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Tekst voor de cursus Grondstoffen en het Systeem Aarde (HD 698) H.E.Rondeel, december 2001
Teksten gebaseerd op: Blackbourn, G.A. (1990) Cores and core logging for geologists. Whittles Publ.,Caithness. 113 pp. Shauer Langstaff, C. & D. Morrill (1981) Geologic cross sections. IHRDC, Boston. 108 pp. Stoneley, R. (1995) An introduction to petroleum exploration for non-geologists. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 119 pp. Waples, D. (1981) Organic geochemistry for exploration geologists. Burgess Publ. Co., Mineapolis. 151 pp. Waples, D.W. (1985) Geochemistry in petroleum exploration. Reidel Publ. Co, Dordrecht & IHRDC, Boston. 232 pp.
1 - INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................. 5 FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS......................................................................................................... 5 2 - ORGANIC FACIES.......................................................................................................................... 6 THE CARBON CYCLE ....................................................................................................................... 6 FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS............................................................................ 7 PRODUCTIVITY .............................................................................................................................. 7 PRESERVATION.............................................................................................................................. 8 DILUTION ..................................................................................................................................... 11 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 12 3 - ORGANIC CHEMISTRY .............................................................................................................. 13 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 13 NAMES AND STRUCTURES........................................................................................................... 13 HYDROCARBONS ......................................................................................................................... 13 NONHYDROCARBONS ................................................................................................................. 15 4 - KEROGEN...................................................................................................................................... 17 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN FORMATION................................................................................................................. 17 KEROGEN COMPOSITION ............................................................................................................. 18 KEROGEN MATURATION .............................................................................................................. 20 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 20 EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS ............................................................................. 21 HYDROCARBON GENERATION................................................................................................... 22 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 23 5 - BITUMEN, PETROLEUM, AND NATURAL GAS...................................................................... 24 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 24 COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ......................................................... 24 GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS ....................................................................................... 24 SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS.............................................................................................................. 25 FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM................................ 25 SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS ......................................................................................................... 25 RESERVOIR TRANSFORMATIONS ............................................................................................... 26 COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM ....................................................................... 27 NATURAL GAS .............................................................................................................................. 28 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 28 6 - MIGRATION.................................................................................................................................. 29 DEFINITIONS................................................................................................................................... 29 PRIMARY MIGRATION................................................................................................................... 29 MECHANISMS............................................................................................................................... 29 DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 30 SECONDARY MIGRATION............................................................................................................. 31 MECHANISM................................................................................................................................. 31
DISTANCE AND DIRECTION ....................................................................................................... 31 ACCUMULATION............................................................................................................................ 32 INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................... 32 CLASSICAL TRAPS........................................................................................................................ 33 KINETIC TRAPS ............................................................................................................................ 33 TAR-MAT TRAPS ........................................................................................................................... 34 GAS HYDRATES ............................................................................................................................ 34 EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION ................................................................................ 34 SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION ............................................................................................ 35 7 - PETROLEUM TRAPS ................................................................................................................... 36 THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS .............................................................................................. 36 STRUCTURAL TRAPS ..................................................................................................................... 37 STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS ................................................................................................................ 41 COMBINATION TRAPS................................................................................................................... 42 HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS .............................................................................................................. 43 THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS ................................................................................... 43 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 45 8 - SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION.................................................................................................. 49 DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK.................................................................................................... 49 PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION .......................................................................... 49 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 49 MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL.......................................................................................... 49 CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING....................................................................................... 52 ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY ...................................................................... 52 INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA ............................................................................. 53 QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL .......................................................................................... 53 TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER....................................................................................................... 53 MATURITY..................................................................................................................................... 54 COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS ......................................................................................................... 54 SUMMARY ....................................................................................................................................... 55 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 56 9 - PREDICTING THERMAL MATURITY ...................................................................................... 60 INTRODUCTION.............................................................................................................................. 60 CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL ....................................................................... 60 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES.......................................................................................................... 61 TEMPERATURE HISTORY............................................................................................................ 61 SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES ............................................ 62 CALCULATION OF MATURITY..................................................................................................... 63 FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY............................................................................ 64 POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS ..................................................... 65 EXERCISES ...................................................................................................................................... 66 10 - QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT ............................................................................................... 69 OIL IN PLACE .................................................................................................................................. 69 RESERVES........................................................................................................................................ 69 DISCOVERED RESERVES............................................................................................................. 70 UNDISCOVERED RESERVES ....................................................................................................... 72 ULTIMATE RESERVES.................................................................................................................. 73
5 1 . These play a key role as the precursors for oil and much natural gas. In the late stages of catagenesis and in the final transformation stage. The earliest stage of hydrocarbon generation occurs during diagenesis. with many details still poorly understood. more mobile molecules. where hydrocarbon movement ceases and accumulation occurs. called metagenesis. these are the precursors for petroleum. As temperature rises. During this second transformation phase. however.Organic Facies . and temperature increases. the largest of which are called kerogen. and were formed as dead organic matter was converted to microbial tissues. These differences can have a significant effect on hydrocarbon generation. Migration through these conduits often leads to traps. Formation of biogenic methane has been recognized for a long time. kerogen begins to decompose into smaller. called methanogens. but only within the last few years have we realized that in many areas a large portion of the natura!-gas reserves are biogenic. As burial depth increases. porosity and permeability decrease. In recent years this relatively simple picture of hydrocarbon generation has been complicated slightly by our growing awareness that kerogens formed from different kinds of organic matter. thermal reactions become increasingly important. Although the transformation process is very complex. Most of this organic matter is transformed during diagenesis info very large molecules. Low-temperature chemical and biological reactions (called diagenesis) that occur during transport to and early burial in the depositional environment modify this organic matter. oil and gas molecules can be expelled from the source rock into more permeable carrier beds or conduits. These changes lead to a gradual cessation of microbial activity. Certain microorganisms. it is known that organic debris derived from plants and algae is best preserved in fine-grained sediments deposited in the absence of oxygen. are chemically distinct from each other. called catagenesis. Once formed.Introduction FORMATI0N OF 0IL AND GAS Proponents of the organic origin of oil and gas have given us a general picture of how organic matter derived from dead plants is converted to hydrocarbons. and are called bitumen . and thus eventually bring organic diagenesis to a halt. or under different diagenetic conditions. In the early stages of catagenesis most of the molecules produced from kerogen are still relatively large. . Many of the chemical compounds present in sediments are in fact derived from bacteria. convert some of the organic debris to biogenic methane. the principal products consist of smaller gas molecules.
Despite the great imbalance in biomass between terrestrial plants (450 billion metric tons [t]) and aquatic phytoplankton (5 billion t).6 2 . the yearly productivity of both groups is about equal. Some of the organic material in sediments consists of fragments of plants or algae that derived their energy from the sun. Oxidative decay of dead organic matter is a highly efficient process mediated largely by microorganisms.Organic Facies THE CARBON CYCLE Because oil and gas are generated from organic matter in sedimentary rocks.Organic Facies . Preservation of organic material is actually a rare event. less than 1% of the annual photosynthetic production escapes from the carbon cycle and is preserved in sediments. however. Zooplankton and higher animals contribute relatively little organic matter to sediments. The recently discovered deep-sea ecosystems in the Pacific Ocean that derive their energy from oxidation of sulfides in hydrothermal vents are interesting but volumetrically unimportant. Because of . Preservation of organic matter begins with photosynthesis. Most organic carbon is returned to the atmosphere through the carbon cycle. as a consequence of the much more rapid reproduction of simple aquatic organisms. we need to understand how this organic matter came to be preserved in the rocks. A large fraction. comprises microbial tissue formed within the sediments by the bacterial transformation of plant and algal debris.
05%) occurs in economic deposits of fossil fuels. however. Each of these categories could in turn be further subdivided.000 billion t.000. one of the critical parameters governing productivity. Nutrient availability is. and that the microbes have given up trying to digest it. nutrient availability would depend on such factors as water circulation patterns.7 extensive oxidation of land-plant debris in soils. Depth could interfere with microbial diagenesis when compaction reduces pore sizes and nutrient fluxes in interstitial waters. only one molecule out of about every one million successfully negotiates the journey from living organism to the gasoline pump. orogeny and erosion. Upwelling occurs where bulk movement of surface water away from a particular area allows deeper water to ascend to replace it. are therefore much more productive than the open ocean. On the other hand. In the modern world there are zones of intense seasonal upwelling off the west coasts of California. Bodies of water naturally develop density stratification. There is another zone of seasonal upwelling off the Horn of Africa in the Indian Ocean as a result of . high photosynthetic productivity will occur at the site of upwelling. Namibia. and Northwest Africa that result from the movement of surface waters away from these coasts. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) values decrease monotonically through the first 300 meters of burial before levelling out at about 0. Productivity is the logical place to begin our analysis. For example. temperature. predators. light intensity.1%. volcanism. because without adequate productivity. Although some destruction of organic material occurs during transport to the depositional environment. PRODUCTIVITY A partial listing of the many factors influencing productivity would include nutrient availability. Each factor may be dominant under different conditions. paleoclimate. FACTORS INFLUENCING ORGANIC RICHNESS In order for organic-rich rocks to be formed. watercirculation patterns are particularly important for supplying nutrients and thus controlling productivity. suggesting that either depth or organiccarbon content eventually limits diagenesis. and recycling by organic decay. Although oxidative decay destroys most of the yearly production. significant amounts of organic matter must be deposited and protected from diagenetic destruction. much of the terrestrial organic material is already highly oxidized when it arrives in the sediments. and dilution. Shallowmarine environments. because under normal circumstances they cannot move upward into the zone of photosynthesis. in fact. with a preference for horizontal water movement within each density layer. If this deeper water is enriched in nutrients. Only where there is upwelling of subsurface waters can these nutrients return to the photic zone.000 billion t) dispersed in fine-grained sedimentary rocks. and general water chemistry. accumulation of organic-rich sediments cannot occur. Peru.Organic Facies . or about 0. In relatively unrestricted marine environments. Nutrients dissolved in waters below the photic zone therefore go unutilized. When we consider inefficiencies in discovery and recovery. preservation. carbonate supply. The three primary factors influencing the amount of organic matter in a sedimentary rock are productivity. a great deal of the oxidation of organic matter occurs within the sediments themselves. the low TOC values could indicate that the remaining organic matter has no more nutritional value. where there is local recycling of nutrients from decaying organisms and influx of fresh nutrients from terrestrial sources. Only a small fraction of this (10. over vast amounts of geologic time the small fraction that escaped the carbon cycle has built up extremely large quantities of organic matter (20.
TOC values alone must therefore be used with caution. There are.2-0. soils. and sediments is biological. PRESERVATION The principal control on organic richness is the efficiency of preservation of organic matter in sedimentary environments. All large organisms require oxygen in order to live. Anoxia is of tremendous importance in the preservation of organic matter in sediments. After all. Of these. Because most of the oxidation occurring in the water column. the simplest way to limit oxidation is to limit the supply of oxygen. However. because marine organic matter is consumed preferentially by organisms. paleoclimatic conditions. because some of the commonly used indicators of anoxia may be misleading. and paleoclimates. and are usually limited in scope by the availability of sulfate or nitrate. Three factors affect the preservation (or destruction) of organic matter: the concentration and nature of oxidizing agents. the accuracy with which we can reconstruct continental positions. its use in practice has been expanded to include very low oxygen levels as well. The term "anoxic" literally means "having no oxygen. respectively. The presence of undegraded marine organic material is a strong indication of anoxia. microorganisms that utilize materials like sulfate or nitrate ions instead of molecular oxygen as electron acceptors in their metabolic processes. Anoxic sediments are not always easy to recognize. Secondly. At dissolved oxygen levels below about 0. and we could coin the term dysoxic to describe the zone itself. Such models are interesting.2 mL/L.2 mL/L. essentially the only viable organisms are those that we call anaerobes. We call the zone in which oxygen contents are high the oxic zone. increasing preservation rates is a very efficient way to increase organic richness. although some species can tolerate extremely low oxygen levels (0. some problems associated with their application. Its presence in . Theoretical models have been developed to predict upwelling (and consequent productivity) in ancient seas from input data on continental configurations. the zone where oxygen falls below 0. wind and water circulation patterns. if on the average only 1% of organic matter is preserved. and may in fact prove useful in future exploration efforts.2 mL/L is called the anoxic zone.5 mL/L). Anoxic sediments always contain elevated TOC values (generally above 2% and always above 1% ). landmasses. These anaerobic processes are inefficient compared with aerobic diagenesis. There are many more organic-rich facies resulting from excellent preservation than from extremely high productivity. especially of woody origin." hut because of the radical change in biota that occurs at about 0. All these areas exhibit high productivity when upwelling occurs. Thus if anoxia can develop. diagenesis is restricted to anaerobic processes. and the sediment-accumulation rate. the remaining individuals often become dwarfed in an effort to survive in a hostile environment. First.Organic Facies . the type of organic matter deposited. and all the other factors that influence upwelling loci is severely limited. however. The term dysaerobic has been used to describe processes occurring in the transitional zone (0. and because most biological oxidation processes require molecular oxygen. ANOXIA. much oxic sediment also contains large amounts of organic matter. At lower levels of dissolved oxygen. productivity is probably not as important a factor as preservation. preservation of organic matter will be much enhanced. many species disappear. Processes that occur in these two zones are called aerobic and anaerobic. oxidizing agents are probably the most crucial factor. especially in the Palaeozoic. because when the availability of oxygen is limited.8 monsoonal winds that drive surface waters away from the coast.5 milliliters (mL) per liter (L)).
and both the waters in the bottom layer and the underlying sediments will become anoxic. Wyoming). The cooler. OXYGEN-MINIMUM LAYER (OML). it cannot represent an anoxic facies. The presence of pyrite itself can also be deceptive. Lakes in failed rifts can also contain organic-rich. Finally. where photosynthesis and turbulence can no longer contribute oxygen to the water. and warm climates are necessary to avoid overturn caused by freeze-thaw cycles. particularly in understanding lacustrine beds. although stunted burrows can be used as evidence of dysoxia. the Elko Formation (Eocene/Oligocene. intense pyritization of benthic bivalves is testimony to the fact that pyrite is not a good indicator of bottom-water anoxia at the time of deposition. especially during the Triassic along the margins of the developing Atlantic Ocean. The ultimate implications of anoxia for petroleum exploration are great. Nevertheless. it has been estimated. Conversely. then permanent density stratification will arise as a result of temperature differences within the water column. The oxygen-minimum layer is a layer of subsurface water that has a lower dissolved-oxygen content than the water layers either above or below. The supply of fresh oxygen is therefore limited to horizontal . anoxia can be very local. it is instructive to consider complete stagnation. Among the ancient lake beds thought to have been deposited in permanently stratified waters are the well-known Green River Shale (middle Eocene. This oxygen minimum develops when the rate of consumption of oxygen within that layer exceeds the rate of influx of oxygen to it. Marine basins are seldom isolated enough to fit well into the stagnant-basin model. The laminae prove that burrowing fauna were absent. very dark.2 mL/L. and therefore that dissolved-oxygen levels were below 0. Although pyrite does indeed form under anoxic conditions. Lake deposits associated with continental rifting. If an isolated body of water is deep enough. and strata from several basins in China. however. leading to the eventual development of a pycnocline (density interface) which prevents interchange between the two layers. The oxygen minimum layer usually begins immediately below the photic zone. it may well have developed after burial. are anoxic in some of the places where they have been penetrated. once the original oxygen has been consumed in oxidizing organic matter. but limnic environments often are. Nevada). and if the climate is subtropical or tropical. Lack of communication between the layers prohibits replenishment of oxygen in the bottom layer. Depths in excess of 200 m are required to prevent mixing during storms. anoxic sediments show preserved depositional laminae on a millimeter or submillimeter scale. most likely by absence of oxygen. Lakes of the Rift Valley of East Africa are excellent modern analogs receiving much attention from both researchers and explorationists at the present time. that most of the world's oil was generated from source beds deposited under anoxic conditions.9 rocks therefore indicates that diagenesis was stopped prematurely. It therefore behoves us to understand the conditions under which anoxia develops. Therefore. no more oxygen can enter. Furthermore.Organic Facies . STAGNANT BASINS. the presence of bioturbation indicates that the bottom waters were not anoxic. slow circulation or turnover of the water column occurs almost everywhere. are not rich in organic carbon. there is no guarantee that anoxia was present at the sea floor. anoxic sediments. Truly stagnant basins are actually quite rare. Many black rocks. Color is not a reliable indicator. All anoxic sediments will be very dark gray or black when deposited. in fact. and its presence indicates that the anaerobic reduction of sulfate ion did occur. Consumption of oxygen results from decay of dead organisms that have sunk from the photic zone above. denser waters remain at the bottom. Color should be used mainly as a negative criterion: If a rock is not very. they often owe their dark color to finely divided pyrite or to particular chert phases.
and high hydrogen-sulfide concentrations create conditions poisonous to predators. Wherever an intensely developed OML intersects the sediment-water interface. Any organic matter arriving in those sediments will have an excellent chance to escape oxidation. Large amounts of organic material are preserved in coal swamps as a result of the combined effects of poor water circulation. There are other ancient and modern examples of organic-rich rocks deposited under anoxic or near-anoxic conditions associated with OMLs. Where the sill is shallow. Nutrients are concentrated by evaporation. Late jurassic. the point of connection between the restricted area and the open-marine environment. Coal Swamps. whereas in a fluvially dominated system (Black Sea) the net flow of surface water is out over the sill. High productivity reduces oxygen levels. since most organic matter was destroyed within the overlying OML.Organic Facies . sediments will be deposited under low-oxygen conditions. but it is too slow to disturb the anoxia which develops in the bottom layer. to a lesser extent. an upward expansion of the OML led to a tremendous increase in the surface area covered by anoxic bottom waters. It is not coincidental that these were times of deposition of large amounts of organic-rich rocks in many parts of the world. These include the modern Peru-Chile shelf (high productivity associated with upwelling) and occurrences of black sediments of Aptian to Turonian age in the North Atlantic. This depletion was probably the result of the complex interplay of several factors. Coal swamps can develop under a variety of conditions in both marine and non-marine environments. During those times the OML expanded both upward and downward because of poor supply of oxygen to subsurface waters. if the basin is deep enough. Furthermore. including paleoclimate and water circulation. the waters entering or leaving the basin are near surface. permanent density stratification will develop. and grazers and predatory organism are eliminated by the high salinities. Evaporitic environments combine the opportunity for abundant growth of algae with ideal conditions for preservation. It has been proposed that at certain times in the past (e. mid-Cretaceous. However. The result is often deposition of organic-rich laminae within evaporites. the shallowness of the swamps prevents the waters themselves from becoming anoxic. RESTRICTED CIRCULATION. and diminished bacterial activity. because of their connection with the open-marine realm. Circulation is often restricted by the presence of a sill.. with the bottom layer almost isolated from the open-marine waters. Bottomset beds associated with prograding delta systems can be rich in organic matter if they are laid down within a well-developed oxygen-minimum layer. Shallow Silling. Below the OML oxygen levels again increase.10 movement of oxygen-bearing waters. the oxygen they can contribute is limited. In actuality there is a lazy turnover of the bottom waters. its intensity varies greatly. Although circulation in coal swamps is generally sluggish.g. in areas of poor circulation. In an evaporitic environment (Karabogaz in the Caspian Sea) there is a net flow of water into the basin. because these horizontally moving waters also lie within the oxygen minimum layer. In either case. Late Devonian) the world oceans were severely depleted in dissolved oxygen. high influxes of organic matter. Although an oxygen-minimum layer exists virtually everywhere in the ocean. foreset beds within the same system are leaner in organic matter because they are deposited above the OML. In contrast. Intensely developed OMLs occur in areas of high productivity and. In times like the mid-Cretaceous. Settings in which circulation is restricted are much more common than stagnant basins. as a result of diminished oxygen demand. Anoxia . or as lateral facies equivalente thereof. when a major transgression had greatly increased the continental shelf area. Shallowly silled basins often yield evaporites. those environments can also incorporate the features of an oxygen-minimum-layer model. which could be excellent hydrocarbon source rocks.
It may also contain very resistent organic debris derived from erosion of ancient rocks. and low productivity in the overlying pelagic realm. In fact. Rapid settling of organic debris through the water column is also important. and may include woody. Coals also accumulate very rapidly and. TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER. provide an ideal means of maintaining low-oxygen conditions. the phenolic components present in lignin-derived terrestrial material are toxic to many micro-organism.11 develops within the sediments rather than in the water column. which settle several orders of magnitude faster than individual phytoplankton. biogenic inorganic sediment. Rapid sedimentation and burial con also enhance preservation. Furthermore. but their supposedly low potential for generating oil is to be reconsidered. Nitrogen and phosphorus are in particular demand. all of which are chemically quite distinct from each other. TOC values increase as sediment-accumulation rates increase. Rapid burial is accomplished by a high influx of inorganic detritus. thus preventing extensive diagenesis of such material. and therefore wi11 contain primarily oxidized organic matter. Oxic Settings. Organic matter of algal (phytoplanktonic) origin is consumed more readily by organisms than are other types of organic material. but it does spread that organic material through a larger volume of rock. and more favorable for gas than for oil. RAPID SEDIMENTATION AND BURIAL. The extremely high accumulation rates for biogenic carbonates and siliceous sediments in zones of high productivity promote preservation of the associated algal protoplasm. forest fires. because its chemical components are digestible and provide precisely the nutrients required by scavengers and predators. with their high concentrations of organic matter. The hydrocarbon-source potential of all of these oxidizing facies is low. Near-shore oxidizing facies sometimes have high TOC values. That material which remains is dominantly of terrestrial origin. Phenolic bactericides derived from lignin hinder bacterial decay in the water and throughout the sediment column. Most depositional settings not specifically catalogued above will be more or less well oxygenated. Lack of sulfate in non-marine swamps further prevents anaerobic microbial destruction of the organic matter. renders it of little nutritional value. or resinous material. Abyssal sediments are notoriously low in organic carbon as the result of the combined effects of high oxygen levels in abyssal waters. very slow sedimentation rates. their virtual absence in much terrestrial organic material. but the organic material is almost invariably woody. especially in structural (woody) material. cellulosic. Dilution does not reduce the total amount of organic matter preserved. as a result of more rapid removal of organic material from the zone of microbial diagenesis. . and other oxidative processes. lignitic. or organic material. cuticular. much of the organic material that does reach the bottom in deep waters arrives in relatively large fecal pellets.Organic Facies . The net result is a reduction in TOC values. DILUTION Although high sediment-accumulation rates enhance preservation of organic matter. because extensive decomposition occurs during its fall to the ocean floor. at very high accumulation rate dilution may become a more important factor than increased preservation. Rapid deposition of inorganic detritus is common in turbidites and in prodelta shales. Any extensive organic diagenesis is therefore likely to eliminate algal organic matter first. Coals are important source rocks for gas accumulations.
Because of its role in creating rocks with excellent hydrocarbon-source potential. in contrast. in contrast. and rapid burial. . preservation is generally the most important. Although certain periods undeniably contain more than their share of anoxic rocks. however. we should always strive to place the organic rich rocks in the larger context of basin evolution through time and space. effectiveness of preservation. The most reliable criteria for bottom-water anoxia are the preservation of fine depositional laminae. Shales. It is important to be able to distinguish local anoxia or anoxia developed deep within sediments from anoxia induced by anoxic bottom waters. If the rapidly accumulating sediment is mainly clastic. in which the organic and inorganic materials arrive together. however. To derive maximum value from our analyses. Rapid accumulation of sediment shortens the residence time of organic matter in the zone of diagenesis and thus promotes preservation. Some of the commonly applied criteria are apt to be misleading. Facies changes from carbonates to shales may create large dilution effects that can be wrongly interpreted as indicating changes in oxygen levels. SUMMARY There are three principal factors that affect the amount of organic matter in sedimentary rocks: primary photosynthetic productivity. as a result of high productivity or sluggish circulation. show strong dilution effects when accumulation rates are very high. Preservation is best accomplished where oxygen is excluded from bottom waters. dilution effects may lead to lower TOC values in spite of enhanced preservation rates. Of these. Productivity can be predicted by locating ancient sites of marine upwellings.and atmospheric-circulation patterns. and the presence of high TOC values coupled with the occurrence of undegraded marine organic matter. There are a number of mechanisms by which oxygen depletion may be fostered and maintained. In biogenic sediments or coals. It is often very difficult to separate the influences of these various factors in a particular depositional environment. such events were often interrupted for long periods before anoxia was reinduced. Consequently. Models that integrate the concepts of organic richness with depositional cycles and facies analysis will be valuable tools for understanding hydrocarbon systems in basins. however. dilution is far less marked. Direct control of the anoxia was thus probably local.Organic Facies . Biogenic sediments. As in the modern oceans. anoxia in bottom waters is a phenomenon whose effects we should learn to recognize in ancient rocks. are not as strongly affected by dilution.12 Dilution effects depend upon rock lithology. Anoxic events in the past were probably not as large in scale or as long lasting as some workers have suggested. and a very imperfect understanding of oceanic. and dilution by inorganic material. anoxic sediments were deposited discontinuously through time and space. by uncertainties about exact continental positions and configurations in the past. such models are not yet of much practical value for the distant past. lack of knowledge of seawater chemistry and nutrient availability at those times. where sediment-accumulation rates are directly proportional to organic-carbon-accumulation rates. including stagnancy or near-stagnancy. Our ability to make accurate predictions is limited. a strongly developed oxygen-minimum layer.
and nitrogen. In each of these compounds. every carbon atom forms four bonds." but that usage is incorrect trom the chemist's point of view because those materials often contain substantial amounts of nitrogen. the explicit inclusion of every atom and every bond becomes extremely tedious. The chemical reactions of interest to us are very few and are discussed only briefly. This objective is very different trom that of a normal course in organic chemistry. The following representations of n-pentane are equivalent: CH3CH2CH2CH2CH3 or CH3(CH2)3CH3. This usage is historical and does not imply that all such compounds are necessarily derived from living organisms. as it does in the real world. in which one must also learn all the reactions of many classes of compounds. and metal carbides. Petroleum and natural gas are themselves often referred to as "hydrocarbons. Similarly.13 3 . sulfur. Examples of hydrocarbons are methane. In this chapter we restrict the usage of the term hydrocarbon to the standard chemical one. and cyclohexane. The structures of methane and ethane are thus represented by CH4 and CH3CH3 respectively. and indeed in every carbon compound (except a few highly unstable ones created only in laboratories). oxygen and sulfer. NAMES AND STRUCTURES HYDROCARBONS In chemical terms a hydrocarbon is a compound containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen. Organic chemistry is thus the study of carboncontaining compounds. One common convention is to represent all the hydrogen atoms attached to a given carbon atom by a single H. If one wants to draw large molecules. oxygen. . The objective of this chapter is to acquaint the reader with the names of common compounds and with several different conventions for drawing their structures.Organic Chemistry . are termed organic. hydrogen always forms one bond. trace metals. Carbon atoms like to form bonds with each other. ethane. carbonates. This unique property of carbon is responsible for the existence of literally millions of different organic compounds. three bonds.Organic Chemistry INTRODUCTION Anyone who uses petroleum geochemistry must be familiar with basic chemical terminology. All compounds containing carbon atoms. whose structures are shown below. and other elements. especially if one has to do it only occasionally. using a subscript on the H to denote the total number of hydrogens around that atom. and organic geochemistry the study of organic compounds present in geological environments. creating long chains and ring structures. however. Writing the detailed structure of a simple molecule like methane is no problem. elsewhere in this text usage will vary. Several different types of shorthand have therefore developed to facilitate drawing organic molecules. except carbon dioxide. We can make other logical simplifications for longer carbon chains. two bonds.
n-pentane and cyclohexane are represented by the line structures shown below. Isoprenoids ranging in length from six to forty carbon atoms have been found in petroleum and rocks. are able to combine with additional hydrogen. Other adjectival forms are made by dropping the -ane ending and adding yl (for example. Many unsaturated compounds have carbon-carbon double . Each carbon atom is represented by a point. Names and formulas of the ten smallest n-alkanes Methane CH4 CH4 Ethane C2H6 CH3CH3 Propane C3H8 CH3CH2CH3 Butane C4H10 CH3 (CH2)2 CH3 Pentane C5H12 CH3 (CH2)3 CH3 Hexane C6H14 CH3 (CH2)4 CH3 Heptane C7H16 CH3 (CH2)5 CH3 Octane C8H18 CH3 (CH2)6 CH3 Nonane C9H20 CH3 (CH2)7 CH3 Decane C10H22 CH3 (CH2)8 CH3 Carbon atoms need not always bond together in a linear arrangement. these molecules are called n-alkanes or nparains. Among the most important branched hydrocarbons in organic geochemistry are the isoprenoids." The first four names are irregular. For example. no more hydrogen can be incorporated into the molecule without breaking it apart. which we used earlier. Hydrogen atoms and bonds to hydrogen atoms are not shown at all. Regular isoprenoids consist of a straight chain of carbon atoms with a methyl branch on every fourth carbon.14 An even quicker shorthand that uses no letters at all has evolved. The simplest series of hydrocarbons has linear structures. but the prefixes denoting the number of carbon atoms in the other alkanes are derived from Greek numbers. In the case of 2methylhexane (C7H16) the basic structure is hexane. as in "alkane. The zigzag configuration illustrated for n-pentane is adopted to show clearly each carbon atom. and carbon-carbon bonds are shown as lines connecting those points. is the adjectival form of the word methane. The term methyl. We have ahready encountered n-pentane. Note that the name of each compound ends in -ane. All the compounds mentioned above are called saturated hydrocarbons or saturates. and indicates that there is no branching in the carbon chain. the names of the other nine simplest n-alkanes are given in the following table. We have also seen that carbon atoms can be arranged in rings. ethyl and propyl). a CH3 (methyl) group is attached to the second carbon atom. Because we know that each carbon atom forms four bonds and each hydrogen atom forms one bond. Another important group of hydrocarbons is the unsaturates. Branching can occur. simple inspection shows how mant' hydrogen atoms each carbon atom must have.Organic Chemistry . because they are saturated with respect to hydrogen. The letter n stands for normal. These cyclic compounds (called naphthenes) are named by counting the number of carbon atoms in the ring and attaching the prefix cyclo. That is. in contrast. giving rise to a vast number of possible structures. which.
Although they are very important constituents of petroleum. the structures of which are shown below. and cyclohexene (C6H10). because the most common heteroatoms are nitrogen. highly aromatic materials of . but they actually have completely different chemical properties from alkenes and are unusually stable. they do not long persist in geologic environments. Although they are unsaturated. Aromatics possess a system of alternating single and double bonds within a cyclic structure. By hydrogenation ethene thus reacts to form ethane. some complex hydrocarbons that are found in fossil organic material can be related directly to individual biological precursors. sulfur.15 bonds. they are free to move throughout the cyclic system instead of being held between two particular carbon atoms. and kerogen are called heteroatoms. these compounds are called alkenes. which is an almost-endless sheet of aromatic rings. NONHYDROCARBONS Atoms other than hydrogen and carbon that occur in petroleum. The hydrocarbons present in petroleum are mostly the end products of extensive degradation of biogenic molecules. The extreme case is graphite. Because alkenes are highly reactive. phosphorus. converts alkenes to alkanes and cyclic compounds during diagenesis. Among the most important NSO compounds are the asphaltenes. that is. A variety of reactions. nitrogen. the compounds in which they occur are called heterocompounds. The hydrocarbons we discussed so far are relatively simple molecules. In the laboratory they are readily converted to alkanes by the addition of hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst. Examples are ethene (C2H4) . and oxygen. except that the ending -ene indicates the presence of a double bond. including hydrogenafion. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons having fused ring structures are quite common. Fossil organic matter often contains a vide variety of heterocompounds. which are large. bitumen. Some aromatic molecules are very large. propene (C3H6). Heterocompounds are also called NSO compounds. Their stability permits aromatics to be important constituents of oils and sediments. In fact.Organic Chemistry . or other elements. At first glance aromatics appear to be nothing more than cyclic alkenes containing several double bonds. Most biological molecules are larger and more complex than the simple hydrocarbons. they do not add hydrogen easily. The circle indicates that the electrons in the double bonds are delocalized. Many of the heterocompounds present in organisms are converted to hydrocarbons during diagenesis and catagenesis. these compounds are quite different trom the majority of the organic molecules found in living organisms. They are named in a similar manner to the alkanes. of which some are biogenic and others are formed during diagenesis. sulfur. A simplified notation for drawing these molecules permits us to represent the double-bond system by a circle within the ring. Many common NSO compounds are not directly related to biogenic precursors. the majority contain oxygen. It is this delocalization of electrons which makes aromatic compounds very stable. Aromatics form an extremely important class of unsaturated hydrocarbons.
Lignin and cellulose are major constituents of humic coals. where small amounts of preserved amino acids can be used to date specimens) . and cellulose. which are aromatics having a hydroxyl group (OH) attached. Among these are lignin. however. It is a polymer consisting of many repetitions and combinations of three basic aromatic subunits. Because phenols are potent bactericides. the latter is the most abundant organic compound in the biosphere.16 varying structure. Upon decomposition lignin forms phenolic compounds. They are rapidly metabolized by virtually all organisms. Lignin monomers are linked topether to form molecules having molecular weights from 3000 to 10.Organic Chemistry .000 atomic mass units. and amino acids. lignin is rather resistant to degradation. They have many characteristics in common with kerogen. Lignin is an important component of wood. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. carbohydrates. Many nonhydrocarbon molecules common to living organisms are also present in sediments. it is an important constituent of terrestrial organic matter. most carbohydrates are attacked readily by microorganisms. but asphaltene molecules are smaller and more aromatic than most kerogens. Although cellulose is quite resistant to decomposition under some conditions. and thus tends to become concentrated as other organic matter is decomposed. Like lignin. and thus are seldom preserved in sediments (exceptions occur in shell material and in bones. sugars. providing much of the structural support for large land plants. Carbohydrates include starch.
The amount of organic matter tied up in the form of kerogen in sediment is far greater than that in living organisms or in economically exploitable accumulations of coal. the geopolymers become larger. The soluble portion. having very high molecular weights. slightly larger ones. Algal (boghead) coals are formed in environments where the source phytoplankton lack both calcareous and siliceous skeletal components. and how much oil or gas can be expected. Coals are a subcategory of kerogen. Diagenetic and catagenetic histories of a kerogen. Lack of solubility is a direct result of the large size of kerogen molecules. Oil shales. True kerogens. which are reflected in their chemical and physical properties. which have molecular weights of several thousand or more. large molecules that have no regular or biologically defined structure. Large organic biopolymers of highly regular structure (proteins and carbohydrates. KEROGEN FORMATION The process of kerogen formation actually begins during senescence of organisms. because it has patchwork structures formed by the random combination of many small molecular fragments.17 4 . will be discussed in a following chapter. have more mineral matter than algal coals. A basic understanding of how kerogen is formed and transformed in the subsurface is therefore important in understanding how and where hydrocarbons are generated. carbon dioxide. as well as dispersed organic matter in sedimentary rocks. The term kerogen was originally coined to describe the organic matter in oil shales that yielded oil upon retorting. humic acids. During the course of diagenesis in the water column. for example) are partially or completely dismantled. Today it is used to describe the insoluble organic material in both coals and oil shales. oil. Each kerogen molecule is unique. whether these hydrocarbons are mainly oil or gas. humins. and the individual component parts are either destroyed or used to construct new geopolymers. Subsurface heating causes chemical reactions that break off small fragments of the kerogen as oil or gas molecules.Kerogen INTRODUCTION Kerogen is normally defined as that portion of the organic matter present in sedimentary rocks that is insoluble in ordinary organic solvents. Humic coals are best thought of as kerogens formed mainly from landplant material without codeposition of much mineral matter. The smallest of these geopolymers are usually called fulvic acids. as well as the nature of the organic matter from which it was formed. when the chemical and biological destruction and transformation of organic tissues begin. and sediments. and still larger ones.Kerogen . strongly influence the ability of the kerogen to generate oil and gas. Kerogen composition is also affected by thermal maturation processes (catagenesis and metagenesis) that alter the original kerogen. If anaerobic sulfate . with some of the inorganic matrix often being contributed by the algae themselves. The detailed chemistry of kerogen formation need not concern us greatly. develop after tens or hundreds of meters of burial. and ammonia from the original geopolymers. in contrast. The chemical and physical characteristics of a kerogen are strongly influenced by the type of biogenic molecules from which the kerogen is formed and by diagenetic transformafions of those organic molecules. These geopolymers are the precursors for kerogen but are not yet true kerogens. and natural gas. more complex. called bitumen. and less regular in structure. Diagenesis results mainly in loss of water. soils. Coals and oil shales should therefore be viewed merely as sedimentary rocks containing special types of kerogens in very high concentrations. Kerogen is of great interest to us because it is the source of most of the oil and some of the gas that we exploit as fossil fuels. The residual kerogens also undergo important changes.
and if the sediments are depleted in heavy-metal ions (which is often the case in nonclastic sediments but is seldom true in shales). About a decade ago workers at the French Petroleum Institute developed a useful scheme for describing kerogens that is still the standard today. is developing a general method of describing gross kerogen composition and relating it to hydrocarbon-generative capacity. in contrast. KEROGEN COMPOSITION Because each kerogen molecule is unique.18 reduction is occurring in the sediments. II. large amounts of sulfur may become incorporated into the kerogen structure. better organic preservation. contain mainly the most resistant types of biogenic molecules that were ignored by microorganisms during diagenesis. They identified three main types of kerogen (called Types I. and their organic precursors Transformation of organic material in sediments and sedimentary rocks. and III) and have studied the chemical characteristics and the nature of the organisms from which all types of kerogens were derived. The four types of kerogen. The amount of sulfur contributed by the original organic matter itself is very small. Microorganisms prefer to attack small molecules that are biogenic. In a low-oxygen (reducing) environment. because the bacterial enzyme systems do not know how to attack them. Kerogen formation competes with the destruction of organic matter by oxidative processes. which are highly reactive. What is within our reach. are converted into saturated or cyclic structures. the subdued level of bacterial activity allows more time for the formation of geopolymers and. . Kerogens formed under reducing conditions will be composed of fragments of many kinds of biogenic molecules. it is somewhat fruitless to attempt a detailed discussion of the chemical composition of kerogens. and ultimately of much greater practical value. therefore. Geopolymers are more or less immune to bacterial degradation.Kerogen . Subsequent investigations have identified Type IV kerogen as well. In an oxidizing environment many of the small biogenic molecules will be attacked by bacteria before they can form geopolymers. or at least look very much like biogenic molecules. Most organic oxidation in sedimentary environments is microbially mediated. the macerals that they are composed of. in contrast. Those kerogens formed under oxidizing conditions. One way that we can begin is by classifying kerogens into a few general types. Carboncarbon double bonds. Even if such a description were possible. it would not be of great and direct significance to exploration geologists.
Type IV kerogens. have the lowest hydrogen contents. and carbohydrates. Type III kerogens have high oxygen contents because they are formed from lignin. despite their very disparate origins. Hydrogen contents of immature kerogens (expressed as atomic H/C ratios) correlate with kerogen type. . Type I and Type II kerogens. and fossil resin. because they all have great capacities to generate liquid hydrocarbons. phenols. Cellulose and lignin are major contributors. leaf waxes.Kerogen . unless they have small inclusions of Type II material. Most Type II kerogens are found in marine sediments deposited under reducing conditions. including marine algae. They also include contributions from bacterial-cell lipids. Utah. Type I (algal) kerogens have the highest hydrogen contents because they have few rings or aromatic structures. contain far less oxygen because they were formed from oxygen-poor lipid materials. Type II (liptinitic) kerogens are also high in hydrogen. In the immature state. and metagenesis. The shaded areas approximately represent diagenesis. and Colorado. Type III (humic) kerogens. have lower hydrogen contents because they contain extensive aromatic systems. Type I kerogens have high generative capacities for liquid hydrocarbons. pollen and spores. Type IV kerogens contain mainly reworked organic debris and highly oxidized material of various origins. Extensive interest in those oilshale deposits has led to many investigations of the Green River Shale kerogens and has given Type I kerogens much more publicity than their general geological importance warrants. Type III kerogens are composed of terrestrial organic material that is lacking in fatty or waxy components. which mainly contain polycyclic aromatic systems. in contrast. cellulose. are normally considered to generate mainly gas. The various Type II kerogens are grouped together. Type II kerogens arise from several very different sources. of middle Eocene age. They are generally considered to have essentially no hydrocarbon-source potential. Occurrences of Type I kerogens are limited to anoxic lakes and to a few unusual marine environments. Type IV kerogens are highly oxidized and therefore contain large amounts of oxygen.19 Type I kerogen is quite rare because it is derived principally from lacustrine algae. The best-known example is the Green River Shale. from Wyoming. in contrast. Van Krevelen diagram showing maturation pathways for Types 1 to IV kerogens as traced by changes in atomic HIC and OIC ratios. successively. Type III kerogens have much lower hydrocarbon-generative capacities than do Type II kerogens and. catagenesis. Heteroatom contents of kerogens also vary with kerogen type.
they represent fundamentally different perspectives. Despite its name. Metagenesis. but it also continues through the metamorphic stage. In many cases the original cellular structure is still recognizable. Most high-nitrogen kerogens were therefore deposited under anoxic conditions where diagenesis was severely limited. Thus few kerogens consist of a single maceral type. because there is not a perfect biological separation of the various types of living organic matter. The small molecules eventually become petroleum and natural gas. The division of kerogens into Types I-IV on the basis of chemical and hydrocarbon-generative characteristics has been supported by another independent scheme for classifying kerogens using transmitted-light microscopy. interrelated. anoxic. The correspondence is not perfect. but they really represent different aspects of the same process. they are not precisely equivalent.20 Sulfur and nitrogen contents of kerogens are also variable and. KEROGEN MATURATION INTRODUCTION Very important changes. whereas hydrocarbon generation focuses on the production of hydrocarbon molecules. A list of the most common macerals and their precursors is given in the table presented earlier in this chapter. represents drygas generation. proving the origin of the particle. Many high-sulfur kerogens are also high in nitrogen.Kerogen . Sulfur is only incorporated into kerogens in large quantities where sulfate reduction is extensive and where Fe +2 ions are absent (organic-rich. nonclastic sediments). in contrast. the materials from which a maceral was derived. Maceral names were developed by coal petrologists to describe. The kerogen in a given sedimentary rock includes many individual particles that are often derived from a variety of sources. Nitrogen is derived mainly from proteinaceous material. most terrestrially influenced kerogens are low in nitrogen. Kerogen types are defined by the morphologies of the kerogen particles. Although the terms catagenesis and oil generation are often used synonymously. By convention the term catagenesis usually refers to the stages of kerogen decomposition during which oil and wet gas are produced. What appears to be vitrinite (Type III kerogen) by visual analysis may have chemical characteristics intermediate between Type II and Type III kerogens because of the presence of small amounts of resin or wax. Because lignins and carbohydrates contain little nitrogen. is derived mainly from sulfate that was reduced by anaerobic bacteria. The different types of kerogen particles are called macerals. a term taken trom coal petrology. Microscopic organic analysis has reached a fairly high level of refinement and is often capable of assessing kerogen type with good accuracy. It is possible to make a reasonably good correlation between kerogen type based on chemical characteristics and kerogen type based on visual appearance. The biggest problem comes in identifying Type III kerogen. Kerogen sulfur. forcing us to make assumptions about the source organisms. Thermal decomposition reactions. marine. occur when a kerogen is subjected to high temperatures over long periods of time. In principle. Catagenesis refers to transformations of kerogen molecules. called catagenesis and metagenesis. because fresh waters are usually low in sulfate. they are to kerogen what minerals are to a rock. called maturation. metagenesis is not equivalent to "metamorphism. break off small molecules and leave behind a more resistant kerogen residue." Metagenesis begins long before true rock metamorphism. Catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation occur concurrently. however. In others the original fabric has disappeared completely. wherever possible. which is destroyed rapidly during diagenesis. In this text we shall use the terms somewhat interchangeably. in some cases. High-sulfur kerogens (and coals) are almost always associated with marine deposition. which occurs after catagenesis. especially when we are discussing both aspects simultaneously. however. Macerals are essentially organic minerals. .
but it also states that at any temperature above absolute zero reactions will be occurring at some definable rate. is to monitor hydrocarbon generation. Thus the steady decrease in hydrogen content of a kerogen (usually measured as the atomic hydrogen/carbon ratio) during heating can be used as an indicator of both kerogen catagenesis and hydrocarbon generation. In the late stages of maturity. the rates of catagenesis are generally not important at temperatures below about 70° C. There is therefore no necessary cause-and-effect relationship . Although it is obvious that many measurable changes in kerogens are related to hydrocarbon generation. oil. The more hydrogen a kerogen contains. Nitrogen and sulfur are also lost from kerogens during catagenesis. and III kerogens will therefore be very similar chemically. Types I. Nitrogen loss occurs primarily during late catagenesis or metagenesis. The most important implication of these chemical changes is that the remaining hydrocarbongenerative capacity of a kerogen decreases during catagenesis and metagenesis. Old rocks will often generate hydrocarbons at significantly lower temperatures than young rocks. provided that the hydrogen content of the kerogen was known prior to the onset of catagenesis. much of the sulfur is lost in the earliest stages of catagenesis. II. Because many of the light product molecules are rich in hydrogen. EFFECTS OF MATURATION ON KEROGENS Kerogen undergoes important and detectable changes during catagenesis and metagenesis. It is impossible to set precise and universal temperature limits for catagenesis. This complex interplay between the effects of time and temperature on maturity is discussed in a later chapter. as evidenced by low maturity. We shall look now at the various techniques for estimating the extent of hydrocarbon generation from kerogen properties and see how closely each of them is related to hydrocarbon generation. simply because the longer time available compensates for lower temperatures. Furthermore. including the Miocene Monterey Formation of southern California.Kerogen . Kerogen maturation is not a reversible process-any more than baking a cake is reversible. In contrast. possessing essentially no remaining hydrocarbon generative capacity. it is also true that other changes in kerogen properties have little or nothing to do with it. and thus are not necessarily valid indicators of hydrocarbon generation. because time also plays a role. The real reason for following kerogen catagenesis. The composition of the products (bitumen. in most cases decreases of temperature in excess of about 20°-30° C due to subsurface events or erosional removal will cause the rates of catagenesis to decrease so much that it becomes negligible for practical purposes. Kerogen particles become darker during catagenesis and metagenesis. and gas) will be discussed in a following chapter. however. Some of these changes can be measured quantitatively.21 This chapter will focus on those changes in the residual kerogen that accompany catagenesis. after hydrogen loss is well advanced. Furthermore. the chemical process of maturation never stops completely. much as a cookie browns during baking. For practical purposes. but they are not necessarily identical with hydrocarbon generation. Chemical reaction-rate theory requires that the rates of reactions decrease as temperature decreases. the more hydrocarbons it can yield during cracking. the cracking of any organic molecule requires hydrogen. even if drastic decreases in temperature occur. As we saw earlier. These reactions are intimately related to important changes in the chemical structure of kerogen. of course. high-sulfur oils found in a number of areas. All kerogens become increasingly aromatic and depleted in hydrogen and oxygen during thermal maturation. There is a steady color progression yellow-goldenorange-light brown-dark brownblack as a result of polymerization and aromatization reactions. thus allowing us to judge the extent to which kerogen maturation has proceeded. the residual kerogen gradually becomes more aromatic and hydrogen poor as catagenesis proceeds.
carbon-isotopic compositions of kerogens are affected little by maturation. and which can be used to gauge the extent of molecular reorganization. As kerogen matures and becomes more aromatic. because the flat aromatic sheets can stack neatly. Cracking often produces free radicals. during metagenesis the chief product is methane. These structural reorganizations bring about changes in physical properties of kerogens. What actually occurs. If neither expulsion from the source rock nor cracking of bitumen occurred. HYDROCARBON GENERATION As kerogen catagenesis occurs. Half a century ago coal petrologists discovered that the percentage of light reflected by vitrinite particles could be correlated with coal rank measured by other methods. Because coal rank is merely a measure of coal maturity. The concentration of free radicals in a given kerogen has been found to increase with increasing maturity. has been widely and successfully applied in assessing kerogen maturity. Kerogens. and because vitrinite particles also occur in kerogens. Except for darkening. A general name tor these molecules is bitumen. Bitumen generation occurs mainly during catagenesis. small molecules are broken off the kerogen matrix. Both curves are highly . the more an incident light beam will be scattered. Some properties of kerogen change very little during catagenesis. Plot of bitumen generation as a function of maturity (dashed fine) compared to bitumen remaining in rock (solid line). Free-radical concentrations can be measured by electron-spin resonance. The intensity and wavelength of the fluorescente are functions of kerogen maturity. the technique. especially highly aromatic ones. somewhat beyond the oil-generation window. The more random a kerogen's structure. and no guarantee that a particular kerogen color always heralds the onset of oil generation. One property that is strongly affected. and the less it will be reflected. These small compounds are much more mobile than the kerogen molecules and are the direct precursors of oil and gas. its structure becomes more ordered. called vitrinite reflectance. resulting in lower bitumen contents in the source. there would be a large and continuous build-up of bitumen in the rock as a result of catagenetic decomposition of kerogen. while others are small heterocompounds. is the ability of kerogen particles to reflect incident light coherently. however. which are unpaired electrons not yet involved in chemical honds. Some of these are hydrocarbons. the visual appearance of kerogen also does not change during catagenesis: kerogen types are generally recognizable until the particles become black and opaque. is that some of the bitumen is expelled from the source rock or cracked to gas.Kerogen . The difference between the two curves represents bitumen expelled from the rock or cracked to light hydrocarbons. contain large numbers of unpaired electrons.22 between kerogen darkening and hydrocarbon generation. For example. Kerogens often fluoresce when irradiated.
whereas those kerogens that contain few lipids will generate mainly gas. Kerogens formed from resinite will generate condensates or light oils quite early. as measured by parameters such as vitrinite reflectance. We shall consider the latter briefly here. we cannot always define the limits of hydrocarbon generation with great confidence. Effective generation of hydrocarbons requires that the generated products be expelled from the source-rock matrix and migrated to a trap.Kerogen . Resinite and sulfur-rich kerogens are able to generate liquid hydrocarbons earlier than other kerogens because of the particular chemical reactions occurring in those two materials. although we know that oil generation does occur during the phase we call catagenesis. Thus. In such cases the expelled products will be mainly gas. In very lean rocks expulsion may occur so late that cracking of the generated bitumen is competitive with expulsion. Timing and efficiency of expulsion depend on a number of factors. Numerous methods exist for tracing the history of a kerogen and determining its original chemical and physical characteristics. Candidates for early expulsion would be very organic rich rocks and those containing resinite or high-sulfur kerogens. including rock physics and organic-geochemical considerations. Given the significant chemical differences among the various types of kerogens. Rich rocks will become overpressured earlier than lean ones and thus will also expel hydrocarbons earlier. this result is hardly surprising. which in turn is partly attributed to hydrocarbon generation itself. Kerogens formed from lipid-rich organic material are likely to generate liquid hydrocarbons. Microfracturing is related to overpressuring.23 idealized. those rocks that generate few hydrocarbons may not expel them until they have been cracked to gas. The chemical composition and morphology of kerogen macerals depend both on the type of original organic matter and on diagenetic transformations. . Other kerogens usually follow a more traditional model. Catagenesis of kerogen produces a more aromatic. It has become apparent in recent years that not all kerogens generate hydrocarbons at the same catagenetic levels. high-sulfur oils at low levels of maturity. Several methods exist for estimating the extent to which hydrocarbon generation has occurred in a given kerogen. however. SUMMARY Kerogen begins to form during early diagenesis. Resinite consists of polymerized terpanes (ten-carbon isoprenoids) that can decompose easily by reversing the polymerization process. residual kerogen as well as small molecules that are the direct precursors for petroleum and natural gas. Conversely. Sulfur-rich kerogens decompose easily because carbon-sulfur hbonds are weaker than any bonds in sulfur-poor kerogens. High-sulfur kerogens generate heavy. Many workers now believe that microfracturing of source rocks is very important tor hydrocarbon expulsion. hydrogen-poor. Source rocks that generate large amounts of hydrocarbons early are likely to expel those hydrocarbons early. when large geopolymers are created from biological molecules. because natural variations among samples cause much scatter in experimental data. but none of these measurements is closely linked to the actual process of hydrocarbon generation. The chemical composition of a kerogen controls the timing of hydrocarbon generation and the type of products obtained.
while others are only trace contributors. Heavier aromatic and naphthenoaromatic hydrocarbons. however. In order to understand bitumen and petroleum compositions and to use them for exploration.000. and Natural Gas INTRODUCTION Petroleum obtained from reservoir rocks and bitumen extracted from fine-grained rocks have many similarities. and form complexes with molecular weights of perhaps 50. particularly those derived from diterpanes. Major compositional changes occur in going from bitumen to petroleum. Much of this variety is related to source-rock facies and the composition of the kerogens that generated the bitumens. variously called polars. but these compounds are lost from bitumens during evaporation of the solvent used in extracting the bitumen from the rock. and cyclics. Light aromatic hydrocarbons. There is no doubt that they are related. Reservoir transformations in some cases greatly affect oil composition and properties. Petroleum. like benzene and toluene. The large sizes of asphaltene units render . highly aromatic asphaltene molecules that are often rich in heteroatoms. have been studied in petroleums. n-alkanes. Saturated hydrocarbons are the most thoroughly studied of the components of petroleum and bitumen because they are the easiest to work with analytically. branched hydrocarbons (including isoprenoids). NSOs. and how much is due to physical separation of chemical compounds having very different properties. indeed. Few of these heterocompounds have been studied carefully. and steranes. Petroleum. triterpanes. Some of these are present in relatively large quantities. However. contains a wide variety of small and medium-sized molecules with one or more heteroatoms. COMPOUNDS PRESENT IN BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM GENERAL CLASSES OF COMPOUNDS Both bitumen and petroleum contain a very large number of different chemical compounds. Maturity also exerts control over bitumen and petroleum composition. we must separate the characteristics related to kerogen composition from those related to the transformation of bitumen to petroleum and from those related to changes occurring in reservoirs. are more commonly studied. Most of the NSO compounds appear in the remaining two fractions. Each of the fractions contains certain types of chemical compounds. Asphaltenes tend to aggregate into stacks because of their planarity. and Natural Gas - 5 . A second fraction consists of aromatic hydrocarbons and some light sulfur-containing compounds. we first separate a crude oil or a bitumen into several fractions having distinct properties.Bitumen. many unanswered questions remain about the processes that transform bitumen into petroleum. The influence of the lithologies of source and reservoir rocks on these compositional changes is poorly understood. but we are not certain whether they occur mainly within the source rock or during migration through the reservoir rock. and resins. We also do not know how much of the change involves chemical reactions. but they also exhibit many important differences.24 Bitumen. Both bitumens and petroleums exhibit a wide range of compositions. This chapter will compare and contrast bitumen and petroleum compositions and examine the factors responsible for the observed differences. The lighter of these fractions. Bitumen and petroleum compositions can also be used as tools in correlating samples with each other. Such correlations can be particularly useful in establishing genetic relationships among samples. The final fraction contains very large. bitumen is almost universally accepted as the direct precursor for petroleum. One fraction consists mainly of saturated hydrocarbons. In order to investigate the individual compounds present.
Another important indication of the origin of n-alkanes is the distribution of individual homologs. such as pentane or propane. In a few cases specific precursor organisms or molecules can be identified. the CPI is greater than 1. although we know for certain that the biomarker molecule is biogenic. Because of their molecular complexity and heterogeneity. of biological origin. an abbreviation for biological markers. Their n-alkane distributions reflect this mix. but their sources are simply no longer recognizable due to diagenetic and catagenetic transformations. These n-alkanes are believed to be formed by hydrogenation (reduction) of longchain fatty acids and alcohols having even numbers of carbon atoms. whereas in other instances we may be able to limit the possible precursors to only a few species. and Natural Gas . If the number of odd. The average of two ranges is taken to minimize bias produced by the generally decreasing n-alkane concentrations with increasing number of carbon atoms. 29. 27. (Among the acids and alcohols present in living organisms. receive contributions of n-alkanes from both terrestrial and marine sources. are essentially molecular fossils. Many other types of organic compounds in crude oils and bitumens are not considered to be biomarkers because they cannot be related directly to biogenic precursors. however.and even-carbon members is equal. These compounds. marine algae produce n-alkanes that have a maximum in their distribution at C-17 or C22.0. SPECIFIC COMPOUNDS Biomarkers. The distributions are quite sharp. and by their catagenetic formation from long-chain compounds such as fatty acids and alcohols. the lower-carbon homologs are given more weight in the calculation. even-carbon homologs predominate as strongly as do the oddcarbon homologs among the n-alkanes. was developed as a measure of the strength of the odd-carbon predominance in n-alkanes over the even alkanes (in the series from 23 upwards). Asphaltenes can thus be removed from oils or bitumens in the laboratory or refinery by adding a light hydrocarbon. Sediments are also known that exhibit a strong preference for n-alkanes having an even number of carbon atoms. In most cases.or even-carbon homologs is evident. and 31 atoms. the CPI is 1. However.25 them insoluble in light solvents. They are. If odd-carbon homologs predominate. because the concentration of n-alkanes often decreases with increasing carbon number. or of the diagenetic conditions under which the organic matter was buried.0. In contrast. depending upon the species present. Many sediments. Many of the compounds and classes of compounds that we find in crude oils and bitumens are called biomarkers. Carbon Preference Index. asphaltene molecules have not been studied in detail. Petroleum. where input of terrestrial n-alkanes is minimal and diagenetic conditions are highly reducing.) Even-carbon preferences occur principally in evaporitic and carbonate sediments. of course. however. and no preference for either odd. or members of the n-alkane series. 25. CPI values can therefore . especially 23. FACTORS AFFECTING COMPOSITION OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM SOURCE AND DIAGENESIS Biomarkers n-Alkanes were among the first biomarkers to be studied extensively. we are unable to use it as an "index fossil" for specific organisms. or CPI. Their high concentration in bitumens and oils is best explained by their existence in plant and algal lipids. For the most part n-alkanes present in terrestrial plants have odd numbers of carbon atoms. which are derived from biogenic precursor molecules. The most useful biomarkers serve as indicators of the organisms from which the bitumen or petroleum was derived. Other compounds.Bitumen.
Bitumen, Petroleum, and Natural Gas -
deviate from 1.0 even when no preference is distinguishable by visual inspection of the distribution curve. n-Alkane distributions are greatly modified by thermal maturity. Chain lengths gradually become shorter, and the original n-alkanes present in the immature sample are diluted with new n-alkanes generated during catagenesis. Because the newly generated n-alkanes show little or no preference for either odd- or even-carbon homologs, CPI values approach 1.0 as maturity increases. n-Alkane distributions in bitumens and oils derived from algae do not show the influences of maturity as clearly because the original CPI values are already very close to 1.0. It is therefore often difficult to estimate maturity levels in pelagic rocks on the basis of n-alkane data. Parameters other than Biomarkers. Sulfur contents are also strongly influenced by diagenetic conditions. For economic and environmental reasons, oils having more than about 0.5% sulfur are designated as high-sulfur. Many high-sulfur oils contain 1% sulfur or less, but in some areas sulfur contents can reach 7% (Monterey oils from the onshore Santa Maria area, southern California, for example). A few oils contain more than 10%. These high-sulfur bitumens and crude oils are derived from high-sulfur kerogens. As we saw earlier, sulfur is incorporated into kerogens formed in nonclastic sediments that accumulate where anaerobic sulfate reduction is important. Most oils and bitumens derived from lacustrine or ordinary clastic marine source rocks will be low in sulfur content, whereas those from euxinic or anoxic marine source rocks will be high-sulfur. Sulfur occurs predominantly in the heavy fractions of oils and bitumens, particularly in the asphaltenes. High-sulfur oils therefore have elevated asphaltene contents.
Introduction. There are two main types of reservoir transformations that can affect crude oils (reservoir transformations are not applicable to bitumen because, by definition, the material in a reservoir is petroleum). Thermal processes occurring in reservoirs include cracking and deasphalting. Nonthermal processes are water washing and biodegradation. Of these, cracking and biodegradation are by far the most important. Cracking and Deasphalting. Cracking, which breaks large molecules down into smaller ones, can convert a heavy, heteroatom-rich off into a lighter, sweeter one. Waxy oils become less waxy. API gravities increase, and pour points and viscosities decrease. When cracking is extreme, the products become condensate, wet gas, or dry gas. Cracking is a function of both time and temperature, as well as of the composition of the oil and the catalytic potential of the reservoir rock. It is therefore impossible to state that cracking always occurs at a certain depth or reservoir temperature. Most oils, however, will be reasonably stable at reservoir temperatures below about 90° C, regardless of the length of time they spend there. On the other hand, a reservoir above 120° C will contain normal oil only if the oil is a recent arrival. Although the role of catalysis in hydrocarbon cracking in reservoirs has not been proven, many workers suspect that clay minerals are important facilitators of hydrocarbon breakdown. Catalytic effectiveness varies greatly from one clay mineral to another, however, and our partial understanding of this difficult subject is not of much practical use at the present time. Cracking also brings about deasphalting, because asphaltene molecules become less soluble as the oil becomes lighter. Precipitation of asphaltenes in the reservoir will lower sulfur content and increase API gravity appreciably. Biodegradation and water washing. Water washing involves selective dissolution of the most soluble components of crude oils in waters that come in contact with the oils. The smallest hydrocarbon molecules and the light aromatics, such as benzene, are the most soluble. The effects of water washing are rather difficult to determine because they do not affect the oil fractions that
Bitumen, Petroleum, and Natural Gas - 27
are most frequently studied. Furthermore, in most cases the effects are quite small because of the low solubilities of all hydrocarbons in water. Finally, water washing and biodegradation often occur together, with the more dramatic effects of biodegradation obscuring those of water washing. Biodegradation is a transformation process of major importance. Under certain conditions some species of bacteria are able to destroy some of the compounds present in crude oil, using them as a source of energy. The bacteria responsible for biodegradation are probably a mixture of aerobic and anaerobic strains. Only aerobic bacteria are believed to actually attack hydrocarbons, but anaerobes may consume some of the partially oxidized byproducts of initial aerobic attack. Because biodegradation changes the physical properties of oils, it can have serious negative financial implications. Heavily biodegraded oils are often impossible to produce (Athabasca Tar Sands of Alberta, Canada, and the Orinoco heavy oils of Venezuela, for example). If production is physically possible, it may be expensive or uneconomic. It is therefore important to understand where and why biodegradation occurs, and what its effects are on oil composition. Biodegradation may actually start during oil migration (provided required temperature and oxygen conditions are met), because oil-water interactions are maximized then. Most biodegradation probably occurs within reservoirs, however, since the length of time an oil spends in a reservoir is usually much longer than its transit time during migration. Biodegradation can vary in intensity from very light to extremely heavy. Because the chemical and physical properties of an oil change dramatically in several predictable ways during biodegradation, biodegraded oils are easily recognized. Many basins have at least a few biodegraded oils, and in some areas they are epidemic. Bacteria that consume petroleum hydrocarbons have strong preferences. Hydrocarbons are not their very favorite foods, and they eat them only because there is nothing else available. The preferred hydrocarbons are n-alkanes, presumably because their straight-chain configurations allow the bacterial enzymes to work on them most efficiently. Also attractive to the "bugs" are long, alkyl side-chains attached to cyclic structures. After the n-alkanes and alkyl groups are consumed, the bacteria begin to destroy compounds having only a single methyl branch or those having widely spaced branches. Then they move on to morehighly branched compounds, such as the isoprenoids. In the last stages of biodegradation, polycyclic alkanes are attacked. Because the hierarchy of bacterial attack on crude oils is well known, it is possible to assess the degree of biodegradation by observing which compounds have been destroyed. Sulfur contents of crude oils also increase as a result of biodegradation. In a heavily biodegraded oil the sulfur content may increase by a factor of two or three. Sulfur is undoubtedly concentrated in the oil by selective removal of hydrocarbons, and may also be added by bacterially mediated sulfate reduction.
COMPARISON OF BITUMEN AND PETROLEUM
Although bitumens and crude oils contain the same compounds, the relative amounts are quite different. In the process of converting bitumen to petroleum, either the NSO compounds are lost in large quantities, or they are converted to hydrocarbons. In actuality, both processes probably occur, although selective loss of nonhydrocarbons during expulsion is probably most effective in concentrating the hydrocarbons. Bitumen composition depends strongly on the lithology of the host rock. Carbonates contain bitumens that are much richer in heterocompounds than are shales, and their hydrocarbon fractions are more aromatic. These differences are the result of the higher sulfur contents of kerogens in carbonates. Oils derived from carbonate sources are also richer in heterocompounds than oils sourced from shales.
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Natural gas contains many different compounds, although most of them are present only in trace quantities. The principal components with which we shall be concerned are light hydrocarbons (methane through butanes), C02, H2S, and N2. Carbon dioxide and N2 are generally associated with very hot reservoirs. C02 is derived either by oxidation of oil or gas or by decomposition of carbonates. The origin of the C02 can be determined easily by carbon-isotope measurements: the very different isotopic compositions of organic-carbon species and carbonates are carried over into any C02 derived from these materials. Nitrogen is thought to be an indicator of high levels of maturity formed primarily by metagenetic transformation of organic nitrogen and ammonia bound to clay minerals. Hydrogen sulfide is usually derived from high-sulfur kerogens or oils. These in turn are formed most readily in carbonates. Thus sour gas is most common in carbonate reservoirs or in places where the source rock was a carbonate. H2S could also be formed by the reaction of hydrocarbons with sulfate in reservoirs, especially carbonates containing anhydrite. Biogenic gas, most of which occurs at shallow depths, but which can apparently form (or at least persist) at depths of a few thousand meters, is very dry, containing only trace amounts of hydrocarbons heavier than methane. In contrast, the first gas produced during catagenesis is quite wet. With increasing maturity, gas again becomes progressively drier as a result of cracking of the heavier hydrocarbons to methane.
Bitumens and crude oils contain the same classes of compounds, but their relative concentrations are quite different. These differences are in some cases related to differences in maturity; in other examples they are probably a result of preferential expulsion of hydrocarbons from source rocks. Individual compounds occur in quite variable proportions in bitumens. Source, diagenesis, and maturity all exert control over these distributions. When source and diagenetic influences have been removed, the porphyrins, steranes, triterpanes, and n-alkanes in mature bitumens are found to be very similar to those in crude oils and quite different from those in immature bitumens. Oil compositions can also be strongly affected by reservoir transformations, including biodegradation, water washing, cracking, and deasphalting. Many of the factors that influence the composition of oils and bitumens are well understood and predictable, and can be used to obtain information about paleoecology, thermal history, and reservoir conditions. Gas composition is governed first of all by whether the gas is of biogenic or thermal origin. Biogenic gas is always dry, whereas thermal gas may be wet or dry. Carbon-isotope ratios are good indicators of the source of gas; biogenic gas is much lighter isotopically than thermal gases. Other important components, such as CO2, N2, and H2S, are indicative of high temperatures or sulfur-rich source material.
Furthermore. One occurs most commonly as a result of microfracturing induced by overpressuring during hydrocarbon generation. Secondary migration is the movement of oil and gas within this carrier bed. we must look at each of these steps separately. particularly along lines of weakness such as bedding planes. whereas accumulation of hydrocarbons requires concentration. lowpermeability source rock into a carrier bed having much greater permeability. Laminated source rocks may therefore expel hydrocarbons with greater efficiency than massive rocks. An important implication of the microfracturing model is that expulsion cannot take place until the strength of the source rock has been exceeded. Its importance is probably limited to the edges of thick units or to thin source beds. any contribution by diffusion will be overwhelmed by that from other expulsion mechanisms. microfracturing occurs. Diffusion would therefore have to be coupled with a powerful concentrating force to yield accumulations of appreciable size. expulsion. where pre-existing light hydrocarbons bleed out of the rocks prior to the onset of significant generation and expulsion. Momper (1978) suggested that in most cases no microfracturing or expulsion could occur until a threshold amount of bitumen had been generated in the source rock. it involves expulsion of hydrocarbons from their fine-grained. and pressure release can be repeated. When the internal pressures exceed the strength of the rock. but those that have been discounted will not be discussed here. and solution in gas. Traps are the means by which migration is stopped and accumulation occurs. it is probably most effective in immature rocks. oil-phase expulsion. During intense hydrocarbon generation.29 6 . . The main problem with diffusion as an important mechanism of migration is that diffusion is by definition a dispersive force. This chapter wi11 not go into the physics and chemistry of migration in detail. Diffusion has been shown to be active on at least a minor scale and over short distances in carefully studied cores. In order to understand the complex sequence of events that we call migration. Many cycles of pressure buildup. the microfractures heal.Migration . The hydrocarbons within the pores then become isolated again because of the impermeability of the waterwet source rocks to hydrocarbons. and overpressuring commences anew. There appear to be three distinct ways in which oilphase expulsion can occur. Once the internal pressure has returned to normal. where they can be preserved over long periods of time. Although the exact threshold value must vary considerably as a function of rock lithology and other factors. Momper's value has been widely accepted as a reasonable average. Based on empirical evidence. Today there are only three mechanisms of primary migration that are given serious consideration by most petroleum geochemists: diffusion. microfracturing. Primary migration is the first phase of the migration process.Migration DEFINITIONS Migration is the movement of oil and gas within the subsurface. but will describe the most widely held views on the dominant mechanisms of primary and secondary migration and accumulation. PRIMARY MIGRATION MECHANISMS Many theories about primary migration (expulsion) have been popular at various times. By far the most popular mechanism invoked today to explain primary migration is expulsion of hydrocarbons in a hydrophobic (oily) phase. Each of these steps is quite distinct from the others. Accumulation is the concentration of migrated hydrocarbons in a relatively immobile configuration.
or downward. Of course. this approach is rather approximate. particularly in brittle carbonate and opal-chert source rocks. Primary migration is unquestionably the most difficult part of the entire migration process. because petroleum is being forced through rocks having low matrix permeabilities. where they do exist. Thus inefficiency of expulsion is responsible for much of the difference in composition of bitumen and petroleum that we noted earlier. primary migration may be of poor efficiency. Therefore. This expulsion process probably releases internal pressures in the rock. In most cases the distances of primary migration are probably between 10 centimetres and 100 m. requires that there be a separate gas phase. but a large proportion of NSO compounds and heavier hydrocarbons are left behind. Therefore the threshold must represent not only a hurdle to be cleared by the bitumen before it can leave the source rock.30 Once the threshold has been exceeded. Primary migration is difficult and slow. expulsion of oil dissolved in gas. A second way in which oil-phase expulsion can occur is from very organic-rich rocks prior to the onset of strong hydrocarbon generation. most of the hydrocarbons are expelled. As soon as easier paths become available. expulsion can be lateral. Finally. we can estimate that once the expulsion threshold is reached the expulsion efficiency for bitumen is about 50%. oil-phase expulsion can take place when bitumen forms a continuous network that replaces water as the wetting agent in the source rock. but also an "exit tax. Such a phase could only exist where the amount of gas far exceeds the amount of liquid hydrocarbons. but it does give some idea of the efficiency of expulsion." We can only estimate the fraction of the bitumen left in the source rock during microfractureinduced expulsion. This type of expulsion is probably only operative in very rich source rocks during the main phase of oil generation. also make excellent secondary-migration pathways. we conclude that solution in gas is a minor mechanism for oil expulsion. By comparing the average hydrocarbon compositions of bitumen and crude oil. Sand stringers within shale units can provide secondary migration conduits for hydrocarbons sourced in the shales. The organic matter expelled consists mainly of lipids that were present in the sediment during deposition and diagenesis. Fracture and joint systems. and assuming that expulsion of hydrocarbons is ten times as efficient as expulsion of NSO compounds. Thus primary migration ends whenever a permeable conduit for secondary migration is reached. but the mechanism by which overpressuring is achieved is not understood. . it would be expected only in the late stages of catagenesis or in source rocks capable of generating mainly gas. unfractured source-rock units are relatively rare. Because neither case is of great general significance for petroleum formation. hydrocarbons will be expelled in any direction that offers a lower pressure than that in the source rock. the migrating fluids will take them. The third mechanism. Thus a source rock lying between two sands will expel hydrocarbons into both carrier beds. upward. therefore.Migration . depending upon the carrier-bed characteristics of the surrounding rocks. Massive. In most cases hydrocarbons are generated within short distances of viable secondary-migration conduits. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION The distances traversed by hydrocarbons during primary migration are short. Expulsion of hydrocarbons is facilitated because water-mineral and water-water interactions no longer need be overcome. this early expulsion mechanism seems to be limited to rocks having very high original contents of lipids. Because the source rock is overpressured. Because the driving force for microfracture-induced primary migration is pressure release.
Migration . requiring only the existence of two forces. we say that accumulation has occurred.31 SECONDARY MIGRATION MECHANISM Once hydrocarbons are expelled from the source rock in a separate hydrocarbon phase into a secondary-migration conduit. hydrodynamic flow. the more deformation is required. the force required to deform the oil globule enough to enter the pore throat. hydrocarbons entering the land from an underlying source rock will move toward the top of the sand even as they migrate laterally updip. the globule cannot enter. In contrast. Whenever a pore throat narrower than the globule is encountered. secondary migration will occur both laterally and vertically. DISTANCE AND DIRECTION Secondary migration occurs preferentially in the direction that offers the greatest buoyant advantage. but it is not essential and does not change our basic model. If. This fact has important implications for tracing migration pathways through a thick conduit. the globule will squeeze into the pore throat and continue moving upward. Where faulting or facies changes create impassable barriers (capillary-entry pressure exceeds buoyant force). If the upward force of buoyancy is large enough. and therefore are more buoyant. however. and becomes stuck until either the buoyant force or the capillary entry pressure changes. the globule must deform to squeeze into the pore. Buoyancy promotes migration. then the rate of hydrocarbon transport will be retarded. Within massive sandstone. Retardatin of buoyant movement as an oil globule (X) is deformed to fit in to a narrow pore throat (Y). Hydrocarbons are thus capable of displacing water downward and moving upward themselves. That is. can modify hydrocarbon movement. which is resistance to entry of the hydrocarbon globule or stringer into pore throats. This model is very simple. migration may have to proceed at an oblique angle to structural contours. When hydrocarbons cease moving. then the rate of hydrocarbon movement should be enhanced somewhat. Hydrocarbons are almost all less dense than formation waters. subsequent movement of the hydrocarbons will be driven by buoyancy. If the capillary-entry pressure exceeds the buoyant force. Coalescence of globules of hydrocarbons after expulsion from the source rock therefore increases their ability to move upward through water-wet rocks. The smaller the pore throat. secondary migration will cease until either the capillary-entry pressure is reduced or the buoyant force is increased. These modifications to the overall scheme are probably minor. the pore throat is very tiny or if the buoyant force is small. The magnitude of the buoyant force is proportional both to the density difference between water and hydrocarbon phase and to the height of the oil stringer. Structural contours on the top of the carrier bed will . Thus movement within a confined migration conduit will be updip perpendicular to structural contours whenever possible. The upward buoyant force is partly or completely opposed by the capillary-entry pressure. whereas capillary-entry pressure retards or stops it. If water is flowing in the subsurface in the same direction as hydrocarbons are moving by buoyancy. if bulk water movement opposes the direction of buoyant movement. Opposing the buoyancy is capillary-entry pressure. A third force-namely.
are broken up tectonically and have poor lateral continuity of carrier beds. Nevertheless. otherwise it is impossible to account for the incredible volumes of hydrocarbons in place today. Various mechanisms for exsolution were proposed to explain how all this was supposed to happen. and has provided as carrier beds continuous blankets of sand juxtaposed with these source rocks. Indeed. however. all must have migrated long distances. This model greatly simplifies the problem of accumulation. by definition. Most basins. ACCUMULATION INTRODUCTION In the old days. Lateral migration is therefore often stymied. can offer possible pathways (although sometimes rather tortuous ones) for vertical migration. because now accumulation can occur where the buoyancy-driven movement of the hydrocarbon phase is stopped or even strongly impeded. because final control on migration direction will be exerted by the upper part of the bed (assuming that no laterally continuous shale breaks divide the carrier bed into two or more separate systems). There is no a priori reason why secondary migration cannot be a very-long-distance phenomenon. and the Saudi Arabian crude oils. However. thus providing a potentially very effective system for combined vertical and lateral migration. Stacked sands in a paleodelta. but also because an active fault or the brecciated zone adjacent to a fault may itself have high permeability. The question of long-distance migration has been much discussed and disputed. large drainage areas and chances for very large accumulations. Today we believe that hydrocarbons migrate as a separate phase. Hydrocarbons had to remain in solution until they reached the trap. Lack of long-distance migration opportunities implies that supergiant and giant accumulations are far less likely and that exploration targets will be smaller. at which time they suddenly became immiscible with the water and formed a separate hydrocarbon phase. although it should be remembered that there are two fundamentally different types of vertical migration. Vertical migration can also occur across formations. Unconformities also can juxtapose migration conduits. not only because they often juxtapose carrier beds from different stratigraphic horizons. for example.32 in general be more useful than contours on its base. The absence of both tectonic and stratigraphic barriers permits long-distance migration. distances of several thousand feet are not unheard of. the largest hydrocarbon deposits known. Much more common. The problem in discussing long-distance migration is that such cases are rare.Migration . Migration updip within a single stratum can accomplish a large amount of "vertical" migration rather painlessly. Vertical migration across stratigraphic boundaries is more difficult. leading to smaller fault-bounded accumulations and vertical migration. It is possible to have lateral migrations of as much as a few hundred kilometers in exceptional circumstances. Vertical migration distances can also be considerable. including the Athabasca Tar Sands of western Canada. they are rare for very good geological reasons: they occur in extremely stable tectonic settings where major but gentle downwarping has deposited and matured huge volumes of source rocks. Drainage area is one of the most important factors influencing the size of hydrocarbon accumulations. the heavy oils in the Orinoco Belt of Venezuela. when migration was thought to occur mainly in water solution. Cap rocks having low . Long-distance migration implies. are basins in which lateral migration distances do not exceed a few tens of kilometers. as a result of both tectonic disruption and facies changes related to tectonic events. the process of hydrocarbon accumulation was somewhat mystical. however. Faults may play an important role in vertical migration.
The Elmworth Field in the Alberta Deep Basin of Canada is the prototype for kinetic gas accumulations. Classical traps are well understood. Much of the hydrocarbon storage at Antelope is apparently in silts and sands juxtaposed with the producible Bakken reservoir. Fracturing associated with high races of oil generation in the Green River Shale has created a supergiant accumulation at Altamont. Lateral migration is of necessity short distance. that strong hydrocarbon generation and migration is going on today. No traditional seal exists. and will be covered separately. it remains water wet. and vertical migration becomes important. Because gas generation is very rapid. . Because the high permeability sand updip allows gas to migrate rapidly through. The seal prevents vertical migration from the reservoir rock into overlying strata. the low-permeability sands become filled with gas. of course. Most hydrocarbon traps are either structural or stratigraphic. rocks whose capillary-entry pressures are high enough to overcome hydrocarbon buoyancy. Cross section across the Rhine Graben of West Germany showing the discontinuity of strata as a result of extensional tectonism endemic to rift basins.33 permeabilities to hydrocarbons provide barriers to migration: that is. The much smaller Antelope Field produces from the Mississippian Bakken Formation.Migration . CLASSICAL TRAPS. a fractured shale that is both source and reservoir. Thus the Elmworth Field exhibits a water-over-gas contact. KINETIC TRAPS Kinetic traps represent a fundamentally new concept in trapping mechanisms for hydrocarbons. The simple principle behind a kinetic trap is that hydrocarbons are supplied to the trap faster than they can leak away. Accumulations are small because drainage areas are small. Seals in the traditional sense of the word may not exist. Gas generated in the late stages of kerogen catagenesis in the Alberta Deep Basin is trapped in a sandstone bed having lower permeability than the overlying sand. while the structure or lithologic change prevents lateral updip migration. The low permeability sand thus creates a bottleneck to gas migration. Gas production is actually from the low-permeability sand rather than from the high-permeability sand updip and downdip. This model requires. High rates of hydrocarbon generation can actually create traps by causing tensile failure of source rocks that have become overpressured as a result of hydrocarbon generation.
In cases where no other structural or stratigraphic trapping mechanism exists. Once expulsion has occurred. the quantities of gas in such accumulations are huge. The base of the gas hydrate zone forms a pronounced seismic reflector that often simulates bottom contours and cuts across bedding planes. unconsolidated sediments that would have no other means of retaining the methane. the lighter (gas) phase will be far more buoyant than the liquid phase. and in zones of permafrost. The technology necessary for producing these hydrocarbons has not yet been developed. and the poor producibilitv of the hydrocarbons they trap. It will therefore migrate much faster and . When the original hydrocarbon phase contains large amounts of light components. Despite the rarity of tar-mat seals. Formation of hydrates thus provides an important trapping mechanism. large accumulations have formed despite high rates of leakage.34 Many of the accumulations in Pliocene reservoirs in southern California are also kinetic accumulations in a slightly different sense. contain mainly light components. Methane is by far the most commonly trapped gas molecule. GAS HYDRATES Formation of crystalline hydrates of natural gas provides an extremely efficient trapping mechanism for natural gas. Cap-rocks in those fields are often poor. especially methane. The polar (NSO) compounds interact most strongly with both mineral surfaces and water molecules. Phase changes occur as a result of decreases in pressure and temperature during migration. but in the future gas-hydrate accumulations may be of great economic significance. These gas hydrates consist of a rigid lattice of water molecules that form a cage within which a single molecule of gas is trapped. Because intense oil generation is going on now. and would be incapable of sealing accumulations for long geologic periods. tar-mat traps are worth discussing because they include the largest hydrocarbon accumulations known: those of the Athabasca Tar Sands and the Orinoco heavy-oil belt. As soon as two immiscible phases are formed. however. but it may also include some heavier hydrocarbons dissolved in the gas.Migration . these changes in temperature and pressure can cause separation of the original phase into a liquid phase and a gas phase. The gas phase will. At the present time the vast potential of gas-hydrate accumulations is just beginning to be recognized. Gas hydrates form and are stable under pressuretemperature regimes that occur at depths of a few hundred meters below the sea floor in deep water. tar mats may provide the only possible means for retaining any hydrocarbons. and thus are not expelled as efficiently with the oil phase. Accumulations beneath tar-mat seals are generally biodegraded themselves. but hydrates large enough to accommodate butane molecules are known. because the same conditions that created the tar mat persist in the subsurface. and thus get left behind as the oil globule or stringer moves upward. Because hydrate zones are often hundreds of meters thick. of course. A second characteristic is that gas hydrates form effective seals against vertical hydrocarbon migration. there may be a chromatographic effect during secondary migration. because much of the methane trapped is biogenic and was formed in young. One important feature of methane hydrates is that they are much more efficient at storing methane than is liquid pore water. EFFECTS ON OIL AND GAS COMPOSITION It has already been suggested that most of the compositional changes seen between bitumens and normal crude oils occur during expulsion (primary migration) from the source rock. The polar molecules once again interact most strongly with interstitial water and mineral surfaces. TAR-MAT TRAPS Tar mats produced by biodegradation can create excellent seals.
Timing of expulsion must be dealt with in a different way. Pathways. Many light oils (often called condensates) probably have such an origin Proposed separation of petroleum components during secondary migration as a result of chromatographic effects. Proximity to effective source rocks and their permeabilities to hydrocarbons determine conduits. Efficiency of expulsion of liquids has already been estimated to be in the neighbourhood of 50% after the expulsion threshold has been reached. and the vertical and horizontal distances involved. the barriers that modify die direction of migration and eventually stop it. When separation of a single hydrocarbon phase into two phases occurs. by faulting. Tectonically stable basins have the best potential for long-distance migration and supergiant accumulations. as we have seen. the efficiency of expulsion. Vertical-migration distances can be considerable. depending upon stacking of reservoirs. or by the presence of tars. We need to know when hydrocarbons moved. We have already stated that oil is expelled primarily as a liquid phase. and the timing of expulsion. SIGNIFICANCE FOR EXPLORATION Explorationists who are reading about migration will surely ask. In summary. and expulsion occurs concurrently with generation to relieve generation-induced overpressuring.35 will also assume the structurally high position in any reservoirs containing both phases. both new phases will have compositions that differ drastically from the original phase. In using our understanding of secondary migration for exploration. and how far they moved.Migration . Efficiency of expulsion for hydrocarbons is apparently much higher than for NSO compounds. in what direction they moved. Barriers can be created by folding. gas is presumably expelled as a gas phase. Thus if we can determine the timing of generation. leading to an enrichment of hydrocarbons in the expelled liquid. Polar compounds interact more strongly with water and rock minerals and thus move more slowly than hydrocarbons. we will also have determined the timing of expulsion. Unstable basins seldom have depositional or tectonic continuities necessary for longdistance lateral migration to occur. by decreases in permeability as a result of facies changes. as explorationists we have very pragmatic interests in migration. we want to determine the main pathways and conduite through which migration occurs. and the possibilities of combined vertical and lateral migration. "What does this mean for exploration?" From their perspective the important aspects of primary migration are the nature of the hydrocarbons expelled (oil or gas). Lateralmigration distances are strongly influenced by tectonic and depositional histories of basins. are determined by structural contours on the top of the carrier beds. . vertical faulting. We already know two important facts about timing from our previous discussion: expulsion based on microfracturing cannot occur before generation.
Indeed. (a) A simple hypothetical anticline. To complement the structure contour map. they can be mapped by means of contours drawn on the top of the reservoir formation. but there must also be some sort of blockage to prevent further migration. Any oil getting there will be unable to migrate further and so it starts to accumulate. Faults will be marked by jumps of the contours. The contours are in feet below mean sea-level. The lowest point. exploration used to consist largely of finding a trap. The highest point of the reservoir. The location of a trap in the subsurface is often the first objective of an exploration program.(2-18) Before we go further. The top of a reservoir formation. and furthermore we can map out the extent and shape of the trap with a good deal of precision-thanks mostly to modern seismic techniques.Petroleum Traps We have seen petroleum generated in and expelled from the source rock formation into an overlying or underlying reservoir. Such a configuration of the reservoir is known as a trap. If it can.36 7 . so that the highest points on the map have the lowest values. they should properly be drawn with the same scale for both the vertical and the horizontal. drilling a well into it.Petroleum Traps . is mapped by contours showing depth below sealevel. up towards the ground surface. which may refer either to its depth or to the spot under the ground where it lies. but it is often convenient to exaggerate the vertical to show the individual beds more clearly. if more continues to migrate up into the trap than can be . the ticks are on the downthrown sides of the faults. and hoping for the best. THE REPRESENTATION OF TRAPS Traps are commonly depicted in two ways. which may give a misleading impression of `lakes' of petroleum under the ground! Structure contour maps. as the beds on one side are dropped down relative to the other. before we reached our modern understanding of the geology of petroleum. except that the contours are in depth below sealevel. Nowadays we can do better. we need a few definitions. Note that we commonly highlight petroleum accumulations by shading or colouring the reservoir formations where they contain oil or gas. where it is lost. To give a true representation. If then we are to find any of it still preserved. A structure contour map resembles an ordinary topographic contour map. (b) A representation of the Piper field in the North Sea: the heavy lines are faults cutting the top of the reservoir and causing the contours to jump. First. not only must the reservoir be overlain by an impervious layer forming a cap rock or seal (shales or evaporites are likely to be the most effective). These are illustrated using a simple anticline as an example. by displacing the water already there in the porosity. is known as the crest of the trap. it will escape to surface as a seepage. one or more cross-sections may be drawn. This may be caused either by the reservoir itself dying out or by an interruption of its upwards continuity to the surface. is the spill-point: this is where oil.
e. which have porosities and permeabilities too low for them to contribute oil to production.37 accommodated. petroleum migrating up along a reservoir can go no further and it accumulates there as a pool. that most reservoir formations include some tight intervals. Hydrodynamic traps. Now we can start to consider the types of trap whose discovery may await us. being lighter still. but not entirely due to either. Stratigraphic. 4. using a cross-section of a simple anticline as example (2-19). will occur as a gas cap above a gas-oil contact. 2. and the same term is used loosely to refer to the area of the trap above the level of the spill-point. i. however. These have to be discounted and the bits that remain as useful reservoir in a well section may be lumped together as the net reservoir with a net pay. the only structural effect being a tilt to allow the oil to migrate through the reservoir. Where there is more than one such pool in the same or overlapping areas.Petroleum Traps . there are various types of . where the trap has been produced by deformation of the beds after they were deposited. Just a couple more terms. Combination traps. Structural. then we may see a gas-water contact. 3. they are embraced by the familiar terms oilfield or gasfield. The vertical height of the oil (or gas) between the crest of the trap and the water contact is the oil. or in their layering. They are normally classified under four headings (2-21): 1. in which the trap is formed by changes in the nature of the rocks themselves. However. Let us remember. If there is no oil. Some terms used to define a trap. which are rare and are mentioned mainly for completeness. so that we can recognize a generally horizontal oil-water contact. A single accumulation of oil or gas is called a pool. STRUCTURAL TRAPS The best known type of trap is the anticline: on reaching the crest. perhaps if more than one reservoir is present. separates out on top within the pore-spaces of the reservoir. The trap is due to water flowing through the reservoir and holding the oil in places where it would not otherwise be trapped. Similarly gas. The vertical height between the spill-point and the crest is referred to as the closure. either by folding or faulting. formed partly by structural and partly by stratigraphic effects. Oil being lighter than water.(or gas-) column. will spill out (under) and migrate on. the informal term pay is often used. When referring to a single well.
but an understanding of the shape and size of a prospect is clearly critical to programming an exploration well. Let us see what the implications are for exploration. The similar anticline. but we commonly have to undertake some form of geometrical construction to interpret what is happening at depth. therefore in order to drill into a reservoir near its highest point (where we would expect the oil to be). Traps can also be formed against faults if a chopped-off reservoir is thrown against a shale or other impervious rock. This leads us into the next problem. This can only happen if there is an apparent thickening of some beds over the crest of the fold. These compressive structures pose one problem right from the start. In this type of structure. we have to know its depth to know where best to locate the well. and we may be able to continue exploration down to depths where we have to stop for other reasons. (a) The dips are the same on both flanks and the crest is beneath the same locality at all depths. so that the beds maintain a constant thickness throughout. . noting the differences in shape and prospectivity that we have to try to interpret. we can find the trap present at all levels down to the basement. and the blanket bulges upwards with an anticlinal shape. This is a very different kettle of fish from the concentric anticline. In this case. Seismic may help. (b) The anticline is asymmetrical and the crest shifts with increasing depth. maintains its shape constant down to depth. and we may no longer be able to see where the bottle is. Cross-sections of trap-forming anticlines. Other types of anticline can be formed without any lateral compression at all: an important one is the drape or drape-compaction structure. a well would have to be located off-crest at surface. Cover it with a few more blankets and a duvet or two. The general principles of this are straightforward. If. There is a definite limit to the depths to which we should drill. in cross-section. Compressive structures have a range of shapes between the purely concentric or parallel anticline and the similar fold. Imagine an old-fashioned stone hot-water bottle in a bed with a blanket over it: we can still see the form of the hot-water bottle. so that the beds become intensely crushed and thrust together: we may no longer even have an anticline at all. the anticline is asymmetrical. with one flank steeper than the other. then the position of the crest will shift with increasing depth. on the other hand. depending on the nature and strength of the rock layers being folded. Below this point we have just too much rock to fit into the anticline. In practice. many structures have forms in-between the two extremes. we can thus expect to find only smaller and smaller accumulations of petroleum down to the centre of curvature. To test the crest at depth. We will describe in a little detail the most important types of anticline.38 anticlines with different shapes and geometries that can affect both their prospectivity and the positions of optimum drilling locations: we have to try to understand them. Anticlines.(2-22) In the concentric fold the tops and bottoms of all the layers remain strictly parallel to each other. beyond which there may be no trap left to explore as the consequence of decoupling of layers. These conditions mean that the anticline becomes smaller and tighter at deeper levels until we reach a common `centre of curvature'.Petroleum Traps .
or over an upfaulted block or horst. A second effect comes into play here: because there is a greater thickness of beds off the structure than over the top. In effect the downthrown side is being pulled away from the upthrown side which would tend to create an open fissure along the fault. but also . and the beds on the downthrown side above the curving fault collapse to fill the gap. Note a characteristic of these anticlines: not only do they `grow' with depth. and finally a residual bulge may be left between two nearby plugs: a turtle or turtle-back structure. Diagrammatic section through two salt plugs. Note that the anticline dies out upwards towards the surface. showing the variety of traps that may be associated with them. The last type of anticline that we should be aware of is the roll-over anticline. can be a perfect seal to any underlying accumulations. The effect of salt diapirism will be initially to bulge up the overlying sediments as an anticline. All of these possible traps may contain hydrocarbons. and then to burst through them in the form of a salt plug or salt wall. Extensive salt deposits and plugs with associated traps occur in many parts of the world: the southern North Sea and northern Germany. Ghawar in Saudi Arabia. This occurs alongside a normal fault that is curved. those near the bottom of the sequence are going to be squeezed and compacted more on the flanks than on top of the feature as it gets buried.(2-25) Similarly. so that it is steep near the surface and flattens with depth. it may bend up and seal off the strata it cuts through. it may extend up to the surface of the ground or only part way if the supply of salt is limited. This compaction enhances the anticline formed by the drape. the beds being draped over an upfaulted block (horst) of basement rocks. much of the west coast and continental shelf of Africa. In case anyone should think that this is unimportant.(2-26) A wide variety of traps can be associated with salt plugs. if the first sediments in a basin were deposited over a hilly surface. it is also liable to fracture the overlying and surrounding beds creating fault traps. Not only may an anticline be pushed up over the plug. Nature. This creates a rollover anticline. higher beds will gradually mute and suppress the structure until it is no longer present at shallow levels. which contains more than four times as much oil as the whole of the North Sea put together.39 A drape-compaction anticline. where the beds are draped over the eroded stumps of an old Jurassic volcano. being plastic. the Middle East. then they will blanket the hill as an anticline.Petroleum Traps . is in one such trap. Another is the Forties field in the North Sea. bending downwards into the hole. the Gulf Coast of the USA. however. a salt pillow or a salt dome. and several others. Note also that salt. it is not always easy to separate out the two effects. and hence the combined name. does not like empty holes. the Canadian Arctic Islands. note that the largest oilfield in the world.
The proviso is that we also have lateral closure: this may be provided by further faulting. Upper Cretaceous. Lower Cretaceous. in both ways. although there are many problems in trying to locate them in the subsurface. Tr. Much of the oil under the Niger and Mississippi Deltas is in such roll-over anticlines. southern England. down towards the deep ocean. Whether or not there is a trap. in both cases. It also depends on whether the fault itself is sealing or non-sealing. trapped against faults to the south. We know that sometimes. Occasionally indeed. or slumping as a sort of land-slide.40 they are asymmetrical. Upper Jurassic. (2-27) These roll-over structures are particularly important where the `stretching' is caused by a very thick pile of sediments at the edge of a continent gently slipping. L. these predated the deposition of the Upper Cretaceous. or by opposing dips. BS+MJ+O. T. but we also know that sometimes faults are pathways for migrating petroleum and non-sealing at all. The reader may care to think through the various situations sketched as bits of cross-sections in the following figure in which the faults themselves are non-sealing. a fault can provide a seal. Tertiary. The sealing capacity of faults is a major difficulty confronting us. Cross-section through the Wytch Farm oilfield. It adds further uncertainties to our predictions of the subsurface occurrence of oil and gas. therefore. and in understanding them. Again. whether the fault is normal or reverse. the position of the crest is displaced with depth and that accumulations in successive reservoirs will not underlie the same surface position. will depend on the dip of the reservoir as compared with that of the fault. we have to know whereabouts in the succession our prospective reservoir lies. Triassic. as at Wytch Farm. and naturally we have some ideas on the subject. thus causing sand against sand to permit migration and sand against shale to be sealing. The oil is in two reservoirs. and its depth. it seems that one and the same fault may act. (2-28) We do not propose to discuss fault traps in detail. Fault traps We indicated above that a trap may be formed where a dipping reservoir is cut off up-dip by a fault. whether or not the reservoir is completely or only partially offset. we still do not fully understand what the difference is due to.. and how big it is. or have acted in the past. Middle Jurassic. UK. All very puzzling! Although attempts have been made to investigate the problem in Nigeria and elsewhere. . to locate an exploration well in the right place. Kim+P. setting it against something impermeable. at deeper levels the crest will shift away from the position of the fault at surface. The large Wytch Farm oilfield of southern England offers a splendid example. (B) a roll-over complicated by subsidiary faulting near the crest. W.Petroleum Traps . and it will depend on the amount of displacement on the fault. Lower Jurassic. Roll-over anticlines: (A) a simple roll-over into a normal fault. Note that.
It would be pointless to list all of the possible types of stratigraphic trap that can exist. In this manner. some of them very important. Consider the sea gradually encroaching over the land as sea level rises. A flood of sand washed off the shallow continental shelf into the deeper ocean. claystone. A lot of oil has been found in recent years in this sort of trap in the North Sea. to provide a trap when later covered with. will spread out as a fan over the ocean floor. It is presumed that petroleum cannot escape up the fault plane. Non-unconformity traps are even more diverse. First. no structural control is needed. A sand deposited in a river channel will be confined by the banks and. We would be left with a sandstone reservoir dying out above the unconformity. we have an isolated trapping situation. but nevertheless known. strongly weathered basement rock (granites. A dipping reservoir. provides the classic case: the East Texas field. so we will mention a few to convey the general idea. A coral reef overwhelmed by muds. may serve as an isolated stratigraphic trap.Petroleum Traps . and on the amount of displacement of the reservoir. More esoterically. The variety in size and shape of such traps is enormous. We mention just three examples. gneisses) under an unconformity serve as reservoirs in China and North Africa. if terminated updip as not infrequently happens. and leave the reader to speculate on other possibilities. the porosity could be preserved beneath the unconformity. they differ somewhat in principle from the others. on the direction of dip of the beds relative to the fault plane. a hill on the old land surface may be formed of permeable rock. cut across by erosion and later covered above the unconformity by impermeable sediments. let us note that a number of traps. fan sands provide one of the prime present-day exploration . the beach sands will spread progressively over the land surface. say. becoming younger as time goes on. its edges will provide an example of a reservoir dying out laterally. for example. Unconformity traps can also be found above the break.(2-29) STRATIGRAPHIC TRAPS Petroleum may be trapped where the reservoir itself is cut off up-dip. depending on whether the fault is normal or reverse. possibly through a submarine canyon. if drowned by shales. thus preventing further migration. but are generally classified as stratigraphic traps. however. until perhaps the supply of sand runs out. is the biggest in the USA outside Alaska. to a large extent reflecting the restricted environments in which the reservoir rocks were deposited. are formed by unconformities. In fact.41 Six trapping and two non-trapping configurations against a fault.
it is presumed that the fault is non-sealing. which were eroded and unconformably overlain by Cretaceous shales. The difference is believed to be due to clay being smeared into the fault plane. This vital factor.Petroleum Traps . some of them large. A couple of examples may give the idea. has most of its oil and gas trapped in a Carboniferous to Jurassic sequence which includes more than one reservoir.). the biggest field in the USA. This combination trap is partly structural (the anticline) and partly stratigraphic (beneath the unconformity). these beds were folded into a faulted east-west anticline. A block representation of the trap at the Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. The reservoir beds were folded into an anticline. and where an oil-water contact is continuous across a fault. which was tilted west and eroded before deposition of the overlying beds now dipping east.(2-31) The oil in the Argyll and many other fields in the North Sea is trapped in tilted and faulted Permian to Jurassic reservoirs. elsewhere it appears to form a trap. tilted westwards.42 targets. occur in traps formed by a combination of structural and stratigraphic circumstances. Both the faulting and the unconformity control the traps. neither completely controls the trap. as the fault moved. As the more easily found structural traps are running out in much of the world. where there is enough of it in the section. where the reservoirs overlie overpressured shales. there always seems to be something new as a challenge. and truncated by erosion. that the trap must be shown to have been there before the oil migrated. The oil in these fields can only have migrated there after the traps were sealed by the higher sequences. Where a reservoir is full to spillpoint against a fault. or the oil would have been lost. possibly even before it . We may note here one most important consideration. The oil is held in the reservoirs by younger shales overlying the erosion surface (Fig. The Prudhoe Bay field in northern Alaska. An investigation into the sealing qualities of faults affecting roll-over anticlines in the Niger Delta.(230) COMBINATION TRAPS A number of fields. although such prospects are not easy to locate and may require a lot of sophisticated seismic. Again the range of possibilities is almost infinite.
The timing of trap formation versus oil migration has not always worked out favorably. is that in most parts of the world the larger anticlines have now been drilled.(2-32) THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF TRAPS A review of 200 giant oilfields (those containing 500 million barrels or more) emphasize the importance of structural. Such tilted contacts. up in the hills and percolating downwards towards a spring. therefore. cases are known where flowing water has apparently been able totally to flush oil out of an anticlinal trap. we would have to be careful where we locate and drill our oil production wells. A hydrodynamic trap.43 was generated. .Petroleum Traps . The number of structural field of this size may partly reflect the fact that structural traps are easier to find than the others. indicating the former presence of an oil accumulation now lost. but the oil reserves they contain show clearly that generally they are also bigger. it may find itself caught against an unevenness of the reservoir surface where there is no conventional trap at all. The oil-water contact in such a hydrodynamic trap is normally tilted in the direction of water flow. are not all that rare. The trouble. In this sort of situation. Oil. There is no structural or stratigraphic closure. Oil has found its way into the reservoir and is battling to migrate upwards to the surface against the flow of water. We would recognize this from residual traces of oil in a water-bearing reservoir. as we do not want to waste the money drilling wells that would miss the oil altogether. they are known in a number of parts of the world. only for as long as the water keeps coming: dry up the supply of water. traps in both number and size. Furthermore. are the more obscure and generally smaller prospects. of course. is held against an unevenness of its upper surface by water flowing in the opposite direction. It is therefore always important to get a handle on the hydrodynamic regime in a reservoir for both exploration and oilfield development purposes. entering a reservoir formation. in say ordinary anticlinal traps. a regime of water flow cannot normally be expected to remain constant for long. and the oil will be free to move again. from our present-day point of view. essentially anticlinal. is yet another aspect of the petroleum geology that we have to assess in proposing exploration drilling. perhaps from rain. geologically speaking. HYDRODYNAMIC TRAPS Imagine surface water. This may be one of the reasons why oil accumulations trapped hydrodynamically are rare. attempting to escape to surface up a reservoir. or aquifer. Depending on the balance of forces acting on the oil. This is what has been described as a hydrodynamic trap. It is totally dependent on the flow of water and is effective. Note that the oil-water contact is tilted down in the direction of water flow. What our efforts are increasingly directed towards.
multi-interpretable (D). . Interpret the geological relationships shown in each by drawing a structural cross-section through the logs.Petroleum Traps .45 EXERCISES EXERCISE 1: The following well logs have been hung on a structural datum.Make the interpretations from easy (A) to more difficult. The logs show SP (Self Potential or Spontaneous Potential) on the left and R (Resistivity) on the right.
The Onondaga forms a thick biohermal reef over part of the field.. produces from Onondaga Limestone and/or Oriskany Sandstone.Petroleum Traps . Wyckoff Reef Gas Field WellElevation CORNELL DIBBLE GUILD CHASE BANKS RICHARDS 2257' 2098' 2037' 2206' 2182' 2066' .Y. showing the interval from top of Onondaga to bottom of Oriskany. A deep-seated downto-the-southwest fault extends upward along the southwest flank of the reef. located in Steuben County. N.46 EXERCISE PetroleumTraps 2 The Wyckoff Gas Field. Oriskany production is from a small anticline on the upthrown side of the fault. Only the porous core facies is productive in the reef section (see map on next page). Elevations and marked logs are provided for 6 wells in the Wyckoff Field. Use this information to construct a northeastsouthwest structural cross section from the Richards well to the Dibble well.
47 .Petroleum Traps .
48 .Petroleum Traps .
we cannot measure G directly for a sample that has already begun to generate hydrocarbons. which we can call G. that usage is a bit too broad and loose. Potential source rock: any immature sedimentary rock known to be capable of generating and expelling hydrocarbons if its level of thermal maturity were higher. Analysis normally requires about one gram of rock. the following distinctions can be made: Effective source rock: any sedimentary rock that has already generated and expelled hydrocarbons. but if the rocks contain abundant organic matter. where G and Go are identical. This simple. For better communication. and inexpensive analysis serves as the first and most important screening technique in source-rock analysis. it is also necessary to know what level of thermal maturity is represented by that particular G value. quick.Source-Rock Evaluation DEFINITION OF SOURCE ROCK Much of modern petroleum geochemistry depends upon accurate assessment of the hydrocarbonsource capabilities of sedimentary rocks. the Phosphoria Formation of Wyoming and Idaho belongs to each of these classifications in different areas.e.. but which may have generated and expelled hydrocarbons. instead it must be estimated by measuring G for a similar sample that is still immature. is it because the rock never had a high initial source capacity. However. For example. and might have no source potential at all in a fourth area where important facies changes had resulted in a drastically lower content of organic matter. This quantity. For example. Possible source rock: any sedimentary rock whose source potential has not yet been evaluated. The difference between Go and G represents the hydrocarbons already generated in the effective source rock. much smaller amounts can be analyzed. the remaining source capacity and not the original capacity (Go).Source Rock Evaluation . PRINCIPLES OF SOURCE-ROCK EVALUATION QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL The amount of organic material present in sedimentary rocks is almost always measured as the total-organic carbon (TOC) content. The term "effective source rock" obviously encompasses a wide range of generative histories from earliest maturity to overmaturity. is most meaningful if we can compare it to the rock's original source capacity. MATURITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Knowing a rock's remaining source capacity G solves only one part of the puzzle. a potential source rock in a less-mature area. Go.49 8 . The quantity actually measured in the laboratory is always G. in which case virtually all the initial . overmature. a possible source rock in a nearby unstudied region. When we analyze a rock sample in the laboratory. Although the term source rock is frequently used generically to describe fine-grained sedimentary rocks. or is it because the rock is "burned out" (i. we actually measure its remaining (or untapped) source capacity at the present day. if G is very low. Go can only be measured directly for immature source rocks. It follows from these definitions that a particular stratum could be an effective source rock in one place.
Results are reported as Ro values. and none can be applied in all cases. along with a statistical analysis of the data. Reworked vitrinite is. however. The method is based on the fact that with increasing thermal stress. . A few of these parameters will briefly be discussed. If no pollen can be found.Source Rock Evaluation . in obtaining more than one maturity parameter. At the end of the analysis a histogram of the collected data is printed. the plot is a straight line. After the plug is polished. the reflectance value of vitrinite increases. far more common in shales than in coals. TAI values are estimated. Despite its weaknesses. its maturity is not related to that of the rock in which it is found. The darkening of kerogen particles with increasing thermal maturity can be used as an indicator of maturity. All the methods have strengths and weaknesses. If a log scale is used for the reflectance. Because each maceral type increases in reflectance in a slightly different way as thermal stress increases. Vitrinite-reflectance techniques were developed for measuring the rank of coals. Vitrinite reflectance (Ro). with lower confidence. unless surrounding samples help us determine the indigenous vitrinite population. Reflectance values are normally plotted versus depth in a well. A substantial number of techniques for measuring or estimating kerogen maturity have been developed over the years. Such histograms are quite often difficult or impossible to interpret. in some cases it is essential. The fraction of the incident beam that is reflected coherently is measured and recorded and stored automatically on a computer. misidentification of macerals can cause problems.50 hydrocarbon-source capacity has already been used up)? The exploration implications of these two scenarios are. very different. In other rocks. Other macerals or solidified bitumens can often be misidentified as vitrinite. In many rocks vitrinite is rare or absent. TAI measurements are carried out on bisaccate pollen grains whenever possible. The most commonly used maturity parameters today are spore color (Thermal Alteration Index. In many areas it is easy to use and valuable. between 50 and 100 measurements will be taken. from amorphous kerogen. In all cases it is worthwhile to supplement vitrinite with other measures of maturity. In order to minimize differences in color caused by changes in the type or thickness of the kerogen particles. even for experienced workers. Less commonly used are fluorescence and conodont color (CAI). whenever possible. where the o indicates that the measurements were made with the plug immersed in oil. Because what is present is often reworked. more common are histograms showing few vitrinite particles or multiple modes as a result of first-cycle vitrinite contaminated with reworked vitrinite or caving of less-mature material from up-hole. leading to frequent difficulties in establishing which vitrinite population is indigenous. vitrinite reflectance. All the techniques discussed are useful and probably reasonably accurate if the analytical work is carefully done. and pyrolysis temperature. There are many problems with vitrinite reflectance as applied to kerogens. Thermal Alteration Index (TAI). the microscopist shines light on an individual vitrinite particle. of course. vitrinite reflectance is the most popular technique today for estimating kerogen maturity. If enough vitrinite particles can be found. The ideal histogram of reflectance values is therefore rather rare. TAI measurements are made on the same slides prepared for microscopic kerogen-type analysis. Vitrinite-reflectance measurements begin by isolating the kerogen with HCl and HF. paucity of first-cycle vitrinite renders vitrinite-reflectance measurements essentially worthless. or TAI). in fact. The key to using maturity parameters effectively lies in evaluating the measured data carefully (and sometimes with skepticism) and. The feeling of most workers today is that there is no single maturity indicator that tells the whole story unerringly all the rime. in which the vitrinite maceral is usually very common. and then embedding the kerogen particles in an epoxy plug.
the CAI scale is most sensitive at levels of maturity much higher than can be measured by TAI. by removing the mineral matrix with acetic or formic acid. with the help of color charts can be carried out by inexperienced personnel. use of careful standards and the same type of palynomorph in each analysis greatly aid reproducibility. Other disadvantages overlap with some of the advantages. or most commonly. conodonts are plentiful in carbonate rocks. lack of proper standardization. When palynomorphs are absent. changes in conodont color are apparently due to carbonization of inclusions of small amounts of organic matter during catagenesis and metagenesis. thus defusing to a large degree the criticism that TAI is too subjective to be valid. and thus helps expand the range over which maturities can be measured. Although conodonts are composed of carbonate apatite. where pollen and vitrinite are often absent. One disadvantage of CAI measurements is that CAI values can be dramatically increased in the presence of hot brines. TAI values estimated from amorphous material are always suspect and should be corroborated by other analyses. where most of the interest is. the absence of spores and pollen in the samples. A careful worker can reproduce earlier work with excellent precision. Carbon Preference Index (CPI). Although TAI determinations are subjective. The first maturity indicator applied to sediments was the Carbon Preference Index. Early investigations showed that immature rocks often had high CPI . which can vary greatly in its chemical and physical properties. CAI is only an indirect indicator of hydrocarbon maturity. Finally. The technique is simple and quick and can be done even by inexperienced workers. Furthermore.51 Each laboratory has reference slides so that microscopists can continually compare the color determinations they are now making with those they and their colleagues made in the past.Source Rock Evaluation . The chief problems arise with inexperienced workers. Conodonts are isolated. because the organic metamorphism displayed by conodonts is not related to hydrocarbon generation or destruction. One advantage of CAI over other maturity parameters is that because conodonts existed as early as the Cambrian. and thus are of no value in many areas. most commonly from fossiliferous carbonates. Conodonts are not very sensitive indicators of maturity within the oil generation window. Conodonts do not occur in rocks younger than the Triassic. they offer a means of measuring maturity in rocks that do not contain pollen grains or vitrinite. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI). TAI measurements are therefore often quite accurate and correlate very well with results from other techniques. TAI values must be estimated from amorphous debris. CAI is inexpensive and easy to measure and. Colors of the specimens thus obtained are determined under a binocular microscope and compared with standards. Finally. leading to an inaccurate assessment of kerogen maturity. Thirdly.
It is capable of impregnating sidewall and conventional cores as well as cuttings. ESTIMATION OF ORIGINAL SOURCE CAPACITY Of the three major methods of determining kerogen type. Like pyrolysis. Caving is a particular problem for coals. Atomic H/C ratios must therefore be corrected for the effects of . Walnut hulls and other organic debris are also easy to detect microscopically. Furthermore. vitrinite reflectance measurements offer the best means of recognizing caving. In contrast to solid additives. but it can be devastating in cuttings samples. and therefore should be easy to avoid. rocks deposited in pelagic environments.5%. walnut hulls and other solid debris. The exception to this rule is with amorphous material.The main causes of contamination among samples obtained from wells are caving and adulteration by drilling-fluid additives. because all kerogens have low pyrolysis yields. palynological analysis can usually detect the presence of lignosulfonates because of the unique pollen assemblages present in the lignite. Later it was realized that the decrease in CPI with increasing maturity depends upon the type of organic matter originally present as well as on maturity. atomic H/C ratios measure the present day status of the kerogen rather than its original chemical composition.Source Rock Evaluation . therefore. in which the input of terrestrial lipids was very limited. Pyrolysis yields are. diesel fuel affects both kerogen and bitumen. however. where the fluorescence that enables us to distinguish between oil-prone and non-oil-prone disappears toward the end of the oil-generation window. In particular. In such cases TOC values will be raised and reflectance histograms will show a large population near 0. it is impossible to determine which maturation path brought it to that point. of course.5). only microscopic analysis is relatively unaffected by maturity. Well Samples .2. and lignite from lignosulfonates. Contaminants of particular notoriety are diesel fuel. In many cases. The most common method for taking maturity effects into account in evaluating pyrolysis data is to use a modified van Krevelen diagram to backcalculate the original hydrogen index. it can lead to an overly optimistic assessment of the organic richness of the section. strongly affected by maturity. fewer CPI determinations are made now. This discovery led to the use of CPI as an indicator of maturity. however. have low CPI values even when immature.52 values (> 1. CONTAMINATION AND WEATHERING Surface Samples -The types of contamination most frequently encountered in surface samples are caused by living organic matter or by spills of oil. Careful picking of lithologies and comparison with up-hole samples can often recognize caved materials. Fortunately. As a result. Problems with living organic matter are easily avoided by physically removing tiny plant roots and other recognizable debris. Without additional information. As long as kerogen particles are not completely black. they can usually be identified with reasonable confidence. because of their friability. Mold or other surface growth may also be present. in the last decade kerogen analyses have replaced bitumen analyses as the routine procedure in source-rock evaluation. which affect only the kerogen portion of the sample. of course. It breaks down at high maturity levels. TOC values will be raised and vitrinite-reflectance values lowered by the presence of adsorbed diesel. Drilling-fluid additives have been a severe headache for petroleum geochemists for a long time. whereas those of oils were almost always below 1. This method works fairly well if the kerogen is still within the oil-generation window. Hydrocarbon contamination is rare except in the immediate vicinity of production or where vehicles are used. Caving is not a problem for conventional or sidewall cores. and can be removed prior to beginning the analytical sequence.
gas-generative. The oil-generative macerals are those of Type I and Type II kerogens: alginite. resinite. TYPE OF ORGANIC MATTER Microscopic kerogen-type analysis describes the proportions of the various macerals present in a sample.5% TOC. Gas-generative kerogen is mainly vitrinite. however. cutinite. Kerogens in rocks containing less than 1% TOC are generally oxidized. These immature H/C ratios can then be used to calculate Go. INTERPRETATION OF SOURCE-ROCK DATA QUANTITY OF ORGANIC MATERIAL Almost all measurements of the amount of organic matter present in a rock are expressed as TOC values in weight percent of the dry rock. on the basis of deductive reasoning. We must still determine whether the kerogen present is in fact of good hydrocarbon-source quality. and S3) are expressed in milligrams of hydrocarbon or carbon dioxide per gram of rock sample. the kerogen in such lean rocks is almost always highly oxidized and thus of low source potential. has dissented from this pessimistic view. the actual volume percent occupied by the organic material is about twice the TOC percentage.0%). A rock containing 3% TOC is likely to have much more than six times as much source capacity as a rock containing 0.5%). Rocks containing more than 1% TOC often have substantial source potential. They will not function as highly effective source rocks. where preservation of lipid-rich organic matter with source potential for oil can occur. that at least some Australian inertinites can generate significant amounts of oil. The amount of hydrocarbons generated in such rocks is so small that expulsion simply cannot occur. Smyth (1983).5% and 1. S2. have little oil-source potential. exinite.5% TOC are considered to have negligible hydrocarbon-source potential. Many rocks with high TOC values. Thus high TOC values are a necessary but not sufficient criterion for good source rocks.0% TOC are marginal. yielding . and inert.Source Rock Evaluation . Raw data (S1. Pyrolysis results are normally reported in two ways. because the kerogens they contain are woody or highly oxidized. In some rocks TOC values between 1% and 2% are associated with depositional environments intermediate between oxidizing and reducing. As such these quantities are a measure of the total capacity of a rock to release or generate hydrocarbons or carbon dioxide. Nevertheless. claiming. Interpretation of TOC values therefore does not simply focus on the quantity of organic matter present. Those rocks containing less than 0. because the type of kerogen preserved in rich rocks is often more oil-prone than in lean rocks. the direct evidence for such a statement is rather meager. and which are definitely worthy of further consideration (TOC > 1. These raw data are then normalized for the organic-carbon content of the sample. Inertinite is considered by most workers to have no hydrocarbon-source capacity. Rocks containing between 0.0%). but they may expel small quantities of hydrocarbons and thus should not be discounted completely. etc. In interpreting these observations we normally divide these macerals into oil-generative.5% and 1.53 maturation by using a van Krevelen diagram. Because the density of organic matter is about one-half that of clays and carbonates. and thus of limited source potential. which ones might be of slight interest (TOC between 0. We therefore use TOC values as screens to indicate which rocks are of no interest to us (TOC < 0. however. TOC values above 2% often indicate highly reducing environments with excellent source potential. Furthermore. fluorescing amorphous kerogen.
Peak generation is reached near 0. However. less common application is to decide whether oil will be stable in a given reservoir. this generalization has two fallacies: most of the coalfields originally studied were of Paleozoic age. Nevertheless.9% Ro. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above about 300 contain substantial amounts of Type II macerals. Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) values ranging from 1 to 5 were tied loosely to vitrinite reflectance and fixed carbon content of coals.Source Rock Evaluation . Because some Cenozoic land plants are richer in resins and waxes than Paleozoic plants. Those between 150 and 300 contain more Type III kerogen than Type II and therefore have marginal to fair potential for liquids. Although Tmax values are determined objectively. Measured hydrogen indices must be corrected for maturity effects by using a modified van Krevelen diagram as outlined above. resinite. Age of coals is important. respectively. The limits of the oil generation window vary considerably depending upon the type of organic matter being transformed. MATURITY Kerogen Parameters. Hydrogen indices below about 150 mg HC/g TOC indicate the absence of significant amounts of oil generative lipid materials and confirm the kerogen as mainly Type III or Type IV. The normalized S2 and S3 values are called the hydrogen index and the oxygen index. and the coals were of bituminous to anthracite rank. Interpretation of hydrogen indices for immature kerogens is straightforward.6% Ro. Because vitrinite reflectance is the most popular method of determining maturity. The correlations among maturity parameters have been fairly well established.54 values in milligrams per gram of TOC. A second. if you are using TAI determinations determined by an analytical laboratory. The ultimate limit of oil stability is not known for certain. the hydrogen index serves as an indicator of kerogen type. CAI can actually measure high-grade metamorphism. Because variations in TOC have been removed in the normalizing calculation. and the end of liquid-hydrocarbon generation is thought to be at about 1. some Cenozoic coals should have better potential for generating liquid hydrocarbons. because during the Paleozoic the biota was quite different than during the Cenozoic. COALS AS SOURCE ROCKS Coals have been traditionally discounted as effective source rocks for oil accumulations because of the lack of geographic correlation between oil fields and coal deposits. . for most kerogens the onset of oil-generation is taken to be near 0. They have excellent potential to generate liquid hydrocarbons. a unified scale for comparing them with Ro values has not been adopted.35% Ro. either from terrestrial macerals (cutinite. most other maturation parameters are related to Ro values. Hydrogen indices above 150 reflect increasing amounts of lipid-rich material. Some laboratories put the onset of maturity at 435° C. but in most cases is probably not much above 1.5% Ro. exinite) or from marine algal material. with CAI of 8 reached in a marble. others use 440°. Determination of the oil-generation window in a particular section is the objective of most maturity analyses performed on possible source rocks. It is particularly difficult to generalize about TAI values because the numerical values of TAI scales have not been standardized among laboratories. Thus. and thus are considered to have good source potential for liquid hydrocarbons. Kerogens with hydrogen indices above 600 usually consist of nearly pure Type I or Type II kerogens. but there are still some minor variations from one laboratory to another. because they vary with kerogen type as well as maturity. make sure that you have a copy of their equivalency between TAI and Ro.
00 Thermal Alteration Index (TAI) 2. we should attempt to corroborate the measured data by other analyses.35 1.5 3.00 1. therefore. and maturity of the organic matter present in the rocks? Satisfactory methods are available in most cases to answer all these questions.80 1. We should always attempt to extrapolate our measured data over as large an area as possible.3 2.50 0. and organic facies.55 SUMMARY Any source-rock evaluation should attempt to answer three questions: What are the quantity.0 3.5 2 2 2 3 4 4 5 Correlation of various kerogen-maturity parameters with vitrinite-reflectance (Ro) values . To do this intelligently we must have the ability to develop regional models of organic facies and thermal maturity.0 4. Interpretation of source-rock data on a basic level is quite simple. type.Source Rock Evaluation .50 2.8 3.2 3.0 2. Vitrinite Reflectance (%Ro) 0.20 1.60 0.4 3. Whenever possible. we should not rely on a single analytical technique. In some areas one technique may fail completely or may be only partially successful.8 4.40 0.0 Pyrolysis Tmax (°C) 420 430 440 450 460 465 470 480 500 500 + 500 + Conodont Alteration Index (CAI) 1 1 1 1. unconformities and erosional events. With increasing experience one can also learn to derive important information on thermal histories.6 2.00 4.00 3. rather.
and maturity (TAI).2 2.86 0. however.3 1.33 1.6 2.2 Atomic H/C 1.38 TAI 2.15 0.7 2.65 0.6 0.6 2.5 2. so "Total Oil" can be plotted against "Oil Already Generated.0 0. To use the H /C data.2 1.1 2.56 EXERCISES Worked out example: Perform a source-rock analysis on the Mauve Well.81 1.5 0. Both the immature H / C ratios and the maceral analysis data need to be scaled to calculate "Total Oil." Two independent quality measurements have been made. This can be done easily by plotting H/C versus TAI. A) Calculation of the immature kerogen H/C ratio(at A) from the present-day H/C ratio and vitrinite reflectance data(at P) .66 0." To do this.7 1.7 3. present-day H/C ratios to the ones that the kerogens had when they were thermally immature.1 3. quality (H /C and %Alginite + Exinite). and then tracing the H/C ratio back to its immature value.05 0.22 1. B) H/C versus TAI for Mauve Well samples.0 2-2.5 1.9 3.6 2.5 2-2.5 1. refer to the graph on next page.27 1.98 0.75 0.5 2-2.07 1. as shown in Figure B (derived from Figure A).5 0.0 3.7 1.8 % Alginite + Exinite 75 80 80 75 80 90 85 75 70 50 45 60 45 40 ? ? Core Cuttings Data are available on quantity (%Corg). presenting the kerogen quality factor as a . Source-rock data for the Mauve Well Depth (m) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Type of Sample Sidewall Cores %Corg 0.7 2.41 0. The calculated immature H/C ratios are listed in the table on next page.5 2.2 3.8 0.3 0.5 2.77 0. and both should be utilized and examined for possible discrepancies.Source Rock Evaluation . one must first convert the measured.72 0.
81 1.38 Immature H/C 1. to check for analytical error.65 0.20 1. it is impossible to pinpoint the error.75 0.50 1. 2300.5 1.05 0.6 1.70 1.7 1.05 1.22 1.66 0.77 0. Scaled Quality Data tor Mauve Well Samples Depth (m) macerals) 1000 1200 1500 1750 2000 2300 2700 3000 3500 3600 3800 4000 4500 4600 4800 5000 Measured H/C 1. however.6 1.00 0.17 0.90 ? ? Quality Factor Quality Factor (from H/ C) (from 1.57 function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen in order to determine the quality factor from H/C.15 0. Without more knowledge.65 0.05 0. such as pyrolysis.35 0.Source Rock Evaluation .9 0. so some systematic error is likely.35 0.60 0.5 1.8 1.07 1. 2000. the interpreter might then decide to try a third technique. the H/C ratio gives the lower quality factor.85 1. The prudent interpreter might now ask that some of the H/C ratios be rerun.33 1.2 0.05 1.90 0. 1500.4 1.60 0.72 0.8 ? ? * * * Indicates discrepancy between quality factors calculated from H /C and from maceral analysis.60 ? ? * * * * * 1.81 1. The samples at 1000.6 1.90 0.5 1. The most important point being made here is that these discrepanties must be taken seriously by the interpreter.90 0. and would certainly request that the slides made for maceral analysis be reviewed. In each case.07 1. and not . and 4500 meters all show differences in the quality factors calculated from the two types of data.9 1. Kerogen quality factor as a function of H/C ratio of the immature kerogen.35 1. If these attempts produced no resolution of the problem. 4000.43 1.22 1.86 0.05 0.77 0. 1750. The scaled quality factors are given for each parameter in the table on next page.90 0. In likewise manner (not illustrated here) the quality factor can be determined from maceral analysis data.30 1.41 0.27 1. It is apparent that there are serious discrepanties between the H/C and maceral analysis results for several of the samples.98 0.0 0.
In fact. . More samples between 3000 and 3500 meters should be obtained to define better the zone of high "Total Oil" values. "Total Oil" values are generally unexciting. "Oil Already Generated" values indicate that only the section lying below 4500 meters is likely to have generated anything approaching a commercially attractive amount of oil. It may be necessary occasionally to offer two alternative interpretations without choosing between them. although the section between 2000 and 3500 meters shows fairly good potential. except for the two deepest samples. These two kerogens are highly mature and quite black. "Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles tor the Mauve Well. no maceral analysis was possible here.Source Rock Evaluation . Finally. and the H/C ratios are not helpful because the maceral types cannot be ascertained from such low H/C values. "Total Oil" and "Oil Already Generated" profiles are plotted in above figure. because sourcerock potential is not good for most of the section. The rest of the section shows a good correspondente between the two parameters. The only sample where the discrepancy is significant is that from 2000 meters. therefore. a more thermally mature version of the rocks lying between 2700 and 3000 meters in the Mauve Well could already have generated very large quantities of oil. Most of the discrepanties among the different quality factors turn out to be unimportant. Let us take this last approach to this problem. The relative organic richness of the blackened samples below 4600 meters makes them interesting for further investigation. Future exploratory activity could include an attempt to find such a section.58 be overlooked or swept under the rug. about the oil-source history of the section below 4600 meters. One can say little.
6 4.9 1.51 0.48 Ro 0. Explain how you resolved any apparent discrepancies.85 0.3 2.02 0.0-2.63 0.90 0.91 0.42 0.01 0.44 0.8 0.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.5 0.11 0.51 0.5 3-3.26? 1.5-3 2.27 0.8 1.60 0.88 0.91 1.6 0.0 2.07 0.2 2.27 1.09 0.0 2.3 2.05 0.09 0.03 0.5-3 3.91 1.5 3.5 2.5-3 2.Source Rock Evaluation .60 0.65 0.5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance .06 0.5 2.51 0.18 0.5 2.02 Atomic H/C 0.00 1.25 0.0 2.59 EXERCISE Source Rock 1 Combine the data from the Blue Well to give a coherent picture of thermal maturity in the section drilled.3 Bit/TOC 0.41? 1.66 0.5-3 2.71 0.52 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.4 0.59 0.59 0.55 0.5 2.5 2.5 2.0 2.07 0.25 1.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1. EXERCISE Source Rock 2 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well.17 0.1 2.21 1.3 1.49 0.0 2.10 0.2 0.6 2.12 *TAI and Ro are interconverted according to the correlation table at the end of chapter 7. Thermal-maturity data for the Blue Well Depth (ft) TAI Ro Bitumen/TOC 1000 1200 1500 2000 2300 2600 3000 3200 3400 3700 4000 4200 4800 5000 5200 5400 5700 6000 2.5 2.3 2.5-3 2.86 1.21 1.7 0.46 0.65 0.5-3 2.0-2.66 0.60 0.08 0.22 0.99 1. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10.08 0.33? 1.0 3-3.03 0.07 1.05 0.61 0.0 0.21 0.5 2.49 0.06 0.7 0.06 0.0 2.0-2.17 0.5 3.5 2.1 0.67 0.08 0.5 2.5-3.5 2.
CONSTRUCTION OF THE GEOLOGICAL MODEL One of the advantages of Lopatin's method is that the required input data are very simple and easy to obtain. If no well data are available. This assumption is a logical and defensible one. Even in maturely explored basins the samples available for analysis often do not give a representative picture of maturity in the basin.Predicting Thermal Maturity . measured maturity data are of limited value in exploration. In most cases. however. and migration with timing of structure development or trap formation. Time-stratigraphic data are usually available as formation tops and ages obtained by routine biostratigraphic analysis of well cuttings. in frontier basins there may not be a single well within tens or hundreds of kilometers. These considerations are important when we want to compare timing of generation. . methods have been developed for calculating maturity levels where measurements are not available. Furthermore. nor do we know at what depth or temperature it occurred. for it is in keeping with the predictions of chemical-kinetic theory. In this chapter you will learn how to carry out maturity calculations using Lopatin's method and how to use Lopatin's method in exploration. Lopatin in the Soviet Union described a simple method by which the effects of both time and temperature could be taken into account in calculating the thermal maturity of organic material in sediments. Lopatin's method allows one to predict both where and when hydrocarbons have been generated and at what depth liquids will be cracked to gas. we still have no clue as to when oil generation occurred. early efforts to take both time and temperature into account in studying the process of hydrocarbon generation were only partially successful because of the mathematical difficulties inherent in allowing both time and temperature to vary independently. In order to circumvent these difficulties.Predicting Thermal Maturity INTRODUCTION Measured maturity values for possible source rocks are invaluable because they tell us much about the present status of hydrocarbon generation at the sample location. indeed. Nevertheless. expulsion. perhaps from thicknesses of exposed sections nearby. however. Part of this problem is a consequence of the limitations we face in attempting to obtain reliable maturity measurements. In some areas there are no well samples available. If no subsurface data are available. It has even been suggested that maturity models are more accurate than measured data for determining the extent of petroleum generation. In 1971. These two factors are interchangeable: a high temperature acting over a short time can have the same effect on maturation as a low temperature acting over a longer period. estimates can be made. We need data that will enable us to construct a time stratigraphy for the location of interest and to specify its temperature history. maturity measurements can only tell us about present-day maturity levels.60 9 . The common thread running through all these models is the assumption that oil generation depends upon both the temperature to which the kerogen has been heated and the duration of the heating. He developed a "Time-Temperature Index" of maturity (TTI) to quantify his method. If our measurements indicate that a rock has already passed through the oil-generation window. a time stratigraphy can sometimes be constructed using seismic data. especially if the seismic reflectors can be tied to well data.
In cases where biostratigraphic data are available and deposition has been reasonably continuous. The burial-history curve was constructed in the following way: two points. Using these present-day data and extrapolating them into the past.61 BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES Implementation of Lopatin's method begins with the construction of a burial-history curve for the oldest rock layer of interest. that the Tiger well was logged. The next step is to locate the first control point from the time-stratigraphic data on the input table. Burial-history curves are based on the best information available to the geologist. we can construct the complete figure. we can construct the temperature grid with equally spaced isotherms parallel to the earth's surface. This geometry is a direct consequence of ignoring compaction effects.Predicting Thermal Maturity . . In cases where biostratigraphic data are lacking or where the sediments have had complex tectonic histories. TEMPERATURE HISTORY The next step is to provide a temperature history to accompany our burial-history curve. The subsurface temperature must be specified for every depth throughout the relevant geologic past. Nevertheless. burial-history curves represent our best understanding of the geological history of an area. a burial-history curve may represent only a rather uncertain guess. Suppose further that local weather records indicate a yearly average surface temperature of 19° C. are marked on the age-depth plot. Neglecting compaction effects. for example. if constructed as carefully as the data permit. In the Tiger well. which was constructed from the time stratigraphy for the Tiger well. Suppose. by 80 Ma the sediment had been buried to a depth of 900 m (point C). The simplest way to do this is to compute the present-day geothermal gradient and assume that both the gradient and surface temperature have remained constant throughout the rock's history. and that a corrected bottom-hole temperature of 133° C was obtained at 3800 m. representing the initial deposition of the sediment (point A) and its position today (point B). An example is shown in the following figure. sediment has accumulated continuously but at varying rates since deposition of the oldest rock 100 million years ago (Ma). Today the rock is at a depth of 3700 m. it is easy to construct burial-history curves with a high level of confidence. Connecting the six dots completes the burial-history curve. Using the other control points from the input table.(9-2) All of the shallower and younger horizons will have burial-history curves whose segments are parallel to those of the oldest horizon.
If part of the section is missing as a result of faulting. If deposition resumes later. but the geothermal gradient varies in response to heating or cooling events. temperature profiles will be based largely on guesswork. Faulting can be dealt with by considering the hanging wall and footwall as separate units having distinct burial histories. we can change surface temperatures through time without altering the geothermal gradient. Whenever erosional removal occurs. For example (9-7). There is no theoretical limit to the complexity that can be introduced into our temperature histories. In many poorly explored areas. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT BURIAL-HISTORY CURVES The most common complicating factor in constructing burial-history curves is erosional removal. The effects of thrusting on thermal maturity are not well understood. In other cases the surface temperature remains constant. If.Predicting Thermal Maturity . the data necessary for highly sophisticated temperature reconstructions are simply not available. burial-history curves for both hanging wall and footwall can be represented on a single diagram. the burial-history curve again begins to trend downward. however. If thrusting is rapid compared to the rate of thermal equilibration between thrust sheets. however. As an example: lowering the geothermal gradient by rapid sediment accumulation results in subsurface temperatures that are anomalously low compared to the "normal" ones that dominated previously. the movement of hot rocks from the bottom of the overthrusted slab over cool rocks at the top of the underthrusted slab will affect . some part of the section is repeated as a result of thrusting. maps of regional geothermal gradients can be useful in estimating the gradient at a particular location. Erosion is indicated in a burial-history curve by an upward movement of the curve. two separate diagrams should be used for the sake of clarity. In most cases. Given adequate data or an appropriate model on which to base complex temperature reconstructions. There are numerous other variations that can be employed in creating temperature grids. the resultant thinning of the section must be represented in the entire family of burial-history curves.62 Where measured bottom-hole temperatures are not available. The individual segments of each of the burial-history curves in a family will remain parallel. More complicated temperature histories account for changes in thermal conductivities caused by variations in lithology. Causes for such events could include global warming and cooling or local climatic variations resulting from continental drift or elevation changes. we are limited only by our own creativity.
Lopatin (1971) assumed that the rate of maturation followed this doubling rule. Intersections of the burial-history curve with each isotherm are marked with dots. Loss of 1000 m of section by erosion during an uplift event lasting from 70 Ma to 60 Ma. in contrast. increases exponentially with increasing temperature.63 organic maturation by causing important perturbations in subsurface temperatures.(9-12) CALCULATION OF MATURITY Once the burial-history curves and temperature grids have been constructed. Testing of his model and the successful application of Lopatin's method in numerous published examples have confirmed the general validity of this assumption. we must paste them together. spent by the rock in each temperature interval. Now we can carry out the maturity calculations. However. Individual burial-history curves remain parallel.400 cal/mol will approximately double with every 10° C increase in reaction temperature. Because the rate of maturation was assumed to increase by a factor of two for every 10° C rise in temperature. A Time interval is the length of time that the rock has spent in a particular temperature interval. for any temperature interval the temperature factor (?) was given by: ? = 2n The temperature-factor thus reflects the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature. Chemical reaction-rate theory states that the rate of a reaction occurring at 90° C (a reasonable average for oil generation) and having a pseudoactivation energy of 16. we need to define both a time factor and a temperature factor for each temperature interval. These dots define the time and temperature intervals that we shall use in our calculations. Index values increase or decrease regularly at higher or lower temperatures intervals. Studies in the Overthrust Belt of Wyoming indicate that a slow-equilibration model is superior to a simple model invoking rapid thermal equilibration. Temperature intervals are defined by successive isotherms spaced 10° C apart. Lopatin chose the 100°-110° C interval as his base and assigned to it an index value n = 0. more work is required before we will understand fully how thrusting influences hydrocarbon generation and destruction. Multiplying the time factor for any temperature interval by the appropriate temperature-factor for that interval gives a product called the Time-Temperature Index of maturity (TTI). respectively. Total maturity is calculated by summing the incremental maturity added in each succeeding temperature interval. In order to carry out maturity calculations conveniently. Lopatin defined each time factor simply as the length of time. but the distance between the two lines which bracket the erosion.Predicting Thermal Maturity . decreases by 1000 m. The temperature factor. expressed in millions of years. This intervalTTI value represents the maturity acquired by the rock in that temperature interval during the time .
A good analogy can be drawn between oil generation and baking. In the adjoining table interval-TTI values and total-TTI values up to the present day are calculated. On the other hand.Predicting Thermal Maturity . finally. if we forget about the cake when the oven is hot and let it burn. it can never go backward because interval-TTI values are never negative. If we turn off the oven but leave the cake inside. followed by a nonerosional depositional hiatus for the last 50 Ma. If we put a cake in a cold oven and turn the oven on. we simply sum all the interval-TTI values for the rock. the cake will bake slowly at first but will bake faster and faster as the temperature rises. In B burial was very slow during the first 70 Ma of the rock's existence. The first step in calculating TTI is illustrated in the following figure. Furthermore. the specific burial history of a rock can strongly affect its maturity.(9-20) It is also possible to determine the total-TTI value at any time in the past simply by stopping the calculation at that time. no matter how much or how rapidly we cool it down. where the time factors and yfactors for each temperature interval are shown on the burial-history curve. as the oven cools down. maturity continues to increase (albeit at a slower rate) because y is always greater than zero. we cannot "unburn" it. To obtain total maturity. but quite rapid in the last 10 my. In A the rock was buried at a constant rate for its entire 80-my history. TTI values differ appreciably among these four scenarios. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL MATURITY Because maturity is affected by both baking time and baking temperature. even if a rock cools down. by 10 Ma of uplift and erosion. baking will continue. Four of the many paths by which an 80-Ma-old rock could have reached a present burial depth of 3000 m is indicated in the figure (9-21). In D 40 Ma of rapid burial to a depth of 4000 m was followed by a hiatus lasting 30 Ma and.64 given. Maturity always increases. although at increasingly slower rates. . Figure C shows rapid burial during the first 20 Ma.
is the single most important cause of uncertainty and error in maturity calculations. Wyoming. Age calls are often made within a million years. might we anticipate possible problems with time. Secondly. Tu = undifferentiated Tertiary. so even a rather large error in baking time will not produce a catastrophic change in maturity. Temperature. . The model includes an extensive nonerosional depositional hiatus. The hiatus has been reinterpreted as an erosional unconformity (9-23) POTENTIAL PROBLEMS WITH MATURITY CALCULATIONS The most obvious errors in maturity calculations will come from inaccuracies in time and temperature data. in contrast. showing the evolution of the oilgeneration window through time.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Most logged temperatures are too low and require correction. the dependence of maturity on time is linear. Present-day subsurface temperatures are difficult to measure accurately. Kc = Cody-Frontier formations. In actuality. we usually have excellent control on rock ages through micropaleontology. but there is no guarantee of their accuracy in any particular case.65 A) Initial proposed burialhistory model for Well #1. Only in cases where micropaleontological dating was not or could not be carried out. Various methods have been developed for this purpose. Tfu = Fort Union Formation. time data are seldom a problem. B) Revised burial-history model for Well #1 based on the poor correlation with measured maturity data. our uncertainties about the true values of subsurface temperatures are much greater than about time. Km = Lance-Meeteetse formations. Family of burial-history curves for a well in the Big Horn Basin.(9-29) Furthermore. and can be even better in Cenozoic rocks. First. The sensitivity of maturity to temperature is clearly indicated by the exponential dependence of maturity on temperature predicted by the Arrhenius equation.
A plausible average surface temperature is 20° C.27 0. Construct a family of burial-history curves for the well and calculate the present-day TTI at total depth.08 0.5-3.0 3-3.03 0.51 0.88 0. In other cases.5 3.00 1. however.5 0.18 0. an accurate interpretation of the ancient geothermal history may be critical.5-3 2.1 0. where presentday temperatures are maximum paleotemperatures.59 0.22 0. do not utilize different kinetic parameters for the various kerogen types.6 4. however.86 1.90 0.65 0. Source-rock data tor the Turquoise Well Depth (ft) 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 5500 6000 6500 7000 7500 8000 8500 9000 9500 10.99 1.5 2.05 0.49 0.000 Type of Sample Cuttings Cuttings TOC 1.02 0.3 Bit/TOC 0.08 0.5-3 2.5 2.7 0.91 1. In such cases we should be very careful about using predicted maturities unless we have some independent confirmation of the validity of our model from a comparison with measured maturity data.60 0.5 3.51 0. Base Pleistocene 2 Ma Base Pliocene 5 Base Upper Miocene 11 Base Middle Miocene 50 Ma . we still would have to extrapolate the present somehow into the past.000 ft of Upper Miocene before being abandoned at 16. Despite experimental evidence indicating that different kerogens decompose to yield hydrocarbons at different levels of maturity models.5-3 3.5-3 2.4 0. A question of some concern comes from the previously mentioned fact that most of the maturity models treat all types of kerogen identically.52 0.06 0.27 1. and 11. It penetrated 1000 ft of Pleistocene sediments.5 2.91 0.91 1. The corrected bottom-hole temperature was 270° F.3 1.01 0.0 0.06 0.51 TAI % Alginite + Exinite 40 30 35 40 50 80 75 75 25 40 70 80 20 15 10 2-2.1 2.7 0.71 0.02 Atomic H/C 0.21 1. EXERCISES EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 1 Perform a source-rock evaluation of the section penetrated in the Turquoise Well.150 ft in the Middle Miocene.67 0.2 0.03 0. particularly where Paleozoic rocks are involved.21 1.8 1.5 2. 3500 ft of Pliocene.8 0.07 1.5-3 2. even an inaccurate extrapolation into the past may not cause significant problems.08 0.33? 1.66 0.65 0.5 TOC = Total Organic Carbon Bit/TOC = Bitumen/Total organic carbon ? indicates a poor histogram TAI = Thermal Alteration Index Ro = Vitrinite reflectance EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 2 The Black Well was drilled off the Louisiana Gulf Coast.26? 1.17 0.5-3 2.85 0.66 Even if we could measure present-day subsurface temperatures with perfect accuracy.5 3-3.41? 1. In many cases.3 2.48 Ro 0.25 1.9 1.Predicting Thermal Maturity .
Total depth is reached at 6120 ft in Middle Jurassic rocks.5 base Turonian base Cenomanian base Cretaceous top Kimmeridgian base Kimmeridgian 91 Ma 97 144 150 156 Ma . Assuming a surface temperature of 10° C and a geothermal gradient of 2° F/100 ft. Time-stratigraphic data Temperature data Age (Ma) 0 2 38 65 80 100 Depth (m) 0 500 1200 2700 3000 4000 Present-day average surface temp. Evidence from related sections indicates that the Paleocene was originally about 3000 ft thick and that no other Cenozoic sediments were ever deposited. Age data top Paleocene base Paleocene base Maastrichtian base Campanian base Santonian base Coniacian 55 Ma 65 73 83 87.end Cretaceous: 15° C 141° C 25° C EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 4 The Ultraviolet Well is spudded in Paleocene sediments. micropaleontology indicates the rocks to be of Maestrichtian age. draw a burial-history curve for the section penetrated and calculate maturity for the Kimmeridgian shale. The following Upper Cretaceous boundaries are noted: Maestrichtian-Campanian Campanian-Santonian Santonian-Coniacian Coniacian-Turonian Turonian-Cenomanian 1807 ft 2002 ft 2360 ft 2546 ft 3017 ft The Cenomanian is 480 ft thick and overlies 1000 ft of Kimmeridgian-age shale. Total original thickness of the Kimmeridgian is thought to be 1500 ft.Predicting Thermal Maturity . Find when the rock at 3000 m began to generate oil (TTI = 10). It is also believed that 500 ft of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited before uplift and erosion began. At a depth of 1500 ft. Corrected BHT (4200 m): Estimated surface temp. assuming a constant geothermal gradient through time.5 88. Determine when each of the strata began to generate oil.67 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 3 Calculate present-day TTI at 3000 m in the Red Well.
rich. they are in turn overlain at 2750m by a sandstone of excellent reservoir quality.000 23.65°C/100 m and a surface intercept of 15°C are reasonable for the area. The following geological summary is available to you. The geothermal gradient was found to be 1. "A regional study of the area suggests the probable presence of a thin. evaluate the prospect. Because of the high operations cost. and the surface temperature today is about 15° C. Top of Permian Virgil Missouri Des Moines Atoka Morrow Mississippian Kinderhook Sylvan Arbuckle Age (Ma) 230 280 288 296 304 309 320 340 425 470 Period Permian 0 L. No other reservoirs are anticipated. Nearby well control indicates that a geothermal gradient of 3.500 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 6 You have been asked to evaluate an undrilled prospect in a remote area that is available in an expensive farm-in deal.500 21.500 27.000 13. oil-prone source rock at about 4300m depth near the prospect. No other source rocks were noted." Utilizing the principles of hydrocarbon generation and preservation.000 11. .000 8. The traps at the prospect location formed slightly prior to the beginning of erosional removal in the basin and have retained integrity to the present. Your responsibility is to make a recommendation regarding the nature of hydrocarbons that might be present in die prospect. The source rock is thought to be about 300 Ma old. From 40 Ma to the present about 500m of additional burial occurred.000 18. At that time nearby orogenic activity caused the first traps to be formed during a gradual 1200m uplift lasting until 40 Ma. The basin filled at a generally uniform rate from about 300 Ma to 100 Ma. Carboniferous '' '' '' '' E.000 25.Predicting Thermal Maturity . upper management has decided that gas and condensate are not economical.0° F/100 ft. No unconformities are recognized within the Paleozoic. Erosional removal since the Permian probably totals about 2000 ft.68 EXERCISE Thermal Maturity 5 Analyze the timing of oil generation in the Pink Well. Carboniferous '' Ordovician '' Depth (ft) 7. Time-stratigraphic data are given in the following table. Highly fractured carbonates overlie the source rock. The reservoir is sealed by a thick salt layer.
How do we handle these problems? Before we get into this. which can be produced using assisted or enhanced recovery techniques. and oil may be produced directly into it. let alone how much. unless we can be more specific about how we are going to produce them. This may be done via a standard deviation or by a statistical probability (see below). or hope to find. However. since we are never able to recover all of the oil that is down there in the reservoir. in the case of small fields. but the same considerations. it is desirable to be able to express our degree of confidence in it. So. and therefore without any dissolved gas of significance. located at surface near the well-head. and hence the STOOIP refers to the oil in place in the reservoir but corrected to the volume it would occupy under surface pressure and temperature. There is no way of knowing in advance of drilling whether or not there is going to be any oil or gas at all down there under the ground. RESERVES Perhaps the following explanations will give you some idea of what we are up against when we come to consider quantities of the resource on which a good deal of our civilization depends.Quantitative Assessment . Increasingly these days. secondary reserves. You may see the engineers using the term STOOIP: stock tank oil originally in place. we are involved with a greater or less degree of uncertainty about quantities. half a mile or whatever. of a well. We may distinguish between primary reserves that can be produced without any artificial assistance other than pumping. companies tend to use `proven' for those reserves that are believed to be present with an 85 or maybe 90 per cent degree of . which controls the amounts of oil in the reservoir. let us again emphasize that we are dealing all the time with uncertainties.Quantitative Assessment So far we have been talking in rather generalized terms. and terms can be used equally for gas. even within oil companies. A bald figure for `recoverable reserves' is somewhat meaningless. It usually refers to what was there originally. First. or predict. What they think is beyond that in the accumulation. we have to remember that we are dealing with a resource and that we are very concerned with the quantities involved. just what these changes amount to. Similarly. measured in barrels or other units that is present in an accumulation under the ground. of the following terms: OIL IN PLACE This is the total volume of oil. methods. We have to try to understand. our wells. The stock tank is. Proven reserves: Here we start to enter a minefield! Different companies have different definitions of what is proven. Now we must see how we can apply our knowledge of the geology to assessing the amounts of petroleum that we have found. Recoverable reserves: The volume of oil that can actually be produced to surface from an accumulation. once a discovery is made. and tertiary reserves using more exotic techniques. before we started to take any of it out. Some might use the term to refer to the amount of recoverable oil that is believed to lie within a given radius. We cannot regard these quantities as `reserves'. And yet oil companies need to know what to expect. that the proportion of the oil in place that we can recover will depend on the economics: how much money are we prepared to spend on getting it out of the ground. however. Because anyway there is uncertainty about this amount. we have to clear a good deal of misunderstanding and misuse. Note. until actually all of the oil has been produced. We will refer to oil. there is no way that we can know precisely how much we have found: the geology. they might designate as `probable'.69 10 . This section is included to give an idea of what is involved. is liable to change between our information points.
BV will be determined from seismic and well data. the higher will be the water saturation. We have not only all the problems of average porosity but remember that the size of the pores comes in here as well: the finer the sand. then we can go straight to the bulk reservoir volume containing the oil. We do our best from measurements on core samples and from wireline log interpretation. It is affected by many factors. Recoverable reserves = [BV * Fill * N/G * ? * (1 . the volume of the gas cap and the water-bearing rock below the oil-water contact being discounted.Quantitative Assessment . like `proven'. – Fill is the `fill factor'. meaning that we have to try to interpret in detail the environments that the sediments were deposited in. Usually. This can be pretty subjective. Again we need an average value for the field.Sw)] * RF * Constant FVF where: – BV is the volume of the reservoir formation within the closure of the trap above the spill-point. it is the remaining reserves. So we multiply the bulk volume of the reservoir in the trap by those factors that represent the non-oil. It may well be that it is best to avoid the terms `proven'. – N/G is the net to gross ratio. Sometimes `possible' is also seen. We have to discount those parts of it that are useless and just consider the net reservoir thickness. This will be controlled by variations in the nature of the sediments that comprise the reservoir. – ? is the porosity. – FVF is the formation volume factor. even when we have information from a lot of wells. to refer to a degree of confidence or probability. to cover the reserves that have only a 15 or 10 per cent chance of being present. if we do. we shall see shortly. and regional and local geological interpretation. The shape of the trap. the normal way of estimating how much has been found is to start with the volume of the reservoir within the closure of the trap. and what is still there for the taking at a given date. What anyway should we regard as net reservoir? A rather arbitrary porosity cut-off value is often used. We may actually be able to measure the FVF if we have a sample of oil collected under subsurface pressures from the bottom of our well. then this factor may be little more than a guess. If we do not know where the gas-oil and oil-water contacts are. They refer respectively to what was there and recoverable before we started producing. Not all of a reservoir formation is going to be sufficiently porous and permeable to contribute oil to production. DISCOVERED RESERVES Once a discovery of oil has been made. and `possible' altogether. it shrinks because gas bubbles out of it as its pressure is eased during production. . and the thickness of the reservoir govern it. the percentage of the porosity that is occupied by the immovable water. and just to qualify our figures by statistical probabilities: at least then people would know what is meant! Original and remaining reserves: These are fairly obvious. in this case 50 per cent. What this means and how we arrive at the figure. This reflects the fact that oil under the ground in the reservoir occupies more space than it does when we get it up to the surface. including the adequacy of the source rock to provide enough oil to the trap. `probable'. if we hear simply about `reserves'. or rather the average porosity of the net reservoir across the entire accumulation. but what happens between and beyond our well control? – Sw is the water saturation. and the quality and strength of the cap rock. We then eliminate progressively everything from this volume that is not oil.70 confidence or statistical probability. Probable reserves: Equally dodgy! One definition was given above: the term may be used. which is the percentage of the bulk volume that actually contains the oil. that are meant. faulting.
Different geologists will certainly come up with different values for at least some of the input factors. this is commonly about 50-60 per cent. however. any one of which could be the real value. So we have a whole list of answers. The one that has the most answers in (= the modal class of the distribution) we can regard as the most probable value -in other words. but it may be a good deal less from carbonates. we give as our preferred figure the average of all the answers (the mean). It is a figure that we cannot know exactly until we have finished producing. More commonly. So we usually have to base our estimate on prior experience elsewhere.71 – – RF is the recovery factor. then we don't have to worry. known as a Monte Carlo simulation. To get an answer to our sum in barrels of oil. the proportion of the oil in the reservoir that we can actually recover and produce. The list is put into order from the smallest to the largest. A constant is needed to adjust the units.This is because. for this average value. and to try to be as honest and objective as possible. there must be considerable uncertainty to say the least. and again. but biassing its pick towards our best estimate. What we are doing.. Most commonly these days.. In a sandstone reservoir. Note that the preferred answer that is usually used is the mean value. and then analysed statistically. . and arrive at perhaps wildly different answers. Diagrammatic plots of the outputs from two Monte Carlo simulations. Alternatively one may plot the frequencies as percentages of the total number of answers: the statistical probabilities. The Americans measure reservoir volume in acre-feet: area in acres multiplied by reservoir thickness in feet. since it is about this that the standard deviation can be calculated. somewhere within which the `true' figure must be. in producing figures for all of these factors. even though they may be well aware that any such figures will eventually turn out to be wrong. our best estimate. If we plot out the answers on our list falling within successive size ranges (in barrels of oil). having regard to all of the geology. we can work out the standard deviation (the ±) which will give an idea of our confidence in our answer. and we also specify the total range. If we are working entirely in the metric system. The computer does the sum using these values. we have to multiply the figure we calculate by 7758. is to multiply uncertainties by uncertainties. from minimum possible to maximum possible. Then we get a computer to pick a value for each factor at random from the range we have given.). we shall find that the bulk of them tend to cluster round the middle (Fig. then. Who is right? Whose answer should we use? Can we indeed believe any of them? Unfortunately we cannot escape from the problem. Then we ask it to do the same thing again. doubtful estimates by doubtful estimates. Instead of estimating single figures for the factors that go into the reserves formula. until we begin to wonder whether our answer has any reality or meaning at all. for each of the factors we work out our best estimate. It will be clear to anyone that. maybe 500 or 1000 times.Quantitative Assessment . The number of answers in successive reserve ranges is plotted against the size ranges themselves. companies. and governments must have numbers that they can use for planning purposes. the problem is tackled through a statistical technique. and again.
And if all this sounds like a gambling game. we can plot out the percentages of answers in successive size ranges cumulatively as we work down the list (Fig. and honest as can be in assessing exploration risk. When it comes down to risk. perhaps. It cannot be worked out completely objectively. and 10 per cent levels of probability respectively. Indeed it does not! When we are looking at exploration of the unknown.Quantitative Assessment . This chance (probability) is known as the risk factor: it is an expression.72 The output from a Monte Carlo simulation with the percentages plotted cumulatively. We try to assess the probability that each factor will be satisfied. say. By plotting the answers from the 100 per cent probability downwards. to give the chance of discovering certain reserves or more including the 50 per cent chance that we may find nothing at all. one of the main benefits from all of this is that it forces us to think carefully about the geological requirements for oil to be present.at least until we start also considering the costs and economics. as opposed to assessing what we already know to be there. It will give a graph which shows the probability that the reserves will be of a certain size or more. there really is no such thing as the risk factor. we have to go a stage further. for geological reasons. We have to give not only our best estimate of how much petroleum there might be. This is what is used to determine those reserves that may be called proven. The way it is commonly approached is to go back to the basic conditions for oil acumulation: all of the essential requirements have to be met if there is to be oil in a particular place and that. now gives a more complete picture of the viability of an undrilled prospect . . but it assumes that we have already discovered oil. that is exactly what it is. The risk factor. Of course we try to be as scientific. and ensures that all possibilities are considered. For example.). and possible at. the curve represents the chance (probability) that the reserves are a certain size or greater. the 90. the same values are discounted by a 50 per cent risk factor. turn out to be totally dry-lacking in hydrocarbons. Incidently. management can then decide whether or not to take the gamble on developing the field at those odds. probable. you may say. but also the chance of there in fact being any oil at all. then no oil. different geologists will arrive at different figures for the probability of success. UNDISCOVERED RESERVES This is all very well. it doesn't take any account of the fact that our exploration well may. combined with the estimate of how much. and then merely combine the probabilities to give an overall probability . In the lower plot. It is this sort of thing that helps to make the oil exploration business so competitive. Most usefully. if any one of them fails or is lacking. of our confidence that there will be at least some oil. It is also used to assist management in making their exploration/development decisions. but rather it is the number an individual geologist might produce to reflect his/her personal interpretation of the geology. we can read off from the graph the chances of our field containing that much oil or more. So this type of graph has now become one of the standard key tools in exploration/development decision. if the engineers say that a field of so many million barrels is going to be needed to justify development and production costs. in numbers. 50. objective.the risk factor.
4. knowing how rich it is. and a number of techniques have been employed. This starts with the volume of mature source rock in the basin and then. or would our money be better spent on drilling a smaller but safer one? The risked reserves. However. We could adopt what is known as a `geochemical material balance' approach. let us note a number known as the risked reserves. Let us look at the more important ones. 1.). We might look at explored and known parts of the basin. This combines in a single estimate. Many `experts' have scratched their heads over the estimation of undiscovered reserves. 5. qualify it by a statistical probability. unless we really have a lot of information (we never have enough!). remains to be found. Should we. all of them are very dodgy . then use these figures for the unexplored parts of the basin. In a similar vein the amount of oil found world-wide each year from the beginning of the century can be plotted. How now do we estimate what still remains to be discovered over a wider area or even an entire sedimentary basin? There really is no objective way of doing it-but still companies and governments want to know. and the area under that bit will represent what. the built-in risk factor takes care of this. There are lots of uncertainties in this but the calculation would be amenable to a Monte Carlo type of simulation. go for a large but very risky prospect. This kind of plot can be used also for individual basins or for the whole world. 3. however. Extrapolate this smoothing line out into the future.73 Lastly. 6. If all else fails. This is known as the Delphi technique. we can. However. Delphi was the place in ancient Greece where one went to consult the oracle about one's future. it is a pretty wild sort of plot. Some of these will be successful. we have to assume that today we can identify and assess all of the prospects that ever will be found in the basin. We could make comparisons between known and unknown basins. the two elements of size and chance of success. If we have a reasonable amount of information and control. for our `best estimate'. for example.Quantitative Assessment . this technique may bring us into the right ball-park. This figure is extremely imprecise and may be not much more than a guess. but some will be dry. Use past statistics (number of barrels of oil found on average for each 100m of exploration drilling?) and extrapolate to future drilling. on this tack. is a hypothetical figure. we are said to be consulting the oracles! All of the above techniques have been used. if we draw a smooth line through it to even out the peaks and the troughs. however. But we have to admit that. otherwise we may be doing little more than guessing. merely use the average of the figures they produce. the expected reserve estimates from our Monte Carlo simulation multiplied (discounted) by the risk factor (Fig. Adding this to the original reserves will give us what is sometimes called the `ultimate reserves'-a grand total for the basin. on average. and some may be more appropriate in given circumstances than the others. ULTIMATE RESERVES So far we have been talking about a single oil accumulation or a single prospect. and made available for entrapment (the `charge') can be calculated. Undiscovered are thus what we hope to find in a prospect area or sedimentary basin in the future. expelled. or underlying each square mile of surface area. The obvious thing to do is to add together the risked reserves estimates of all the remaining prospects. the amount of oil generated. to believe that we can do this would be the height of conceit. Forcing these experts to agree a figure amongst them might refine the approach. and use the figures for the known also for the unknown ones. get a number of experts to make their forecasts by whatever technique they prefer and. sometimes in combination. then the area under it represents the total volume of oil found to date. and we should be on our guard against believing that it is what we shall find (it most categorically is not) or otherwise trying to read too much into it. 2. and calculate average quantities of oil per cubic mile of sediment. and as such can be very useful in planning an exploration program.