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Discourse on Think He Id

Discourse on Think He Id

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DISCOURSE ON THINKING .

MARTIN HEIDEGGER WORKS General Editor J. Glenn Gray Colorado College Also by Martin Heidegger BEING AND TIME .

Anderson and With an E.MARTIN HEIDEGGER DISCOURSE ON THINKING A Translation of Gelassenheit by John M. Anderson HARPER & ROW. Hans Freund by Introduction John M. PURLISHERS NEW YORK .

For information address Harper & Row. 49 East 33rd Street. Hans Freund by- DISCOURSE ON THINKING. LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER: 65-15041 D-Q .Originally published by Verlag Giinther Neske. copyright title © 1959 by Verlag Giinther Neske English translation by John M. Anderson and E. Copyright © 1966 in the English translation this Harper & Row. Publishers. Pfullingen under the Gelassenheit. New York 16. Publishers. America. No part of Printed in the United States of book may be used or repro- duced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. Incorporated. New York. New York. All rights reserved.

CONTENTS PREFACE 7 INTRODUCTION 11 DISCOURSE ON THINKING 41 I. CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH ABOUT THINKING 58 GLOSSARY 91 . MEMORIAL ADDRESS 43 n.

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Discourse on Thinking has two parts: a Memorial Ad- honor of the German composer. It comprises a statement of the point of view of his later thought. Since Heidegger's later thought has evoked so much interest among it philosophers and. The dialogue was written from more extended notes on a conversation dating from 1944—45 between a teacher. The work of provides an introduction to the later thought his conception of it is Martin Heidegger. which pressed in the 1. but because of its format and style. it seems important to have significant examples of is avail- able in English.PREFACE translated here. . an introduction via is meditative thinking. Gelassenheit Gunther Neske Verlag. Discourse on Thinking a particularly it is so good example for this purpose not only because re- cent. easily intelligible as ex- Memorial Address. and a scholar. a scientist. Conradin Kreutzer. and a dialogue or conversation. which Heidegger delivered to a general audience. The Memorial Address (Pfullingen : Martin Heidegger. in the last few years. Martin Heidegger's Discourse on Thinking* which is was published in 1959.in which the theme stated in the address is developed in a more specialized and profound dress in — — way. theologians. 1959).

without elaborating the details of its fundamental nature. and it states his claim that such thinking has a most important part to play in our today. which should be of help in rounding out an awareness of the vision Heidegger has of the place of man in Being. In addition. Further. free use of offer The interplay of thought and argument. the poetic summaries. the word and metaphor. the explanatory Conversation provides a transitional introduction into the complexities of Heidegger's philosophy. is and the free and significance poetic tone of the speech emphasizes the human of the undertaking. and the Address has a poetic tone which conveys the high seriousness of the subject. all a new perspective on an abstract argument. the Memorial Address and . Nonetheless the Memorial Address makes clear Heidegger's understanding of the relation of meditative thinking to contemporary human life. This is is not to say that the Conversation is easily understood. life there no technical terminology. the goal of the enterprise reflected in the attitudes of the speakers. But the reader will be is able to see why is Heidegger's undertaking important.PREFACE formulates Heidegger's concern for meditative thinking. It does so by virtue of being a conversation the characters of the protagonists can be seen in relation to the ideas they are discussing. for it not. and will be able to appreciate why the fulfillment of this undifficult. And for the philosopher or theologian as yet unacquainted with Martin Heidegger's thought. dertaking so extraordinarily Those well versed in the intricacies of Heidegger's thought may find the Conversation a refreshingly concrete presentation of one of the fundamental points in his philosophy. the style of the Address is is clear.

We are indebted to the Central Fund for Research of vania State University for grants which completion of this work. The Pennsylmade possible the John M. We thank him for these and for much other help in this enterprise. Hans Freund .PREFACE losophy which already has a place in history. Anderson E. y Conversation might well provide a tempting taste of a phi- We wish to acknowledge our indebtedness to Professor Glenn Gray for many valuable suggestions which have materially improved the translation.

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however Or weak they be That mice set free.INTRODUCTION There are many who it resist a certain kind of philosophy. The beast fables of the Panchatantra describe and point up a science of survival. have always been for example. and an unsentimental evaluation of its content: strong Make friends. a hard calculative view of life and its possibilities. They find hard to enjoy. by casting them in the terms of animals and their ways and how opaque and obscure are the Upanishads in their efforts to reveal the ultimate 11 unremitting nature of things : . In early Hindu thought. the contrast between the beast fable and the Upanishads reflects this difference in outlook. abstract. There have always been such people in the vari- ous epochs of those human history. seems to them vague and obscure just as there nonsense. who find the revelations of speculative thinking to be of utmost importance. make friends. Recall the captive elephants How sharply such admonitions contrast with the mystical ! messages of the Upanishads lating the problems How clear they are in formu- and methods of human survival. It and apparently of no great practical value.

Heidegger fables present to us the lessons in calculation finds the outlook of the beast fables represented in modern society by the calculative thinking of contemporary science and its applied disciplines. even one of which every man is is capable. it it. It is man's nature. in this And he would also make evident to us that to think way requires two attributes not at all common. Indeed. evident that he finds mediif it tative thinking a difficult is also and cryptic enterprise. his autochthony. With implicit in this Heidegger contrasts another kind of calls thinking which he is meditative. and which he calls releasement to the toward things and openness mystery.12 INTRODUCTION The knowing Self is not born. sprang from nothing. but the myths and tales of Hesiod's Theogony have another both more obscure and more fundamental point to make. he says. nothing sprang from The same split occurs in early Greek thought. two stands which man can take. Heidegger relieves these attributes somewhat the cryptic character of by showing their relevance to human life by showing that man's integrity. the sharp and realistic view. It is this age-old difference in outlook which forms the basis for Martin Heidegger's Memorial Address in honor of the German composer Conradin Kreutzer. the unsentimental outlook quick to take advantage of circumstances to attain an end. depends upon such thinking. it dies not. one of to inspire us the exhortations of his Address with the courage and persistence that are necessary to think in this way. claim- . Here is the clear realism of animal life. Aesop's which are the points of the Panchatantra. By this insistence he also drives home the importance of such thinking to man's very being. and which.

the peculiarity of the not a bar to understanding and participating in Heidegger's enter- . Whatever the its difficulty of Heidegger's enterprise and of goal. on to what is ultimate.INTRODUCTION ing. Since these words are so integrally con- nected with the goal of the Address and the dialogue. It is true also that Heidegger often illustrates his points by reference to earlier works in the history of philosophy and to earlier thinkers in complex and original ways. one may say that their meaning is made clear a whole (or that the context fails to clear) . and that- which-regions. Heidegger has chosen a different approach. there are essentially only three. in-dwelling. the difficulty of carrying a reader toward it is not increased in the Memorial Address or the explanatory Conversation It is by technical terminology or philosophical jargon. is true that Heidegger notorious for the use of coined words and phrases. and in many of his writings this in itself makes a grasp of his goal difficult. But fundamentally Heidegger is urging his hearers and readers toward a kind of transmutation of themselves. There are almost no technical or coined terms . toward a commitment which will enable them to pass out of their bondage to what is clear and evident but shallow. however obscure and difficult that applications are discerned in may be. that even the ultimate tive thinking of 15 modern science meaning of the calculaand its humanly significant and through meditative thinking. Yet in the Memorial Address and in the dialogue that develops its theme. indeed. translated here as releasement. something which makes many of his essays and books uncommonly involved. indeed. even by philosophical standards. by the context as make their meaning words is In any case.

1959). Yet the Address easy to follow. 1. 1 There is. then. by an extraordinary and poetic use of words. in by using a language that is simple and has the flavor of the earth. For Heidegger's views on language and its function cf. and with is what the ground of things. for the INTRODUCTION what is of being words only sum up and stand for the whole said. Was ist Metaphysik? pp. (Frankfurt a. want take us with them beyond the ordinary and the familiar. Eckhart to as for example Meister whom he refers. That the meaning of these special words as we should come to we are led toward see the goal Heidegger sets for us. although the former much simpler than the latter. and by is this and metaphor involving means he achieves a poetic paragraph organi- tone. with fields. and Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen: Gunther Neske. but phrases and words oc- curring in the larger context often evoke overtones of feeling associated with the land. Heidegger writes in the manner and might be to with the poetic tone of the mystics. if not by making extensive use of tech- nical terminology as in his earlier works? part. He does it. How of does Heidegger lead us toward the transmutation man he desires. for not.: Klostermann. Actually. . of the entire presentation. Not that his sentence structure or it is zation poetic.M. He strives for simile the soil and growth. no veil of words standing between the audience and Heidegger's conception of man's authentic nature . 1960). words are used with the directness of reference which only poetic handling can and dialogue are not especially is achieve. 50 ff. 1929.14 prise. to what is ultimate. 8th ed. Thus his enterprise conceived as similar in difficulty to the task of the mystics who. which is to be grasped on the basis is. rather.

particularly in Being and Time.INTRODUCTION typical of his later writings. we should But are we now- adays even perplexed at our inability to understand the expression "Being"? Not ing treatise is at all. Those who have read Being and Time will remember that one of its major themes is the claim that the traditional approaches to Being have failed that the conception of Be3 ing as a generic object. has misled philosophical efforts to grasp its by 2. English translation by (New York: Harper & Row. This is a bold enterprise. Fortunately. 1929). method for It is dealing with the ultimate than is to be found in his earlier often writings. provide a better 15 This raises the question of whether Heidegger's methods. 1962). 1. Evidently. So it fitting that meaning of Being. In Being Mac(juarrie and Robinson Being and Time (Tubingen: Niemeyer. But what did he intend? The amount if of technical terminology that must be mastered we are to judge whether the enterprise projected in Being and Time succeeds or not is very great. and Time. and one which belongs in the mainstream of Western philosophy. claimed that Heidegger in Being and Time failed to accomplish what he intended. Heidegger follows a method nature. and to provide an account of its nature. p. to work out the 2 we must reawaken an underOur aim in the followquestion of the meaning of Being and to do so concretely. Indeed. So first of all standing for the meaning of this question. contrast with that tradition. Heidegger intends to reawaken modern man to the significance of the nature of Being. such mastery is not essential to an understanding of the outlines of the enterprise itself. . Heidegger states the nature of the enterprise succinctly in the first pages of this work Do we raise in our time have an answer of the to the question of is what we really mean by the word "being"? Not anew the question at all. as beyond experience.

Finally. As has readers of Being been indicated. transcendental. one might say that Heidegger's method is to develop. the structures called being toward death and resolve do. as. Such structures ultimately reveal the temporal ground of man's being. These pervasive structures are. takes a place in and comprehends Being. To restate this analysis of experience when and to the extent that man comes to define himself as aware that his own being is at stake. cally. If a rich and complex analysis may be stated in a few sentences. he comes : to authentic existence as temporal 5 and. an account of experience which for discloses whom his own being is at stake. first. as Heidegger all calls them. when we come to see that in them man is actively engaged in caring. The question we must ask next is whether a method they structure of experience. he adumbrates an account which would from time to Being. it elicits what is from a variety of and Time which is called the phenomenoof experi- ences certain pervasive structures experience. for example. as authentic. The logical analysis of experience in Being directed toward this end uses method. or. ontological. that is. to use the Kantian term.16 INTRODUCTION man and claims to proceed from his au- that begins with thentic existence to an understanding of Being. many and Time have of completion found the enterprise incomplete and incompletable. man as that being He then proceeds to show that such lead a being as man is through and through temporal. man's temporal being in the terms of these transcendental structures enables Heidegger to carry out his eliciting enterprise and to formulate the nature of Being. that is. Logithe difficulty standing in the way .

reveals formulation reveals this solely as man as temporal but man sees it. they can do this in a limited way only. These structures provide a grasp of man's being as temporal but because they are the structures of man's experience. parts of this study We know what were intended to contain. the conditions of awareness. We know. that Heidegger outlined this work. of the horizons of experience. although it is probable that it was written. Thus it seems impossible to escape from subjective distortions and to learn anything about Being as such by means of the method Heidegger used in Being and Time. for example. rather than simply in terms Such a method could reveal man's temporality in relation to what was beyond man. and not merely in the terms of man himself. The formulation of the horizons. and a method which explicitly formulates them extends our understanding beyond the contents of awareness to its deeper . These structures constitute the horizons of human awareness. for we have Heidegger's word on the matter. nature as such. the projected but .INTRODUCTION seems to 17 be that the transcendental structures of experience which Heidegger elicits are formulated as static and final. to include material not published in the book. There jective orientation poral in terms of its ground. In part. solely 3 such a in hu- man is in such a method an ineluctably subwhich must characterize its results. But there is circumstantial as well as logical evidence for believing that the enterprise of Being and Time remains incomplete. What seems to be necessary in order to comprehend Being is a method of understanding which can grasp man's nature as tem- terms. initially. Being and Time as published consists of but a part of a the unpublished longer projected study.

is This view supported also by the fact that the book. 1959). . Vber den Humanismus (Frankfurt a. the third Difirst Part. it seems clear. There is evidence that a new formulation of "Time and Being" exists and : will eventually be published. 178. constitutes historical evidence that the method and categories of Being and Time were somehow inadequate to deal with the problem effectively. Manheim . presumably. p. An Introduction to Metaphysics. English translation by Ralph (Yale University Press. solved. In this last part. The adequate reproduction the fact that vision of the . Heidegger's claim that Being can be man's authentic exwhich is fundamentally temporal. That is. Heidegger himself says of this part disclosed along a path beginning in istence. and in part they were to have included an account of the relation between Time and of Being. and that in the years immediately following the publication of Being and Time none of Heidegger's writings offers the solution. of and participation in this other thinkis ing that leaves subjectivity behind indeed rendered difficult by when Being and Time was published. Klostermann. deals with the problem of Being. 1949). in question . entitled "Time and Being" was held back. was to have been justified by showing the way to Being. but from a quite different direction.18 INTRODUCTION unpublished sections of the book were to have dealt with an analysis of the history of philosophy. 4. That this part of the book has not yet been published. Introduction to Metaphysics* published some years after Being and Time. The Division means failed in adequately articulating this turn. Where one might have supposed that the later book would be a completion of the 3. was held back because thinking and did not achieve its 3 goal by of the language of metaphysics.M. the problem how Being could be seen in relation to man's being as temporal was to have been discussed explicitly and.

offers the suggestion that a return to the naive but unnot very distorted intuition of Being in the earliest Greek philosoit is phers could put us on the right path. turn to Heidegger's later writings. What he to present an illuminating criticism of European philosophy. it seems to be an independent in- quiry. When we low. rather than nothing? Evidently an answer reveal something about the nature of Being. same as the earlier one. by contrast to this sophisticated approach.INTRODUCTION enterprise 19 begun earlier. In this he shows how the tradition of European philosoand so on. criticism. whether the methods used and the orientation to the problem are similar. we should ask. they can not be said to does is have provided the answer. of course. such as becoming. and Be- then has tried to transcend these opposites ing. If it is the same. and Time. for ex- ample the Memorial Address and Conversation which folwe must view them in the light of the uncompleted enterprise formulated in Being first. Yet while Heidegger's efforts to answer this ultimate question are most as interesting as the question. and finally. We should ask. we want to know whether the enterprise has at last succeeded. phy has concerned itself with an analysis of the opposites of Being. Third. whether the enterprise is in general the In the Memorial Address in honor of Conradin Kreutzer. to arrive at And he. . To Heidegger asks again the to this question it Why does something exist. or at least an experiment in a define this different approach traditional question : new approach. appearance. since would would al- reveal the relation of particulars to their ground. second. But clear in the Introduction to Metaphysics what this path could be.

. Indeed. however arduous it may be. it has been noted that markedly different in his and particularly in those translated here. it might be the search for a of new new ground sense of the importance of such a The interesting thing in this analysis is that if the phrase "new ground of meaning" is substituted for the word "Being" in the passage quoted from Being and Time on page 1 5 above. He calls upon us to reawaken to a task we have forgotten.20 INTRODUCTION to Heidegger seeks show his audience that it is time to re- meaning. He goes so far as to suggest that if this task is undertaken. Here he does not rely upon technical terminology. seems characteristic of both the earlier and the later Heidegger. and to undertake this task. In the Memorial Address it is claimed that man's nature includes the capacity for meditative thinking. the enterprise formulated in the Memorial Address and that in Being and Time would be exactly completed. at least. and that the proper exercise of this capacity. This answers our first : question. the enterprise of reawakening an awareness of the significance of Being.. However important this is. the same. it is not the whole story and there is at least one sense in which Heidegger's method in the Memorial Address and the Conversation is the same as in his earlier writing's. For is Heidegger's use of language later writings. difficult though it is in terms of releasement . Is But that answer raises the second question the method is in these later writings the same as in the earlier ones? It has been noted already that the answer to this question partially negative. and of determining the nature of Being. and that the ground of meaning has been overlooked in the modern world where applied science and calculative thinking dominate our lives. but upon poetic directness.

can lead to a new ground of meaning. then. 98 ff. is the same. conceived as the 5. this character is quite differently. But in the Memorial Address and the Conversaunderstood tion. Clearly. Yet this similarity must not remain unqualified. 5 In this reference to his earlier thought. not to exchange lasts in it for another. and conceived as moving toward this end the Conversation which de- through man. Yet. In Being and character Time this understood as the transcendental structure of experience. What thinking is the way. Heidegger clearly indicates that there has been a nature of Being if is still thought is still major change. 1959). then. and Time himself has said I have forsaken an earlier position. but because even the former position was only a pause on the way. for there each stage in the approach to Being depends ment of a stage in the nature of upon the developthinking. in what does the change consist? The Memorial Address and velops its theme is reflect this change in the conception of the defining character of man's nature. It is interesting. to observe in this connection that is the method of the Conversation the same. . this is the method of Being and Time carried over. as in other later works.INTRODUCTION toward things and openness vides the basis through to 21 mystery. is it conceived there? It is way in which man is involved immediately : Unterwegs zur Sprache (Pfullingen Giinther Neske. if the the end at which thought aims. This is the claim that man's nature prowhich one wins an understanding of Being. for Heidegger to Being. which is man's nature. pp. In a very general way. the approach in Being and in the Memorial Address and the Conversation to a new ground of meaning. How.

and needs. consider the nature it is of waiting as analyzed in the Conversation. without waiting for anything for anything. but Heidegger wants to show that has a deeper significance and involves a reference beyond the merely human. When we wait in this human way. But." is This seems gestion is to be a paradoxical statement. is of the subsequent discussion. For one example. Waiting is a human it activity. the specifically and merely human. 6. in this sense. "Conversation. and Some aspects of this new understand- ing are evident in the Conversation. of course. Implied in this claim. waiting involves our desires." It worth noting that the Conversation begins at a distance from what is merely human. Normally. that man's nature is to be found in relation to something a suggestion that to comprehend man one must transcend subjective. which could . and yet the sugto that the development of this idea be a theme else. the Heidegger expresses this claim metaphorically by placis ing the Conversation "far from human habitation.22 INTRODUCTION directly in Being. when we wait we wait for something which interests us or which can provide us with what we want. the question 6 question about man. .." p. But waiting need not be so definitely colored by our nature. and that it is terminated at a point where the participants once again approach human habitation : the symbolic significance should not be missed. First.. 58 below. tributed to the Teacher. goals. There is a sense in which we can wait without knowing for what we wait. the Conversation begins with a cryptic statement of this new conception at- who is says that concerning man's nature not a ". Heidegger also develops this claim explicitly in a number of ways. We may wait. that is. third. the subjective.

a gift. thinking least Of peculiarly human. is developed as a transcendence Yet one may object that while is two kinds that the suggestive. but As Heidegin the case of "upon" to what ger says: "In waiting [upon] we leave open what we are 7 waiting for. and in this sense waiting may come to have a reference beyond man. 68 below. The traditional 7. course. therefore. . The difference be- tween these two kinds of waiting may be expressed by saying that when we wait in a merely human way we wait for. which found in man's true nature. In the context of is the Conversation. as a kind of human activity leading to an understanding two senses. may be to state this in ordinary terms. consider another aspect of the relation of man to what transcends him. whereas in the deeper sense of waiting we wait upon." This is to say that man's true nature may relate directly to what transcends him. The different prepositions are intended to refer in the case some sort. Let us. it would be Being. this possible transcendence. The comprehension of meditative thinking is as a structure of man is relating directly to Being clearly the central theme of the Address and Conversation. Waiting upon does not evoke Bethough the suggestion is that if anything responded to such waiting. however difficult it of "for" to subjective human expectations of is." p. even is discerned. it is an analysis of waiting into hardly conclusive in showing to movement from man Being can be made if the correct path ing. In we simply wait. "Conversation. to Being. but it is human in at and usual view of thinking sees it as the representing of what is typical of things.INTRODUCTION be grasped and expressed in subjective this sense 25 human terms. if given. that is.

And such thinking has a content. and so to be human. for one example. by a practitioner. thinking which is open to content. and so it content which is given to it. In this sense a kind of willing. may is be discerned. Now thinking which constructs a world of objects understands these objects 5 but meditative thinking begins with an awareness of the field within which these objects are. human affairs this is meditative Thinking of this second sort does exist. Yet there of waiting. By contrast to representative thinking. certain properties of meditative thinking pointed out. somewhat negatively. it is thinking which allows content to emerge within awareness.24 INTRODUCTION it is of objects. to it is about something. At one what Heidegger calls calculative thinking. It is to be found. which is characterized by human methods of approaching things. Meditative thinking to its content. Meditative thinking be- gins with an awareness of this kind. an awareness of the horizon rather than of the begins with itself. analogous to the second sense which thought refers beyond the human. objects of ordinary understanding. and by the fact that in calculative thinking we deal seen as something specifically and merely extreme this is with things in our terms for our advantage. throughout the whole Conversation. one of these properties has just been is thinking which open open to what is given. Indeed. in is a second sense of thinking. the field of awareness as When viewed from within. that it does not construct a world of objects. we may observe. : transcends reference to thinking. for ex- ample. that it does not represent. To begin comprehend what is involved in this kind of thinking. A man engaged in meditative thinking might well characterize what he was .

relatively simple account of the preceding para- One goal of the Conversation is to provide a devel- oping comprehension of releasement 8. beyond the . . Yet. ". clearly. as it involves and is "Conversation. willing. To be open difficult for it is man. then. this higher activity of it is thinking in relation to the openness involved in it so imof di- needs a special name." p. meditative thinking involves will. In any case. Since openness involves meditative thinking. 61 below. Releasement involves openness. We might think of the metaphorically. Yet such thinking does not involve what to is ordinarily called an act of will. an annulling of the such thinking is not a passive affair either. the property of openness. man does not come is to be open through indifference or neglect. Let us regard meditative thinking. man's true nature involving openness and. . but ing to suppose that that involvement is it would be mislead- adequately sketched by the graphs. human power. . through rect and immediate reference beyond man to Being. for one does not will be open. But perhaps the real point that this kind of think- ing lies. along the path referred to in the Conversation symbolizes such an activity and such a portant that leasement. Heidegger is calls it re- Releasement a defining characteristic it. as the to Being. . as Heidegger says." 8 distinction between activity and passivity. to speak of this thinking as a suggestive higher kind of activity than is . Quite the contrary. activity of walking along a path which leads conversation Cer- tainly metaphorically. he might comprehend medita- tive thinking as a fundamental property of human nature.INTRODUCTION doing as 25 being open that 5 is. as a higher kind of activity than is involved in the exercise of any subjective it. direction.

is conceived in the Conversation in a radically different from that in way Being and Time. he says. below. "Conversation. In meditative thinking. and the second. . a kind of which when ing. for its it involves a resolve in regard to Being. and to be called "in-dwell(releasement Meditative thinking not a simple opening to Be- ing. In consequence. may be described as being released to. is toward-death. as the nature of authentic releasement to) might suggest.26 INTRODUCTION first involved in Being. 73 below. The intention of this change is revealed as a deliberate effort of Heidegger to assure the possibility of moving through man to Being. "Conversation. Heidegger speaks of two aspects of releasement. (meditative thinking) then. for example. a kind of dwelling in Being. There is no doubt that Heidegger believes this to be pos- sible in the terms of meditative thinking. authentic releasement. for another example. for he does not 9." 10 fully which is related to a comprehended is is resolve for truth. 10. 9 Again. man opens to Being and is Such a resolve 5 not an exercise taking a stand of subjective human powers rather. This in- ner nature of releasement must be considered later in this introduction it is mentioned here only to emphasize the 5 complexity of the relation of releasement and openness. resolves for disclosure. it is which reveals Being. 81 S. and temporality replaced in the Conversa- by an analysis of the higher activity of meditative thinking which involves Being directly. The being- transcendental structure of experience analyzed in Being and Time tion in such terms as being-in-the-world." p. releasement has hidden in steadfastness it. The defining character of man's nature . the of which is being released from." p.

of what has freely turned toward itself. of that-which-regions and that this account has been reached from the starting point of meditative thought. it is possible to designate a region as inherently dynamic by using the phrase that-which-regions. would be impossible in this an answer to such a basic 66 below. is open . The first two have been answered.INTRODUCTION hesitate to speak directly about 27 to give Being and an acan count of its nature. The region ing is gathers. Region- a gathering and re-sheltering for an expanded resting in an is abiding. us. . But let us quote from such a direct account of illustrate the point Being in these new terms to we are making. So the region itself It abides into the at once expanse of resting. that of his as developed earlier thought. but its method different from. even further. "Conversation. succeed? This was the third question. is . an expanse and an abiding. Three questions were asked above about the characteristics of Heidegger's later thought. That a region inherent openness and activity of Being. It expands into the abiding 11 . Does Heidegger's enterprise. moreover." p. 5 of man's nature. In the Conversation. and it remains before brief introduction to formulate 11. - Now the point not that these sentences be clear out of context. to use the verb regioning to express this activity directly. Heidegstress ger does not use the word Being $ but in order to region and cognates instead. he uses the word its is. however. but that they claim to give an explicit account of Being. just as if nothing all were happening. It in his later thought. each to each and each to into an abiding. while resting in itself. and. for we concluded that the goal of his later thought is the same as.

does man open to In a word. as ing. and to the evi- dence which Heidegger gives for able insight into the problem it. of course. as openness in which he is partly identified with the given. and here a sug- must suffice. The whole of the claim implicit in the account Heidegger gives of Being in the Conversation rests the analysis of man's nature. three kinds of evidence seem to be offered for the justification of this assumption.28 INTRODUCTION 5 question but the key to its answer can be suggested. is ? an openness. Thus we may observe first that meditative thinking is an opening of man to something. as is emphagestion of the argument and its results sized by calling such thinking releasement. which is important for an understanding of Heidegger's general claim. In releasement then. he argues that the given. his being. and not its details. for he wishes to justify the identity he is claiming. Meditative think- ing characterizes man's true nature. it is the nature of the evidence. meditative thinking would be powerless to reach Being. is the answer to the given. In the Conversation. Certainly if this were not so. openness and. of its justification. What we may is : ask. To do so. is an as we shall see. that is. an opening. Fortunately. This evi- dence amounts to showing that Being as reached through meditative thinking is partly identical with the nature and movement of such thinking. too. Man be- . provides the upon the assumption that found in meditative thinkapproach to Being. The details given in the Conversation must be studied carefully to understand the point fully. But Heidegger not content to present this answer. man is open. Close will provide consider- key to a direct attention to the nature of this assumption.

then. but the side facing us of an openness which surrounds us. If one comprehends this situation fully. The openness calls which the horizon of consciousness is set Heidegger [its the region. In part. tative thinking is an opening to what is of such knowing. . upon the openness of that. as an open- standing open. To restate the argument viewed from within. } 64 ft. viewed from within. we disregard that it can also appear as the horizon of our re-presenting? It strikes 12." p. me as something like a region.INTRODUCTION comes partly identified with the given by opening in turn. an openness which filled with views of the appearances of what In consequence the horizon . our consciousness of the world of objects is an unbounded field of awareness. . But the possibility of : but only a horizon. an awareness of the horizon of the consciousness of objects. that is. someis thing else besides a horizon other side of itself. this field of awareness has no fixed limits. [and] this something else the horizon is and so the same as itself. . as Heidegger likes to say. is What is is evident of the horizon openness]. one sees that medi- beyond the horizon any such opening must depend to some degree upon what lies beyond the horizon. . meditative thinking involves an aware- ness of the field of awareness. But an awareness of the is horizon in this explicit sense as an openness because the horizon is set possible just it is within an openness of which in but one side. meditative thinking consists in becoming aware of the horizon ing out and so as as such. the given opens to him. 29 to it as. You say that the the openness which surrounds us. As already noted. indeed. to is our re-prestill senting are objects. But what is this openif ness as such. as it were. and. . below. Let us consider this argument somewhat more carefully. or. "Conversation.

if it were. the appearance of objects comes to meet us.. However. ". regioning. As we is have noted. ". If now we comprehend basic sense in take the region itself as that which comes to meet us. is a region- 13. 14. . and that that is not perfectly stated in these quotations. we can and must refer to it we can refer to its opening as that-which-regions and as such. the . Man's opening must occur in his awareness of the givenness of the transcendental horizon. the openness of higher activity." p. would go unnoticed by man." we The which the region is an opening is complex. the point being made is just that the region is an opening. . 65 below. his meditative thinking.. given of which we A more important part of common is this identity is to be found in a activity. Now it is true that since that-which-regions 72 ff." p. As Heidegger says. That-which-regions surrounds us and reveals itself to us as the horizon. be grasped movenot a we name properly as is The openness it of the region vacuum . to region- ing. horizon is but the side of that-which-regions turned toward 13 our re-presenting. In the opening of the region. a kind of The openness of the region also if which as it the ground of man's opening must ment. something which is easier that-which-regions. that its is. It seems a region holds what comes forward to meet us. man an opening. below. "Conversation.30 INTRODUCTION That openness of is of the region man which is grounded in the openness but a part of the identity of man and the are speaking. but we also said of the horizon that out of the view which the horizon through the region." Or again. "Conversation. . 4 it encircles. as the we have opening what supports and manifests itself in part of man.

INTRODUCTION ing. meditative thinking in-dwelling. the resolve for truth is a requirement that the regioning of that-which-regions as think- be an unveiling. "Conversation. In reis leasement as such. . As in-dwelling. Clearly. But the reference of thinking ceiver of it that-which-regions as recalls in- may be seen only in what Heidegger dwelling. 81 below. The reference of meditative thinking to that-which-regions as partly identical with man may be seen in releasement as such. expresses the requirement of becoming true for that-which-regions." Evidently there says. . Such an account hardly touches upon the fact that meditative thinking does not simply occur as a part of a more inclusive. given development. we can understand man's nature as brought forth in this movement. . . Truth is not subjective. It man is able to express a resolve for is important not to misunderstand this requirement as a subjective one for while the resolve for truth 5 is made by man. to impose structure." p. Essentially. . but for a 15 receiving of the is regioning of that-which-rea gions. such thinking is more than an instance of such development 5 it also serves to receive the development. Yet there a is something unsatisfactory as if the matter is left here. Through truth. ". for such an account seems to place man and meditative think- ing but a moment : in the given development of that- which-regions it stresses the identity of man and that- which-regions. 31 movement. In such disclosure. for Heidegger the nature of man is released to 15. mutual relation here. That-which-regions is a dynamic ground in which man's nature emerges. man's nature ing serves not to create or ". thinking open to to its ground as given. what is required by him is independent of him.

the coming forth of natures." p. as Man is essential to this dis- Clearly. is compatible with that- which-regions and can play a positive part in this respect. openness and the opening and openness of that-whichregions expresses only the relation of so is man and but a partial identity. The relation between is man and this. natures is as important Thus. This dis- tinction of man. man stands out in order to be where as in- that-which-regions unveils. But how can this disclosure take place? How is this aspect of man's nature interwoven compatibly with the underlying identity already noted? The difficulty of showing how this is done is just the difficulty of showing how man is brought forth in the regioning of that-which-regions and yet comes 16. .32 INTRODUCTION it so that-which-regions because this belongs to that without essentially. we might say. then. 83 below. the identity noted in man's opening and to the given. all natures. stands within that-which-regions and effectively resolves for its disclosure. Or. makes the standard for and the recipient of the disclosure of that-which-regions. Man. in this sense." 16 forth of closure. man. Heidegger needs to produce a second kind of evi- dence that this nature as it is possible. "Conversation. for is that-which-regions much more complex than all the sense in which meditative thinking: receives and necessary for the coming forth of as this identity. expressed in his resolve for truth. its coming forth in truth. dwelling. man that-which-regions can not be a coming it is. This is the evidence that man's expresses the requirement of all becoming true. is the peculiar being with respect to whom him that-which-regions unveils and discloses. to proceed from man's nature to Being.

p. 51. and results in this man contrasts with the nature of things." From this perspec17. way — of showing. consist in the happenings and deeds not obvious of the world. quite different ways. . is fundamental in history but. and yet is emergent as a nature which resolves for and receives the disclosure of its ground.INTRODUCTION forth in such a distinctive is 33 is." p. For a general account of history see Identitat lingen: Giinther Neske. 17 To understand this we must of that-which-regions. that how it that man's nature is necessary because of having its ground in the givenness of that-which-regions. Heidegger seeks to make the diffi- which will clarify this point. Nor in the cultural achievements of is man. Identitat und Differenz. 64 and elsewhere. 18. Yet Heidegger holds is that man's requirement of truth of the basis of the relation man to things and that this relation occurs as history. be grasped as functioning in this way. 19 knowing and is understood broadly. . this duality emphainvolved in and involving truth. its character historical thinking. first in terms of and then in an interesting generalization with respect to truth based upon his interpretation of history. There is a sense in which. but with respect sizes when to it man. rather. "Conversation. Put in as man's nature it he calls it regioning way. . 79 below." 18 What sequential . 1957). as a consequence of man's recult analysis history. 19. the concept of the historical means a mode of Thus ". und Differenz (Pful- . a which does not . as ". solve for truth. To . takes place in two To emphasize this difference. . p. its observe initially that the process regioning. history must be understood in a very fundamental sense. Heideg- ger refers to this process when it results in things as deter- mining. that-which-regions is disclosed in history. that history is. Cf.

one must observe that man solve for truth and so to serve that-which-regions in this movement is to to be. To comprehend fully this bringing for forth of all natures. lates metho- As these examples suggest. noble. as a mode of knowing. a kind of re- collecting. as in the evolution of the subject-object relation or in the sciences understood dologically. such history re- man to things because through that they it things are sustained true. Historical knowing necessarily has origins which are prior to it. articulation. Now history. in consequence. It what the source of all must abide in is in this most fundamental sense that history involves a beginning. it is a return to origins in the sense in which intelligibility must have its is roots in what is prior to thought. for this is a by man's requirement Such an become is requirement that the nature of things be brought forth. Now nobility connotes heritage and origins 3 and suggests. a returning to origins as well as an articulation of the nature of things. closure of that-which-regions. a disclosure an aspect of the diswhich takes is place in relation to man. that resolving for . But it is a return to origins not merely in the sense of recounting an intelligible story of development and change. As a mode of knowing. But what are these origins? thing more about them history if We may all understand some- we look at the more general which to re- circumstances of the bringing forth of is natures. word. and it comprises an intelligible expansion which develops in the terms of these origins. of an aspect.34 tive INTRODUCTION we should look for history where the articulation of the natures of things occurs. articulation. in a set aside subjective demands and pretensions. such history.

but nature. It is upon man from without." 21 . as is it The ground involves a resolve for truth." literal 55 truth involves a return to man's origins. And what is this origin? It is the nature of thatseek. of meditative thinking. Cf. not only has tive thinking as an openness and opening may be said to be grounded in that-which-regions as undisclosed. is not a subjective expression. but it is grounded in two aspects of that-which-regions. 20 The resolve for truth which expresses that-which-regions of all as the bringing forth it natures. therefore. p. . necessity springs from an inner which man can come to not a understand as the ground of his thinking necessity forced necessity it is itself. This "step backthis return becomes explicit. its not that-which-regions. As an inner given to man as a gift. but in the awareness that thinking as is the resolve for truth grounded. . 51. which-regions. My italics. . 85 below. Identitdt und Differenz. 21. And meditative thinking as involving the resolve for truth may be said to be grounded in that-which-regions as dis20. His service in this exalted way is not accident. Meditaing.INTRODUCTION ward. but a necessity demon- strated to by the nature of thinking as having an origin prior thought. Meditative think- two aspects corresponding to the two kinds of evidence we have been examining. "In the nature of thinking so understood. "Conversation. rather. we may have found what we of that-which-regions." p. a gift which justifies man in serving that-which-regions as the being for whom the unveiling of that-which-regions occurs. not in going back to a beginning. This is the nature Let us pause briefly to note explicitly that our analysis has led us to the nature of that-which-regions. as veiled.

Heidegger holds to be correct) a we could understand the relation of the two aspects of meditative thinking. we suggest strongly that these grounds are related. indeed. its nature can't really be two different things of . 68 below. "Then of thinking referred to here is thinking would be coming-into-the-nearness of distance. . We may conceive of the turnset- ing toward the given and the opening to the given as at a distance.36 closed. . as . "Conversation. . the self that-which-regions itself. 22. 23. nearing and distancing. Perhaps the relation of the two aspects of meditative thinking which sketch. as nearing the given. this would give us the clue to the sense in which that-which-regions and its nature are related and together ground meditative think- ing as a whole and so man." p." p. "Conversation. then." 22 is presumably its nature and identical with further insight." The movement thought is is just the turn- ing of thought toward what to the $ given. we have kept apart here is not too difficult to what he Heidegger very early in the Conversation formulates calls a "daring definition" of thinking. since this movement elicits and reveals. as Heidegger says. And if we so conceive meditative thinking in its two aspects ". for this movement distinguishes ting the given thinking from its given content. 86 below. just the opening of given as such and the approaching of what given through the demand in thought that this be artic- ulated and so become true. INTRODUCTION Yet as soon as we state the relation of meditative thinking to its grounds in this way. And we may conceive of the resolve for truth as a movement of approach. since "that-which- regions and . If And implicit in this sugis gestion (which. as unveiled.

This third compatibility of thinking and that-which-regions must not be viewed statically." p. . Because that-which-regions regions all. gathering everything together and letting everything return to itself. . its *nature. This bold characterization of Being has been reached through man.. for Heidegger's claim to have proceeded from man to Being rests upon his analysis of meditative think- ing." p. Then that-which-regions . . . In this analysis there are central strands of three kinds. 86 below. . We refer to the characterthird analysis support- of opening and openness on the one hand. . this complex movement would provide the concept needed to understand the identity of that-which-regions and by saying that we . . there are the two analyses which claim to show that meditative thinking can be grounded in that- which-regions as such and in the nature of that-whichregions. "Conversation." time remaining distant from that-which-regions. The 24. They it are analyses that lead characteristics of thinking to from certain specifiable what grounds thinking so far as istics has these characteristics. 86 below. "Conversation. Not any part. If so. 25. to rest in its own identity. but the whole of this movement is Being. and to the resolve for truth on the other.INTRODUCTION perhaps tion 37 we can express our experience during this conversaare coming near to and so at the same . it must be comprehended as an intricate movement weaving the given and veiled aspect of that-which-readons into its unveiled and articulated aspect. cally .. We have considered these analyses in the last few pages. In the first place. itself would be nearing and distancing a characterization which should not be thought of dialecti[but] in accordance with the nature of thinking.

" p. indeed. . "Conversation. human nature a relation rests on the regioning It into that-which-regions. the nature of think". . Thus." p. "Conversation. — . It is attainable has just been an analysis suggesting that the continuity beis tween the two aspects of thought which found in the movement reflect of "coming-into-the-nearness of distance" must a continuity between the that is. and says he uses. ". ." p. the subjunctive mood. "Conversation. It justifies such state- as "Truth's nature can come forth independently of man only because the nature of is man (as releasement to that-which-regions) used by that-which-regions in re- gioning both with respect to man and which to sustain determina relation ing. having stepped beyond our subjective human perspective yet a word of . 87 below. . 27. ing. Heidegger cautions us in ! a number . its between that-whichit justifies regions as such and nature. of ways. for some time we have said everything in the mode of supposition 26. as the essentially . we stand here in the midst of the ultimate. . apparently different grounds of these aspects. .38 INTRODUCTION is ing Heidegger's claim that Being given." as. . 84 below. to depict this view he uses. 28. shift- As soon ments as this final analysis is presented ing perspective from man to Being. 27 if that-which-regions the nearness From the perspective afforded by this final one is able to see man's nature. justifies asking such a question "Yet what then would be the is nature of thinking of distance?" analysis. Evidently truth's independence from to man is of human nature. caution is necessary And. 86 below. as determined by Being." 28 Evidently human relation to that-which-regions.

Anderson 29." By such cautionary words and modes to prevent too literal of expression. 89 below. somesomething specific thing of the vanishing which is an aspect of Being." 29 39 its Thus. we are seeking. nature. still "Which And." finally." p. 89 below. . If we forget this. that provides the final step to Being. We may is be inclined to forget. John M. that it is and that it probably will vanish. and until 30 it name 31 for what we have found. nevertheless. to name the nature of thinking in falls de- pendence upon that-which-regions. for "the child in man.INTRODUCTION only. "Conversation. in stand on this step. the continuity achieved just that continuity which and particular. strict Heidegger wishes terpretation of and too an in- what can be said from the midst of the ulti- mate. "Conversation. and the resolve for truth on the other. attained in the inter- weaving in thinking of opening and openness on the one hand. 89 below. 31." in its But point he adds. that the intoxicating moment when we specific it is." p. he personifies Being in the imaginative figure of Night and recasts the argument imaginatively. 30. 85 below. "Conversation. that the continuity of thinking as specific and particular must reflect and particular about the movement identifying that-which-regions as such and its nature." p. we shall forget. too. if We may understand the significance of this caution we recall that it is the continuity. 32. "Conversation. he then deliberately reads meaning into "the best it back upon the seems to be at just this Greek word comprising Heraclitus' 122nd Fragment." p.

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DISCOURSE ON THINKING .

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43 . (Tr. 1955. Country Path (Tr. If a we are to honor all. In the case of a musician this done through the performance of his compositions. I thank the path of this my homeland for all that my life.MEMORIAL ADDRESS* Let my first public word in my home it town be a word has given of thanks. above is duly honor his work. we must. Conradin Kreutzer's compositions ring forth today in * This speech was presented at the celebration of the 175th birthday of the composer Conradin Kreutzer on October 50. choruses and songs. in Messkirch. a native of our region. I have tried to those me along explain the nature of endowment in first which 1 few pages entitled "Der Feldweg" appeared in 1 949 in a book honoring the hun- dredth anniversary of the death of Conradin Kreutzer. chamber and church music. I thank Mayor Schiihle for his warm-hearted welcome. Honored Guests. operas and musical plays. He was highly productive in concert.) Conradin Kreutzer (1780-1849). German composer and conductor. Of his works some of his choruses for men and one of his operas are still well known in Germany. man whose calling it is to be creative. Friends and Neighbors! We are gathered together in commemoration of the composer Conradin Kreutzer. I And am especially grateful for the privilege of giving the at today's memorial address ceremony. 2.) 1.

to his come we relate the story of Conradin works. the himself is is present. These memories It is to help us to think back both composer we honor and alive as soon as life. the language of words? So they say. In listening to such a story. to the so a "memorial address" has work. one in : which we think? Hardly! And been put on the program. no thinking at all is needed. And yet the question remains Do playing and singing alone make our celebration a thoughtful celebration. are often enough thought- . for the master's pres- ence in the work the only true presence. The musicians and come to singers who take part in today's cele- bration are a warrant that Conradin Kreutzer's work will be heard on this occasion. as who were. including those Let us not fool ourselves. joyful Kreutzer's and recount and describe his is Through such a relating we can find much that and sorrowful. All of think professionally. that we think. In these sounds the master. But at bottom we merely allow ourselves to be entertained by such a talk. in opera and in chamber music. The greater the more completely his person vanishes behind his work. much that is instructive and exemplary.44 DISCOURSE ON THINKING artist song and chorus. no reflecting is demanded on what concerns each one of us immediately and continuously in his very being. us. But does this alone constitute a memorial celebration? A memorial celebration means that we think back. Yet what are we to think and to say at a memorial which is devoted to a composer? Is it not the distinction of music to "speak" through the sounding of tones and so not to need ordinary language. Thus even a memorial address gives no assurance that we will think at a memorial it celebration.

But even while we are thoughtless. Still only that can lie fallow which in itself a ground for growth. only to forget it just as quickly. just as so we were young. For our capacity to think. spring at the ingly possess. : We rather use this capacity implicitly. Commemoration and thoughtlessness are found side by side. though strangely that in thoughtlessness we let it lie is fallow. has "spirit and reason" and is destined to think. we do not give up an uncanny today's world. we can grow old we can grow thought-poor or even thought-less only because man at the core of his being has the capacity to think. where Just as nothing grows. instantly. The growing today : from some process that gnaws very marrow of man man is today is is in flight from thinking. research carried on as passion- course. He will say — from thinking. But part of that man will neither see it. such as a field. An expressway. Thus one gathering follows on the heels of another. many and many Of areas. We can only lose or. is. cannot be a fallow field. Commemorative celebrations grow poorer and poorer in thought.MEMORIAL ADDRESS poor is . as the phrase goes. Thoughtlessness visitor who comes and goes everywhere in nowadays we take in everything in the quickest and cheapest way. He and quite rightly that there were at no time such far-reaching plans. Man today will even flatly deny this flight will assert the opposite. so inquiries in so ately as today. we can grow deaf only because we only because hear. therefore. This nor admit flight- from-thought this flight the ground of thoughtlessness. And this display of ingenuity . 45 we all are far too easily thought-less. get loose from that which we knowingly or unknowthoughtlessness must.

Calculative think- computes ever new. But thinking of a special kind. understanding. that is mere meditative thinking. ever more promising and at the culative thinking races same time more economical possibilities. In this "above" the reach of ordinary excuse only this much is true. It loses touch. each justified and needed in its own way calculative thinking and medi: tative thinking. It profits nothing in carrying out practical And you may say. itself. Calfrom one prospect to the next. finally. It neither works with numbers nor uses an adding machine or computer. This meditative thinking is what we have is in mind when we say that contemporary : man in flight-from-thinking. We take them into account with the cal- culated intention of their serving specific purposes. This calculation is the Thus we mark of thinking that plans and investigates. Such thinking reif it mains calculation even ing computes. Such thought remains indispensable. Its — it also remains true that it is peculiarity consists in the fact that whenever we plan. It is worthdealing with current business. two kinds of thinking. not thinking which contemplates the meaning which reigns in everything that is. we always reckon with conditions that are given. There are. and organize. medi- tative thinking does not just happen by itself any more than . affairs. can count on definite all results. never collects culative thinking is Cal- not meditative thinking. Yet you floating less for may protest mere meditative thinking finds itself unaware above reality. Calculative thinking never stops. then. research.46 DISCOURSE ON THINKING its deliberation has own great usefulness. persevering meditation.

ed. on this patch of home ground now. 314. It demands delicate care than any other genuine craft. and so are East Prussia. each one of us. It is in need of even more effort. Ether . that 5 ." It is enough if we dwell on what lies close and meditate on what is closest upon that which concerns us. What does this celebration suggest to us.MEMORIAL ADDRESS does calculative thinking. Why? Bemeditative thinking need is." {Works. a meditating being. cause man is a thinking. But it must also to bide its time. Thus by no means be "high-flown. Silesia.) The poet means to say: For a truly joyous and salutary human work to flourish. 47 At times it requires a greater more practice. the seed will come up and Yet anyone can follow the path of meditative thinking in his own manner and within his own limits. 5 in the present hour of history. We grow thoughtful and ask : does not the flourishing of any genuine work depend upon its roots in a native soil? Johann Peter Hebel once wrote: "We are plants which whether we like to admit it to ourselves or not must with our roots rise out of the earth in order to bloom in the ether and to bear fruit. we cannot help remembering at once that during the last two centuries great poets and thinkers have been brought forth from the Swabian land. here and now here. whether ripen. man must be able to mount from — the depth of his home ground up into the ether. to be able await as does the farmer. Bohemia. As we hold this simple fact in mind. Altwegg III. in case we are ready to meditate? Then we notice that a work of art has flowered in the ground of our homeland. Thinking about is it further makes clear at once that Central Germany and likewise such a land.

have been driven They are strangers now to their former homeland. have yet wandered off. They have been caught up in the turmoil of the big cities. Hourly wastelands of industrial districts. We grow more thoughtful and ask: does this claim of Johann Peter Hebel hold today? Does man still dwell calmly between heaven and earth? Does a meditative spirit still reign over the land? Is there still a life-giving homeland in whose ground man may stand rooted. which modern assail. and give the illusion of a world that is no world. than the tradition of his native world. realms of the imagination. and have resettled in the leave their villages and towns. have had to from their native soil. Countless others whose homeland was saved. closer than the sky over the earth. but often merely common. : We — . All that with techniques of communication stimulate. And those who have stayed on in their homeland? Often they are still more homeless than those who have been driven from their homeland. Week after week the movies carry them off into uncommon. the open realm of the spirit. be autochthonic? Many Germans have lost their homeland. grow more thoughtful and ask What is happening here with those driven from their homeland no less than with those who have remained? Answer: the rootedness. and drive man — all that is already much closer to man today than his fields around his farmstead.48 DISCOURSE ON THINKING here means the free air of the high heavens. Picture magazines are everywhere available. closer than the change from night to day. closer than the conventions and customs of his village. that is. and daily they are chained to radio and television.

does not stand idly by. But this symbolizes only the obvious for it was recognized at once that atomic energy can be used also for peaceful purposes. eighteen Nobel Prize winners The German Bodenstandigkeit literal or a is translated rootedness or autochthony depending on a more figurative connotation. man. And we ask What really is happening in our age? By what is it characterized? : has been called of late most conspicuous symbol is the atom the atomic age. of 49 its man is threatened today at is core! Even more The : loss of rootedness caused not merely by it circumstance and fortune.) .MEMORIAL ADDRESS the autochthony. Its bomb. The into loss of autochthony springs from the all spirit of the age can which of us were born. It publicly proclaims this era of happiness. to implement the peaceful uses of atomic have figured out already that into The great industrial corporations of the leading countries. atomic energy this can develop a gigantic business. too. this 3. into the far reaches of the heavens and the spirit? Or will everything now fall into the clutches of planning and calculation. : We grow still more thoughtful and ask If this is so. of organization and automation? If we reflect upon what our celebration today suggests. then we must observe the loss of man's autochthony with which our age is threatened. is Through atomic business a new era of happiness en- visioned. Nuclear physicists everywhere are busy that is 5 The age now beginning with vast plans energy. first of all England. nor does stem only from the negligence and the superficiality of man's way of life. (Tr. can man's work in the future still be expected to thrive in the fertile ground of a homeland and mount into the ether. Thus in July of year at Lake Constance. Nuclear science.

It rules the whole beginning to earth. Nature bestation. In not quite twenty years. Indeed. It long remained unknown in other continents. and it was al- together alien to former ages and histories." What is the sense of this statement? Does spring from of the reflection? Does ! it ever ponder on the if meaning from a atomic age ? of science. attacks that believed able comes a gigantic gasoline any longer to resist. This relation of man to the world as such. From ject this arises a completely it. This radical rev- olution in outlook has come about in modern philosophy. developed in the seventeenth century first and only in Europe.50 DISCOURSE ON THINKING [and that is stated in a proclamation: "Science modern natural science] is a road to a happier human it life. an energy source for modern technology and industry. Why? : Because is we forget to ponder. Because nature ? we forget to ask What the ground that enabled set free modern technology This is to discover and new energies in due to a revolution in leading concepts has been going on for the past several centuries. new relation of man to the world and his place in open nothing The world now appears as an ob- to the attacks of calculative is thought. which and by which man is placed in a different world. No For we rest content with this statement we remain as far as possible reflective insight into our age. The power concealed the relation of in man to that modern technology determines which exists. such gigantic sources of power have become known through discovery of atomic energy that in the foreseeable future the world's demands for energy of any kind will be ensured . already man is advance beyond the the earth into outer space. in principle a technical one.

since man has not made them. then a totally ment will begin. Thus the decisive question of science and technology today is no longer Where do we find sufficient quantities of fuel ? The decisive question now runs In what way can we tame and direct the unimaginably vast amounts of atomic energies. Soon the procurement of the 51 new energies will no is longer be tied to certain countries and continents. which everywhere and every minute claim. Thus today everyone will be . and so secure mankind against the danger : : that these gigantic energies suddenly tary actions —break —even without successful. In circled ever all areas of his existence. oil. enchain. No one can foresee the radical changes to come. press and impose upon man under the form of some technical contrivance or other these forces. "run away" and and it de- stroy everything? If the taming of atomic energy is will be successful. have moved long since beyond his — will and have outgrown its his capacity for decision. But this too is characteristic of the new world of technol- ogy. is presumably only a crude start. and as medical and nutritional technology. and especially air news reporting.MEMORIAL ADDRESS forever. new era of technical developWhat we know now as the technology of transportation. These forces. mili- out somewhere. of transportation be stopped. drag along. man will be en- more tightly by the forces of technology. that accomplishments come most speedily to be known and publicly admired. as the occurrence of coal. future it will be possible and timber. In the foreseeable to build atomic power stations anywhere on earth. But technological advance will move faster and faster and can never of film and television.

No merely human organization is capable of gaining dominion over it. Yet it is not that the world is becoming entirely technical which is really uncanny. split and change living substance at will. We even marvel at the daring of scientific research. There the American chemist. scientists. Is man.52 able to read DISCOURSE ON THINKING what it is this talk says about technology in any it competently managed picture magazine or hear radio. that to ponder. then. The international meeting of Nobel Prize winners took place again in the summer of this year of 1955 in Lindau. Stanley. and technicians. to understand what we have heard and read. We do not stop to conis an attack with technological means life being pre- and nature of man compared with which the explosion of the hydrogen bomb means little. an uncanny change in the world moves upon us. can brake or direct the progress of history in the atomic age. that is. merely to take notice 5 another thing is. Far more uncanny is our being unprepared for this transformation. our inability to confront meditatively what is really dawning in this age. no commission of prominent statesmen. without thinking about sider that it. a defenseless and perplexed victim at the pared upon the . no conference of leaders of commerce and industry. had this to say "The hour is near when life will be placed in the hands of the chemist who will be able to synthesize." We take notice of such a statement. No single man. no group of men. But — on the one thing to have heard and read someit is thing. For precisely if the hydrogen bombs do not explode and human life on earth is preserved.

if the old rootedness being may not a new ground and foundation be granted again to man. Meditative thinking demands of us that we engage ourselves with what at first sight does not go together at all. For here we are con- threatened especially in the atomic age the autochthony of the works of man. it a trial. now what at this is commemoration. For all of us. is must be at also. a foundation and ground out of which man's nature and all his works can flourish in a new way even in the atomic age ? What could the ground and at foundation be for the new autochthony? Perhaps the answer we are looking for lies it. Let us give vices. It would be foolish to attack tech- the work of the devil. would be shortsighted to condemn it as We depend on technical devices they even challenge us to ever greater advances. hand to 3 so near that is we is all too easily overlook For the way what near always the longest and thus the hardest for us humans. This way is the way of meditative thinking. It 5 .MEMORIAL ADDRESS 55 mercy of the irresistible superior power of technology? He would be if man today abandons any intention to pit meditative thinking decisively against merely calculative thinkit ing. deand machinery of technology are to a greater or lesser extent indispensable. last occasion work unceasingly and on every here and sidering —hence. But suddenly and unaware we find ourselves so firmly shackled to nology blindly. Thus we ask now: even lost in this age. Meditative thinking demands of us not to cling one-sidedly to a single idea. But once meditative thinking awakens. the arrangements. nor to run down a one-track course of ideas.

It gives us clear vision and we notice that while the production and use of machines demands of us Having this another relation to things. that is." "calmness.54 DISCOURSE ON THINKING we fall into these technical devices that Still bondage to them." by an old word. We can affirm the unavoidable use of technical devices.) . and also let them alone as something which does not affect our inner and real core. Thus here." also has older meanings. and so to warp. comportment we no longer view things only in a technical way. But will not saying both yes and no devices this way to technical make our relation to technology ambivalent and insecure? On the contrary! Our relation to technology will become wonderfully simple and relaxed. and also deny them the right to dominate us. but because it is rare and so free from too specific connotative meanings. (Tr. although used today in in the sense of "composure. as things which are nothing absolute but remain dependent upon something higher. We can use technical devices. as Die Gelassenheit zu den Dingen. and at the same time leave them outside. We let technical devices enter our daily life. 4. Farming and agriculture. we can act otherwise." and "unconcern. now have turned into a motorized food industry. it is not a meaningless relation. evidently. We can use technical devices as they ought to be used. confuse. we may let go of them any time. being used by early German mystics (as Meister Eckhart) in the sense of letting the world go and giving oneself to God. for example. let them alone. and lay waste our nature. Gelassenheit. releasement toward things. I would call this comportment toward technology which expresses "yes" and at the same time "no. it can carry with relative ease the very special and complex meanings which are implicit here and made German explicit in the Conversation which follows. "Releasement" is not as old a word in English. that and yet with proper use also keep ourselves so free of them.

processes meaning. There is then in all technical us. That which shows itself and at the same time withdraws is the essential trait of what we call the mystery. But for the time being —we do not know for how long man finds himself in a perilous situation.MEMORIAL ADDRESS elsewhere. self. we stand at once within the realm of that which hides from us. Releasement toward things and openness give us a vision of a to the mystery might be fit to recapture the old new autochthony which someday even and now rapidly disappear- ing autochthony in a changed form. Releasement toward things and openness belong together. Why? Just be- war might break out unexpectedly and bring about the complete annihilation of humanity and the cause a third world . I call the comportment which enables us to keep open to the meaning hidden in technology. But the meaning that reigns a in this change remains obscure. We do not know the sig- nificance of the technology. They promise us a new ground and foundation upon which we can stand and endure in the world of technology without being imperiled by it. a profound change tion to nature is 55 taking place in man's rela- and to the world. not invented or made by which lays claim to what man does and leaves undone. openness to the itself mystery. to the mystery They grant us the possibility of dwelling in the world in a totally different way. uncanny increasing dominance of atomic The meaning pervading technology hides itexplicitly But if we and continuously heed the fact that such hidden meaning touches us everywhere in the world of technology. and hides itself just in approaching us.

the issue the saving of man's essential nature. Perhaps today's memorial celebration will prompt us to- ward this. Yet releasement toward things and openness to the mystery never happen of themselves. the life-giving powers of his Heuberg homeland. the issue is keeping meditative thinking alive. but only as long as In what sense assertion is we do the statement just made valid? This valid in the sense that the approaching tide of technological revolution in the atomic age could so captivate. through If and out of it. releasement toward things and openness it to the mystery awaken within us. They do not befall us accidentally. Strange indeed. In this a far greater danger threatens of a third world — precisely when the danger war has been removed. we think of Conradin Kreutzer by thinking of the origin of his work. Therefore. then we should arrive at a path that . bewitch. is A strange assertion! not meditate. to be accepted and practiced as the only What great danger then might there might go in calculative move upon us? Then hand in hand with the greatest ingenuity planning and inventing indifference toward meditative thinking. cou- rageous thinking. If we respond to the prompting. total thoughtlessness. And then? Then man would nature is — have denied and thrown away his own special is that he a meditative being. and beguile man that calculative thinking may someday come way of thinking. And it is we who think if we know ourselves here and now as the men who must find and prepare the way into the atomic age. Therefore. dazzle. Both flourish only through persistent.56 DISCOURSE ON THINKING dawning atomic age destruction of the earth? No.

MEMORIAL ADDRESS will lead to a 57 new ground and foundation. the truth of what Johann Peter Hebel says should be renewed We not —must with our are plants which —whether we like to admit it to ourselves or roots rise out of the earth in order to bloom in the ether and to bear fruit. Thus in a different manner and in a changed age. In that ground the creativity which produces lasting works could strike new roots. .

Scholar: But thinking. can be seen only by looking away from thinking. under- * This discourse was taken from a conversation written down in 1944-45 between a scientist. Teacher: said only that the question concerning is man's nature makes a consideration whether this unavoidable. a scholar. too. or perhaps even necessary. Teacher: a mystery to me too. Scientist: is the case Even It is is so. at To behold man's nature without looking man! Teacher: Why not? If thinking is what distinguishes man's namely the nature. as re-presenting is a kind of willing. then surely the essence of this nature. Kant. and a teacher. it is a mystery to me how man's nature ever to be found by looking away from man. nature of thinking. so I seek to clarify how far this Scientist: possible. understood in the traditional way.II CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH ABOUT THINKING* Scientist: Toward I the last you stated that the question conis cerning man's nature not a question about man. 58 .

And the term non-willing means. Scientist: Meanwhile this formulation has proved ambiguthat is : And ous. or at least prepare to re- . Scientist: Am I right if I state the relation this of the one sense a non- of non. Scientist: To think to will. if versation. in answer to your question as to what I really wanted from our meditation on the nature of thinking.willing.willing. I confess that ever have tried it to reflect on what moves our conattention. I replied I want non-willing. see. then. has claimed my not chal- lenged me. what remains absolutely outside any kind of Scientist: So that it can never be carried out or reached by any the willing. means it a willing in such a way as to involve negation. will. Teacher: why.CONVERSATION ON stands thinking this A COUNTRY PATH characterizes it 59 as way when he is spontaneity.and renounces : Non-willing means. Teacher: But perhaps first we come nearer to it by a willing in sense of non-willing. which is directed at willing. for one thing. therefore willingly to renounce willing. so that through we may release. and to will is to think. is is Then the statement that the nature of thinking something other than thinking means that thinking something other than willing. Scholar: You the two senses of non-willing as standing in a definite relation to each other. Scholar: Non. further. be even in the sense of a negation it. Teacher: Not only do since I I see this relation. to the other as follows? You want willing in the sense of a renouncing of willing.

60 DISCOURSE ON THINKING lease. ourselves to the sought-for essence of a thinking that is not a willing. our conversation becomes ever more Teacher: If by "difficult" you mean the unaccustomed task weaning ourselves from will. was not my doing but that of the night having set in. then I would soon be freed Scholar: So far as we can wean ourselves from willing. Scholar: It leaves us time for meditating by slowing down our pace. you have essential. you say. and not merely willing Scientist: and so. which without forcing compels concentration. is why we are still far from human habitato trust in the in- Scientist: Ever more openly I am coming conspicuous guide said. Teacher: You are not only right. Scholar: We need this guidance. . . you state an exciting demand released manner. . uncovered something should now be tempted to say that you. which . in a Teacher: If only I possessed already the right releasement. Teacher: That tion. in your interpretation of the ambiguous talk about non-willing. Scholar: Will. . of that task of weaning. Scientist: That I succeeded in this. but if by the gods! as I would say Scholar: I they had not flown from us. by the word — who takes us by the hand — or better in this conversation. consists in . have surpassed both us and yourself titled to — if anyone were en- mete out praise and if that were not contrary to the style of our conversations. . because difficult. we contribute to the awakening of releasement.

lies — activity. . The transition difficult to all what seems Teacher: from willing me. Why not. into releasement is And still the more. Then releasement . . Scholar: To be sure I don't know yet what the word releasement means but I seem to presage that releasement Scientist: 5 awakens when our nature with that which Scientist: is is let-in so as to have dealings not a willing. . and in the machinations of all mankind which higher acting is yet no . Scholar: Perhaps a higher acting is concealed in release- ment than Teacher: . but let in. still Scholar: Especially so because even releasement can be thought of as within the domain of will. because releasement does not belong to the domain Scientist: of the will. to keeping awake for releasement. You speak without letup of a letting-be and give the impression that All the same. if we may use the word the distinction between activity and pas- sivity Scholar: . . Teacher: Not effected. Scientist: lie —beyond . is found in all the actions within the world . . . it is think understand that in no way a matter of weakly allowing things to slide and drift along.CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH 61 Teacher: Say rather. since the nature of release- ment is hidden. I what I is meant is a kind of passivity. . as is the case with old masters of thought such as Meister Eckhart. Thus releasement is effected from somewhere else. to the awakening? Teacher: Because on our own we do not awaken release- ment in ourselves.

But at the same time. Yet perhaps the nature of thinkfixed in releasement. can not re-present to my- self this nature of thinking. Scientist: I But then. And yet we have our path? it Teacher: To be sure. Scientist: we would still we became dis- Then what I we to wait? hardly of us Teacher: Scholar: None we to wait for? And where are know anymore who and where I am. all Teacher: the same. but wait. Teacher: Poor or not. we should not await consolation be doing if something consolate. Teacher: No. much can be learned.. But by forgetting too quickly we give up thinking. I we are seeking Scientist: With the best of will. what in the world am I to do? am asking myself that too. Scientist: In many respects it is clear to me what the word releasement should not signify for us. not that. Scholar: Certainly .62 DISCOURSE ON THINKING From whom. What has releasement to do with thinking? if Teacher: Nothing we is conceive thinking in the traditional as re-presenting. knows that. I know less and less what we are talking about. We way ing are trying to determine the nature of thinking. Teacher: We are to do nothing. as soon as we stop fooling are still ourselves. but evidently does not what we have called releasement mean casting off sinful selfishness and letting self-will go in favor of the divine will. . Teacher: Precisely because this will of yours and your mode Scholar: of thinking as re-presenting prevent it. is Scholar: That poor consolation.

of a stone. of a bowl. of plants. of animals. we had come to see thinking in the form of transcendental-horizonal re-presenting. another thing in the appearance of a pitcher. once again. about that from whence alone such a transipass over to tion can happen. Scholar: Just as transcendence-passes beyond the perception of objects. Teacher: goes beyond the appearance of the objects. places before us what is typical of a tree. if I understand correctly. we are to view what we it call releasement in connection with the nature of thinking as talked about. many in the appearance of plants. Scholar: This re-presenting. of a pitcher. Scientist: Previously. the horizon circles the view of a thing — which en- the field of vision.CONVERSATION ON Scientist: A COUNTRY PATH 63 What are we still to think about. . in order to and into the nature of thinking which we have not yet come to know? Teacher: Why. various things in the appearance of stones. for instance. Scholar: So now. Scholar: That tional means that you would not discard the I tradi- view of the nature of thinking? said in our earlier Teacher: Have you forgotten what conversation about what is revolutionary? to Scientist: Forgetfulness does seem be an especial danger in such conversations. even though we hardly know and above I all are unable to place it properly. and of animals as that view into which we look when one thing confronts us in the appearance of a tree. this in the appearance of a bowl. and many in the appearance Scientist: You It describe. Teacher: mean exactly that.

into this openness Scientist: . . are experienced and determined only presenting them. then. . thus. Scholar: Likewise jects. . . we dis- regard that presenting? can also appear as the horizon of our re- . Scholar: relative to objects and our re- Why To is do you stress this? Teacher: suggest that in this way what lets the horizon be what it Scientist: has not yet been encountered at all. we .64 DISCOURSE ON THINKING we determine what . is said this something as itself. . . Teacher: Horizon and transcendence. Teacher: Thus is called horizon and transcendence by means of this going beyond and pass- ing beyond Scholar: . What do you have in mind in this statement? look into the horizon. . but openness is not due to our looking. Therefore its Teacher: We say that we is the field of vision something open. Yet after what has been itself. But what openness as such. consequence the horizon the other side of is still Scientist: In something so the else besides a horizon. an with views of the appearances of openness which is filled what to our re-presenting are objects. rather that comes out of this to meet us. is Teacher: What evident of the horizon. do not place the appearance of obfield of vision offers us. else is You it say that the horizon is this same the openness which and if surrounds us. is but the side facing us of an openness which surrounds us. which refer back to objects and our re- presenting of objects. which the view within a .

CONVERSATION ON
Teacher:
It strikes

A

COUNTRY PATH
like a region,

65

me

as

something
it rests.

an en-

chanted region where everything belonging there returns to that in which
Scholar: I'm not sure I understand

what you say now. Teacher: I don't understand it either, if by "understanding" you mean the capacity to re-present what is put before us as if sheltered amid the familiar and so secured for I, too, lack the familiar in which to place what I
tried to say about openness as a region.

Scientist:

That

is

perhaps impossible here,

if for call

no other
a region

reason than because presumably what you
is

exactly that
I

which alone permits

all

sheltering.

Teacher:
Scholar:

mean something like this; but not only this. You spoke of "a" region in which everything
itself.

re-

turns to
is

Strictly speaking, a region for everything

not one region

among many, but

the region of

all

regions.

Teacher:
Scientist:

You

what is in question is the region. And the enchantment of this region might well
are right 5
its

be the reign of
it that.

nature,

its

regioning,

if I

may

call

Scholar: It seems a region holds
5

what comes forward

to

meet us but we also said of the horizon that out of the view which it encircles, the appearance of objects comes to meet us. If now we comprehend the horizon through the region, we take the region itself as that which comes to meet us. Teacher: In this way, indeed, we would characterize the
region through
its

relation to us, just as

ago with the horizon

—whereas we

we

did a

moment

are searching for the

66

DISCOURSE ON THINKING
nature, in
itself,

of the openness that surrounds us. If

we now say this is the region, and say it with the meaning we just gave it, then the word must name something
else.

Scientist:

Moreover, the coming

to

meet us

is

not at

all

a

basic characteristic of region, let alone the basic char-

Scholar: In

word imply? "Gegnet" and means open expanse. Can anything be learned from this about the nature of what we now call the region ? Teacher: The region gathers, just as if nothing were
acteristic.

What

does this

its

older

form

it is

happening, each to each and each
while resting in
itself.

to all into
is

an abiding,

Regioning

a gathering

and

re-sheltering for an expanded resting in an abiding.

Scholar: So the region

itself is at

once an expanse and an

abiding. It abides into the expanse of resting. It expands
into the abiding of

what has

freely turned toward

itself.

In view of

this

usage of the word,

we may

also

say "that-

which-regions" in place of the familiar "region."
Teacher: That-which-regions gathering
all,
is

an abiding expanse which,
that in
it

opens

itself, so

openness

is

halted

and held,

letting everything

merge in

its

own

resting.

Scientist: I believe I see that-which-regions as

withdrawing

rather than coming to meet us
1.

.

.

.

for region is Gegend. What is in question here, not region in general, but as Heidegger says, "the region of or the region. Heidegger ("die Gegend aller Gegenden") all regions" uses an old variant of Gegend as the word for the region: die Gegnet a word that still occurs in spoken German although only in South German dialects. Since an analogous variant is not available for the English counterpart, die Gegnet has been rendered in the text by the phrase that-whichregions. That-which-regions reflects a movement attributed by Heidegger to die Gegnet and further emphasized by his use of the verb gegnen (to re-

The German word
is

however,

gion). (Tr.)

CONVERSATION ON
Scholar:

A

COUNTRY PATH

67

...

so that things

which appear in that-whichstand opposite us, they

regions no longer have the character of objects.

Teacher:

They not only no longer
at all.

no longer stand
Scientist:

Do they lie, then,
They
lie, if

or

Teacher:

by

this

how about them? we mean that resting which

was

just discussed.

Scientist:

But where do things rest?

What

does resting

consist of?

Teacher:

They

rest in the return to the abiding of the

expanse of their self-belonging.
Scholar: But in this return, which after
all is

movement,

can there be rest?
Teacher: Indeed there can,
of
all

if rest is

the seat and the reign

movement.

Scientist: I

must confess that I can't quite re-present in my mind all that you say about region, expanse and abiding, and about return and resting.
it

Scholar: Probably

can't be re-presented at

all,

in so far
object

as in re-presenting everything has

become an

that stands opposite us within a horizon.
Scientist:

Then we

can't really describe

what we have

named?
Teacher: No.

Any

description
it

Scholar: Neverthless

lets

would reify it. itself be named, and being
.
. .

named
Teacher:
Scientist:

it
. .

can be thought about
.

only

if

thinking
else

is

no longer re-presenting.
it

But then what

should

be?

Teacher: Perhaps
Scholar:

we now

are close to being released into
.
. .

the nature of thinking
.

.

.

through waiting for

its

nature.

but without re-presenting anything Teacher: Yet you have thought something. right . waited for something without knowcould wait? ing for what. but as soon as and fix we wait we always wait for something. Teacher: Because waiting releases Scholar: . Scientist: I only brought together that which we have named. Teacher: ing. . itself is that-which-regions . Scholar: But how come you suddenly . into the expanse of distance . however. . for await- ing already links itself with re-presenting and what go of that.68 DISCOURSE ON THINKING all Teacher: Waiting. we re-present to ourselves upon that for which we wait. to myself. re-presented. . . . or rather is Scholar: Waiting. . Scientist: Or. . it in whose nearness is it finds the abiding in which Scientist: remains. has no object. . Then thinking would be is ness of distance. Scientist: But openness . we really wait no longer. a returning. Why? openness . for But remaining itself Scholar: Openness would be that which we could do nothing but wait. which Scientist: when we think. Teacher: In waiting Scholar: we leave open what we are waiting itself into for. . really. but never awaiting. lets I should say that waiting It really lets re-presenting entirely alone. into which we are released by way of waitcoming-into-the-nearnature.. Scholar: That a daring definition of its we have chanced upon. if Scientist: Yet Scholar: Certainly. Teacher: . ..

CONVERSATION ON
Scientist:

A

COUNTRY PATH
now,
all

69

As

I see

more

clearly just

during our

conversation I have been waiting for the arrival of the

nature of thinking. But waiting
to
all

itself

has become clearer

me now

and therewith

this too, that

presumably

we

became more waitful along our path. Teacher: Can you tell us how this is so?
Scientist:
I'll

be glad

to try,

providing

I

don't have to run
to particular

the risk that you will at once pin

me down

words.

Teacher: In our conversations,
Scholar: Rather,

we

don't usually do that.

we

see to

it

that

we move

freely in the

realm of words.
Teacher: Because a word does not and never can re-present

anything but
5

signifies

something, that
its

is,

shows some-

thing as abiding into the range of
Scientist: I

expressibility.

am to

say

why I

came to wait and the

way

I

suc-

ceeded in clarifying the nature of thinking.

I tried to re-

lease myself of all re-presenting, because waiting

moves

into openness without re-presenting anything. And, re-

leased

from re-presenting,

I tried to release

myself purely

to that-which-regions because that-which-regions is the

opening of openness.
Teacher: If
I

have

it

rightly, then,

you

tried to let yourself

into releasement.
Scientist:

To be

honest, I did not think of this partic-

ularly, although

we

just spoke of releasement.

which led me to let myself into waiting in mentioned was more the course of the conversation than
casion

The octhe way

the re-presentation of the specific objects
Scholar:

we

spoke about.
fittingly

We can hardly come to releasement more

than through an occasion of letting ourselves

in.

70

DISCOURSE ON THINKING
all

Teacher: Above

when

the occasion

is

as inconspicuous

as the silent course of a conversation that

moves

us.

Scholar: But that means, the conversation brings us to that

path which seems nothing
Teacher:
Scholar:
. .
.

else

than releasement
like rest.

itself

.

.

.

which

is

something

At

this point,

how movement comes from
suddenly becomes clearer
to

rest

and remains
Teacher:

let into rest

me.

Then releasement would be not only

a path but

a movement.

Scholar:

Where does this strange path go? Where the movement proper to it rest? Teacher: Where else but in that-which-regions, in
tion to

does

rela-

which releasement

is

what

it is.

Scientist: Finally I
it

really

must now go back and ask, how far releasement into which I tried to let myself?

is

Scholar: This question causes us great embarrassment.

Teacher: In which
along our path.
Scientist:

we have found

ourselves constantly

How

so?

Teacher: Because what

we have

designated
it

by

a

word

never has that word hanging on
Scientist:

like a

name

plate.

Whatever we designate has been nameless before this is true as well of what we name releasement. What do we go by, then, in order to estimate whether and

how

far the

name
all

is

adequate?

Scholar:

Or does
is it

designation remain an arbitrary act

with regard
Teacher: But
at all?

to the

nameless?
is

really settled that there

the nameless

There

is

only because the

much which we often cannot say, but name it has does not occur to us.

CONVERSATION ON
Scholar:

A

COUNTRY PATH
of designation

71
it

have
tion.

its

By virtue name?

of

what kind

would

Teacher: Perhaps these names are not the result of designa-

They are owed to a naming in which the namable, the name and the named occur altogether. Scientist: What you just said about naming is unclear to me.
Scholar: Probably that
is

connected with the nature of

words.
Scientist:

However, what you noted about designation, and about the fact that there is nothing nameless, is clearer
me.

to

Scholar: Because releasement.

we can

test it in

the case of the

name

Teacher: Or have tested
Scientist:

it

already.

How
What

so?
is it

Teacher:

that

you designated by the name

re-

leasement?
Scientist: If I

may say so, not I but you have used this name.
have done the designating.
did it?

Teacher:
Scholar:

I,

as little as you,

Then who
is

None

of us?

Teacher: Presumably, for in the region in which
everything
doing.
Scientist:

we

stay

in the best order only

if it

has been no one's

A
to

mysterious region where there

is

nothing for

which

be answerable.
it is

Teacher: Because
answerable to
Scholar: For us

the region of the word, which

is

itself alone.
it

remains only to

listen to the

answer
only

proper to the word.

Teacher: That

is

enough even when our
5
. .

telling

is

a retelling of the answer heard

.

we as thinking beings (that we were not. Scholar: Then it a relation to something would be the true relation if it relates. Teacher: Perhaps it is even the relation to that-which- regions. Insofar as beings who at the same time re-present transcendentally) stay within the hori- zon of transcendence. Scientist: That sounds as if before then we had been side that-which-regions. and in doing so lets that-which-regions reign purely as such. and when it doesn't matter in this if there who does it. but what is already designated. were held in its own nature by that to which Teacher: The relation to that-which-regions : is waiting. .72 Scientist: is . Teacher: And so not something nameless. and yet is. releasement. we are not and never could be is outside that-which-regions. let us consider only what it is we name by it. as the experience I referred a first retelling or to indicates. insofar as waiting releases itself to that-whichregions. all the more since one often doesn't know whose tale he retells. Scholar: So let's not quarrel over who first introduced the name. out- Teacher: That we were. What is this waiting? Scientist: Insofar as waiting relates to openness and openis ness is that-which-regions. Scientist: And that is waiting. Yet the horizon but the . Scholar: Thus to go into that-which-regions. DISCOURSE ON THINKING . we can say that waiting a relation to that-which-regions. And waiting means to release oneself into the openness of that-which-regions.

through this . through this it He is released to it. indeed. nevertheless we are in that-which- regions when. so far as And yet again we are still not in we have not released ourselves for that-which- regions. Scientist: Something which happens in waiting. in waiting we are released from our transcendental relation to the horizon. re-presenting transcendentally. yet that does not hit alone exhaust Scholar: it. then authentic releasement must be based upon that-which-regions. is without necessarily being preceded by such being-reto be the proper reif this relation is and de- termined solely by what it is related to. in his being. Scientist: This being-released-from is the first aspect of relet leasement. its nature exactly. and must have received from cause in releasement it movement toward it. out into the horizon. indeed. That-which-regions surrounds us to us as the horizon.CONVERSATION ON A COUNTRY PATH and reveals it 75 side of that-which-regions turned toward our re-presentitself ing. Scholar: It seems to ceals itself. as such. Teacher: As you have said. Scholar: If authentic releasement lation to that-which-regions. How not? may come about Teacher: So far as authentic releasement leased-from horizontal transcendence. which-regions and. regions and. insofar as he originally belongs to it He belongs to insofar as he is appropriated initially to thatitself. me that as the horizon rather con- Teacher: Certainly. Teacher: Releasement comes out of that-which-regions be- man stays released to that-whichitself. we step it.

the nature of thinking may say in the re- gioning of releasement by that-which-regions.) . waiting came to be spoken of as releasement. waiting which is essenis 2 that is. Teacher: Out of the experience of and in relation to just such waiting upon the opening of that-which-regions. of its belonging to that- then thinking changes in releasement from such a re-presenting to waiting upon that-which-regions. Scholar: Thus waiting upon that-which-regions But if is named adequately. Teacher: Yet the nature of this waiting that-which-regions. Scholar: Thinking is releasement to that-which-regions bein the regioning of releasement. waiting upon something based on our belonging in that upon which we wait. if I since resting in so." p. Scientist: I that we have it said now ing. which then it. and regionall the same I can re-present nothing of to myself. lets releasement belong to lies. because which-regions. that is. But because it is is releasement to that-which-regions it. (Tr. See Introduction for comment on the use of "waiting upon. but through the other-than-itself. 23. all as regioning first brings forth this nature. through that-which-regions which can follow. 2. Scientist: heretofore the reigning essence of think- ing has been that transcendental-horizonal re-presenting from which releasement. releases itself. that-which-regions. is cause its nature lies Teacher: But by this you say that the nature of thinking not determined through thinking and so not through waiting as such. after a fashion. all-decisive) . about releasement.74 DISCOURSE ON THINKING it is Scholar: In fact (supposing that tial.

so that this releases our nature into that-whichregions. the changed nature of thinking. . Scientist: It can't is What are we to call the regioning of that-which-regions with respect to things? be regioning with respect to man for that the relation of that-which-regions to releasement. Again this restless to and fro between yes and is no. that-which-regions also makes things endure in the abiding expanse. We pre- Teacher: Only to forget releasement again as quickly. and so into belonging to it. to its — if you think what was accordance with said in accordance with Scientist: nature. a regioning which releases releasement into that-whichregions. which I myself have experienced as waiting.CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH 75 You aren't supposed. You mean that we wait upon it in is. Scholar: That wait upon the regioning of that-which- regions. Teacher: We are to bear in mind that thinking is in no way Releasement to self-subsisting releasement. waiting. that-which- regions is thinking only as the regioning of releasement. Scholar: We are suspended as it were between the two. sage the nature of thinking as releasement. Teacher: But regions? Scientist: if we are already appropriated to that-which- What good does that do us if we aren't truly appropriated? Scholar: Scientist: Thus we are and we are not. is Teacher: Yet our stand in this betweenness Scholar: That the nature of releasement into which the regioning of that-which-regions regions man. Scientist: That. Scholar: However.

Teacher: . To state it still more briefly and more generally: the relation between if it that-which-regions and releasement. as as that-which-regions effects releasement. the relation of that-which-regions to releasement is neither a connection of cause to effect. also. the relation between that-which- regions and the thing is neither a connection of cause to . but only as regioning. Teacher: After that scholarly reservation. the regioning of that-whichregions does not cause and effect things. Teacher: Evidently things are things through the region- ing of that-which-regions as an earlier conversation on the abiding of the pitcher in the expanse of that-which- regions showed. . . but at the same time also renders ambiguous with just that ambiguity which unavoidably adheres to ordinary terminology.76 DISCOURSE ON THINKING and releasement is said to shelter in itself the nature of thinking. whether we experience them only as objects or take them as "thingsin-themselves" and in addition to objects. However. Scholar: What you now I say seems to me so decisive that I would course like to try fixing it in scholarly terminology. whereas things themselves do not think. little indeed That-which- regions in 5 its regioning is neither the horizon of release- ment nor is it the horizon of things. Of know that such terminology not only freezes it thought. nor the transcendental-horizonal relation. Scientist: Similarly. . Scholar: As you state it. . can still be con- sidered a relation. can be thought of neither as ontic nor as ontological . you shouldn't hesitate to speak in a scholarly manner.

A COUNTRY PATH 77 nor the transcendental-horizonal relation. . . We must first learn to think what determining . thing abide in itself? that-which-regions lets the Scientist: It determines the thing. as thing. that is even now in bringing a certain clarity into this variety Still. relation between the ego and the object. Teacher: . . is But determining not making and effecting. precisely that relation remains unde- fined whose characterization concerns the relation of me most of all. of relations. Why are you so persistent about this relation? Scientist: Earlier we began by illuminating the relation re- between the ego and the object by way of the factual lation of thought in the physical sciences to nature... Scientist: Nevertheless.CONVERSATION ON effect. Teacher: What are we then to call the relation of thatif which-regions to the thing. Scientist: is it it is best called the determining. I mean Scholar: man to the thing. nor rendering possible in the sense of the transcen. and hence neither an ontic nor an ontological relation. the often The men- . . Scholar: Therefore. but only the determining. by learning to become aware of the nature of thinking Scholar: . the relation of that-which-regions to the thing also is not regioning with respect to man's nature. Scholar: But evidently. . by waiting upon determining and regioning with respect to man. such naming is also of some help . . . dental Teacher: Scientist: is . . . .

Scholar: You strongly objected to that statement. so far as things can become . For when decided in favor of the methodological type of analysis in the physical sciences. . even have become objects before they at- tained their nature as things. but from what we call that-which-re- gions and its regioning. is apparently only an historical variation of the relation of objects . . man into the . .78 DISCOURSE ON THINKING tioned subject-object relation. . man to the thing. Scientist: I hesitate to decide upon this so quickly. Teacher: . . man could return to . something else has become clear to me. In the relation between ego and object there is concealed something historical. I am content if some obscurity in the is between ego and object its removed for me by this I insight into historical char- acter. . which I took to be most general. is true of the corresponding historical change of the Teacher: . . . However. you said that way of looking at it was historical. animal rationale Scholar: which would hardly be possible after today's conversation. . . which likewise emerged before the nature of itself . Scientist: providing we do not regard the coining of as final . human being to an ego . this . . . something which belongs to the history of man's nature. . Scientist: I can't follow you that far relation yet. its Teacher: Only so far as man's nature does not receive stamp from man. Scholar: The same . . does the history you presage become the history of that-which-regions.

Scholar: Here the concept of the historical signifies a of mode knowing and is understood broadly. Scholar: Nor in the cultural achievements of else? man. Scientist: we will non-willing. and in in what. sup- has not yet been realized in the rationality of the animal. It rests what occurs Scholar: ing to pass in man. as focused upon a history which does not consist in the happenings and deeds of the world. regions posing him into his nature. Scientist: If any examination which focuses on what is a part of history called historical. presumably. indeed. historical. as that-which-regions. which still conceals its we belong own nature. Teacher: When we let ourselves into releasement to that- which-regions. then the methodolog- ical analysis in physics is. Teacher: Understood. The program of mathas ego to the ematics and the experiment are grounded in the relation of man its thing as object. Teacher: Wait in a releasement through which to that-which-regions. Teacher: fold They even constitute this relation in part and unis historical character.CONVERSATION ON Scientist: A COUNTRY PATH 79 Now I see what was meant. Scholar: We presage releasement to that-which-regions as the sought-for nature of thinking. is Releasement indeed the release of oneself from transcendental re-presentation and so a relinquishing of . com- Scientist: But in what Teacher: The historical rests in that-which-regions. A nature we have hardly it experienced as yet. Scientist: In such a situation we can do nothing but wait for man's nature.

except that the occasion for releas- ing oneself to belonging to that-which-regions requires a trace of willing. Scholar: But in is what ways all is not willing? Teacher: After we said about the enduring of the abid- ing expanse. the denial of the will to live Scholar: Do you like then consider it possible misunderstanding something Scientist: all by showing in what respect power of action and resolve also reign in releasement? Yes I do. about the regioning of that-which-regions. although I don't fail to recognize that such names at once misinterpret releasement as per- taining to the will. and causing are essentially and mutually exclusive. vanishes while releasing oneself and is completely extinguished in rereleasement related to what leasement. shows how alien that is to anything pertaining to the will. about letting rest in returning. however. and to have actuality as Scientist: its element. lacking of action. this could easily get Someone who heard us say the impression that releasement floats in the realm of unreality and so in nothingness. Scholar: Certainly the fact that on the one hand both the all regioning with respect to man and the determining of effecting that-which-regions. Such relinquishing no longer stems from a willing. This trace. Teacher: For every will wants to actualize. and. it is hardly possible to speak of that-which-regions as will. . and on the other hand.80 DISCOURSE ON THINKING the willing of a horizon. necessary to counter this basically. is all power a will-less letting in of everything and.

. itself of but it could not. . for example. but which collected itself into and remained always the composure of releasement. by him for Teacher: Scholar: . man . this steadfastness of a to that- name.CONVERSATION ON solve" as it is A COUNTRY PATH 81 Scholar: So. would be a resolve for the coming forth of truth's nature. . we are reminded. Teacher: There could be a steadfastness hidden in release- ment. in accordance with recovery. . which we think of as that-which-regions. release- ment to that-which-regions. Scholar: That would be behavior which did not become a swaggering comportment. to determining as well belonging . could be said perhaps to correspond to the highest willing. this nature. still lacks a 3. stands within its inner nature and. Greek story and thought. . which lets belong to the region- ing of that-which-regions with respect to Teacher: Scientist: . At a friend's I once read a few lines which he rests in itself. This resting in it releasement.) . which-regions which Dasein (Tr. Teacher: Releasement. we are aware of the nature of truth as a dis-closure and If. thus composedly steadfast. . . one needs to understand "re- understood in Being and Time: as the particularly undertaken opening of openness . is presumably the hidden coming forth of Scientist: Then the nature of thinking. Scientist: This composed steadfastness. man 3 . namely. . would be a receiving of the regioning of that-which-regions. . . residing simply in the fact that releasement be- comes increasingly clearer about being steadfast. . then that-which-regions. Scholar: Perhaps the word "in-dwelling" could name some of this. in which the nature of releasement rests. and after a fashion . this.

in your curious empti- ness. Scientist: Then what please tell me also. but richer in contingencies. Scholar: Noble is what has origins. in respect releasement can be akin to what is noble.e. Teacher: So you mean exulting in waiting. seems to me that this unbelievable night en- you both it to exult. They contain an explanation of this word. its Teacher: Not only that. Scientist: Now is authentic releasement consists in this : that man i. he released to it. if Scholar: Apparently emptier.82 DISCOURSE ON THINKING had copied somewhere. . Teacher: The in-dwelling in releasement to that-whichregions would then be the real nature of the spontaneity of thinking. through which we become more waitful and more void. but abides in the origins of nature. akin to what is noble.. Scholar: And. Teacher: In-dwelling in releasement to that-which-regions would be noble-mindedness Scientist: It tices itself. thinking would be commemoration. I still remember them. They read In-dwelling Never one truth alone To receive intact The coming forth of truth's nature In return for boundless steadfastness Imbed the thinking heart In the humble patience Of unique high-minded And noble memories. in his very nature belongs to that-which-regions. following the quoted lines. does.

doesn't there remain an insurmountable in the statement of the essential relation of human na- ture to that-which-regions? We have just characterized that-which-regions as the hidden nature of truth. Nevertheless we have neglected to consider* me at once —why man's nature man all is —something is that struck appropriated by that- which-regions. .. Scientist: The ." Scientist: That may be so. prior. . that forcibly bring be- fore ourselves an objectively given relation between an object called "man" and an object called "that-which- regions. If to be brief we say truth in place of that-which-regions.CONVERSATION ON Scholar: A COUNTRY PATH shall 83 prior Not occasionally. ing forth of Scientist: natures. as This It hardly conceivable. : through that-which-regions Teacher: gioning. Teacher: Scientist: because the nature of thinking begins there. that-which-regions can not be a comit is. Scientist: So itself. all so is. then the statement of the relation of human nature to . of which we really can not think . Scholar: Which It is why we also added at once and. indeed. Teacher: cannot be conceived at long as we want to re-present it to ourselves. . to that-which-rer Thus man's nature is released gions in what is prior to thought. Scholar: Evidently the nature of man is released to thatit so which-regions because this belongs to that without essentially. . but —how we say it to everything. its appropriates man's nature for own re- we have explained releasement. But even if we are mindful of difficulty that.

would abide in the origin of his nature. Evidently truth's independence from to Scholar: If this were so.84 DISCOURSE ON THINKING that-which-regions is this : human nature is given over distinits to truth. Teacher: less. is it not. Scientist: For the present. man is a relation human nature. what you are to say about it will be an assertion only. Truth's nature can come forth independently of man to : — only because the nature of which-regions) is man (as releasement to that- used by that-which-regions in region- ing both with respect to man and to sustain determining. Now we we way to both. to be what independent of man? you touch upon a difficulty Scholar: Here indeed discuss only after we can we have explained the nature of truth as such. Teacher: Assuredly. I would like paraphrase the statement about the relation of truth man. then. which in consequence we may parais phrase : man is he who made use of for the nature of . because truth needs man. for this reason alone that man of himself has no power over truth and it remains independent of him. a relation which rests on the regioning of human nature into that-which-regions. then man. and have more clearly determined the nature of are but on our man. Neverthe- in order to if make clearer upon to consider this relation what we have to reflect by itself. and I mean this the nature of man is released to that-which-regions and used by it accordingly. as in-dwelhng in re- leasement to that-which-regions. Yet now the guishing characteristic of truth lation to man — — particularly in it is re- is.

we may that in to rest. as Scientist: All the you have noted perhaps. Teacher: A patient noble-mindedness would be pure rest- ing in itself of that willing. because it — even to the expanse can wait the longest. Teacher: Of that thanking which does not have to thank for something. renouncing willing.CONVERSATION ON truth. we have everything in the mode I of supposition only. Scholar: In the nature of thinking so understood. On the supposition that we have found which everything in our conversation appears This is the nature of that-which-regions. to A COUNTRY PATH 85 And so. which. for the in-dwelling of releasement has been thought of Scholar: So if as waiting. have found what Scientist: we seek. what is not will. is Teacher: Because this only supposed. same its can no longer hold back the confes- sion that while itself nature has neared. its seems to me to Scholar: You mean to say that you are near to nature and yet are distant from that-which-regions itself? . man would be drawn what is noble in his nature. that-which-regions be further away than ever before. patience would extend the furthest of the abiding. that-which-regions were the abiding expanse. abiding in his origin. but only thanks for being allowed to thank. He would have a presentiment of the noble mind. Scholar: Noble-mindedness would be the nature has released itself to of thinking and thereby of thanking. let us add that for said some time. Scientist: This presentiment could hardly be anything other than waiting.

of dialectically . from to that-which-regions $ although such remaining sure. Scholar: by waiting. be Scholar: Only the nature of waiting and of releasement Scientist: would be named in what you say. . Teacher: . but how? Scientist: In accordance as with the nature of thinking so far determined solely by that-which-regions. approaches and withdraws? Scholar: This nearness and distance can be nothing outside that-which-regions. Scientist: . gather- ing everything together and letting everything return to itself. Then what is that nearness and distance within which that-which-regions opens up and veils itself. — its nature can't really if we may speak here of things Scholar: The self of that-which-regions itself. Teacher: Because that-which-regions regions all.86 Scientist: DISCOURSE ON THINKING But that-which-regions and be two different things at all. itself Scientist: Then that-which-regions would be nearing and distancing.. . . . . . and the distance of nearness a characterization which should not be thought . is presumably its nature and identical with Teacher: Then perhaps we can express our experience during this conversation by saying that near to and so at the we are coining same time remaining distant is.. a returning. Teacher: Yet what then would be the nature of thinking so if And that-which-regions is the nearness of distance? . Scholar: That-which-regions itself would be the nearness of distance. by in-dwelling in releasement. to rest in its own identity.

. But now word no longer suits what we are attempting to name by a single word. Scientist: if the word divulge to us at is no longer suitable.CONVERSATION ON word. Teacher: You mean the nature of thinking (that in-dwellis ing releasement to that-which-regions) which sentially the es- thing human we presage Even it relation to that-which-regions. an historical it reminder? Scholar: If you want it to it that way. someas the nearness of distance. I was about to fit less to propose this word but each 3 time it seemed what neared us as the nature of thinking. if I may put say so. Several times in the course of today's conversation. is a word which had occurred to me as early as our first conversation. Scientist: And thus. for in the course of we often threw in words and sentences from this Greek thought. must our discussion. I had this in mind when I remarked at the beginning of today's conversation that I owed a valuable suggestion to our first conversation on a country path. you might end of our conversation for we the 3 again near break off human habitation. Still I A COUNTRY PATH 87 Scholar: Probably this can no longer be said in a single appropriate know a word which up to now seemed to me to name the nature of thinking and so of knowing. and in any case. Scientist: I Scholar: It would like to hear this word. Scientist: You is talk mysteriously about this thought of to reveal yours. Also would have suited well the style of today's conversation. It too soon. as if you I didn't want your discovery Scholar: it is The word have in mind was not my discovery merely a scholarly thought.

" Scientist: I regard this word as an excellent name for desigScientist: nating the nature of knowledge. 'Ayxipaab]. too. constitutes Fragment 122. all by itself. Scientist: I don't know this shortest of Heraclitus' Frag- ments.88 DISCOURSE ON THINKING Teacher: And even if this word. of the action. Scholar: For that reason. That is also probably why me in our first conversation. for the character of advancing and moving toward objects pressed in it. clear to us that is no longer suitable. above in research. It is that word. when we spoke work inherent in all. earlier esteemed by you as a valuable suggestion. Scientist: How does the fragment read? Scholar: 'Ayx^aofrn Scholar: What does it mean? The Greek word translates as "going toward. which. word is Heraclitus' word. the achievement. it could make meanwhile we have come to confront something Scholar: This ineffable. Scholar: It is scarcely noticed by others either. "going toward" I could think of Heraclitus' word as keyword in an essay on the nature of modern science. and. because one can do hardly anything with a single word. I have hesitated to utter the : . to Scientist: Actually. the modern scientific knowledge. but one which nevertheless allows nature to be heard. is strikingly ex- Scholar: It appeared so to it occurred to me too. Scientist: From which fragment did you take it? Scholar: This word struck me because it stands alone. one could use this Greek word is make clear the fact that scientific research a kind of attack on nature.

. . us deep into the night . that gleams ever more splendidly stars ." could rather.CONVERSATION ON word thinking which A COUNTRY PATH to 89 at this point $ for it does not hit that nature of we have come is assume along our way. and perhaps the best name. Scholar: . Scholar: 'Ayx^aaiT] : "moving-into-nearness. . Scholar: She binds together without seam or edge or thread. be the name for . our walk today along this country path. . Teacher: Which. . night neighbors the stars. . at least for the naive observer." Scientist: we could think of also as: "moving- You mean that quite literally in the sense of "let- ting-oneself-into-nearness" ? Teacher: About that. because it nears their distances in the heav- . Scientist: Indeed. .. .. and overwhelms the . so it seems to The word me now. Scholar: Not to say a counter-rest. . . Teacher: Or simply that 'kyyifiaa'w] rest. Scientist: . . we are still this Then seeking. Yet has it been definitely decided means going toward ? it Scholar: Translated literally says "going near. although not for the exact scientist. Teacher: ens . . Teacher: Scientist: Which guided ." it Teacher: Perhaps into-nearness. Teacher: Ever to the child in man. Scholar: word might be the name. for what we have found. nevertheless. . waiting really almost a counter-move- ment to going toward. in its nature. .

. Scholar: that . is Then wonder can open what Scientist: By way of waiting .90 Scientist: ness. while wondering upon the depths of the height. . . locked? Teacher: . . from whence we are called. if this is released . . and human nature remains appropriated to . . .. . . .. . . . DISCOURSE ON THINKING She neighbors because she works only with near3 Scholar: If she ever works rather than rests . Teacher: Scholar: . . Teacher: . .

engage in Entschlossenheit resolve Feldweg fern country path distant Feme distance ge-eignet. ahnen Ausdauer to presage steadfastness Bedingnis besinnliches determining.GLOSSARY This glossary includes only those words especially important to the argument which are translated in more or less unusual ways. autochthonic soil rootedness. regioning with respect to things Denken meditative thinking steadfastness Bestandnis Boden bodenstandig Bodenstandigkeit foundation. release. sich einlassen noble mind. ground. noble-mindedness authentic let in. release oneself to. appropriate (d) to region gegnen 91 . let oneself in. rooted. autochthony Edelmut eigentlich einlassen. geeignet appropriated.

) released unheimlich uncanny appropriated by regioning (with respect to man) vereignet Vergegnis .92 GLOSSARY that-which-regions released Gegnet gelassen Gelassenheit Gelassenheit zu den Dingen releasement releasement toward things Grund Grund und Boden ground ground and foundation Haltung Herkunft comportment origins. origin In-sich-beruhen Instandigkeit resting in itself in-dwelling Menschenwesen human nature nahe Nahe near nearness Offene. das openness openness to the mystery ' Offenheit fur das Geheimnis rechnendes Denken calculative thinking Technik transzendental-horizontal technology transcendental-horizonal iiberlassen (adj.

essence (rarely) Weite Weite der Weile. die to reign to wait for. upon abiding abiding expanse expanse expanse of the abiding nature. Gegnet west. endure abiding expanse to re-present walten warten auf Weile Weile der Weite. die Wesen wesende Wahrheit west.GLOS S ARY verhalten (adj.) Verhaltenheit 95 verweilen verweilende Weite vorstellen composed composure to abide. coming forth of forth a nature truth's nature first that-which-regions truth's nature brings Wahrheit comes forth .

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