on the hands of parents or senior relatives as a sign of showing respect is now hardly ever performed by younger people.161 Thongchai Winijakul shrewdly commented upon the search and attempt to maintain Thai identity by the dilemma that ‘How does becoming farang clash with the position of being Thai? The group of people who mostly entreat the preservation of Thainess are those educated abroad or extensively exposed to Western ideas. loy krathong is one of the traditional ceremonies which are still functional in modern Thai society. the official announcement of Songkran Days as holidays for family reunion is only a superficial reaction to the phenomenon of rural depopulation. cultural hybridisation and distortion of old values amidst the national modernising progress. drink and celebrate by throwing water to each other for fun. patriotism has been utilised as a proper device to fight the recession. Loy krathong.

telephones. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 278 . Thai classical dances which hardly attract a local audience only survive in hotels and places of tourist attraction.’166 3.splashing of water. There was no such socio-political development implanted in Thailand at the time of Rama V’s remodelling of Bangkok. Bangkok has since lost its original canal-city structure. They are fragmented into smaller segments in order to entertain short-time visitors. computers and other knowledge tools.2. These performances have lost their sacred and spiritual meaning. However. instead of further research into the validation of traditional medicine. their administrative offices and some private companies have employed to preserve the considerable value of Thai customs.165 One obvious method which governments. Thus.2 Giving New Definitions As discussed above Thai people tried to maintain their identity during the process of modernisation by redefining the meaning and function of old culture so as to fit the rapid social change. The foundations of human rights. constitutional rule. There were several other aspects of destructive imposition of the ‘new’ instead of revision of the ‘old’. the development of 19th century European cities resulted in many respects from political revolution. The social change and economic tension of modern Thais combined with the decline of family relations in rural communities has turned the Songkran event into a Brazilian Carnival where poor people celebrate and express themselves to the extreme.2. 3. Much interest was put on the relationship and management of public and private spaces for the benefits of the residents. humanity and equality laid during the times of the European revolutions are clearly reflected in the urban planning and of architecture of European cities.167 3. The new modernised city of Thailand was thus a mere copy of physical presence of European cities. Bangkok completely lost its cultural roots as a city on water linked by canals since the time of General Sarit’s Government from the late 1950s when the building of roads over canals and development of automobile transportation was applied after the model of American cities. and did not stem from its inner societal relationships. attempts to maintain old customs and traditions would only make them become another ‘Disney playground for tourists. democracy. This is for example seen in the replacement of Thai traditional medical care by Western medical treatment. Chaiwat Thirapandhu criticised the copying of Western Development with which King Rama V had created the city of Bangkok after the European model. The damaged modification of old customs for the purpose of stimulating tourism which were undertaken by government agencies have created a cultural crisis. televisions. national development since the reign of King Rama IV has run parallel with the importation of Western culture. it was necessary that the society became democratic and be governed by law under the efficient and strict implementation of urban planning. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. With respect to urban development. lost old customs and culture have been dusted off and reinvented for sale.2 The tendency of ‘internationalisation’ and the construction of modernity As mentioned earlier. such as trains. New processes and technology which had never existed in the country were introduced into Siam. Every province must have their own unique goods and culture for display. There have been both successes and failures in this since the whole process involved social forces which were hardly integrated in Thai society. Athachak notes that Songkran festival in Chiangmai province where the whole town celebrates for over a week may become the centre for self-release of the Thais. Nithi Eiewsriwong pointed out that unless new substantial meanings were adopted. For example. Subsequently. Thus.1 Replacement The introduction of new things indicated that national leaders’ views that some existing things were old-fashioned and no longer valid. is to make them saleable to both local people and foreign visitors.

Besides. Many business companies that used to have Thai names seek their future fortune by adopting new English names. which has re-named itself ‘MBK’ to coincide with its renovation since the start of the new millenium. if not often an inner. rather than use the Thai pronunciation of the Thai word. which was labeled only in English. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 279 .3. Such expressions elevates their status above others who can only speak and write Thai. the word which formerly described dancing companions to singers on stage is now transposed to ‘dancers’. The names for new generations are for example. The latest government’s largest Thaiindustrial-export promotion fair. Lek (small). Some country singers now acquire English names. Their artists are mostly presented in the English language on album covers. in 1939 Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram changed the name of the country from Siam to a more viable English word. and such popular phrases are regularly advertised on street billboards.2. similar to general temple fairs. In the Thai country-music world that used to represent Thai country life. Major department stores have competed fiercely during economic recession. It is not surprising to learn that at present Thais prefer to give short names168 to their children based on English derivatives. This concern with external physicality started long ago in the time of King Rama VI. from food to household items. almost half of the space was dominated by arrays of small booths selling various stuffs. filled with sincerity and naiveté. During June – July 2001. Frank. It is an age of suay dauy paet. using all strategies to draw customers. Prathet Thai. a tricouleur of blue. concert titles. As we saw above in section 2. known as BOI 2000 hardly presented innovative technology and inventions. Magazines. John. Thai Farmers Bank. For Thais the modern standard prefers non-Thai faces. Thanakarn Kasikorn Thai. as discussed above. The music tournaments usually termed as dern sai are now noted as ‘tour concerts’. and in media coverage. in magazines and newspapers. For example. Thus. An obvious example is the giant Thai-owned shopping complex in Bangkok. like Mike Piromporn. now addresses itself on its publications and other announcements as TFB. Maa Boon Khrong. Naturally flat noses are commonly replaced by pointing ones. the short Thai term for international. Mark. It was claimed to have more international appeal than the while elephant. he changed the Siamese flag from a red flag with a white elephant in the middle into the Thong Tri-rong. Daeng (red). TV and radio programmes that aim for upper niche markets have all adopted English names with columns titled in English. ‘Proud to be Thai’. Many of their most convincing campaigns encouraged customers to buy Thai products. Young generation people speak and write Thai mixed with English. half-luk khrueng these days always attract more audience and media attention. hardly resists this trend of going inter. It makes them sound and look professional. beauty by the doctor’s knife. resemblance to the farang as the goal. Central Department Store held big promotion of Thai products under the theme. Haang khrueng. Though its new metallic aluminum wrap exterior may project the concept of the new age perfectly. Music companies are truly the trend makers these days. Also. It is cool and modern. its interior space still accommodates a massive tenant mix. Plastic surgeons have become overloaded with the work of transforming Western beauty onto Thai faces. most obviously. a dark complexion is undesirable. They most likely indicate outer. half-Thai.3 Shell Renewal The most popular way of modernisation has been to make things ‘look’ modern or look inter. Likewise. ‘Thailand’. Though their stars may have simple Thai names like Kala (coconut shell) or Bua Chumpoo (pink lotus) they will be written in English. white and red. Instead. Another apparent means of being modern is through the use of English language. cosmetics labeled ‘whitening’ formula have become magical substances that make dreams come true. These names have tended to replace the simple Thai names like Joi (tiny). one among a few surviving Thai banks after the start of the economic recession in 1997. just as chaotic and spontaneous as were traditional Thai fresh-food markets. beauty through surgery or suay dauy meed mor. Pete or Pop. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Image magazine features columns like Image Club. Dam (black) or Toi (young).

Summer. no politicians has follow him in promoting traditional development and identity concerns. noted that modern people including the Thais are presently living in a state of disparity: ‘It is a far more complicated condition of life than the conflicts between good and evil or right and wrong. ‘English pub’ in its original function may refer to places that serve drinks as well as light meals and snacks. is the untold future approaching at an enormous and accelerated speed. More concerns are placed on ‘modern looks’ and the rise in status. the unlimited freedom of thought and the single reality as well as the infinite possibilities and limited choices of the new world. It rises from the conflicts which will never be resolved. DNA. art. This often occurs in the age of the new world.169 Portrait photos of those figures are no longer popular since they are rather old-fashioned. adorned with badges and medals. Brandage. or of beautiful scenic views of foreign countries. which are widely exposed in the new world. is the past.3 Modern Thais As mentioned in the section ‘Thai Culture Amidst Thai Modernity’. Thai people witnessed their leader General Prem in modern Thai silk-tailored jacket shirts on almost every occasion. Politicians. WC.’170 Thai people are living in a state of hesitation. For example. when it cannot clearly justify or measure which is more necessary. At the back. ministers. teachers and even artists embrace the international wardrobe of suit and ties despite the Thai tropical climate. Art Record in Thailand. Hi-Class. or police and government officials in full dress. pubs can be five-star restaurants with live bands or dance music which are referred to as ‘pub-theque’. Lips. Worldwide Sex. a Western names like Peter. This is unlike the display of posters of movie stars or pop singers. It was to show that these shop owners had close connections with the figures displayed or were subservient to those officers. In later decades. Motorcycle becomes ‘mo cide’. business. etc. and future. It is a desire torn between being Thai and being modern. he is pulling from below by his subconscious desires about sex. A Day. the regular sample photos shown at window display of photo shops were portraits of high ranking military officers. present. on Pom nang wanthong. Theerayuth Boonmee stated in his article ‘Roop Thaay Naa Raan Thaay Roop’ [Photos in the front of the window of the photo shop] that during 1950s–1960s. Theerayuth observes that in the past thirty years. the open-ended opportunity and the limited material world. might end up being called ‘ter’ rather than Pete. Ice. Marketeer. especially upon viewing the Western lifestyle embraced by Thai teenagers. They doubt their position in the past. Open.My Favourite. and up to date. It’s a tense life. Upon the conflicts between being modern Thai or Western. In the Thai context. Other Thai-initiative magazines in fashion. and lifestyle with English titles are GM. Other processes of ‘Thai-style’ modernisation work in the reverse direction Thais are also capable of turning foreign things into ‘Thai’ by means of shortening words and adding Thai flavours. During the time of General Prem Tinnasulanonda’s government in the early 1980s. in regard to Thais’ wish to remain both Thai and modern. To look modern and professional one must be patient with the actual climate. Simultaneously. where one can easily choose sides. It is as if one is stretched out on all sides and surrounded by the difference of others. Big grocery store chains such as Seven Eleven is often called by Thais ‘seven’ or even shorter as ‘ven’. Bite Me. This disparate state emerges when society desires two conflicting things. The process of Thai modernisation has thus undergone external transformation rather than internal reformation. More. Defy and so on. ‘The way out is no Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Theerayuth pointed out that this visual sign reflected the submissive culture of the Thais in that period. both Thai and international. Theerayuth Boonmee. 3. anxiety and so forth. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 280 . Art4D. Cool. Thai people have criticised the Western ways of living as decadent when compared to the old Thai values. Politicians prefer to wear suits and ties during their election campaigns rather than military or civil uniforms since these rather suggest the obsolescence and inefficiency of government systems. In front of him. He is pressing from above by inner striving for righteousness and spiritual freedom. which he has never clearly understood. Nevertheless. which are now considered relevant.

174 Athachak notes that Thai people have less control of and patience with their emotions.172 Kicking Bird. as well as the artists or writers have their own-style places. In the period of General Sarit Thanarat. The programmes created since the late 1980s have also commodified the private life of celebrities for public consumption.’171 However. the cause for the sufferings in modern human life. The State was responsible in the determination and promotion of the people’s code of conduct in public spaces through official education and broadcasting media. yaa baa (amphetamines) to stay up all night. Athachak Satayanurak remarked that the public spaces of old Thai society embodied a code of conduct where people knew what to do and how to behave in the manner alternatively referred to as kalathesa [social grace or high class manner]. uncertainty and ever-changing economic and political situations. pubs and night scenes where people go for drinks and meet famous celebrities or a crowd with the same interest has become another type of community. New communication devices. For example. Athachak Satayanurak pointed to the change in modern Thai people amidst the rapid changes of the national economy in the past two decades which have not just turned Thai society into a product-consumption society but also into an excessively time-consumption society. the concepts of time and place highly associates with the notions of ‘private’ and ‘public’. Television programmes offer a wide variety of styles and contents between which viewers can rapidly channel-hop at wish. the advanced information and communication technologies that have accompanied rapid national economic change have drawn the two spaces together so that they have almost completely overlapped. Television has become a key device for the commodification of everything.173 In the Thai context. This has blurred the line between night and day. To come to terms with what one could suffer from this way of living. Clubs. The line between private life and public spaces has gradually withered. The new Thais set out their new management of time so that they can extend their happy hours for the consumption of. It has become a tool of self-definition for some classes of people. rather they memorise and subsequently forget what have been told. Those working in the advertising business have their ‘ad makers’ hang-out places. He thinks that Thailand is entering ‘the age of new feelings and emotions’ and commented that television broadcasting has greatly contributed to such change. have stepped in to help them find sudden responses to their needs and desires at almost any time and place. such as the mobile phone. feelings and manners were freely expressed in their private spaces but carefully controlled in the public. for example. the truth is modern Thai people are now facing stress. notes on this ‘fake community’ phenomenon that ‘it is a part of an “image-consuming culture”. There is as well the growing Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. The features of old communities have faded where each member had been strongly attached to their place of settlement and to family ties. Drama series and advertisments are created to creatively draw viewers away from their reality.longer to put an easy blame on Western culture but rather to attempt to study and to understand deeply these foreign ways of living. Such control can no longer be applied in the present. Thus. The night-goers associate themselves with a new community which is virtually ‘fake’.175 The export of different foreign arts from the West and other modern Asian countries has also played a major role in the changing emotion and sensibilities of the Thais. The State’s main purpose was to control individual’s private emotion and expression in public space. Secondly. The concept of place and space has also changed. Thai education does not encourage students to think and be critical. a columnist in the Sao Sawasdi section of Krungthep Thurakit Newspaper. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 281 . they never arrive at the rational consideration of cause and effect. The private and public spaces were clearly divided. the government exercised their power in directing people’s public conduct. environmental problems and conflicts of identity at both individual and national level in this age of globalisation. This is firstly because of the failure of the education system. Hong Kong and Hollywood films have become the mainstream cinema in Thailand. and to find the solutions for it. People’s emotions. drugs. one was not allowed to wear trousers too tight to leave insufficient room for the insertion of a coca-cola bottle.

situated in the Grand Palace. and to the higher degree of grace in traditional performance where most female characters must preserve their presence as an elegant lady through slow and dignified movements. as the old Siam had successfully done in assimilating the cultures of Indians. or old structures. Thai society is progressing under tensions of identity conflicts. They are only distinguished by muak [roof tops]. But if we regard the earliest influence of Impressionism on Thai artists’ works as seen in the 1935 oil portrait by Fua Haripitak. During the ASEM summit in Bangkok in 1996. modern Thai art should by 2001 have been in existence for some sixty-six years. as the departure point. 3. Modern Thai-Style Art As noted in previous sections. Some comment that Thai society tends to receive bad rather than positive foreign influences. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. modern Thai art had started with borrowing from the West. the most difficult question may not be about its beginning or age. it is difficult in a single answer to pinpoint its time span. All these factors have contributed to changing the habits of the Thais towards becoming impatient. Thai intellectuals and academics have widely discussed the social phenomena where form rather than content always influences Thai people. hollow. The earliest realistic portrait paintings and Western-styled paintings may start an account where modern Thai art has spanned almost one hundred and fifty years. ‘typical Thai houses of different regions have a similar interior plan. The quick and slick. Chinese and Thais. 3. The roof is a distinct feature of each ethnic Thai house and it has been effectively used to hybridise foreign building into Thai by just placing a chada[Thai traditional head dress] roof on top. Khmers. hybrid new forms. An insight investigation would reveal internal. Nonetheless. 4. The Thai ways often went by juxtaposing new forms or those considered ‘modern’ on top of or external to what already existed.popularity of advertising films and MTV music clips which tend to deny reason and logic. and emotionally and expressively bold and self-centred in their public presence. Characters freely expose their feeling and emotions. as if one is standing on two boats at the same time.4 Between Form and Content Thai society always emphasises the significance of rites and rituals.’177 Being Thai in modern times does not lie in the return to an old way of living. a government official admitted to the local press that Asian countries would rather focus on the ceremonial than the content of the meeting.5 Being Thai and Being Modern In the wake of the developing global community. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 282 . But it does lie in attempting to balance cultural difference and similarity and even to mingle these into luk pasom. Professor Silpa Bhirasri. However. The objects or structures might appeal as modern just at a glance. This conflict is actually the soul of being Thai. These often ignore whatever might be their ostensible purpose or essence and also the results of their initiatives and realisations. easily bored. but concerns its evolution and development. Thongchai Wanichakul’s view was that the ‘Thai nation has just emerged in the past century amidst primary conflicts between the desire to be equal with other modernised countries and to maintain the ideal Thai village type of community. as evident in the construction of Chakri Maha Prasat Throne Hall. sometimes collaged picture-editing is in high contrast to the slow story-telling pace of Thai dramas. Orn-siri Panin an architecture teacher said that. which was built during the reign of King Rama V176.

Chokechai Takpoh. we have apparently witnessed the hybridisation of various cultures. Although their views may not be widely publicised in newspaper columns or art magazines as in the West. They must have vision and not be tied to any forms of nationalism. They take a short time fruit but lack of their own roots. seminar reports and some irregular newspaper columns.’179 Surasit Saowakhong.182 His Northeastern contemporary. However. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. they can still be found in exhibition catalogues. 50 Years of Art in the Reign of King Rama IX: are actually taken from abstracts pre-selected by the catalogue’s editor from longer texts submitted by artists throughout Thailand. from a baby now becoming a strong man with distinctive characteristics. Those who were responsible for the task or were regarded as founders of modern Thai art have failed to put in the concrete frameworks of modern art and knowledge… This has resulted in the ambiguity of present art phonomena. ‘…[Thai art] has progressed in terms of quantity and quality. However. and Western-style architecture. The borrowings included new artistic features and a new ideology for art-making which often contradicted the philosophy of traditional Thai art-making. debate and criticise over the mingling of modern Western and Thai cultures.180 Ithipol Tangchaloke. while existing arts were usually regarded as ‘old’ or ‘traditional’. Kiatkaroon Thongpromrat. Those involved in the modern art world of Thailand still continue to discuss. and also an increase of public interest. Some features have become uniquely and distinctively ‘Thai modern’. and were always referred to as the ‘new’ or ‘modern’. Thai art has grown fast. what we need is a truly modern government. Prasanmitr Campus. 4.’184 The abstract artist. These new ideas were for example. Globalised communication has enabled an emergence of diversity in Thai art.It is stated in the catalogue of ‘Thai Farmers Art Collection’ exhibition in 1996 that the Thai art world is now more open to all art forms and practices as in the international art world. Fine Art Department commented that ‘Governmental art institutions have hardly undertaken any critical analysis of artistic knowledge.’181 But coins always have two sides. Thai modern art has just started.’183 Aree Suthiphant. another group of artists draw their inspiration and stylistic features from traditional arts and assimilate them with present contents. Suebsai Pensomboon questioned and criticised the development of modern art in Thailand: ‘is what we are doing to jettison the imitation of modernity? …There is no modern art if its creators are not modern. While some works appear to be alienated from Thai society. throughout the course of modern Thai art history [which is either over a century or half a century. a realistic painter from Chiangmai praised modern Thai art for being ‘not inferior to other art of the world’. an artist from the Northeastern region compared the growth of modern Thai art to ‘…trees grown by hydroponic methods. skills and attitudes in order to find the proper direction for a systematic art education. according to starting point as indicated above]. The comments extracted from Artists’ Views section of the catalogue. remarked that ‘modern Thai art has yet to represent Thai identity. which was not directly suitable to the tropical climate of Thailand. …a balance is made between the continuation of tradition and the development of international art. Early modern art of Thailand borrowed a great deal from the West. the making of portrait sculptures from living subjects of high rank. a founder of Srinakharin Wiroj University.’185 These views towards the past development of modern Thai art show variations according to the viewers’ or publishers’ background and attitude. While many artists think and work in an avant-garde manner. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 283 . Artists are liberal in their artistic and stylistic expressions.1 The Difference: ‘Thainess’ Vs ‘Foreignness’ Modern Thai art and Thai modernity have both stemmed from and developed in accordance with the context of Thai society.’178 Chalood Nimsamer. books published on special occasions. another senior artist thoguht that ‘compared to the history of Western modern art. Golden Jubilee Art Exhibition. The imported features were obviously very different from existing art and culture. nor academic art… first. a senior artist offered similar view. ‘We should be proud that modern Thai art has fully developed within this reign of King Rama IX.

by a monk from Wat Sanamchan became the leading headline in most local newspapers. That’s why we highly praise fanciness over substance. they usually in a movement of serenity. Apart from the search for newness and peculiarity that make modern Thai art differ from the existing traditions. Their starting points. In summary. These secret formulas would only be transferred from founders or masters to trusted their successors. Although copyrights law is relatively new to Thailand. as seen in the circles of Thai traditional music. In 1998. ‘Ancient art stems from society’s wisdom which has been accumulated and evolved from time to time. the diversity of liberal art-making according to individual thoughts. People’s thoughts and conduct therefore conformed to social norms and faiths. Its practices and contents always challenge and refuse to conform to religious and traditional prescriptions but focus on the exploration and expression of individuality. as seen in the case of luang pho pien. Nithi’s view is that the tradition of Buddha sculpting had been passed down for several generations before it reaches certain formula. Traditional Thai and modern art has obviously embraced different philosophies and methods. For example. process and result are therefore totally different. standing with one foot resting on the globe. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 284 . Each samnak [school] or baan [house] had their own traditions and formulas. at present. These notions had hitherto never entered the philosophy of art-making in Thailand. dance. Copying was not considered a violation of copyright. luang pho pien (weird Buddha).’186 It is clearly seen that within traditional art practice there is. crafts and medicine. Thus it places emphasis on breaking new ground as a testimony to the creator’s individualism. Everyone was considered a united part of the community. But modern art. Fame and fortune might be accidentally achieved overnight. the ‘defeated globe’ Buddha posing in a somewhat clumsy manner with stiff raised arms and feet. The reports heavily criticised this new version of the Buddha image as vulgarised and ungraceful and called the sculpture. seems to possess an untrustworthy and worldly power. This reflects. Thai artisans were taught to strictly follow their teachers and traditional prescriptions laid down since ancestral times. Traditional Thai art has nothing against the act of repetition. an attempt to break away from ancient prescriptions and construction ideology in correspondance to the liberal expression and challenging attitude allowed and encouraged by the structure of modern society. It lacks artistic value and reflects the creator’s tastelessness and limited understanding of dhamma.Thai modern artists generally see that Western modernism basically stresses the new and the original. or of lai rod naam [a floral pattern made of black lacquer and gold leaf] for Buddhist sutra cupboards. the execution of a Buddha image with a peculiar gesture. Though there are some Buddhas in motion. thus things or incidents associated with each person also became part of the public domain. Traditional art maintains approved prescriptive traditions accumulated throughout long historical periods while modern art seeks originality and newness as well as to deconstruct old customs. purposes. A striking example of attempts to merge traditional with modern art is found in the case of phra yiab lok [Buddha standing on the globe]. In comparison. kept secret from others. There was no concept of privacy. which we copy from the West. Prateep Sawangsuk elaborated that ‘…[we’ve moved] from flat painting to threedimensional creativity which tends to a demand far larger space. revolutionary thinking was not encouraged within such society. is an individual expression. similar modes of non-official protection of ‘private intellectual property’ have already existed in Thai society. Traditional Buddha images were thus created to embody the stillness and peaceful state of attainment. there are certain customary formulae for paint mixtures used in or temples. which differs from what have been done in the past. contemporary artists also are of the view that the perception of images is also changing. followers and associates. in the area of traditional painting. Nithi Eiewsriwong explained that ideologically Buddha images were not created to represent the human but the sublime state. Luang pho pien has scarily represented the contemporary art of Thailand.’187 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.

the content of artworks has no longer confined itself to narration and representation of religious beliefs and royal worship. They symbolised the celebration of individualistic expression and freedom of young artists. They also indicate that the middle class society of Thailand. Prasanmitr Campus and independent artists. be they realistic portraits. From the late 1960s to 1970s. still life. Social Rules (1978) by Montien Boonma revealed poverty in Thai society. artists of the Art for Life movement accused the Art for Art’s Sake tendency of shying away from reality and social responsibility. The life of the ordinary people. The search for artistic uniqueness should come second to the content. These paintings collectively reflect the multifaceted modern society of Thailand. There were some artist groups like the Kanghan Group who tended to raise the issue of social inequality in their art works as seen in The Street Named Patpong (1982). In the meantime. between artists practicing abstraction belonging to the so-called Art for Art’s Sake Movement. these conflicts left a gap between artists and instructors associated with Silpakorn University [which favoured abstraction] and artists from Srinakarin Viroj University. and artists associated to Art for Life Movement. Social commentary became another intetion in art as seen in Lawan Upa-in’s Krungthep 2519 (1976). which had given birth to this art form. female nudes. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 285 . prints and sculptures. as did Life 1 (1979) by Pubet Haupradit. Abstract artists emphasised the creation of art.2 New Subjects Since art patronage shifted from the umbrella of the sovereign and from monastic institutions. may have been practiced from 1947 to around 1957. had reached new heights of intensity. The conflicts in the Thai art world ran parallel with the national political situation. Works that revealed contemporary life in big cities started to appear from mid 1960s. Chakrabhand Poshyakrit’s Klum [group] (1969) showing portraits of young modern city residents and Duangta nandhakwang (1971) picturing a young lady seated in a modern interior environment. which portrays the life of both poor and rich girls amidst military tanks. who challenged the authority and the art establishment of Silpakorn University. so the conflicts in the art scene were less intense. People Watching TV. which freed them from social restraint. Although rural landscape paintings with picturesque scenes of floating markets. semi abstract and pure abstract works represented modernism in Thai art. In their opinion art should represent social reality and is a tool for the development of a better society. Nonetheless. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Once the political tension gradually declined in the 1980s. verbal disputes concerning the function of art. and allowed them to seek originality in terms of the pure beauty of abstract shapes and forms. student militants and temples. This is evident in Praphan Srisuta’s woodcut series. had entered a new stage of a developing modern Thai society. they apparently display the untouched rural life and do not yet convey an impression of the changes being manifested in modernised Thai society. In the 1950s and 1960s. farmers’ houses amidst rice fields as well as scenes that nostalgically recall the past cultural life of Thailand. animals and common household utensils has become a favourite subject-matter in paintings.4.

Although the political and economic advisors of several Thai Governments were usually of English nationality (the role had later been taken over by American specialists). The trend continued in the 45th National Exhibition of Art (1999). 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 286 . be they crafts. Even the National Art Competition which used to favour abstract works has shown more social commentary entries. and some of them have even been awarded major prizes. This was inevitably. Transavantgarde. Western academic art and traditional art. Although social commentary paintings may only succeed in selling after a time. The painting displays frenzied crowds on a Bangkok bus.6 by Kraisorn Prasert won a silver medal. Wirun Tangcharoen. the most influential foreign artistic styles in modern Thai art obviously came from Italy. New Inherited Human No.188 Aree Suthipandhu's Female Nude painting which was considered very modern in Thailand when completed in 1960 would not be ‘new’ nor ‘fresh’ in America.4 The influence from Europe and America As mentioned earlier. the 17th Exhibition of Young Artists (also organised by Silpakorn University). where a print entitled Note of Art After Death No. and considers that the ‘modern art of Thailand has assimilated many traditions. The popularity of this genre has been widespread as seen in the works shown in most competition venues both locally and regionally. social problems and modern living have become popular subjects for artists. The painting of this type has become an unofficial trend in subsequent ASEAN Art Competitions. the realistic and perspective technique employed by Khrua In Khong at several temple murals executed during [1855-1860] and the realistic portrait statue of King Mongkut made by Luang Theprojana in 1868 were not constructed in line with their contemporary Western modernism. 4.From the late1980s to the late 1990s. and a pregnant woman in the center of the painting is scarily forced into birthing labour. Sithikorn Thepsuwan and Amnaj Khongwaree won top prizes. of Srinakharin Viroj University. Thanakorn Sararak. and helped produce a great number of artists and sculptors. referred to this situation of art in the past 50 years. Prasanmitr Campus. Ariya Kitticharoenwiwat’s sculpture work. received the silver medal. would have been rather outdated in the Europe and America of the time where the dominant modernist trends were Neo-Expressionism. In the same year at a different competition. The 44th National Exhibition of Art (1998) offered gold medal awards in the mixed media category to Daeng Buasaen’s Saphawa kwamsuemthoy nai sangkhom[Destitute] and in the sculpture category to Sira Suwannasorn’s Journey in Civilization. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Corrado Feroci). the ‘modern’ features in Thai Art are at certain times considerably older than in the West. In 1999. won the grand prize of Philip Morris’s 1st ASEAN Art Competition. Lomhaijai muangluang [City Breath] of Santi Thongsuk. Art competitions held by corporate companies were not an exception. Monapat Puangkhuntien and Wara Chaiyanit were awarded top prizes. the modernity of Thailand has always related to the ‘importation’ of inspiration and ideas from the West from the reigns of King Rama IV in the mid-nineteenth century to King Rama IX in the latter half of the twentieth century. In 1994. Instead.3 Delay Art: It’s New Here But Old Over There Apart from the differences in style and ideology. In the following year. which called forth lots of attention in the Thai art scene during the time of the execution. works of the same social commentary content by Thanawat Suriyathongtham. The Folk Sculpture 4/1982 by Chalood Nimsamer which featured the artist himself standing amidst a bricolage installation of various shaped wood pieces and ready made materials. they are highly practiced by young Asian artists and art students. a result of the establishment of Silpakorn University by the Italian sculptor. they were rather adopted the styles of European academic art. For example. Appropriation and Video Art. 4. who laid down the foundations of a modern art which was different from the one existing. Professor Silpa Bhirasri (Italian name. similar types of works by Panupong Choo-arun.2.

The spearhead artist of this new artistic wave was Aree Suthipandhu. Suthat Pinruethai. These artists had gain certain influences of European art. The late Monthien Boonma. art specialists or curators.S. Somporn Rodboon. prominent abstract artists mostly received their advanced education in the U. Such were the cases of Thavorn Ko-udomvit and Navin Lawanchaikul. Sawasdi Tantisuk and Chalood Nimsamer. In the 1970s. Oriented towards European culture were Apinan Poshyananda who received art education in Scotland and Somboon Homthienthong who had spent over 15 years working in Germany. The modern art of Thailand has thus always been associated with stylistic influence and receptive knowledge. After that. the key instructor at Silpakorn University after the dominant period of Bhirasri. Surasi Kusolwong and Jakrapan Vilasineekul received their advanced education in Germany. Ithi Kongkakul. also during the war. Chalood Nimsamer. Fua Hariphitak. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 287 . and Prayad Pongdam gained their further education in Italy. After graduation from Silpakorn. Prof. Kamol Tasananchalee. Kamin Lertchaiprasert spent over two years in New York. Chitra Buabusaya directly experienced the practice of Impressionism when he went to study in Japan. especially that of Italy and had assimilated it in their works extensively once they returned home.S. Thawee Nandakwang. Painters like Fua Hariphitak. galleries and schools. Since then. Unlike others. Fua had actually encountered concept of modern art while he was studying at Santiniketan in India during the 1940s after which when he was detained as an enemy alien during the Second World War. Among them are Fua Hariphitak. artists did not receive education overseas but have been exposed to other foreign art and cultures through travelling and communications with various international institutions. and Asia. In some cases. Misiem Yipintsoi. Among them were Ithipol Tangchalok. working process and ideas from Western countries. Amarit Chusuwan and Thaiwijit Puengkasemsomboon went to Poland. Kanya Charoensupakul as well as Rung and Tuan Tiraphichit. the U. Kamol Phaosawasdi and Chumpon Apisuk. while Yannawit Kunjaethong. although they had not gone to art school in France. Leading avant-garde artists of 1980s had. the sources of formal art education and artistic practice were diverse since there were a great number of grants offered in universities in various countries in Europe. noted that Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Aree returned home and struck the modern Thai art scene with his abstract works dominated by American abstract expressionism. Apart from artists’ direct experience overseas both through education and short visits. which provided academic training as taught in Florence in the 1920s.Early modern artists mostly received their education at Silpakorn University. had been challenged by American culture which had always been considered relatively new and only capable of producing junk culture. of whom later became prominent and influential artists of Thailand. Associated with American cultural experience are Prawat Laocharoen. studied and lived abroad before settling back at home. which have also played important part in disseminating new thoughts and artistic processes. Araya Rasdjamroensuk. workshops conducted by international artists. a university lecturer and independent curator then at Silpakorn and from 1999 at Chiangmai University. the notion of modern art that possess beauty and aesthetic quality inherited from the classical cultures of Italy. to some degree.S. Rirkrit Tiravanija returned and started to spent some time in Thailand after living and working in various locations in Europe and the U. modern American art seems to have become the main inspiration for modern Thai artists. went to continue his study in Paris in 1987. the most internationally acclaimed artist of Thailand. Silpa Bhirasri was the key figure who implanted academic concept of fine art and execution in his students. Sawasdi Tantisuk. there were also imports of international exhibitions. Chitra Buabusaya. In the 1990s. Sansern Milindasuta went for an MFA in England. who has worked extensively with international museums. Nipan Oranniwes and Pinaree Sanpitak went to universities in Japan. these artists had also been encouraged and assisted by Bhirasri to gain further training in Italy. He was a former student of Poh Chang School (College of Arts and Crafts) before he went to study for an MFA in the U. Thawee Nandhakwang and Sawasdi Tantisuk adopted the French Impressionistic style of painting. In the 1960s.S. also visited the United States in 1963 where he saw other artistic endeavours in museums.

Although Thai art may have started to be increasingly involved in international forums.5 Distinctive Art Community As discussed. The second group takes no notice of international art movements.installation art increasingly became the popular mode of expression from the late 1970s. Japan: the New Generation by two Japanese artists. However. publications and publicity materials such as invitations. Silpakorn University in cooperation with the Goethe Institut Bangkok also organised another installation art exhibition called James Bay Project by the German artist. an installation art exhibition. This is evident in their regular use of foreign texts in their works. curators.189 Somporn has also explained that installation art had yet to become widely practised until 1989 when Silpakorn University in collaboration with Hara Museum of Contemporary Art in Japan organised at Silpakorn University Gallery. Somporn claimed that ‘the works left a strong impact on young Thai artists who were impressed by the usage of simple local materials found in Bangkok as a means to express their impression of Thai culture and their experiences in Thailand. it still retains its Thai ways of creating. perceiving and positioning. The third group remains in between the above two groups.1 Nation. were in artists-in-residence and exhibited their installation and sculpture works at Silpakorn University. especially those of Western and Japanese countries. posters. since artists have also developed this technique from traditional Thai customs and rituals as well as features seen in various festivals in Thailand. Monarchy If we consider the state ideology an inseparable part of ‘Thainess’. They are rather conservative and outdated. In view of these international art exposure.’190 4. collectors and supporters. Their main concern is that their projects are relevant to Thai society with a distinctive identity that can be communicated internationally. flyers. Some of them are highly nationalistic. they pay less attention to communicating with Thai society. arts managers. Modern Thai art has distinctive character since it is a product of the Thai community which has its own history and conditions. In 1989. One example is the work of Somyot Trisenee. the modern art of Thailand over the past two decades has never failed to deliver the narrative of being Thai. It does not totally derive from Western art practice. 5 Thai Identity in Modern Thai Art 5. Rainer Wittenborn. These art community groups can be summarily categorised as follows: The first kind of group are those who are keen and think that it is important to know or become part of international art movements. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 288 . they are also deeply ambitious to gain recognition internationally. As we examine entries in many art competitions held over various occasions. In general. They will follow news and information about events in other corners of the world but include those both educated and not educated abroad. Joan Grounds and Noelene Lucas. administrators. Be they artists. two Australian sculptors. They try to balance their ambition to receive both local and international recognition. and catalogues. and has embraced various groups of different artistic concerns. teachers. Suzuki Junko and Miyajima Tatsuo. Religion. Saengsawang caak palang barami [the King’s Aura] which was awarded the grand prize (Golden Brush Award) at the painting competition held to commemorate Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. They organise exhibitions and projects intentionally for specific groups of the Thai audience but rather attempt to capture foreign attention. They considered themselves parts of global art community. During 1990–1992. modern Thai art is highly diverse and hybridised. we have discovered that most of the participating and awarded works carry almost all aspects of the state ideology.

this is probably just to remind people of old culture so that they won’t get carried away with the new arrivals. Klum salete (1986). especially arts and culture circles. These groups included Klum lanna (1978) [Northern Group]. Seen from another angle. Klum silapa thai song saam (1980) [Thai Art Group ’23]. the 36th birthday anniversary of HRH Princess Sirindhorn in 1997. is it [to be found in] the style or the spirit?’195 The question of what is contemporary ‘Thai’ or ‘being Thai’ in the age of globalisation are still topics for hot debate in many circles. These circumstances reveal no understanding of cultural evolution nor the realisation of a dynamic civilisation that highly cultured society always encourage cultural change. noted on Thai art in the past 50 years that ‘…the contents still reflect the society and ways of living with a strong belief and faith in Buddhism.King Bhumibhol’s 60 Birthday Anniversary. Thai Culture Preservation Year 1995 and Amazing Thailand Year 1998. Chet yod group (1993) [artists from the North group]. In addition. Klum isaan (1983) [Northeastern Group]. Klum see silapin chao nuea [4 Northern Artits]. the standard ‘Thainess’ set after the presumption of Thai ideology has been seriously challenged by another wave of nationalism in the form of cultural manifestations ever since the government announced the year of the Thai Cultural Campaign 1994. Buddhist-related beliefs and stories are still among the popular content of modern Thai art. as he is taking part in performing religious rites during Visakha Puja Day at the Temple of the Emerald Buddha which is considered to be the centre of Thai spirit. Among major events were painting competitions held on auspicious occasions to commemorate the celebration of 200th year anniversary of Krung Ratanakosin in 1981. Kiatisak Chanon-nart. While Western modernism has challenged religious faith and authority. Eastern Group (1992). the patronage of Buddhism. the stronger is the pulling force which is negotiated for the look of the past.191 Art competitions of this kind had gained increasing popularity each year and seemed to culminate in prestige from the late 1980s to mid 1990s. Though Thai people are free to believe in any faith. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 289 . an artist and art historian from Chulalongkorn University has critically observed that judging from Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai’s193 government publicity and media promotion in the 1990s. For Thai artists. the 60th birthday anniversary of HM Queen Sirikit in 1992 and to honour the Buddhist Supreme Patriarch in 1993. and especially TV media all testify to the reverse situation. such as the Government Offices or the Parliament House.’194 Kamchorn went on to say that ‘the preservation of old culture is not that difficult. but the creation of new things that are based on one’s cultural roots is. the making of drama series based on historical-novels and the remaking of old films.192 Nonetheless. these topics can truly convey their Thai identity. Buddhism is in fact an official religion and the single dominant belief. the records of good old days. the yearning for a nostalgic past. a painter who won several medals from National Art Competitions. The work perfectly relays the complete notion of national ideology through the display of the King. There were no outstanding art and cultural projects endorsed under the government’s umbrella. organized by the Thai Farmers Bank in 1987. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. This could be claimed as one of the Government’s successful projects.’ He suggested that the government grant ten to twenty million baht to fine artists of traditional and neo-traditional genres to create new works as national memorials for important government buildings. Kamchorn Soonpongsri. his patriotic campaigns were rather vague compared to those undertaken by the government of Field Marshal Phibunsongkhram in the 1930s and 1940s. some artists have formed groups based on their regions to proclaim an ethnic or regional identity. ‘Government works shown via public press. Kamchorn also left some questions in his writing that ‘There have been continuing debates among artists upon what Thai art is. Klum sueb thai (1987) [Thai Heritage Group]. It is noticeable that the more rapidly Thai society moves towards the modernising future. The King is pictured proceeding down the temple’s corridor amidst orderly seated people waiting to pay him respect in a quiet and graceful manner.

I am poor. My Italian friend said that “Monthien we are poor. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 290 . you must have your identity. New cultures and Western influences surround me. Unlike several other so-called nakrian nok [Thais educated abroad] who tend to overlook old Thai values and wisdom. …The use of local materials has been ultimately completed in Monthien’s work whereas the assimilation of laay kanok [Thai floral pattern] and surrealistic painting technique is cultivated at length in the works of Panya (Vijinthanasarn). after he returned home Monthien started using cheap materials commonly found in his locality which reflected the simple life of upcountry Thais. I want to make modern sculpture using fine materials like stainless steel and metal.’199 Yannawit Kunchaethong. The world keeps changing. Kamol Tasananchalee. Any culture which stops receiving influence is dead. The style is even Westernised. He stated about the show that ‘. If there is a Thainess. we will die. and was honoured as a National Artist in Visual Arts in 1999. many people told me to do it in the Thai way since I am Thai. Thus. it has progressed. But I cannot afford them. a Thai artist who has lived and worked in the U. Materials embraced with Thai imagery.’ ‘I want to make a series of paintings. noted his experiences on seeing Monthien’s exhibition Story from the Farms that he saw the contemporary Thainess in the utilisation of local materials. Don’t copy Japanese. ‘ If farangs can use modern materials like steel.’201 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. ‘In Japan. It’s conceptual sculpture. an artist and university lecturer who studied in Japan for a MFA revealed that he was stimulated to think about Thai identity when he was studying there. Time is not still. I just help them to continue. Just try to find some alternatives. I will use neither features associated with Thainess nor floral patterns.5.’198 He thought that the attitude to the old and Thai cultural heritage was not comparable to black and white. The works are abstract. it must be in the spirit not the visual forms.. although he sought his further education in France after earning his first degree at Silpakorn University. But deep-rooted traditions are sometimes problematic. and not making any progression. new attitudes and imagination for our audience…I have developed art from the traditions of the present and the past. has continued to explore Thai spiritual beliefs and wisdom. it was not a matter of taking it or leaving it: ‘We select good things. I want to draw out contemporary Thai spirit. an art graduate from Silpakorn University who spent some years in New York City.’200 Kamin Lertchaiprasert.S. an internationally-acclaimed artist. we should work like poor people. His first solo exhibition at the National Gallery in 1989 was titled Rungrao caak thong thung [Story from the Farms] and at that time offered another side of Thai life which had rarely been presented in official art and cultural level. It is free and dares to experiment. commented on the attachment to the past: ‘modern art making require boldness…an attempt to escape from out past…Thai artists are second to none compared to other artists overseas because Thailand has long cultural traditions.” ’ ‘197 Monthien had finally discovered his distinctive Thai expression.. If we keep holding onto the past.[I] start using things that reflect Thai life.2 The Search for Contemporary Thai The discourses of artists and art-related figures during the 1980s and 1990s are sharp and crucial to the present national ideology which has incorporated the notions partly expressed and invented by commoners and artists of all disciplines.’196 Monthien Boonma. And I will employ Western techniques. we should be able to use rice since rice is the main crop of Thailand. Artists cease to develop their works if they are unable to cross over from the tradition. Those who survive learn to adapt. ‘The sensibility is all Thai. America has no roots. …Life is about development.

and this approach has become the new practical trend in modern Thai art scene. cooking a meal’. Rirkrit gained recognition after he turned a gallery space in New York in 1992 into a big dinning room where guests at the opening were unexpectedly treated with Thai cuisine. During the 1950s. Surasi Kusolwong has turned several museum and gallery rooms in Europe and America into Thai flea markets selling cheap stuffs.203 Rirkrit has introduced ‘Thainess’ into other context. Then in the late 1980s. Among them are Navin Lawanchaikul who sells pha khaoma [Thai malechecked sarong] suits. From the late 1980s. and generosity. Thawan Duchanee told Thai traditional and Buddhist stories through a vibrant mix of Thai and Western drawing and painting techniques.202 From the mid-1990s. in this case Western society. Nipan Oranniwesna. especially Thai curry. which is not familiar with this kind of contribution. His usage of ready made objects and inexpensive local materials specific to Thailand enormously inspired younger artists such as Sompop Butarad. ‘For Tiravanija. During the late 1960s. it was widely noted that Chalood Nimsamer. ‘Thainess’ represents the charms of the ‘other’ culture as in the cooking of Thai food. converts taxis into mobile art galleries and creates billboard signs using a local film promotion painting style. a Thai-born artist who had been brought up and educated in North America. There is also the Nuts Society Group which has employed commercial advertising and marketing tactics to campaign for the revival of vanishing old Thai values using Thai alphabets. art is a spiritual activity concentrating on acts of generosity and human contact-for example.. the U. The international trend of art practice based on time. has received such wide recognition in Europe. Rirkrit Tiravanija. Sutee Kunavichayanont.’205. Several Thai artists working with the same approach as Rirkrit Tiravanija have become internationally known. as seen in his free food reception during the exhibition opening which was the exhibit in itself204. space and audience as it appears in the works of Rirkrit. Manit Phoo-aree and Prayad Pongdam had played an important role in portraying Thai folk life but by modern-styled paintings. He was readily recognised through this conceptual manifestation. It has become the ultra-new trend for the Western art world while the Thais are still confused about whether it is art. These have stimulated many young Thai artists to think of other possibilities in art making. Panya Vijinthanasarn stood out prominently as a forerunner of the neo-traditional movement which had tended to borrow motifs from traditional murals of Central Thailand and assimilated them with a Western surrealist atmospheric background. some of which are even for free.S and Asia. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 291 . As Araya Rasdjamrearnsuk put it as follows: ‘……. Jakraphan Vilasineekul. Such artistic creation puzzles many audiences including the Thai art world because such concepts and performances are just a copy of the existing Thai way of life.Tracing back the course of modern art history of Thailand. These artists followed Monthien’s pursuit in searching for a balanced mix between Thai features and wisdom and Western modernism. the quest for a Thai spirit has been strongly asserted by Monthien Boonma. has been combined with the search for contemporary Thai identity through the return to the uses of local materials and wisdom as seen in the works of Montien Boonma. during the show entitled Untitled (Free). 1992. It is as if he were Tiger Woods for Thai sports fans. His sculptures made during 1940s feature commoners in their daily activities but are moulded in fluid and sinuous contours and volumes like those found in Buddha images of the thirteenth century Sukhothai period. that he has quickly become Thailand’s national hero in the field of visual arts for those who follow the news of international art scene. Even though Tiger remarked during the trophy reception after winning a major Thailand golf tournament held by Johnnie Walker (a liquor company) that ‘I am glad to be back at my mother’s homeland’. who deeply believe that Tiger Woods would at least has some part of Thainess in him. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Thawatchai Pantusawasdi and Adul Booncham. published texts byf noted local scholars and art institutions have commonly counted the earliest emergence of a modern Thai identity as that found in the works of Khien Yimsiri. especially for the Thai audience. The inclusion of Rirkrit’s works in The 20th Century Art Book in 2000 has reconfirmed his international star status.

Why don’t we be more open. an artist whose works convey Thai Buddhist philosophy through the assimilation of abstract and neo-traditional painting techniques.4 Art students an d artist s: skill comes befo re thought? Sawasdi Tantisuk. Even modern Japanese art emphasises concepts. we are highly accepted by foreigners. ‘the East seeks to find spiritual values while the West focuses on material values which will never be fulfilled… Why have we been tirelessly sought after endless numbers of new things? The Chinese have been using black ink in their paintings for over thousand years with each painter’ distinction.’207 In his view. stated that ‘Thai art has never vanished. not just thoughts.’206 He also commented that ‘about 80 to 90% of modern Thai art is dominated by foreign influence and we highly praise it. You practice American art and the Americans will not appreciate it. noted that ‘(most Thai artists) put their creative emphasis on showing skill.’ ‘210 Thaiwijit Puengkasemsoomboon. and I hardly understand. it is best to have our own ways. revealed that ‘Silpakorn students are highly skillful. Niti Watuya remarked about the East and the West that. the closer we get to our roots.209 Apart from seeking asylum in creating Thai identity.212 Kamol Tasananchalee has pointed out that ‘The Western art world pay smuch attention to concepts while artists in Thailand are still concerned in form. They have enough of their own art. They commonly share the view that Thai art education stresses technical skill rather than creative ideas. art lecturer and administrator considers ‘many people think that we are quite behind farang. but they are not creative. 5. They could have developed to be the equal of the West. It requires a length of time to seriously study our own roots. Look at their thesis works. They don’t have much development. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.’211 Many artists have similar opinions. we must have our own identity. To gain international recognition. It is more daring. Another prominent Thai artist. Regarding American art.’ He thinks we should not copy the West.3 Thai Can Also Mean International Thongchai Srisukprasert. a senior artist and lecturer from Srinakharin Wiroj University. Many farangs asked about our education that “Why do Thai people have to study so hard?” Too many subjects and those are too academic. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 292 . an artist. However. It is who we are and there’s no need to copy foreign art. The Japanese have gone far ahead. a well known abstract artist who graduated from Silpakorn University. The more we try to find newness. Prasanmitr Campus. In this case. detail and imitation. We cannot blame them. a National Artist remarked on the difference of art education in Thailand and overseas that ‘ (khon ) run mai [young generation] goes to America.5. ‘Everything has its international quality… Thainess is international.208 Neo-traditional Thai artists mostly think that Thai characteristics differ from those belonging to Western modern art. kao refers to skills. another alternative for artists who refuse to be Westernised lies in the expression of the ‘East’. The aesthetic quality is ignored. But they are more likely aligned to the East. It’s not too bad anyway….’213 Praphan Srisuta. Thai art is also international… We are modernised and we make modern art. ‘I want Thai art to become international. But he does not deny stepping into the international art forum. ‘internationality’ does not confine itself to foreign things. Our art society is moving but still merely imitating others. We could have done so with our potentiality. I look at magazines these days. Thus. be they artist and lecturer like Panya Vijinthanasarn or art critic like Paisan Thirapongwisnuporn.’214 Vichoke Mukdamanee. they are redundant. In term of skills. My generation is kao [old]. It may take sometime [for us] to absorb.

The Thai people have scattered information. Apinan Poshyananda. remarked on Thai identity in the age of ‘going internationally’ that ‘our art is second to none in foreign countries.5 Thai Identity in Modern Thai Art The subject of Thai identity in modern Thai art has been widely debated. Perhaps both terms of conflicts. But if our people are in loss. there have been successive attempts by artists and art-related circles to search and define Thai identity as reflected in the art of the present time. we were shown in international forums. generally art must be affected. The state and its related branches of authority Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Since the tension between these two energies is an actual force that has driven the Thai nation during the past century. These need to be carefully measured.’218 An attempt to balance spiritual Thainess in the modern age is apparently discerned in Sutee Kunavichayanont’s drawing entitled Venice heng tawan ook [Venice of the East]. with illustrations considered to represent the art of his reign.’219 6 Modern Art Patronage 6. pom nangwanthong suggested by Kasien Techapeera (in section 3 above) and pom yiab rue song khaem as illustrated by Sutee are metaphors central to the survival of Thailand. based on one of ten Jakata217 stories.1 Art Patrons As mentioned in the initial sections. one foot is on a Venetian Gondola and the other on a Thai canal rowing boat. Thongchai Winichakul offered a resolution of these conflicts: ‘The Thai nation emerged and grew amidst the tension of these two conflicts. In 1996.if we look at it closely. It features a Thai man wearing a sarong in traditional wrap standing over two boats. However. The King himself took part in giving artistic direction to the illustrations of the story. The action in the picture is also viewed as an illustration of the old Thai saying yaa yiab rue song khaem [do not stand on two boats at the same time]. the need to become farang and the ideal thought of remaining Thai. since Thailand does not yet have a contemporary art museum housing collections that represent contemporary thought and practice. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 293 . Many times. since there are many ways to express Thainess. which was enlarged to billboard size and shown during the Bangkok Art Project in 1998. Phra Mahachanok216. we will see that we are highly distinctive in techniques and process. Partly. ideas and knowledge of history and public memory. King Bhumibhol (King Rama IX) published his book.’215 5. But we lack communicators to bridge the gap between the artists and their audience. an art historian and international curator. It is impossible to say that an influx of Western art has been so overwhelming that we are completely losing our identity. the early patrons of art and culture as well as promoters of new ideas were the monarchy and national leaders. There are shortages of art history texts and references on both traditional and modern Thai art. Also there are deficiencies in research and in verifiable records of modern art history. But this is not a problem that requires any solution.

the trading of modern art was new and rare. Among the few modern art collectors at the time was Silpa Bhirasri. her successors have continued to support art activities through the management of the Chumbhot-Panthip Foundation whose office is located in the former residence of M. Bhirasri were also sponsored and supported by the Thai Farmers Bank and the Siam Rath newspaper owned by the former Prime Minister M. The early National Art Competition Exhibitions initiated by Prof. in 1974. In the 1940s. This was shown by the organizing of the 1939 Constitution Fair under the full support of Prime Minister General Plaek Phibunsongkhram. had successfully convinced powerful leaders and their associates to accept and support the development of modern art. Although the institute ceased its operations from1988. Aside from the support in competition forum. M. In 1973. Panthip had loaned her land for the construction of the Institute’s buildings and also financially supported its activities. other patronage came in different levels mainly depending on individuals’ interests. such as Dr.R. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 294 . Silpakorn University started to gain an increasing role in the promotion of modern Thai art after the commencement of the 1st National Art Competition in 1949. The Thai Farmers Art Collection Exhibition catalogue states that Bhirasri who had earned respect from national leaders for his art expertise. Krukrit Pramoj. This Palace now houses the family collection of antiquities which is opened for public viewing. Panthip Boriphat opened Soon Silapa Mekphayap (Mekphayap Art Center). During the same year that the Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art was established. The Bangkok Bank also first held their annual painting competition. She also played a crucial role in convincing national leaders.R. An additional contemporary art gallery.R. where medals and cash prizes were given to award winners. famously known as Chitrakam Bualuang Art Competition. Puey Ungpakorn (director of National Budget Office at the time) to support the founding of Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art in 1974.then replaced their patronage role after the political change in 1932. was later established within the palace compound in 1998. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. M. TISCO. It regularly features rotating modern and contemporary art exhibitions by Thai and international artists. Panthip. the Marsi Gallery. The government bodies which held direct responsibility for the preservation and prosperity of art and culture were the Fine Arts Department and Silpakorn University respectively.R.220 Although the monarchy may have lost its position as an official art patron. an international investment and finance company started to collect art and hold exhibitions of their collections. were rich and had good taste still remained key patrons. some high-ranking royal members and family members of national leaders who were highly educated (mainly overseas). known at Suan Pakkad Palace.

000 baht each year for award prizes. under the guidance of Khunying Niramol Suriyasat and her daughter Korbkarn Wathanawarangkul. the second seminar. Bangkok. a painter himself and honourable committee member in several prestigious art competitions. Tadu Contemporary Art is among exceptionally few art galleries which rely totally on private corporate funds. She collected works from various exhibitions and the National Art Competitions. Toshiba in cooperation with a group of art-related universities initiated the 1st National Seminar of Visual Art at Burapha University in Chonburi province. There have been various developments of this kind of alternative space operated not for profit and nurtured by contributions from their own friends and associations. They are located in buildings owned by their family or rented cheaply by their close associates. The third seminar. Pilailekha Diskul. a female artist was another main patron of modern art from the 1940s. an alternative space managed and run by artists and independent curators.Misiem Yipintsoi. has collected art for the purpose of office decoration and private collection. Toshiba has allocated annual budgets for art acquisition and competition organisation. a Silpakorn University and New York University graduate. Bancha or Banyong Lamsam. she also gave study and work grants for students and art instructors at the University. Si-am Art Space and Viengtavern Gallery. a painter and former president of the Painters and Sculptors Association of Thailand. Opening in the same year was Project 304. M. Klaomard Yipintsoi. In 1996. whether through Kasem. Their main patron is Eric Bunnag Booth who has a private collection of contemporary Thai art. and M. was held in Chiangmai University. Karavik Chakrabandhu. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 295 .R. the owner of Thai Farmers Bank. her niece. under the patronage of Yontrakit Group. Among the recent notably dynamic galleries are Space Contemporary. The Lamsam Family. a gallery in the environment of an art café. A year later.C. In 1995. It has also sought funding from individuals and art collectors alike. the private art gallery Tadu Contemporary Art was established in Royal City Avenue. ‘Art as tools for the improvement of human resources’. she had good relations with artists and people associated with the University. After she passed away in 1988.C. Krukrit Pramoj who has regularly written comments and articles on modern Thai art in his Siam Rath newspaper. Their major contribution to the prosperity of the Thai art scene is in organizing annual Contemporary Art Competitions. has taken up the role in managing Misiem’s collection and sculpture garden in Nakhon Pathom province. Klaomard founded About Photography which was later extended to About Café and About Studio. The trend towards an art café were made concretely functional for art by About Café and About Studio Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. They have also commissioned artists to create works for their new head office on the bank of the Chao Phya River on the Thonburi Side.221 Another private enterprise which became major art patron from late1980s up to present is Toshiba (Thailand) Co. They started their annual art competition called Toshiba brings good things to life from 1989. the center of the Thai art world at the time. In 1996. The Bank has spent about 780. Ltd. AARA has played important role in late 1990s in showcasing leading Thai and international artists works as well as encouraging exchange and networking between Thai and international artists and art organizations. It was first started as an art dealer and later changed from 1997 to the present into a ‘not for profit’ art center which showcases diverse contemporary arts projects ranging from art exhibitions. Besides. in 1998 (also no further seminar was held thereafter) was held at Silpakorn University. films screenings to art-related workshops. Although Misiem gained informal art education outside the academic system of Silpakorn University. as well as allocated corridor space to serve as gallery rooms housing their collection for public viewing. ‘New Decade: Art and National Development’. theatre performances. managed by her organisation called AARA (About Art Related Activities). together with specific art exhibitions held during auspicious occasions. a new city area of Bangkok. Thailand’s major European car distributor. The title of the seminar was ‘Art Visions’. Among other figures who have greatly contributed to the development of modern art in Thailand are M. They have also extensively sponsored many art exhibitions of individuals and cultural organisations.

largely associated with banking and especially the stock market. In 1989. Foreign cultural organisations have also provided major assistance for the dynamic growth of modern art activities both locally and internationally.223 This support has enhanced the continuity of art production and promoted Thai art to a wider audience. as well as the soul-searching and socially mocking paintings of Chatchai Puipia. The gallery was located in a building near the central stock exchange. and Thailand. they supported the exhibition. The Philippines. Apart from internal individual and corporate support. More roads were built as a result of economic expansion and growing demand for new commercial building. Dialogue Gallery was established by a couple who had a business in financing and the stock exchange. as well as by the flourishing numbers of service girls for mainly American G. massage parlours and motels.I. From the late 1970s to beginning of 1980s.s. that Thailand witnessed new art patrons who were mainly ‘yuppies’. Achille Clarac and his son Henri Clarac. foreign expatriates and organisations in Thailand and even tourists at some points have also contributed to the growth and development of modern Thai art. and thus it became a popular place among the ‘yuppies’ who would spend their earnings on art shortly after selling their stocks. collectors and audiences participating at art openings remained the same. In 1995. and the German ambassador Hans Urich von Schweinitz. The socially radical works of Vasan Sithikhet also highly appealed to this group of collectors. and were familiar with Western culture and modern living style. Montien Boonma and Chatchai Puipia. Fukuoka and Hiroshima in 1992. since Thailand was used as an American military base during the American war with Vietnam.(although the trend began at a famous restaurant like Hemlock on Phrathi Road) has boosted the emergence of new art gallery and café/restaurants like Kuppa. The Fukuoka Art Museum also started to collect works by Thai artists such as Pratuang Emjaroen. It was not until the late 1980s at the time of the economic boom. Inspiration from Japan in Bangkok which featured artists who had received grants to study in Japan. There were also the colourful and spiritual abstractions of Thaiwijit Puengkasemsoomboon and Niti Watuya. mostly abroad. as well as between Chiangmai University and the Canberra Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. at the time Bangkok became a relaxation center for American soldiers. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 296 . densely flanked by restaurants. highly educated. tourist accomodation and night spots. Thawan Duchanee. Eat Me and Toh Kim. Among major collectors of the time were French ambassador. Asian Modernism which traced the modern art history of Indonesia. In 1963. These people had high-paid jobs. In addition. These high social class expatriates were an important modern art audience. The art boom from the 1950s to 1960s resulted from many factors: the government’s implementation of a social and economic development plan as well as a new investment bill as mentioned in section 1. The Japan Foundation in Thailand has continually given study grants and support to Thai artists’ exhibitions in Thailand and abroad. Patpong street in the heart of Bangkok was turned into a world-famous red-light district. In 1990. There have been exchange artists and art students programmes between universities like Silpakorn University and the University of Western Sydney. The type of art most collected art ranged from the neo-traditional works of Chalermchai Kositpipat to the Eastern abstraction of Thavorn Ko-udomwit.222 These American soldiers and foreign expatriates became the main buyers of Thai art during late 1960s to early 1970s. Nepean. The ‘yuppies’ who earned fast cash in stock investment had most of the standard material comforts required for urban living accept an art collection. Australia started to become involved in modern Thai art activities since 1988. They supported the solo exhibitions of Thawan Duchanee and Monthien Boonma in Fukuoka. people who were in their early 30s. There were a large number of works produced by anonymous artists to fit tourist and American soldiers’ tastes as well as modern art by leading modern artists of Thailand. bars and night clubs. a vast field of land was replaced by the new Petchburi Road. while a small number among the Thai upper-middle class paid some attention to modern art. Baan Bangkok. the Japan Foundation in Tokyo organised an exhibition. as well as the South East Asian Contemporary Art Exhibition in Tokyo.

School of Art. Maenam khong paendin [River of the King] to commemorate the King’s 72th birthday anniversary.K. it is noted that after the state took over the role of art patronage from the monarchy when the country adopted the democratic system after 1992. The form of exchanges were also by giving grants for art and cultural visits and participation in major events in Germany. The asian art links through the assistance of the Australian Embassy in Thailand have also boosted art training in several areas by sending Australian experts on curatorship. Even the Fine Arts Department itself has no fine art sections except the architecture. In some years. Also artists. These activities were made possible gvien the full support of the governor’s adviser Kraisak Choonhavan who was also a driving force for the BMA’s plan to build the first Bangkok Contemporary Art Center in the heart of the city. and Krungthep muang faa-amorn the Bangkok Art Project 1998-99. Though it has a permanent collection. Asia Topia. film-makers and cultural administrators from these countries were also invited by the above agencies to give lectures and conduct workshops in Thailand. during the governing term of Dr. writers. the TAT is a public institution. There are Misiem Yipintsoi Grants for art lecturers given through Silpakorn University’s Faculty of Painting. Thai artists have been invited to exhibit in museums and to participate in several major international art exhibitions in Australia such as the Art Gallery of New South Wales. crafts and art conservation divisions. art conservation. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 297 . the Queensland Art Galleryas well as the National Gallery of Australia in Canmberra. Artist grants are normally available in governmental art institutions and universities. modern or contemporary art has not received serious attention and promotion from any governments. However. curators. these events actually received financial support from the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA). and its participation in the promotion of arts and cultural activities is mainly aimed at tourist amazement rather than enhancing the learning and understanding of cultural difference. architects. The Silpakorn Research and Development Institution started Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Also in principle. But there are still conflicts as to whether some works in the collection belong to Silpakorn University since the University itself has been the official organiser of the events. This the plan was subsequently dropped in 2001 during the following term of Governer Samak Sundaravej (see section 8). the only solid assistance provided by government agencies to modern art is in awarding the title of National Artist in the field of visual artists along with artist of other cultural areas. Pichit Ratakul. U. There have been no public grants for young artists nor for any nongovernmental organisations generally active in the promotion of contemporary art. and France.225 It should not be forgotten there has never been a national cultural policy drafted as a direction for the preservation and promotion of cultural and artistic development of the country. Apart from financing the office construction of public culture-related organisations. (which is relatively low at around 7. One artist is selected each year to receive the award and a regular allowance. the British Council and the French Embassy have also taken an active part in the promotion of cultural exchanges both in Thailand and in their countries. it has never had an acquisition budget for new art works since its establishment in 1977. It was also a participating sponsor of the Bangkok Art Project together with Silpakorn University and a main patron for the major light and sound show on the Chao Phya River called. The Tourism Authority of Thailand [TAT] is also another body occasionally involved in the promotion of Thai culture. there may be two artists honoured as National Artists as was the case with Prayad Pongdam and Chalood Nimsamer in 1998. The works in the collection are from donations by artists and collector as well as works awarded prizes in the National Art Exhibitions which it is obliged to take as part of the organizers’ fees.226 The apparently major public-funded art events during the 1980s to 1990s were.000 baht per month). However. About two grants are given per year. a performance festival held regularly since 1997. Its support has not facilitated the continuity of artistic creativity in the country. The Goethe Institut.224 The National Gallery has been operated under the umbrella of the Fine Arts Department. conservators and museum administrators. and museum education to conduct workshops for local arts managers.

other support is limited within academic circles. in view of international artistic trends. Some drive expensive cars and live in luxurious houses. they earn a better living by commissioned works or creating commercial works that fit the market perfectly before taking some time off to explore the works on their free will. observed that young artists always price their work highly. There has been no governmental infrastructure to support artists and organisations working outside the system of the government. However. is no longer true. Some artists earn better incomes. However. one as a teacher. there are some exceptional artists who can earn their living on the sale of their works and at the same time be recognised for their artistic achievement in terms of originality and creative values. ‘At this time. especially when compared to existing art which had rarely changed. It seems that this dual role became the appropriate living format for modern Thai artists since the beginning period of modern art in Thailand. However. The Establishment and Its Challengers 7. They are better off now compared to the past two decades. officially hired as a full-time government officer. it is still very difficult for most artists to depend solely on the sale of their works to make a living. Thai society is more open to modern art and artists. these artists usually had two roles.1 New Challenges As mentioned. 6. The old illusory scenario of silapin saihaeng [artists with an empty stomach]. Chalermchai Kositpipat.227 Also there are government study grants for lecturers and officials in government institutions. Instead. These new galleries mostly choose to function as alternative spaces and operate not for profit. modern Thai art has Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. art exhibitions and other related activities have not decreased in number. while modern art infrastructure has remained the same. The other most chosen alternative was to gain fame as well as fortune through being awarded in National Art Competitions. Therefore. These artists are widely accepted in their artistic originality.’230 The gallery boom and the excessive purchasing of artworks were almost brought to a halt after the brake of the economic crisis in mid 1997. He has acutely assimilated techniques drawn from traditional Thai art and culture and modern Western paintings. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 298 . It is apparent that apart from occasional financial aid from government agencies for modern artists as in the case of National Artists. Among them are Chakrabhand Posayakrit who succeeded in introducing a fresh stylistic rendering into portrait paintings. 7. there were 2-3 art openings in galleries in Bangkok almost every week. and one as an individual artist who conceived and realised their own ideas.2 Artist Career Early modern artists were mainly Bhirasri’s students who practiced realistic sculpture. These activities have been kept spinning by individual effort and support from non-governmental bodies. There are more new rich buying artworks’229 ‘Art has become an indicator of good taste and wealth a living standard influenced by exposure to Western cultural taste. Artists can now sell their works for high prices.’228 The art critic. new galleries have kept opening in the four years since 1997. Panya Vijinthanasarn and Thaiwijit Puengkasemsomboon. Other artists whose works have been highly sought by art collectors are Thawan Duchanee.around 1998 to provide grants for art lecturers to pursue substantial research on modern art. In some cases. In 2001. The visual art boom of the late 1980s to early 1990s was such a phenomenon that even an artist from another field like the notable poet Naowarat Pongpaiboon. They mostly started as students before becoming Bhirasri’s sculpture assistants or later teachers under the administration of the Fine Arts Department or at Silpakorn University. observed that ‘people at present are anxious about arts. Paisan Thiraphongvisanuporn. Up to present. the visual art of Thailand had changed rapidly and aggressively since artists exposed themselves to imported foreign ideas and techniques. of artists always living the poor life.

The rise of the Dhamma Group thus served as an open forum for practitioners not educated in official art insitutions. It continuously Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. then director of the gallery. another key disciple of Bhirasri. the so-called Art for Life movement rose to the forefront of the Thai modern art scene. Bangkok. traditional art practices were then challenged by Western realistic and academic art solidly introduced to Thailand by the Italian sculptor. 1976. From the late 1970s art circles welcomed several new players. It took us seven years before we could exhibit together again. and being self-taught prominently stood with his contemporary colleague Chang Saetang as a role-model for independent artists of the younger generation in the mid-1970s. Naew Ruam Silapin Haeng Prathetthai [Artists Front of Thailand]. Such conflicts naturally arise in art circles . was fired. who had trained in Rome started to apply creative painting training techniques to Silpakorn students and these subsequently developed into a basic painting course. Dhamma Group held their exhibition under the title of Art of the People during the political turmoil of October 6. As young Thai artists started to embrace the modernist philosophy of invention.. quantity and intensity. comprised of writers. the search for a new truth and an individual mode of expression totally different from those of the past. These stress the exploration of new forms and composition rather than painting skills. However.’234 The emergence of Dhamma Group and works of the members were highly regarded as a challenge to state totalitarianism and to the establishment of Silpakorn University. since it was impossible to be by yourself. Other groups of artists joined loosely since 1974 under the name. Thailand started to witness the greatest challenge of new art forms to those which had come earlier in terms of frequency. education. Year later. The National Gallery was founded in 1977 on Chao Fah Road.when there are imbalances of taste. founded Silpakorn University in 1944.’233 It was clearly set to counter the mainstream power of Silpakorn University.’ revealed Pratuang. musicians. there was only the National Art (Exhibition). Fua Hariphitak who vividly employed Impressionistic and Post-Impressionistic techniques in his paintings.both developed along the same lines. Meantime. Reaction is a force of energy. They just accused Klum Tham of being anti-America. Pratuang had coined the term chomyuth raisamnak232 [non-official warrior]. This initiative led to the foundation of wide practices of semi-abstraction and pure abstraction as seen during the late 1960s and 1970. However. ‘…as a way out for our colleagues. designers and visual artists from various institutions such as Silpakorn University and Poh Chang School. age and social conditions. ‘…there was a reaction of the guardians of traditional art against modern art and vice versa. which breathes new life into the ongoing activities in the art world. ‘Many of the exhibited works were seized by soldiers even though they did not understand the paintings. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 299 . The artists in this Art for Life movement used figurative and representational painting styles to convey their stories of a repressive society and nation under tyrannical government. The event signified decentralised activities that expanded to regional Thailand. 231 If we trace back to the dawn of modern art in Thailand. they could hardly avoid being subjected to suppression by the government as seen in the case of Dhamma Group and its leader Pratuang Emjaroen. Northern artists joined together in a group called Klum Lanna with their first exhibition at City Meeting Hall of Chiangmai province. better known in Thai as Silpa Bhirasri who after helping the Government to erect several national monuments. In his interview with Seeson. the first art school to offer a formal tertiary art education. Fua incidentally still agreed to help Professor Bhirasri continue teaching academic art to students in foundation courses. Bhirasri's favour towards academic art training was then challenged by his student. ‘At the time. Praphan Srisuta. and also at many times has been very far behind in terms of new creativity and flexibility to reflection social change. In the late 1960s. as a result of artists’ reflections on political and social disturbances and of their opposition to alienated abstract art .. Chalood Nimsamer. or sometimes even a denial and contradiction of traditional practice. Pratuang disclosed that the Dhamma Group had been founded in 1970. Kamchorn Sunpongsri reflected on the issue of the challenge of mainstream art that. Our works were totally rejected due to their standard.

sculpture works have received little recognition in both government and private competition venues. which owned the magazine]. From 1979. In other respects. So the works must be different every time they are exhibited. the modern art of Thailand witnessed another wave of new art practice which came in the form of mixed media as vigorously introduced by Kamol Tasananchalee.’ Meantime. But America is a big country.’237 The influx of globalisation in Thai society that caused an identity conflict has resulted in people’s craving to return to their roots and for self-identification. Another significant landmark in the crticial history of Thai art was the start of the journal Silapa Wathanatham [Art and Culture] by Sujit Wongthet.’241 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It is rather a socially inclusive approach. ‘since the old knowledge proved insufficient in providing explanation to new phenomena taking place in modern society.’236 The magazine in his view has offered to those seeking new angles to look at social changes of Thailand. a writer and ideological sympathiser of Kanchai Boonpan [the founder of Matichon Publishing.organized activities which mainly dealt with political issues. in that it recognised all forms and qualities of works. There were no competitions. ‘…Only a few people take hold of such social sites while other people. they erected 48 large billboard-size paintings along the middle of central Rachadamnoen Avenue and carried out other related political activities before being forced to dissolve by the Government in the so-called ‘Left defeated by the Right’ plot during the October 1976 events. Silapa Wathanatham in his view. The central activity of the group was organizing the Art Exhibition of Thailand which aimed at challenging the authority of the National Art Exhibition235 which they accused of giving favour to Silpakorn graduates. Prasanmitr Campus. ‘provides a central space for the multiple art and cultures of Thailand. In 1975. the dominance of Silpakorn University was challenged by their own associates and former graduates mainly comprised of sculptors under the name of the Thai Sculptors’ Group. Thakol Preeyakhanitpong. Sompot Upa-in. All works submitted were shown without prejudice. in his environmental and installation art exhibition at the National Gallery in 1980. ‘It tries to sell academic work to a non-academic audience. A large numbers of works were refused. Manas Siensingha. Nithi Eiewsriwong comments that although the magazine emphasised traditional Thai matters. The Art Exhibition of Thailand had a totally different approach to the National Exhibition of Art. Sathaporn Chaiyaseth and Singnoi Fusawasdithaporn. It obviously received overwhelming response from artists throughout the country and successfully extended opportunities to all artists regardless of some poor quality works. people will forget them. If the works change too often. Silapa Wathanatham. Wara Isawas wrote in the catalogue of the Group’s first exhibition at Silpakorn University Art Gallery in 1981 that ‘…sculpture has been de-fertilised in the past four years …(prior to the aggressive protest of the National Art Competition in 1984)…’240 During the years. The organization closed in 1987. key members of the Artists Front of Thailand slightly changed their direction and became the Art Community of Thailand before eventually being registered as the Arts Association of Thailand. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 300 . Chokchai Takpoh. it has challenged several aspects of the old customs.’239 During 1981-1982. New artists from various institutions had joined the group such as Wirun Tangcharoen and Amnaj Yensabai from Srinakharin Viroj University. He thought that ‘Thailand is rather small and has low audience numbers. Your work must have certain style that been developed over a period of seven to ten years before it can be changed. Sinsawasdi Yodbangtoey. Kamol spoke about the difference of artistic development between working in Thailand the States. has seriously challenged the authority of Fine Arts Department and the Office of the National Cultural Commission which has tended to publish works that offer socially exclusive views on art and culture. Kamchorn Soonpongsri.’238 In the latter half of 1970s. My show every four years in Thailand has had only just over a hundred viewers. ‘The juries always concluded that most sculptures submitted were under-qualified. The National Art Competition (Exhibition) was their main target. other art and cultures have been discarded at the margins. Among the members were Lawan (Daorai) Upa-in. a Thai artist living in the United States of America. There are not only reports on minorities but also folk art and traditions which have never been previously recognised.

Since Kamol Tasananchalee introduced his site-specific works to Thai audiences in 1980. What is the quality of art and cultural activities? What is the relationship between poverty and culture?’242 Amornrat observed that there were only art-related people who participated in this special event. and. Another united force of artists from various institutions emerged in 1982 under the name of Klum White (White Group). Art history is in my head not the people’s. I just haven’t yet achieved it. During 1981-1983. Thongsak Hongpaeng. the event raised the issue of poverty in their special section called Sabda ruamtook [sufferings sharing week]. but if it has some quality that is just a bonus.’ Uthit also quoted his artist colleague Kamin Lertchaiprasert that. In line with this new artistic expression was Kamol Phaosawasdee. bridges. Thailand has witnessed different three-dimensional works by various artists. Sanarong Singhasenee. ‘what is the definition and cause of poverty? How will cultural activities in Chaingmai Chadwang Sangkhom continue when there was no funding. Thus. Nonthiwat Chantanapalin. However. Kamol Phaosawasdee and Ithi Khongkakul used plastic and ready-made objects in their sculpture. rivers. …modern art has emerged in our society. a large scale sculpture made of plywood and Pratu haengsati [gate of consciousness]. walls. and Kwanmuang Yongprayoon. It was a movement set to be free from the dominance of Silpakorn University.as we have seen. Uthit thought that some people might say that Chiangmai Social Installation was quite slow to progress but ‘in fact it is even one step ahead. Wichai Sithirat created Tri-laksana in 1983. we must first have a museum to introduce art history to the community. a sculpture of door shape through which viewers can walk in and out. These artists were among a new generation that broke in to challenge the practices and notion of avant-gardism by abstract artists of the late 1960s. However. Parinya Tantisuk. ‘the goal of organising social installation is not to produce quality art. Thai society is always stepped over. Kamol Phaosawasdi from Chulalongkorn Uni. Chaingmai residents. unlike Loykrathong or Songkran festivals which preserved the old image of Chaingmai. Apinan Poshyananda came back from Europe and exhibited his installation and performance works entitled Sonsilp hai kaikrung [How to Explain Art to a Bangkok Cock] at Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art. Sriwan Janehattakarnkij. A year later. In its third year. founder of the project and lecturer from Chiangmai University relates that more Chaingmai residents knew about the event but paid it little attention. We must draw people together to Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Sarawuth Duangchampa from College of Fine Arts and Cheewa Komolmalai. Such as Chamruang Wichienkhet. Uthit Atimana. it is important to look beyond the quality of the art. It opened discussion on. Montien Boonma. another young artist who had earned his MFA in the United States. adopted Western contemporary art concepts by using found objects and borrowing images from pop culture juxtaposed with his mixed media works. Wiroj Chiamchirawat and Niti Wathuya. four key members eventually became art instructors at the Faculty of Painting. In 1992. Chainapa Lepacharn. Amornrat Mudthong reported in Krungthep Thurakit that the first event took place at seven temples. The group was later registered as the Association of Thai Sculptors in 1983. canals and neglected spaces. In 1985. the group was not active until the it organized a major sculpture exhibition to commemorate the 100th year of Silpa Bhirasri in 1992. the project had expanded to various public and private spaces in Chiangmai city using buildings. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 301 . Silpakorn University. It should draw people in. …We cannot wait for the classic method of going through museums and galleries before [people understand] Chiangmai Social Installation. a group of artists in Chiangmai initated a public art project called Chiangmai Chadwang Sangkhom (Chiangmai Social Installation). but to create a community culture. … This activity is aimed at facilitating a cultural network. Pichit Tangcharoen. Thongsak Hongpaeng. roads.Members of the group comprised of young instructors from Silpakorn University. It was comprised of young artists and instructors including Vichoke Mukdamanee. To wait for such cultural readiness is unbearable. According to standard system. the target audience still puzzled on what’s happening. an independent sculptor. Wichai Sithirat and Ithi Khongkhakul.

The organisers claimed that the event is based on the concept that art is a quest of Dhamma [moral truth] and a part of life-long open education. The general atmosphere was of a get-together of people from the same community to drink with a musical background. Mitr Jai-int. ‘The performances are the most doubtful expression in this event. one of the exhibiting artists. ‘It has certain meaning and recognises the significance of the old custom of laap-making. People can simply enjoy it without being pushed to accept it. the words which artists always claim as factors to consider in their art making. This is just a small example which indicates the loose nature of ‘openness’ meant by the organiser. a rumour was spread that Mitr Chai-int (another of the event’s founders) had been shot to death. an ex-Silpakorn University student distributed flyers with accusations against Thawan Duchanee. She also prasied Rirkrit Tiravanija’s project of cooking laap.’ However. They said. Chutima quoted Uthit as saying that ‘we emphasise how art can be used as a tool of community culture. who is generally considered a significant senior artist of Thailand. Thai Rath and Khaosod. … Moreover. The scandalous dispute took place during the opening of an art exhibition titled Silapathai ruamsamai haa sala lanna [Contemporary art by five Lanna (Northwestern) artists] presided over by Prime Minister Chuan Leekpai245. Stop pretending. Stop exploiting art to make a living. looking down on people.’ Upon this comment she cited Tasanai Sethaseree’s project of art discourse on the topic ‘discourse is art’ and Kosit Chatrathip’s invitation for people to come together to share their sufferings. She also reported that during the event. Art is just the tool for cultural construction. In my opinion. The exhibition was aimed at raising money for the Northern Youth and Women Development Fund. acting bizarre.’ Chutima cited a performance near the city canal in which the artist first took off his clothes to represent the beginning stage of humanity in order to satirize the dominance of materialism. Stop using hotels. a major conflict between two generations of artists broke out and made headlines on the front pages of the large-circulation newspapers. The hope to create a relationship with the local community may have turned into a provocation of unnecessarily outraged opposition from the target audience. or dressing like a hooker. art in this age should function as a bridge that draws people together. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 302 . kob naikala-krob [a frog under a coconut shell]. It is a pity that this third event has failed to develop activities that clearly promote the principal concept of the whole structure. to draw people to express themselves in the name of culture. It may result from a real understanding of creative activity’244 In late 1994. It was out of place and time. At the opening. a spicy minced chicken salad. Now we have started to exchange contacts not art. acting like a kangkhok khuenwar [a frog on wagon].’ The writer criticised the event as requiring substantial development since it had already continued for four years. ‘Stop making fake merit. it left no question or hints of the organiser’s objectives. Chutima praised the performance of youth group named mai-keedfai in that they staged simple theatre work which successfully drew attention from the general public. It can only serve small exclusive members’ group of art practitioners without being able to draw ideas from other general participants according to its purpose.246 After the incident Mitr was held in police custody at Bangrak Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Volvo cars or government houses for your cravings. Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn mentioned in an article that some people termed the incident ‘Happening Art of Mitr Jai-int’.nurture this link. or a kingka dai thong [lizard with gold necklace]. in every year the event becomes more like an experimental project which fails to produce any clear results providing solid ground for further development. They rather circled around criticism of capitalism while offering no constructive solotions to it. ‘However.’243 While Chutima Sooncharoen observed that in general the three Chiangmai Social Installation evevnts were simply an organiser’s attempt to extend the boundary of art in the way they preferred into a public contemporary art and cultural festival. being snobbish. Stop creating ethnic (northern – lanna) legends. for local people. The writer thought that ‘It was an over-acted performance which was not worth the concrete results.

In 1995. It questioned the boundary of art making. Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn248 noted that the protest of Silpakorn people was. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 303 . But of course. published a five-page article titled ‘Senthang-panich yukthong khong silapatha’ [the commercial road of art in the golden era]. but our souls and thinking power will also be reduced to the point where our successors can only inherit our inferior genes’.police station on a charge of violating social order. and was rather aimed at making Thawan lose face. distributing flyers during an opening was not a customarily constructive criticism. heng suay – huay taek [shits happen]. so much so that some lecturers and students marched in protest against the publication. There has to date been no official report on the settlement of the dispute after the lawsuit. ‘Silpakorn people insulted Phoojadkarn with the same language (they) claimed Phoojadkarn had used in the report against Professor Silpa’. whether objects or incidents become art when we think they are. A major dispute between Silpakorn University and the Phoojadkarn News Group broke out after Phoojadkarn Rai Sabdah [Weekly Manager]247. ‘it is the result of a deep-rooted hierarchical society that one keeps on waiting will diminish from the conscience of the society’s members. Fro my point of view the logic and consequences of the dispute involves the fact that Silpakorn University is a long established art institution. ‘It is just a teenager reaction which has been accelerated and supported by teachers that has gone out of control. All these incidents are baabor raisara [crazy non-sense]. artistic competence. if this performance by Mitr was ‘happening art’. he must be content to accept the consequences for it. then Thawan’s filing a legal suit against him at different courts nationwide could be likewise. He was reportedly sued later by Thawan Duchanee at twelve courts in twelve provinces. but it was an art piece which produced a destructive result rather than a constructive one. Mitr’s action was inapprporiate in terms of space and occasion. Besides. ‘narrow minded’. The report and picture stirred outraged reactions from Silpakorn associates. especially its Painting Faculty. Paisan goes even further in colourful language: ‘It can only be said that all the past. Even if Mitr claimed that Thawan was seeking benefits out of merit making and by manipulating art for his own purposes. However. The most problematic aspect of the report was the phot-collage on the front page of Professor Silpa Bhirasri’s statue with a caption written in on its pedestal: ‘Sale 50 %’. ‘It shows the decline of Thai society’. Or one may call the incident ‘happening art’. considering the use of emotional and vehement language. The challenges come from ‘inside’ and ‘outside’ circles whether these are independent artist groups. ‘It is a dark age which is biting and swallowing the art of Thailand. or artists associated with Poh Chang College. The article offered an insightful report on Thai art that had fallen under the commercial ploy which neglected quality. Is one free to use any means to create art according to one’s beliefs? If Mitr considered that such a mode of expression was practicable in a liberal society. It is not only that we will remain foolish and backwards. Prasanmitr University. This included arrest by police and the lawsuit filed against him by the disputant according to his rights. They condemned the paper for its lack of respect to Professor Silpa Bhirasri who is regarded as the founder of Silpakorn University and modern art in general. philosophy. Mitr’s action could also be considered a violent attack opportunistically hiding beneath the social demand for a critical culture.’. ‘blindly attached to the past’. present as well as all the upcoming conflicts are completely loi toi[jerks]. Chulalongkorn Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. One is that it was more likely to have been a personal attack than a creative criticism. and has always been accused of being an art mafia so that it becomes the prime target for all challenges in respect of art politics. It should have been undertaken in an exclusively audience-oriented site. The event provokes various interpretations. art ideology and new ideas. The blind practice of seniority has damaged the creative potentialities in Thai society. the increase of critical analysis in news coverage started to challenge the stability of the old establishment. ‘It shows the degrading contemporary art of Thailand. For Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn. Paisan’s newspaper report spread the news of the dispute even further given the publication in Seeson of a photograph of the incident and a quotation from the flyers.’ He also noted that. conflicts of interests between artists. The rapid downfall of wisdom and creativity’.

the intention lacked cautious consideration on the basis that this was a highly sensitive issue. an annual Contemporary Art Competition was started by Thai Farmers Bank. known as Chitrakam Bualuang [Bualuang Painting Competition] in 1974. seemed old-fashioned in the view of modern people. The establishment. But the closed reception of criticism among art practitioners has largely discouraged the development of art criticism in Thailand. From the above circumstances. ‘rude’. The dispute stirred up a wide-ranging discussion among the Thai press on the ethical principles of media about on what grounds should concrete criticism be based in the specific context of modern Thai society which is non-opinion oriented. Many private companies started to show interest in organizing modern art competitions as part of their image building. that is rather hilarious’. in this case. represented backwardness. In 1979. Silpakorn people claimed that they were offended by the manipulated image of Professor Bhirasri. However.2 Space and Position of Modern Art and Artists The National Art Exhibition was not the only venue for the emergence of young artists. Taking a stand opposite to that of Silpakorn University meant that one was standing of the same side as progressive minds. and Chiangmai University which were established after Silpakorn. it is evident that inconsiderate criticism of art critics and the Thai press is many times part of their commercial exploitation of issues to sell newspapers and has always been the case. In the meantime. 7. was still valid and justified according to Thai ethical values. Silpakorn University apparently had no allies during the conflicts with Phoojadkarn. are sensationalist and often distort facts by collaging together quotations given by news resources and interviewees which confirm the assumptions of the article. Sometimes. colourful and controversial. Under this circumstance. not the content of article. The issue of iconic manipulation raised by Silpakorn University is viewed by others as reflecting the closed attitude of Silpakorn people in this modern age. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 304 . and ‘narrow minded’250.University. no art education institutions or any related organisations have learned from the incident that the Thai art world still lacks a critical of discourse in modern art (which is non-biased) and some measures must be undertaken to create a constructive and ‘friendlier atmostphere’ towards the practice of art criticism in Thailand. It is notable that until now art theory has never been offered as major subject for Bachelor degrees in any art universities. It is generally known that reports in most publications of Phoojadkarn News Group. Silpakorn University and its related activities. viewed through examples from the anti-establishment movement. it seemed that the tone used in criticising the reaction of Silpakorn people was rather aggressive and emotional. The Bangkok Bank initiated competition of traditional paintings. ‘pathetic. In comparison to that Paisan’s reports in commenting on the action of both sides. Silpakorn people have held firmly that showing respect and protecting the ruined image of their beloved one (Professor Bhirasri) who had greatly contributed to the rich art history of Thai society. The demonstration movement of Silpakorn associates which in some respects appeared to be very emotional and radical. These challenges have been aimed at claiming each institution’s territory in the Thai art world. … They should be more considerate and not overlook the principles of media and their proper role. Blown-up headlines and images are often over-exaggerated so that many times they actually decrease the credibility of the reports which sometimes offer substantial facts and critical analysis. As Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn noted after the incident ‘The (Phoojadkarn newspaper) writing style is always provocative. Yet. As listed in the previous pages. especially the weekly issue. …the editor in chief (in the Bhirasri case) revealed that he wanted to conjure a negative shock to the readers. while Paisan’s reflections on Phoojadkarn’s conduct were actually made with in rather observant critical statements. there was the first art competition held by Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.’249 It seems in general that the Phoojadkarn News Group tends to ignore the Thai spirit of taking into consideration other’s people feelings and places emphasis on material value. the articles are exaggerated and lack responsibility in reflecting views from every side of the conflict. there were also comments like. In 1986.

Thai society still gives a lot of credit to the evaluation of artistic values undertaken by the committees of these competitions and to public exhibitions which seem to be handled professionally. But it did not seem to attract more artists to submit their works. Toshiba (Thailand) also started their Toshiba Brings Good Things to Life art competitions. video works. The results were not so different from the Contemporary Art Exhibition of Young Artists or other forums. patrons. time and process based works. performances and transient works or art events which involve audience participation. . Surasak noted that ‘once we tried to classify the age. Surasak thought that. leaving only its grand title. leadership and state representation of the National Art Exhibitions had almost completely declined. a Silpakorn Professor. the National Art Exhibition had faced a severe challenge from nonSilpakorn trained artists which eventually led to the restructuring of jury selection in 1984 when representatives from other art-teaching Universities took seats.. They have begun to loose their prestigious role and have simply become a forum for the exposure of art students and graduates alike.254 The latest Southeast Asian art competition which was started in 1999 by the Philip Morris Group of Companies offers over a large cash amount for the first prize winner and regional recognition. obviously being dominated by neo-traditional works in both form and content. as well as the press which still enthusiastically pays attention to almost every art competition. However.. who had failed to win any awards in the Contemporary Art Exhibition of Young Artists held in the same year. Surasak cited the artist awarded the gold medal of the 31st National Art Exhibition in 1985.the Petroleum Authority of Thailand. Thus the works from these competitions do not represent movement of Thai contemporary art in the same way as did the National Art Competition in the early 1950s. such as site-specific installation. the prestige. the fame and medals. The limited selection criteria. ‘After Professor Silpa Bhirasri passed away251. they also guarantee a better cash prize. During 1977–1983. government authorities. a number of Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Besides. collectors.’252 Bhirasri died in 1961 and there were soon several critical incidents such as the protest against the jury’s decision in 1964. At present. a certain degree of quality and a wider variety of artist educational backgrounds. award winners of the National Art Exhibitions had been the same group of people awarded at the Contemporary Art Exhibitions of Young Artists held by Silpakorn University. After the major restructuring of jury members in 1984. ‘the National Art Exhibition will merely serve as a platform for young artists to gain experience and expertise before entering in the more competitive and motivated private art competitions.255 The works awarded in these various competitions often had similar styles and contents and many times the artists awarded were the same persons. In the catalogue of the 45th National Art Exhibition in 1999. since these competitions used almost the same group of selecting committees or artists trained from the same institutions. the National Art Exhibition lost its anchor.’253 If there was no solution to this downturn in status.The artists who participated felt that there were no leaders they could depend on. The National Art Exhibition which used to be the sacred pillar of artistic supremacy and the central power of established art began to loose its momentum. there was still a large quantity of entries. space and timing of these competitions can only accommodate standard framed and endurable works that can be practically moved and transported. as seen in the1987 exhibition when most of the works submitted were by art students whose ages ranged from 22–26 years old. these competition venues have gradually proved incapable of show-casing works that move away from conventional practices. especially those held by banks. In 1989. They continue to earn general public trust and respect from young artists. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 305 . the quality was at the level where a youth could be at their best in age and experience. Besides. education and freedom of artistic expression. ‘This even ruined the viability of the National Art Exhibition’. Thus. published an article commenting on the concern that the Exhibition’s prestige had declined. we noticed that most submitted works were by young artists. Surasak Charoenwongsa. Therefore.

Their art thesis show commanding artistic adeptness but they rather repeat preceding graduates’ works. who has regularly contributed on modern Thai art to various magazines and newspaper in the past twenty years. finance and business-oriented subjects. like massive haunting public sculptures. there is hardly any room where we can work outside the influence and structure of Western art.2 Education Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn thought that art education in Thailand lacks a solid foundation and structure.1. students are encouraged to improve their artistic skills and techniques rather than their ideas.259 Likewise. The art curriculum used in primary and secondary schools limits students’ imagination and creativity. Their works should have been more advanced. Whether Modern Thai art history can be traced back to 1866. 8. a well-known neo-traditional artist and university lecturer at Silpakorn University. most art-makers of this age hardly deny Western dominance in their works. Instead. Thaiwijit Puengkasemsomboon. There are shortages of texts on art. There are no works 100% rooted in Thai traditions. Students are only encouraged to study Western art. Problems in Thai Art World 8. He straightforwardly states that ‘no Thai Prime Ministers have ever had interests or real tastes in art. since we are skillfully equipped. there have been repetitive criticisms and reports of the same problems and shortages in the modern Thai art society. as steps to ‘go inter’. Even farang also recognise it. Until now when the world has got closer. as the Japanese have successfully achieved before hands. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 306 . they have sought other alternative forums. those likely to provide a career such as sciences. a leading abstract artist saw that ‘Silpakorn students are highly skilled but lack of thoughts and creativity.’260 Paisan noted that art education in Thailand has been totally dominated by Western knowledge: ‘The learning and teaching art over half of this century have been moulded after Western standards.’257 It is generally known that ex-prime minister Chuan Leekpai went to Silpasueksaa School (the present College of Fine Arts) before his later graduation after law studies at Thammasat University. Thus. Children’s thoughts and imagination are dominated by their parents’ preferences over certain areas of studies. many artists travelled overseas to have in-depth experience of Western art and its process. especially in the area of history. There are numbers of roads which have been under construction for over a period of ten years which are unlikely to be finished. Among them is the striking ‘Hopewell’ project of an elevated train and expressway which is now left with its rows of hundreds bare-concrete columns jutting out into the sky. we tend to focus on the study of the background and history of Western art. both local and overseas. Even Prime Minister Chuan who went to art college was also a big disappointment.258 With regard to tertiary art education. the problems of the Thai art world remain the same. We can do so. or 1949.’261 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.local and internationally-known Thai artists have never participated in any of those art competitions. 8. has observed that art education in Thailand has focused on techniques such as painting and print making. Even in art history classes. Panya Vijinthanasarn. totally the opposite of Western tertiary art education. has at many times thoroughly examined and criticized the state’s policy on visual arts.1. Thus.256 8. At Silpakorn University. The following are the most frequently raised problems which have been addressed over the past two decades. Over these past 50 years. 1934. Bangkok.1 Government Policy Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn. They could have stood equally aside Western art.1 All-time Problems in Modern Thai Art World Thailand has many unfinished projects.

It is designed to represent the owners’ prosperity and good tastes that are actually ‘superficial’ and deprived of pure values.265 Kamol Tasananchalee noted. collectors. showcasing both visual and performing arts of local and international artists. Such a significant art institution had barely received any funding from the government. Whereas visual arts fails to draw great attention from the public and art activities have hardly been developed into a real business in Thai society. He further commented that a significant factor providing such shortages and instability of the Thai art scene is lack of commercial skills.4 Art Professionals According to Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn. critics. horsilp bhirasri (Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art) had opened for the public for free (admissions were charged only on viewing theatres and performances). shopping centers which are totally aimed at selling. They all look the same. ‘Music and films have become industries which are still predominantly popular. ‘Thai culture has been totally dominated by the West.’268 He further commented that because of the lack of good art museums. the major funding for all expenses and staff salary came from Chumbhot-Panthip Foundation. Paisan on the contrary strongly criticised modern art for its extensive business-oriented development. It had to rely on donations and support from the government which came once in many years. Parinya Tantisuk. ‘Art that tends to serve capitalist society is characterised by its material concern. despite the Princess’s provision for the Institution’s funding. Ulitmately. ‘From the past. if we trace back to an article published in the same journal three years earlier.267 Paisan Theerapongwisanuporn criticised the operation of the existing National Art Gallery thus: ‘the National Art Gallery on Chaofah Road is not an art museum. Thai art society lacks art professionals in all areas: art historians. it was finally forced to close due to the lack of funding as well as conflicts over the property and assets of the foundation among the founder’s successors. …Young artists now price their works extremely highly. Their lives have been much improved from the past 20 years. We may expect [something] from the private organisations but it is still very difficult. Then we dig out our national treasures and sell them till the nation is finished… These all result from the lack of museums that really function. curators. It had to organise more performing Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It could not therefore be self-dependent.269 ‘…I have raised this issue so often that Seeson readers may begin to reflect on their boredom with my repetition of reports and criticisms on this matter. an artist and lecturer from Silpakorn University. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 307 .’270 The Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art is an example of a modern art gallery founded and managed by a private foundation that contributed greatly to the Thai art scene for over fourteen years. as well as art journals. many artists gain more recognition from the society.’266 8. Thavorn Ko-udomvit commented that ‘few Thai artists are internationally recognised because we have lacked support and good management.’263 In 1992. but merely a rotating art venue that has been badly run and managed. civilisations and technologies. it had become center of vibrant art and culture of Thailand. However. Since then no other art centres or museums have managed to fill the lost dynamic platform this institute had left after over a decade of operation. The Thais only know about trading and purchasing foreign cultures. The working environment is dull. Once Princess Panthip passed away. During its time. The old saying that artists always live the hard life can no longer apply. Several artists have luxurious cars and residences. during the 1970s and early 1980s. we cannot rely on the government. …Such circumstances create new art spaces in hotels.5 Modern Art Museum The demand for a tangible modern art museum have been voiced frequently over seminars and art columns in newspaper and journals. Thai students are provided with no basic art infrastructure that will help support their progress. the funding also vanished. revealed that ‘There are not many art exhibitions showing in Thailand.’262 However.264 On the lack of art professionals. There are nouveau riches collecting modern art …Water colour paintings are high in market demand. Paisan pointed that Thai artists were no longer poor.8. ‘At this time. They have more income. ‘regarding art management.

1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 308 .’272 Damrong Wong-uparaj.’273 At the same seminar. However. These would be clearly separated from the exhibition areas and managed professionally to generate sufficient incomes to support the management of the museum.arts events to generate revenues. First-class art has hardly been shown in Asia. Channarong Pornrungroj at Chulalongkorn University. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. to be built as the BMA Art Centre on the property of the BMA. The two are among board members of the Rama IX Art Museum Foundation. Instead. the condition was that the company have the rights to profit from the parking space in the building for certain period before the building came to be totally utilised by the BMA. it has a limited budget which results in discrimination in the recruitment of staff. We should be able to manage this in the future. It had organised a design competition and finally awarded the design to the entry by Robert G. the Thai art society will still have to wait indefinitely for the birth of a tangible modern art museum since Samak Sundaravej succeeded Dr. both mentioned the plan for an establishment of a new art museum at the site of the old government Tobacco Monopoly Offices on New Ratchadapisek Road. at a corner of Pathumwan junction in the heart of Bangkok city. However. not a single art gallery has been developed to a certain international standard as in other civilised countries.275 However. Wibun Leesuwan. Prof. many art professionals attended and expressed their views about the need for art museum in Thailand. We still have hope for the building of good art gallery in Thailand. Although our art has stepped into the new period following Western traditions for over half a century. auditorium. Sometimes. This is because we do not have museums which meet international requirements in terms of the security which the Japanese and Koreans can achieve.274 All these hopes had come fruition with the Bangkok Metropolitan Art Centre Project which had been initiated by Bangkok Metropolitan Administration (BMA) during the administration of the governor. the project has not yet been approved. It was to be well-equipped with world-class exhibition spaces. Bhichit and his advisor Kraisak Choonhavan had set up a foundation to run the project called Moolanithi silapawatanatham heng krungthep mahanakhon’ [The Art and Culture Foundation of Bangkok]. Ltd. Dr. a former Minister of Finance and Kraisak Choonhavan. Monthien Boonma. business and political leaders like Tharin Nim-manheamin.. It also has a very low organisational status. Thus. he announced the withdrawal of the project. shopping and commercial buildings. The BMA under the supervision of Dr. Meanwhile. It will have the same function as the temples of olden times used have as the community’s art centre. claiming that the BMA actually had actually no budget. to be self-reliant.’271 During a seminar ‘Horsilp nai prathet-thai mummong tang-tang’ [art galleries in Thailand: different perspectives] organised by Asst. Boughey and Associates Co. According to them. Bhichit as the new BMA Governor in July 2000. the present director had to pay out from his pocket without knowing when he would receive reimbursement from the foundation. souvenir and book shops. In addition. the hub of business. It may be as good as that in Singapore. suggested that preparation for qualified museum staff should be undertaken. a renowned installation artist.. no government has ever taken the matter seriously. Bhichit Rattakul from 1996 to 1999. an adviser to the Chaat Thai Party. operating under the supervision of Archaeology Division of Department of Fine Arts. a senior artist and former lecturer of Silpakorn University added that ‘the National Gallery of Thailand cannot be regarded as a state museum due to its deficiency in several aspects. the project was expected to receive approval from the Prime Minister and scheduled to open within three years from the time of the seminar. Potential museum staff should be sent to study and trained in museums abroad. library. an artist and lecturer from Silpakorn University thought that ‘the modern art gallery will become a centre of modern people. the museum was also accommodate commercial rented areas for art-related service retails. Though there have been many demands from art society. he turned to an offer by a Japanese investor who proposed to build an art center in the city for free. The Art Centre was set to house the modern art collection of Thailand and present the diversity of modern Thai art and culture through various activities. Within two weeks of his inauguration as Governor. cafeteria.

photography and conceptual art. prints.In these circumstances. It will provide spaces for shops of the Support Foundation. we do not have to worry about management since they must have efficient staff. In his view. a high administrative officer of the Art and Culture Foundation of Bangkok. Artists and art professionals have gathered to organise activities to raise public awareness on the significance of having a proper museum at the expense of society. There have been series of protests after the rejection of the former design and construction plan of BMA Art Center.6 Alienation Between Modern Art and Thai Soceity Paisan Thirapongwisanuporn observed that modern art is still alienated from Thai society. otherwise they wouldn’t be able to collect any money…’277 It is clear that the definition of a modern art centre indicated by the Art and Culture Foundation’s representative and that by the new governor are totally different. who has agreed to follow the brief and has offered pay total investment costs. Now it is managed under the Ministry of Education. Samak has now agreed to change the nature of the project previously put together. it is likely that the conflicts will continue until the end of the new Governor’s term. Pipat Pongrapeeporn. This incident testifies to the old cycle of problems in Thai society. during the past administration. sculpture. poverty in Thailand has prevented the Thai people from being able to appreciate art. Thus. Bhichit and Mr. That modern art in Thailand has never been seriously considered on the same level as evidence of cultural civilisation and national pride which existing art seems to hold. has previously been accused of not being a transparent project. On the rooftop will be an amazing zoo and garden. It has long been debated among artists and art professionals whether art should be produced to serve society and the public. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 309 . a national artist remarked on his art career that ‘…as for the art of today. or to what degree should it be held under that function. the hope of artists. However. has been given an opportunity to take over the responsibility. building design and all. we do not create it only for the purpose of public viewing … Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. to accord with the developer’s proposal. Why do we overlook the benefit that the Japanese company has offered? Take the Thailand Cultural Centre for example. They will collect the parking fees since the building will be located near the BTS and the National Stadium at Patumwan intersection. 8. except that they will earn benefits from the 600 car-parking lots.’278 With regard to the alienation of art and society. Mr. Also. saving the BMA any financial responsibility. They will be responsible for the whole construction cost. one that is wasteful and beyond the capability of Bangkok Metropolitan officials to administer. ‘Our society’s conditions do not encourage the existence of art including paintings. project and initiatives always depend on a one-man vision and effort which is not in accordance with any national cultural policy (and we will never be certain whether there is one) or any public agenda. It will be a 700 million baht building with a sixstorey car park. This important project with its cultural and commercial mandates has attracted investors and notably one Japanese developer. protest activity still continues and has expanded to include an alliance with people in other cultural and art related fields. subject matter in art has at some points been held responsible as the cause of the conflict. stated that ‘this project. and art lovers both at home and abroad. It is rather an alienated culture brought in from the West and any efforts to come to terms with it have hardly been encouraged by the groups involved. I have decided that this should be the way to go since the BMA will not have to pay. It is reported that this museum project had organised an event that generated over four million baht which would be the seed money for the operation and would use the BMA’s budget of 300 million on the construction of the building. his advisor. a foundation co-founded by Dr. Underground will be an aquarium. The closing-down of private art museums and galleries as well as recent conflicts over the BMA project inevitably indicates that in Thailand. ‘I think there is something. We can save our budget over 300 million baht. At the time of the writing. The Japanese will be giving the same thing regarding this museum.Kraisak Choonhavan. Are artists free to pursue their own thoughts and imagination without having any social concerns? Kamol Tasananchalee.’276 But in a different view Governor Samak Sundaravej revealed during a TV interview.

Thammasat and Silpakorn have started to offer higher degrees in such fields. in the same article he mentioned that ‘society is stepping into an age of economy-driven development. Art that reflects political conflicts and social life is overlooked and erased rapidly from the art chain. mainly through individual efforts of art professional and private indivudals.’ These subjects mentioned are inevitably regarded as social commentary. providing exhibition venues.’ However. if they show or suggest the effects of problems incurring. the works which seek the progress of emotional expression that is free from social problems. Niti Watuya. especially those works that tend to convey beauty of forms and feeling.’281 8. although art society is generally not in unity. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 310 . Agencies like Fine Arts Department and Office of the National Cultural Commission which should be held responsible for all art and cultural matters in Thailand. During the past decades. Nevertheless.280 Panya Vijinthanasarn. It has thus seemed that Silpakorn University has over the past two decades been the sole government body which has been active and held authority and a significant role in the promotion and shape of modern Thai art. though they normally work on very small budgets allocated from various sources both local and overseas. creating art festivals together with various different public communities as well as becoming the centre for the study of both traditional and modern art. it could be said that the development of modern art in Thailand has largely progressed. Yet. the growing interest in the science of art management has rapidly increased.but we create it to reflect our time …our thoughts … our feelings (that are) transformed onto canvases or sculptures …our expressions are free. ‘It is a superficial expression just to keep drawing flowers. Its performances includes organising art competitions. They have at many times proved to be more efficient than government agencies. plants and all beautiful animals. The government has always been the target of hope. Major universities such as Chulalongkorn. in the late 1990s. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. It is almost totally wiped off at this time.’ This view is even contradictory to his earlier statement in the same article when he noted that ‘the popular subjects for young artists concern the threatened natural environment and the negative effect of new technology on human life. many attempts among art professtionals to set up associations or types of organisation which will help support and maintain the continuity of artistic activities outside the unreliable governmental system.’282 Despite the problems mentioned. expectations and disappointments. They know automatically that they have to be on their own. have usually lacked good knowledge and understanding of modern art value and management. asked his contemporaries to be more aware of social problems. remain incomplete. a self-trained artist proudly disclosed that ‘now artists do not think of gaining assistance from anyone. Our works can be more stimulating than just being a pleasurable object. the art community and artistic creativities have been kept spinning and dynamic.’279 Paisan referred to modern art of 1991 that ‘most artworks represent individualism.7 The Lack of Funding It seems that most modern Thai artists from different periods have had to rely totally on themselves. Non-governmental art galleries and organisations have started to play a major role in creating dynamic art activities and environments.

naturalistic painting. like Manohra and Phra Lor. portraiture. The Children Hospital has been one institution that has reprinted Chakrabhand’s paintings regularly. The Thai Farmers Bank. Other well known works of his include sections of the Ramakian (Thai version of Ramayana) cloister murals in Wat Phra Keo. Later. a well known elite school aimed at educating young upper-class Thai males. in the Thai royal palace in Chiangmai. It is only the very wealthy who can afford to commission portraits or other works from him. and continues this lifestyle until the present day. he replied. When asked what less than a million Baht would produce. His portraits costs vary according to the size and the budget of the customers. He has also been able to continuously sell almost all of his artworks since. he has never faced financial difficulties. allowing access to his art for the wider population. especially those produced for private clients. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University. In the international arena. He does. charge cost-prices for some kind of works. rod-puppetry (hun krapok) restoration and preservation.. however. Presently he is considered to be Thailand’ s ‘renaissance man’ and is the most popular and expensive portrait painter in Thailand. PhraAbhai Mani. These cards introduced the international community to classical Thai painting styles. and even before. At the College. he not only learnt various common subjects stated in the curricula. Lilit Phra Lor. 1946 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Chakrabhand Posayakrit has had a strong interest in painting since he was very young. a postage stamp portrait’. one of the great patrons of Thai art. traditional Thai painting. Not long after his graduation he made the decision to be an independent artist. the Buddhist faith and Thai literary works like Ramakian. although he continues to work as an occasional guest lecturer or speaker. the 1977 UNICEF’s greeting cards incorporated Chakrabhand’s renditions of traditional Thai paintings based on the scenes of Inao. particularly mural paintings on the walls of some temples intended for public appreciation or ‘merit-making’. after which he retired since he did not wish to be professionally employed. Chakrabhand’s commission works are distributed in various parts of Thailand and overseas. Inao and Sang Thong (all famous Thai historical tales and myths). ‘Oh. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 311 . he was also trained in proper etiquette and the manners expected of the social elite. Customers can trust him since he always produces the best quality portraits.. as they normally start at “many millions of Baht”. natural and lively with unique colour pigments and they are widely recognized as bringing forth the hidden beauty of each person. His inspiration for his rendition of traditional Thai paintings mainly comes from two sources. techniques of self-discipline and planning. done when he was only 24 years old. With his well-to-do background.2d Thai Artists’ Materials Chitanana Sandilands with John Clark Appendix One: Structure of Thai Artists’ Income 1. Born: Bangkok. Some even said that every sitter will look more beautiful in his portraits. He was a lecturer at Faculty of Decorative Arts at Silpakorn University in his earlier forties for a short period of five years. He studied secondary education in Vajiravudh College. and include scenes from classical Thai literature. commissioned Chakrabhand for several canvases for the Bank’s offices in New York. he studied and graduated from the Faculty of Painting. Fortunately he came from a well-established family in Bangkok which supported him both financial and emotionally in his pursuit of an artistic career. Hamburg and Los Angeles. Chakrabhand Posayakrit Art Medium: Modernist painting [oil & acrylic]. On the new year and other special occasions. a traditional Thai literature composed by King Rama II. as he emphasises bodily postures and facial expressions with less concern to accurate details of human faces. such as the one at Wat Treethotsathep in Bangkok.Chapter 9. his artworks are reprinted in the forms of greeting cards for charity purposes. More than 30 paintings were collected in a Thai Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. visually brilliant. he graduated from Silpakorn University.

is another kind of art that has attracted Chakrabhand’s interest.000-1. and were later printed and reprinted in the form of pocket books. He was a pioneer in the development of Thai painting from the traditional two dimensional style to a more modern three dimensional style with strong and visually beautiful influences clearly visible from traditional paintings. Chakrabhand has also used his talents to produce illustrations for many Thai magazines. was valued at between Baht 3. calendars and commemorative volumes for cremations.505.000 and Baht 1. In 1973-1979. his rod puppet performances have resulted in a far higher level of interest in this type of Thai art within Thai society and today he produces these puppets as commissioned works.000-4.800. with light. diaries.500. Particularly in the recent Christie’s auction of July.500. inChiang Rai. Some of his artworks were auctioned through Christie’s (Thailand) in the years 1999 and 2000. Another rare non-portrait work. and his imaginative and intuitive interpretation of his subjects. particularly copying the figure of the Naga (mythical snake) from the labels of matchboxes. but it was not sold.000. shade and linear perspective.banker’s private art collection in Bangkok. His columns were very popular.000 (including the prevailing Value Added Tax). they have also created new puppets based on the styles and forms of traditional puppets. However these activities can be treated as his hobbies and not comparable to his main source of income.000 3. Flowers in the Studio.800. At the age of five he displayed a marked talent for drawing.000. His distinctive style and pride in Thai heritage differentiates Chakrabhand from other Thai artists. one of Chakrabhand’s greatest master pieces. executed in 1964.despite the economic recession. 2000. was valued at between Baht 1.000 2.800.800. He also wrote other books.800. At the age of fourteen Chalermchai became interested in poster painting for the local movie theatre and trained in this form of commercial art until he was allowed to paint posters by himself. Chalermchai Kositpipat Art Medium: Neo-traditional painting Born: Chiang Rai. Many stories were regarded as a best-selling and award-winning short book. the portrait named “The King’s Mother”.000 Christie’s (Bangkok)Auctions: 2000 Year of Work Type of Work 1964 1990 Oil on canvas Oil on canvas Size of work (cm) 76x61 112x85 Quoted price (Bht) 1.800.000 Sale price (Bht) None 5. His father did not encourage study to develop this talent but rather employed his son in drawing promotional material for his grocery store. he also wrote short travel stories for Lalana women’s magazine since he was a very close friend of the owner and editor.000 Sale price (Bht) 161. Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1999 Year of Work Type of Work 1969 Watercolour on paper heightened with whites Size of work (cm) 28x37 Quoted price (Bht) 100. some of them focused on the proper social etiquettes based on his formal training in Vajiravudh College and his own experiences. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 312 . cards. the highest price at a Christie’s auction in Thailand. It was sold for Baht 5. In general Chakrabhand’s uniqueness in the Thai art world stems from his combination of traditional Thai art forms.000 to Baht 4. and western aesthetic values in his natural paintings and portraits. artistic talents and expertise He and young craftsmen have not only perfectly restored old puppets.505. In addition. 1954 Residence: Bangkok Gender:Male Chalermchai Kositpipat was born in the northern region of Thailand. Rod puppetry. a nearly extinction traditional Thai art form.000-120. books. His dream was to Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. that of commissioned portraits and other paintings.

he moved slowly away from strict realism and began experimenting with other styles. He credits his Buddhist faith for his inspiration. meditation and the study of Buddhist scripture. This work brought him much fame and recognition. a work sponsored by the Temple Foundation. as well as the Buddhistic Paintings Exhibition at the Monthien Hotel in Bangkok. Since completion of that work. famous for his outspoken ways. Indicative / average cost for artwork – paintings. While studying there. located in his hometown in Chiangrai. his poster and realism style of painting was not well received by his teachers and fellows. winning several awards including the first prize (traditional art) in the Third Bua Luang Exhibition of Paintings in1977 at the age of only 23.000-920. departing significantly from the ritualistic and formalised traditional mode of temple decoration.5x178. Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Size of work (cm) 60x48 138.000 30.000 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. London. the calm of inner states of mind found by himself through meditation as well as the virtue of spiritual purity.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1998 Year of Work 1986 1993 1993 Type of Work Serigraphy A. Chalermchai deeply appreciates the traditional Thai paintings produced by a very famous Thai royal artist named Prince Naris.000 450.000 10. Sri Lanka. Chalermchai. A theme of much of Chalermchai’s past work. his simple and informal style of presentation together with an earthy use of language and humour which has attracted and entertained audiences successfully. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 313 . among other prominent and well-established artists. He is currently sponsoring the construction of a new Buddhist chapel at Wat RongKhun. are all inspirations the names for his distinctive style of Thai classical art. observing daily activities of common people in the temple. After graduation Chalermchai achieved quick success. In 1973 he entered the Faculty of Painting. As a popular guest speaker. In 1980 Chalermchai held the Buddhism and Belief solo exhibition in Sri Lanka.5 88x62. on occasion. he has inspired the work of the young generation of artists and fostered a sense of art appreciation and knowledge in others. popular for both his extravert and unique personality and his artworks.000 Sale price (Bht) 16. Observation of traditional mural paintings. as it did for his collaborative partner. however. In later years he received sponsorship for further study and study tours in Sri Lanka. Germany and England. Baht 16. both artists have become well known and respected Thai contemporary artists. Bangladesh. and developed an innovative and unique style for the interior and exterior decorations. and for his calmness and confidence. Japan. 1998-2000. an idea opposed by his father. Chalermchai Kositpipat is a young and well-established Thai artist. His dedication to the Buddhist faith and the use of his talents to display his faith are displayed in a few years work on the mural designs and paintings at Wat Buddhapadipa in Wimbledon. contributed his talents to less privileged group sin Thailand and other countries. Nonetheless. Germany and the USA. once he finished his high school education he was allowed to study art at the Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts.P.5 Quoted price (Bht) 5. His own faith and inner visions are also clearly represented in his works. the silver medal award in the 1978 National Exhibition of Art and second prize in 1979. and one still predominant in his works today. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University where he spent five years training. However it was a 1972 exhibition by the then radically surrealist painter Pratuang Emjaroen that began Chalermchai’s development of an individual style. the Mahajanaka Literature and other projects commemorated for the King and other royal family members on various auspicious occasions.000 140. completing a Bachelor of Fine Arts in Thai traditional arts. reflecting the celestial. He is. was recruited to participate in the production of illustrative artworks for one of His Majesty the King’ projects. is that of traditional Buddhist knowledge. Panya Vijinthanasarn.become a professional poster painter. the tranquil. Group exhibitions and collaborative works of his have also been exhibited in Thailand. He has also. a project in which he has invested time and money.

In the period 1953-1962. 7th and 10th National Exhibition of Art in Bangkok where he won 3rd prize in painting for the 4th.000-150. at the Academiadi Belle Arte di Roma. sculpture and print-making and successfully harmonized them. Some of the more famous include the 4th.000 190. particularly in his mixed media and environmental works. prints and sculpture Born: Bangkok. He graduated and subsequently worked as an instructor at the Faculty of Painting.000-150.000-50.000 50. he focused on realism.000 150.000 Sale price (Bht) 282. 1929 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Chalood Nimsamer was the first student to graduate from SilpakornUniversity in 1954 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts (Sculpture). both domestically in Thailand and throughout the world. His long commitment to. Chalood has participated in numerous exhibitions. then from 1964-1972 he concentrated more on abstract.000-80. he remains a professor and guest instructor at the Faculty of Painting.000-170.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1999 Year of Work 1991 1991 Type of Work Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Tempera and pencil on canvas White chalk on paper Size of work (cm) 60x60 120x90 89x70 48x66 Quoted price (Bht) 200.000 86. Chalood has produced several different series of artworks. in 1965.000 250.000-250.000 280. He was generally recognized as a special artist since 1959. There he developed the Graphic Arts Department.250 Christie’s (Bangkok)Auctions: 2000 Year of Work 1984 1992 1995 1997 Type of Work Pencil drawing Pastel on paper Acrylic on canvas Pencil on pape Size of work (cm) 32x24 65x49 65x90 52X68 Quoted price (Bht) 100. 6th. Chalood Nimsamer Art Medium: Academic.000 920.000 Sale price (Bht) 322. now well recognized and respected among Thais and foreigners as well as the Painting and Sculpture Department. at Silpakorn University. Sculpture and Graphic Arts. Sculpture and Graphic Art. NewYork.1996 Chalk onpaper 49x69 15. He continues to be invited to judge in various art competitions and to provide reliable judgments about the quality and value of artworks for art auction in Thailand. He is recognized as a professional and independent academic artist who worked to maintain traditional ways of teaching and learning art.000-350. and was also a student of Professor Silpa Bhirasri (Cerrado Feroci). and involvement in the Thai art world makes him a very valuable asset for the new generation of emerging artists and others interested in the development of Thai art. He gained more training and experience while studying for a Diploma of Decorazione. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 314 . painting. He has been named National Artist in sculpture and was also given an honorary doctoral degree in print-making at SilpakornUniversity in 1998.000 35.000-300. Monochrome. After his retirement. Chalood is well-recognized as an artist who is highly skilled in the fields of painting.000 100. 2nd prize in Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Italy in 1958 and at the Pratt Graphic Center.000 253. He is a very prominent and highly respected member of the older generation of Thai artists.000 94.000 3. USA. From 1953 up to the present time. 1st prize. In terms of specialisation. From 1977-1987 his artworks themes were in mixed media and the environment and from 1989 to the present are in the form of religious art interpretations.

he has joined various art exhibitions in the USA. In 1959 he was awarded the Artist par Excellence Award.000 in 1977-1980 to 240. Germany. In 19871996.000 Baht in1997-1999. Bank of Thailand(Chiangmai and Bangkok ) in 1996 and Wall Sculpture for SUPPORT (Bangsai. Ljubljana. He has also had individual exhibitions of his work in Bangkok. New Head Office of the Thai Farmers Bank. 99% were individuals and 1% were bought by institutions. In 1990-1999 there were 23 buyers.4 . the price of his artwork dropped again to less than a million baht.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1998 Year of Work Type of Work 1994 1995 Tempera on sa paper Tempera on sa paper Size of work (cm) 76x54 54x76. The most well known ones are the sculptures done for the former Head Office of the Thai Farmers Bank.000 1996-1999 Bht 25.000 Others 1989-1995 Bht40. During this period he sold approximately 200 pieces of artwork. As a professional artist. Bencasiri Park (Bangkok) in1992.3 million Baht.5 Quoted price (Bht) 100. it has ranged significantly over the years.000 baht and 3.000 Copyright: 1989-1999 Bht20. For example prior to the economic boom the price of his commissioned artworks were less than a million baht per piece. 5th December 1999. France.000 Sale price (Bht) 170. his annual income from sale of artworks ranged between 300.000 Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. So in 1990-1999.000 baht per artwork.000 1997-1999 Bht 240. In 2000. Japan in 1964. The last two were at the International Biennial of Graphic Arts. Chalood Nimsamer is now well established in the Thai art world. Chalood also earns income from other sources. All of his artworks were direct sales and sold in Thailand. Ayudhaya) in 1998. After the economic crisis in 1997. the largest being the sale of his artworks. he also participated in the Silpakorn Art Exhibition celebrating the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6th Cycle BirthdayAnniversary. the prices ranged between 1. In addition to his commissioned art.000 100. The value of the commissioned works he produced are indicative of his income during these periods.000 Average annual income from other sources : Selection committee in art competition: 1989-1995 Bht 20. Rock Garden Beach (Rayong). Yugoslavia in 1963 and the International Biennial Exhibition of Print inTokyo. sized from 30x40 cm to 100x150 cm with sale prices ranging between 30. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 315 . four of them buying more than 10 pieces of his art.painting and sculpture for the 6th. Chalood earned his living from creating commissioned works specialised in sculpture for public and private appreciation throughout Thailand. Queen Sirikit Convention Centre (Bangkok) in 1991 .8. 1st prize in painting and Monochrome and 2nd prize in sculpture for the 7th and 1st prize in painting again for the 10th. all of his customers were individuals. Spain. Paris and New York and in the international arena. Average annual income from salary / pension : 1977-1980 Bht 80. Rajburana in 1995.7million Baht.000 140. During the economic boom in 1989-1996. in both of which he was awarded the highest prize.000 and 200. The monetary value of his commission works seemed to vary in relation tothe prevailing economic conditions of Thailand.000 1996-1999 Bht45. In terms of average salary / pension as a public servant. Phahonyothin in 1982. from 80. Yugoslavia and Japan. Hua Chiaw Chalerm Phrakiat University (Bangna) in 1994. in 1997-1999.

have artistic talent. Los Angeles.000 Sale price (Bht) 97. M. Chamruang is accredited with introducingsemi-abstract and abstract concepts and forms into Thai sculpture.000-120.000 100.in 1995. All Vichienkhet family members.000-70. He and his wife were instructors at the Faculty of Painting.000 100.000 50. Sculpture and Graphic Arts. his wife and their two sons.35. He is also occasionally invited to be a guest instructor or guest speaker at various institutions.000-150.000-120.250 69. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 97. The Vichienkhet family have organised solo ‘family’exhibitions occasionally.000-120.000 80.1995 1995 Tempera on sa paper Tempera on sa paper 54x76.000 320.000-60. the Contemporary Thai Art Exhibition-TISCO in 1982.5 100. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 316 .750 - 4. when he became a lecturer at this Faculty until his resignation at the age of58. However he continues to be involved in the Thai art world. Chamruang also joinedthe Sculpture Exhibition in Copenhagen in 1988. Bangkok during the period 1955-1969. In 1958 he also wona Silver Medal in Decoration from the Exhibition. He completed some art training at Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts before pursuing further education a tthe now Faculty of Painting.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1999 Year of Work 1957 1959 1959 1967 Type of Work Pen and ink on paper Wood-intaglio with acrylic and pen on paper Woodcut print on paper Woodcut print on paper Wood-intaglio with acrylic on paper Size of work (cm) 33x47 70x41 45x52 44x52 40x52 Quoted price (Bht) 50. California in 1987.750 Christie’s (Bangkok)Auctions: 2000 Year of Work 1995 1999 1999 1999 1999 Type of Work Water colour on paper Water colour on paper Water colour on paper Water colour on paper Water colour on paper Size of work (cm) 76x52 58x43 54x41 58x44 58x44 Quoted price (Bht) 100. was born in Kalasinin the northeastern region of Thailand. Chamruang exhibited his artworks both domestically and internationally. He has participated in and received many silver and bronze medals awarded in sculpture from the annual National Exhibition of Art.M.5 76.750 86.000 100.5x54. Chino Gallery’s . participating in theSilpakorn Art Exhibition to celebrate on the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6th Cycle Birthday Anniversary. He graduated from the Faculty in 1954.000-120. 5th December 1999. 1931 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Chamruang Vichienkhet.. Chamruang. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University under the supervision ofProfessor Silpa Bhirasri.000 100.000-90.000 30.000 50.12 Contemporary Thai Artists show. a National Artist of Thailand.750 51.000 170.000 Sale price (Bht) 105. Chamruang Vichienkhet Art Medium: Academic. both teaching and practice. although both have now retired. sculpture & installation Born: Kalasin. and the Creative Arts Exhibition organised by the PharmaceuticalCo. around 1958. Silpakorn University for many years. Ltd.000-70.000 100.

learning art techniques there and instructing himself as to the styles and types of art there. As he is from a wealthy background the inability to market his works effectively due to their forms is not of concern to him.000 Illustrative example from the Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 2000 Year of Work Type of Work Size of work (cm) 16x18x16 47x18x97 Quoted price (Bht) 40. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University until receiving his Masters in Fine Arts. These commissioned works and sculptures continue to be a source of income for Chamruang and his family. in Thailand some of his works are collected by the Bangkok University. Kamin Lertchaiprasert Art Medium: Avant-garde practice Born: Lopburi. Specialised interests and large areas of space needed for display of the pieces has meant that the demand for his artworks has remained limited. 1964 Residence: Chiang Mai Gender: Male Kamin Lertchaiprasert is an independent contemporary Thai artist who came from a wealthy family background. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. His major internationally displayed solo exhibition was the “What’sin My Mind” exhibition at Con-Tempus in 1994. He has produced many solo exhibitions both in Thailand and overseas.000 70. although the majority are sold directly from the artist.625 82. he exhibited “Kor Uey KorKai” at the Visual Gallery.Chamruang and his family live simply. and in 1993 “Muang-ngew Sae Law” at Dialogue Gallery and “ABC” at the British Council in 1995. instead he is concerned to have his works displayed so that they can be seen by the public.000 70. Indicative examples of these include. Australia. In overseas countries.000 Sale price (Bht) 65. it is primarily to institutions because of the size limitations. apart from being instructors at the Faculty of Painting. Internationally his artworks are collected primarily by galleries. in Sydney.250 5. Sculptor and Graphic Arts. Brisbane.8 27x25x16 Quoted price (Bht) 20. they are representative of both his philosophy of life and of various interests of his. including the Queensland Art Gallery. Kamin’s artworks in each exhibition are usually large and use significant areas of space. Silpakorn University. in 1992 “Nirat Thailand” at the Dialogue Gallery. In the past. Kamin also traveled to the United States. The Thai Farmers Bank and the Head Office of the Thai Rath Newspaper. He had formal art training in the Fine Arts Department in the Chang Silpa School initially and then pursued his tertiary level of art education at the Faculty of Painting. Their sculptors are collected and displayed in many places including the Bank of Thailand and TISCO. The occasions when he does sell his work.000-80. Australia in 1995. in 1991. Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1998 Year of Work Type of Work Bronze Bronze Size of work (cm) 27x20x8. and the major group exhibition was “The Spiritual & The Social: Nine Artists from Thailand. he joined the 9th Biennale of Sydney.000 15. Indonesia and The Phillippines” represented in the collection of the Queensland Art Gallery. Some have been sold through private galleries. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 317 .000-50. Australia in1993. Chamruang and his wife also earned extra income from producing sculptures of various sizes commissioned by both the public and private sectors at affordable prices.000 Sale price (Bht) 64. majoring in Graphic Arts in 1987.

Kwanggho in the People’s Republic of China. Sculpture and Graphic Arts. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University in 1970 and1979 respectively. In 1981-85 he also joined in the 1st-3rdSculpture Exhibition. 1980. 21st. Silpakorn University Art Gallery. He views the Thai art world as overly influenced by ‘trends’ in art demand or art styles as art. 22nd. including both silver and bronze medals from the annual National Art Exhibitions. he also has completed a number of commissioned works. both majoring in sculpture from the Faculty of Painting. he believes. he joined the Thai Contemporary Art Exhibition in the Pacific Asia Museum. 5th December 1999. 1971-73. he is also a regular casual lecturer at Chiang Mai University. California. Los Angeles. M. Nonthivathn is a well known sculptor within Thailand. California and also joined the Thai Contemporary Art Exhibition. he is highly respected by emerging younger generations of artists. should be fundamentally for artistic satisfaction. 16 years in total. sculpture & installation Born: Bangkok. he completed a sculpture for the interior of the new Head Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Thailand in 1977. Apart from teaching sculpture at the Faculty of Painting. Nonthivathn Chantanaphalin Art Medium: Academic. Later. Fukuoka. He participated in the 19th. Nonthivathn has won many prizes. M. In his hometown of Chiang Mai. it is a means of therapy for himself. being invited regularly to be a guest speaker at the Bangkok University and other educational institutions. Internationally also Nonthivathn has participated and displayed his work in a number of exhibitions throughout the world. a comment which is both respect and dislike. Within the Asian region in 1985 he joined the Thai Contemporary Art Exhibition in the People’s Republic of China and in 1986 he traveled to Japan for the Contemporary Asean Art Exhibition. 1946 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Nonthivathn Chantanaphalin received his Bachelor of Fine Arts followed by his Masters in Fine Arts. jointly held by the Thai Sculptors Group and the Thai Sculptors Association. 6. Italy. In addition in 1988 he also joined the Contemporary Art Exhibition at the Artist Gallery in Bangkok although these are still only indicative of exhibitions of his work. Denmark. Wat Thong Salangam.24th and 26th annual National Exhibition of Art. inspirations and creative thinking from which his art works spring in other ways.Kamin views his art as a means by which to release and display his feelings. Bangkok between 1971 and 1979. in 1987 he joined the Contemporary Asean Art Exhibition in the Republic of Korea and also joined the Art Exhibition from Silpakorn University which traveled to Peking. in 1980 he displayed his work in the International Sculpture Exhibition in Carrara. His reputation within the art world of Thailand is hard to pin down. Silpakorn University which were held annually since 1977 until the latest one in 1999. In2000 he joined many other famous and well-respected Thai artists in the Silpakorn Art Exhibition celebrating the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6th Cycle Birthday Anniversary. Recently. The following year. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 318 . and 1977. He also uses his art as a means to attempt to understand more deeply the Buddhist teaching. held at the National Library. a responsibility of older generations of artists to give their knowledge and time to the younger. it has also been displayed at other places throughout Thailand. to explore problems both personal and societal. Bangkok in the years 1969. Pasadena. In 1972 his works were displayed in the 2nd Contemporary Thai Artists Exhibition in Copenhagen. he traveled to Italy where he completed a diploma in Sculpture. He regularly participates in the various art exhibitions of the members of the Faculty of Painting. USA. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University. in 1985. and younger staff of various universities although he is considered to be a ‘different product’ of Silpakorn Unversity. an activity he views as a duty. by the majority of well-established Thai artists. and a means of communication with society. Shino Gallery. Kamin has also had chance to present his philosophy. 20th. He was awarded the second prize in the Competition of Buddha Image. and to ask questions of the public and society at large.

Bangkok. The most prestigious one was the Mahajanaka Project. Another famous sculpture he has produced is a mosaic of thousands of pieces of ceramics patched together to reflect the history of Banglamphu Community on Phra Athit Road. the same year he graduated from Silpakorn University. Then in 1983 with a British Council Scholarship. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University. Bangkok. almost sacred objects worthy of collection. Due to the relatively high cost of his productions. although it was to have little influence on his own art. at an average price of less than a million Baht and most of them are directly sold. Salary Lecturer 7 Bht 25. The popularity of these medals was one influence on Nonthivathn ‘s ascension to true fame in Thailand and his work is now in high demand. South Korea. He won Bangkok Bank scholarship and was the winner of the Student Christian Center Exhibition in Bangkok while still a student at the Faculty of Painting. in September 2000. All sculptures were established in the United Nations Cemetery.he. silver and bronze with His Majesty the King’s image on one side for attaching to the hard copies of Mahajanaka books as a free gifts for the buyers. Sculpture and Graphic Art at Silpakorn University.5 x 0. However he also produces some smaller sculptures for private collection.110 permonth Size of work (cm) 92x60x46 Quoted price (Bht) 100. This park was built and presented to His Majesty the King on his 6th Circle Birthday recently. like other contemporary Thai artists. he pursued further education at the Slate School of Fine Arts in University College in London for one and a half years where he completed a Certificate of Printmaking. with a major in traditional Thai Art in 1980. a sculpture which is well known and well respected. The medals were extremely popular. In 1980-1981 he took a one year scholarship to study in Australia where he was attracted by the pure spirit and colour of Aboriginal artwork. Additionally.In 1980.50 metre sculpture entitled “Moral Light” by using a mixture of granite. a popular place for back-packer tourists from around the world. and were soon considered to be special. on which a number of other famous Thai artists were also involved. This piece of sculpture was commissioned by the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration and is located in the new public park near Chao Phraya River in Banglamphu Community.20 x 1. He remembers his training in this school as teaching him an appreciation and Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Panya Vijinthanasarn Art Medium: Academic and neo-traditional painting Born: Prachuap Khiri Khan. he won 1st prize in the 4th Bua Luang Art Exhibition in Bangkok and 2nd prize in the 26th National Exhibition of Art in Bangkok.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1998 Year of Work Type of Work 1994 Casted brass 7. He completed his Bachelor of Fine Arts. 1965 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Panya Vijinthanasarn is another alumni of the Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts and the Faculty of Painting. and with representatives from 22 other countries which were involved in the Korean War. South Korea to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the Korean War and those who sacrified their lives for world peace.000 Sale price (Bht) 300. Nonthivathn. were invited by the International Sculpture Friendship Association to join The International Sculpture Symposium at Pusan. golden wood and a glass-cover as art media. has regularly been selected to serve His Majesty the King’s projects. including Australia. as the only representative of Thailand. On this occasion. Nonthivathn produced a 3. Each representative was invited to create apiece of sculpture carved in granite based on the theme: freedom-peace-harmony. at Pusan. He utilized his creative talent and expertise designing special medals in gold. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 319 .Office of the Thai Farmers Bank at Rajburana. his large and detailed commissioned sculptures usually cost “many millions” Baht to purchase.

however. one was the Thai Contemporary Art Exhibition at Lalit Kala Academy. ASEAN Art Conference. considered by Thai people as an auspicious and respected showcase of Thai artistic talents. In 1998. He started showing his artistic talent when he was eight years old by copying cartoons and pictures from magazines. teaching himself as there were no art teachers at his school. held in Seville. by realistic portraits in giant movie posters. Due to his expertise in traditional Thai art and his experiences. Exhibition and Symposium on Aesthetics held in Manila in the Philippines. Occasionally. California. he says. He also uses three dominant pigments representing different meanings. Later in 1982 he had chance to return to London again. He also did commissioned works in mural painting for the private sector. He entered Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts for his formal art training. has also had the opportunity to display his art in other countries. Like other Thai artists. for a joint commissioned work with Chalermchai Kositpipat. Panya has produced individual shows. the other was the ASEAN Masterworks at the 1997ASEAN Summit in Kuala Lumpur. India. The Victory Over Mara. New Delhi. and Thai Vision I. widely recognized as one of the exceptional mural painters in Thai history. In 1997 he also participated in art exhibitions in other Asian countries. After that. As for domestic art exhibitions. initiated and supervised by His Majesty the King. he specialised in traditional Thai art in his final two years of study at Silpakorn University. London in 1985-1988. at San Luis Obispo. The Project was. in “The New Path Con-Tempus” exhibition at Queen Sirikit National Convention Hall in 1992. Malaysia. Australia. he again represented Thailand by painting the mural paintings for the Thai Pavillion. following a classical tradition in Buddhist imagery. a job which took a few years. He participated in the contemporary art exhibition in Japan in 1980. In1995-1996 he produced commissioned mural painting for the new Head Office of the Siam Commercial Bank in Bangkok and for the Rolex Centre in Bangkok as well. in year 2000 he also participated in the Silpakorn Art Exhibition to celebrate on the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6th Cycle BirthdayAnniversary on the 5th of December 1999. They both focus on Buddhist symbolism and seek inspiration from Buddhist teachings.and the “Thai Tension” exhibition at Chulalongkorn University in 1995. Wimbledon. in Brisbane. Unlike Chalermchai. representing good. with the colours of red.recognition of monochrome printing as a clear and distinctive form of expression. Bangkok in 1980. failed to appreciate until working under Paiboon. and Germany in 1987. gaining inspiration and excellent experience in murals while working with the late Paiboon Suwannakut. inspired primarily. Panya participated in contemporary art exhibitions in the National Museum. evil and mysticism respectively. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 320 . he studied the artist’s life and began to appreciate the necessity of line and discipline. Panya differed from Chalermchai by presenting the element of suffering. and continues to be. his solo exhibition under the name “Subversion of Truth” was shown at the Tadu Contemporary Art Studio in Bangkok. After that he continued to draw. as Chalermchai was. In 1993 he participated in the Second ASEAN Workshop. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University. Jakarta. held at the California Polytechnic State University. He also shares with Chalermchai Kositpipat a similarity in styles of visual expression. seems to have dominant influence over Panya’s modern surrealistic artworks. in this period he was recruited to serve the illustrations of Mahajanaka story. While under the tutelage of Paiboon. like some other Thai artists. Spain. It was an exhibition at Silpakorn University that seriously inspired Panya to pursue further art education in the Faculty of Painting.New York in 1982. Panya Vijinthanasarn has had a very similar pattern of life to Chalermchai Kositpipat. producing the mural paintings of Buddhapadipa Temple. He is successful in combining monochrome and polychrome images in Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. although he continued there to be primarily self-instructed. In 1988 he represented Thailand by producing mural paintings for the Thai pavillion in Expo’88. blue and gold. he focused on the production of mural paintings. and again represented Thailand in Spafa. USA in 1997. Indonesia. something he had learnt at Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts but. Again similarly to Chalermchai. Panya. he began to be recognized as a specialist in mural paintings. In Expo’92. a classical theme of Buddhism usually found in the mural paintings on temple walls. the conflict of forces of good and evil.

Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University in 1972 and 1980. He has participated in and jointly organised collaborative and group exhibitions of artworks both in Thailand and internationally.paintings(1998-2000) No information Illustrative example from the Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 2000 Year of Work Typeof Work Size of work (cm) 1994 Tempera. Yugoslavia in 1979-1980. 14th and 15th International Biennial of Graphic Arts. and is highly respected by friends and others in the Thai art world. In 1980. Baht 12. Graphic Arts and Photography. Norway. At present. political and social issues facing Thailand. particularly environmental. 5th December 1999 held in 2000. but this year was for the World Print Forum in San Francisco. Pishnu Suphanimit Art Medium: Academic and prints / Graphic arts Born: Samutsongkram. gold leaf 40x48 Quoted price (Bht) 30. USA. for Thailand. Salary: Lecturer 6. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 321 . Indicative / average cost for artwork . He donated his services to the decoration of Wat Thasung in Uthaithani Province and also donated 10% of his profits to the temple. the first in 1972. again at the Pacific Asia Museum in California. he joined the 13thIntenational Watercolours of Asia in Hadyai. In 1983 he had the opportunity to show his works again. In1979. In 1991 and 1995 he participated in two further exhibitions in the United States. and the esteem in which he is held has benefited his career. Panya has contributed to Buddhism by utilising his skills and expertise in mural painting. In the past. he continues to express the ideal of an artist contributing back into society by training and inspiring the younger generation in rural areas in art appreciation and art education. Singapore. he had chance to display his artworks in the Contemporary Asian Art Show in Fukuoka.000 Sale price (Bht) - 8. Thailand. the Contemporary Art of Thailand Exhibition held at the Pacific Asia Museum in Pasadena. he joined the 15th International Biennial Exhibition of Art in Sao Paulo. the “Four Contemporary Thai Artists” Exhibition. he is known as calm and gentle. he also joined the Silpakorn Art Exhibition to celebrate on the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6thCycle Birthday Anniversary. Indonesia and the Phillipines. and the 6th Norwegian International Print Biennale in Fredrikstad. Texas. Brazil and also joined the13th. USA. Internationally he has been selected to display his work in the Second Contemporary Thai Artists Exhibition in Copenhagen. he has also provided artistic commentary on contemporary problems in society. he had chance to display his works in Bangkok in the Painting Exhibition “Water” at the Oriental Hotel. In addition. Ljubljana. However in some of his paintings he expresses images and emotions seemingly contrary to his reputation.his art works. Malaysia. and the Contemporary Thai Works on Paper in the Art Gallery of the Texas Tech University. 1948 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Pishnu Suphanimit completed his Bachelor and Masters in Fine Arts in Graphic Arts from the Faculty of Painting. and he has since become an instructor there. He is widely regarded with respect. In 1998. he has always managed to gain good levels of cooperation from the bureaucracy and from other artists when involved in administrative work or organizing activities related to art. Like his colleagues. Taipei and displayed his works again in Japan in the Exhibition of Print by Five Thai Artists at the Nagoya Museum. West Germany in 1976. In Taiwan. but in his paintings emerge the hidden emotion and feeling in the darker forms of Buddhist symbolism.080per month. Then in 1988. In 1981 his works were displayed in three major exhibitions namely the ASEAN Exhibition of Painting. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000-40. Due to this qualification in particular. Japan. Denmark in 1972 and the Contemporary Art of Thailand Exhibition in Bonn. he joined the International Print Exhibition: 1985 Roc. Kabutoya Gallery and Murazumi Gallery in1987. USA.

Apart from teaching at Silpakorn University. In the various annual art exhibitions he has won 2nd prize in painting from the 22nd National Exhibition of Art. In 1973 he won several prizes for designing stamps for the Central Post Office of Thailand. from the Faculty of Painting. During 1978-1980. In 1970 he won 1st prize for stamp design from the Anti-TB Association of Thailand and from the Art Exhibition of the Christian Student Center. another well known art patron in Thailand. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University in 1972 and 1975respectively. 1st prize in mural painting from the Bank of Government Housing Project and 3rd prize the ‘700 Years Originate of Thai Character Competition’ for monument design.640 per month 9. Pishu also writes manyshort semiacademic articles dealing with art for some popular magazines. In 1976 he won the 3rd prize (Bronze medal)in painting in the Metropolitan Bank Art Exhibition. art advisor. now very well-established academic artist. Pishnu is a well-established academic artist. 1948 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Preecha Thaothong comes from a family of four sons who all have talents in the arts. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. selected him as the top award winner. He also won 1st prize in mural painting from the Thai government for his paintings in the ESCAP Building in Bangkok in 1992 and for the paintings he had completed in the Bank of Thailand building. he and his three brothers. He was involved in the Silpakorn Art Exhibition celebrating the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6th Cycle Birthday Anniversary. He serves the Bank as a valuer commission works. He wasalso one of the artists selected from Silpakorn University to participatein the Mahajanaka Project of His Majesty the King. He has had long and tight linkages with the Thai Farmers Bank. in celebration of the same auspicious occasion. while in 1990 his solo exhibitions were presented in Bangkok and around various parts of Thailand. a great art patron in Thailand. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 322 . particularly those run by some commercial banks. and others commemorating BanchaLamsam. Further training was received at the Academia di Belle Arte di Roma.In 1974 and 1978 he won 3rd prize (bronze medal) from the Contemporary Art Section of the Bua Luang Art Exhibition organised by the Bangkok Bank. organized the “Thaothong Solo Exhibitions” at the National Art Gallery in Bangkok. he has completed and continues to produce many commissioned works of graphic arts and installation. In 1984 he won two awards. art judge. Salary: Lecturer 7.At present. In 1981 he joined Contemporary Asian Art Exhibition in Fukuoka. especially teenagers. In 2000. in the 1st Contemporary Art Competition in 1979. and he was commissoned to write some short articles dealing withthe history of Thai contemporary art.the former owner of the Thai Farmer Bank and a pioneer in art patronage in Thailand. He graduated with both Bachelor and Master Degrees in Painting. in the 1979 National Exhibition of Art. he had solo exhibitions in Bangkok. and have been reprinted many times. in 1994. 24th and 25th National Exhibitions of Art. 5th December 1999. Bht 24. Preecha Thaothong Art Medium: Academic and neo-traditional painting Born: Bangkok.such as Phraew and also for SilapaWatthanatham and published journals. In regards to recognition and awards for his work. art exhibitor. as examples. Italy where he received his Diploma of Drawing in 1978. Also in 1979 he was selected as an Honored Artist of Thailand. Preecha has joined many art competitions in the private sector as well. 1978 and1979 he won the 1st prize (gold medal) from 23rd. Japan. all well-known artists. the manner of his presentation and use of language have made his writingspopular. then in 1975. Chiangmai. The contents of his books. He also has talents in composing semi-academic studies and series of writings which have proved very popular among various groups of readers. Preecha Thathong is the eldest. since1970 he has won many prizes. The Thai Farmers Bank.

Now he remains a senior lecturer at the Faculty of Painting. Against what he sees as the growing trend towards commercialised art production.Preecha Thaothong also produced two major creative works in 1993 and 1995-1998. In 1993 he produced a creative design of a panoramic mural painting on the subject of Thai history.000 420. In 1997 and 1998 he created designs and mural paintings for public places. March 9-15.000 220. the other well known.000 20. and extremely time consuming production was the creative design ‘Art Environment’ painted in the lobby of the Sofitel Hotel in Khon Kaen.000 20. fighting for the establishment of the modern Art Gallery of Thailand in Bangkok and for the recognition of intellectual property rights. reflected object.000 20. combined with mixed techniques.000 260.000 10.000 80.5 78x99 140x170 139x170 89x118 88. and the background.000 120. color. He is also an activist.000 120. initiated and supervised by His Majesty the King. valued and charged in the ‘millions’ (of Thai Baht). From1972 onward. particularly for representing distinctive concepts and designs traditional to Thai art and culture as well as Buddhist art in Thai communities. Thematically.5 Size of work (cm) Quoted price (Bht) 80. such as Wat Sotorn Vararam.000 80.5 88.paintings(1998-2000) Baht 94. It is well known that Preecha Thaothong has done a lot of commission works for both the public and private sectors. Preecha’s art has developed through a number of distinct phases.000 30. Baht 29. In general he produces large works of art.000 5.000-550. shadows and atmosphere in the natural world. light. One of his commissioned artworks hangs on the wall of the executive meeting room at the Head Office of the Siam Commercial Bank and is valued at 4 million bath (Siamrath Weekly Review. 2001). the light and shadows in his contemporary artworks are repeatedly utilised to express the concept and mood of tranquility and serenity. now an enormously famous depiction of Thai history. Bangkok. he also tries support.5x118.130 per month Indicative / average cost for artwork .000 100. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University.000 350.000 Christie’s (Bangkok)Auctions: 1998 Year of Work Type of Work 1973 1977 1977 1987 1987 1989 1993 Oil on canvas Watercolour on paper Water colour on paper Offset printing 30/50 Acrylilc on canvas Silkscreen Silkscreen Acrylic oncanvas Acrylicon canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Size of work (cm) 106x121 50x69 49x69 59x48 139x169 60. namely the source of light.000 Sale price (Bht) Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1999 Year of Work Type of Work Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. Bangkok and in 1998 he also did the Creative Design Art Environment under the title of Amazing Thailand at Don Muang International Airport.5x74.000 220.000 30. Chachoengsao Province and Phraram Kaow Ganjanaphisek. During 19691972 his work was clearly based on his studies of tone. Occasionally he has also given public lectures on art and joined judging committees in some art competitions in both the public and private sectors. his artworks begin to focus more on light and shadows for setting off figures and spatial arrangements.000 140. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 323 .000 80.000 32. The year 1995 Preecha regards as auspicious because he was selected to contribute to the Creative Design Illustrations for the Mahajanaka Project. inform and encourage members of the Thai art community in pricing of art works to keep them accessible to the people and also reasonable to the artists. Salary: Assistant Professor 8.000 550.5x118. Through three main elements.000 100.000 Quoted price (Bht) Sale price (Bht) 380. His cost of commission works vary according to the size and type of artwork produced as well as who is commissioning the art.

Silpakorn University where he spent many years. 1996 and 1998. He has won many prizes in art competitions. once at the Bhirasri Institute of Modern Art in Bangkok and the other one in 1984 at the National Gallery. Then in 1990 he again won another scholarship from Japan. Sawasdi Tantisuk. He also got a Japanese Monbusho Scholarship for Teacher Training Programme for art training in Japan during 1983-1985. For the Thai Farmers Bank’s art competition. He has participated in many group art exhibitions. when he decided to pursue further art education and training at tertiary level at the Faculty of Painting. He completed both his Bachelor and Masters of Fine Arts in Painting in 1976 and 1985 respectively. He has also been the ‘invited guest artist’ in some art competitions.000-120.000 90. in the Contemporary Art Competition. many of which are commissioned by the private sector. the 4th to the 6th Toshiba “BringGood Things to Life” Art Competition.000-170. Growing up as he did. For the Bangkok Bank’s art competition. 1994. 1984 and 1987. such as. in painting in the years 1980.000 100. he was Award Winner in 1981. organised by Bank of Thailand.500 - Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 2000 Year of Work Type of Work 1978 1978 1978 1993 Oil pastel on board Oil pastel on board Oil on canvas Water colour on paper Acrylic on canvas Acrylic oncanvas Oil on canvas 10.000-300. an attitude which is quite unique and distinct from other well established Thai artists. he was surrounded by painting from an early age and was given strong support from his entire family. 1991. Prinya Tantisuk Art Medium: Academic and modernist painting Born: Bangkok.000 253. and in 1992 he won the first prize.000 322.000-150. with one of the most prestigious being the Silpakorn Art Exhibition to celebrate on the Auspicious Occasion of His Majesty the King’s 6thCycle Birthday Anniversary.000 80.000-150. 5th Bua Luang Art Exhibition. 1993.especially the ones organised by the Bangkok Bank and the Thai Farmers Bank. He also produces some pieces for his solo and group exhibitions. he received the Outstanding Student of H. Due to his good student record. 1985. he won first prize. 1982. third prizes.750 235.000-220. while in the 1982 competition. He also competed and won awards in many private art competition since 1981.750 117.000 161. and in 1994-95 for the 16th and 17thContemporary Competition at Thai Farmers Bank.000 200. or bronze medals. gold medal.000 94.000 150. or silver medals. especially his father. particularly in the National Art Exhibition in Bangkok from1980 onward.the King’s Scholarship from the Bureau of the King’s Property in 1975.000 120. in 1981 he won the third prize in the Contemporary Art Section. two of the most prominent art patrons in Thailand.000-120. Now he is a well-established academic artist at the Faculty of Painting. Surprisingly he also enjoys participating in art competitions regularly since he regards them as the duty of artist. Bangkok.000 199.M. In 1981 he was also Award Winner.000 200. and in 1984 he completed a Diploma in Art Education. between 1992 and1994. He has produced solo exhibitions twice.000 Sale price (Bht) 105. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 324 .000-300. in painting in 1981. in painting. Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared.000 200. 5th December 1999. the Friendly Programme for the 21stCentury Scholarship for further art training.000 Quoted price (Bht) 90. He is inspiring his students to follow his footsteps in this aspect as well. 1955 Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Prinya Tantisuk is the only son of one of the most distinguished and well known water colour painters ever in Thailand.1975 Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas 78x98 98x77 129x158 Size of work (cm) 66x47 68x48 101x151 38x50 98x148 68x89 169x140 100. Sculpture and Graphic Arts. He won second prizes. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University.000-120. Prinya Tantisuk regularly produces pieces and paintings.000-120. ‘Painting under Teacher Training Program’ from the Shizuoka University.

000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1999 Year of Work 1975 Type of Work Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Size of work (cm) 78x98 98x77 129x158 Quoted price (Bht) 100.000 80.000-120.000-550.000-220. In 1993 in particular.000 260.000 90. In addition to commissioned works. Thai Farmers Bank.5x118.000 30.000 322.000 100.000 20.750 235.000 100.000 30.000 350.130 per month Indicative / average cost for artwork . In the past Prinya also spent his free time composing some informative articles dealing with details of the contemporary art situation in Thailand for Siam Rath Weekly Review.1982. 1980 to 1999 © John Clark APPENDICES 325 .000 220.750 117.000 120.000 150.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 2000 Year of Work Type of Work 1978 1978 1978 1993 Oil pastel on board Oil pastel on board Oil on canvas Water colour on paper Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Oil on canvas Size of work (cm) 66x47 68x48 101x151 38x50 98x148 68x89 169x140 Quoted price (Bht) 90.000 Sale price (Bht) 161.000 100.000 94.000 120.000 Sale price (Bht) 380.000 200.5x74.000-300.000 220.500 - 11. Thai Farmers’ Bank. however. Prinya also produces art work for direct sale to the public. he won Grand Prize in the 15th Contemporary Art Competition. In the first Toshiba Competition he was the Award Winner in the inaugural Toshiba “Bring Good to Life” Art Competition in year 1989and the Grand Prize from the 3rd Toshiba competition in year 1991.000 80.paintings(1998-2000) Baht 94.000 80. The artist also exhibited his works in some international venues for example in Germany 1986. most of which are now held in private collections although some are also collected by institutions like the Bank of Thailand and the Thai Farmers Bank. Due to overwork in other areas of his life. Baht 29. Japan 1989 and Korea1992.000 80. he no longer continues these articles. His extraordinary success in art exhibitions and his continued participation in the competitions have led some other artists in Thailand to label Prinya the “Award Hunter”.000 200. Salary: Assistant Professor 8.000 199.5 88.000 20.000 550.5x118.000-170.000 10.000 Christie’s (Bangkok) Auctions: 1998 Year of Work 1973 1977 1977 1987 1989 1993 Type of Work Oil on canvas Watercolour on paper Water colour on paper Acrylic on canvas Silkscreen Silkscreen Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Acrylic on canvas Size of work (cm) 106x121 50x69 49x69 139x169 60.000-150.000 200.000-150.000 120.000 Sale price (Bht) 105.000 253.000-120.5 Quoted price (Bht) 80. He has also won two awards from the annual art competitions organised by the Toshiba Company.1984-1986.000 140. Tawee Nandakwang Art Medium: Academic and modernist painting [oil &acrylic] Asian Modernities: Chinese and Thai art compared. 1988 and 1990-1992 Contemporary Art Competition.000-300.000-120.000 20.5 78x99 140x170 139x170 89x118 88.000-120.000 420.

portraits and landscapes during the revival of Thai traditional art forms in the 1960’s. His early works showed clearly the influence of Professor Silpa Bhirasri who had introduced his students to European Modern Art movements. It is clear from his history that he faced enormous and frequent economic difficulties. His studies at Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts were followed by three years of intensive training at the Faculty of Painting. (SiameseLiterature 15) in celebration of the King’s coronation. and became a part-time lecturer in the Faculty of Painting.Born: Bangkok. National recognition continued and between the years of 1975 and 1981 he was selected as a member of the committee responsible for the annual National Art Exhibition. Sculpture and Graphic Arts at Silpakorn University where he had the opportunity to study under great Thai masters. In 1960 he was selected as a member of the UNESCO ‘Group of Contemporary Artists’. 1991) Residence: Bangkok Gender: Male Tawee Nandakwang was born in Lampoon. pursued higher education in art at Poh Chang School of Arts and Crafts in Bangkok. a member of the Painting and Teaching Workshop and a selector for the Asian Yo