JUNE - JULY

2010
Summer Training Report

SUBMITTED BY:
DEVESH SINGH IIIrd B.TECH MECHANICAL ENGINEERING ROLL NO. 0704540015 H.B.T.I. KANPUR
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ACKNOWLE

E ENT

With profound respect and gratitude, I take the opportunity to convey my thanks to complete the training here. I do extend my heartfelt thanks to Ms. Rachna Singh Bahal for providing me this opportunity to be a part of this esteemed organization. I am extremely grateful to all the technical staff of BTPS / NTPC for their cooperation and guidance that has helped me a lot during the course of training. I have learnt a lot working under them and I will always be indebted of them for this value addition in me. I would also like to thank the training incharge of H.B.T.I., Kanpur and all the faculty members of Mechanical Engineering Department for their effort of constant co- operation, which have been a significant factor in the accomplishment of my industrial training.

DE E

SINGH

H.B.T.I., KANPUR

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that DE ESH SINGH, student of 3rd B.Tech Mechanical Engineering, H.B.T.I., Kanpur, has successfully completed his Industrial Training at National Thermal Power Corporation, New Delhi for 6 week from 22nd June to 31st July 2010. He has completed the whole training as per the training report submitted by him.

T aining Incha ge NTPC, Badarpur, New Delhi

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This report has been made by my experience at BTPS. DEVESH SINGH 4 . The material in this report has been gathered from my textbook. which were: y y y y Boiler Maintenance Department (BMD I/II/III) Plant Auxiliary Maintenance (PAM) Turbine Maintenance Department (TAM) Coal Handling Department (CHD/NCHP) These 6 weeks training was a very educational adventure for me. 2010. which is one of our daily requirements of life. The specification and principles are as learned by me from the employees of each division of BTPS. is produced. senior student reports and trainers manuals and power journals provided by training department.TRAINING AT BTPS I was appointed to do 6 week training at this esteemed organization from 22nd June to 31st July. I was assigned to visit various division of the plant. It was really amazing to see the plant by yourself and learn how electricity.

INDEX y y y y y y y y y ABOUT NTPC ABOUT BTPS BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICIT GENERATION RANKINE CYCLE BOILER MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT PLANT AUXILIARY MAINTENANCE TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT MAINTENANCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT COAL HANDLING DEPARTMENT 5 .

In addition un JVs. NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company. The total installed capacity of the company is 31134 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations. subsidiaries and takeover of stations. Within a span of 31 years. 9000 MW through Hydro gener tion. Government of India holds 89. Domestic Banks. Public Sector Company. By 2017. located across the country.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10. 10000 MW through gas. NTPC's core business is engineering. the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW.5% is held b y FIIs. At present. about 2000 MW from nuclear a sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES).ABOUT NTPC NTPC Li it i t l t t l power generating company of India. 3 stations are coal der based & another station uses naphtha/LNG as fuel. with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country. construction and operat on of power generating plants i and providing consultancy to power utilities in India and abroad. NTPC has adopted a multi pronged growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects. expansion of existing stations. 6 . joint ventures. Public and others. It was incorporated in t e year 1975 to accelerate power development in t e country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India.

NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company has 18.79% of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. NTPC¶s share at 31 Mar 2001 of the total installed capacity of the country was 24.51% and it generated 29.68% of the power of the country in 200809. Every fourth home in India is lit by NTPC. 170.88BU of electricity was produced by its stations in the financial year 2005-2006. The Net Profit after Tax on March 31, 2006 was INR 58,202 million. Net Profit after Tax for the quarter ended June 30, 2006 was INR 15528 million, which is 18.65% more than for the same quarter in the previous financial year. 2005). NTPC has set new benchmarks for the power industry both in the area of power plant construction and operations. Its providing power at the cheapest average tariff in the country. NTPC is committed to the environment, generating power at minimal environmental cost and preserving the ecology in the vicinity of the plants. NTPC has undertaken massive a forestation in the vicinity of its plants. Plantations have increased forest area and reduced barren land. The massive a forestation by NTPC in and around its Ramagundam Power station (2600 MW) have contributed reducing the temperature in the areas by about 3°c. NTPC has also taken proactive steps for ash utili ation. In 1991, it set up Ash Utili ation Division A graphical overview

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Technological Initiatives
y y y

Introduction of steam generators (boilers) of the size of 800 MW. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. Launch of Energy Technology Centre -A new initiative for development of technologies with focus on fundamental R&D.

y y y

The company sets aside up to 0.5% of the profits for R&D. Roadmap developed for adopting µClean Development. Mechanism to help get / earn µCertified Emission Reduction.

Co po ate Social Responsibility
y y y

As a responsible corporate citizen NTPC has taken up number of CSR initiatives. NTPC Foundation formed to address Social issues at national level NTPC has framed Corporate Social Responsibility Guidelines committing up to 0.5% of net profit annually for Community Welfare.

y

The welfare of project affected persons and the local population around NTPC projects are taken care of through well drawn Rehabilitation and Resettlement policies.

y

The company has also taken up distributed generation for remote rural areas.

Pa tne ing gove nment in va ious initiatives
y y y

Consultant role to modernize and improvise several plants across the country. Disseminate technologies to other players in the sector. Consultant role ³Partnership in Excellence´ Programme for improvement of PLF of 15 Power Stations of SEBs.

y

Rural Electrification work under Rajiv Gandhi Garmin Vidyutikaran.

Envi onment Management
y y y y y

All stations of NTPC are ISO 14001 certified. Various groups to care of environmental issues. The Environment Management Group. Ash tilization Division. Afforestation Group.
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y y y

Centre for Power Efficiency & Environment Protection. Group on Clean Development Mechanism. NTPC is the second largest owner of trees in the country after the Forest department.

JOURNEY OF NTPC NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India. In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of ³Navratna being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors. NTPC became a listed company with majority Government

1975

1997

2004

ownership of 89.5%. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalization of listed companies The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its

2005

changing business portfolio and transforms itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power

2008

generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 411th in the world. National Thermal Power Corporation is the largest power

2009

generation company in India. Forbes Global 2000 for 2008 ranked it 317th in the world.

2012 2017

NTPC has also set up a plan to achieve a target of 50,000 MW generation capacity. NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017.

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Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.95 MW .26949523 26949532 720 MW 705 MW New Delhi Jharia Coal Fields Agra Canal Delhi 3X95 MW 2X210 MW nits Commissioned nit I.06.95 MW August 1974 nit III. Address Telephone: Fax: Installed Capacity Derated Capacity Location Coal Source Water Source Beneficiary States nit Sizes Badarpur.July 1973 nit II. There were 2 more units (95 MW each) installed in next 2 consecutive years.210 MW .210 MW December 1978 nit V .95 MW March 1975 nit IV .December 1981 Transfer of BTPS to NTPC Ownership of BTPS was transferred to NTPC with effect from 01.2006 through GOI s Gazette Notification .Given below are the details of unit with the year they are installed. Now it has total five units with total capacity of 720 MW.06. New Delhi ± 110 044 (STD-011) .ABOUT BTPS Badarpur thermal power station started working in 1973 with a single 95 mw unit.2006 through GOI s Gazette Notification BASIC STEPS OF ELECTRICITY GENERATION The basic steps in the generation of electricity from coal involves following steps: y y y Coal to steam Steam to mechanical power Mechanical power to electrical power 10 .

Fan takes atmospheric air. Coal is transported to Bowl mills by Coal Feeders. Fan.A.D. This table is rotated with the help of a motor.A. Due to heat and density difference. P. these rollers do not rotate but when the coal is fed to the table it packs up between roller and the table and ths forces the rollers to rotate. 11 . Coal is crushed by the crushing action between the rollers and the rotating tabl . which are spaced 120 apart. Water from the bottom ring header is divided to all the four sides of the furnace. This steam and water mixture is again taken to thee boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. There are three large steel rollers. Atmospheric air from F. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. where it is ground to powder form. The coal is pulveri ed in the Bowl Mill. Fan is heated in the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air. Water from the drum passes through down comers and goes to the bottom ring header. a part of which is sent to Air-Preheaters for heating while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control. r When there is no coal. Water from the boiler feed pump passes through economi er and reaches the boiler drum. This crushed coal is taken away to e the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P. the water rises up in the water wall tubes.COAL TO ELECTRICITY: BASICS The basic steps in the generation of coal to electricity are shown below: C l S Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This Coal is transported up to the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyors.

Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan. These flue gases emit their heat energy to various super heaters in the pent house and finally pass through airpreheaters and - 12 .Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating. which maintains balance draft in the furnace (-5 to ±10 mm of wcl) with forced draft fan. The superheaters are located inside the furnace and th steam is superheated (540rC) and finally it e goes to the turbine.

The steam leaving the high pressure cylinder goes back to the boiler for reheating and returns by a further pipe to the intermediate pressure cylinder. As the steam gives up its heat energy to drive the turbine.goes to electrostatic precipitators where the ash particles are extracted. Ash particles are attracted on to these plates. its temperature and pressure fall and it expands. Here it passes through another series of stationary and moving blades. The steam passes through each stage in turn until it reaches the end of the high-pressure cylinder and in its passage some of its heat energy is changed into mechanical energy. operates the control valves to regulate the amount of steam used. a steam pipe conveys steam to the turbine through a stop valve (which can be used to shut-off the steam in case of emergency) and through control valves that automatically regulate the supply of steam to the turbine. so that the cylinder contains a number of rings of stationary blades with rings of moving blades arranged between them. The second ring turns the shafts as a result of the force of steam. 13 . These act as nozzles and direct the steam into a second ring of moving blades mounted on a disc secured to the turbine shaft. Stop valve and control valves are located in a steam chest and a governor.to the extremities of the cylinder. Finally. driven from the main turbine shaft. Regular mechanical hammer blows cause the accumulation of ash to fall to the bottom of the precipitator where they are collected in a hopper for disposal. Electrostatic Precipitator consists of metal plates. Steam to Mechanical Power From the boiler. The stationary and moving blades together constitute a µstage of turbine and in practice many stages are necessary. which are electrically charged. Because of this expansion the blades are much larger and longer towards the low pressure ends of the turbine. Steam from the control valves enters the high pressure cylinder of the turbine. (This depends upon the speed of the turbine and the amount of electricity required from the generator). each of which enters at the centre flowing outwards in opposite directions through the rows of turbine blades through an arrangement called the µdouble flow . the steam is taken to the low-pressure cylinders. so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere. where it passes through a ring of stationary blades fixed to the cylinder wall.

It results in rotation of the coil of the generator. is increased and. By returning parti lly a expanded steam. to a reheat. which is coupled to tha of the turbine. by expanding this reheated steam to the remaining stages of the turbine. It is a close cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again.M i lP r El ri l P r As the blades of turbine rotate. which is a way of partially overcoming temperature limitations. On large turbines. also rotates. the exhaust 14 £ ¢¡ A i lifi d di §¤ ¢ £ ¦ ¢ ¤¡ £¨§ ¤ ¦ ¡¤ ¥¤ ©   r f r l r l . BASIC POWER PLANT CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapour+ liquid) phase cycle. the shaft of the generator. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. it becomes economical to increase the cycle efficiency by using reheat. which causes induced electricity to be produced. The cycle used is Rankine Cycle modified to include superheating of steam. the average temperature at which the heat is added.

. FACTORS AFFECTING THERMAL CYCLE EFFICIENCY Thermal cycle efficiency is affected by following: y y y y y Initial Steam Pressure. including virtually all solar thermal. the initial pressure of the steam can be appreciably increased. IP turbine. Regenerative feed water heating. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. and if used reheat pressure and temperature. RANKINE CYCLE The Rankine cycle is a thermodynamic cycle which converts heat into work. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine. Whether reheat is used or not. a Scottish polymath. if the maximum tolerable wetness is allowed. Bleed Steam Extraction: For regenerative system. This cycle generates about 80% of all electric power used throughout the world. which usually uses water as the working fluid. Initial Steam Temperature. D ri i 15 !   !   ! P i ll f f r i d i di R ki    !   "           l . the r effect being to increase the average temperature at which heat is added to the cycle. coal and nuclear power plants. Condenser pressure. nos. Regenerative heating of the boile feed water is widely used in modern power plants. of non -regulated extractions is taken from HP. biomass.wetness is considerably less than it would otherwise be conversely. thus improving the cycle efficiency.

as commonly thought. have turbine entry temperatures approaching 1500°C. Gas turbines. 16 . Without the pressure going super critical the temperature range the cycle can operate over is quite small. and nuclear. water is usually the fluid of choice due to its favorable properties. The main difference is that a pump is used to pressurize liquid instead of gas. One of the principal advantages it holds over other cycles is that during the compression stage relatively little work is required to drive the pump. The white billowing clouds that form in cooling tower operation are the result of water droplets which are entrained in the cooling tower airflow. such as nontoxic and unreactive chemistry. when an efficient turbine is used. and low cost. This gives a theoretical Carnot efficiency of around 63% compared with an actual efficiency of 42% for a modern coal-fired power station. Common heat sources for power plants using the Rankine cycle are coal. By condensing the fluid to liquid. due to the working fluid being in its liquid phase at this point. The benefit of this is lost somewhat due to the lower heat addition temperature. oil. as well as its thermodynamic properties. it is not. Nonetheless. While many substances could be used in the Rankine cycle. The working fluid in a Rankine cycle follows a closed loop and is re-used constantly. the work required by the pump will only consume approximately 1% to 3% of the turbine power and so give a much higher efficiency for a real cycle. This low turbine entry temperature (compared with a gas turbine) is why the Rankine cycle is often used as a bottoming cycle in combined cycle gas turbine power stations. abundance. for instance. turbine entry temperatures are typically 565°C (the creep limit of stainless steel) and condenser temperatures are around 30°C. The water vapor and entrained droplets often seen billowing from power stations is generated by the cooling systems (not from the closed loop Rankine power cycle) and represents the waste heat that could not be converted to useful work. the efficiencies of steam cycles and gas turbines are fairly well matched. The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle as. This requires about 1/100th (1%) as much energy as that compressing a gas in a compressor (as in the Carnot cycle). Note that cooling towers operate using the latent heat of vaporization of the cooling fluid.A Rankine cycle describes a model of the operation of steam heat engines most commonly found in power generation plants. natural gas. steam. The efficiency of a Rankine cycle is usually limited by the working fluid. the TS diagram will begin to resemble the Carnot cycle.

Processes 12 and 3-4 would be represented by vertical lines on the Ts diagram and more closely resemble that of the Carnot cycle. Pr pressure by an external heat source to become a dry saturated vapour. iv. The pressure and temperature of the condenser is fixed by the temperature of the cooling coils as the fluid is undergoing a phase-change. These states are identified by number in the diagram to the right i. Pr occur. In an ideal Rankine cycle the pum and turbine would be isentropic. each changing the state of the working fluid. the pump and p turbine would generate no entropy and hence maximi e the net work output. iii.e. Pr 1-2: The working fluid is pumped from low to high pressure. Pr 4-1: The wet vapor then enters a condenser where it is condensed at a constant pressure and temperature to become a saturated liquid. as the fluid is a 2-3: The high pressure liquid enters a boiler where it is heated at constant 3-4: The dry saturated vapor expands through a turbine.. The Rankine cycle shown here prevents the vapor ending up in the superheat region after the expansion in the turbine.Pr f R ki l Ts diagram of a typical Rankine cycle operating between pressures of 0. ii. which reduces the energy removed by the condensers.06bar and 50bar . generating power. There are four processes in the Rankine cycle. and some condensation may 17 . liquid at this stage the pump requires little input energy. This decreases the temperature and pressure of the vapor. i.

In other words. water droplets hit the turbine blades at high speed causing pitting and erosion. 18 . state 3 will move to the right of the diagram and hence produce a dryer steam after expansion. and improves the efficiency of the cycle . Among other advantages. state 3 is above a two phase region of steam and water so after expansion the steam will be very wet. gradually decreasing the life of turbine blades and efficiency of the turbine. By superheating. As the water condenses. it re -enters the boiler and is reheated before passing through a second. In particular the efficiency of the steam turbine will be limited by water droplet formation. two turbines work in series. lower pressure turbine.R lR ki l ( -id l) : R ki l i r In a real Rankine cycle. The easiest way to overcome this problem is by superheating the steam. On the Ts diagram above. R ki l i r In this variation. this prevents the vapor from condensing during its expansion which can seriously damage the turbine blades. The first accepts vapor from the boiler at high pressure. these processes are non-reversible and entropy is increased during the two processes. After the vapor has passed through the first turbine. the compression by the pump and the expansion in the turbine are not isentropic. This somewhat increases the power required by the pump and decreases the power generated by the turbine.

Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2. B il r BOILER MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT dI D ri i The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on a side and 130 ft (40 m) tall.200 psi (22. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. 19 . I. Another variation is where 'bleed steam' from between turbine stages is sent to feedwater heaters to preheat the water on its way from the condenser to the boiler. the fluid at 2 is mixed with the fluid at 4 (both at the same pressure) to end up with the saturated liquid at 7. forming a large fireball at the centre.R r i R ki l The regenerative Rankine cycle is so named because after emerging from thecondenser (possibly as a subcooled liquid) the working fluid is heated by steam tapped from the hot portion of the cycle. Pulveri ed coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the f our corners and it rapidly burns.1MPa).3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. It is separated from the water inside a drum at the top of the furnace. The Regenerative Rankine cycle (with minor variants) is commonly used in real power stations. On the diagram shown. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 700 °F (370 °C) and 3. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps.

air preheater (APH). For units over about 210 MW capacity. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity. Here the steam is superheated to 1. and the furnace with its steam generating tubes and the superheater coils. APH. 20 &$ 2# %'% '0 $& )( ' ' $&% # $ B il r Sid $ # f B d r rT r lP rS i . fly ash collectors (electrostatic precipitator or baghouse) and the flue gas stack. fly ash collectors and ID fan with isolating dampers. boiler furnace. induced draft (ID) fan. redundancy of key components is provided by installing duplicates of the FD fan. The air and flue gas path equipment include: forced draft (FD) fan. On some units of about 60 MW. Necessary safety valves are located at suitable points to avoid excessive boiler pressure. the steam drum.000 °F (540 °C) to prepare it for the turbine. the chemical d osing equipment.The saturated steam is introduced into superheat pendant tubes that hang in the hottest part of the combustion gases as they exit the furnace. The generator includes the economizer. two boilers per unit may instead be provided. pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator.N $ 1 $ # 1 D l i .

00 kg/cm2 26. v. ii. iii. M i B il r (AT 100% LOAD): i.SPECIFICATIONS OF THE BOILER 1. iv. 20 kg/cm2 149.70 kg/cm2 137. iii. ii. iii.35 kg/cm2 24. S i. Evaporation Feed water temperature Feed water leaving economizer 700 tons/hr 247rC 276rC T Drum r r: 341rC 540rC 332rC 540rC Super heater outlet Reheat inlet Reheat outlet Pr r: 158. iv. 2. ii.50 kg/cm2 21 Drum design Drum operating Super heater outlet Reheat inlet Reheat outlet 5 7@3 7 @ 67 97 3 87654 3 S i di r f l-fir d @87 5 C59 6758D 8C7 A 5 @ A B r l r r . S i. 3.

Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion.5% 4. iii. Dry gas loss Carbon loss Radiation loss Unaccounted loss H in air and H O in fuel 2 2 4. iv.4. vi. vii. Heat Balance i. 5.5% w/w 1% w/w 0 Fixed Carbon Volatile Matter Moisture Ash Grindability High Heat Coal size to Mill 38% 26% 8. ii. 0 0. v. iv.26% 1.9% 13. iii. v. Fuel Speci ications A) Coal i.0% 28% 55HGI 4860 Kcal/Kg 20 mm 66 C. iii. FURNACE y Furnace is primary part of boiler where the chemical energy of the fuel is converted to thermal energy by combustion.7% Total loss Efficiency AUXILIARIES OF THE BOILER 1. ii. iv. B) Oil i. 0 37. ii.3% 86. Weight 10000 kcal/kg 4. Major factors that assist for efficient combustion are amount of fuel 22 . vi. v.8 C. vi. vii.98 at 38 C.63% 2% 0. Low Heat value Sulphur Moisture Flash point Viscosity 1500 redwood at Sp.

From the economizer it passes to the steam drum. the steam/vapour once again enters the steam drum. water furnaces are used. Since the velocity is relatively low this water does not get picked up again but runs down the plates and off the second stage of the two steam outlets.inside the furnace and turbulence. As the water is turned into steam/vapour in the water walls. BOILER DRUM y Drum is of fusion-welded design with welded hemispherical dished ends. The boiler transfers energy to the water by the chemical reaction of burning some type of fuel. It is provided with stubs for welding all the connecting tubes. i. Once the water enters the steam drum it goes down the down comers to the lower inlet water wall headers. y Once water inside the boiler or steam generator. From the inlet headers the water rises through the water walls and is eventually turned into steam due to the heat being generated by the burners located on the front and rear water walls (typically). These screens perform the final stage of the separation. which direct the steam and force the remaining entertained water against the corrugated plates. the process of adding the latent heat of vaporization or enthalpy is underway. downcomers. saturated steam outlet. 2. which causes rapid mixing between fuel and air. pipes.e. 23 . risers. y The water enters the boiler through a section in the convection pass called the economizer. extending in layers across the length of the drum. The function of steam drum internals is to separate the water from the steam generated in the furnace walls and to reduce the dissolved solid contents of the steam below the prescribed limit of 1 ppm and also take care of the sudden change of steam demand for boiler. y The secondary stage of two opposite banks of closely spaced thin corrugated sheets. In modern boilers. y From the secondary separators the steam flows upwards to the series of screen dryers.

The boiler furnace auxiliary equipment includes coal feed nozzles and igniter guns. The steam drum (as well as the superheater coils and headers) have air vents and drains needed for initial start-up. water lancing and observation ports (in the furnace walls) for observation of the furnace interior. The steam separators and dryers remo the water ve droplets from the steam and the cycle through the water walls is repeated. Nuclear plants also boi water to raise steam. y y y 24 SF EH F P H ERQ G GH P HG FE Ex r l Vi f I d ri l B il r BTPS. The steam drum has an internal device that removes moisture from the wet steam entering the drum from the steam generating tubes. Heat exchangers may be used where the geothermal steam is very corrosive or contains excessive suspended solids. N F I F I D l i . soot blowers. l either directly passing the working steam through the reactor or else using an intermediate heat exchanger. The dry steam then flows into the superheater coils.y The steam/vapour is passed through a series of steam and water separators and then dryers inside the steam drum. Geothermal plants need no boiler since they use naturally occurring steam sources. This process is known as natural circulation. Furnace explosions due to any accumulation of combustible gases after a tripout are avoided by flushing out such gases from the combustion zone before igniting the coal.

If superheated steam is required. the saturated steam must pass through a superheater. screen wall tubes and rear wall tubes. The front and the two side water walls constitute the main evaporation surface. REHEATER y Reheater is used to raise the temperature of steam from which a part of energy has been extracted in high±pressure turbine. WATER WALLS y Water flows to the water walls from the boiler drum by natural circulation. non return p valves. 4. absorbing the bulk of radiant heat of the fuel burnt in the chamber. which is located above the furnace arc between water-cooled. heating surface connecting boiler and turbine pipe safety equi ment like safety valve. isolating valves. etc: Reheater is composed of two sections namely the front and the rear pendant section. SUPERHEATER y Whatever type of boiler is used.e. 5. 25 VaYV` V Y X WV UT T f r r . Reheating requires additional equipment i. steam will leave the water at its surface and pass into the steam space. Steam formed above the water surface in a shell boiler is always saturated and become superheated in the boiler shell. The upper part of the chamber is narrowed to achieve perfect mixing of combustion gases. The water wall tubes are connected to headers at the top and bottom. The front and rear walls are bent at the lower ends to form a water-cooled slag hopper. The rear water wall tubes at the top are grounded in four rows at a wider pitch forming g the grid tubes. as it is constantly. high pressure feed pump. This is simply a heat exchanger where additional heat is added to the steam.3. This is another method of increasing the cycle efficiency.

y Use of economizer or air heater or both is decided by the total economy that will result in flexibility in operation. air heaters may alone be selected. In low capacity. a separately fired superheater may be n eeded to provide the additional heat. maintenance and selection of firing system and other related equipment. In other cases. for example in CHP schemes where the gas turbine exhaust gases are relatively cool. the superheater may be an additional pendant suspended in the furnace area where the hot gases will provide the degree of superheat required. c febed c b A iz r 26 . ECONOMIZER y The function of an economizer in a steam -generating unit is to absorb heat from the flue gases and add as a sensible heat to the feed water before the water enters the evaporation circuit of the boiler. Modern medium and high capacity boilers are used both as economizers and air heaters. y Earlier economizer were introduced mainly to recover the heat available in the flue gases that leaves the boiler and provision of this addition heating surface increases the efficiency of steam generators.y In water-tube boilers. 6. In the modern boilers used for power generation fe ed water heaters were used to increase the efficiency of turbine unit and feed water temperature.

y Stop valves and non-return valves may be incorporated to keep circulation in economizer into steam drum when there is fire in the furnace but not feed flow. soot blowers to clean normal devices and washing devices to clean the element when soot blowing alone cannot keep the element clean. y Special sealing arrangements are provided in the provided in the air preheater to prevent the leakage between the air and gas sides. Tube elements composing the unit are built up into banks and these are connected to inlet and outlet headers. prhpqp i hg A ir r r 27 . 7. Adjustable plates are also used to help the sealing arrangements and prevent the leakage as expansion occurs. Sloped compartments of a radially divided cylindrical shell called the rotor. Thousands of these high efficiency elements are spaced and compactly arranged within 12 sections. by means of continuously rotating heat transfer element of specially formed metal plates. The air preheater heating surface elements are provided with two types of cleaning devices. The housing surrounding the rotor is provided with duct connecting both the ends and is adequately scaled by radial and circumferential scaling. AIR PREHEATER y Air preheater absorbs waste heat from the flue gases and transfers this heat to incoming cold air.

It is of two types. rock and other such materials. PULVERIZER y A pulverizer is a mechanical device for the grinding of many types of materials. A P l riz r T i.8. and passes out the other end as slime. ii. the materials mixed with water is fed into the chamber from one end. For example. up to three diameters in length. a deep bowl mill and the shallow bowl 28 u u s t . containing a charge of tumbling or cascading steel balls. l ill It uses tires to crush coal. f P l riz r B ll dT ill A ball mill is a pulverizer that consists of a horizontal cylinder. B mill. they are used to pulverize coal for combustion in the steam -generating furnaces of the fossil fuel power plants. pebbles or steel rods. A tube mill is a revolving cylinder of up to five diameters in length used for finer pulverization of ore.

y y y y y y y 29 w y‚ y ‚ A x r l i f C l P l riz r w ƒ € w yv wx w v  € . The furnace volume required is less as the turbulence caused aids in complete combustion of the coal with minimum travel of the particles. Coal with higher ash percentage cannot be used without pulv erizing because of the problem of large amount ash deposition after combustion. The use of secondary air in the combustion chamber along with the powered coal helps in creating turbulence and therefore uniform mixing of the coal and the air during combustion. The combustion process is almost free from clinker and slag form ation. Greater surface area of coal per unit mass of coal allows faster combustion as more coal is exposed to heat and combustion. It is easier to adapt to fluctuating load as there are no limitations on the combustion capacity. The boiler can be easily started from cold condition in case of emergency.Ad y y y f P l riz d C l Pulverized coal is used for large capacity plants. Practically no ash handling problem. Increased thermal efficiency is obtained through pulverization.

The flow through the furnace wall is at saturation temperature. and sent to superheater for superheating and then sent to the high-pressure turbine. The ratio of the weight of the water to the weight of the steam in the mixture leaving the heat absorption surface is called circulation ratio. In the water walls. Natural Circulation System Water delivered to steam generator from feed water is at a temperature well below the saturation value corresponding to that pressure. Types o Boiler Circulating System i. ii. Heat absorbed in water wall is latent heat of vaporization creating a mixture of steam and water. Entering first the economizer. The water leaves the drum through the down corners at a temperature slightly below the saturation temperature. the steam is separated. iii. a part of the water is converted to steam and the mixture flows back to the drum. In the drum. In drum type units (natural and controlled circulation). it is heated to about 30-40rC below saturation temperature. WATER CIRCULATION SYSTEM Theory o Circulation Water must flow through the heat absorption surface of the boiler in order that it be evaporated into steam. Thus the hydrostatic head available will not be able to overcome the frictional resistance for a flow 30 . the water is circulated from the drum through the generating circuits and then back to the drum where the steam is separated and directed to the super heater.II. As the pressure increases. Remaining water mixes with the incoming water from the economizer and the cycle is repeated. From economizer the water enters the drum and thus joins the circulation system. PLANT AUXILIARY MAINTENANCE 1. Water entering the drum flows through the down corner and enters ring heater at the bottom. Natural circulation system Controlled circulation system Combined circulation system i. the difference in density between water and steam reduces.

circulation is to be assisted with mechanical pumps to overcome the frictional losses. iii. To regulate the flow through various tubes. Mechanical Handling System Hydraulic System Pneumatic System Steam Jet System The Hydraulic Ash handling system is used at the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. The hydraulic system is divided into a low velocity 31 …‘ ‡• † †’ ‘… ”“ † † † ’‘„ ˆ‡ ‡† …„ A H dli S B d r rT r lP rS i .corresponding to the minimum requirement of cooling of water wall tubes. iv. circulation is limited to the boiler with drum operating pressure around 175 kg/ cm ii. Therefore natural 2. C r ll d Cir l i S Beyond 80 kg/ cm2 of pressure. ASH HANDLING PLANT The widely used ash handling systems are: i. ii. This system is applicable in the high sub-critical regions (200 kg/ cm2). 2. H dr li A H dli S The hydraulic system carried the ash with the flow of water with high velocity through a channel and finally dumps into a sump.N ‘ – ‘ • – ‰ D l i . orifices plates are used.

a hopper has been provided for collection of the bottom ash from the bottom of the furnace. The fly ash is periodically removed from the collection hoppers below the precipitators or bag filters. WATER TREATMENT PLANT As the types of boiler are not alike their working pressure and operating conditions vary and so do the types and methods of water treatment. its treatment costs and overall economics. this plant has to be engineered very carefully keeping in view the type of raw water to the thermal plant. 3. large ash handling capacity. Bottom Ash Collection and Disposal At the bottom of every boiler. In the low velocity system the ash from the boilers falls into a stream of water flowing into the sump. considerable distance can be traversed. Some arrangement is included to crush the clinkers and for conveying the crushed clinkers and bottom ash to a storage site. The molten slag formed in the pulverized fuel system can also be quenched and washed by using the high velocity system. 32 . No doubt. Generally. In the high velocity system a jet of water is sprayed to quench the hot ash.and high velocity system. where they are separated. the fly ash is pneumatically transported to storage silos for subsequent transport by trucks or railroad cars. Two other jets force the ash into a trough in which they are washed away by the water into the sump. This hopper is always filled with water to quench the ash and clinkers falling down from the furnace. Fly Ash Collection Fly ash is captured and removed from the flue gas by electrostatic precipitators or fabric bag filters (or sometimes both) located at the outlet of the furnace and before the induced draft fan. Water treatment plants used in thermal power plants used in thermal power plants are designed to process the raw water to water with a very low content of dissolved solids known as µdemineralized water . The advantages of this system are that its clean. The ash is carried along with the water and they are separated at the sump. absence of working parts in contact with ash.

Demineralization section S i Pretreatment plant removes the suspended solids such as clay. etc: can be removed from the water by simple sedimentation. plants and other microscopic organism. which are settle able. The degree of de-ionization i. silt. Finer particles. treated water quality.The type of demineralization process chosen for a power station depends on three main factors: i. The coarse components. The quality of the raw water. iii. Water treatment process is generally made up of two sections: y y Pr r Pretreatment section. however. Long term ability to remain suspended in water is basically a function of both size and specific gravity. silt. ii. firstly. ™f˜ g ™fde™˜d ™ d™˜ A — r r l 33 . organic and inorganic matter.e. such as sand. The turbidity may be taken as two types of suspended solid in water. Selectivity of resins. the separable solids and secondly the non-separable solids (colloids). will not settle in any reasonable time and must be flocculated to produce the large particles.

an equivalent amount of sodium sulphite through some stroke pumps. which is m aintained in clarification plant to remove organic matter from raw water. The storage tank for DM water is made from materials not affected by corrosive water. The residual chlorine. a steam blanketing arrangement or stainless steel doughnut float is provided on top of the water in the tank to avoid contact with atmospheric air. which is either done by passing through activated carbon filter or injecting along the flow of water.D i r liz i This filter water is now used for demineralizing purpose and is fed to cation exchanger bed. The piping and valves are generally of stainless steel. anion and mixed bed exchang The final water ers. For this purpose. such as PVC. A DM plant generally consists of cation. However. Sometimes. DM 34 jkl jm lk k hj ih Ad i r liz i k . The DM water. some storage is essential as the DM plant may be down for maintenance. becomes highly corrosive once it absorbs oxygen from the atmosphere because of ts very high affinity for i oxygen absorption. is now detrimental to action resin and must be eliminated before its entry to this bed. a storage tank is installed from which DM water is continuously withdrawn for boiler make -up. The capacity of the DM plant is dictated by the type and quantity of salts in the raw water input. but enroute being first dechlorinated. from this process consists essentially of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions which is the chemical composition of pure water. being very pure.

DRAUGHT SYSTEM There are four types of draught system: i.water make-up is generally added at the steam space of the surface condenser (i. Due to small pressure difference.D. iv. 4. air is admitted into the furnace.e. This arrangement not only sprays the water but also DM water gets deaerated. with the dissolved gases being removed by the ejector of the condenser itself. the air is admitted to natural pressure difference and the flue gases are taken out by means of Induced Draught (I. iii. I d d Dr f S In this system. N Natural Draught Induced Draught Forced Draught Balanced Draught r l Dr S In natural draft units the pressure differentials are obtained have constructing tail chimneys so that vacuum is created in the furnace. 35 o qpon A r l dr wvpt t ps rqo u . ii..) fans and the furnace is maintained under vacuum. the vacuum side).

36 ‚{ € € ~ }y|  {zy x x {z A i d d dr ‚{€ € ~ }y|  . The flue gases are taken out due to the pressure difference between the furnace and the atmosphere.D.For d Dr S A set of forced draught (F. A for d dr B l d Dr S Here a set of Induced and Forced Draft Fans are utilized in maintaining a vacuum in the furnace.) fans is made use of for supplying air to the furnace and so the furnace is pressurized. Normally all the power stations utilize this draft system.

consists of the following components: y y y y Silencer Inlet Bend Fan Housing Impeller with blades and setting mechanism An FD fan 37 . Impeller nominal diameter is of the order of 2500 mm. The fan consists of the following sub-assemblies: y y y y Suction Chamber Inlet Vane Control Impeller Outlet Guide Vane Assembly An ID fan FD Fan The fan. normally of the same type as ID Fan. INDUSTRIAL FANS ID Fan The induced Draft Fans are generally of Axial-Impulse Type.5.

Some amount of the velocity energy is converted to pressure energy in the spiral casing. The fan is driven at a constant speed and varying the angle of the inlet vane control controls the flow. single stage suction. Lubrication and cooling these bearings is assure by a combined oil level and circulating d lubrication system. It is robust in construction for higher peripheral speed so as to have unit sizes. The fan can then be easily adapted to changing operating conditions. backward curved bladed radial fan operating on the principle of energy transformation due to centrifugal forces. which are sealed off to the outside. Pri ar air fan ƒ 38 „ . NDFV type. The blade shafts are placed in combined radial and axial anti-friction bearings. The rotor is accommodated in cylindrical roller bearings and an inclined ball bearing at the drive side absorbs the axial thrust. Pri ar Air Fan PA Fan if flange-mounted design. Fan can develop high pressures at low and medium volumes and can handle hotair laden with dust particles.The centrifugal and setting forces of the blades are taken up by the blade bearings. The angle of incidence of the blades may be adjusted during operation. The characteristic pressure volume curves of the fan may be changed in a large range without essentially modifying the efficiency. The special feature of the fan is that is provided with inlet guide vane control with a positive and precise link mechanism.

Therefore drying of air is accepted widely in case of instrument air. etc: in the 210 MW units. 39 ˆ ‡‡† A ompr … or ouse . Station air meets the general requirement of the power station such as light oil atomizing air. and causes trouble in operation of various devices by compressed air. Air-Dr ing Unit Air contains moisture which tends to condense. The control air compressors and station air compressors have been housed separately with separate receivers and supply headers and their tapping.6. The absorption towers are adequately filled with specially selected silca gel and activated i alumina while one tower is drying the air. devices. burner tilting. COMPRESSOR HOUSE Instrument air is required for operating various dampers. From the receiver air passed through the dryers to the main instrument airline. diaphragm valves. Adequate numbers of tapping have been provided all over the area. for cleaning filters and for various maintenance works. The output from the compressors is fed to air receivers via return valves. w hich runs along with the boiler house and turbine house of 210 MW units. Instrument Air S stem Control air compressors have been installed for supplying moisture free dry air required for instrument used. Air drying unit consists of dual absorption towers with embedded heaters for reactivation.

The intercooler is provided between the low and high pressure cylinder which cools the air between tag and collects the moisture that condenses. A safety valve is set at rated pressure. cylinder enters at one end of the intercooler and goes to the opposite end wherefrom it is discharged to the high-pressure cylinder.An air dr ing unit Ser i e Air Compressor The station air compressor is generally a slow speed horizontal double acting double stage type and is arranged for belt drive. cooling water flows through the nest of the tubes and cools the air. A ser i e air ompressor Air from L.P. e whih extends around the valve also. 40 ‹ ‰ ‹ Š . The cylinder heads and barr l are enclosed in a jacket.

Work done by the impulse effect of steam due to reverse the direction of high velocity steam. The essential features of impulse turbine are that all pressure drops occur at nozzles and not on blades. The high velocity steam from nozzles does work on moving blades. the compressor will start. Reaction tur ine: In this type of turbine pressure is reduced at both fixed and moving blades. In auto start stop position. Impulse tur ine: In impulse turbine steam expands in fixed nozzles. which causes the shaft to rotate. Both fixed and moving blades act like nozzles. New Del i Π41 . 2. A 95 MW Generator at BTPS.Two selector switches one with positions auto load/unload and another with positions auto start/stop. non-stop have been provided on the control panel of the compressor. The expansion of steam takes place on moving blades. TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT TURBINE CLASSIFICATION: 1. III.

P rotor by lens type semi flexible coupling. The cooling water flowing 42 . The kinetic energy of steam fully on the nozzles is utilized in moving blades.P cylinders. turbine comprises of 12 stages the I. stage the steam expands in axially opposed direction to counteract the thrust and enters the condenser placed directly below the L.P has four stages of double flow. The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boiler and passes through the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H. All the 3 rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing number is combined with thrust bearing.P and I. turbine rotor are rigidly compounded and the I. ii.P.P.COMPOUNDING: Several problems occur if energy of steam is converted in single step and so compounding is done. Turbine. and I.P. turbine then steam is returned in the boiler for reheating. Pressure Compounded Turbine: This is basically a number of single impulse turbines in series or on the same shaft. In the L. MAIN TURBINE: The 210MW turbine is a cylinder tandem compounded type machine comprising of H. Following are the type of compounded turbine: i.P. The H.P stage via 2 numbers of cross over pipes. The total pressure drop of steam does not tae on first nozzle ring but divided equally on all of them.P.P turbine has 11 stages and the L. iii. Velocity Compounded Turbine: Like simple turbine it has only one set of nozzles and entire steam pressure drop takes place there.P. The role of fixed blades is to change the direction of steam jet and too guide it. turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L. and L. The H. The reheated steam from boiler enters I. Here for given pressure drop the turbine will be shorter length but diameter will be increased.P.P. turbine.P. After expanding in the 12 stages in the H. The exhaust of first turbine enters the nozzles of next turbine. Pressure Velocity Compounded Turbine: It is just the combination of the two compounding and has the advantages of allowing bigger pressure drops in each stage and so fewer stages are necessary.P and L.

It also means that turbine is considerable saving in lubricating oil when compared with a reciprocating steam engine of equal power. STEAM TURBINE A steam turbine is a mechanical device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and converts it into useful mechanical work. Each fixed blade set is mounted in diaphragms located in front of each disc on the rotor. The blades rotate as the rotor 43 . A generator at a steady load offers a constant torque. Hence since the steam turbine possesses for its moving parts rotating elements only if the manufacture is good and the machine is correctly designed. because the propelling force is applied directly to the rotating element of the machine and has not as in the reciprocating engine to be transmitted through a system of connecting links. The cylinder contains fixed blades. From a mechanical point of view. Steam turbines can have many stages. vanes and nozzles that direct steam into the moving blades carried by the rotor. Its halves are bolted together for easy access.P. or directly in the casing.through the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate the collected in the hot well of the condenser. which are necessary to transform a reciprocating motion into rotary motion. If the load on a turbine is kept constant the torque developed at the coupling is also constant. The condensate collected the pumped by means of 3x50% duty condensate pumps through L. A rotor is a rotating shaft that carries the moving blades on the outer edges of either discs or drums. OPERATING PRINCIPLES A steam turbines two main parts are the cylinder and the rotor. a turbine is suitable for driving a generator. A disc and diaphragm pair a turbine stage. it ought to be free from out of balance forces. Therefore. A final advantage of the steam turbine and a very important one is the fact that a turbine can develop many time the power compared to a reciprocating engine whether steam or oil. A further advantage of the turbine is the absence of internal lubrication. particularly as they are both high-speed machines. This means that the exhaust steam is not contaminated with oil vapour and can be condensed and fed back to the boilers without passing through the filters. The cylinder (stator) is a steel or cast iron housing usually divided at the horizontal centerline. the turbine is ideal.P heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to the boiler through H. heaters thus forming a closed cycle.

causing the shaft to rotate. 44 . As the steam passes through the fixed blades or nozzles.revolves. In a multiple-stage turbine. it expands and its velocity increases. steam at a high pressure and high temperature enters the first row of fixed blades or nozzles through an inlet valve/valves. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy. The steam that enters t e next set of fixed h blades strikes the next row of moving blades. The rotor of a large steam turbine consists of large. intermediate and low-pressure sections. The high velocity jet of stream strikes the first set of moving blades.

An impulse turbine uses the imp force of the act steam jet on the blades to turn the shaft. The cycleused is µRankine cycle¶ modified to include superheating of steam. where its pressure drops and its velocity increases.P. 45 . its pressure and temperature decreases while its volume increases. but its velocity decreases. I.P.P.As the steam flows through the turbine. regenerative feed water heating and reheating of steam. The steam does not expand as it flows through the moving blades. MAIN TURBINE The 210 MW turbine is a tandem compounded type machine comprising of H.P. turbine has 4 stages of double flow.P. its pressure remains the same. turbines comprise of 12 stages. turbine has 11 stages and the L. and I. the steam exhausts into the condenser or process steam system. STEAM CYCLE The thermal (steam) power plant uses a dual (vapor+liquid) phase cycle. The decrease in pressure and temperature occurs as the steam transmits energy to the shaft and performs work. cylinders. Steam expands as it passes through thee nozzles. After passing through the last turbine stage. It is a closed cycle to enable the working fluid (water) to be used again and again. The H. The kinetic energy of the steam changes into mechanical energy through the impact (impulse) or reaction of the steam against the blades. As the steam flows through the moving blades.

turbine stage via 2 nos of cross -over pipes. motor by the lens type semi flexible coupling. stage the steam expands in axially opposite direction to counteract the trust and enters the condensers placed below the L.P> turbine via the interceptor valves and control valves and after expanding enters the L. The cooling water flowing throughout the condenser tubes condenses the steam and the condensate collected in the hot well of the condenser.P. In the L. and I. heaters to deaerator from where the boiler feed pump delivers the water to boiler through H.P.P. turbine rotors are rigidly compounded and the L. T e Main Tur ine Ž  46 . After expanding in the 12 stages in the H.P. The condensate collected is pumped by means of 3*50% duty condensae pumps through t L. 2 is combined with the thrust bearing The main superheated steam branches off into two streams from the boil r and passes through e the emergency stop valve and control valve before entering the governing wheel chamber of the H.P. turbine. All the three rotors are aligned on five bearings of which the bearing no. heaters thus forming a close cycle.P. turbine. The reheated steam for the boiler enters the I.P.P.P.P.The H. turbine the steam is returned in boiler for reheating.

P.P. turbine steam enters the middle part of the L.P. turbine.P.03 g/sq.P. turbine and one from L. T e Tur ine C cle   The selection of extraction points and cold reheat pressure has been done with a view to achieve a high efficiency. cylinders on the front bearing end. Steam for this purpose is obtained from deaerator through a collection where pressure of steam is regulated. cm. In L. cylinder. turbine. turbine through cross-over pipes.TURBINE CYCLE Fresh steam from the boiler is supplied to the turbine through the emergency stop valve.P. These are two extractors from H. turbine the exhaust steam condenses in the surface condensers welded directly to the exhaust part of L. turbine. 47 ‘ . From the stop valves steam is supplied to control valves situated in H.10 and 1. steam flows back to the boiler for reheating steam and reheated steam from the boiler cover to the intermediate pressure turbine through two interceptor valves and four control valves mounted on I.P.P. Abs is supplied for the gland sealing. After expansion through 12 stages at the H. After flowing through I. Steam at 1.P. turbine. four from I.P.

0 to 1. Lubrication Oil: turbine oil 14 of IOC. Couplings and bearings.From the condenser. Rated power: 210 MW. Rated steam pressure: 130 kg /sq. cm. H. heaters.P. 327rC Condenser bac pressure: 0. 1881.5 kg /sq. SPECIFICATIONS OF THE TURBINE y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y y Type: Tandem compound 3 cylinder reheated type. Ejector steam parameter: 4. Feed water is pumped from deaerator to the boiler through the H.P. Rated steam temperature: 535 rC after reheating at inlet.03 to 1.05 kg /sq. Stop & control valves. Blades. M /hr. cylinder. Number o stages: 12 in H. cm.09 kg /sq.. cm.1 kg /sq.P. cm (Abs) Critical speed: 1585. Condenser cooling water temperature: 27000 cu.. heaters by means of 3*50% capacity feed pumps connected before the H. 11 in I. condensate is pumped with the help of 3*50% capacity condensate pumps to deaerator through the low-pressure regenerative equipments. and 4*2 in L. cm. Barring gear. Steam flow: 670T / hr. Number of e traction lines for regenerative heating of feed water. Rotor.P. Gland steam pressure: 1. Type of governing: nozzle governing. Number of bearing. seven. 2017. 5 excluding generator and exciter. Sealing system. turbine e haust pressure: 27 kg /sq. cm before entering the stop valve.P. 48 . TURBINE COMPONENTS y y y y y y y Casing.P. Condenser cooling water pressure: 1.

The inner shell taking the first rows of guide blades is attached kinematically in the middle shell. balancing holes are machined to reduce the pressure difference across them. In all the moving wheels. y y Provides opposed double flow in the two blade sections and compensates axial thrust. The inner casing. Barrel-type casing suitable for quick startup and loading. IP Turbine Casing: y y The casing of the IP turbine is split horizontally and is of double-shell construction. The inner casing is attached in the horizontal and vertical planes in the barrel casing so that it can freely expand radially in all the directions and axially from a fixed point (HP.TURBINE CASINGS HP Turbine Casings: y y y y Outer casing: a barrel-type without axial or radial flange. axially split. which results in reduction of axial thrust. is supported at four points on longitudinal beams. Both are axially split and a double flow inner casing is supported in the outer casing and carries the guide blades.cylindrically. y Steam admitted to the LP turbine from the IP turbine flows into the inner casing from both sides. Steam after reheating enters the inner casing from Top & Bottom. LP Turbine Casing: y The LP turbine casing consists of a double flow unit and has a triple shell welded casing. y y The shells are axially split and of rigid welded construction. y Independent of the outer shell. ROTORS HP Rotor: y y The HP rotor is machined from a single Cr-Mo-V steel forging with integral discs. the middle shell.inlet side). 49 .

LP Rotor: y y The LP rotor consists of shrunk fit discs in a shaft. In all the stages lashing wires are provided to adjust the frequency of blades. o Root. o Shrouds. y Except the last two wheels. lashing wires have been provided in some stages. Blades fixed in stationary part are called guide blades/ nozzles and those fitted in moving part are called rotating/working blades. y Blades have three main parts: o Aerofoil: working part. In the last two rows. satellite strips are provided at the leading edges of the blades to protect them against wet-steam erosion. IP Rotor: y The IP rotor has seven discs integrally forged with rotor while last four discs are shrunk fit. y The shaft is made of high creep resisting Cr-Mo-V steel forging while the shrunk fit discs are machined from high strength nickel steel forgings. The shaft is a forging of Cr-Mo-V steel while the discs are of high strength nickel steel forgings.y First stage has integral shrouds while other rows have shroudings. To adjust the frequency of thee moving blades. BLADES y y Most costly element of the turbine. y Shroud are used to prevent steam leakage and guide steam to next set of moving blades. y y Blades are secured to the respective discs by riveted fork root fastening. all other wheels have shrouding riveted at the tip of the blades. 50 . riveted to the blades are periphery.

Steam exhausted from the LP turbine washes the outside of the condenser tubes. passes horizontally through brass tubes to the water tubes to the water box at the other end.W. Pumps: Normally two per unit of 50% capacity. E ectors: One starting and two main ejectors connected to the condenser locared near the turbine. These are surface type condensers with two pass arrangement. Water enters the inlet chamber of the front water box.W. CONDENSER There are two condensers entered to the two exhausters of the L.VACUUM SYSTEM This comprises of: y y Condenser: 2 for 200 MW unit at the exhaust of LP turbine. passes through the upper cluster of tubes and reaches the outlet chamber in the fr water box. cooling ont water leaves the condenser through the outlet pipe and discharge into the discharge duct. This condensate collects in the hot well. A typical water cooled condensor 51 . losing its latent heat to the cooling water and is c onnected with water in the steam side of the condenser. pump through the inlet pipe. takes a turn. welded to the bottom of the condensers. y C. Cooling water pumped into each condenser by a vertical C.P. turbine. From these.

Heater-1 has two parts LPH-1A and LPH-1B located in the upper parts of the condenser A and condenser B. the air and pressure zone.2 kg/ cm2 .5 to 5 kg /cm2 to the three nozzles in the three compartments. 2. L. The ejector has three compartments. The non-condensing gases of air are further sucked with the next stage of the ejector by the second nozzle. These pumps have four stages and since the suction is at a negative pressure.EJECTORS There are two 100% capacity ejectors of the steam eject type. The working steam which has expanded in volume comes into contact with the cluster of tube bundles through which condensate is flowing and gets condensed thus after aiding the formation of vacuum. one per unit located around 181 M level in CD bay. L. The pump is generally rated for 160 m3/ hr at a pressure of 13.P. from turbine bleed steam. L. Steam is supplied generally at a pressure of 4. Condensate Pumps: 3 per unit of 50% capacity each located near condenser hot well.1 located at the upper part of the condenser and nos. ii. Since the nozzle box of the ejector is connected to the air pipe from the condenser. which are utilized for heating the condensate.3 & 4 around 4m level. CONDENSATE SYSTEM This contains the following i. Heaters Turbine has been provided with non-controlled extractions.P. There are 410 W pressure heaters in which the last four extractions are used. special arrangements have been made for providing sealing. iii. The purpose of the ejector is to evacuate air and other non-condensating gases from the condensers and thus maintain the vacuum in the condensers. Deaerator. LP Heater: Normally 4 in number with no. gland steam cooler and LP heaters.3 and 4 are of similar construction and they are 52 . Steam expands in the nozzle thus giving a high-velocity eject which creates a low-pressure zone in the throat of the eject. These are of horizontal type with shell and tube construction.H. Condensate Pumps The function of these pumps is to pump out the condensate to the desecrator through ejectors. respectively. The process repeats itself in the third stage also and finally the steam-air mixture is exhausted into the atmosphere through the outlet.P. 2.

principally oxygen. These heaters are equipped with necessary safety valves in the steam space level indicator for visual level indication of heating steam condensate pressu vacuum re gauges for measurement of steam pressure.005/ litre or less. is that the boiler feed water should be free as far as possible from all dissolved gases especially oxygen This is achieved by . The condensate flows in the µU¶ tubes in four passes and extraction steam washes the outside of the tubes. etc: Deaerator The presence of certain gases. They are of vertical construction with brass tubes the ends of which are expanded into tube plate. particularly at elevated temperatures. One of the most important factors in the prevention of internal corrosion in modern boilers and associated plant therefore. dissolved in water is generally considered harmful because of their corrosive attack on metals. A Deaerator 53 . depending upon the individual circumstances.mounted in a row of 5m level. Particularly the unit must reduce the oxygen content of the feed water to a lower value as far as possible. Residual oxygen content in condensate at the outlet of deaerating plant usually specified are 0. embodying into the boiler feed system a deaerating unit. carbon dioxide and ammonia. whose function is to remove the dissolved gases from the feed water by mechanical means. Condensate passes through these four L. heaters in succession.P.

Starting Oil Pump (SOP). This opening is provided with a number of dlflectors to minimize the loss of steam. y y High Pressure Heaters: Normally three in number and are situated in the TG bay. FEED WATER SYSTEM The main equipments coming under this system are: y Boiler feed Pump: Three per unit of 50% capacity each located in the µ0 meter level in the T bay. The condensate is admitted at the top of the deaerating column flows downwards through the spray valves and trays. Steam gets condensed above the trays and in turn heats the condensate. The deaeration column is mounted on the feed storage tank. The trays are designed to expose to the maximum water surfaces for efficient scrubbing to affect the liberation of the associated gases steam enters from the underneath of the trays and flows in counter direction of condensate. Liberated gases escapes to atmosphere from the orifice opening meant for it. The feed storage tank is fabricated from boiler quality steel plates. Drip Pumps: generally two in number of 100% capacity each situated beneath the LP heaters. While flowing upwards through the trays. Thus the liberated gases move upwards alongwith the steam. Manholes are provided on deaerating column as well as on feed storage tank for inspection and maintenance. AC standby oil pumps and emergency DC Oil Pump and Jacking Oil Pump (JOP). y Turbine Lubricating Oil System: This consists of the Main Oil Pump (MOP). y y Henry s Law Solubility The Deaerator comprises of two chambers: y y Deaerating column Feed storage tank Deaerating column is a spray cum tray type cylindrical vessel of horizontal construction with dished ends welded to it. scrubbing and heating is done. (one each per unit) 54 . The tray stack is designed to ensure maximum contact time as well as optimum scrubbing of condensate to achieve efficient deaeration.PRINCIPAL OF DEAERATION It is based on following two laws. which in turn is supported on rollers at the two ends and a fixed support at the centre.

Operating staff must be able to find out the causes of defect at the very beginning. Booster Pump Each boiler feed pump is provided with a booster pump in its suction line which is driven by the main motor of the boiler feed pump. it is directed to the first impeller. 55 . All the bearings of pump and motor are forced lubricated by a suitable oil lubricating system with adequate protection to trip the pump if the lubrication oil pressure falls below a preset value. This will repeat from one stage to the other till it passes through the last impeller and the end diffuser. It passes through the suction branch into the intake spiral and from there. Thus the feed water reaching into the discharge space develops the necessary operating pressure. The high pressure boiler feed pump is a very expensive machine which calls for a very careful operation and skilled maintenance. By the use of booster pump in the main pump suction line. One of the major damages which may occur to a boiler feed pump is from cavitation or vapor bounding at the pump suction due to suction failure. Function The water with the given operating temperature should flow continuously to the pump under a certain minimum pressure. which can be easily removed without endangering the operator of the power plant and also without the expensive dismantling of the high pressure feed pump. After leaving the impeller it passes through the distributing passages of the diffuser and thereby gets a certain pressure rise and at the same time it flows over to the guide vanes to the inlet of the next impeller. Therefore all the feed pumps are provided with a main shaft driven booster pump in its suction line for obtaining a definite positive suction pressure. always there will be positive suction pressure which will remove the possibility of cavitation.Boiler Feed Pump This pump is horizontal and of barrel design driven by an Electric Motor through a hydraulic coupling. Cavitation will occur when the suction pressure of the pump at the pump section is equal or very near to the vapor pressure of the liquid to be pumped at a particular feed water temperature.

An HP heater Turbine Oil Lubricating System This consists of main oil pump. The thrust bearing is located at the free end of the pump. after feed pump enters the HP heaters. the feed water. These heaters have a group bypass protection on the feed waterside. These are generally vertical type and turbine based steam pipes are connected to them.Lubricating Pressure All the bearings of boiler feed pump. thus bypassing all the 3 H. The feed pump consists of two radial sleeve bearings and one thrust bearing.P. the group protection devices divert automatically the feed water directly to boiler. High Pressure Heaters These are regenerative feed waters heaters operating at high pressure and located by the side of turbine. heaters. 56 . HP heaters are connected in series on feed waterside and by such arrangement. pump motor and hydraulic coupling are force lubricated. emergency oil pump and each per unit. The steam is supplied to these heaters to form the bleed point of the turbine through motor operated valves. starting oil pump. In the event of tube rupture in any of the HPH and the level of condensate rising to dangerous level.

pressure. Change in the performance Metal particles in the lubricant Change in motor current etc. frequently enough to detect the anticipated failure modes. Also known as ³Condition Based Maintenance´ results in: y y y y y Increased uptime Decreased unexpected breakdowns Reduced Maintenance Costs Maintenance is performed and it is planned Improved Plant Safety Machines normally give off some signs before failing y y y y The sign may be change in sound level. vibration. temperature etc.IV. The motto here is ³Fix it once & Fix it Right´ How an effective Predictive Maintenance Strategy can Improve Plant Efficiency: y y y y y y Reduction in Lost Production Reduced Cost of Maintenance Less Likelihood of Secondary Damage Reduced Inventory Extending the Life of Plant Items Improved Product Quality 57 . PROACTIVE MAINTENANCE Also known by different names including ³Precision Maintenance´ and ³Reliability based Maintenance´. MAINTENANCE PLANNING DEPARTMENT PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE The art of predictive maintenance is to monitor the machine with the appropriate technologies.

fix the problem not the symptom TECHNOLOGIES USED y y y y y Vibration monitoring & analysis and balancing. although it also depends on system rigidity on the particular direction. Detects Rotor bar faults at early stage using supportive software Avoids Motor Breakdown and hence forced reduction of unit load. FACTORS LEADING TO ROTOR BAR CRACKS y y y Most motor failures are preceded by long periods of wear.design problems out of machines.KNOWLEDGE BASED MAINTENANCE y y Shared information among all users Root cause analysis (proactive) . When sensor moves from horizontal to vertical. Checking of ht/lt motors in electrical workshop VIBRATION ANALYSIS AND UNBALANCE y y Amplitude proportional to the amount of unbalance Vibration high normally in radial direction (may be also in axial direction in case of overhung and flexible rotors). More starts & stops or rapidly fluctuating loads leads to Excess stresses Hardening of Joints of rotor bars and end ring 58 . Motor current signature analysis (mcsa). Accoustic monitoring & analysis. y y Other frequency peaks may be less than 5% of the 1* RPM amplitude Phase shift of 90 deg. y y 1* RPM vibration is greater than 80% (normally) of the overall reading. MOTOR ROTOR BAR ANALYSIS y y y On-line detection of broken rotor bars of Induction Motors. Horizontal and vertical 1* RPM amplitude should be nearly same. Thermography monitoring & analysis.

y What is acoustic analysis? Acoustic analysis or noise analysis is a two step process involving the acquistion and interperatation of machinery acoustic data. y Its purpose is : To determine the condition of the machine and pin -point any specific mechanical or operational defects i. Machine image captured to know the Thermal distribution ACCOUSTIC ANALYSIS y What is acoustic emission? Acoustic emission is a naturally occurring phenomenon wherin external mechanical loading generates sources of elastic waves. 59 . The thermal scanning survey in switchyard & other identified areas is done to monitor the healthiness of electrical equipment. Pressure or vacuum leaks (pneumatic.THERMOGRAPHY y y IRT camera has been very useful tools in predictive maintenance for detecting hot spots in electrical & switchyard equipment. gas& steam) or arcing and corona (electrical problems).e.

transport. Ad antages of coal as fuel: y y y y Abundantly available in India Low Cost Technology for power generation well developed. store and use. Coal is used as the fuel because of the following advantages. COAL HANDLING DEPARTMENT As coal is the prime fuel for thermal power plant. Easy to handle. Also it is equally important to have a sustained flow of this fuel to maintain uninterrupted power generation. adequate emphasis should be given for its proper handling and storage. COAL CYCLE 60 .V.

The handling capacity of the loading site is such that it fills at least one big rake of wagon and in some cases. This system calls for high speed load outstation at the mines which have the following advantages: y y High loading enables loading of trains quickly. Each of the NTPC Project requires transportation of large quantities of coal from the coal mines to power station¶s site of the order of 30. The high speed load outstation consists of one or two loading sites depending upon the coal requirement of the linked power station. Techno economic study conducted for coal transportation from mines to power station have revealed that Merry-Go-Round (MGR) rail transportation system is most econom ical and is also reliable. Top open railway wagons are loaded with maximum possible load consistently and accurately. two rakes. y Simple loading arrangement at a single point avoids the need for a big marshalling yard with cumbersome operational system. thus achieving high turnover of wagons and reduction rolling stock requirement.000 tonnes/ day for a ypical 2.R.Coal Transport by M. Coal transportation 61 . This enormous coal requirement is being met from open cast mines.000 MW t station.G.

d Crusher of 50% capacity is provided and these are preferred to two crushers of 100% capacity because of increased reliability and possible higher availability. The coal handling system is designed to provide 100% standby for all equipments and conveyors. The Coal Handling System The storage facilities at the stockyards have been provided only for crushed coal. Path C: from stockyard to boiler bunkers. However for better mill maintenance. three coal paths are normally available for direct conveying of coal. and to reduce coal dust nuisance. To feed coal into bunkers.COAL HANDLING SYSTEM In the coal handling system of NTPC. coal mills. the turbine plant area. The 200 mm coal as received at the track hopper is fe to the crusher house for crushing. mobile trippers have been provided over bunkers on conveyors.. bunker conveyors are now being placed between boiler and electrostatic precip itator. These are: y y y Path A: from track hopper to boiler bunker. coal mil & therefore the bunker conveyors of 200 MW units of the earlier projects re a provided between boiler and turbo-generator building. accessibility. 62 . A series of parallel conveyors are designed thereafter to c arry crushed coal directly to the boiler bunkers or to divert it to the stockyard. Path B: from track hopper to stockyard.

Rubber lagging is provided to decrease the friction factor in between the belt and pulley. Scrapper Conveyors are provided with scrappers at the discharge pulley in order to clean the carrying side of the belt built up material on idler rolls.the following categories of scrapper are common in use: y y y y Steel blade scrapper Rubber/fabric blade scrapper Nylon brush scrapper Compressed air blast scrapper. Care should be taken to ensure that the scrapper is held against the belt with the pressure sufficient to remove material without causing damage to the b due to excessive force exerted by the elt wiper. Pulley They are made of mild steel. ’ 63 . New Delhi COAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS i.Coal Handling Di ision of BTPS. ii.

Heat resistant belting is always recommended for handling materials at a temperature over 66rC. impregnated with rubber and protected by a rubber cover on both sides and edges. anti-friction bearings and seals. Idler iv. Idlers These essentially consist of rolls made out of seamless steel tube enclosed fully at each end and fitted with stationary shaft. The fabric duck supplies the strngth to withstand the tension created in carrying the load while the cover protects the fabric carcass. 64 . Conveyor Belt The conveyor belt consists of layers or piles of fabric duck. They support the belt and enable it to travel freely without much frictional losses and also k the eep belt properly trained.iii.

The screen is operated by four v-belts connected to motor. The coal enters the top of the crusher and is crushed between rotating granulators and fluid case path. Vibrating Screen The function of vibrating screen is to send the coal of having size less than 20 mm to the crusher. New Delhi v. arranged alternately. This is accomplished by means of granulators of ring type.Coal Storage Area of the Badarpur Thermal Power Station. There are about 37 crushing elevations. each elevation has 4 granulators 2 of plain type and 2 of tooth type. Normally these crushers have a capacity round 600 tonnes/ hr. 65 . vi. The granulators are made of manganese steel because of their work hardening property. The crushed coal through a chute falls on belt feeder. Crusher The role of crusher is to crush the coal from 200 mm to 20 mm size of coalreceived from the vibrating screen.

continuous removal is possible. Because of this. It can remove any ferrous impurity from 10 gms to 50 kg.A Crusher vii. Over this magnet there is one conveyor to transfer these materials to chute provided for dumping at ground level. Magnetic separators This is an electromagnet placed above the conveyor to attract magnetic materials. Wagon Tripler at Badarpur Thermal Power Station. New Delhi 66 .

which move on rails parallel to conveyor. The tripper is provided with wheels. These trippers are of three types mainly: y y y Motorized tripper Bell-Propelled Manually operated Tripper. Coal from the stockyard with the help of bulldozer is taken to the vibrating feeder via reclaim hopper and underground conveyor belts. A tripper is provided in the conveyor to stack the material at desired location on either side or al ong the conveyor with the help of chute or chute fitted with the tripper itself.viii. Winch driven tripper Screening and Separation Unit of Coal Handling Division 67 . Vibrating Feeder It is used to feed the coal on the underground conveyor belt from wherecoal goes to bunker.