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Tekst voor de cursus Grondstoffen en het Systeem Aarde (HD 698) H.E.Rondeel, december 2001
Teksten gebaseerd op: Blackbourn, G.A. (1990) Cores and core logging for geologists. Whittles Publ.,Caithness. 113 pp. Shauer Langstaff, C. & D. Morrill (1981) Geologic cross sections. IHRDC, Boston. 108 pp. Stoneley, R. (1995) An introduction to petroleum exploration for non-geologists. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 119 pp. Waples, D. (1981) Organic geochemistry for exploration geologists. Burgess Publ. Co., Mineapolis. 151 pp. Waples, D.W. (1985) Geochemistry in petroleum exploration. Reidel Publ. Co, Dordrecht & IHRDC, Boston. 232 pp.
1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 5 FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS......................................................................................................... 5 2 - ORGANIC FACIES.......................................................................................................................... 6 THE CARBON CYCLE ....................................................................................................................... 6 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS............................................................................ 7 PRODUCTIVITY .............................................................................................................................. 7 PRESERVATION.............................................................................................................................. 8 DILUTION ..................................................................................................................................... 11 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 12 3 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY .............................................................................................................. 13 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 13 NAMES AND STRUCTURES........................................................................................................... 13 HYDROCARBONS ......................................................................................................................... 13 NONHYDROCARBONS ................................................................................................................. 15 4 - KEROGEN...................................................................................................................................... 17 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN FORMATION................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN COMPOSITION ............................................................................................................. 18 KEROGEN MATURATION .............................................................................................................. 20 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 20 EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS ............................................................................. 21 HYDROCARBON GENERATION................................................................................................... 22 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 23 5 - BITUMEN, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS...................................................................... 24 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 24 COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ......................................................... 24 GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS ....................................................................................... 24 SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS.............................................................................................................. 25 FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM................................ 25 SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS ......................................................................................................... 25 RESERVOIR TRANSFORMATIONS ............................................................................................... 26 COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ....................................................................... 27 NATURAL GAS .............................................................................................................................. 28 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 28 6 - MIGRATION.................................................................................................................................. 29 DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................................... 29 PRIMARY MIGRATION................................................................................................................... 29 MECHANISMS............................................................................................................................... 29 DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 30 SECONDARY MIGRATION............................................................................................................. 31 MECHANISM................................................................................................................................. 31
DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 31 ACCUMULATION............................................................................................................................ 32 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 32 CLASSICAL TRAPS........................................................................................................................ 33 KINETIC TRAPS ............................................................................................................................ 33 TAR-MAT TRAPS ........................................................................................................................... 34 GAS HYDRATES ............................................................................................................................ 34 EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION ................................................................................ 34 SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION ............................................................................................ 35 7 - PETROLEUM TRAPS ................................................................................................................... 36 THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS .............................................................................................. 36 STRUCTURAL TRAPS ..................................................................................................................... 37 STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS ................................................................................................................ 41 COMBINATION TRAPS................................................................................................................... 42 HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS .............................................................................................................. 43 THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS ................................................................................... 43 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 45 8 - SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION.................................................................................................. 49 DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK.................................................................................................... 49 PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION .......................................................................... 49 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 49 MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL.......................................................................................... 49 CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING....................................................................................... 52 ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY ...................................................................... 52 INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA ............................................................................. 53 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 53 TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER....................................................................................................... 53 MATURITY..................................................................................................................................... 54 COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS ......................................................................................................... 54 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 55 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 56 9 - PREDICTING THERMAL MATURITY ...................................................................................... 60 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 60 CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL ....................................................................... 60 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES.......................................................................................................... 61 TEMPERATURE HISTORY............................................................................................................ 61 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES ............................................ 62 CALCULATION OF MATURITY..................................................................................................... 63 FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY............................................................................ 64 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS ..................................................... 65 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 66 10 - QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................... 69 OIL IN PLACE .................................................................................................................................. 69 RESERVES........................................................................................................................................ 69 DISCOVERED RESERVES............................................................................................................. 70 UNDISCOVERED RESERVES ....................................................................................................... 72 ULTIMATE RESERVES.................................................................................................................. 73
Many of the chemical compounds present in sediments are in fact derived from bacteria. Low-temperature chemical and biological reactions (called diagenesis) that occur during transport to and early burial in the depositional environment modify this organic matter.Organic Facies . called methanogens. Certain microorganisms. porosity and permeability decrease. however. oil and gas molecules can be expelled from the source rock into more permeable carrier beds or conduits. In the early stages of catagenesis most of the molecules produced from kerogen are still relatively large. but only within the last few years have we realized that in many areas a large portion of the natura!-gas reserves are biogenic. convert some of the organic debris to biogenic methane. As burial depth increases. Migration through these conduits often leads to traps. Most of this organic matter is transformed during diagenesis info very large molecules. Formation of biogenic methane has been recognized for a long time. . or under different diagenetic conditions. the principal products consist of smaller gas molecules. and were formed as dead organic matter was converted to microbial tissues. These differences can have a significant effect on hydrocarbon generation. with many details still poorly understood. these are the precursors for petroleum. where hydrocarbon movement ceases and accumulation occurs. called catagenesis. These play a key role as the precursors for oil and much natural gas. and are called bitumen . In recent years this relatively simple picture of hydrocarbon generation has been complicated slightly by our growing awareness that kerogens formed from different kinds of organic matter. Although the transformation process is very complex. These changes lead to a gradual cessation of microbial activity. During this second transformation phase. called metagenesis. it is known that organic debris derived from plants and algae is best preserved in fine-grained sediments deposited in the absence of oxygen. and temperature increases.Introduction FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS Proponents of the organic origin of oil and gas have given us a general picture of how organic matter derived from dead plants is converted to hydrocarbons. In the late stages of catagenesis and in the final transformation stage. are chemically distinct from each other. more mobile molecules. and thus eventually bring organic diagenesis to a halt.5 1 . thermal reactions become increasingly important. The earliest stage of hydrocarbon generation occurs during diagenesis. the largest of which are called kerogen. kerogen begins to decompose into smaller. As temperature rises. Once formed.
6 2 . A large fraction. however. the yearly productivity of both groups is about equal. less than 1% of the annual photosynthetic production escapes from the carbon cycle and is preserved in sediments. Zooplankton and higher animals contribute relatively little organic matter to sediments. Preservation of organic material is actually a rare event. Some of the organic material in sediments consists of fragments of plants or algae that derived their energy from the sun. we need to understand how this organic matter came to be preserved in the rocks. Despite the great imbalance in biomass between terrestrial plants (450 billion metric tons [t]) and aquatic phytoplankton (5 billion t). Because of . comprises microbial tissue formed within the sediments by the bacterial transformation of plant and algal debris. Most organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere through the carbon cycle.Organic Facies . Preservation of organic matter begins with photosynthesis. Oxidative decay of dead organic matter is a highly efficient process mediated largely by microorganisms. The recently discovered deep-sea ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean that derive their energy from oxidation of sulfides in hydrothermal vents are interesting but volumetrically unimportant.Organic Facies THE CARBON CYCLE Because oil and gas are generated from organic matter in sedimentary rocks. as a consequence of the much more rapid reproduction of simple aquatic organisms.
Although oxidative decay destroys most of the yearly production. watercirculation patterns are particularly important for supplying nutrients and thus controlling productivity.000 billion t) dispersed in fine-grained sedimentary rocks. are therefore much more productive than the open ocean.Organic Facies . and Northwest Africa that result from the movement of surface waters away from these coasts. On the other hand. For example. suggesting that either depth or organiccarbon content eventually limits diagenesis. In the modern world there are zones of intense seasonal upwelling off the west coasts of California. Each of these categories could in turn be further subdivided. Bodies of water naturally develop density stratification. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS In order for organic-rich rocks to be formed. There is another zone of seasonal upwelling off the Horn of Africa in the Indian Ocean as a result of . When we consider inefficiencies in discovery and recovery. Although some destruction of organic material occurs during transport to the depositional environment.000. Each factor may be dominant under different conditions. high photosynthetic productivity will occur at the site of upwelling. In relatively unrestricted marine environments. over vast amounts of geologic time the small fraction that escaped the carbon cycle has built up extremely large quantities of organic matter (20. however. one of the critical parameters governing productivity. Only where there is upwelling of subsurface waters can these nutrients return to the photic zone. Peru. and that the microbes have given up trying to digest it. with a preference for horizontal water movement within each density layer. Upwelling occurs where bulk movement of surface water away from a particular area allows deeper water to ascend to replace it. If this deeper water is enriched in nutrients. carbonate supply. where there is local recycling of nutrients from decaying organisms and influx of fresh nutrients from terrestrial sources. predators. because without adequate productivity. the low TOC values could indicate that the remaining organic matter has no more nutritional value. and dilution.05%) occurs in economic deposits of fossil fuels.000 billion t. Productivity is the logical place to begin our analysis. or about 0. much of the terrestrial organic material is already highly oxidized when it arrives in the sediments. accumulation of organic-rich sediments cannot occur. The three primary factors influencing the amount of organic matter in a sedimentary rock are productivity. orogeny and erosion.1%. preservation. Only a small fraction of this (10. Nutrients dissolved in waters below the photic zone therefore go unutilized. and general water chemistry. Depth could interfere with microbial diagenesis when compaction reduces pore sizes and nutrient fluxes in interstitial waters. paleoclimate. and recycling by organic decay. because under normal circumstances they cannot move upward into the zone of photosynthesis. Shallowmarine environments. nutrient availability would depend on such factors as water circulation patterns. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values decrease monotonically through the first 300 meters of burial before levelling out at about 0. volcanism. a great deal of the oxidation of organic matter occurs within the sediments themselves. PRODUCTIVITY A partial listing of the many factors influencing productivity would include nutrient availability.7 extensive oxidation of land-plant debris in soils. Nutrient availability is. temperature. significant amounts of organic matter must be deposited and protected from diagenetic destruction. only one molecule out of about every one million successfully negotiates the journey from living organism to the gasoline pump. Namibia. light intensity. in fact.
PRESERVATION The principal control on organic richness is the efficiency of preservation of organic matter in sedimentary environments.5 milliliters (mL) per liter (L)). We call the zone in which oxygen contents are high the oxic zone. Anoxia is of tremendous importance in the preservation of organic matter in sediments. although some species can tolerate extremely low oxygen levels (0. increasing preservation rates is a very efficient way to increase organic richness. ANOXIA. diagenesis is restricted to anaerobic processes. because when the availability of oxygen is limited. and all the other factors that influence upwelling loci is severely limited. After all.Organic Facies . Thus if anoxia can develop. Such models are interesting. especially in the Palaeozoic. Anoxic sediments are not always easy to recognize. soils. There are. much oxic sediment also contains large amounts of organic matter. All large organisms require oxygen in order to live. many species disappear. and because most biological oxidation processes require molecular oxygen. especially of woody origin. Anoxic sediments always contain elevated TOC values (generally above 2% and always above 1% ).2 mL/L. paleoclimatic conditions. There are many more organic-rich facies resulting from excellent preservation than from extremely high productivity. the simplest way to limit oxidation is to limit the supply of oxygen. TOC values alone must therefore be used with caution. some problems associated with their application. Its presence in . The presence of undegraded marine organic material is a strong indication of anoxia.2 mL/L. its use in practice has been expanded to include very low oxygen levels as well. and sediments is biological. Three factors affect the preservation (or destruction) of organic matter: the concentration and nature of oxidizing agents. The term "anoxic" literally means "having no oxygen. However. These anaerobic processes are inefficient compared with aerobic diagenesis. Because most of the oxidation occurring in the water column. Processes that occur in these two zones are called aerobic and anaerobic.2-0. preservation of organic matter will be much enhanced. First. At dissolved oxygen levels below about 0. and may in fact prove useful in future exploration efforts. All these areas exhibit high productivity when upwelling occurs. because some of the commonly used indicators of anoxia may be misleading. essentially the only viable organisms are those that we call anaerobes. however." hut because of the radical change in biota that occurs at about 0. respectively. oxidizing agents are probably the most crucial factor. wind and water circulation patterns. because marine organic matter is consumed preferentially by organisms. Secondly.8 monsoonal winds that drive surface waters away from the coast. Theoretical models have been developed to predict upwelling (and consequent productivity) in ancient seas from input data on continental configurations. At lower levels of dissolved oxygen. Of these. The term dysaerobic has been used to describe processes occurring in the transitional zone (0. and the sediment-accumulation rate. the remaining individuals often become dwarfed in an effort to survive in a hostile environment. and paleoclimates.5 mL/L). productivity is probably not as important a factor as preservation.2 mL/L is called the anoxic zone. and are usually limited in scope by the availability of sulfate or nitrate. and we could coin the term dysoxic to describe the zone itself. landmasses. the zone where oxygen falls below 0. the type of organic matter deposited. the accuracy with which we can reconstruct continental positions. microorganisms that utilize materials like sulfate or nitrate ions instead of molecular oxygen as electron acceptors in their metabolic processes. if on the average only 1% of organic matter is preserved.
denser waters remain at the bottom. but limnic environments often are. The ultimate implications of anoxia for petroleum exploration are great. Color should be used mainly as a negative criterion: If a rock is not very. STAGNANT BASINS. It therefore behoves us to understand the conditions under which anoxia develops. and warm climates are necessary to avoid overturn caused by freeze-thaw cycles. The presence of pyrite itself can also be deceptive. and both the waters in the bottom layer and the underlying sediments will become anoxic. OXYGEN-MINIMUM LAYER (OML). are not rich in organic carbon. it cannot represent an anoxic facies. Lakes in failed rifts can also contain organic-rich. and therefore that dissolved-oxygen levels were below 0. once the original oxygen has been consumed in oxidizing organic matter. Lack of communication between the layers prohibits replenishment of oxygen in the bottom layer. Many black rocks. The cooler. and if the climate is subtropical or tropical. leading to the eventual development of a pycnocline (density interface) which prevents interchange between the two layers. it may well have developed after burial. anoxia can be very local. Among the ancient lake beds thought to have been deposited in permanently stratified waters are the well-known Green River Shale (middle Eocene. it has been estimated. that most of the world's oil was generated from source beds deposited under anoxic conditions. Furthermore. Wyoming). the presence of bioturbation indicates that the bottom waters were not anoxic. there is no guarantee that anoxia was present at the sea floor. Lake deposits associated with continental rifting. then permanent density stratification will arise as a result of temperature differences within the water column. Consumption of oxygen results from decay of dead organisms that have sunk from the photic zone above. This oxygen minimum develops when the rate of consumption of oxygen within that layer exceeds the rate of influx of oxygen to it. intense pyritization of benthic bivalves is testimony to the fact that pyrite is not a good indicator of bottom-water anoxia at the time of deposition. Nevertheless. anoxic sediments. where photosynthesis and turbulence can no longer contribute oxygen to the water. Lakes of the Rift Valley of East Africa are excellent modern analogs receiving much attention from both researchers and explorationists at the present time. it is instructive to consider complete stagnation.2 mL/L. although stunted burrows can be used as evidence of dysoxia. The supply of fresh oxygen is therefore limited to horizontal . Conversely. slow circulation or turnover of the water column occurs almost everywhere. are anoxic in some of the places where they have been penetrated. The oxygen minimum layer usually begins immediately below the photic zone. no more oxygen can enter. particularly in understanding lacustrine beds. Depths in excess of 200 m are required to prevent mixing during storms.9 rocks therefore indicates that diagenesis was stopped prematurely. they often owe their dark color to finely divided pyrite or to particular chert phases. especially during the Triassic along the margins of the developing Atlantic Ocean. and strata from several basins in China. Therefore. Color is not a reliable indicator. Truly stagnant basins are actually quite rare. Although pyrite does indeed form under anoxic conditions. and its presence indicates that the anaerobic reduction of sulfate ion did occur.Organic Facies . The laminae prove that burrowing fauna were absent. in fact. anoxic sediments show preserved depositional laminae on a millimeter or submillimeter scale. most likely by absence of oxygen. All anoxic sediments will be very dark gray or black when deposited. If an isolated body of water is deep enough. however. Finally. The oxygen-minimum layer is a layer of subsurface water that has a lower dissolved-oxygen content than the water layers either above or below. Marine basins are seldom isolated enough to fit well into the stagnant-basin model. very dark. Nevada). the Elko Formation (Eocene/Oligocene.
. Anoxia . However. Furthermore. because of their connection with the open-marine realm. It has been proposed that at certain times in the past (e. whereas in a fluvially dominated system (Black Sea) the net flow of surface water is out over the sill. High productivity reduces oxygen levels. its intensity varies greatly. In an evaporitic environment (Karabogaz in the Caspian Sea) there is a net flow of water into the basin. but it is too slow to disturb the anoxia which develops in the bottom layer. when a major transgression had greatly increased the continental shelf area. Large amounts of organic material are preserved in coal swamps as a result of the combined effects of poor water circulation. and diminished bacterial activity. Coal Swamps. There are other ancient and modern examples of organic-rich rocks deposited under anoxic or near-anoxic conditions associated with OMLs. Late jurassic. It is not coincidental that these were times of deposition of large amounts of organic-rich rocks in many parts of the world. Wherever an intensely developed OML intersects the sediment-water interface. including paleoclimate and water circulation.g. and high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations create conditions poisonous to predators. with the bottom layer almost isolated from the open-marine waters.10 movement of oxygen-bearing waters. Intensely developed OMLs occur in areas of high productivity and. Evaporitic environments combine the opportunity for abundant growth of algae with ideal conditions for preservation. This depletion was probably the result of the complex interplay of several factors. foreset beds within the same system are leaner in organic matter because they are deposited above the OML. During those times the OML expanded both upward and downward because of poor supply of oxygen to subsurface waters. Late Devonian) the world oceans were severely depleted in dissolved oxygen. permanent density stratification will develop. In contrast. Any organic matter arriving in those sediments will have an excellent chance to escape oxidation. the waters entering or leaving the basin are near surface. because these horizontally moving waters also lie within the oxygen minimum layer. and grazers and predatory organism are eliminated by the high salinities. sediments will be deposited under low-oxygen conditions. the point of connection between the restricted area and the open-marine environment.Organic Facies . or as lateral facies equivalente thereof. Shallowly silled basins often yield evaporites. Nutrients are concentrated by evaporation. Circulation is often restricted by the presence of a sill. The result is often deposition of organic-rich laminae within evaporites. those environments can also incorporate the features of an oxygen-minimum-layer model. an upward expansion of the OML led to a tremendous increase in the surface area covered by anoxic bottom waters. Shallow Silling. which could be excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. high influxes of organic matter. if the basin is deep enough. Bottomset beds associated with prograding delta systems can be rich in organic matter if they are laid down within a well-developed oxygen-minimum layer. In actuality there is a lazy turnover of the bottom waters. These include the modern Peru-Chile shelf (high productivity associated with upwelling) and occurrences of black sediments of Aptian to Turonian age in the North Atlantic. In times like the mid-Cretaceous. to a lesser extent. in areas of poor circulation. as a result of diminished oxygen demand. Settings in which circulation is restricted are much more common than stagnant basins. since most organic matter was destroyed within the overlying OML. Although an oxygen-minimum layer exists virtually everywhere in the ocean. Where the sill is shallow. the oxygen they can contribute is limited. the shallowness of the swamps prevents the waters themselves from becoming anoxic. Coal swamps can develop under a variety of conditions in both marine and non-marine environments. In either case. mid-Cretaceous. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION. Although circulation in coal swamps is generally sluggish. Below the OML oxygen levels again increase.
TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER. but the organic material is almost invariably woody. That material which remains is dominantly of terrestrial origin. Any extensive organic diagenesis is therefore likely to eliminate algal organic matter first. Most depositional settings not specifically catalogued above will be more or less well oxygenated. Coals are important source rocks for gas accumulations. Rapid settling of organic debris through the water column is also important.Organic Facies . the phenolic components present in lignin-derived terrestrial material are toxic to many micro-organism. with their high concentrations of organic matter. or resinous material. TOC values increase as sediment-accumulation rates increase. cellulosic. Phenolic bactericides derived from lignin hinder bacterial decay in the water and throughout the sediment column. and low productivity in the overlying pelagic realm. and more favorable for gas than for oil. RAPID SEDIMENTATION AND BURIAL. Rapid deposition of inorganic detritus is common in turbidites and in prodelta shales. their virtual absence in much terrestrial organic material. because extensive decomposition occurs during its fall to the ocean floor. Near-shore oxidizing facies sometimes have high TOC values. provide an ideal means of maintaining low-oxygen conditions. forest fires. or organic material. because its chemical components are digestible and provide precisely the nutrients required by scavengers and predators. Dilution does not reduce the total amount of organic matter preserved. and may include woody.11 develops within the sediments rather than in the water column. all of which are chemically quite distinct from each other. cuticular. but it does spread that organic material through a larger volume of rock. . Organic matter of algal (phytoplanktonic) origin is consumed more readily by organisms than are other types of organic material. but their supposedly low potential for generating oil is to be reconsidered. renders it of little nutritional value. Coals also accumulate very rapidly and. and other oxidative processes. Abyssal sediments are notoriously low in organic carbon as the result of the combined effects of high oxygen levels in abyssal waters. much of the organic material that does reach the bottom in deep waters arrives in relatively large fecal pellets. especially in structural (woody) material. It may also contain very resistent organic debris derived from erosion of ancient rocks. Rapid burial is accomplished by a high influx of inorganic detritus. thus preventing extensive diagenesis of such material. and therefore wi11 contain primarily oxidized organic matter. Nitrogen and phosphorus are in particular demand. biogenic inorganic sediment. Furthermore. Lack of sulfate in non-marine swamps further prevents anaerobic microbial destruction of the organic matter. lignitic. In fact. Rapid sedimentation and burial con also enhance preservation. very slow sedimentation rates. which settle several orders of magnitude faster than individual phytoplankton. as a result of more rapid removal of organic material from the zone of microbial diagenesis. The hydrocarbon-source potential of all of these oxidizing facies is low. at very high accumulation rate dilution may become a more important factor than increased preservation. The extremely high accumulation rates for biogenic carbonates and siliceous sediments in zones of high productivity promote preservation of the associated algal protoplasm. DILUTION Although high sediment-accumulation rates enhance preservation of organic matter. The net result is a reduction in TOC values. Oxic Settings.
To derive maximum value from our analyses. however. anoxia in bottom waters is a phenomenon whose effects we should learn to recognize in ancient rocks. and a very imperfect understanding of oceanic. in which the organic and inorganic materials arrive together. Preservation is best accomplished where oxygen is excluded from bottom waters. Some of the commonly applied criteria are apt to be misleading. are not as strongly affected by dilution. where sediment-accumulation rates are directly proportional to organic-carbon-accumulation rates. as a result of high productivity or sluggish circulation. Productivity can be predicted by locating ancient sites of marine upwellings. Consequently. preservation is generally the most important. and dilution by inorganic material.Organic Facies . . such events were often interrupted for long periods before anoxia was reinduced. and the presence of high TOC values coupled with the occurrence of undegraded marine organic matter. Anoxic events in the past were probably not as large in scale or as long lasting as some workers have suggested. Because of its role in creating rocks with excellent hydrocarbon-source potential. in contrast.and atmospheric-circulation patterns. As in the modern oceans. If the rapidly accumulating sediment is mainly clastic. Direct control of the anoxia was thus probably local. such models are not yet of much practical value for the distant past. including stagnancy or near-stagnancy. The most reliable criteria for bottom-water anoxia are the preservation of fine depositional laminae. however. Of these. It is often very difficult to separate the influences of these various factors in a particular depositional environment. dilution is far less marked. effectiveness of preservation. Shales.12 Dilution effects depend upon rock lithology. Biogenic sediments. Rapid accumulation of sediment shortens the residence time of organic matter in the zone of diagenesis and thus promotes preservation. Facies changes from carbonates to shales may create large dilution effects that can be wrongly interpreted as indicating changes in oxygen levels. dilution effects may lead to lower TOC values in spite of enhanced preservation rates. Although certain periods undeniably contain more than their share of anoxic rocks. by uncertainties about exact continental positions and configurations in the past. SUMMARY There are three principal factors that affect the amount of organic matter in sedimentary rocks: primary photosynthetic productivity. Models that integrate the concepts of organic richness with depositional cycles and facies analysis will be valuable tools for understanding hydrocarbon systems in basins. we should always strive to place the organic rich rocks in the larger context of basin evolution through time and space. in contrast. lack of knowledge of seawater chemistry and nutrient availability at those times. There are a number of mechanisms by which oxygen depletion may be fostered and maintained. show strong dilution effects when accumulation rates are very high. however. Our ability to make accurate predictions is limited. and rapid burial. It is important to be able to distinguish local anoxia or anoxia developed deep within sediments from anoxia induced by anoxic bottom waters. anoxic sediments were deposited discontinuously through time and space. In biogenic sediments or coals. a strongly developed oxygen-minimum layer.
One common convention is to represent all the hydrogen atoms attached to a given carbon atom by a single H. every carbon atom forms four bonds. Carbon atoms like to form bonds with each other. and metal carbides. The following representations of n-pentane are equivalent: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)3CH3. NAMES AND STRUCTURES HYDROCARBONS In chemical terms a hydrocarbon is a compound containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen. as it does in the real world. oxygen. elsewhere in this text usage will vary. The chemical reactions of interest to us are very few and are discussed only briefly. Several different types of shorthand have therefore developed to facilitate drawing organic molecules. in which one must also learn all the reactions of many classes of compounds. especially if one has to do it only occasionally.13 3 . whose structures are shown below. sulfur. Petroleum and natural gas are themselves often referred to as "hydrocarbons. . ethane. except carbon dioxide. Examples of hydrocarbons are methane. the explicit inclusion of every atom and every bond becomes extremely tedious. The structures of methane and ethane are thus represented by CH4 and CH3CH3 respectively. oxygen and sulfer. and other elements.Organic Chemistry . This usage is historical and does not imply that all such compounds are necessarily derived from living organisms. This objective is very different trom that of a normal course in organic chemistry. using a subscript on the H to denote the total number of hydrogens around that atom. In each of these compounds. trace metals. two bonds. and cyclohexane. Writing the detailed structure of a simple molecule like methane is no problem. three bonds. and organic geochemistry the study of organic compounds present in geological environments. If one wants to draw large molecules. All compounds containing carbon atoms. creating long chains and ring structures. In this chapter we restrict the usage of the term hydrocarbon to the standard chemical one. however.Organic Chemistry INTRODUCTION Anyone who uses petroleum geochemistry must be familiar with basic chemical terminology. Similarly." but that usage is incorrect trom the chemist's point of view because those materials often contain substantial amounts of nitrogen. The objective of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with the names of common compounds and with several different conventions for drawing their structures. hydrogen always forms one bond. and indeed in every carbon compound (except a few highly unstable ones created only in laboratories). We can make other logical simplifications for longer carbon chains. Organic chemistry is thus the study of carboncontaining compounds. and nitrogen. are termed organic. This unique property of carbon is responsible for the existence of literally millions of different organic compounds. carbonates.
The letter n stands for normal. Hydrogen atoms and bonds to hydrogen atoms are not shown at all." The first four names are irregular. The simplest series of hydrocarbons has linear structures. In the case of 2methylhexane (C7H16) the basic structure is hexane. which we used earlier. simple inspection shows how mant' hydrogen atoms each carbon atom must have. For example. Each carbon atom is represented by a point. Many unsaturated compounds have carbon-carbon double . Isoprenoids ranging in length from six to forty carbon atoms have been found in petroleum and rocks. Among the most important branched hydrocarbons in organic geochemistry are the isoprenoids. is the adjectival form of the word methane. which. but the prefixes denoting the number of carbon atoms in the other alkanes are derived from Greek numbers. giving rise to a vast number of possible structures. ethyl and propyl). The zigzag configuration illustrated for n-pentane is adopted to show clearly each carbon atom. and indicates that there is no branching in the carbon chain. Because we know that each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. n-pentane and cyclohexane are represented by the line structures shown below. are able to combine with additional hydrogen. Branching can occur. We have also seen that carbon atoms can be arranged in rings.Organic Chemistry . Another important group of hydrocarbons is the unsaturates. Regular isoprenoids consist of a straight chain of carbon atoms with a methyl branch on every fourth carbon. the names of the other nine simplest n-alkanes are given in the following table. These cyclic compounds (called naphthenes) are named by counting the number of carbon atoms in the ring and attaching the prefix cyclo. Other adjectival forms are made by dropping the -ane ending and adding yl (for example. Note that the name of each compound ends in -ane.14 An even quicker shorthand that uses no letters at all has evolved. in contrast. as in "alkane. We have ahready encountered n-pentane. The term methyl. a CH3 (methyl) group is attached to the second carbon atom. because they are saturated with respect to hydrogen. That is. Names and formulas of the ten smallest n-alkanes Methane CH4 CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3 Butane C4H10 CH3 (CH2)2 CH3 Pentane C5H12 CH3 (CH2)3 CH3 Hexane C6H14 CH3 (CH2)4 CH3 Heptane C7H16 CH3 (CH2)5 CH3 Octane C8H18 CH3 (CH2)6 CH3 Nonane C9H20 CH3 (CH2)7 CH3 Decane C10H22 CH3 (CH2)8 CH3 Carbon atoms need not always bond together in a linear arrangement. no more hydrogen can be incorporated into the molecule without breaking it apart. these molecules are called n-alkanes or nparains. and carbon-carbon bonds are shown as lines connecting those points. All the compounds mentioned above are called saturated hydrocarbons or saturates.
In fact. propene (C3H6). Their stability permits aromatics to be important constituents of oils and sediments. they do not long persist in geologic environments. sulfur. including hydrogenafion. Aromatics form an extremely important class of unsaturated hydrocarbons. Some aromatic molecules are very large. Aromatics possess a system of alternating single and double bonds within a cyclic structure.15 bonds. A variety of reactions. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having fused ring structures are quite common. which is an almost-endless sheet of aromatic rings. Fossil organic matter often contains a vide variety of heterocompounds. these compounds are quite different trom the majority of the organic molecules found in living organisms. the structures of which are shown below. highly aromatic materials of . The extreme case is graphite. which are large. and oxygen. that is. they are free to move throughout the cyclic system instead of being held between two particular carbon atoms. but they actually have completely different chemical properties from alkenes and are unusually stable. converts alkenes to alkanes and cyclic compounds during diagenesis. except that the ending -ene indicates the presence of a double bond. some complex hydrocarbons that are found in fossil organic material can be related directly to individual biological precursors. Many of the heterocompounds present in organisms are converted to hydrocarbons during diagenesis and catagenesis. It is this delocalization of electrons which makes aromatic compounds very stable. Many common NSO compounds are not directly related to biogenic precursors. Because alkenes are highly reactive. the compounds in which they occur are called heterocompounds. NONHYDROCARBONS Atoms other than hydrogen and carbon that occur in petroleum. Although they are unsaturated. and kerogen are called heteroatoms. sulfur. In the laboratory they are readily converted to alkanes by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. Examples are ethene (C2H4) . The hydrocarbons present in petroleum are mostly the end products of extensive degradation of biogenic molecules. the majority contain oxygen. bitumen. A simplified notation for drawing these molecules permits us to represent the double-bond system by a circle within the ring. They are named in a similar manner to the alkanes. At first glance aromatics appear to be nothing more than cyclic alkenes containing several double bonds. because the most common heteroatoms are nitrogen. By hydrogenation ethene thus reacts to form ethane. and cyclohexene (C6H10). Among the most important NSO compounds are the asphaltenes. The circle indicates that the electrons in the double bonds are delocalized. nitrogen. The hydrocarbons we discussed so far are relatively simple molecules. they do not add hydrogen easily.Organic Chemistry . of which some are biogenic and others are formed during diagenesis. Although they are very important constituents of petroleum. or other elements. Most biological molecules are larger and more complex than the simple hydrocarbons. Heterocompounds are also called NSO compounds. these compounds are called alkenes. phosphorus.
carbohydrates. Because phenols are potent bactericides. They have many characteristics in common with kerogen.Organic Chemistry . lignin is rather resistant to degradation. Upon decomposition lignin forms phenolic compounds. They are rapidly metabolized by virtually all organisms. Lignin monomers are linked topether to form molecules having molecular weights from 3000 to 10. providing much of the structural support for large land plants. Many nonhydrocarbon molecules common to living organisms are also present in sediments. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. most carbohydrates are attacked readily by microorganisms. and amino acids. and thus are seldom preserved in sediments (exceptions occur in shell material and in bones. and cellulose. but asphaltene molecules are smaller and more aromatic than most kerogens. Lignin and cellulose are major constituents of humic coals. Among these are lignin. Although cellulose is quite resistant to decomposition under some conditions. Lignin is an important component of wood.000 atomic mass units. however. which are aromatics having a hydroxyl group (OH) attached. it is an important constituent of terrestrial organic matter. It is a polymer consisting of many repetitions and combinations of three basic aromatic subunits. Carbohydrates include starch.16 varying structure. Like lignin. where small amounts of preserved amino acids can be used to date specimens) . the latter is the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere. sugars. and thus tends to become concentrated as other organic matter is decomposed.
and how much oil or gas can be expected. called bitumen. and less regular in structure. more complex. large molecules that have no regular or biologically defined structure. Oil shales. develop after tens or hundreds of meters of burial. Large organic biopolymers of highly regular structure (proteins and carbohydrates. The term kerogen was originally coined to describe the organic matter in oil shales that yielded oil upon retorting. Algal (boghead) coals are formed in environments where the source phytoplankton lack both calcareous and siliceous skeletal components. Coals are a subcategory of kerogen. which have molecular weights of several thousand or more. for example) are partially or completely dismantled. True kerogens.17 4 . and the individual component parts are either destroyed or used to construct new geopolymers. Kerogen composition is also affected by thermal maturation processes (catagenesis and metagenesis) that alter the original kerogen. Each kerogen molecule is unique. with some of the inorganic matrix often being contributed by the algae themselves. slightly larger ones. The soluble portion. The smallest of these geopolymers are usually called fulvic acids. having very high molecular weights. Diagenetic and catagenetic histories of a kerogen. A basic understanding of how kerogen is formed and transformed in the subsurface is therefore important in understanding how and where hydrocarbons are generated. Coals and oil shales should therefore be viewed merely as sedimentary rocks containing special types of kerogens in very high concentrations. in contrast.Kerogen . Humic coals are best thought of as kerogens formed mainly from landplant material without codeposition of much mineral matter. have more mineral matter than algal coals. The amount of organic matter tied up in the form of kerogen in sediment is far greater than that in living organisms or in economically exploitable accumulations of coal. Diagenesis results mainly in loss of water. and natural gas. The residual kerogens also undergo important changes. and ammonia from the original geopolymers.Kerogen INTRODUCTION Kerogen is normally defined as that portion of the organic matter present in sedimentary rocks that is insoluble in ordinary organic solvents. Subsurface heating causes chemical reactions that break off small fragments of the kerogen as oil or gas molecules. when the chemical and biological destruction and transformation of organic tissues begin. and sediments. These geopolymers are the precursors for kerogen but are not yet true kerogens. KEROGEN FORMATION The process of kerogen formation actually begins during senescence of organisms. The chemical and physical characteristics of a kerogen are strongly influenced by the type of biogenic molecules from which the kerogen is formed and by diagenetic transformafions of those organic molecules. humins. During the course of diagenesis in the water column. humic acids. strongly influence the ability of the kerogen to generate oil and gas. If anaerobic sulfate . and still larger ones. because it has patchwork structures formed by the random combination of many small molecular fragments. will be discussed in a following chapter. as well as the nature of the organic matter from which it was formed. Lack of solubility is a direct result of the large size of kerogen molecules. Today it is used to describe the insoluble organic material in both coals and oil shales. which are reflected in their chemical and physical properties. soils. oil. the geopolymers become larger. as well as dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks. whether these hydrocarbons are mainly oil or gas. The detailed chemistry of kerogen formation need not concern us greatly. Kerogen is of great interest to us because it is the source of most of the oil and some of the gas that we exploit as fossil fuels. carbon dioxide.
in contrast. II. which are highly reactive. In an oxidizing environment many of the small biogenic molecules will be attacked by bacteria before they can form geopolymers. or at least look very much like biogenic molecules. the macerals that they are composed of. KEROGEN COMPOSITION Because each kerogen molecule is unique. better organic preservation. One way that we can begin is by classifying kerogens into a few general types. About a decade ago workers at the French Petroleum Institute developed a useful scheme for describing kerogens that is still the standard today. Geopolymers are more or less immune to bacterial degradation. large amounts of sulfur may become incorporated into the kerogen structure. contain mainly the most resistant types of biogenic molecules that were ignored by microorganisms during diagenesis. in contrast. and III) and have studied the chemical characteristics and the nature of the organisms from which all types of kerogens were derived.Kerogen . therefore. Kerogen formation competes with the destruction of organic matter by oxidative processes. They identified three main types of kerogen (called Types I. Carboncarbon double bonds.18 reduction is occurring in the sediments. are converted into saturated or cyclic structures. . In a low-oxygen (reducing) environment. because the bacterial enzyme systems do not know how to attack them. Microorganisms prefer to attack small molecules that are biogenic. it would not be of great and direct significance to exploration geologists. the subdued level of bacterial activity allows more time for the formation of geopolymers and. Most organic oxidation in sedimentary environments is microbially mediated. Kerogens formed under reducing conditions will be composed of fragments of many kinds of biogenic molecules. and ultimately of much greater practical value. The four types of kerogen. it is somewhat fruitless to attempt a detailed discussion of the chemical composition of kerogens. is developing a general method of describing gross kerogen composition and relating it to hydrocarbon-generative capacity. Even if such a description were possible. What is within our reach. Subsequent investigations have identified Type IV kerogen as well. and if the sediments are depleted in heavy-metal ions (which is often the case in nonclastic sediments but is seldom true in shales). The amount of sulfur contributed by the original organic matter itself is very small. Those kerogens formed under oxidizing conditions. and their organic precursors Transformation of organic material in sediments and sedimentary rocks.
catagenesis. including marine algae. leaf waxes. Type I kerogens have high generative capacities for liquid hydrocarbons. Heteroatom contents of kerogens also vary with kerogen type. in contrast. and metagenesis. Type III (humic) kerogens. Type II kerogens arise from several very different sources. from Wyoming. Van Krevelen diagram showing maturation pathways for Types 1 to IV kerogens as traced by changes in atomic HIC and OIC ratios. Extensive interest in those oilshale deposits has led to many investigations of the Green River Shale kerogens and has given Type I kerogens much more publicity than their general geological importance warrants. Type I (algal) kerogens have the highest hydrogen contents because they have few rings or aromatic structures. They also include contributions from bacterial-cell lipids. phenols. and Colorado. and fossil resin. Hydrogen contents of immature kerogens (expressed as atomic H/C ratios) correlate with kerogen type. Type IV kerogens contain mainly reworked organic debris and highly oxidized material of various origins. because they all have great capacities to generate liquid hydrocarbons.19 Type I kerogen is quite rare because it is derived principally from lacustrine algae. successively. have lower hydrogen contents because they contain extensive aromatic systems. and carbohydrates. Type IV kerogens. of middle Eocene age. The best-known example is the Green River Shale. are normally considered to generate mainly gas. which mainly contain polycyclic aromatic systems. in contrast. contain far less oxygen because they were formed from oxygen-poor lipid materials. . Type IV kerogens are highly oxidized and therefore contain large amounts of oxygen. Type III kerogens are composed of terrestrial organic material that is lacking in fatty or waxy components. Most Type II kerogens are found in marine sediments deposited under reducing conditions. Type III kerogens have high oxygen contents because they are formed from lignin. The various Type II kerogens are grouped together. Type III kerogens have much lower hydrocarbon-generative capacities than do Type II kerogens and. Utah. The shaded areas approximately represent diagenesis. have the lowest hydrogen contents. Occurrences of Type I kerogens are limited to anoxic lakes and to a few unusual marine environments. pollen and spores.Kerogen . In the immature state. Cellulose and lignin are major contributors. Type I and Type II kerogens. despite their very disparate origins. cellulose. Type II (liptinitic) kerogens are also high in hydrogen. They are generally considered to have essentially no hydrocarbon-source potential. unless they have small inclusions of Type II material.
High-sulfur kerogens (and coals) are almost always associated with marine deposition. Macerals are essentially organic minerals. forcing us to make assumptions about the source organisms. In principle. occur when a kerogen is subjected to high temperatures over long periods of time. Thermal decomposition reactions. in some cases. they represent fundamentally different perspectives. KEROGEN MATURATION INTRODUCTION Very important changes. they are not precisely equivalent.Kerogen . The small molecules eventually become petroleum and natural gas. a term taken trom coal petrology. called catagenesis and metagenesis. but they really represent different aspects of the same process. The correspondence is not perfect. is derived mainly from sulfate that was reduced by anaerobic bacteria. most terrestrially influenced kerogens are low in nitrogen. Maceral names were developed by coal petrologists to describe. Nitrogen is derived mainly from proteinaceous material. Although the terms catagenesis and oil generation are often used synonymously. because fresh waters are usually low in sulfate. Catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation occur concurrently. Kerogen types are defined by the morphologies of the kerogen particles. Sulfur is only incorporated into kerogens in large quantities where sulfate reduction is extensive and where Fe +2 ions are absent (organic-rich. nonclastic sediments). marine. Thus few kerogens consist of a single maceral type. especially when we are discussing both aspects simultaneously. A list of the most common macerals and their precursors is given in the table presented earlier in this chapter. however. Kerogen sulfur. which is destroyed rapidly during diagenesis. The different types of kerogen particles are called macerals. they are to kerogen what minerals are to a rock. Despite its name. called maturation. In others the original fabric has disappeared completely. anoxic. Because lignins and carbohydrates contain little nitrogen. Metagenesis. The kerogen in a given sedimentary rock includes many individual particles that are often derived from a variety of sources. Many high-sulfur kerogens are also high in nitrogen. Most high-nitrogen kerogens were therefore deposited under anoxic conditions where diagenesis was severely limited. The biggest problem comes in identifying Type III kerogen. the materials from which a maceral was derived." Metagenesis begins long before true rock metamorphism. in contrast. because there is not a perfect biological separation of the various types of living organic matter. which occurs after catagenesis. wherever possible. By convention the term catagenesis usually refers to the stages of kerogen decomposition during which oil and wet gas are produced. proving the origin of the particle. . however. Microscopic organic analysis has reached a fairly high level of refinement and is often capable of assessing kerogen type with good accuracy. but it also continues through the metamorphic stage. represents drygas generation. What appears to be vitrinite (Type III kerogen) by visual analysis may have chemical characteristics intermediate between Type II and Type III kerogens because of the presence of small amounts of resin or wax. whereas hydrocarbon generation focuses on the production of hydrocarbon molecules. In many cases the original cellular structure is still recognizable. In this text we shall use the terms somewhat interchangeably.20 Sulfur and nitrogen contents of kerogens are also variable and. break off small molecules and leave behind a more resistant kerogen residue. Catagenesis refers to transformations of kerogen molecules. interrelated. It is possible to make a reasonably good correlation between kerogen type based on chemical characteristics and kerogen type based on visual appearance. The division of kerogens into Types I-IV on the basis of chemical and hydrocarbon-generative characteristics has been supported by another independent scheme for classifying kerogens using transmitted-light microscopy. metagenesis is not equivalent to "metamorphism.
We shall look now at the various techniques for estimating the extent of hydrocarbon generation from kerogen properties and see how closely each of them is related to hydrocarbon generation. the residual kerogen gradually becomes more aromatic and hydrogen poor as catagenesis proceeds. Although it is obvious that many measurable changes in kerogens are related to hydrocarbon generation. simply because the longer time available compensates for lower temperatures. As we saw earlier. provided that the hydrogen content of the kerogen was known prior to the onset of catagenesis. it is also true that other changes in kerogen properties have little or nothing to do with it. This complex interplay between the effects of time and temperature on maturity is discussed in a later chapter. Types I. Thus the steady decrease in hydrogen content of a kerogen (usually measured as the atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio) during heating can be used as an indicator of both kerogen catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation. high-sulfur oils found in a number of areas. but it also states that at any temperature above absolute zero reactions will be occurring at some definable rate.Kerogen . In the late stages of maturity. Chemical reaction-rate theory requires that the rates of reactions decrease as temperature decreases. There is a steady color progression yellow-goldenorange-light brown-dark brownblack as a result of polymerization and aromatization reactions. Old rocks will often generate hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures than young rocks. the cracking of any organic molecule requires hydrogen. much of the sulfur is lost in the earliest stages of catagenesis. Furthermore. There is therefore no necessary cause-and-effect relationship . after hydrogen loss is well advanced. and III kerogens will therefore be very similar chemically. but they are not necessarily identical with hydrocarbon generation. In contrast. Some of these changes can be measured quantitatively. much as a cookie browns during baking. Nitrogen and sulfur are also lost from kerogens during catagenesis. The more hydrogen a kerogen contains. including the Miocene Monterey Formation of southern California. possessing essentially no remaining hydrocarbon generative capacity. because time also plays a role. and thus are not necessarily valid indicators of hydrocarbon generation. Furthermore. oil. the chemical process of maturation never stops completely. It is impossible to set precise and universal temperature limits for catagenesis. The real reason for following kerogen catagenesis. The composition of the products (bitumen. All kerogens become increasingly aromatic and depleted in hydrogen and oxygen during thermal maturation. EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS Kerogen undergoes important and detectable changes during catagenesis and metagenesis. Because many of the light product molecules are rich in hydrogen. the more hydrocarbons it can yield during cracking. in most cases decreases of temperature in excess of about 20°-30° C due to subsurface events or erosional removal will cause the rates of catagenesis to decrease so much that it becomes negligible for practical purposes. The most important implication of these chemical changes is that the remaining hydrocarbongenerative capacity of a kerogen decreases during catagenesis and metagenesis. is to monitor hydrocarbon generation. the rates of catagenesis are generally not important at temperatures below about 70° C. II. Kerogen particles become darker during catagenesis and metagenesis.21 This chapter will focus on those changes in the residual kerogen that accompany catagenesis. These reactions are intimately related to important changes in the chemical structure of kerogen. even if drastic decreases in temperature occur. as evidenced by low maturity. thus allowing us to judge the extent to which kerogen maturation has proceeded. and gas) will be discussed in a following chapter. For practical purposes. Nitrogen loss occurs primarily during late catagenesis or metagenesis. Kerogen maturation is not a reversible process-any more than baking a cake is reversible. of course. however.
there would be a large and continuous build-up of bitumen in the rock as a result of catagenetic decomposition of kerogen. Both curves are highly . Some of these are hydrocarbons. the more an incident light beam will be scattered. its structure becomes more ordered. Bitumen generation occurs mainly during catagenesis. A general name tor these molecules is bitumen. The concentration of free radicals in a given kerogen has been found to increase with increasing maturity. somewhat beyond the oil-generation window. For example. Cracking often produces free radicals.22 between kerogen darkening and hydrocarbon generation. is the ability of kerogen particles to reflect incident light coherently. and the less it will be reflected. carbon-isotopic compositions of kerogens are affected little by maturation. If neither expulsion from the source rock nor cracking of bitumen occurred. resulting in lower bitumen contents in the source. The difference between the two curves represents bitumen expelled from the rock or cracked to light hydrocarbons. while others are small heterocompounds. Half a century ago coal petrologists discovered that the percentage of light reflected by vitrinite particles could be correlated with coal rank measured by other methods. which are unpaired electrons not yet involved in chemical honds. These structural reorganizations bring about changes in physical properties of kerogens. What actually occurs. The more random a kerogen's structure. One property that is strongly affected. Plot of bitumen generation as a function of maturity (dashed fine) compared to bitumen remaining in rock (solid line). and no guarantee that a particular kerogen color always heralds the onset of oil generation. Kerogens often fluoresce when irradiated. Except for darkening. Kerogens. These small compounds are much more mobile than the kerogen molecules and are the direct precursors of oil and gas. Some properties of kerogen change very little during catagenesis. HYDROCARBON GENERATION As kerogen catagenesis occurs. because the flat aromatic sheets can stack neatly. small molecules are broken off the kerogen matrix. especially highly aromatic ones. As kerogen matures and becomes more aromatic. has been widely and successfully applied in assessing kerogen maturity. Free-radical concentrations can be measured by electron-spin resonance. contain large numbers of unpaired electrons. and because vitrinite particles also occur in kerogens. however. the technique. called vitrinite reflectance. and which can be used to gauge the extent of molecular reorganization.Kerogen . is that some of the bitumen is expelled from the source rock or cracked to gas. The intensity and wavelength of the fluorescente are functions of kerogen maturity. during metagenesis the chief product is methane. Because coal rank is merely a measure of coal maturity. the visual appearance of kerogen also does not change during catagenesis: kerogen types are generally recognizable until the particles become black and opaque.
because natural variations among samples cause much scatter in experimental data. but none of these measurements is closely linked to the actual process of hydrocarbon generation. In such cases the expelled products will be mainly gas. SUMMARY Kerogen begins to form during early diagenesis. Effective generation of hydrocarbons requires that the generated products be expelled from the source-rock matrix and migrated to a trap. The chemical composition of a kerogen controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and the type of products obtained. Sulfur-rich kerogens decompose easily because carbon-sulfur hbonds are weaker than any bonds in sulfur-poor kerogens. those rocks that generate few hydrocarbons may not expel them until they have been cracked to gas. High-sulfur kerogens generate heavy. although we know that oil generation does occur during the phase we call catagenesis. we cannot always define the limits of hydrocarbon generation with great confidence. Given the significant chemical differences among the various types of kerogens. when large geopolymers are created from biological molecules. Source rocks that generate large amounts of hydrocarbons early are likely to expel those hydrocarbons early. Thus. Kerogens formed from lipid-rich organic material are likely to generate liquid hydrocarbons. Several methods exist for estimating the extent to which hydrocarbon generation has occurred in a given kerogen. this result is hardly surprising. Other kerogens usually follow a more traditional model. . residual kerogen as well as small molecules that are the direct precursors for petroleum and natural gas. In very lean rocks expulsion may occur so late that cracking of the generated bitumen is competitive with expulsion. however. It has become apparent in recent years that not all kerogens generate hydrocarbons at the same catagenetic levels. Microfracturing is related to overpressuring. Rich rocks will become overpressured earlier than lean ones and thus will also expel hydrocarbons earlier. hydrogen-poor. The chemical composition and morphology of kerogen macerals depend both on the type of original organic matter and on diagenetic transformations. whereas those kerogens that contain few lipids will generate mainly gas. as measured by parameters such as vitrinite reflectance. including rock physics and organic-geochemical considerations. Catagenesis of kerogen produces a more aromatic. high-sulfur oils at low levels of maturity. which in turn is partly attributed to hydrocarbon generation itself. Resinite consists of polymerized terpanes (ten-carbon isoprenoids) that can decompose easily by reversing the polymerization process.Kerogen . Resinite and sulfur-rich kerogens are able to generate liquid hydrocarbons earlier than other kerogens because of the particular chemical reactions occurring in those two materials. Numerous methods exist for tracing the history of a kerogen and determining its original chemical and physical characteristics. We shall consider the latter briefly here. Conversely. Candidates for early expulsion would be very organic rich rocks and those containing resinite or high-sulfur kerogens. Kerogens formed from resinite will generate condensates or light oils quite early. Many workers now believe that microfracturing of source rocks is very important tor hydrocarbon expulsion. Timing and efficiency of expulsion depend on a number of factors.23 idealized.
Bitumen and petroleum compositions can also be used as tools in correlating samples with each other. we first separate a crude oil or a bitumen into several fractions having distinct properties. like benzene and toluene. indeed. are more commonly studied. One fraction consists mainly of saturated hydrocarbons. Asphaltenes tend to aggregate into stacks because of their planarity. and steranes. particularly those derived from diterpanes. Each of the fractions contains certain types of chemical compounds. A second fraction consists of aromatic hydrocarbons and some light sulfur-containing compounds. and resins. The influence of the lithologies of source and reservoir rocks on these compositional changes is poorly understood. Petroleum. Major compositional changes occur in going from bitumen to petroleum. Saturated hydrocarbons are the most thoroughly studied of the components of petroleum and bitumen because they are the easiest to work with analytically. branched hydrocarbons (including isoprenoids). We also do not know how much of the change involves chemical reactions. Both bitumens and petroleums exhibit a wide range of compositions. Petroleum. The final fraction contains very large.24 Bitumen. In order to investigate the individual compounds present. Heavier aromatic and naphthenoaromatic hydrocarbons. Some of these are present in relatively large quantities. There is no doubt that they are related. n-alkanes. but we are not certain whether they occur mainly within the source rock or during migration through the reservoir rock. bitumen is almost universally accepted as the direct precursor for petroleum. Reservoir transformations in some cases greatly affect oil composition and properties. and form complexes with molecular weights of perhaps 50. while others are only trace contributors. but they also exhibit many important differences. however.000. have been studied in petroleums. many unanswered questions remain about the processes that transform bitumen into petroleum. The large sizes of asphaltene units render . variously called polars. In order to understand bitumen and petroleum compositions and to use them for exploration. Few of these heterocompounds have been studied carefully. we must separate the characteristics related to kerogen composition from those related to the transformation of bitumen to petroleum and from those related to changes occurring in reservoirs. COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS Both bitumen and petroleum contain a very large number of different chemical compounds. Light aromatic hydrocarbons. This chapter will compare and contrast bitumen and petroleum compositions and examine the factors responsible for the observed differences. and cyclics. triterpanes.Bitumen. Most of the NSO compounds appear in the remaining two fractions. highly aromatic asphaltene molecules that are often rich in heteroatoms. contains a wide variety of small and medium-sized molecules with one or more heteroatoms. and how much is due to physical separation of chemical compounds having very different properties. Much of this variety is related to source-rock facies and the composition of the kerogens that generated the bitumens. NSOs. and Natural Gas - 5 . Maturity also exerts control over bitumen and petroleum composition. The lighter of these fractions. However. Such correlations can be particularly useful in establishing genetic relationships among samples. but these compounds are lost from bitumens during evaporation of the solvent used in extracting the bitumen from the rock. and Natural Gas INTRODUCTION Petroleum obtained from reservoir rocks and bitumen extracted from fine-grained rocks have many similarities.
) Even-carbon preferences occur principally in evaporitic and carbonate sediments. especially 23. although we know for certain that the biomarker molecule is biogenic. Another important indication of the origin of n-alkanes is the distribution of individual homologs. marine algae produce n-alkanes that have a maximum in their distribution at C-17 or C22. was developed as a measure of the strength of the odd-carbon predominance in n-alkanes over the even alkanes (in the series from 23 upwards). Their n-alkane distributions reflect this mix. In contrast. such as pentane or propane. however. 29. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS Biomarkers n-Alkanes were among the first biomarkers to be studied extensively. Many of the compounds and classes of compounds that we find in crude oils and bitumens are called biomarkers. are essentially molecular fossils. In a few cases specific precursor organisms or molecules can be identified. and 31 atoms. asphaltene molecules have not been studied in detail. If odd-carbon homologs predominate. CPI values can therefore . depending upon the species present. we are unable to use it as an "index fossil" for specific organisms. of biological origin. Asphaltenes can thus be removed from oils or bitumens in the laboratory or refinery by adding a light hydrocarbon. Other compounds. Carbon Preference Index. however. (Among the acids and alcohols present in living organisms. SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS Biomarkers. and no preference for either odd. 27. the CPI is greater than 1. If the number of odd.or even-carbon homologs is evident. an abbreviation for biological markers. the CPI is 1. These compounds. 25. The most useful biomarkers serve as indicators of the organisms from which the bitumen or petroleum was derived. whereas in other instances we may be able to limit the possible precursors to only a few species.0. where input of terrestrial n-alkanes is minimal and diagenetic conditions are highly reducing. Many other types of organic compounds in crude oils and bitumens are not considered to be biomarkers because they cannot be related directly to biogenic precursors. The average of two ranges is taken to minimize bias produced by the generally decreasing n-alkane concentrations with increasing number of carbon atoms.0. However. even-carbon homologs predominate as strongly as do the oddcarbon homologs among the n-alkanes. but their sources are simply no longer recognizable due to diagenetic and catagenetic transformations. or members of the n-alkane series.Bitumen. or CPI.25 them insoluble in light solvents. In most cases. the lower-carbon homologs are given more weight in the calculation. Because of their molecular complexity and heterogeneity. or of the diagenetic conditions under which the organic matter was buried. because the concentration of n-alkanes often decreases with increasing carbon number. Petroleum. receive contributions of n-alkanes from both terrestrial and marine sources. The distributions are quite sharp. Sediments are also known that exhibit a strong preference for n-alkanes having an even number of carbon atoms. and Natural Gas . and by their catagenetic formation from long-chain compounds such as fatty acids and alcohols. which are derived from biogenic precursor molecules. They are. Their high concentration in bitumens and oils is best explained by their existence in plant and algal lipids. These n-alkanes are believed to be formed by hydrogenation (reduction) of longchain fatty acids and alcohols having even numbers of carbon atoms. Many sediments. of course. For the most part n-alkanes present in terrestrial plants have odd numbers of carbon atoms.and even-carbon members is equal.
Bitumen, Petroleum, and Natural Gas -
deviate from 1.0 even when no preference is distinguishable by visual inspection of the distribution curve. n-Alkane distributions are greatly modified by thermal maturity. Chain lengths gradually become shorter, and the original n-alkanes present in the immature sample are diluted with new n-alkanes generated during catagenesis. Because the newly generated n-alkanes show little or no preference for either odd- or even-carbon homologs, CPI values approach 1.0 as maturity increases. n-Alkane distributions in bitumens and oils derived from algae do not show the influences of maturity as clearly because the original CPI values are already very close to 1.0. It is therefore often difficult to estimate maturity levels in pelagic rocks on the basis of n-alkane data. Parameters other than Biomarkers. Sulfur contents are also strongly influenced by diagenetic conditions. For economic and environmental reasons, oils having more than about 0.5% sulfur are designated as high-sulfur. Many high-sulfur oils contain 1% sulfur or less, but in some areas sulfur contents can reach 7% (Monterey oils from the onshore Santa Maria area, southern California, for example). A few oils contain more than 10%. These high-sulfur bitumens and crude oils are derived from high-sulfur kerogens. As we saw earlier, sulfur is incorporated into kerogens formed in nonclastic sediments that accumulate where anaerobic sulfate reduction is important. Most oils and bitumens derived from lacustrine or ordinary clastic marine source rocks will be low in sulfur content, whereas those from euxinic or anoxic marine source rocks will be high-sulfur. Sulfur occurs predominantly in the heavy fractions of oils and bitumens, particularly in the asphaltenes. High-sulfur oils therefore have elevated asphaltene contents.
Introduction. There are two main types of reservoir transformations that can affect crude oils (reservoir transformations are not applicable to bitumen because, by definition, the material in a reservoir is petroleum). Thermal processes occurring in reservoirs include cracking and deasphalting. Nonthermal processes are water washing and biodegradation. Of these, cracking and biodegradation are by far the most important. Cracking and Deasphalting. Cracking, which breaks large molecules down into smaller ones, can convert a heavy, heteroatom-rich off into a lighter, sweeter one. Waxy oils become less waxy. API gravities increase, and pour points and viscosities decrease. When cracking is extreme, the products become condensate, wet gas, or dry gas. Cracking is a function of both time and temperature, as well as of the composition of the oil and the catalytic potential of the reservoir rock. It is therefore impossible to state that cracking always occurs at a certain depth or reservoir temperature. Most oils, however, will be reasonably stable at reservoir temperatures below about 90° C, regardless of the length of time they spend there. On the other hand, a reservoir above 120° C will contain normal oil only if the oil is a recent arrival. Although the role of catalysis in hydrocarbon cracking in reservoirs has not been proven, many workers suspect that clay minerals are important facilitators of hydrocarbon breakdown. Catalytic effectiveness varies greatly from one clay mineral to another, however, and our partial understanding of this difficult subject is not of much practical use at the present time. Cracking also brings about deasphalting, because asphaltene molecules become less soluble as the oil becomes lighter. Precipitation of asphaltenes in the reservoir will lower sulfur content and increase API gravity appreciably. Biodegradation and water washing. Water washing involves selective dissolution of the most soluble components of crude oils in waters that come in contact with the oils. The smallest hydrocarbon molecules and the light aromatics, such as benzene, are the most soluble. The effects of water washing are rather difficult to determine because they do not affect the oil fractions that
Bitumen, Petroleum, and Natural Gas - 27
are most frequently studied. Furthermore, in most cases the effects are quite small because of the low solubilities of all hydrocarbons in water. Finally, water washing and biodegradation often occur together, with the more dramatic effects of biodegradation obscuring those of water washing. Biodegradation is a transformation process of major importance. Under certain conditions some species of bacteria are able to destroy some of the compounds present in crude oil, using them as a source of energy. The bacteria responsible for biodegradation are probably a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic strains. Only aerobic bacteria are believed to actually attack hydrocarbons, but anaerobes may consume some of the partially oxidized byproducts of initial aerobic attack. Because biodegradation changes the physical properties of oils, it can have serious negative financial implications. Heavily biodegraded oils are often impossible to produce (Athabasca Tar Sands of Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco heavy oils of Venezuela, for example). If production is physically possible, it may be expensive or uneconomic. It is therefore important to understand where and why biodegradation occurs, and what its effects are on oil composition. Biodegradation may actually start during oil migration (provided required temperature and oxygen conditions are met), because oil-water interactions are maximized then. Most biodegradation probably occurs within reservoirs, however, since the length of time an oil spends in a reservoir is usually much longer than its transit time during migration. Biodegradation can vary in intensity from very light to extremely heavy. Because the chemical and physical properties of an oil change dramatically in several predictable ways during biodegradation, biodegraded oils are easily recognized. Many basins have at least a few biodegraded oils, and in some areas they are epidemic. Bacteria that consume petroleum hydrocarbons have strong preferences. Hydrocarbons are not their very favorite foods, and they eat them only because there is nothing else available. The preferred hydrocarbons are n-alkanes, presumably because their straight-chain configurations allow the bacterial enzymes to work on them most efficiently. Also attractive to the "bugs" are long, alkyl side-chains attached to cyclic structures. After the n-alkanes and alkyl groups are consumed, the bacteria begin to destroy compounds having only a single methyl branch or those having widely spaced branches. Then they move on to morehighly branched compounds, such as the isoprenoids. In the last stages of biodegradation, polycyclic alkanes are attacked. Because the hierarchy of bacterial attack on crude oils is well known, it is possible to assess the degree of biodegradation by observing which compounds have been destroyed. Sulfur contents of crude oils also increase as a result of biodegradation. In a heavily biodegraded oil the sulfur content may increase by a factor of two or three. Sulfur is undoubtedly concentrated in the oil by selective removal of hydrocarbons, and may also be added by bacterially mediated sulfate reduction.
COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM
Although bitumens and crude oils contain the same compounds, the relative amounts are quite different. In the process of converting bitumen to petroleum, either the NSO compounds are lost in large quantities, or they are converted to hydrocarbons. In actuality, both processes probably occur, although selective loss of nonhydrocarbons during expulsion is probably most effective in concentrating the hydrocarbons. Bitumen composition depends strongly on the lithology of the host rock. Carbonates contain bitumens that are much richer in heterocompounds than are shales, and their hydrocarbon fractions are more aromatic. These differences are the result of the higher sulfur contents of kerogens in carbonates. Oils derived from carbonate sources are also richer in heterocompounds than oils sourced from shales.
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Natural gas contains many different compounds, although most of them are present only in trace quantities. The principal components with which we shall be concerned are light hydrocarbons (methane through butanes), C02, H2S, and N2. Carbon dioxide and N2 are generally associated with very hot reservoirs. C02 is derived either by oxidation of oil or gas or by decomposition of carbonates. The origin of the C02 can be determined easily by carbon-isotope measurements: the very different isotopic compositions of organic-carbon species and carbonates are carried over into any C02 derived from these materials. Nitrogen is thought to be an indicator of high levels of maturity formed primarily by metagenetic transformation of organic nitrogen and ammonia bound to clay minerals. Hydrogen sulfide is usually derived from high-sulfur kerogens or oils. These in turn are formed most readily in carbonates. Thus sour gas is most common in carbonate reservoirs or in places where the source rock was a carbonate. H2S could also be formed by the reaction of hydrocarbons with sulfate in reservoirs, especially carbonates containing anhydrite. Biogenic gas, most of which occurs at shallow depths, but which can apparently form (or at least persist) at depths of a few thousand meters, is very dry, containing only trace amounts of hydrocarbons heavier than methane. In contrast, the first gas produced during catagenesis is quite wet. With increasing maturity, gas again becomes progressively drier as a result of cracking of the heavier hydrocarbons to methane.
Bitumens and crude oils contain the same classes of compounds, but their relative concentrations are quite different. These differences are in some cases related to differences in maturity; in other examples they are probably a result of preferential expulsion of hydrocarbons from source rocks. Individual compounds occur in quite variable proportions in bitumens. Source, diagenesis, and maturity all exert control over these distributions. When source and diagenetic influences have been removed, the porphyrins, steranes, triterpanes, and n-alkanes in mature bitumens are found to be very similar to those in crude oils and quite different from those in immature bitumens. Oil compositions can also be strongly affected by reservoir transformations, including biodegradation, water washing, cracking, and deasphalting. Many of the factors that influence the composition of oils and bitumens are well understood and predictable, and can be used to obtain information about paleoecology, thermal history, and reservoir conditions. Gas composition is governed first of all by whether the gas is of biogenic or thermal origin. Biogenic gas is always dry, whereas thermal gas may be wet or dry. Carbon-isotope ratios are good indicators of the source of gas; biogenic gas is much lighter isotopically than thermal gases. Other important components, such as CO2, N2, and H2S, are indicative of high temperatures or sulfur-rich source material.
29 6 . Although the exact threshold value must vary considerably as a function of rock lithology and other factors. There appear to be three distinct ways in which oilphase expulsion can occur. where pre-existing light hydrocarbons bleed out of the rocks prior to the onset of significant generation and expulsion. particularly along lines of weakness such as bedding planes. the microfractures heal. Based on empirical evidence. it involves expulsion of hydrocarbons from their fine-grained. but those that have been discounted will not be discussed here. . lowpermeability source rock into a carrier bed having much greater permeability. expulsion. it is probably most effective in immature rocks. microfracturing. Once the internal pressure has returned to normal. Today there are only three mechanisms of primary migration that are given serious consideration by most petroleum geochemists: diffusion. Traps are the means by which migration is stopped and accumulation occurs. Furthermore. Many cycles of pressure buildup. oil-phase expulsion. Momper (1978) suggested that in most cases no microfracturing or expulsion could occur until a threshold amount of bitumen had been generated in the source rock. and overpressuring commences anew. When the internal pressures exceed the strength of the rock. whereas accumulation of hydrocarbons requires concentration. and solution in gas. microfracturing occurs. An important implication of the microfracturing model is that expulsion cannot take place until the strength of the source rock has been exceeded. Its importance is probably limited to the edges of thick units or to thin source beds. any contribution by diffusion will be overwhelmed by that from other expulsion mechanisms. PRIMARY MIGRATION MECHANISMS Many theories about primary migration (expulsion) have been popular at various times. Laminated source rocks may therefore expel hydrocarbons with greater efficiency than massive rocks. Primary migration is the first phase of the migration process. One occurs most commonly as a result of microfracturing induced by overpressuring during hydrocarbon generation.Migration DEFINITIONS Migration is the movement of oil and gas within the subsurface. Diffusion has been shown to be active on at least a minor scale and over short distances in carefully studied cores. Each of these steps is quite distinct from the others. Accumulation is the concentration of migrated hydrocarbons in a relatively immobile configuration. By far the most popular mechanism invoked today to explain primary migration is expulsion of hydrocarbons in a hydrophobic (oily) phase. In order to understand the complex sequence of events that we call migration. and pressure release can be repeated. but will describe the most widely held views on the dominant mechanisms of primary and secondary migration and accumulation. During intense hydrocarbon generation. Momper's value has been widely accepted as a reasonable average. The hydrocarbons within the pores then become isolated again because of the impermeability of the waterwet source rocks to hydrocarbons. This chapter wi11 not go into the physics and chemistry of migration in detail.Migration . Secondary migration is the movement of oil and gas within this carrier bed. The main problem with diffusion as an important mechanism of migration is that diffusion is by definition a dispersive force. Diffusion would therefore have to be coupled with a powerful concentrating force to yield accumulations of appreciable size. where they can be preserved over long periods of time. we must look at each of these steps separately.
we can estimate that once the expulsion threshold is reached the expulsion efficiency for bitumen is about 50%." We can only estimate the fraction of the bitumen left in the source rock during microfractureinduced expulsion. but a large proportion of NSO compounds and heavier hydrocarbons are left behind. Primary migration is unquestionably the most difficult part of the entire migration process. this early expulsion mechanism seems to be limited to rocks having very high original contents of lipids. because petroleum is being forced through rocks having low matrix permeabilities. it would be expected only in the late stages of catagenesis or in source rocks capable of generating mainly gas.Migration . we conclude that solution in gas is a minor mechanism for oil expulsion. or downward. Because the driving force for microfracture-induced primary migration is pressure release. particularly in brittle carbonate and opal-chert source rocks. Because neither case is of great general significance for petroleum formation. Of course. Therefore the threshold must represent not only a hurdle to be cleared by the bitumen before it can leave the source rock. but also an "exit tax. but it does give some idea of the efficiency of expulsion. most of the hydrocarbons are expelled. Fracture and joint systems. Thus inefficiency of expulsion is responsible for much of the difference in composition of bitumen and petroleum that we noted earlier. unfractured source-rock units are relatively rare. Thus a source rock lying between two sands will expel hydrocarbons into both carrier beds. depending upon the carrier-bed characteristics of the surrounding rocks. Primary migration is difficult and slow. upward. primary migration may be of poor efficiency. where they do exist. expulsion of oil dissolved in gas.30 Once the threshold has been exceeded. This type of expulsion is probably only operative in very rich source rocks during the main phase of oil generation. Massive. therefore. the migrating fluids will take them. this approach is rather approximate. Sand stringers within shale units can provide secondary migration conduits for hydrocarbons sourced in the shales. . By comparing the average hydrocarbon compositions of bitumen and crude oil. oil-phase expulsion can take place when bitumen forms a continuous network that replaces water as the wetting agent in the source rock. but the mechanism by which overpressuring is achieved is not understood. In most cases hydrocarbons are generated within short distances of viable secondary-migration conduits. The third mechanism. expulsion can be lateral. In most cases the distances of primary migration are probably between 10 centimetres and 100 m. Thus primary migration ends whenever a permeable conduit for secondary migration is reached. hydrocarbons will be expelled in any direction that offers a lower pressure than that in the source rock. Finally. and assuming that expulsion of hydrocarbons is ten times as efficient as expulsion of NSO compounds. also make excellent secondary-migration pathways. Such a phase could only exist where the amount of gas far exceeds the amount of liquid hydrocarbons. This expulsion process probably releases internal pressures in the rock. Expulsion of hydrocarbons is facilitated because water-mineral and water-water interactions no longer need be overcome. As soon as easier paths become available. Because the source rock is overpressured. A second way in which oil-phase expulsion can occur is from very organic-rich rocks prior to the onset of strong hydrocarbon generation. requires that there be a separate gas phase. Therefore. The organic matter expelled consists mainly of lipids that were present in the sediment during deposition and diagenesis. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION The distances traversed by hydrocarbons during primary migration are short.
If the capillary-entry pressure exceeds the buoyant force. requiring only the existence of two forces. then the rate of hydrocarbon transport will be retarded. hydrocarbons entering the land from an underlying source rock will move toward the top of the sand even as they migrate laterally updip. the globule cannot enter. and becomes stuck until either the buoyant force or the capillary entry pressure changes. the pore throat is very tiny or if the buoyant force is small. The smaller the pore throat. the more deformation is required. but it is not essential and does not change our basic model. The magnitude of the buoyant force is proportional both to the density difference between water and hydrocarbon phase and to the height of the oil stringer. which is resistance to entry of the hydrocarbon globule or stringer into pore throats.31 SECONDARY MIGRATION MECHANISM Once hydrocarbons are expelled from the source rock in a separate hydrocarbon phase into a secondary-migration conduit. This fact has important implications for tracing migration pathways through a thick conduit. When hydrocarbons cease moving. If the upward force of buoyancy is large enough. A third force-namely. Within massive sandstone. Hydrocarbons are thus capable of displacing water downward and moving upward themselves. then the rate of hydrocarbon movement should be enhanced somewhat. the force required to deform the oil globule enough to enter the pore throat. If. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION Secondary migration occurs preferentially in the direction that offers the greatest buoyant advantage. Opposing the buoyancy is capillary-entry pressure. Coalescence of globules of hydrocarbons after expulsion from the source rock therefore increases their ability to move upward through water-wet rocks. Thus movement within a confined migration conduit will be updip perpendicular to structural contours whenever possible. migration may have to proceed at an oblique angle to structural contours. Retardatin of buoyant movement as an oil globule (X) is deformed to fit in to a narrow pore throat (Y).Migration . hydrodynamic flow. the globule must deform to squeeze into the pore. if bulk water movement opposes the direction of buoyant movement. Hydrocarbons are almost all less dense than formation waters. secondary migration will cease until either the capillary-entry pressure is reduced or the buoyant force is increased. secondary migration will occur both laterally and vertically. the globule will squeeze into the pore throat and continue moving upward. The upward buoyant force is partly or completely opposed by the capillary-entry pressure. and therefore are more buoyant. however. Buoyancy promotes migration. we say that accumulation has occurred. Structural contours on the top of the carrier bed will . whereas capillary-entry pressure retards or stops it. Where faulting or facies changes create impassable barriers (capillary-entry pressure exceeds buoyant force). These modifications to the overall scheme are probably minor. That is. If water is flowing in the subsurface in the same direction as hydrocarbons are moving by buoyancy. This model is very simple. In contrast. can modify hydrocarbon movement. subsequent movement of the hydrocarbons will be driven by buoyancy. Whenever a pore throat narrower than the globule is encountered.
Indeed. distances of several thousand feet are not unheard of. Lateral migration is therefore often stymied. Hydrocarbons had to remain in solution until they reached the trap. Vertical migration across stratigraphic boundaries is more difficult. as a result of both tectonic disruption and facies changes related to tectonic events.Migration . the heavy oils in the Orinoco Belt of Venezuela. Stacked sands in a paleodelta. otherwise it is impossible to account for the incredible volumes of hydrocarbons in place today. This model greatly simplifies the problem of accumulation. Migration updip within a single stratum can accomplish a large amount of "vertical" migration rather painlessly. Unconformities also can juxtapose migration conduits. can offer possible pathways (although sometimes rather tortuous ones) for vertical migration. Long-distance migration implies. including the Athabasca Tar Sands of western Canada. however. Faults may play an important role in vertical migration. The problem in discussing long-distance migration is that such cases are rare. It is possible to have lateral migrations of as much as a few hundred kilometers in exceptional circumstances. and has provided as carrier beds continuous blankets of sand juxtaposed with these source rocks. but also because an active fault or the brecciated zone adjacent to a fault may itself have high permeability. because now accumulation can occur where the buoyancy-driven movement of the hydrocarbon phase is stopped or even strongly impeded. Lack of long-distance migration opportunities implies that supergiant and giant accumulations are far less likely and that exploration targets will be smaller. they are rare for very good geological reasons: they occur in extremely stable tectonic settings where major but gentle downwarping has deposited and matured huge volumes of source rocks. There is no a priori reason why secondary migration cannot be a very-long-distance phenomenon. are broken up tectonically and have poor lateral continuity of carrier beds. by definition. at which time they suddenly became immiscible with the water and formed a separate hydrocarbon phase. thus providing a potentially very effective system for combined vertical and lateral migration. large drainage areas and chances for very large accumulations. Cap rocks having low . Vertical migration distances can also be considerable. Much more common. not only because they often juxtapose carrier beds from different stratigraphic horizons. Today we believe that hydrocarbons migrate as a separate phase. however. although it should be remembered that there are two fundamentally different types of vertical migration. The question of long-distance migration has been much discussed and disputed. Drainage area is one of the most important factors influencing the size of hydrocarbon accumulations. Various mechanisms for exsolution were proposed to explain how all this was supposed to happen. the process of hydrocarbon accumulation was somewhat mystical. the largest hydrocarbon deposits known. However. The absence of both tectonic and stratigraphic barriers permits long-distance migration.32 in general be more useful than contours on its base. Nevertheless. because final control on migration direction will be exerted by the upper part of the bed (assuming that no laterally continuous shale breaks divide the carrier bed into two or more separate systems). and the Saudi Arabian crude oils. Most basins. Vertical migration can also occur across formations. for example. are basins in which lateral migration distances do not exceed a few tens of kilometers. leading to smaller fault-bounded accumulations and vertical migration. ACCUMULATION INTRODUCTION In the old days. when migration was thought to occur mainly in water solution. all must have migrated long distances.
of course. The Elmworth Field in the Alberta Deep Basin of Canada is the prototype for kinetic gas accumulations. Seals in the traditional sense of the word may not exist.33 permeabilities to hydrocarbons provide barriers to migration: that is. it remains water wet. while the structure or lithologic change prevents lateral updip migration. a fractured shale that is both source and reservoir. rocks whose capillary-entry pressures are high enough to overcome hydrocarbon buoyancy. Most hydrocarbon traps are either structural or stratigraphic.Migration . The seal prevents vertical migration from the reservoir rock into overlying strata. . Lateral migration is of necessity short distance. Because the high permeability sand updip allows gas to migrate rapidly through. Gas production is actually from the low-permeability sand rather than from the high-permeability sand updip and downdip. Thus the Elmworth Field exhibits a water-over-gas contact. Cross section across the Rhine Graben of West Germany showing the discontinuity of strata as a result of extensional tectonism endemic to rift basins. Because gas generation is very rapid. and vertical migration becomes important. Accumulations are small because drainage areas are small. This model requires. CLASSICAL TRAPS. The low permeability sand thus creates a bottleneck to gas migration. No traditional seal exists. Classical traps are well understood. Gas generated in the late stages of kerogen catagenesis in the Alberta Deep Basin is trapped in a sandstone bed having lower permeability than the overlying sand. and will be covered separately. The simple principle behind a kinetic trap is that hydrocarbons are supplied to the trap faster than they can leak away. The much smaller Antelope Field produces from the Mississippian Bakken Formation. High rates of hydrocarbon generation can actually create traps by causing tensile failure of source rocks that have become overpressured as a result of hydrocarbon generation. KINETIC TRAPS Kinetic traps represent a fundamentally new concept in trapping mechanisms for hydrocarbons. the low-permeability sands become filled with gas. Fracturing associated with high races of oil generation in the Green River Shale has created a supergiant accumulation at Altamont. Much of the hydrocarbon storage at Antelope is apparently in silts and sands juxtaposed with the producible Bakken reservoir. that strong hydrocarbon generation and migration is going on today.
these changes in temperature and pressure can cause separation of the original phase into a liquid phase and a gas phase. EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION It has already been suggested that most of the compositional changes seen between bitumens and normal crude oils occur during expulsion (primary migration) from the source rock. however. the lighter (gas) phase will be far more buoyant than the liquid phase. In cases where no other structural or stratigraphic trapping mechanism exists. Despite the rarity of tar-mat seals. The technology necessary for producing these hydrocarbons has not yet been developed. but hydrates large enough to accommodate butane molecules are known. Gas hydrates form and are stable under pressuretemperature regimes that occur at depths of a few hundred meters below the sea floor in deep water. Formation of hydrates thus provides an important trapping mechanism. Because hydrate zones are often hundreds of meters thick. and thus are not expelled as efficiently with the oil phase. These gas hydrates consist of a rigid lattice of water molecules that form a cage within which a single molecule of gas is trapped. but it may also include some heavier hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas. but in the future gas-hydrate accumulations may be of great economic significance. The polar molecules once again interact most strongly with interstitial water and mineral surfaces. One important feature of methane hydrates is that they are much more efficient at storing methane than is liquid pore water. contain mainly light components. Once expulsion has occurred. and in zones of permafrost. Accumulations beneath tar-mat seals are generally biodegraded themselves. especially methane. because the same conditions that created the tar mat persist in the subsurface. It will therefore migrate much faster and . and would be incapable of sealing accumulations for long geologic periods. because much of the methane trapped is biogenic and was formed in young. When the original hydrocarbon phase contains large amounts of light components. A second characteristic is that gas hydrates form effective seals against vertical hydrocarbon migration. Phase changes occur as a result of decreases in pressure and temperature during migration.Migration . there may be a chromatographic effect during secondary migration. unconsolidated sediments that would have no other means of retaining the methane. The polar (NSO) compounds interact most strongly with both mineral surfaces and water molecules. GAS HYDRATES Formation of crystalline hydrates of natural gas provides an extremely efficient trapping mechanism for natural gas. large accumulations have formed despite high rates of leakage. the quantities of gas in such accumulations are huge. tar-mat traps are worth discussing because they include the largest hydrocarbon accumulations known: those of the Athabasca Tar Sands and the Orinoco heavy-oil belt. of course. Methane is by far the most commonly trapped gas molecule.34 Many of the accumulations in Pliocene reservoirs in southern California are also kinetic accumulations in a slightly different sense. and the poor producibilitv of the hydrocarbons they trap. At the present time the vast potential of gas-hydrate accumulations is just beginning to be recognized. Cap-rocks in those fields are often poor. tar mats may provide the only possible means for retaining any hydrocarbons. The base of the gas hydrate zone forms a pronounced seismic reflector that often simulates bottom contours and cuts across bedding planes. and thus get left behind as the oil globule or stringer moves upward. TAR-MAT TRAPS Tar mats produced by biodegradation can create excellent seals. Because intense oil generation is going on now. The gas phase will. As soon as two immiscible phases are formed.
We need to know when hydrocarbons moved. depending upon stacking of reservoirs. When separation of a single hydrocarbon phase into two phases occurs. Many light oils (often called condensates) probably have such an origin Proposed separation of petroleum components during secondary migration as a result of chromatographic effects. In using our understanding of secondary migration for exploration.Migration . Proximity to effective source rocks and their permeabilities to hydrocarbons determine conduits. Timing of expulsion must be dealt with in a different way. vertical faulting. we will also have determined the timing of expulsion. Polar compounds interact more strongly with water and rock minerals and thus move more slowly than hydrocarbons. Pathways. the barriers that modify die direction of migration and eventually stop it. and how far they moved. . SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION Explorationists who are reading about migration will surely ask. and the possibilities of combined vertical and lateral migration. In summary. by decreases in permeability as a result of facies changes. We have already stated that oil is expelled primarily as a liquid phase. and the timing of expulsion. Vertical-migration distances can be considerable. Efficiency of expulsion of liquids has already been estimated to be in the neighbourhood of 50% after the expulsion threshold has been reached. as we have seen. Tectonically stable basins have the best potential for long-distance migration and supergiant accumulations. Efficiency of expulsion for hydrocarbons is apparently much higher than for NSO compounds. as explorationists we have very pragmatic interests in migration. or by the presence of tars. are determined by structural contours on the top of the carrier beds. and expulsion occurs concurrently with generation to relieve generation-induced overpressuring. and the vertical and horizontal distances involved. by faulting. Thus if we can determine the timing of generation. in what direction they moved. Barriers can be created by folding. the efficiency of expulsion.35 will also assume the structurally high position in any reservoirs containing both phases. We already know two important facts about timing from our previous discussion: expulsion based on microfracturing cannot occur before generation. leading to an enrichment of hydrocarbons in the expelled liquid. both new phases will have compositions that differ drastically from the original phase. "What does this mean for exploration?" From their perspective the important aspects of primary migration are the nature of the hydrocarbons expelled (oil or gas). we want to determine the main pathways and conduite through which migration occurs. Unstable basins seldom have depositional or tectonic continuities necessary for longdistance lateral migration to occur. gas is presumably expelled as a gas phase. Lateralmigration distances are strongly influenced by tectonic and depositional histories of basins.
but there must also be some sort of blockage to prevent further migration. The contours are in feet below mean sea-level. Any oil getting there will be unable to migrate further and so it starts to accumulate. before we reached our modern understanding of the geology of petroleum. where it is lost. exploration used to consist largely of finding a trap. one or more cross-sections may be drawn. is the spill-point: this is where oil. First. Nowadays we can do better. Faults will be marked by jumps of the contours. If it can. A structure contour map resembles an ordinary topographic contour map. not only must the reservoir be overlain by an impervious layer forming a cap rock or seal (shales or evaporites are likely to be the most effective). The lowest point. and hoping for the best. we need a few definitions. they should properly be drawn with the same scale for both the vertical and the horizontal. so that the highest points on the map have the lowest values. by displacing the water already there in the porosity. THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS Traps are commonly depicted in two ways. Indeed. the ticks are on the downthrown sides of the faults. (a) A simple hypothetical anticline. (b) A representation of the Piper field in the North Sea: the heavy lines are faults cutting the top of the reservoir and causing the contours to jump.Petroleum Traps We have seen petroleum generated in and expelled from the source rock formation into an overlying or underlying reservoir. and furthermore we can map out the extent and shape of the trap with a good deal of precision-thanks mostly to modern seismic techniques. drilling a well into it. which may refer either to its depth or to the spot under the ground where it lies. The top of a reservoir formation. This may be caused either by the reservoir itself dying out or by an interruption of its upwards continuity to the surface. up towards the ground surface.36 7 . is known as the crest of the trap. it will escape to surface as a seepage. The location of a trap in the subsurface is often the first objective of an exploration program. is mapped by contours showing depth below sealevel. Note that we commonly highlight petroleum accumulations by shading or colouring the reservoir formations where they contain oil or gas. Such a configuration of the reservoir is known as a trap.Petroleum Traps .(2-18) Before we go further. To give a true representation. To complement the structure contour map. The highest point of the reservoir. as the beds on one side are dropped down relative to the other. they can be mapped by means of contours drawn on the top of the reservoir formation. except that the contours are in depth below sealevel. If then we are to find any of it still preserved. which may give a misleading impression of `lakes' of petroleum under the ground! Structure contour maps. but it is often convenient to exaggerate the vertical to show the individual beds more clearly. if more continues to migrate up into the trap than can be . These are illustrated using a simple anticline as an example.
the only structural effect being a tilt to allow the oil to migrate through the reservoir. Oil being lighter than water. using a cross-section of a simple anticline as example (2-19). will occur as a gas cap above a gas-oil contact. When referring to a single well.Petroleum Traps . either by folding or faulting. which have porosities and permeabilities too low for them to contribute oil to production. formed partly by structural and partly by stratigraphic effects. where the trap has been produced by deformation of the beds after they were deposited. 4. Stratigraphic. then we may see a gas-water contact. The vertical height between the spill-point and the crest is referred to as the closure. STRUCTURAL TRAPS The best known type of trap is the anticline: on reaching the crest. Where there is more than one such pool in the same or overlapping areas. Some terms used to define a trap.e. 3. However. the informal term pay is often used. however. Hydrodynamic traps. and the same term is used loosely to refer to the area of the trap above the level of the spill-point. being lighter still. They are normally classified under four headings (2-21): 1. so that we can recognize a generally horizontal oil-water contact. A single accumulation of oil or gas is called a pool. but not entirely due to either. separates out on top within the pore-spaces of the reservoir. Similarly gas. in which the trap is formed by changes in the nature of the rocks themselves. that most reservoir formations include some tight intervals.37 accommodated. or in their layering. These have to be discounted and the bits that remain as useful reservoir in a well section may be lumped together as the net reservoir with a net pay.(or gas-) column. Just a couple more terms. which are rare and are mentioned mainly for completeness. Structural. i. they are embraced by the familiar terms oilfield or gasfield. petroleum migrating up along a reservoir can go no further and it accumulates there as a pool. there are various types of . Now we can start to consider the types of trap whose discovery may await us. Let us remember. The vertical height of the oil (or gas) between the crest of the trap and the water contact is the oil. will spill out (under) and migrate on. The trap is due to water flowing through the reservoir and holding the oil in places where it would not otherwise be trapped. Combination traps. perhaps if more than one reservoir is present. 2. If there is no oil.
Let us see what the implications are for exploration. the anticline is asymmetrical. Compressive structures have a range of shapes between the purely concentric or parallel anticline and the similar fold. These conditions mean that the anticline becomes smaller and tighter at deeper levels until we reach a common `centre of curvature'. The general principles of this are straightforward. depending on the nature and strength of the rock layers being folded. Traps can also be formed against faults if a chopped-off reservoir is thrown against a shale or other impervious rock. noting the differences in shape and prospectivity that we have to try to interpret. Seismic may help. and we may no longer be able to see where the bottle is. but we commonly have to undertake some form of geometrical construction to interpret what is happening at depth. we have to know its depth to know where best to locate the well. in cross-section. beyond which there may be no trap left to explore as the consequence of decoupling of layers. Cross-sections of trap-forming anticlines. many structures have forms in-between the two extremes. If. so that the beds become intensely crushed and thrust together: we may no longer even have an anticline at all. (a) The dips are the same on both flanks and the crest is beneath the same locality at all depths. Imagine an old-fashioned stone hot-water bottle in a bed with a blanket over it: we can still see the form of the hot-water bottle. we can find the trap present at all levels down to the basement. Below this point we have just too much rock to fit into the anticline. and the blanket bulges upwards with an anticlinal shape. with one flank steeper than the other. These compressive structures pose one problem right from the start. In this type of structure. so that the beds maintain a constant thickness throughout. This leads us into the next problem. In practice.Petroleum Traps . on the other hand.(2-22) In the concentric fold the tops and bottoms of all the layers remain strictly parallel to each other. then the position of the crest will shift with increasing depth. To test the crest at depth. In this case. Other types of anticline can be formed without any lateral compression at all: an important one is the drape or drape-compaction structure. The similar anticline.38 anticlines with different shapes and geometries that can affect both their prospectivity and the positions of optimum drilling locations: we have to try to understand them. we can thus expect to find only smaller and smaller accumulations of petroleum down to the centre of curvature. There is a definite limit to the depths to which we should drill. . We will describe in a little detail the most important types of anticline. but an understanding of the shape and size of a prospect is clearly critical to programming an exploration well. maintains its shape constant down to depth. This is a very different kettle of fish from the concentric anticline. (b) The anticline is asymmetrical and the crest shifts with increasing depth. therefore in order to drill into a reservoir near its highest point (where we would expect the oil to be). This can only happen if there is an apparent thickening of some beds over the crest of the fold. Anticlines. a well would have to be located off-crest at surface. Cover it with a few more blankets and a duvet or two. and we may be able to continue exploration down to depths where we have to stop for other reasons.
where the beds are draped over the eroded stumps of an old Jurassic volcano. Note that the anticline dies out upwards towards the surface. the beds being draped over an upfaulted block (horst) of basement rocks. and hence the combined name. Note also that salt. the Gulf Coast of the USA. much of the west coast and continental shelf of Africa. bending downwards into the hole.(2-25) Similarly. showing the variety of traps that may be associated with them. it may bend up and seal off the strata it cuts through. it is also liable to fracture the overlying and surrounding beds creating fault traps. In effect the downthrown side is being pulled away from the upthrown side which would tend to create an open fissure along the fault.Petroleum Traps . This creates a rollover anticline. it is not always easy to separate out the two effects. is in one such trap.39 A drape-compaction anticline. The effect of salt diapirism will be initially to bulge up the overlying sediments as an anticline. Extensive salt deposits and plugs with associated traps occur in many parts of the world: the southern North Sea and northern Germany. and several others.(2-26) A wide variety of traps can be associated with salt plugs. being plastic. Another is the Forties field in the North Sea. however. or over an upfaulted block or horst. The last type of anticline that we should be aware of is the roll-over anticline. note that the largest oilfield in the world. which contains more than four times as much oil as the whole of the North Sea put together. and then to burst through them in the form of a salt plug or salt wall. This occurs alongside a normal fault that is curved. A second effect comes into play here: because there is a greater thickness of beds off the structure than over the top. and finally a residual bulge may be left between two nearby plugs: a turtle or turtle-back structure. the Canadian Arctic Islands. can be a perfect seal to any underlying accumulations. those near the bottom of the sequence are going to be squeezed and compacted more on the flanks than on top of the feature as it gets buried. so that it is steep near the surface and flattens with depth. Note a characteristic of these anticlines: not only do they `grow' with depth. Nature. does not like empty holes. then they will blanket the hill as an anticline. In case anyone should think that this is unimportant. All of these possible traps may contain hydrocarbons. if the first sediments in a basin were deposited over a hilly surface. Diagrammatic section through two salt plugs. and the beds on the downthrown side above the curving fault collapse to fill the gap. it may extend up to the surface of the ground or only part way if the supply of salt is limited. a salt pillow or a salt dome. the Middle East. higher beds will gradually mute and suppress the structure until it is no longer present at shallow levels. but also . This compaction enhances the anticline formed by the drape. Ghawar in Saudi Arabia. Not only may an anticline be pushed up over the plug.
Middle Jurassic. in both cases. we have to know whereabouts in the succession our prospective reservoir lies. thus causing sand against sand to permit migration and sand against shale to be sealing. Lower Jurassic. The proviso is that we also have lateral closure: this may be provided by further faulting. Again. Cross-section through the Wytch Farm oilfield. and how big it is. Upper Jurassic. It also depends on whether the fault itself is sealing or non-sealing. Tr. therefore. a fault can provide a seal. Lower Cretaceous. Roll-over anticlines: (A) a simple roll-over into a normal fault. Occasionally indeed. Much of the oil under the Niger and Mississippi Deltas is in such roll-over anticlines. trapped against faults to the south. The sealing capacity of faults is a major difficulty confronting us. and its depth. . T. and it will depend on the amount of displacement on the fault. The reader may care to think through the various situations sketched as bits of cross-sections in the following figure in which the faults themselves are non-sealing. UK. We know that sometimes. down towards the deep ocean. The oil is in two reservoirs. All very puzzling! Although attempts have been made to investigate the problem in Nigeria and elsewhere. Tertiary.. BS+MJ+O. Kim+P. or slumping as a sort of land-slide. Whether or not there is a trap. (2-28) We do not propose to discuss fault traps in detail. will depend on the dip of the reservoir as compared with that of the fault. we still do not fully understand what the difference is due to. although there are many problems in trying to locate them in the subsurface. whether the fault is normal or reverse. or by opposing dips. but we also know that sometimes faults are pathways for migrating petroleum and non-sealing at all. in both ways. W. It adds further uncertainties to our predictions of the subsurface occurrence of oil and gas. it seems that one and the same fault may act. Note that. these predated the deposition of the Upper Cretaceous. The large Wytch Farm oilfield of southern England offers a splendid example. and in understanding them. Upper Cretaceous.Petroleum Traps . and naturally we have some ideas on the subject. L. setting it against something impermeable. as at Wytch Farm. southern England. or have acted in the past. (B) a roll-over complicated by subsidiary faulting near the crest. at deeper levels the crest will shift away from the position of the fault at surface. to locate an exploration well in the right place.40 they are asymmetrical. whether or not the reservoir is completely or only partially offset. the position of the crest is displaced with depth and that accumulations in successive reservoirs will not underlie the same surface position. Fault traps We indicated above that a trap may be formed where a dipping reservoir is cut off up-dip by a fault. (2-27) These roll-over structures are particularly important where the `stretching' is caused by a very thick pile of sediments at the edge of a continent gently slipping. Triassic.
is the biggest in the USA outside Alaska.(2-29) STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS Petroleum may be trapped where the reservoir itself is cut off up-dip. A lot of oil has been found in recent years in this sort of trap in the North Sea. the porosity could be preserved beneath the unconformity. its edges will provide an example of a reservoir dying out laterally. a hill on the old land surface may be formed of permeable rock. provides the classic case: the East Texas field. we have an isolated trapping situation. In fact. will spread out as a fan over the ocean floor. so we will mention a few to convey the general idea. A sand deposited in a river channel will be confined by the banks and. possibly through a submarine canyon. It is presumed that petroleum cannot escape up the fault plane. let us note that a number of traps. but nevertheless known. First. We would be left with a sandstone reservoir dying out above the unconformity.Petroleum Traps . A flood of sand washed off the shallow continental shelf into the deeper ocean. say. no structural control is needed. to provide a trap when later covered with. More esoterically. and leave the reader to speculate on other possibilities. they differ somewhat in principle from the others. but are generally classified as stratigraphic traps. if drowned by shales. some of them very important. and on the amount of displacement of the reservoir. claystone. on the direction of dip of the beds relative to the fault plane. for example. A dipping reservoir. however. Non-unconformity traps are even more diverse. gneisses) under an unconformity serve as reservoirs in China and North Africa. until perhaps the supply of sand runs out. cut across by erosion and later covered above the unconformity by impermeable sediments. becoming younger as time goes on. The variety in size and shape of such traps is enormous. It would be pointless to list all of the possible types of stratigraphic trap that can exist. may serve as an isolated stratigraphic trap. We mention just three examples. the beach sands will spread progressively over the land surface. if terminated updip as not infrequently happens. Consider the sea gradually encroaching over the land as sea level rises. fan sands provide one of the prime present-day exploration . In this manner. to a large extent reflecting the restricted environments in which the reservoir rocks were deposited. are formed by unconformities. strongly weathered basement rock (granites. Unconformity traps can also be found above the break.41 Six trapping and two non-trapping configurations against a fault. depending on whether the fault is normal or reverse. thus preventing further migration. A coral reef overwhelmed by muds.
it is presumed that the fault is non-sealing.). possibly even before it . where the reservoirs overlie overpressured shales. occur in traps formed by a combination of structural and stratigraphic circumstances.42 targets. and truncated by erosion. As the more easily found structural traps are running out in much of the world. although such prospects are not easy to locate and may require a lot of sophisticated seismic. or the oil would have been lost. and where an oil-water contact is continuous across a fault. that the trap must be shown to have been there before the oil migrated. An investigation into the sealing qualities of faults affecting roll-over anticlines in the Niger Delta. We may note here one most important consideration. This vital factor. tilted westwards. has most of its oil and gas trapped in a Carboniferous to Jurassic sequence which includes more than one reservoir. neither completely controls the trap. The difference is believed to be due to clay being smeared into the fault plane. as the fault moved. which was tilted west and eroded before deposition of the overlying beds now dipping east. there always seems to be something new as a challenge. some of them large. A block representation of the trap at the Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. where there is enough of it in the section.(230) COMBINATION TRAPS A number of fields. The reservoir beds were folded into an anticline. This combination trap is partly structural (the anticline) and partly stratigraphic (beneath the unconformity). Where a reservoir is full to spillpoint against a fault. Both the faulting and the unconformity control the traps. A couple of examples may give the idea. Again the range of possibilities is almost infinite. these beds were folded into a faulted east-west anticline.Petroleum Traps . The Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. the biggest field in the USA. elsewhere it appears to form a trap. which were eroded and unconformably overlain by Cretaceous shales.(2-31) The oil in the Argyll and many other fields in the North Sea is trapped in tilted and faulted Permian to Jurassic reservoirs. The oil is held in the reservoirs by younger shales overlying the erosion surface (Fig. The oil in these fields can only have migrated there after the traps were sealed by the higher sequences.
is that in most parts of the world the larger anticlines have now been drilled. therefore. essentially anticlinal. Oil. There is no structural or stratigraphic closure. geologically speaking.43 was generated. is yet another aspect of the petroleum geology that we have to assess in proposing exploration drilling. HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS Imagine surface water. or aquifer. The oil-water contact in such a hydrodynamic trap is normally tilted in the direction of water flow. of course. Depending on the balance of forces acting on the oil. are not all that rare. In this sort of situation. it may find itself caught against an unevenness of the reservoir surface where there is no conventional trap at all. entering a reservoir formation. indicating the former presence of an oil accumulation now lost. is held against an unevenness of its upper surface by water flowing in the opposite direction. are the more obscure and generally smaller prospects. Such tilted contacts. they are known in a number of parts of the world. but the oil reserves they contain show clearly that generally they are also bigger. a regime of water flow cannot normally be expected to remain constant for long. Furthermore. traps in both number and size. cases are known where flowing water has apparently been able totally to flush oil out of an anticlinal trap. The timing of trap formation versus oil migration has not always worked out favorably. we would have to be careful where we locate and drill our oil production wells. in say ordinary anticlinal traps. from our present-day point of view. The trouble. up in the hills and percolating downwards towards a spring. It is therefore always important to get a handle on the hydrodynamic regime in a reservoir for both exploration and oilfield development purposes. perhaps from rain. Oil has found its way into the reservoir and is battling to migrate upwards to the surface against the flow of water.Petroleum Traps . This may be one of the reasons why oil accumulations trapped hydrodynamically are rare. It is totally dependent on the flow of water and is effective. . The number of structural field of this size may partly reflect the fact that structural traps are easier to find than the others. A hydrodynamic trap. What our efforts are increasingly directed towards. only for as long as the water keeps coming: dry up the supply of water. This is what has been described as a hydrodynamic trap. and the oil will be free to move again.(2-32) THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS A review of 200 giant oilfields (those containing 500 million barrels or more) emphasize the importance of structural. as we do not want to waste the money drilling wells that would miss the oil altogether. attempting to escape to surface up a reservoir. Note that the oil-water contact is tilted down in the direction of water flow. We would recognize this from residual traces of oil in a water-bearing reservoir.
. The logs show SP (Self Potential or Spontaneous Potential) on the left and R (Resistivity) on the right.45 EXERCISES EXERCISE 1: The following well logs have been hung on a structural datum. multi-interpretable (D).Make the interpretations from easy (A) to more difficult.Petroleum Traps . Interpret the geological relationships shown in each by drawing a structural cross-section through the logs.
Only the porous core facies is productive in the reef section (see map on next page).46 EXERCISE PetroleumTraps 2 The Wyckoff Gas Field. Oriskany production is from a small anticline on the upthrown side of the fault. showing the interval from top of Onondaga to bottom of Oriskany.Y. The Onondaga forms a thick biohermal reef over part of the field.Petroleum Traps . Elevations and marked logs are provided for 6 wells in the Wyckoff Field.. A deep-seated downto-the-southwest fault extends upward along the southwest flank of the reef. Wyckoff Reef Gas Field WellElevation CORNELL DIBBLE GUILD CHASE BANKS RICHARDS 2257' 2098' 2037' 2206' 2182' 2066' . N. produces from Onondaga Limestone and/or Oriskany Sandstone. Use this information to construct a northeastsouthwest structural cross section from the Richards well to the Dibble well. located in Steuben County.
47 .Petroleum Traps .
Petroleum Traps .48 .
much smaller amounts can be analyzed. However. a possible source rock in a nearby unstudied region. if G is very low. For better communication. When we analyze a rock sample in the laboratory. is it because the rock never had a high initial source capacity. Possible source rock: any sedimentary rock whose source potential has not yet been evaluated. This quantity. Although the term source rock is frequently used generically to describe fine-grained sedimentary rocks. and inexpensive analysis serves as the first and most important screening technique in source-rock analysis.e. For example. Analysis normally requires about one gram of rock. it is also necessary to know what level of thermal maturity is represented by that particular G value. that usage is a bit too broad and loose. the following distinctions can be made: Effective source rock: any sedimentary rock that has already generated and expelled hydrocarbons. quick.Source-Rock Evaluation DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK Much of modern petroleum geochemistry depends upon accurate assessment of the hydrocarbonsource capabilities of sedimentary rocks. Go can only be measured directly for immature source rocks.Source Rock Evaluation . instead it must be estimated by measuring G for a similar sample that is still immature. we cannot measure G directly for a sample that has already begun to generate hydrocarbons. PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL The amount of organic material present in sedimentary rocks is almost always measured as the total-organic carbon (TOC) content. which we can call G. For example. and might have no source potential at all in a fourth area where important facies changes had resulted in a drastically lower content of organic matter.. but which may have generated and expelled hydrocarbons.49 8 . we actually measure its remaining (or untapped) source capacity at the present day. the Phosphoria Formation of Wyoming and Idaho belongs to each of these classifications in different areas. in which case virtually all the initial . The quantity actually measured in the laboratory is always G. a potential source rock in a less-mature area. or is it because the rock is "burned out" (i. Go. overmature. MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Knowing a rock's remaining source capacity G solves only one part of the puzzle. It follows from these definitions that a particular stratum could be an effective source rock in one place. The difference between Go and G represents the hydrocarbons already generated in the effective source rock. is most meaningful if we can compare it to the rock's original source capacity. Potential source rock: any immature sedimentary rock known to be capable of generating and expelling hydrocarbons if its level of thermal maturity were higher. This simple. where G and Go are identical. The term "effective source rock" obviously encompasses a wide range of generative histories from earliest maturity to overmaturity. but if the rocks contain abundant organic matter. the remaining source capacity and not the original capacity (Go).
The fraction of the incident beam that is reflected coherently is measured and recorded and stored automatically on a computer. The key to using maturity parameters effectively lies in evaluating the measured data carefully (and sometimes with skepticism) and. Despite its weaknesses. In many areas it is easy to use and valuable. however. Such histograms are quite often difficult or impossible to interpret. The method is based on the fact that with increasing thermal stress. Results are reported as Ro values. Other macerals or solidified bitumens can often be misidentified as vitrinite. Vitrinite-reflectance techniques were developed for measuring the rank of coals. in some cases it is essential. TAI measurements are made on the same slides prepared for microscopic kerogen-type analysis. in which the vitrinite maceral is usually very common. or TAI). In all cases it is worthwhile to supplement vitrinite with other measures of maturity. At the end of the analysis a histogram of the collected data is printed. Because what is present is often reworked. Thermal Alteration Index (TAI). along with a statistical analysis of the data. unless surrounding samples help us determine the indigenous vitrinite population. In many rocks vitrinite is rare or absent. The darkening of kerogen particles with increasing thermal maturity can be used as an indicator of maturity. Less commonly used are fluorescence and conodont color (CAI). All the methods have strengths and weaknesses. and pyrolysis temperature. misidentification of macerals can cause problems. whenever possible. The most commonly used maturity parameters today are spore color (Thermal Alteration Index. more common are histograms showing few vitrinite particles or multiple modes as a result of first-cycle vitrinite contaminated with reworked vitrinite or caving of less-mature material from up-hole. vitrinite reflectance is the most popular technique today for estimating kerogen maturity. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro). the reflectance value of vitrinite increases. In other rocks. If enough vitrinite particles can be found. Vitrinite-reflectance measurements begin by isolating the kerogen with HCl and HF. All the techniques discussed are useful and probably reasonably accurate if the analytical work is carefully done.Source Rock Evaluation . A substantial number of techniques for measuring or estimating kerogen maturity have been developed over the years. of course. and then embedding the kerogen particles in an epoxy plug. far more common in shales than in coals. . the plot is a straight line. between 50 and 100 measurements will be taken. very different. Because each maceral type increases in reflectance in a slightly different way as thermal stress increases. Reworked vitrinite is. After the plug is polished. TAI values are estimated. There are many problems with vitrinite reflectance as applied to kerogens. Reflectance values are normally plotted versus depth in a well. and none can be applied in all cases. in fact. its maturity is not related to that of the rock in which it is found. If no pollen can be found. In order to minimize differences in color caused by changes in the type or thickness of the kerogen particles. The ideal histogram of reflectance values is therefore rather rare. the microscopist shines light on an individual vitrinite particle. A few of these parameters will briefly be discussed.50 hydrocarbon-source capacity has already been used up)? The exploration implications of these two scenarios are. If a log scale is used for the reflectance. The feeling of most workers today is that there is no single maturity indicator that tells the whole story unerringly all the rime. where the o indicates that the measurements were made with the plug immersed in oil. from amorphous kerogen. even for experienced workers. in obtaining more than one maturity parameter. vitrinite reflectance. TAI measurements are carried out on bisaccate pollen grains whenever possible. with lower confidence. paucity of first-cycle vitrinite renders vitrinite-reflectance measurements essentially worthless. leading to frequent difficulties in establishing which vitrinite population is indigenous.
which can vary greatly in its chemical and physical properties. Furthermore. thus defusing to a large degree the criticism that TAI is too subjective to be valid. The technique is simple and quick and can be done even by inexperienced workers. TAI measurements are therefore often quite accurate and correlate very well with results from other techniques. TAI values estimated from amorphous material are always suspect and should be corroborated by other analyses. where pollen and vitrinite are often absent. most commonly from fossiliferous carbonates. Carbon Preference Index (CPI). use of careful standards and the same type of palynomorph in each analysis greatly aid reproducibility. with the help of color charts can be carried out by inexperienced personnel. Although TAI determinations are subjective. the CAI scale is most sensitive at levels of maturity much higher than can be measured by TAI. The chief problems arise with inexperienced workers. One advantage of CAI over other maturity parameters is that because conodonts existed as early as the Cambrian. Conodonts are not very sensitive indicators of maturity within the oil generation window. Conodonts do not occur in rocks younger than the Triassic. conodonts are plentiful in carbonate rocks. A careful worker can reproduce earlier work with excellent precision. The first maturity indicator applied to sediments was the Carbon Preference Index. lack of proper standardization. Thirdly. CAI is inexpensive and easy to measure and.Source Rock Evaluation . Early investigations showed that immature rocks often had high CPI . where most of the interest is. the absence of spores and pollen in the samples. Finally. When palynomorphs are absent. Although conodonts are composed of carbonate apatite. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI). and thus helps expand the range over which maturities can be measured. by removing the mineral matrix with acetic or formic acid. Finally. CAI is only an indirect indicator of hydrocarbon maturity. Other disadvantages overlap with some of the advantages. leading to an inaccurate assessment of kerogen maturity. because the organic metamorphism displayed by conodonts is not related to hydrocarbon generation or destruction. and thus are of no value in many areas. Conodonts are isolated. One disadvantage of CAI measurements is that CAI values can be dramatically increased in the presence of hot brines. or most commonly.51 Each laboratory has reference slides so that microscopists can continually compare the color determinations they are now making with those they and their colleagues made in the past. changes in conodont color are apparently due to carbonization of inclusions of small amounts of organic matter during catagenesis and metagenesis. TAI values must be estimated from amorphous debris. they offer a means of measuring maturity in rocks that do not contain pollen grains or vitrinite. Colors of the specimens thus obtained are determined under a binocular microscope and compared with standards.
Caving is not a problem for conventional or sidewall cores. Walnut hulls and other organic debris are also easy to detect microscopically. and therefore should be easy to avoid. and lignite from lignosulfonates. Mold or other surface growth may also be present. It breaks down at high maturity levels. This method works fairly well if the kerogen is still within the oil-generation window.2. TOC values will be raised and vitrinite-reflectance values lowered by the presence of adsorbed diesel. Caving is a particular problem for coals. Pyrolysis yields are. which affect only the kerogen portion of the sample. Later it was realized that the decrease in CPI with increasing maturity depends upon the type of organic matter originally present as well as on maturity. Fortunately. however. fewer CPI determinations are made now. Like pyrolysis. The exception to this rule is with amorphous material. Drilling-fluid additives have been a severe headache for petroleum geochemists for a long time. This discovery led to the use of CPI as an indicator of maturity. and can be removed prior to beginning the analytical sequence. Problems with living organic matter are easily avoided by physically removing tiny plant roots and other recognizable debris. CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING Surface Samples -The types of contamination most frequently encountered in surface samples are caused by living organic matter or by spills of oil. Careful picking of lithologies and comparison with up-hole samples can often recognize caved materials. In particular. palynological analysis can usually detect the presence of lignosulfonates because of the unique pollen assemblages present in the lignite.The main causes of contamination among samples obtained from wells are caving and adulteration by drilling-fluid additives. however. In many cases. atomic H/C ratios measure the present day status of the kerogen rather than its original chemical composition. As long as kerogen particles are not completely black.52 values (> 1. rocks deposited in pelagic environments. of course. diesel fuel affects both kerogen and bitumen. it can lead to an overly optimistic assessment of the organic richness of the section. Hydrocarbon contamination is rare except in the immediate vicinity of production or where vehicles are used.5). where the fluorescence that enables us to distinguish between oil-prone and non-oil-prone disappears toward the end of the oil-generation window. therefore. Without additional information. strongly affected by maturity.Source Rock Evaluation .5%. walnut hulls and other solid debris. but it can be devastating in cuttings samples. in which the input of terrestrial lipids was very limited. As a result. in the last decade kerogen analyses have replaced bitumen analyses as the routine procedure in source-rock evaluation. because all kerogens have low pyrolysis yields. In contrast to solid additives. have low CPI values even when immature. Furthermore. because of their friability. it is impossible to determine which maturation path brought it to that point. The most common method for taking maturity effects into account in evaluating pyrolysis data is to use a modified van Krevelen diagram to backcalculate the original hydrogen index. Atomic H/C ratios must therefore be corrected for the effects of . of course. whereas those of oils were almost always below 1. they can usually be identified with reasonable confidence. In such cases TOC values will be raised and reflectance histograms will show a large population near 0. Contaminants of particular notoriety are diesel fuel. ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY Of the three major methods of determining kerogen type. only microscopic analysis is relatively unaffected by maturity. It is capable of impregnating sidewall and conventional cores as well as cuttings. vitrinite reflectance measurements offer the best means of recognizing caving. Well Samples .
As such these quantities are a measure of the total capacity of a rock to release or generate hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide. They will not function as highly effective source rocks. on the basis of deductive reasoning.5% and 1. and S3) are expressed in milligrams of hydrocarbon or carbon dioxide per gram of rock sample. Many rocks with high TOC values. however. yielding . resinite.0% TOC are marginal. but they may expel small quantities of hydrocarbons and thus should not be discounted completely. The amount of hydrocarbons generated in such rocks is so small that expulsion simply cannot occur. the kerogen in such lean rocks is almost always highly oxidized and thus of low source potential. which ones might be of slight interest (TOC between 0. Inertinite is considered by most workers to have no hydrocarbon-source capacity. and thus of limited source potential. S2.53 maturation by using a van Krevelen diagram. claiming. and which are definitely worthy of further consideration (TOC > 1. We therefore use TOC values as screens to indicate which rocks are of no interest to us (TOC < 0. have little oil-source potential. because the kerogens they contain are woody or highly oxidized. A rock containing 3% TOC is likely to have much more than six times as much source capacity as a rock containing 0.5%). where preservation of lipid-rich organic matter with source potential for oil can occur. exinite. Those rocks containing less than 0. that at least some Australian inertinites can generate significant amounts of oil. the actual volume percent occupied by the organic material is about twice the TOC percentage.0%).5% TOC are considered to have negligible hydrocarbon-source potential. gas-generative. These immature H/C ratios can then be used to calculate Go.Source Rock Evaluation . TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER Microscopic kerogen-type analysis describes the proportions of the various macerals present in a sample. Pyrolysis results are normally reported in two ways. Furthermore. The oil-generative macerals are those of Type I and Type II kerogens: alginite.0%). Rocks containing more than 1% TOC often have substantial source potential. however. fluorescing amorphous kerogen. Gas-generative kerogen is mainly vitrinite. Interpretation of TOC values therefore does not simply focus on the quantity of organic matter present. Rocks containing between 0. cutinite. has dissented from this pessimistic view.5% and 1. Smyth (1983). and inert. TOC values above 2% often indicate highly reducing environments with excellent source potential. etc. the direct evidence for such a statement is rather meager. These raw data are then normalized for the organic-carbon content of the sample. Kerogens in rocks containing less than 1% TOC are generally oxidized. In some rocks TOC values between 1% and 2% are associated with depositional environments intermediate between oxidizing and reducing. Raw data (S1. INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Almost all measurements of the amount of organic matter present in a rock are expressed as TOC values in weight percent of the dry rock. Because the density of organic matter is about one-half that of clays and carbonates. because the type of kerogen preserved in rich rocks is often more oil-prone than in lean rocks. We must still determine whether the kerogen present is in fact of good hydrocarbon-source quality. Thus high TOC values are a necessary but not sufficient criterion for good source rocks.5% TOC. Nevertheless. In interpreting these observations we normally divide these macerals into oil-generative.
but in most cases is probably not much above 1. A second. others use 440°. Determination of the oil-generation window in a particular section is the objective of most maturity analyses performed on possible source rocks. and the coals were of bituminous to anthracite rank. .9% Ro. because during the Paleozoic the biota was quite different than during the Cenozoic. The correlations among maturity parameters have been fairly well established. CAI can actually measure high-grade metamorphism. and thus are considered to have good source potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above about 300 contain substantial amounts of Type II macerals. Because variations in TOC have been removed in the normalizing calculation.54 values in milligrams per gram of TOC. most other maturation parameters are related to Ro values. The ultimate limit of oil stability is not known for certain. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) values ranging from 1 to 5 were tied loosely to vitrinite reflectance and fixed carbon content of coals.5% Ro. but there are still some minor variations from one laboratory to another. a unified scale for comparing them with Ro values has not been adopted. if you are using TAI determinations determined by an analytical laboratory. COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS Coals have been traditionally discounted as effective source rocks for oil accumulations because of the lack of geographic correlation between oil fields and coal deposits. either from terrestrial macerals (cutinite. However. MATURITY Kerogen Parameters. Those between 150 and 300 contain more Type III kerogen than Type II and therefore have marginal to fair potential for liquids. Hydrogen indices below about 150 mg HC/g TOC indicate the absence of significant amounts of oil generative lipid materials and confirm the kerogen as mainly Type III or Type IV. Interpretation of hydrogen indices for immature kerogens is straightforward. They have excellent potential to generate liquid hydrocarbons. this generalization has two fallacies: most of the coalfields originally studied were of Paleozoic age. exinite) or from marine algal material.35% Ro. Age of coals is important. make sure that you have a copy of their equivalency between TAI and Ro. Hydrogen indices above 150 reflect increasing amounts of lipid-rich material. for most kerogens the onset of oil-generation is taken to be near 0. It is particularly difficult to generalize about TAI values because the numerical values of TAI scales have not been standardized among laboratories. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above 600 usually consist of nearly pure Type I or Type II kerogens. Peak generation is reached near 0. Measured hydrogen indices must be corrected for maturity effects by using a modified van Krevelen diagram as outlined above. because they vary with kerogen type as well as maturity. less common application is to decide whether oil will be stable in a given reservoir. Thus. The normalized S2 and S3 values are called the hydrogen index and the oxygen index. Some laboratories put the onset of maturity at 435° C. Because vitrinite reflectance is the most popular method of determining maturity. Because some Cenozoic land plants are richer in resins and waxes than Paleozoic plants. the hydrogen index serves as an indicator of kerogen type. resinite.Source Rock Evaluation . and the end of liquid-hydrocarbon generation is thought to be at about 1. with CAI of 8 reached in a marble. Although Tmax values are determined objectively. Nevertheless. some Cenozoic coals should have better potential for generating liquid hydrocarbons.6% Ro. respectively. The limits of the oil generation window vary considerably depending upon the type of organic matter being transformed.
50 2.2 3. With increasing experience one can also learn to derive important information on thermal histories.00 Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) 2. therefore.60 0.00 1. unconformities and erosional events.8 4. rather. and organic facies. Vitrinite Reflectance (%Ro) 0.40 0.3 2.00 4. In some areas one technique may fail completely or may be only partially successful.50 0.Source Rock Evaluation .20 1. We should always attempt to extrapolate our measured data over as large an area as possible. we should attempt to corroborate the measured data by other analyses.5 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 Correlation of various kerogen-maturity parameters with vitrinite-reflectance (Ro) values .5 3.6 2. To do this intelligently we must have the ability to develop regional models of organic facies and thermal maturity. Interpretation of source-rock data on a basic level is quite simple.0 3. we should not rely on a single analytical technique.55 SUMMARY Any source-rock evaluation should attempt to answer three questions: What are the quantity.0 2.0 Pyrolysis Tmax (°C) 420 430 440 450 460 465 470 480 500 500 + 500 + Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) 1 1 1 1. Whenever possible.4 3.8 3.0 4.35 1.00 3. and maturity of the organic matter present in the rocks? Satisfactory methods are available in most cases to answer all these questions.80 1. type.
6 2.22 1. Both the immature H / C ratios and the maceral analysis data need to be scaled to calculate "Total Oil.98 0.56 EXERCISES Worked out example: Perform a source-rock analysis on the Mauve Well.7 2.5 2.7 3. To use the H /C data. and maturity (TAI). refer to the graph on next page. however.72 0.5 2.5 2-2.81 1.3 1. A) Calculation of the immature kerogen H/C ratio(at A) from the present-day H/C ratio and vitrinite reflectance data(at P) .75 0.7 1.41 0.2 2.2 Atomic H/C 1.07 1.5 2-2. so "Total Oil" can be plotted against "Oil Already Generated.1 3.38 TAI 2. quality (H /C and %Alginite + Exinite).5 1.27 1.0 3. and then tracing the H/C ratio back to its immature value.7 2.0 0." Two independent quality measurements have been made.0 2-2.6 2.33 1. present-day H/C ratios to the ones that the kerogens had when they were thermally immature.86 0.9 3. The calculated immature H/C ratios are listed in the table on next page. and both should be utilized and examined for possible discrepancies. Source-rock data for the Mauve Well Depth (m) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Type of Sample Sidewall Cores %Corg 0.8 0.Source Rock Evaluation .15 0.77 0.6 0.5 0.66 0. This can be done easily by plotting H/C versus TAI.65 0.2 1.5 0.3 0.5 1. one must first convert the measured. presenting the kerogen quality factor as a . as shown in Figure B (derived from Figure A).8 % Alginite + Exinite 75 80 80 75 80 90 85 75 70 50 45 60 45 40 ? ? Core Cuttings Data are available on quantity (%Corg).2 3.1 2.6 2.5 2. B) H/C versus TAI for Mauve Well samples.7 1." To do this.05 0.
66 0.90 0.65 0.4 1.75 0.81 1.9 1.6 1.90 0.05 0. If these attempts produced no resolution of the problem.85 1. such as pyrolysis.77 0.17 0. The prudent interpreter might now ask that some of the H/C ratios be rerun. Scaled Quality Data tor Mauve Well Samples Depth (m) macerals) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Measured H/C 1. to check for analytical error.22 1. 4000. the interpreter might then decide to try a third technique.5 1.72 0.90 0.60 0. 1750.2 0.05 0.90 0. It is apparent that there are serious discrepanties between the H/C and maceral analysis results for several of the samples.30 1.86 0. In likewise manner (not illustrated here) the quality factor can be determined from maceral analysis data.70 1.81 1.65 0.9 0.98 0.35 0.35 1.15 0.5 1. and not .8 1. The most important point being made here is that these discrepanties must be taken seriously by the interpreter.22 1.0 0.35 0.00 0.41 0. Without more knowledge.Source Rock Evaluation .33 1.05 1.7 1. and would certainly request that the slides made for maceral analysis be reviewed. and 4500 meters all show differences in the quality factors calculated from the two types of data.20 1.07 1.90 ? ? Quality Factor Quality Factor (from H/ C) (from 1.50 1. the H/C ratio gives the lower quality factor.6 1.5 1.60 ? ? * * * * * 1. The samples at 1000.05 0.60 0.57 function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen in order to determine the quality factor from H/C.07 1. Kerogen quality factor as a function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen.43 1. 2000. it is impossible to pinpoint the error.38 Immature H/C 1. however.05 1.8 ? ? * * * Indicates discrepancy between quality factors calculated from H /C and from maceral analysis.27 1. 2300. The scaled quality factors are given for each parameter in the table on next page. In each case. 1500.6 1. so some systematic error is likely.77 0.
These two kerogens are highly mature and quite black. except for the two deepest samples. The rest of the section shows a good correspondente between the two parameters. Future exploratory activity could include an attempt to find such a section. therefore. In fact. It may be necessary occasionally to offer two alternative interpretations without choosing between them. More samples between 3000 and 3500 meters should be obtained to define better the zone of high "Total Oil" values. no maceral analysis was possible here. The relative organic richness of the blackened samples below 4600 meters makes them interesting for further investigation.Source Rock Evaluation . The only sample where the discrepancy is significant is that from 2000 meters. "Total Oil" values are generally unexciting. "Oil Already Generated" values indicate that only the section lying below 4500 meters is likely to have generated anything approaching a commercially attractive amount of oil. Most of the discrepanties among the different quality factors turn out to be unimportant. a more thermally mature version of the rocks lying between 2700 and 3000 meters in the Mauve Well could already have generated very large quantities of oil. "Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles tor the Mauve Well. because sourcerock potential is not good for most of the section.58 be overlooked or swept under the rug. about the oil-source history of the section below 4600 meters. Let us take this last approach to this problem. "Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles are plotted in above figure. Finally. . One can say little. although the section between 2000 and 3500 meters shows fairly good potential. and the H/C ratios are not helpful because the maceral types cannot be ascertained from such low H/C values.
5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance .0 0.05 0.91 1.25 1.90 0.46 0.51 0.00 1.Source Rock Evaluation .02 Atomic H/C 0.17 0.5 2.5 3.0 2.44 0.0 2.03 0.5-3 2. EXERCISE Source Rock 2 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well.1 0.0 3-3.5-3 2.5-3 3. Explain how you resolved any apparent discrepancies.5 2.51 0.88 0.51 0.02 0.2 2.8 0.3 Bit/TOC 0.63 0.3 2.5 0.41? 1.91 1.5-3 2.02 0.3 1.66 0.9 1.08 0.60 0.4 0.2 0.5 2.42 0.25 0.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1.5 3-3.0-2.59 0.3 2.06 0.27 1.60 0.09 0.06 0.48 Ro 0.1 2.26? 1.11 0.0 2.0 2.27 0.5 2.01 0.07 0.99 1.22 0.07 0.3 2.66 0.08 0.08 0.5 2.0-2.5-3. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10.5-3 2.86 1.5 2.18 0.60 0.85 0. Thermal-maturity data for the Blue Well Depth (ft) TAI Ro Bitumen/TOC 1000 1200 1500 2000 2300 2600 3000 3200 3400 3700 4000 4200 4800 5000 5200 5400 5700 6000 2.49 0.5 2.7 0.49 0.59 0.0 2.33? 1.6 0.10 0.5 2.0-2.08 0.03 0.65 0.61 0.6 4.91 0.67 0.5 3.21 1.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.5 2.5 2.52 0.21 1.8 1.59 EXERCISE Source Rock 1 Combine the data from the Blue Well to give a coherent picture of thermal maturity in the section drilled.6 2.06 0.17 0.21 0.7 0.5-3 2.05 0.03 0.12 *TAI and Ro are interconverted according to the correlation table at the end of chapter 7.0 2.65 0.55 0.71 0.07 1.09 0.5 2.
Even in maturely explored basins the samples available for analysis often do not give a representative picture of maturity in the basin. Lopatin in the Soviet Union described a simple method by which the effects of both time and temperature could be taken into account in calculating the thermal maturity of organic material in sediments. The common thread running through all these models is the assumption that oil generation depends upon both the temperature to which the kerogen has been heated and the duration of the heating. We need data that will enable us to construct a time stratigraphy for the location of interest and to specify its temperature history. we still have no clue as to when oil generation occurred. for it is in keeping with the predictions of chemical-kinetic theory.60 9 .Predicting Thermal Maturity INTRODUCTION Measured maturity values for possible source rocks are invaluable because they tell us much about the present status of hydrocarbon generation at the sample location. methods have been developed for calculating maturity levels where measurements are not available. These two factors are interchangeable: a high temperature acting over a short time can have the same effect on maturation as a low temperature acting over a longer period. especially if the seismic reflectors can be tied to well data. Part of this problem is a consequence of the limitations we face in attempting to obtain reliable maturity measurements. measured maturity data are of limited value in exploration. however. perhaps from thicknesses of exposed sections nearby. In this chapter you will learn how to carry out maturity calculations using Lopatin's method and how to use Lopatin's method in exploration. In most cases. nor do we know at what depth or temperature it occurred. If our measurements indicate that a rock has already passed through the oil-generation window. It has even been suggested that maturity models are more accurate than measured data for determining the extent of petroleum generation. These considerations are important when we want to compare timing of generation. If no well data are available. indeed. Nevertheless. Time-stratigraphic data are usually available as formation tops and ages obtained by routine biostratigraphic analysis of well cuttings. in frontier basins there may not be a single well within tens or hundreds of kilometers. If no subsurface data are available. . Furthermore. expulsion. In some areas there are no well samples available. CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL One of the advantages of Lopatin's method is that the required input data are very simple and easy to obtain. maturity measurements can only tell us about present-day maturity levels. and migration with timing of structure development or trap formation. a time stratigraphy can sometimes be constructed using seismic data. He developed a "Time-Temperature Index" of maturity (TTI) to quantify his method. estimates can be made. This assumption is a logical and defensible one. however.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Lopatin's method allows one to predict both where and when hydrocarbons have been generated and at what depth liquids will be cracked to gas. In 1971. early efforts to take both time and temperature into account in studying the process of hydrocarbon generation were only partially successful because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in allowing both time and temperature to vary independently. In order to circumvent these difficulties.
for example. In cases where biostratigraphic data are available and deposition has been reasonably continuous. Suppose. This geometry is a direct consequence of ignoring compaction effects.Predicting Thermal Maturity . TEMPERATURE HISTORY The next step is to provide a temperature history to accompany our burial-history curve. it is easy to construct burial-history curves with a high level of confidence. In the Tiger well. we can construct the complete figure. burial-history curves represent our best understanding of the geological history of an area. are marked on the age-depth plot. The burial-history curve was constructed in the following way: two points. . we can construct the temperature grid with equally spaced isotherms parallel to the earth's surface. Using the other control points from the input table. Suppose further that local weather records indicate a yearly average surface temperature of 19° C. which was constructed from the time stratigraphy for the Tiger well.(9-2) All of the shallower and younger horizons will have burial-history curves whose segments are parallel to those of the oldest horizon. Connecting the six dots completes the burial-history curve. In cases where biostratigraphic data are lacking or where the sediments have had complex tectonic histories. a burial-history curve may represent only a rather uncertain guess. Today the rock is at a depth of 3700 m. The next step is to locate the first control point from the time-stratigraphic data on the input table. Nevertheless. if constructed as carefully as the data permit. by 80 Ma the sediment had been buried to a depth of 900 m (point C).61 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES Implementation of Lopatin's method begins with the construction of a burial-history curve for the oldest rock layer of interest. that the Tiger well was logged. sediment has accumulated continuously but at varying rates since deposition of the oldest rock 100 million years ago (Ma). Neglecting compaction effects. An example is shown in the following figure. The simplest way to do this is to compute the present-day geothermal gradient and assume that both the gradient and surface temperature have remained constant throughout the rock's history. representing the initial deposition of the sediment (point A) and its position today (point B). The subsurface temperature must be specified for every depth throughout the relevant geologic past. and that a corrected bottom-hole temperature of 133° C was obtained at 3800 m. Burial-history curves are based on the best information available to the geologist. Using these present-day data and extrapolating them into the past.
The individual segments of each of the burial-history curves in a family will remain parallel. As an example: lowering the geothermal gradient by rapid sediment accumulation results in subsurface temperatures that are anomalously low compared to the "normal" ones that dominated previously. we can change surface temperatures through time without altering the geothermal gradient. For example (9-7). however. Whenever erosional removal occurs. the movement of hot rocks from the bottom of the overthrusted slab over cool rocks at the top of the underthrusted slab will affect . The effects of thrusting on thermal maturity are not well understood. temperature profiles will be based largely on guesswork. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES The most common complicating factor in constructing burial-history curves is erosional removal. burial-history curves for both hanging wall and footwall can be represented on a single diagram. If. Given adequate data or an appropriate model on which to base complex temperature reconstructions. Erosion is indicated in a burial-history curve by an upward movement of the curve. some part of the section is repeated as a result of thrusting.62 Where measured bottom-hole temperatures are not available. There is no theoretical limit to the complexity that can be introduced into our temperature histories. More complicated temperature histories account for changes in thermal conductivities caused by variations in lithology. we are limited only by our own creativity. two separate diagrams should be used for the sake of clarity. If thrusting is rapid compared to the rate of thermal equilibration between thrust sheets. maps of regional geothermal gradients can be useful in estimating the gradient at a particular location. There are numerous other variations that can be employed in creating temperature grids. however. If part of the section is missing as a result of faulting. Causes for such events could include global warming and cooling or local climatic variations resulting from continental drift or elevation changes. In many poorly explored areas. the data necessary for highly sophisticated temperature reconstructions are simply not available. In other cases the surface temperature remains constant. the burial-history curve again begins to trend downward. Faulting can be dealt with by considering the hanging wall and footwall as separate units having distinct burial histories. If deposition resumes later.Predicting Thermal Maturity . but the geothermal gradient varies in response to heating or cooling events. the resultant thinning of the section must be represented in the entire family of burial-history curves. In most cases.
Testing of his model and the successful application of Lopatin's method in numerous published examples have confirmed the general validity of this assumption. Multiplying the time factor for any temperature interval by the appropriate temperature-factor for that interval gives a product called the Time-Temperature Index of maturity (TTI). The temperature factor. Index values increase or decrease regularly at higher or lower temperatures intervals. increases exponentially with increasing temperature. Temperature intervals are defined by successive isotherms spaced 10° C apart. These dots define the time and temperature intervals that we shall use in our calculations. more work is required before we will understand fully how thrusting influences hydrocarbon generation and destruction. Studies in the Overthrust Belt of Wyoming indicate that a slow-equilibration model is superior to a simple model invoking rapid thermal equilibration. Total maturity is calculated by summing the incremental maturity added in each succeeding temperature interval. In order to carry out maturity calculations conveniently. Individual burial-history curves remain parallel. A Time interval is the length of time that the rock has spent in a particular temperature interval. Loss of 1000 m of section by erosion during an uplift event lasting from 70 Ma to 60 Ma. Lopatin (1971) assumed that the rate of maturation followed this doubling rule. we need to define both a time factor and a temperature factor for each temperature interval.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Chemical reaction-rate theory states that the rate of a reaction occurring at 90° C (a reasonable average for oil generation) and having a pseudoactivation energy of 16. Lopatin defined each time factor simply as the length of time. we must paste them together. However. but the distance between the two lines which bracket the erosion. Because the rate of maturation was assumed to increase by a factor of two for every 10° C rise in temperature. spent by the rock in each temperature interval.400 cal/mol will approximately double with every 10° C increase in reaction temperature.(9-12) CALCULATION OF MATURITY Once the burial-history curves and temperature grids have been constructed. decreases by 1000 m.63 organic maturation by causing important perturbations in subsurface temperatures. for any temperature interval the temperature factor (?) was given by: ? = 2n The temperature-factor thus reflects the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature. Lopatin chose the 100°-110° C interval as his base and assigned to it an index value n = 0. Intersections of the burial-history curve with each isotherm are marked with dots. respectively. Now we can carry out the maturity calculations. in contrast. This intervalTTI value represents the maturity acquired by the rock in that temperature interval during the time . expressed in millions of years.
In the adjoining table interval-TTI values and total-TTI values up to the present day are calculated.64 given. Furthermore. no matter how much or how rapidly we cool it down. Figure C shows rapid burial during the first 20 Ma. by 10 Ma of uplift and erosion.Predicting Thermal Maturity . If we turn off the oven but leave the cake inside. the cake will bake slowly at first but will bake faster and faster as the temperature rises. A good analogy can be drawn between oil generation and baking. If we put a cake in a cold oven and turn the oven on. In B burial was very slow during the first 70 Ma of the rock's existence. if we forget about the cake when the oven is hot and let it burn. the specific burial history of a rock can strongly affect its maturity. Four of the many paths by which an 80-Ma-old rock could have reached a present burial depth of 3000 m is indicated in the figure (9-21). followed by a nonerosional depositional hiatus for the last 50 Ma. On the other hand. as the oven cools down. In A the rock was buried at a constant rate for its entire 80-my history. even if a rock cools down. where the time factors and yfactors for each temperature interval are shown on the burial-history curve. baking will continue. Maturity always increases. finally. but quite rapid in the last 10 my. . TTI values differ appreciably among these four scenarios. we simply sum all the interval-TTI values for the rock.(9-20) It is also possible to determine the total-TTI value at any time in the past simply by stopping the calculation at that time. it can never go backward because interval-TTI values are never negative. although at increasingly slower rates. we cannot "unburn" it. maturity continues to increase (albeit at a slower rate) because y is always greater than zero. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY Because maturity is affected by both baking time and baking temperature. The first step in calculating TTI is illustrated in the following figure. To obtain total maturity. In D 40 Ma of rapid burial to a depth of 4000 m was followed by a hiatus lasting 30 Ma and.
in contrast. Age calls are often made within a million years. Various methods have been developed for this purpose. and can be even better in Cenozoic rocks. the dependence of maturity on time is linear. The model includes an extensive nonerosional depositional hiatus. Tfu = Fort Union Formation. might we anticipate possible problems with time. we usually have excellent control on rock ages through micropaleontology.(9-29) Furthermore. so even a rather large error in baking time will not produce a catastrophic change in maturity. Most logged temperatures are too low and require correction. . Temperature. Secondly. Km = Lance-Meeteetse formations.Predicting Thermal Maturity . but there is no guarantee of their accuracy in any particular case. Tu = undifferentiated Tertiary. time data are seldom a problem. B) Revised burial-history model for Well #1 based on the poor correlation with measured maturity data. Present-day subsurface temperatures are difficult to measure accurately. Family of burial-history curves for a well in the Big Horn Basin. Only in cases where micropaleontological dating was not or could not be carried out. First. Kc = Cody-Frontier formations.65 A) Initial proposed burialhistory model for Well #1. showing the evolution of the oilgeneration window through time. our uncertainties about the true values of subsurface temperatures are much greater than about time. In actuality. The hiatus has been reinterpreted as an erosional unconformity (9-23) POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS The most obvious errors in maturity calculations will come from inaccuracies in time and temperature data. is the single most important cause of uncertainty and error in maturity calculations. The sensitivity of maturity to temperature is clearly indicated by the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature predicted by the Arrhenius equation. Wyoming.
08 0.5-3 2.6 4. do not utilize different kinetic parameters for the various kerogen types.67 0.71 0.3 Bit/TOC 0.8 1. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10. particularly where Paleozoic rocks are involved. The corrected bottom-hole temperature was 270° F. EXERCISES EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 1 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well.66 Even if we could measure present-day subsurface temperatures with perfect accuracy.8 0.5 3.99 1. A question of some concern comes from the previously mentioned fact that most of the maturity models treat all types of kerogen identically. Base Pleistocene 2 Ma Base Pliocene 5 Base Upper Miocene 11 Base Middle Miocene 50 Ma .5 3.65 0.5 2.88 0.0 0.5-3 2. an accurate interpretation of the ancient geothermal history may be critical.06 0.52 0.91 0.1 0.08 0.17 0.5-3 3.90 0. It penetrated 1000 ft of Pleistocene sediments.02 0.22 0.91 1.27 1. Despite experimental evidence indicating that different kerogens decompose to yield hydrocarbons at different levels of maturity models.000 ft of Upper Miocene before being abandoned at 16. In many cases.91 1. In such cases we should be very careful about using predicted maturities unless we have some independent confirmation of the validity of our model from a comparison with measured maturity data.26? 1.60 0.51 0.3 2.5 0.Predicting Thermal Maturity .7 0.06 0.59 0.5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 2 The Black Well was drilled off the Louisiana Gulf Coast. A plausible average surface temperature is 20° C.25 1.41? 1. however. 3500 ft of Pliocene.7 0.1 2. we still would have to extrapolate the present somehow into the past.5 2.5-3 2.5 2.08 0.66 0. and 11. Construct a family of burial-history curves for the well and calculate the present-day TTI at total depth.00 1.51 0.21 1.03 0.18 0.3 1.48 Ro 0.85 0. even an inaccurate extrapolation into the past may not cause significant problems.5 3-3.86 1.05 0.27 0. In other cases.5 2.9 1.33? 1.5-3 2.2 0.65 0.03 0. however.07 1.150 ft in the Middle Miocene.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.02 Atomic H/C 0.5-3 2.49 0.01 0.4 0. where presentday temperatures are maximum paleotemperatures.5-3.21 1.0 3-3.
Total original thickness of the Kimmeridgian is thought to be 1500 ft. micropaleontology indicates the rocks to be of Maestrichtian age.5 base Turonian base Cenomanian base Cretaceous top Kimmeridgian base Kimmeridgian 91 Ma 97 144 150 156 Ma . assuming a constant geothermal gradient through time. Evidence from related sections indicates that the Paleocene was originally about 3000 ft thick and that no other Cenozoic sediments were ever deposited.end Cretaceous: 15° C 141° C 25° C EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 4 The Ultraviolet Well is spudded in Paleocene sediments. Age data top Paleocene base Paleocene base Maastrichtian base Campanian base Santonian base Coniacian 55 Ma 65 73 83 87. Determine when each of the strata began to generate oil. Corrected BHT (4200 m): Estimated surface temp.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Find when the rock at 3000 m began to generate oil (TTI = 10). At a depth of 1500 ft. Assuming a surface temperature of 10° C and a geothermal gradient of 2° F/100 ft.67 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 3 Calculate present-day TTI at 3000 m in the Red Well. Time-stratigraphic data Temperature data Age (Ma) 0 2 38 65 80 100 Depth (m) 0 500 1200 2700 3000 4000 Present-day average surface temp. It is also believed that 500 ft of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited before uplift and erosion began.5 88. The following Upper Cretaceous boundaries are noted: Maestrichtian-Campanian Campanian-Santonian Santonian-Coniacian Coniacian-Turonian Turonian-Cenomanian 1807 ft 2002 ft 2360 ft 2546 ft 3017 ft The Cenomanian is 480 ft thick and overlies 1000 ft of Kimmeridgian-age shale. draw a burial-history curve for the section penetrated and calculate maturity for the Kimmeridgian shale. Total depth is reached at 6120 ft in Middle Jurassic rocks.
oil-prone source rock at about 4300m depth near the prospect. No other source rocks were noted. . Your responsibility is to make a recommendation regarding the nature of hydrocarbons that might be present in die prospect. evaluate the prospect.000 18. At that time nearby orogenic activity caused the first traps to be formed during a gradual 1200m uplift lasting until 40 Ma.000 13. The traps at the prospect location formed slightly prior to the beginning of erosional removal in the basin and have retained integrity to the present. Erosional removal since the Permian probably totals about 2000 ft. The following geological summary is available to you. Time-stratigraphic data are given in the following table. Top of Permian Virgil Missouri Des Moines Atoka Morrow Mississippian Kinderhook Sylvan Arbuckle Age (Ma) 230 280 288 296 304 309 320 340 425 470 Period Permian 0 L.000 8.500 21.500 27. they are in turn overlain at 2750m by a sandstone of excellent reservoir quality. Carboniferous '' Ordovician '' Depth (ft) 7. Carboniferous '' '' '' '' E. From 40 Ma to the present about 500m of additional burial occurred.65°C/100 m and a surface intercept of 15°C are reasonable for the area.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Nearby well control indicates that a geothermal gradient of 3.000 11. No other reservoirs are anticipated. No unconformities are recognized within the Paleozoic.000 23. Highly fractured carbonates overlie the source rock. The geothermal gradient was found to be 1.500 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 6 You have been asked to evaluate an undrilled prospect in a remote area that is available in an expensive farm-in deal. The source rock is thought to be about 300 Ma old. upper management has decided that gas and condensate are not economical.0° F/100 ft. The basin filled at a generally uniform rate from about 300 Ma to 100 Ma.68 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 5 Analyze the timing of oil generation in the Pink Well." Utilizing the principles of hydrocarbon generation and preservation. rich. Because of the high operations cost. "A regional study of the area suggests the probable presence of a thin. and the surface temperature today is about 15° C.000 25. The reservoir is sealed by a thick salt layer.
We may distinguish between primary reserves that can be produced without any artificial assistance other than pumping. What they think is beyond that in the accumulation.Quantitative Assessment So far we have been talking in rather generalized terms. unless we can be more specific about how we are going to produce them. since we are never able to recover all of the oil that is down there in the reservoir. in the case of small fields. and terms can be used equally for gas. and hence the STOOIP refers to the oil in place in the reservoir but corrected to the volume it would occupy under surface pressure and temperature. or predict. How do we handle these problems? Before we get into this. This section is included to give an idea of what is involved.69 10 . half a mile or whatever. but the same considerations. It usually refers to what was there originally. is liable to change between our information points. This may be done via a standard deviation or by a statistical probability (see below). it is desirable to be able to express our degree of confidence in it. methods. We have to try to understand. RESERVES Perhaps the following explanations will give you some idea of what we are up against when we come to consider quantities of the resource on which a good deal of our civilization depends. The stock tank is. companies tend to use `proven' for those reserves that are believed to be present with an 85 or maybe 90 per cent degree of . and oil may be produced directly into it. located at surface near the well-head. of the following terms: OIL IN PLACE This is the total volume of oil. there is no way that we can know precisely how much we have found: the geology. Proven reserves: Here we start to enter a minefield! Different companies have different definitions of what is proven. Note. they might designate as `probable'. or hope to find. let alone how much. we have to remember that we are dealing with a resource and that we are very concerned with the quantities involved. We cannot regard these quantities as `reserves'. secondary reserves. Because anyway there is uncertainty about this amount. And yet oil companies need to know what to expect. before we started to take any of it out. However. So. that the proportion of the oil in place that we can recover will depend on the economics: how much money are we prepared to spend on getting it out of the ground. of a well. You may see the engineers using the term STOOIP: stock tank oil originally in place. Similarly. we are involved with a greater or less degree of uncertainty about quantities. Some might use the term to refer to the amount of recoverable oil that is believed to lie within a given radius. which controls the amounts of oil in the reservoir.Quantitative Assessment . First. Increasingly these days. however. Now we must see how we can apply our knowledge of the geology to assessing the amounts of petroleum that we have found. A bald figure for `recoverable reserves' is somewhat meaningless. There is no way of knowing in advance of drilling whether or not there is going to be any oil or gas at all down there under the ground. We will refer to oil. and therefore without any dissolved gas of significance. Recoverable reserves: The volume of oil that can actually be produced to surface from an accumulation. even within oil companies. and tertiary reserves using more exotic techniques. we have to clear a good deal of misunderstanding and misuse. just what these changes amount to. which can be produced using assisted or enhanced recovery techniques. our wells. measured in barrels or other units that is present in an accumulation under the ground. until actually all of the oil has been produced. once a discovery is made. let us again emphasize that we are dealing all the time with uncertainties.
if we hear simply about `reserves'. the normal way of estimating how much has been found is to start with the volume of the reservoir within the closure of the trap. What anyway should we regard as net reservoir? A rather arbitrary porosity cut-off value is often used. we shall see shortly. to refer to a degree of confidence or probability. Sometimes `possible' is also seen. like `proven'. BV will be determined from seismic and well data. They refer respectively to what was there and recoverable before we started producing. in this case 50 per cent. . and just to qualify our figures by statistical probabilities: at least then people would know what is meant! Original and remaining reserves: These are fairly obvious. It is affected by many factors. – FVF is the formation volume factor. We then eliminate progressively everything from this volume that is not oil.Sw)] * RF * Constant FVF where: – BV is the volume of the reservoir formation within the closure of the trap above the spill-point. Recoverable reserves = [BV * Fill * N/G * ? * (1 . and the thickness of the reservoir govern it. We may actually be able to measure the FVF if we have a sample of oil collected under subsurface pressures from the bottom of our well. What this means and how we arrive at the figure. the percentage of the porosity that is occupied by the immovable water. but what happens between and beyond our well control? – Sw is the water saturation. to cover the reserves that have only a 15 or 10 per cent chance of being present. – ? is the porosity. This can be pretty subjective. it shrinks because gas bubbles out of it as its pressure is eased during production. that are meant. and `possible' altogether. which is the percentage of the bulk volume that actually contains the oil. or rather the average porosity of the net reservoir across the entire accumulation. Not all of a reservoir formation is going to be sufficiently porous and permeable to contribute oil to production.70 confidence or statistical probability. even when we have information from a lot of wells. DISCOVERED RESERVES Once a discovery of oil has been made. We have not only all the problems of average porosity but remember that the size of the pores comes in here as well: the finer the sand. – N/G is the net to gross ratio. then this factor may be little more than a guess. If we do not know where the gas-oil and oil-water contacts are. We have to discount those parts of it that are useless and just consider the net reservoir thickness. the higher will be the water saturation.Quantitative Assessment . including the adequacy of the source rock to provide enough oil to the trap. We do our best from measurements on core samples and from wireline log interpretation. then we can go straight to the bulk reservoir volume containing the oil. the volume of the gas cap and the water-bearing rock below the oil-water contact being discounted. and what is still there for the taking at a given date. It may well be that it is best to avoid the terms `proven'. and regional and local geological interpretation. Probable reserves: Equally dodgy! One definition was given above: the term may be used. meaning that we have to try to interpret in detail the environments that the sediments were deposited in. The shape of the trap. This will be controlled by variations in the nature of the sediments that comprise the reservoir. `probable'. Again we need an average value for the field. This reflects the fact that oil under the ground in the reservoir occupies more space than it does when we get it up to the surface. if we do. – Fill is the `fill factor'. So we multiply the bulk volume of the reservoir in the trap by those factors that represent the non-oil. it is the remaining reserves. and the quality and strength of the cap rock. Usually. faulting.
for this average value.. from minimum possible to maximum possible. If we are working entirely in the metric system. and to try to be as honest and objective as possible. The computer does the sum using these values. Diagrammatic plots of the outputs from two Monte Carlo simulations. It will be clear to anyone that. To get an answer to our sum in barrels of oil. our best estimate. . Note that the preferred answer that is usually used is the mean value.71 – – RF is the recovery factor. In a sandstone reservoir.).This is because. A constant is needed to adjust the units. So we have a whole list of answers. and then analysed statistically. any one of which could be the real value. then. known as a Monte Carlo simulation. this is commonly about 50-60 per cent. since it is about this that the standard deviation can be calculated. Different geologists will certainly come up with different values for at least some of the input factors. What we are doing. More commonly. but biassing its pick towards our best estimate. the proportion of the oil in the reservoir that we can actually recover and produce. until we begin to wonder whether our answer has any reality or meaning at all. The one that has the most answers in (= the modal class of the distribution) we can regard as the most probable value -in other words. we can work out the standard deviation (the ±) which will give an idea of our confidence in our answer. Most commonly these days. and arrive at perhaps wildly different answers. in producing figures for all of these factors. Alternatively one may plot the frequencies as percentages of the total number of answers: the statistical probabilities. is to multiply uncertainties by uncertainties. Then we ask it to do the same thing again. and governments must have numbers that they can use for planning purposes. we give as our preferred figure the average of all the answers (the mean). and again. Who is right? Whose answer should we use? Can we indeed believe any of them? Unfortunately we cannot escape from the problem. maybe 500 or 1000 times. The Americans measure reservoir volume in acre-feet: area in acres multiplied by reservoir thickness in feet. If we plot out the answers on our list falling within successive size ranges (in barrels of oil). companies. the problem is tackled through a statistical technique. and we also specify the total range. The number of answers in successive reserve ranges is plotted against the size ranges themselves. doubtful estimates by doubtful estimates. It is a figure that we cannot know exactly until we have finished producing. there must be considerable uncertainty to say the least. we have to multiply the figure we calculate by 7758. Then we get a computer to pick a value for each factor at random from the range we have given.. somewhere within which the `true' figure must be. and again. having regard to all of the geology. but it may be a good deal less from carbonates. then we don't have to worry. even though they may be well aware that any such figures will eventually turn out to be wrong. So we usually have to base our estimate on prior experience elsewhere. however. for each of the factors we work out our best estimate. The list is put into order from the smallest to the largest. Instead of estimating single figures for the factors that go into the reserves formula. we shall find that the bulk of them tend to cluster round the middle (Fig.Quantitative Assessment .
if the engineers say that a field of so many million barrels is going to be needed to justify development and production costs.the risk factor. By plotting the answers from the 100 per cent probability downwards. Of course we try to be as scientific. in numbers. but rather it is the number an individual geologist might produce to reflect his/her personal interpretation of the geology. Incidently. So this type of graph has now become one of the standard key tools in exploration/development decision. the curve represents the chance (probability) that the reserves are a certain size or greater. as opposed to assessing what we already know to be there. and possible at. if any one of them fails or is lacking.Quantitative Assessment . and 10 per cent levels of probability respectively. that is exactly what it is. perhaps. The way it is commonly approached is to go back to the basic conditions for oil acumulation: all of the essential requirements have to be met if there is to be oil in a particular place and that. of our confidence that there will be at least some oil. turn out to be totally dry-lacking in hydrocarbons. It will give a graph which shows the probability that the reserves will be of a certain size or more. The risk factor. you may say. but also the chance of there in fact being any oil at all. it doesn't take any account of the fact that our exploration well may. When it comes down to risk. This is what is used to determine those reserves that may be called proven. combined with the estimate of how much. and honest as can be in assessing exploration risk. probable. different geologists will arrive at different figures for the probability of success. Indeed it does not! When we are looking at exploration of the unknown. It is also used to assist management in making their exploration/development decisions. one of the main benefits from all of this is that it forces us to think carefully about the geological requirements for oil to be present. objective. Most usefully. 50.72 The output from a Monte Carlo simulation with the percentages plotted cumulatively. there really is no such thing as the risk factor. UNDISCOVERED RESERVES This is all very well. and ensures that all possibilities are considered.). . we can read off from the graph the chances of our field containing that much oil or more. we can plot out the percentages of answers in successive size ranges cumulatively as we work down the list (Fig. And if all this sounds like a gambling game. This chance (probability) is known as the risk factor: it is an expression. the 90. say. now gives a more complete picture of the viability of an undrilled prospect . to give the chance of discovering certain reserves or more including the 50 per cent chance that we may find nothing at all. We have to give not only our best estimate of how much petroleum there might be. then no oil. We try to assess the probability that each factor will be satisfied.at least until we start also considering the costs and economics. for geological reasons. For example. management can then decide whether or not to take the gamble on developing the field at those odds. the same values are discounted by a 50 per cent risk factor. It cannot be worked out completely objectively. we have to go a stage further. In the lower plot. and then merely combine the probabilities to give an overall probability . It is this sort of thing that helps to make the oil exploration business so competitive. but it assumes that we have already discovered oil.
qualify it by a statistical probability. remains to be found. Let us look at the more important ones. This starts with the volume of mature source rock in the basin and then.73 Lastly. we can. it is a pretty wild sort of plot. the built-in risk factor takes care of this. Adding this to the original reserves will give us what is sometimes called the `ultimate reserves'-a grand total for the basin. or would our money be better spent on drilling a smaller but safer one? The risked reserves. we have to assume that today we can identify and assess all of the prospects that ever will be found in the basin. however. This combines in a single estimate. This kind of plot can be used also for individual basins or for the whole world. the amount of oil generated. and we should be on our guard against believing that it is what we shall find (it most categorically is not) or otherwise trying to read too much into it. Some of these will be successful. the two elements of size and chance of success. let us note a number known as the risked reserves. Extrapolate this smoothing line out into the future. sometimes in combination. unless we really have a lot of information (we never have enough!). Should we. We could make comparisons between known and unknown basins. all of them are very dodgy . Many `experts' have scratched their heads over the estimation of undiscovered reserves. 4. If all else fails. Undiscovered are thus what we hope to find in a prospect area or sedimentary basin in the future. Delphi was the place in ancient Greece where one went to consult the oracle about one's future. If we have a reasonable amount of information and control. however. expelled. go for a large but very risky prospect.). We could adopt what is known as a `geochemical material balance' approach. merely use the average of the figures they produce. we are said to be consulting the oracles! All of the above techniques have been used. then use these figures for the unexplored parts of the basin. if we draw a smooth line through it to even out the peaks and the troughs. Use past statistics (number of barrels of oil found on average for each 100m of exploration drilling?) and extrapolate to future drilling. on average. However. 5. the expected reserve estimates from our Monte Carlo simulation multiplied (discounted) by the risk factor (Fig. knowing how rich it is. then the area under it represents the total volume of oil found to date. or underlying each square mile of surface area.Quantitative Assessment . otherwise we may be doing little more than guessing. but some will be dry. We might look at explored and known parts of the basin. get a number of experts to make their forecasts by whatever technique they prefer and. on this tack. and made available for entrapment (the `charge') can be calculated. This figure is extremely imprecise and may be not much more than a guess. and calculate average quantities of oil per cubic mile of sediment. 2. 3. for our `best estimate'. for example. to believe that we can do this would be the height of conceit. The obvious thing to do is to add together the risked reserves estimates of all the remaining prospects. But we have to admit that. Forcing these experts to agree a figure amongst them might refine the approach. In a similar vein the amount of oil found world-wide each year from the beginning of the century can be plotted. is a hypothetical figure. and use the figures for the known also for the unknown ones. and some may be more appropriate in given circumstances than the others. There are lots of uncertainties in this but the calculation would be amenable to a Monte Carlo type of simulation. This is known as the Delphi technique. and the area under that bit will represent what. 6. However. How now do we estimate what still remains to be discovered over a wider area or even an entire sedimentary basin? There really is no objective way of doing it-but still companies and governments want to know. and a number of techniques have been employed. ULTIMATE RESERVES So far we have been talking about a single oil accumulation or a single prospect. and as such can be very useful in planning an exploration program. this technique may bring us into the right ball-park. 1.
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