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According to T. Kanamori et al. (2007): Seismic disasters largely depend on the extent of modernization of a city.

Especially in Japan, there were big fire disasters caused by severe earthquakes which historically struck densely populated cities. Since highly modernized cities attract large number of people to central business zones as well as their neighbour areas for residential people, a seismic disaster concentrates at these densely populated area because ruptured wooden houses can easily ignite. Fire disaster is initiated by building rupture, and simultaneously breaks out at many points. The fire expanding speed depends on the wind velocity, spatial distribution of fire-proof structures and open space boundaries including streets and roads having fire protecting width. Most of the concerns deal with how many people can evacuate from an area on fire towards the nearest open spaces. If there are many aged people or physically handicapped persons, successful evacuation to the nearest open space will be limited with or without the voluntary helps at its emergency instance. Kanamori et al. (2007) found that there would be an equally distributed amount of evacuees if the number of parks or open spaces for evacuation increases from one to four locations for a one kilometer by one kilometer area. When the effect of the fire resistive houses is increased, the fire spreading speed can be decreased, so that more people can be evacuated. (p.8)