AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS
CONTENT

Prof. Dr. Risto Ciconkov, dipl. ing. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University “Sv. Kiril & Metodij” Skopje, R. Macedonia

1. Introduction 2. Properties of Ammonia 3. Most common systems and applications 4. New technologies in ammonia systems - heat exchangers, - compressors, - new concept of systems. 5. Safety, prerequisites, facts 6. Event – Ammonia Refrigeration Technology 2009
UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

Delagate to IIR Member of

UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

SHORT HISTORY OF REFRIGERANTS
1. Introduction 1834: Mechanical refrigerating system first time appeared. First refrigerants, natural: Ethyl-ether, CO2, NH3, ... 1930: CFCs (“freons”) 1987: Montreal Protocol, phase-out of CFCs 1990: HFCs introduction 1997: Kyoto Protocol, HFCs under control Come back of natural refrigerants: NH3, CO2, HCs, water, air Polemics; Confusion.
HFC (CFC) HCFC NH3 1990 Montreal Protocol 1987 1950 HCFC CFC NH3 HCs NH3 CO2 HFC Kyoto Protocol 1997 Future Natural CO2 NH3 methylSO2 chloride HCs

2008

1834 ethylether

(R610)

1930

CFC NH3 CO2 HC

UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS

SHORT HISTORY OF REFRIGERANTS
HCs NH3 CO2 HFC Kyoto Protocol 1997 HFC (CFC) HCFC NH3 1990 Montreal Protocol 1987 1950 HCFC CFC NH3 Future Natural CO2 NH3 methylSO2 chloride 1834 ethylether
(R610)

2. PROPERTIES OF AMMONIA (NH3; R717)
NBP (Normal Boiling Point): -33.3 oC Critical temperature: 132 oC Latent heat: 1262 kJ/kg ODP = 0 (Ozone Depletion Potential) GWP < 1 (Global Warming Potential)

2008

HCs

1930

CFC NH3 CO2 HC

Odour: characteristic, pungent Ignition temperature: 650 oC Explosion concentration limits: 15,5 - 28 % by volume Detection threshold: 5 ppm Tolerance limit: 500-1000 ppm

UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

UNEP, ECA meeting, 2008

2008 Refrigerant class L1 L1 L1 L1 L1 L2 Practical limit according to EN 378 0.high critical temperature 132oC. .00035 kg/m3 UNEP. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Data: “Ammonia partnership”. 2008 Cold Storage UNEP. 2008 . Industrial Heat Pumps Air conditioning (new) UNEP. Easy detection (warning). ECA meeting. Lindborg R134a R404A R407C R410A R507 R717 UNEP. ECA meeting. 2008 UNEP.48 kg/m3 0. Excellent thermodynamic properties: . High values for energy efficiency.25 kg/m3 0. Flammable moderately in concentration in the air from 15. UNEP. ECA meeting. .chemical.some special plants.excellent for heat transfer.large latent heat.5 to 28% It is not compatible with copper.pharmaceutical.49 kg/m3 0. .31 kg/m3 0. A. MOST COMMON SYSTEMS AND APPLICATIONS Cold Storage Food Processing Drink processing: brewery Dairy Process Refrigeration: . A. Lindborg Data: “Ammonia partnership”.petrochemical. Low price. . GWP < 1.large vapor density.AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Advantages of ammonia Environmental: ODP = 0. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 3. . ECA meeting. Disadvantages of ammonia: It is toxic. ECA meeting. In vapor condition it is easier then the air. ECA meeting.44 kg/m3 0. .

2008 UNEP. 2008 . 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Air conditioning Petrochemical plant Stutgard Airport UNEP. ECA meeting. ECA meeting. ECA meeting. ECA meeting. ECA meeting.AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Food Processing Dairy UNEP. ECA meeting. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Brewery Food processing Chiller 4 kg NH3 UNEP. 2008 UNEP. 2008 UNEP.

CaCl2 New: potassium-acetate. 2008 .Avoid large reservoirs with liquid ammonia. water + ethilen-glycol. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ammonia and new technologies of heat exchangers Microchannel heat exchangers Ammonia and new technologies of heat exchangers Shell-and-tube evaporators and condensers with steel enhanced tubes ⇒ increase of efficiency. UNEP. ⇒ Material: aluminium. ⇒ reduced charge of ammonia. UNEP. ECA meeting. electronic expansion valve. 2008 Ammonia and new technologies of heat exchangers Plate evaporators Flooded evaporators: gravity fed system. Dry expansion evaporator: miscible oil. New technologies of heat exchangers. New concepts of ammonia systems. ECA meeting. New technology: stainless steel welded modules. . surge drum above.Avoid large pump systems.Technical standards and regulations.Training of personnel. . 2008 UNEP. Dry expansion evaporators. fusionbonded.. NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN AMMONIA SYSTEMS Barrier: safety reason. Decrease the charge (quantity) of ammonia in refrigerating systems. CO2. UNEP. Improvement of: .evaporators ⇒ Smaller heat exchanger size. water + NaCl.Proper maintainance of the refrigerating systems.. . UNEP. UNEP. water + propilen-glycol. . nickel brazed. ECA meeting.AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 4. ECA meeting. Air-cooled condensers Air cooler . . 2008 Spray shell-and-tube evaporator (evaporating outside of tubes). ⇒ Reduced refrigerant charges. ECA meeting. . ECA meeting. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ammonia and new technologies of compressors Semi-hermetic ammonia compressor New concepts of ammonia systems Systems with indirect cooling cooling tower Co1 C1 coldroom o 4C pump Tx1 NH3 secondary loop (CO2) Hermetic scroll compressor Refrigerating capacity: 5 kW to 35 kW 4C o Ev1A display cases Mixture.Avoid flooded shell-and-tube heat exchangers.

ECA meeting. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS New concepts of ammonia systems Cost comparison: HFC chiller vs NH3 chiller Compact constructions. Operation: 365 days/year UNEP. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS New concepts of ammonia systems Cascade system and indirect cooling cooling tower SUPERMARKET Cascade system and indirect cooling Co1 C1 coldroom o 4C pump Tx1 high cascade (NH3) coldroom o -20 C Tx2 secondary loop (CO2) 4C o -20 C o Ev1A display cases Ev1/Co2 C2 display cases low cascade (CO2) UNEP. ECA meeting.AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS New concepts of ammonia systems Systems with indirect cooling New concepts of ammonia systems Cascade refrigeration system cooling tower Co1 C1 Tx1 high cascade (NH3) coldroom o -20 C Tx2 -20 C o Ev1/Co2 C2 display cases low cascade (CO2) UNEP. 2008 UNEP. fully sealed and tested in factory Source: Sabroe (Denmark) years Assumptions. Energy cost: 8 eurocent/kWh. ECA meeting. 2008 UNEP. ECA meeting. 2008 . ECA meeting.

Ammonia is one of the most “honest“ chemicals.mk UNEP. ECA meeting. UNEP. 2008 UNEP. ECA meeting. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ammonia refrigerating systems in developing countries Proper maintainance. The future of ammonia refrigerant has never been more prospective than today. Skopje 3rd International Conference NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 Ammonia is excellent refrigerant which is in use in the past 150 years.mf. ECA meeting. 2008 UNEP. Ammonia refrigerating systems in developing countries Proper maintainance. Training of personnel. ECA meeting. warning of its presence before it becomes dangerous. UNEP.SAFETY Technical standards and regulations. Training of personnel. International Institute of Refrigeration Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Prerequisite: Proper maintainance of the refrigerating systems. The concentration of 5 ppm is smelled and it worries the people. Safety. Ohrid.AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS 5. 2008 AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS FACTS FOR AMMONIA SYSTEMS The ammonia technology is old?! Today there are modern better systems with HFC refrigerants?! Proper information based on facts are necessary.edu. ECA meeting. 2008 . UNEP. Training of personnel. prerequisites. facts Ammonia refrigerating systems . 2008 Ammonia Refrigeration Technology 7-9 May 2009. ECA meeting. Macedonia www.

Skopje 3rd International Conference NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 NH3 Ammonia Refrigeration Technology 7-9 May 2009.mk UNEP. Ohrid.edu. UNEP.mf. ECA meeting. Macedonia www. 2008 Thank you. ECA meeting. Macedonia International Institute of Refrigeration Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Ohrid. 2008 .AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS AMMONIA TECHNOLOGY AND ITS APPLICATIONS Ammonia Refrigeration Technology April 2007.

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