You are on page 1of 72

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Neuroscience: The Science of the Brian
This is the Hindi language translation of the public education booklet. This translation
was made for The BNA by:  

The National Brain Research Centre, Haryana, India
We are also grateful for the assistance of Vijiyalakshmi Ravindrath. National
Brain Research centre, New Delhi, India

The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) commissioned the booklet for the
purposes of teaching young people in the UK about their Brain and Neuroscience the
science of the brain. The booklet contains short explanatory chapters on different
subjects written by experts in each topic. The original booklet was published in 2004.
In 2005 the International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) purchased the copyright
of the booklet. We have commissioned members of our organisation to translate the
booklet in multiple languages. In addition to the Hindi version that you are now
reading the booklet is available in a further sixteen languages also contained on this
CDROM.

We hope that you will use these translations for the purpose of improving public
understanding and awareness of the brain and the importance of brain research. IBRO
and the BNA are happy for you to make printed copies or clone theses PDF files.
However this should not be done for profit. For more information please read the
additional information that is appended at the end of the booklet.

Contents
Pages 2-61: Neuroscience The Science of the Brain (hindi version)
Page 62-72: Additional information (English only).
An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM:

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk foKku

efLr”d foKku
;qok Nk=ksa ds fy, ,d ifjp;

fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku
;wjksfi;u Mkuk ,yk,al QkWj n czsu

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
;g iqfLrdk fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku vkSj fjpMZ eksfjl ¼,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky;½ }kjk ;wjksfi;u Mkuk ,yk,al QkWj n czsu rFkk esfj,u
fQysat+ ¼vkWDlQksMZ fo’ofo|ky;½ dh vksj ls rS;kj dh xbZ vkSj bldk lEiknu fd;k x;k FkkA blds xzkfQDl tsu xszaxj ¼xzsaxj Maleksj fMt+kbu
LVqfM;ks] ,fMucxZ½ us rS;kj fd, gSaA ge raf=dkfoKku izHkkx esa vius lgdfeZ;ksa ds vkHkkjh gS]a fo’ks”kdj foDVksfj;k fxy vkSj ,fMucxZ esa
raf=dkfoKku leqnk; ds vU; lnL;ksa dsA ge vkWDlQksMZ esa ‘kjhjfØ;k foKku foHkkx] fo’ofo|ky; dks /kU;okn nsuk pkgrs gSa] fo’ks”kdj dksfyu
Cysdeksj vkSj vU; laLFkkuksa esa gekjs ennxkj lgdfeZ;ksa dksA muds uke var esa fn, x, gSaA
fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku ¼ch,u,½ fczVsu dk ,d O;kolkf;d fudk; gS] tks raf=dk oSKkfudksa dks izfrfuf/kRo djrk gS vkSj LokLF; vkSj jksx
esa raf=dk iz.kkyh dh csgrj le> ds izfr lefiZr gSA blds lnL;ksa esa fo’ofo|ky;ksa vkSj laLFkkuksa esa dk;Zjr oSKkfudksa ls ysdj LukrdksŸkj
Nk= Hkh gSaA ch,u, dh okf”kZd cSBd vkerkSj ij olar ds fnuksa esa gksrh gS] tks uohure vuqla/kku ds izLrqrhdj.k dks ,d eap iznku djrh gSA
;g ns’k Hkj esa vusd LFkkuh; lewg fu;fer :i ls xksf”B;k¡ vk;ksftr djrk gS vkSj ;s lewg dbZ ckj vke turk ds lkFk xfrfof/k;ksa dk
vk;kstu djrs gSa] tSls fd Ldwyksa ds nkSjs vkSj LFkkuh; laxzgky;ksa esa izn’kZfu;ksa dk vk;kstu djukA vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, Ñi;k osclkbV
http://www.bna.org.uk/ ns[ksaA

bZMh,ch dk y{; vke turk vkSj fu.kZ;drkZvksa dks efLr”d vuqla/kku ds fo”k; esa tkudkjh nsuk gSA bZMh,ch dk y{; raf=dkfoKku ds
lkoZtfud vkSj O;fDrxr ykHkksa dk Kku vkxs c<+kuk vkSj ,d vfHkxE; vkSj rRlaca/kh rjhds ls LokLF; vkSj jksx esa efLr”d ij tkudkjh dk
izlkj djuk gSA raf=dkfoKkuh vkSj euksfpfdRlh; fodkj yk[kksa yksxksa dks izHkkfor djrs gaSa tks gj vk;q ds gksrs gaSa vkSj blls jk”Vªh; vFkZO;oLFkk
ij xaHkhj izHkko iM+rk gSA bu leL;kvksa dk gy ikus ds fy, o”kZ 1997 esa 70 iz[;kr raf=dkfoKkfu;ksa us izkfIr ;ksX; vuqla/kku y{;ksa dh ?kks”k.kk
ij gLrk{kj fd, vkSj efLr”d ds fodkjksa rFkk raf=dk foKku ds egRo ds izfr tkx#drk c<+kus dk opu fn;kA rHkh ls 24 ;wjksih; ns’kksa dk
izfrfuf/kRo djus okys vU; O;fDr;ksa dks pquk x;kA bZMh,ch esa 125 ls vf/kd lnL; gSaA vkSj vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, osclkbV
http://www.edab.net/

ns[ksaA

fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku
n ‘ksfjaxVu fcfYMax
,’kVksu LVªhV
fyojiwy
,y 69 3thbZ
;w ds
}kjk izdkf’kr lokZf/kdkj lqjf{kr fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku 2003
bl iqLrd ds lokZf/kdkj lqjf{kr gSAa oS/kkfud vioknksa vkSj laxr
laxzghr ykblsaflax djkjukeksa ds Áko/kkuksa ds v/khu fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal
,lksfl,’ku dh fyf[kr vuqefr ds fcuk fdlh Hkh fgLls dk iqu%mRiknu
ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA

izFke izdk’ku 2003
vkbZ,lch,u 0&9545204&0&8

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk foKku % efLr”d dk foKku
1

raf=dk Á.kkyh

ist 2

2

raf=dk vkSj ,D’ku
iksVsaf’k;y

ist 4

3

jklk;fud nwr

ist 7

4

vkS”kf/k vkSj efLr”d

ist 9

5

Li’kZ vkSj nnZ

ist 11

6

n`f”V

ist 14

7

xfr'khyrk

ist 19

8

raf=dk Á.kkyh dk fodkl ist 22

9

fMLysfDl;k

ist 25

10 ÁR;kLFkrk

ist 27

11 lh[kuk vkSj ;knnk’r

ist 30

12 ruko

ist 35

13 Áfrj{kk Á.kkyh

ist 37

14 uhan

ist 39

15 efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu

ist 41

Ñf=e efLr”d vkSj raf=dk
ist 44
16 latky
17 tc pht+sa xyr gks tk,¡

ist 47

18 raf=dk uhfr’kkL=

ist 52

19 Áf'k{k.k vkSj thouo`fŸk

ist 54

M

vkxs dh iBu lkexzh vkSj
20 vkHkkj
ist 56

gekjs fljksa ds vanj vjcksa&[kjcksa NksVh dksf’kdkvksa ls feydj cuk ,d vk’p;Ztud vax gS ftldk Hkkj 1-5
fdyksxzke gSA ;g gesa vklikl dh nqfu;k dh vuqefr dk lkeF;Z Ánku djrk gS] gesa lkspus vkSj cksyus dh
‘kfDr nsrk gSA ekuo efLr”d ‘kjhj dk lcls tfVy vax gS] vkSj rdZ fn;k tkrk gS fd bl i`Foh ij ik;k tkus
okyk lcls tfVy vax gSA ;g iqfLrdk ;qok Nk=ksa ds fy, ,d ifjp; Lo:i gSA
bl iqfLrdk esa geus le>k;k gS fd ge efLr”d dh dk;Z&Á.kkyh ds ckjs esa fdruk tku ik, gSa vkSj fdruk
tkuuk ‘ks”k gSA blds v/;;u esa vusd fo”k;ksa ds MkWDVj vkSj oSKkfud ‘kkfey gSa] tks vkf.od thofoKku ls
ysdj Ák;ksfxd euksfpfdRlk rd vkSj ‘kkjhfjdh] ‘kjhj fØ;kfoKku vkSj HkS”kftdh ds fofHkUu fo”k;ksa rd gSaA
buds feys&tqys Kku ls ,d u;k fo”k; cuk gS&raf=dk foKku &efLr”d dk foKkuA
bl iqfLrdk esa of.kZr efLr”d cgqr dqN dj ldrk gS ijUrq lc dqN ughaA blesa raf=dk dksf’kdk,¡ gksrh gSa tks
bldh fuekZ.k bdkb;k¡ gSa&vkSj ;s lc ,d latky ds ek/;e ls vkil esas tqM+h gksrh gSaA ;s latky fo|qr vkSj
jklk;fud xfrfof/k dh lrr voLFkk esa jgrh gSaA ge ftl efLr”d dk o.kZu dj jgs gSa og ns[k vkSj vuqHko
dj ldrk gSA ;g nnZ dk vuqHko dj ldrk gS vkSj bldh jklk;fud fØ;k,¡ nnZ ds vlqfo/kktud ÁHkkoksa ds
fu;a=.k esa lgk;rk djrs gSaA blds vusd Hkkx gesa viuh ifj”Ñr xfrfof/k;k¡ djus ds leUo; esa layXu gksrs gSaA
,d efLr”d tks bu dk;ksZa dks dj ldrk gS vkSj vU; ,sls dk;Z tks iwjh rjg ls lkeus ugha vk, gSa % blesa
Øe’k% fodkl gksrk gS vkSj ge blesa ‘kkfey Áeq[k thuksa dk o.kZu djrs gSaA tc buesa ls ,d ;k vf/kd thu
Bhd rjg ls dk;Z ugha djrs gSa rks fofHkUu ifjfLFkfr;k¡ fodflr gksrh gSa] tSls fMlysfDl;kA bu ds chp esa dbZ
lekurk,¡ gSa fd efLr”d dk fodkl dSls gksrk gS vkSj vkxs py dj raf=dk dksf’kdkvksa ds chp lEidZ dSls
cny tkrk gS] blds fy, ft+Eesnkj ÁfØ;k&ftls U;wjksuy ÁR;kLFkrk dgrs gSaA ,slk ekuk tkrk gS ÁR;kLFkrk
njvly lh[kus vkSj ;kn j[kus esa fufgr gSA gekjh bl iqfLrdk dk efLr”d VsyhQksu uacj ;kn j[k ldrk gS
vkSj vkius fiNys lky fØlel esa tks dk;Z fd;k Fkk] mls ;kn j[krk gSA vQlksl dh ckr ;g gS] efLr”d
ifjokj ds vodk’k ds {k.k rks ;kn j[krk gS] ijUrq ;g dqN [kkrk ;k ihrk ugha gSA blfy, ;g dqN gn rd
lhfer gSA ijUrq ;g ruko esa vk tkrk gS] lkFk gh geus dqN gkWekZsuy vkSj vkf.od ÁfØ;k ij Hkh tkudkjh nh
gS] ftlls vR;ar fpark mRiUu gksrh gS&tSls fd geesa ls vusd fdlh ijh{kk ds igys ijs’kku gks tkrs gSaA ,d
,slk le; vkrk gS tc uhan egRoiw.kZ gksrh gS] blfy, tc bldh t+#jr gks] vkjke djuk pkfg,A nq%[k dh ckr
;g gS fd bls jksx yx tkrs gSa vkSj bls pksV Hkh yx tkrh gSA
ubZ rduhdsa] tSls fd fo’ks”k bysDVªksM tks dksf’kdkvksa dh lrg Li’kZ dj ldrs gSa] Ádk’kh; ÁfrfcEcu ekuo
efLr”d LdSfuax e’khusa vkSj flfydkWu fpi esa fLFkr Ñf=e efLr”d ifjiFk vk/kqfud raf=dk foKku ds cnyrs
psgjs gsSaA geus bl iqfLrdk esa budk ifjp; fn;k gS vkSj dqN uhfrxr eqÌs vkSj efLr”d vuqla/kku ls mHkjus okys
dqN lkekftd fufgrkFkksZa dks Hkh crkus dk Áz;kl fd;k gSA

U;wjkslkbal dE;qfuVh
,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky;

fczfV’k
U;wjkslkbal
,lksfl,’ku

;wjksfi;u Mkuk ,yk,al
QkWj n czsu

vfrfjDr Áfr;k¡ e¡xkus ds fy,: www.bna.org.uk/publications
Mkd ls : n fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku] }kjk n ‘ksfjaxVu fcfYMaXl] ,D’ku LVªhV] fyojiqy ,y 68 3thbZ VsyhQksu % 44 (dk;kZy;) 151 794
4943/5449 QSDl : 44 (dk;kZy;) 794 5516/5517

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk Á.kkyh

ds lSV ‘kkfey gSaA bu nks lSVksa eas ls ,d dks ,DlkWu dgrs gSa( budk
dk;Z U;wjkWu ls vU; ij lwpuk Álkfjr djuk gS] tks buls tqM+s gksrs gSaA
vU; lSV MsaMªkbV dk dk;Z vU; U;wjkWu ds ,DlkWu }kjk Álkfjr dh tk
jgh lwpuk ÁkIr djus dk gSA ;s nksuksa Áo/kZ lkbusIl uked fo’ks”k laidZ
esa Hkkx ysrs gSa ¼,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y vkSj jklk;fud nwr ij v/;k; 2 vkSj
3 ns[ksa½A U;wjkWuksa dks ,slh tfVy J`a[kyk vkSj latky esa O;ofLFkr fd;k
tkrk gS] ftuds ek/;e ls raf=dk Á.kkyh esa lwpuk Álkfjr dh tkrh
gSA
efLr”d vkSj es#jTtq laosnu’khy xzkfg;ksa vkSj ek¡lisf’k;ksa esa ,d
yEcs ,DlkWu ds t+fj, tqM+s gksrs gSaA es#jTtq ds nks dk;Z gSa % ;g
ljy fj¶yslst+ dk LFky gS] tSls fd ?kqVus ij >Vdk yxuk vkSj
xeZ oLrq vkSj fiu pqHkksus ls vax dks gVk ysuk rFkk vkSj Hkh cgqr
tfVy fj¶ysDl vkSj ;s nksuksa fn’kkvksa esa efLr”d vkSj ‘kjhj ds chp
lwpuk dk vknku&Ánku djrs gaSA

efLr”d vkSj es#jTtq n’kkZrh ekuo dsUnzh; raf=dk Á.kkyh

raf=dk Á.kkyh dh ;s ewyHkwr lajpuk,¡ lHkh d’ks#dh thoksa esas ,d
leku gksrh gSaA ekuo efLr”d esa tks varj iSnk djrk gS og gS ‘kjhj
ds vuqikr esa bldk cM+k vkdkj gksukA bldk dkj.k gS fodkl ds
nkSjku baVjU;wjkWuksa dh la[;k esa vR;Ur o`f) gks tkuk] ekuoksa dks
i;kZoj.k dh ÁfrfØ;kvksa ds vuUr :i ls O;kid fodYi Ánku djrs
gSaA

ewyHkwr lajpuk
raf=dk Á.kkyh esa efLr”d] es#jTtq vkSj isjhQsjy raf=dk,¡ ‘kkfey gSaA ;g U;wjkWu
uked raf=dk dksf’kdkvksa vkSj fXy;y dksf’kdk uked lgk;d dksf’kdkvksa ls curk
gSA
U;wjkWu eq[;r% rhu Ádkj ds gksrs gSaA laosnh U;wjkWu ,sls xzkfg;ksa ls tqM+s gksrs gSa tks
ckgjh vkSj van:uh ifjos’k dh fofHkUu fo’ks”krkvksa dk irk yxkrs gSa vkSj ÁfrfØ;k
nsrs gSaA Ádk’k] /ofu] ;kaf=d vkSj jklk;fud mÌhiuksa esa cnyko ds Áfr laosnu’khy
xzkgh] Jo.k] Li’kZ] xa/k vkSj Lokn dh laosnu’khy :ikRedrkvksa ij dk;Z djrs gSaA
tc Ropk ij ;kaf=d] rkih; ;k jklk;fud mÌhiu dk ÁHkko ,d lhek ls vkxs
c<+rk gS rks os Ård dks uqdlku igq¡pk ldrs gSa( ;s lqj{kkRed fj¶ysDl rFkk nnZ
dh vuqHkwfr mRiUu djrs gSa ¼Li’kZ vkSj nnZ ij v/;k; 5 ns[ksa½A pkyd U;wjkWu] tks
eka¡lisf’k;ksa dh xfrfof/k dk fu;a=.k djrs gSa] ok.kh lfgr gj Ádkj ds O;ogkj ds
fy, mŸkjnk;h gSA laosnu’khy vkSj pkyd U;wjkWu ds chp fLFkr dksf’kdkvksa dks
baVjU;wjkWu dgrs gSaA ekuo efLr”d esa vf/kdka’kr% ;s U;wjkWu gh gksrs gSaA baVjU;wjkWu
ljy fj¶ysDl dks ek/;fer djrs gSa vkSj ;s efLr”d ds mPpre dk;Z ds fy, Hkh
mŸkjnk;h gSaA yEcs le; ls fXy;y dksf’kdk dk dk;Z U;wjkWu ds ,d leFkZd dk
ekuk tkrk Fkk] vc bUgsa raf=dk Á.kkyh ds fodkl esa vkSj o;Ld efLr”d ds dk;ksZa
esa ,d egRoiw.kZ ;ksxnkudrkZ ekuk tkrk gSA la[;k esa cgqr gksus ij Hkh ;s U;wjkWu dh
rjg lwpuk ds Álkj.k dk dk;Z ugha djrs gSaA
U;wjkWu dh okLrq lajpuk esa ,d dksf’kdkdk; vkSj ^^Áo/kZ** uke nks vfrfjDr [k.Mksa

2

efLr”d dh ‘kkjhfjdh
efLr”d esa efLr”d LraHk vkSj lsfjczy gsfeLQs;j ‘kkfey gSaA
efLr”d LraHk i'p efLr”d] e/; efLr”d vkSj Mk;ulsQsykWu uked
Hkkxksa esa foHkkftr gksrk gSA i'p efLr”d okLro esa es#jTtq dk
foLrkj gSA blesa U;wjkWuksa dk latky gksrk gS] tks thoUr fØ;kvksa ds
fu;a=.k gsrq dsUnz cukrs gSa] tSls fd lk¡l ysuk vkSj jDrnkcA buds
vanj U;wjkWu ds usVodZ gksrs gSa] ftudh xfrfof/k bu dk;ksZa dk
fu;a=.k djrh gSA i'p efLr”d dh Åijh nhokj ls lsjscsye
fudyrk gS] tks xfr’khyrk ds fu;a=.k vkSj le; dks r; djus esa
ije dsUnzh; Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gS ¼xfr’khyrk vkSj fMlysfDl;k ij
v/;k; ns[ksa½A
e/; efLr”d esa U;wjkWuksa dk lewg ‘kkfey gS] ftuesa ls ÁR;sd Áeq[k
:i ls jklk;fud nwr ds ,d fo’ks”k Ádkj dk mi;ksx djrk gSA
ijUrq buesa ls lHkh lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j rd Á{ksfir djrs gSaA ;g
lkspk x;k fd ;s uhan] /;ku vkdf”kZr djus ;k iqjLÑr djus tSls
dk;kZsa dh e/;LFkrk ls efLr”d ds mPprj dsUnzksa esa U;wjkWuksa dh
lfØ;rk dk ekWMqyu dj ldrs gSaA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

ekuo efLr”d dk Åij] uhps vkSj ik’oZ ls n`’;

lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j vkSj efLr”d
LraHk ds chp foHkktu n’kkZus okyk
efLr”d dk ik’oZfp=] bldk ,d
foLrkj gh lsjscsye gSA

Mk;ulsQsykWu dks nks vyx&vyx {ks=ksa esa ck¡Vk x;k gS FkSysel vkSj
gkbiksFkSyselA FkSysel dh vksj ls lHkh laosnh Á.kkfy;ksa ls lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dks
mÌhiu Hksts tkrs gSa] tks okil FkSysel esa lans’k Hkstrs gSaA efLr”d esa ;g
vkxs&ihNs la;kstdrk dk ;g igyw bafVªxqbxa Ádkj dk gS&lwpuk dsoy ,d gh
fn’kk esa Áokfgr ugha gksrh gSA gkbiksFkSysel esa dk;kZsa dks fu;a=.k fd;k tkrk gS
tSls fd Hkkstu djuk vkSj rjy inkFkZ ihuk rFkk ;s ;kSu dk;ksZa esa ‘kkfey gkWjeksuksa
ds lzko dk Hkh fu;eu djrk gSA

Lksjsczy gsfeLQs;j esa ,d dsUnzh; csly xSaxfy;k vkSj ,d O;kid fdUrq iryh U;wjy
irZ blds pkjksa vksj gksrh gS] ftlls lsjczy dkWVsZDl dk xzs inkFkZ curk gSA csly
xSaxfy;k xfr’khyrk dh igy vkSj fu;a=.k f’kjkfLFk ds lhfer LFkku esa fLFkr
lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dbZ txg eqM+k gqvk gksrk gS tks U;wjkWu dh irZ dk lrgh {ks= c<+kus
esa lgk;d cukus ds fy, ygjnkj gksrk gSA ;g dkWfVZdy Ård ekuoksa esa efLr”d
dk lokZf/kd fodflr {ks= gS&;g xksfjYyk dh rqyuk esa pkj xquk cM+k gksrk gSA ;g
cM+h la[;k esa fo[kf.Mr {ks=ksa esa caVk gksrk gS] ÁR;sd {ks= viuh irksZa vkSj la;kstuksa
ds lanHkZ esa ,d nwljs ls vyx gksrh gSaA bu {ks=ksa esa ls vusd dk;Z Kkr gSa&tSls
n`f”V] Jo.k vkSj ?kzk.k {ks=] laosnh {ks= Ropk ls vkSj fofHkUu pkyd {ks=ksa ÁkIr djrs
gSa ¼lksek,LFkfVd {ks=½A laosnh xzkfg;ksa ls dkWVsZDl vkSj dkWVsZDl ls ek¡lis’kh rd ;s
ekxZ ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd tkrs gSaA bl rjg ‘kjhj ds nkfgus fgLls dh
xfr’khyrk dk fu;a=.k ckbZ vksj ls dkWVsZDl ls ¼vkSj blds foijhr½ gksrk gSA blh
Ádkj] ‘kjhj ck;k¡ v/kZHkkx] nkfgus gsfeLQs;j dks laosnh ladsr Hkstrk gS] mnkgj.k ds
fy, ck,a dku dh vkokt+ nkfgus dkWVZsDl esa igq¡prh gSA tcfd efLr”d ds nks
fgLls vyx&vyx dke ugha djrs&D;ksafd ck;k¡ vkSj nkfguk lsjsczy dkWVsZDl ,d
cM+s Qkbcj VSªSDV ls tqM+k gksrk gS] ftls dkWÁl dSyksle dgrs gaSA

LoSfPNd xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dh vko’;drk gksrh gS] Hkk”kk] ok.kh
vksj dqN T+;knk dfBu dk;ksZa tSls lkspuk vkSj ;kn j[kukA buesa ls vusd dk;Z
efLr”d ds nksuksa vksj ls fd, tkrs gSa] ijarq buesa ls dqN ,d lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j ;k
vU; dh vksj ls Hkst fn, tkrs gSaA bu dfBu dk;kZsa esa ls lacaf/kr {ks=] tSls ok.kh
¼tks vf/kdka’k yksxksa esa ckbZ vksj ik’ohZÑr gksrk gS½ dks vfHkKkr fd;k x;k gSA
;|fi] vHkh cgqr dqN tkuuk ‘ks”k gS] fo’ks”kdj dqN vk’p;Zpfdr dj nsus okys eqÌs
tSls pSrU;rk vkSj lsjsczy dkWVsZDl ds dk;ksZa dk v/;;u raf=dkfoKku esa vuqla/kku
dk lokZf/kd jkspd vkSj lfØ; {ks=ksa esa ls ,d gSA

lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j
lsjscsye
efLr”d LraHk

FkSysel vkSj gkbiksFkSysel
n’kkZus ds fy, efLr”d dh
fo”ke dkV
FkSysel
gkbiksFkSysel

vk/kqfud raf=dk foKku ds firk] jkeksuh
dktky o”kZ 1890 esa vius lw{en’khZ ijA
csly xSaxfy;k vkSj dkWilZ
dSyksle n’kkZrk efLr”d dk
fo”ke dkV
lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j
dkWilZ dSyksle
csly xSxa f

dktky }kjk fy,
x, U;wjkWu vkSj muds
Áo/kksZa dk fp=

dktky }kjk cukbZ
xbZ U;wjkWu dh
rLohjsa&;s gh
lsjscsye gSaA

baVjusV fyaDl % http://science.howstuffwords.com/brain.htm, http://faculty.washinton.edu/chudler/neurek.html
http://psych.honover.edu/krantz/neurotuthtml

3

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

U;wjkWu vkSj ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y
pkgs U;wjkWu laosnh gks ;k pkyd] cM+k ;k NksVk] buesa lkekU; ckr ;g gS
fd budh xfrfof/k fo|qr vkSj jklk;fud] nksuksa Ádkj dh gksrh gSA
U;wjkWu vkil esa raf=dk Á.kkyh dh lexz fLFkfr ds fu;eu ds lkFk Likbuy pkyd U;wjkWu fijkfeMy dksf’kdk
lg;ksx vkSj ÁfrLi)kZ djrs gSa( blh ds leku fd O;fDr lekt ds
fu.kZ; ysus dh ÁfØ;k esa lg;ksx vkSj ÁfrLi)k djrk gSA ,DlkWu ls
ÁkIr Áo/kksZa eas ÁkIr jklk;fud ladsr] tks muls lEidZ djrs gSa] os fo|qr
ladsrksa esa cny tkrs gSaA ;s ladsr vU; lHkh lkbusIl ds ladsrksa esa ;k rks
tqM+ tkrs gSa ;k de gks tkrs gSa vkSj bldk fu.kZ; fy;k tkrk gS fd D;k
bu ladsrksa dks vU; dgha Hkstuk gS ;k ughaA rc fo|qr iksVsaf’k;y uhps
,DlkWu ls vxys U;wjkWu ds Áo/kksZa ij lkbusIl ij igq¡prk gS vkSj ÁfØ;k
dksf'kdk dk;
tkjh jgrh gSA
dksf'kdk dk;

lsjscsye dh iqjfdats dksf’kdk

dksf'kdk dk;
,DlkWu

xfr'khy U;wjkWu
tSlk fd geus fiNys v/;k; esa crk;k Fkk] U;wjkWu esa Áo/kZ] ,d
dksf’kdkdk; vkSj ,d ,DlkWu rFkk lkbusfIVd ‘kkfey gSaA ;g lajpuk
blds dk;kZRed mi ÁHkkxksa dks ÁkfIr] lesdu vkSj Álkj.k [k.Mksa dks
Ánf’kZr djrh gSA LFkwy :i ls dgk tk, rks Áo/kZ ÁkfIr djrs gaS]
dksf’kdk dk; lesdu djrs gSa vkSj ,DlkWu Álkj.k djrs gSa&bl ladYiuk
dks /kzqohdj.k dgrs gSa] D;ksafd os ftl lwpuk dk Álaalk/ku djrs gSa] og
,d gh fn’kk esa tkrh gSA
Áo/kZ

dksf’kdk dk;

ÁkfIr

lesdu

,DlkWu

lkbusIl

Álkj.k

,d U;wjkWu dh eq[; ladYiuk,¡
fdlh vU; lajpuk dh rjg ;g ,d lkFk tqM+k gksrk gSA U;wjkWu dh ckgjh f>fYy;k¡]
olk inkFkksZa dh cuh gksrh gaS vkSj ;s dksf’kdk daadky ds pkjksa vksj yxh gksrh gaS] tks
ufydkdkj vkSj rarqor ÁksVhuksa dh NM+ksa ls curk gS] tks Áo/kkasZ vkSj ,DlkWu esa
foLrkfjr gksrs gSA ;g lajpuk ,d ufydkdkj dadky ds Åij <kaps ij QSys
dSuokl dh rjg gSA U;wjkWu ds fofHkUu Hkkx fujarj :i ls xfr’khy gksrs gS] ,d
iqu%O;oLFkk dh ÁfØ;k] tks viuh lfØ;rk vkSj vius iM+kSlh fgLlksa dh xfr’khyrk
n’kkZrh gSA Áo/kZ viuk vkdkj cnyrs gaS] buds u, la;kstu curs gaS rFkk iqjkus
VwVrs gSa vkSj ,DlkWu ds u, fljs curs gaS] tSls&2 U;wjkWu vf/kd rst+ rjhds ls vkxs
c<+us dk ;k vis{kkÑr /khes rjhds ls] Á;kl djrs gaSA
U;wjkWu ds vanj 3 van:uh [k.M gksrs gSaA ;s ÁksVhu ls cus gksrs gaS vkSj vf/kdka’kr%
budk fuekZ.k dksf’kdkdk; esa gksrk gS] tks dksf’kdh; <kaps ds lkFk ifjogu fd,
tkrs gaSA Áo/kksZa ls fudyh NksVh lajpukvksa dks Áo/khZ daVd dgrs gSaA ;s mu LFkkuksa
ij gksrs gaS tgk¡ vaanj vkus okys ,DlkWu tqM+rs gaSA daaVdksa ij varfjr ÁksVhu U;wjkWuy

4

,DlkWu

,DlkWu

U;wjkWu ds rhu Ádkj

la;kstdrk ds l`tu vkSj vuqj{k.k ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSaA ;s ÁksVhu
yxkrkj cnyrs jgrs gaS] ,d ds LFkku ij nwljs vk tkrs gaS] tc budk
dke iwjk gks tk,A bl iwjh xfrfof/k dks bZa/ku dh vko’;drk gksrh gS
vkSj bl dk;Z ds fy, bUgsa dksf’kdk ds vanj ekStwn ÅtkZ QSDVjh
¼ekbVksdksafMª;k½ ls ‘kfDr feyrh gSA ,DlkWu ds vaR; fcUnq Hkh o`f)
dkjdksa uked v.kqvksa ds Áfr lfØ;rk n’kkZrs gSaA bu dkjdksa dks vanj
xzg.k fd;k tkrk gS vkSj rc dksf’kdkdk; esa Hkstk tkrk gS] tgk¡ os
U;wjkWuy thuksa dh vfHkO;fDr dks ÁHkkfor djrs gaS vkSj bl Ádkj u,
ÁksVhuksa ds fuekZ.k dkss HkhA ;s U;wjkWu dks yEcs Áo/kZ rd c<+us ;k blds
vkdkj ;k dk;Z esa vU; xfr’khy ifjorZu djus eas l{ke cukrs gaSA
dksf’kdkdk; ls gj le; lwpuk] iks”kd rRoksa vkSj lans’kksa dk
vknku&Ánku gksrk jgrk gSA

U;wjkWu ds rhu Ádkj

Áo/khZ daVd gjs jax dh NksVh lajpuk,¡ gS tks ,d U;wjkWu ds gjs
Áo/kZ ls ckgj fudyrh gaSA bUgha LFkkuksa ij lkbusIl fLFkr gksrs gaSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
ÁkIr djuk vkSj fu.kZ; ysuk

,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y

dksf’kdk ds ÁkfIr fcUnq ij Áo/kksZa dk vU; dksf’kdkvksa ds vanj vkus
okys ,DlkWu ds lkFk utnhdh lEidZ gksrk gS] buesa ls ÁR;sd ehVj ds
yxHkx 20 fcfy;u osa Hkkx ds cjkcj NksVs ls varjky ls vyx fd,
tkrs gaSA ,d Áo/kZ vU; dqN ;k vU; gtkjksa U;wjkWuksa ls lEidZ ÁkIr
dj ldrk gSA ;s tksM+ ds fcUnq lkbusIl dgykrs gS] ;g ‘kCn xzhd
Hkk”kk ls fudyk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ^^,d lkFk tksM+uk**A lsjsczy
dkWVsZDl esa fLFkr buesa ls vf/kdka’k dksf’kdkvksa ds lkbusIl Áo/kZ
daVdksa ij fLFkr gksrs gaS] tks det+ksj ls laadsrksa dh [kkst esa NksVs
ekbØksQksuksa dh rjg fpids gksrs gSA

,d U;wjkWu ls nwljs U;wjkWu ls lEidZ cukus ds fy, U;wjkWuy ladsru
lcls igys ,DlkWu ds ek/;e ls ;k=k djrs gSA ;g U;wjkWu bl dke
dks fdl Ádkj djrs gSa \

bu lEidZ fcUnqvksa ij raf=dk dksf’kdkvksa ds chp lEidZ dks
lkbusfIVd Álkj.k dgk tkrk gS vkSj blesa ,d jklk;fud ÁfØ;k
‘kkfey gksrh gS ftldk ge vxys v/;k; esa foLrkj ls o.kZu djsaxsA
tc Áo/kZ jklk;fud lans’kksa esa ls fdlh ,d dks ÁkIr djrs gS tks
bls Hkstus okys ,DlkWu ls vyx gksdj bl varjky ls ckgj vk;k
gS] ÁkIr djus okys Áo/khZ daVd ds vanj NksVh&NksVh fo|qr /kkjk,¡
Áokfgr gksrh gSaA dksf’kdk esa vkus okyh bu /kkjkvksa dks mŸkstuk
dgrs gaS] vFkok ;s ,slh /kkjk,¡ Hkh gks ldrh gaS tks dksf’kdk ls ckgj
vk jgh gks] rc bUgsa laaneu dgrs gaSA fo|qr dh ;s lHkh /kukRed
vkSj _.kkRed rjaxas Áo/kksZa esa lafpr gksrh gS vkSj ;s dksf’kdkdk; esa
QSy tkrh gSA ;fn ;s cgqr vf/kd lfØ; ugha gks rks fo|qr /kkjk
tYnh gh lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj vkxs dqN ugha gksrk gSA tcfd
;fn fo|qr /kkjk bruh vf/kd c<+ tk, fd og ,d Lrj ls Åij
mB ik, rks U;wjkWu dh vksj ls vU; U;wjkWuksa dks lans’k Hkstk tk,xkA

;s raf=dk rarq ds ek/;e ls ,d jLlh dh rjg Åij&uhps tkrs
gq, ,d rjax ds :i esa ;k=k djrs gaSA ;g dk;Z djrk gS D;ksafd
,DlkWuy f>Yyh esa vk;u pSuy gksrs gaS] tks fo|qrh; n`f”V ls
vkosf’kr vk;uksa ds ek/;e ls [kqyrs vkSj can gks ldrs gSaA dqN
pSuy lksfM;e vk;uksa dks xqtjus nsrs gSa tcfd dqN iksVsf’k;e
vk;uksa dks xqtjus nsrs gaSA tc ;s pSuy [kqyrs gS rc lksfM;e ;k
iksVsf’k;e vk;u uhps dh vksj jklk;fud vkSj fo|qr Áo.krk ds
fo#) Áokfgr gksrs gaS] ;s dksf’kdk ds vanj vkSj ckgj bldh
f>Yyh ds fo|qr fo/kzqohdj.k ds ÁR;qŸkj esa dk;Z djrs gSaA

bldk mŸkj HkkSfrd vkSj jklk;fud Áo.krk esa fufgr ÅtkZ ds nksgu
vkSj bu cyksa dks ,d l{ke :i ls ,d lkFk feykus ij fuHkZj djrk
gSA U;wjkWuksa ds ,DlkWu fo|qr mÌhiu mRiUu djrs gaS] ftls ,D’ku
iksVsaf’k;y dgrs gaSA

vr% U;wjkWu ,d Ádkj dk dSydqysVj gS&ftlesa yxkrkj tksM+us vkSj
?kVkus dh ÁfØ;k pyrh jgrh gSA tc ;g tksM+us ;k ?kVkus dk dk;Z
djrk gS rc ;g vU; U;wjkWuksa ls lans’k ÁkIr djrk gSA dqN lkbusIl
mŸkstuk iSnk djrs gSa tcfd dqN laneu djrs gaSA ;s ladsr laaosnuk]
fopkj vkSj xfrfof/k dk vk/kkj fdl Ádkj djrs gaS ;g mu usVodZ
ij dkQh gn rd fuHkZj djrk gS] ftlesa ;s U;wjkWu fLFkr gSaA
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y

5

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
tc dksf’kdk dk; ij ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y vkjEHk gksrk gS rks rc lcls igys
lksfM;e pSuy [kqyrs gSaA lksfM;e vk;uksa dk ,d Lianu dksf’kdk dk; esa
tkrk gS vkSj feyh lsd.M ds vanj ,d u;k lkE; LFkkfir gks tkrk gSA rqjar
gh ikj f>Yyh oksYVst 100 feyh oksYV igq¡p tkrk gSA ;g vaan#uh f>Yyh ds
oksYVst ls c<+rk gS tks _.kkRed gksrk gS ¼yxHkx &70 feyh oksYV½ ls ysdj
,d rd tks /kukRed gksrk gS ¼yxHkx $30 feyh oksYV½A ;g iksVsf’k;e
pSuyksa ds chp pyrs gq, iksVsf’k;e vk;u ds ,d Lianu dks vkjEHk djrk gS
tks dksf’kdk ds ckgj fudy tk,A ;g lksfM;e vk;u ds vanj vkus ftruh
rst+ fØ;k gksrh gS vkSj cnys esa ;g f>Yyh ds iksVsaf’k;y dks vanj dh vksj
ekStwn ewy _.kkRed eku rd okil ys vkrh gSA ;g ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh
fØ;k mlls Hkh de le; esa iwjh gks tkrh gS] ftruk le; ?kj esa ,d fctyh
tykus vkSj mls rqjar can djus esa yxrk gSA mYys[kuh; ckr ;g gS fd bls
djus ds fy, dqN gh vk;u dksf’kdk f>Yyh ls ikjxeu djrs gSa vkSj
dksf’kdk nzO; ds vanj iksVsf’k;e vkSj vk;uksa dh lkanzrk ,d ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y
ds nkSjku mYys[kuh; :i ls cnyrh ugha gSA ;|fi] yacs le; esa ;s vk;u]
vk;u iEiksa ds ek/;e ls larqyu cuk, j[krs gSa ftudk dk;Z vfrfjDr
lksfM;e vk;uksa dks ckgj fudky Qsaduk gSA ;g dqN ml Ádkj dh ?kVuk gS
tc unh esa rSjrh gqbZ ,d uko ds rys esa NksVk lk Nsn gks tk, vkSj ckYVh ls
Hkjdj ;gka Hkjs ikuh dks fudky dj uko dks lqjf{kr dj fy;k tk,] rFkk
ikuh ds ml ncko dks lgu djus dh rys dh lexz {kerk dks dksbZ {kfr uk
igq¡ps ftl ij uko rSj jgh gSA
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ,d fo|qrh; ?kVuk gS] tks tfVy gSA raf=dk rarq fo|qr
pkydksa dh rjg dk;Z djrs gS ¼tcfd ;s balqysVsM rkjksa dh vis{kk de l{ke
gksrs gSa½A vkSj bl Ádkj ,d fcUnq ij mRiUu ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y blds ikl
fLFkr lfØ; vkSj foJke voLFkk esa ekStwn f>fYy;ksa ds chp vU; Áo.krk dk
l`tu djrs gaSA bl Ádkj ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y fo/kqzohdj.k dh rjax esa lfØ; :i
ls vkxs c<+rk gS tks raf=dk rarq ds ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd QSy tkrk gSA
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh pkydrk esa vkidks fopkj djus esa ,d letkrrk dh
ckr lgk;rk ns ldrh gS fd ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y okLro esa ,d iVk[ks esa ÅtkZ
dh ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd gksus okyh xfr’khyrk gSA igyh ckj ÁToyu
gksus ij xfrfof/k cgqr rst+h ls ‘kq: gksrh gS ¼tks ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ds LFky
ij ,DlkWu esa vkus vkSj ckgj tkus okys vk;uksa ds led{k gksrk gS½] fdUrq
ÁToyu ds vkxs c<+us dh lexz xfr vR;ar /kheh gksrh gSA raf=dk rarq dh
,d vnHkqr fo’ks”krk ;g gS fd ekSu jgus dh ,d vof/k ¼fjÝsDVjh vof/k½ ds
rqjar ckn ;g f>Yyh viuh foLQksVu {kerk nksckjk ÁkIr dj ysrh gS] rFkk
vxys ,D’ku iksVasf’k;y ds fy, ,DlkWu f>Yyh dks rS;kj dj nsrh gSA
dqN fof’k”V leqnzh thoksa esa ik, tkus okys vR;ar cM+s U;wjkWu rFkk muds
,DlkWu dk mi;ksx djrs gq, blesa ls vf/kd Kku yxHkx 50 o”kZ igys
fd, x, vk’p;Ztud Á;ksxksa ls Kkr gks pqdk FkkA bu ,DlkWu ds cM+s
vkdkj dk gksus ls oSKkfud buds vanj NksVs&NksVs bysDVªksM j[kdj
buesa gksus okys fo|qr oksYVst esa ifjorZu dks Kkr dj ldsA bu fnuksa
,d vk/kqfud fo|qr vfHkys[ku rduhd iSp DySfEiax ls raf=dk oSKkfud
lHkh Ádkj ds U;wjkWuksa esa vyx&vyx vk;u pSuy ds ek/;e ls vk;uksa
dh xfr dk v/;;u dj lds gaS vkSj bl Ádkj bu /kkjkvksa dk gekjs
efLr”d dh rjg] vR;ar ‘kq) ekiu fd;k x;k gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

mijksDr raf=dk rarq ¼cSaxuh jax ls ,DlkWu n’kkZ;k x;k gS½A Loku dksf’kdkvksa
¼yky½ esa fyiVs gksrs gSA ;s blds vklikl ls raf=dk esa vkus okys fo|qr ikjs”k.k
dk balqys’ku djrs gSA ;s jax ÁfrnhfIr’khy jlk;u gSa tks ,d u,
[kkstsa ÁksVhu dkWEiysDl dks n’kkZrs gS bl ÁksVhu dkWEiysDl dks rksMu+ s ls ,d
vkuqokaf’kd jksx gks tkrk gS tks ekalisf’k;ksa dh rdyhQ iSnk djrk gSA

u, vuqla/kku ls gesa mu ÁksVhuksa ds ckjs esa irk pyrk gS tks bl ek;fyu
‘khFk dks cukrs gSaA ;g vkoj.k vk;fud /kkjkvksa dks fudy dj xyr LFkku
ij tkus ls jksdrk gSA rkfd fXy;y dksf’kdk,¡ ennxkj :i ls ,d NksVk
varjky NksM+ ldasA ;gka vk;u vius lksfM;e rFkk iksVsf’k;e vk;u pSuyksa
dk lkanz.k djrs gSA vk;u pSuyksa ds ;s lewg ,sls ,EIyhQk;j dh rjg dk;Z
djrs gS tks ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dks c<+krk gS vkSj mls cuk, j[krk gS] tSlk
fd ;g raf=dk ds vanj pyrk gksA ;g vR;ar rhoz xfr ls gks ldrk gSA
okLro esa ek;fyu ;qDr U;jkWu esa ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y U;wjkWu yxHkx 100 ehVj
Áfr lsd.M dh xfr ls py ldrk gSA
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh foHksnh fo’ks”krk gks ldrh gS lHkh dqN ;k dqN ughaA
buds vkdkj esa fHkUurk ugha gksrh] dsoy buds gksus dh fLFkfr esa varj gksrk
gSA bl Ádkj ,d mÌhiu dh vof/k ;k mldh ‘kfDr dk rjhdk ;g gS fd
blls ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh vko`fŸk esa fHkUurk }kjk fdlh vdsyh dksf’kdk esa
dksfMr fd;k tk,A lcls vf/kd l{ke ,DlkWu ,d gtkj xquk Áfr lsd.M dh
vko`fŸk ij ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y mRiUu djsaA
,yu gksMdhu vkSj ,aMª;w gDlys dks
raf=dk Ásj.kk ds ikjs”k.k dh ÁfØ;k
dh [kkst djus ds fy, ukscy
iqjLdkj fn;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus
IysekmFk esfju ck;ksykWth Á;ksx’kkyk
esa fLDOM ds ^^fo’kky ,DlkWu** esa
v/;;u fd;kA

,DlkWu dk balqys’ku
vusd ,DlkWuksa esa ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y Bhd rjg ls pyrk gS] cgqr rst ughaA vU;
esa ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y raf=dk esa vR;ar rst+ pyrk gSA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd ;s
,DlkWu olh; inkFkksZa ls fyiVs gksrs gS] tks ,d balqysfVax vkoj.k dh rjg dk;Z
djrk gS] tks ek;fyu ’khFk uked fXy;y dksf’kdk f>fYy;ksa ls cuh gksrh gSaA

6

: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html
http://www.neuro.wustl.edu/neuromuscular/

baVjusV fyaDl

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

jklk;fud nwr
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y lkbusIl uked fo’ks”k {ks=ksa ls ,DlkWu ds ek/;e ls
xqtjrs gS] tgka ,d U;wjkWu ds Áo/kZ nwljs U;wjkWu ds Áo/kksZa ls lEidZ
djrs gSaA buesa ,d Áh&lkbusfIVax raf=dk fljk gksrk gS] tks
iksLV&lkbusfIVax ?kVd ls ,d NksVs varjky }kjk vyx fd;k tkrk
gS] tks vkerkSj ij ,d Áo/khZZ daVd ds Åij fLFkr gksrk gSA ,DlkWu
ds ek/;e ls ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ds vkxs c<+us ds fy, mŸkjnk;h fo|qr
/kkjk,¡ bl lkbusfIVd varjky dks Hkj ugha ldrs gaSA bl varjky ls
gksdj xqtjus okys iksj”k.k U;wjksVªkalfeVj uked jklkfud nwr }kjk
iw.kZ gksrs gSAa
o`Ÿkkdkj FkSyksa esa iSd fd, gq,
jklk;fud VªkalfeVj lkbusfIVd tksM+ksa ls
gksdj fueqfDr ds fy, miyC/k gS

lkbusfIVd Dys¶V ds vklikl fXy;y dksf’kdk,¡ Hkh ?kwerh jgrh
gSaA buesa ls dqN ds vanj NksVs oSD;we Dyhuj gksrs gSa ftUgsa
VªkaliksVZj dgrs gaS] ftudk dk;Z Dys¶V esa ekStwn VªkalfeVj dks lks[k
ysus dk gSA ;g vxyk ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y vkjEHk gksus ds igys
jklk;fud nwrksa dks ;gk¡ ls gVk nsrk gSA fdUrq dqN Hkh O;FkZ ugha
tkrk&rc ;g fXy;y dksf’kdk,¡ VªkalfeVj dk Álalkf/kr djrh gSa
vkSj bUgsa Hkfo”; esa mi;ksx ds fy, raf=dk fljksa dh Hk.Mkj.k
osfldy esa Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tkrk gSA fXy;y dksf’kdk }kjk fd;k
tkus okyk j[kj[kko dsoy ,d ek= ek/;e ugha gS ftlds }kjk
U;wjksVªkalfeVj lkbusIl ls gVk, tkrs gSaA dHkh&dHkkj raf=dk
dksf’kdk,¡ VªkalfeVj v.kqvksa dks iqu% muds raf=dk fljksa esa okil
Hkst nsrh gSaA vU; ekeyksa esa VªkalfeVj dks lkbusfIVd Dys¶V esa
vU; jlk;uksa }kjk rksM+k tkrk gSA

vk;u pSuy [kksyus okys nwr

Hk.Mkj.k vkSj fueqZfDr
U;wjksVªkalfeVj dks NksVs o`Ÿkkdkj FkSyksa esa tek fd;k tkrk gS] tks
,DlkWu ds fljs ij fLFkr gksrs gSa vkSj bUgsa lkbusfIVd osfldy dgrs
gSaA ;s osfldy Hk.Mkj.k ds fy, gksrs gaS vkSj raf=dk ds fljksa ds ikl
fLFkr osfldy fueqZfDr ds fy, rS;kj gksrs gaSA ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y vkjEHk
gksus ij dSfYl;e esa tkus ds fy, vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrs gaSaA blls
,atkbe lfØ; gks tkrs gaS] tks vusd ÁhlkbusfIVd ÁksVhuksa ij dk;Z
djrs gaS ftUgsa vyx&vyx uke fn, x, gaS] tSls ^^Lus;j**] ^^Vsxfeu**
vkSj ^^czsfou** tks gky gh esa gq, oSKkfud vUos”k.k dh fo’ks”krkvksa ds
fy, okLro esa vPNs uke gSaA raf=dk oSKkfudksa us gky ghs esa ;g [kkstk
gS fd ;s ÁhlkbusfIVd ÁksVhu vU; ds vklikl Vsfxax vkSj Vªsfiax esa
yxs gksrs gaS] ftlls i;kZIr ek=k esa lkbusfIVd osfldy f>Yyh ds lkFk
tqM+rs gaS] QwVrs gSa vkSj raf=dk ds fljs ls jklk;fud nwr dks ckgj
fueqZDr djrs gaSA
rc ;g nwr lkbusfIVd Dys¶V uked 22 uSuksehVj ds varjky ls
folfjr gksrk gSA tc lkbusfIVd dh f>Yyh raf=dk ds fljs ij okil
Qwy tkrh gS rc buesa lq/kkj gksrk gS] tgka buesa ,d lrr iqu%pØ.k
dh ÁfØ;k esa dke vkus ds fy, U;wjksVªkalfeVj nksckjk Hkj tkrs gaSA
tc ,d ckj ;g vU; i{k esa igq¡p tkrk gS] tks vR;ar rst+h ls ,d
feyh lsd.M ls Hkh de le; esa gksrk gS] rc ;g vxys U;wjkWu dh
f>Yyh esa fjlsIVj uked fo’ks”k vkf.od lajpuk ls fØ;k djrk gSA

xzkfg;ksa ds lkFk U;wjksVªkalfeVj dh var%fØ;k rkys vkSj pkch ds
leku gSA fdlh xzkgh ¼rkyk½ ds lkFk ,d U;wjksVªkalfeVj ¼pkch½ ds
tqM+us ls vkerkSj ij ,d vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrk gS] bu xzkfg;ksa dks
vk;uksVªkfid xzkgh dgrs gSa ¼fp= ns[ksa½A ;fn vk;u pSuy ls
/kukRed vk;u tSls lksfM;e ;k dSfYl;e Áos’k djrs gaS rks
/kukRed /kkjk ds var%Áokg ls mŸkstuk mRiUu gksrh gSA blds
QyLo:i mŸkstd iksLV lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;y uked f>Yyh
iksaVsaf’k;y esa ,d mrkj&p<+ko vkrk gSA Ák:ih rkSj ij ,d U;wjkWu
ij cM+h la[;k esa lkbusIl vkdj feyrs gSa] fdlh ,d le; buesa ls
dqN lfØ; gksrs gS vkSj dqN ugha gksrsA ;fn bu mŸkstd iksLV
lkbusfIVd iksVasf’k;y dk ;ksx ,d Ásj.kk mRiUu djus ds Lrj rd
igq¡p tkrk gS rks ,d u, ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh vko’;drk gksrh gS
vkSj blds ladsr ÁkIrdrkZ U;wjkWu ds ,DlkWu esa mrj tkrs gSa] tSlk
fd fiNys v/;k; esa crk;k x;k FkkA
VªkalfeVj ¼’kh”kZ½

xzkgh

VªkalfeVj
xzkgh

th&ÁksVhu

dksf’kdk ds ckgj
IykTek f>Yyh
var%dksf’kdh;
f}rh; nwr
bQsDVj

vk;uksVªkfid xzkgh ¼ck,a½ esa ,d pSuy gksrk gS ftlls gksdj lksfM;e vkSj
iksVsf’k;e tSls vk;u xqtjrs gSaA ;g pSuy o`Ÿk ds :i esa O;ofLFkr 5
mi&bdkb;ksa ls cuk gksrk gSA esVkcksVªkfid xzkgh ¼nk,a½ esa pSuy ugha gksrs ijUrq
dksf’kdk f>Yyh ds vanj th&ÁksVhu ls tqM+s gksrs gSa tks lans’k vkxs c<+k ldrs gSaA

7

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
efLr”d esa Áeq[k mŸkstd U;wjksVªkalfeVj XywVkesV gSA raf=dk lfØ;rk
esa vR;aaUr ‘kq)rk dh vko’;drk gksrh gS] ftlds fy, t:jh gS fd
vU; U;wjkWu esa ml xfrfof/k dk laneu fd;k tk,A blds fy,
laneu dh ÁfØ;k gksrh gSA laned lkbusIlksa ij xzkfg;ksa dh lfØ;rk
ls vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrs gSa tks _.kkRed vkosf”kr vk;uksa ds
var%Áokg dh vuqefr nsrs gaS vkSj bl Ádkj f>Yyh iksVsaf’k;y esa
laned iksLV lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;y uked ifjorZu gksrk gS ¼fp=
ns[ksa½A ;g ?kVuk f>Yyh ds fo/kzqohdj.k dk fojks/k djrh gS vkSj
ÁkIrdrkZ U;wjkWu ds dksf’kdk dk; ij ,d ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dh
‘kq:vkr gksrh gSA nks Ádkj ds laned U;wjksVªkalfeVj gksrs gSa&xkck
vkSj Xyk;fluA

dh laHkkouk ugha curh] tSlk vk;uksVªkWfid xzkgh djrs gSa] cfYd
;g ‘kh?kzrk ls var% dksf’kdh; f}rh; nwr dks lfØ; dj nsrk gS
vkSj tSo jklk;fud fØ;kvksa esa ‘kkfey gks tkrk gS ¼ns[ksa fp=½A
rc U;wjkWu dk p;kip; baftu vkjaHk gksrk gS vkSj dk;Z djus
yxrk gSA U;wjksekWM~;wys’ku ds ÁHkkoksa esa ‘kkfey gSa vk;u pSuyksa]
xzkfg;ksa] VªkaliksVZjksa vkSj thuksa dh vfHkO;fDr esa Hkh ifjorZuA ;s
ifjorZu vkjaHk esa /khes gksrs gSa vkSj mŸkstd rFkk laned VªkalfeVjksa
}kjk vkjaHk fd, x, ÁHkkoksa dh rqyuk esa yacs le; rd pyrs gSa
rFkk buds ÁHkko lkbusl ls vkxs Hkh tkrs gSaA ;|fi] ;s ,D’ku
iksVsaf’k;y vkjaHk ugha djrs gSa] U;wjy usVodZ ds ek/;e ls Ásj.kk
vkokxeu ij bldk xgjk ÁHkko gksrk gSA

lkbusfIVd Vªkalfe’ku ,d vR;ar rhoz ÁfØ;k gS] ,d lkbusIl ij
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y vkjEHk gksus ds le; ls vxys U;wjkWu esa ,d
bZih,lih mRiUu gksus rd dh ÁfØ;k vR;ar rhoz&,d lsd.M ds
gtkjosa Hkkx ds cjkcj le; ysrh gSA fofHkUu U;wjkWuksa dks cgqr gh de
le; ds vanj XywVkesV dh vkiwfŸkZ dk le; fuf’pr djuk gksrk gS]
;fn ÁkIrdrkZ U;wjkWu esa bZih,lih,l ls ,d ubZ iszj.kk dks lgk;rk
feyuh gS] vkSj laneu dh ÁfØ;k dks Hkh dk;Z lekIr djus ds fy,
blh varjky ds vanj dk;Z djuk gksrk gSA

nwr dks vfHkKkr djuk

mŸkstd lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;y ¼bZih,lih½ okLro esa f>Yyh ds
iksVsaf’k;y esa &70 feyhoksYV ls ysdj 0 feyhoksYV ds chp
foLFkkiu gSA ,d laned lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;y ¼vkbZih,lih½ dk
blds foijhr ÁHkko gksrk gSA

ekWM~;qysV gksus okys lans’k

xzkfg;ksa ls tqM+s th&ÁksVhu ij dk;Z djus okys vusd nwr ,flVkby
dksyhu] Mksikfeu vkSj ukWj,fMªusfyu gSaA bu VªkalfeVlZ dks fueqZDr djus
okys U;wjkWu dks dksf’kdkvksa ij fofo/k Ádkj dk ÁHkko gksrk gS] ijUrq
mudk ‘kkjhfjd laxBu Hkh mYys[kuh; gS] D;ksafd ;s la[;k esa de gksrs
gSa] ijUrq buds ,DlkWu efLr”d esa O;kid :i ls Á{ksfir gksrs gSa ¼fp=
ns[ksa½A ekuo efLr”d esa dsoy 1600 ukWj,fMªusfyu U;wjkWu gksrs gSa] ijUrq
;s efLr”d vkSj es# jTtq ds lkFk fgLlksa dks ,DlkWu Hkstrs gSaA ;s U;wjks
ekWM~;qysVjh VªkalfeVlZ fo’kq) laosnh lwpuk ckgj ugha Hkstrs gSa] ijUrq
Qkbu V~;wu fc[kjs gq, U;wjksuy leqPp;ksa dks mudk fu”iknu vuqdwyre
cukus ds fy, Hkstrs gSaA
uohurk vkSj ruko ds fofHkUu :iksa ds mŸkj esa ukWj,fMªusfyu fueqZDr
gksrk gS vkSj bu pqukSfr;ksa ds fy, vyx&vyx tfVy mŸkj dh
O;oLFkk djrk gSA cgqr ls usVodksZa dks ;g ^^tkuuk** gksrk gS fd ;g
tho ruko esa gSA Mksikekbu ldkjkRed Hkkouk laca/kh fo’ks”krkvksa ls
tqM+s efLr”d dsUnzksa ij dk;Z dj tUrq ds fy, ykHkdkjh] dqN
fof’k”V ifjfLFkfr;k¡ cukrh gS ¼ns[ks v/;k; 4½A blds foijhr
,flVkby dksyhu nksuksa rjg ls dk;Z djrh gSA ;g vk;uksVªkWfid
vkSj esVkcksVªkWfid xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gSA lcls igys [kksts x,
U;jksVªkalfeVj esa pkyd U;wjkWu ls jsf[kr ek¡lis’kh rarqvksa rd raf=dk
ek¡lis’kh tksM+ ls gksdj ladsr Hkstus es vk;fud ÁfØ;kvksa dk
mi;ksx djrk gSA ;g ,d U;wjks ekWM~;qysVj ds rkSj ij Hkh dk;Z dj
ldrk gSA ;g bl rjg Hkh dk;Z djrk gS mnkgj.k ds fy,] tc
vki fdlh ckr ij /;ku dsfUnzr djrs gsa rks efLr”d ds Qkbu
V~;wfuax U;wjkWu dsoy mlh lwpuk ij dk;Z djrs gSaA

mŸkstd vkSj laned U;wjksVªkalfeVj dh [kkst ds nkSjku U;wjkWu ls
fudyus okys vU; vusd jklk;fud inkFkksZa dh mifLFkfr dk irk
pyk gSA buesa ls vusd esVkscksVªkfid xzkfg;ksa uked U;wjkWu dh f>Yyh
esa ekStwn ÁksVhuksa ls fØ;k djds raf=dk laca/kh ÁfØ;kvksa dks ÁHkkfor
djrs gaSA bu xzkfg;ksa esa vk;u pSuy ugha gksrs] vkSj ;s ges’kk lkbusIl
ds {ks= esa ekStwn ugha gksrs] rFkk lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr fd ;s ,D’ku
iksVsaf’k;y dh ‘kq:vkr ugha djrs gSaA vc gekjk fopkj gS fd U;wjkWu
ds vanj tkus okyh jklk;fud ÁfØ;kvksa dh O;kid J`a[kyk
lek;kstu ;k ekWM~;qyu dh gS] vkSj bl Ádkj esVkcksVªkfid xzkfg;ksa
dh xfrfof/k dks U;wjksekWM~;qys’ku dgrs gSaA
esVkcksVªkfid xzkgh vkerkSj ij dksf’kdk p;kip; dks ÁHkkfor djus
okyh dksf’kdkvksa ds vanj ekStwn ,atkbeksa ls ysdj dksf’kdk ds ckgj
ekStwn ,at+kbeksa rd vkil esa tksM+us okys tfVy d.kksa esa ik, tkrs
gSaA tc ,d U;wjksVªkalfeVj dks igpkuk tkrk gS vkSj ;g ,d
esVkcksVªkfid xzkgh }kjk tqM+k gS] varjky Hkjus okys th&ÁksVhu uked
v.kq vkSj f>Yyh ls tqM+s vU; ,atkbe lkewfgd :i ls lfØ; gks
tkrs gSaA esVkcksVªkWfid ekU;rk LFky ls VªkalfeVj ds tqM+ko dh rqyuk
,d ÁTtoyu dqath ls dh tk ldrh gSA blls f>Yyh esa vk;u gksus

8

ukWj ,fMªusfyu dksf’kdk,¡ yksdl lh#fy;l ¼,ylh½ esa fLFkr gksrh gSaA
bu dksf’kdkvksa ds ,DlkWu e/; efLr”d esa QSys gksrs gSa] tSls gkbiks
FkSysel ¼,pokbZih½] lsjscsye ¼lh½ vkSj lsjsczy dkWVsZDlA

lkbusIl ds fo”k; esa ,d vPNh osclkbV: http://synapses.mcg.edu/index.asp ns[ksaA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

u'khyh nok,¡ vkSj efLr”d

vusd O;fDr;ksa esa u’khyh nok,¡ ysdj viuh psruk voLFkk esa ifjorZu
djus dh rhoz bPNk gksrh gSA os tkxrs jgus vkSj iwjh jkr u`R;&laxhr
es Mwcs jgus ds fy, dqN mÌhid u’khyh nok,¡ ysrs gSaA dqN yksx
viuh raf=dkvksa dks ‘kkar j[kus ds fy, flMsfVo ¼funzkdkjd½ ysrs gSaA
;gk¡ rd fd ,sls inkFkZ Hkh ysrs gSa tks mUgsa psru voLFkk ds u, :iksa
dk vuqHko djus esa l{ke cukrs gSa vkSj os viuh nSfud fparkvksa dks
Hkwy tkrs gSaA ;s lHkh u’khyh nok,¡ efLr”d esa U;wjksVªkalfeVj ds lkFk
vkSj vU; jklk;fud nwr Á.kkfy;ksa ls vyx&vyx rjg ls fØ;k
djrh gSaA vusd ekeyksa esa] u’khyh nok,¡ ÁkÑfrd efLr”d Á.kkfy;ksa
ij fu;a=.k dj ysrh gSa] ftudk laca/k vkuUn vkSj lq[kn vuqHkwfr ls
gS&;s euksoSKkfud ÁfØ;k,¡ Hkkstu djus] ihus] ;kSu fØ;k vkSj ;gk¡
rd fd lh[kus vkSj ;knnk’r ds fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSaA

vkSj efLr”d /khjs&/khjs bl u’khyh nok dh mifLFkfr dks viuk ysrs
gSa] ijUrq okLro esa efLr”d esa D;k ifjorZu vkrs gSa ;g vHkh jgL;
cuk gqvk gSA tcfd] gsjksbu] ,fEQVsfeUl] fudksfVu] dksdsu vkSj
dsukfcl dh fØ;k’khyrk ds ÁkFkfed LFky vyx&vyx gSa] bu lHkh
u’khyh nokvksa esa ,d ckr lkekU; gS fd ;s efLr”d ds dqN fgLlksa
esa jklk;fud nwr Mksikfeu dh fueqZfDr dks c<+kok nsrs gSaA ;|fi]
vfuok;Z :i ls ;g t+:jh ugha gSa fd ^^vkuUn** dh vuqHkwfr ‘kq: gks
tk,A ;g lkspk x;k gS fd Mksifeu dh u’khyh nok ds ÁHkko esa
fueqZfDr gh efLr”d esa egRoiw.kZ vafre lkekU; ^^vkuUn** dk ekxZ gSaA
;g mu ladsrksa dks Áfrfuf/kRo djrk gS tks O;fDr dks u’khyh nok
ysuk tkjh j[kus dk ÁksRlkgu nsrs gSaA

yr iM+us vkSj vknh gks tkus dk ekxZ

u'khyh nok,¡&;s fdl Ádkj dk;Z djrh gSa vkSj bUgsa ysus
ds fy, D;k [krjs gSa \
,Ydksgy

efLr”d ij ;k efLr”d dh jDr vkiwfrZ ij dk;Z djus okyh nok,¡
vueksy gks ldrh gSa&tSls fd tks nnZ esa jkgr nsrh gSaA euksjatd
u’khyh nok dk mi;ksx ,d iwjh rjg ls vyx Á;kstu gS vkSj blds
lkFk tks leL;k tqM+h gS og gS bldk nq#i;ksxA bls mi;ksx djus
okys lHkh yksx bl ij fuHkZj ;k blds vknh gks ldrs gSaA rc mUgsa
rdyhQnsg ‘kkjhfjd vkSj eukSoSKkfud y{k.kksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk
gS] tc os bldk mi;ksx can dj nsrs gSaA bl fuHkZjrk dh fLFkfr ls
bls mi;ksx djus okys yksxksa esa u’khyh nok dh bPNk mRiUu gksrh gS]
tcfd ,slk djus ls muds dk;Z] LokLF; vkSj ifjokj ij Li”V :i ls
uqdlku gksrk gSA vR;ar vkxs igq¡ps ekeyksa esa u’khyh nok ds vknh
O;fDr bUgsa ikus ds fy, vijk/k Hkh dj ldrs gSaA

,Ydksgy efLr”d esa U;wjks VªkalfeVj Á.kkyh ij dk;Z dj lfØ;
¼mŸksftr½ lans’kksa dks /khek djus dk vkSj U;wjy lfØ;rk ds laneu dks
ÁksRlkgu nsus dk dk;Z djrk gSA ,Ydksgy dks ÁHkko ,d fMªad ds ckn
vkjkensg vkSj vPNs euksfouksn dh voLFkkvksa ls vkxs c<+rk gS vkSj uhan
ds vkxs c<+dj pSrU;rk ds [kks tkus dh fLFkfr vk tkrh gSA ;gh dkj.k
gS fd iqfyl ‘kjkc ihus vkSj xkM+h pykus ds Áfr bruh dBksj gksrh gs
vkSj bl eukso`fŸk dks turk dk Hkh bruk leFkZu ÁkIr gSA dqN yksx
‘kjkc ihdj csgn ukjkt+ vkSj dqN rks fgald gks tkrs gSa vkSj ihus okyksa
esa nl esa ls ,d O;fDr ‘kjkc ij fuHkZj gks tkrk gSA yacs le; rd
‘kjkc ihus okys yksxksa ds ‘kjhj dks uqdlku gksrk gS] fo’ks”kdj ;Ñr
¼fyoj½ dks vkSj blls efLr”d dks LFkk;h {kfr igq¡p ldrh gSA tks
xHkZorh efgyk,¡ ‘kjkc dk lsou djrh gSa muds f’k’kq ds efLr”d ds
{kfrxzLr gks tkus ,oa vYi ;k ean cqf) gks tkus dk tksf[ke gksrk gSA
fczVsu esa ‘kjkc ls lacaf/kr jksxksa ls Áfr o”kZ 30]000 yksxksa dh ekSr gks
tkrh gSA

HkkX; ls gj ,slk O;fDr] tks vkuUn ÁkfIr ds fy, u’khyh nok
ysrk gS] bldk vknh ugha cu tkrk gSA fuHkZjrk ds ekeys es
au’khyh nok,¡ vyx&vyx ÁHkko j[krh gSa&dksdsu] gsjksbu vkSj
fudksfVu ds ekeys esa vf/kd tksf[ke ls ysdj ,Ydksgy] dsukfcl]
,DlVslh vkSj ,EQhVsfeUl ds ekeys esa tksf[ke dqN de gksrk gSA
‘kjhj }kjk bu u’khyh nokvksa ij fuHkZjrk ds c<+us ds nkSjku ‘kjhj
76%
92%
46%
13%
16%
2%

,sls O;fDr;ksa dk Áfr’kr ftUgksaus dHkh Hkh
u’khyh nok dk mi;ksx ugha fd;kA

rEckdw

32%

‘kjkc

15%

ekfjtqvkuk

9%

VSªaDosykbt+j vkSj
fpfdRld }kjk fy[kh
xbZ nok

9%

dksdsu
gsjksbu

17%
23%

,sls O;fDr;ksa dk Áfr’kr tks blds vknh gks x, gSaA

9

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
esa ¼Leksfdax½ ysus dk gSA dSukfcl ds /kq,¡ esa fo”kksa dk ogh feJ.k gksrk gS
tks flxjsV esa gksrk gS ¼vkSj bls cgq/kk rEckdw ds lkFk fy;k tkrk gS½A
dSukfcl dks ihus okykssa esa QsaQM+ksa ds jksx vkSj dSalj gks ldrk gS&tcfd
vHkh rd ;g fl) ugha fd;k x;k gS blds nl Á;ksDrkvksa esa ls ,d
O;fDr bl ij fuHkZj cu ldrk gS] tks yksx bls csprs gSa] os bl ckr ls
Hkyh&Hkkafr ifjfpr gksrs gSaA bldh vf/kd ek=k ckj&ckj ysus ls xkM+h
pykus ;k cqf) ds mi;ksx okys dk;Z ugha fd, tk ldrs gSa( Á;ksxksa ls
;g fl) gqvk gS fd dSukfcl ds u’ks esa O;fDr dksbZ tfVy ekufld
dk;Z ugha dj ldrk gSA tcfd ;g vHkh rd fl) ugha gqvk fQj Hkh
dqN lk{; gSa fd ;qok yksxksa ij bldh cM+h ek=k ls laosnu’khy O;fDr;ksa
esa ekufld jksx ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k gks ldrk gS ¼ns[ksa ist 51½A
,fEQVsfeUl

^^tyrh flxjsV okyk dadky** foalsaV oku xks?k] 1885

fudksfVu
fudksfVu lHkh rEckdw mRiknksa dk lfØ; ?kVd gSA fudksfVu efLr”d
xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gS] tks lkekU;r% U;wjksVªkalfeVj ,flVkby
dksyhu dks igpkurk gS( ;g efLr”d esa ÁkÑfrd lpsrd ÁfØ;kvksa ds
lfØ;.k dk dk;Z djrk gSA bls ns[krs gq, ;g vk’p;Z dh ckr ughaa gS
fd flxjsV ihus okys O;fDr ;g djrs gSa fd blls mUgsa /;ku dsfUnzr
djus esa enn feyrh gS vkSj ,d vPNh vuqHkwfr gksrh gSA ijs’kkuh ;g
gS fd fudksfVu vR;ar yr yxus okyk inkFkZ gS vkSj vusd flxjsV
ihus okys yksx bldk lsou blfy, ugha jksd ikrs D;ksafd os bls ugha
ysus ij gksus okys vfÁ; y{k.kksa ls cpus ds LFkku ij bls tkjh j[kuk
csgrj le>rs gSaA bldk vkuUn nsj rd pyrk gSA tcfd efLr”d ij
blds dksbZ ¼[krjukd ÁHkko fn[kkbZ ugha nsrs] rEckdw ihuk QasQM+ksa ds
fy, vR;ar {kfrdkjd gS vkSj blds yacs le; rd lsou ls QsQM+s dk
dSalj vkSj QsaQM+ksa dh vU; chekfj;ksa ds lkFk g~n; jksx Hkh gks ldrs
gSaA fczVsu esa flxjsV ihus laca/kh jksxksa ds dkj.k Áfr o”kZ 100]000 ls
vf/kd yksxksa dh ekSr gks tkrh gSA

dSukfcl
dSukfcl gekjs lkeus ,d igsyh dh rjg lkeus vkrk gS] D;ksafd ;g
efLr”d dh ,d egRoiw.kZ ÁkÑfrd Á.kkyh ij dk;Z djrk gS] tks
jklk;fud :i ls ,dne dSukfcl dh rjg yxus okys U;wjksVªkalfeVlZ
dk mi;ksx djrk gSA ;g Á.kkyh ek¡lisf’k;ksa ds fu;aa=.k vkSj nnZ ds
Áfr laosnu’khyrk dk fu;eu djrh gSA ;fn cqf)ekuh ls mi;ksx
fd;k tk, rks ,d fpfdRlh; lanHkZ esa dSukfcl ,d vR;ar mi;ksxh
nok fl) gks ldrh gSA dSukfcl ,d Ádkj dk bu VkWfDldsaV ;k
u’khyh inkFkZ gS] tks vkuUnnk;h vkSj vkjke nsus okyk gks ldrk gSA
blls LoIu tSlh fLFkfr cu tkrh gS] ftlesa O;fDr ds eu esa /ofu;ksa]
jaxksa vkSj le; dh fLFkfr iwjh rjg ls cny tkrh gSA ,slk Kkr ugha
gqvk gS fd bldh vf/kd ek=k ds lsou ls fdlh dh ekSr gqbZ gks] fQj
Hkh cM+h ek=k ysus ij dqN yksxksa dks v#fpdj rdyhQ ds nkSjs iM+
ldrs gSaA dSukfcl dk mi;ksx fczVsu esa rhl o”kZ ls vk;q ds yxHkx
vk/ks yksxksa us vius thou esa dSukfcl dk de ls de ckj Á;ksx
vo’; fd;k gSA dqN yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd bls vc dkuwuh cuk nsuk
pkfg, vkSj ,slk djus ls bldh vkiwfrZ dks vU; [krjukd vkS”kf/k;ksa
ls vyx fd;k tk ldsxkA nqHkkZX; ls] tSlk fudksfVu ds lkFk gS] bls
‘kjhj esa Áfo”V djkus dk lcls vf/kd ÁHkkoh rjhdk bls /kq,¡ ds :i

10

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV

,fEQVsfeUl ekuo fufeZZr jlk;u gSa ftlesa ^^MsDlsfMªu**] ^^LihM** vkSj
esFkkeQsVkfeu O;qRiUu ftldk uke ^^,DlVslh** gS] ‘kkfey gSA ;g
u’khyh nok,¡ efLr”d esa ÁkÑfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys nks
U;wjksVªkalfeVj dks fueqZDr dj efLr”d esa dk;Z djrh gSaA igyk gS
Mksikfeu&tks laHkor;k l’kDr mŸkstuk vkSj ,fEQVsfeUl ds vkuUnnk;h
ÁHkkoksa dks le>krh gSA nwljk gS lsjksVksfuu&tks vPNs gksus dh vuqHkwfr
iSnk djus ds fy, mŸkjnk;h ekuk tkrk gS vkSj blls LoIu tSlh
fLFkfr iSnk djrs gSa] ftuesa gsywflus’ku ‘kkfey gksrk gSA MsDlsfMªu vkSj
LihM eq[;r% Mksikfeu fueqZfDr] ,DlVslh vf/kd lsjksVksfuu dks
ÁksRlkgu nsrs gSaA vf/kd ‘kfDr’kkyh gsywflukstsu Mh&,y,lMh efLr”d
esa lsjksVksfuu ij Hkh ppkZ dk;Z djrk gSA ,fEQVsfeu ‘kfDr’kkyh
euksÌhid gSa vkSj ;s [krjukd fl) gks ldrs gSa fo’ks”kdj vf/kd ek=k
esa ysus ijA tUrqvksa ds Á;ksxksa ls Ánf’kZr gqvk gS fd ,DlVslh ls
lsjksVksfuu dksf’kdkvksa esa yach] ‘kk;n LFkk;h deh vk ldrh gSA
det+ksj iM+ pqds mŸkjnk;h gSA ÁR;sd o”kZ nt+Zuksa ;qok bls ysdj ekSr
dh xksn eas lks tkrs gSaA Hk;Hkhr dj nsus okys ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k tSls
lkbdksfll dh leL;k MsDlsfMªu vkSj LihM ysus ds ckn gks ldrh gSA
vki ‘kk;n ;g lksprs jg tk,¡ fd LihM ysus ls vkidks ijh{kk esa
lgk;rk fey ldrh gS&ijarq ughaA ;g ,slk ugha djrk gSA
gsjksbu
gsjksbu ekWQhZu uked ouLifr mRikn dk ekuo fufeZr ,d
jklk;fud O;qRiUu gSA dSukfcl dh rjg gsjksbu efLr”d esa ml
fgLls ij fu;a=.k djrk gS] tks ,.MksfQZUl ds uke ls Kkr
U;wjksVªkalfeVlZ dk mi;ksx djrs gSa vkSj ;s ÁkÑfrd :i ls miyC/k
gksrs gSaA ;s nnZ ds fu;a=.k esa egRoiw.kZ gSa vr% budh xfrfof/k;ksa dh
ÁfrÑfr djus okyh u’khyh nok,¡ fpfdRlk dh n`f”V ls vR;ar
egRoiw.kZ gSaA tc gsjksbu dks batsD’ku ;k /kq,¡ ds :i esa fy;k tkrk
gS rks blls rqjar vkuUn dh vuqHkwfr gksrh gS&laHkor;k ykHkdkjh
ÁfØ;kvksa ij ,.MkWfQZUl ds ÁHkko ds dkj.kA ;g cgqr vf/kd yr
yxkus okyh u’khyh nok gS] ijarq tSls&tSls fuHkZjrk c<+rh gS] ;s
vkuUnnk;h vuqHko tYnh gh xk;c gks tkrs gSa vkSj buds Lfkku ij
rhoz ^^bPNk** iSnk gksrh gSA ;g dkQh [krjukd u’khyh nok gS tks
e/;e :i ls vf/kd ek=k esa ¼;g lkal ysus ds fj¶ysDlst+ dk
laneu djrk gS½ Hkh ?kkrd gSA gsjksbu ls vusd yksxksa dk thou u”V
gks x;k gSA
dksdsu
dksdsu ,d vU; ouLifr O;qRiUu jklk;fud inkFkZ gS] ftlls
vkuUnnk;h blls l?ku vkuUn dh vuqHkwfr ds lkFk dk;Z dj ldrk
gSA ,fEQVsfuu dh rjg dksdsu ls efLr”d esa vf/kd Mksikfeu vkSj
lsjksVksfuu miyC/k gks tkrk gSA tcfd] gsjksbu ds leku dksdsu ,d
[krjukd u’khyh nok gSA yksx blds u’ks ds vknh gksdj rqjar gh
fgald vkSj xqLlSy cu tkrs gSa [kklrkSj ij ^^ØSd** ds :i esa vkSj rc
bldh vf/kd ek=k ysuk thou ds fy, ?kkrd gks ldrk gSA fuHkZjrk
dh ftEesnkjh vf/kd gS vkSj dksdsu dh vknr cuk, j[kuk bls ysus
okys O;fDr dks vijk/k dh vksj ys tk ldrh gSA

: www.knowthescore.info, www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ecstasy.html,
www.nida.nih.gov/MarijBroch/Marijteens.html

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Li’kZ vkSj nnZ

Li’kZ ,d fo’ks”k vuqHkwfr gS&vkil esa gkFk feykuk] ,d pqEcu] ,d
vk’khokZn nsukA ;g nqfu;k ds lkFk gekjk igyk lEidZ gSA gekjs
‘kjhjksa esa lksesVks lsaljh ¼dkf;d laosnh½ nqfu;k ds fofHkUu i{kksa dks
igpkuus ds fy, xzkfg;ksa dh ,d J`a[kyk gksrh gS&Li’kZ] rkieku vkSj
‘kjhj dh fLFkfr&blds lkFk nnZ dh laosnuk ds fy, HkhA foHksnu dh
{kerk ‘kjhj dh lrg ij vyx&vyx gksrh gS] D;ksafd ;g mu LFkkuksa
ij vfr laosnu’khy gksrh gS tSls gekjh vaxqfy;ksa ds fljsA lfØ;
vUos”k.k egRoiw.kZ gS] tks eksVj Á.kkyh ds lkFk egRoiw.kZ var%fØ;kvksa
dks ladsr nsrk gSA nnZ dh vuqHkwfr gesa lwfpr djrh gS vkSj gekjs
‘kjhj dks gksus okyh {kfr ds Áfr lpsr djrh gSA bldk l’kDr
HkkoukRed ÁHkko gS vkSj ;g ‘kjhj vkSj efLr”d ds vanj l’kDr
fu;a=.k ds rgr gksrk gSA

ehluj df.kdk

rst+h ls cnyrs NksVs x<~<ksa ¼dEiu vkSj QM+QM+kgV dh vuqHkwfr½ ds Áfr loksZŸke :i
ls ÁfrfØ;k nsrs gSaA edsZYl fMLd Ropk esa LFkk;h :i ls cus x<~<ksa ds Áfr
laosnu’khy gksrs gSa ¼nkc dh vuqHkwfr½] tcfd #fQuh fljs /khjs&/khjs cnyrs NksVs
x<~<ksa ds Áfr laosnu’khy gksrs gSaA
xzkgh {ks= lksesVkslsaljh xzkgh ds fo”k; esa ,d egRoiw.kZ ladYiuk gSA ;g Ropk dk
,slk {ks= gS] tgk¡ ÁR;sd vyx&vyx xzkgh ÁzfrfØ;k nsrk gSA isflfu;u df.kdkvksa
dk xzkgh {ks= ehluj df.kdk dh rqyuk esa cM+k gksrk gSA ;s nksuksa rFkk vU; xzkgh
feydj lqfuf’pr djrs gSa fd vkids iwjs 'kjhj ij vki gj Ádkj dh laosnuk dh
vuqHkwfr dj ldrs gSaA tc ,d ckj bUgsa mÌhiu feyrk gS rks ;s xzkgh laosnh raf=dk
ds ek/;e ls Ásj.kk Hkstrs gSa] tks es#jTtq dh i`”B tM+ksa esa Áos’k djrh gSA Li’kZ
xzkfg;ksa ls es#jTtq dks tksM+us okys ,DlkWu cM+s ek;fyusVsM rarq gSa] tks vR;ar rsth ls
lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dh vksj ckgj ls lwpuk Álkfjr djrs gSaA B.M] xehZ vkSj nnZ dh
laosnuk ^^[kqys** fljksa okys ,DlkWu ls dh tkrh gS] tks vis{kkÑr /khjs Álkj.k djrs
gSaA rki ds xzkfg;ksa esa vuqdwyu ¼ns[ksa Ák;ksfxd ckWDl½ n’kkZ;k tkrk gSA lksesVkslsla jh
dkWVsZDl uked dkWVsZDl eas ÁkFkfed laosnh {ks= ij Á{ksi.k ds igys esMqyk vkSj
FkSysel esa Li’kZ djus ds fy, blesa fjys LVs’ku gksrs gSaA e/;js[kk dks ikj djus okyh
raf=dk,¡ ,slh gksrh gSa fd ‘kjhj ds nk,¡ Hkkx dk Áfrfuf/kRo ck;k¡ xksyk)Z ¼gsfeLQs;j½
vkSj ck,¡ dk Áfrfuf/kRo nk;k¡ xksyk)Z djrk gSA

,DlkWu

rkieku vuqdwyu ij ,d Á;ksx
ekdsZYl fMLd

Losn xzafFk

;g cgqr ljy Á;ksx gSA vkidks ,d ehVj yach /kkrq NM+] tSls VkWoy jsy vkSj

#fQuh vaR; vax

vkidh Ropk dh lrg
esa /kals gq, vusd Ádkj ds
vR;ar NksVs laosnh xzkgh

ikuh dh nks ckfYV;k¡ pkfg,A ,d ckYVh esa dkQh rst+ xeZ ikuh vkSj nwljh esa
isfufl;u df.kdk

ftruk B.Mk laHko gks mruk j[kk tk,A nksuksa ckfYV;ksa esa viuk ,d&,d gkFk
j[ksa vkSj bUgsa de ls ,d feuV ds fy, j[ksaA vc vius gkFk fudky ysa] bUgsa

bldh ‘kq#vkr Ropk ls gksrh gS

tYnh ls lq[kk yas vkSj /kkrq dh NM+ gkFk esa idM+saA vkidks ,slk yxsxk fd NM+

Ropk dh MeZy irZ esa /kals] lrg ds uhps vusd Ádkj ds y?kq xzkgh
mifLFkr gksrs gSaA ftl oSKkfud us lw{en’khZ esa bUgsa lcls igys ns[kk]
muds uke ij bUgsa isflfu;u vkSj ehluj df.kdk dgk tkrk gSA
edsZYl fMLd vkSj #fQuh vaR; fljs Li’kZ ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dk
vuqHko djrh gSA bu lHkh xzkfg;ksa esa vk;u pSuy gksrs gSa] tks ;kaf=d
fo#i.k ds mŸkj esa [kqyrs gSa] ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ij lfØ; gks tkrs gSa]
ftUgsa lw{e bysDVªksMksa ds ek/;e ls Ák;ksfxd :i ls vfHkysf[kr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA dqN o”kZ igys oSKkfudksa }kjk dqN vk’p;Z esa Mky nsus
okys Á;ksx fd, x,] mUgksaus ,dy laosnh raf=dk ls vfHkysf[kr djus
ds fy, viuh Ropk esa bysDVªksM yxk,A buls vkSj bUgha ds leku
fu’psrd ls ÁHkkfor tUrqvksa ij fd, x, Á;ksxksa ls gesa Kkr gqvk gS
fd igys nks Ádkj ds xzkgh ‘kh?kzrk ls vuqdwfyr gks tkrs gSa vkSj ;s

dk rkieku nksuksa fljksa ij vyx&vyx gSA ,slk D;ksa \

‘kjhj ls ÁkIr fufof”V ¼tkudkjh½ dks ‘kjhj dh lrg dk Áfrfuf/kRo rS;kj djus ds
fy, lksesVkslsaljh dkWVsZDl ds ijs O;ofLFkr :i ls ^^ekufpf=r** fd;k tkrk gSA ‘kjhj
ds dqN Hkkx] tSls fd vkidh v¡xqfy;ksa ds fljs vkSj eq¡g esa xzkfg;ksa dh cM+h la[;k
gksrh gS vkSj blds laxr laosnh raf=dkvksa dh Hkh mPp la[;k gksrh gSA gekjh ihB
tSls fgLlksa esa cgqr de xzkgh vkSj raf=dk,¡ gksrh gSA ;|fi] lksesVkslsaljh dkWVsZDl esa
U;wjkWu dk iSfdax ?kuRo ,dlkj gksrk gSA blds QyLo:i] dkWVsZDl esa dksf’kdk lrg

11

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
dk ^^uD’kk** dkQh fcxM+ tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bls laosnh gkseudqyl dgk
tkrk gS] ;fn ;g ‘kjhj dh lrg ds vkj&ikj ,dlkj ?kuRo ij QSys
Li’kZ xzkfg;ksa dh iwjdrk ds lkFk ;fn ;g okLro esa ekStwn Fkk rks O;fDr
esa vk’p;Ziw.kZ foÑfr gksxhA

fo”ke okrkZ es: jTtq esa ÁFke fjyst+ ij vkjaHk gksrh gSA blesa eksVj
U;wjkWu ij ÁksfÁ;kslsfIVo QhMcSd ‘kkfey gksrk gS vkSj ;g dkf;d
laosnh Á.kkyh ds lHkh Lrjksa ij tkjh jgrk gSA ÁkFkfed laosnh vkSj
eksVj dkWfVZdy efLr”d esa vyx&cxy fLFkr gksrs gSaA

vki nks fcUnq foHksnu ijh{k.k ds lkFk ‘kjhj esa bl vody laosnu’khyrk
dk ijh{k.k dj ldrs gSaA dqN isij fDyi ysdj bUgsa ;w vkdkj esa eksM+sa]
dqN dk fljk 2&3 ls-eh- Hkkx NksM+ nsa] vU; dks ikl ls eksM+sa rc vius
,d fe= dh vk¡[kksa ij iÍh cka/kdj mls dgsa fd bu isij fDyi ds fljs
vkids ‘kjhj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks Li’kZ djsA vkidks ,d fljk vuqHko gqvk
;k nks \ D;k dHkh ,slk gqvk fd vkidks nks fDyi ls Li’kZ djus ij Hkh
vkidks ,d dk gh vuqHko gks \ ,slk D;ksa gqvk \

lfØ; vUos”k.k vuqHkwfr ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA dYiuk djsa fd vki
fofHkUu cukoVksa ds chp foHksn djrs gSa] tSls fd fofHkUu diM+ksa ;k lSaM
isij ds vyx&vyx xzsMksa ds chp dk varjA vkids fopkj ls buesa ls
dkSu lh ifjfLFkfr lcls ckjhd foHksn iSnk djsxh %
• uewus ij vkidh v¡xqyh dk fljk j[kuk \
• uewus ij vkidh v¡xyh dk fljk fQjkuk \
• vkidh v¡xqyh ds fljs ij uewuksa dks rst+h ls pykuk \
mDr O;ogkjkRed Á;ksxksa ds ifj.kke ;g Á’u mBkrs gSa fd lacaf/kr
laonh lwpuk dk fo’ys”k.k efLr”d esa dgk¡ fd;k tkrk gSA dk;kZRed
efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu ls lq>ko feyrk gS fd cukoVksa dh igpku ;k
oLrqvksa dks Nwdj igpkuus esa dkWVsZDl ds fofHkUu {ks= ‘kkfey gSaA
dkWVZsDl ÁR;kLFkrk ds fo”k; esa varn`Zf”V cukus ds fy, efLr”d
ÁfrfcEcu Hkh vkjaHk fd;k tkrk gS] ftlls ;g mn~?kkfVr fd;k tkrk
gS fd lksesVkslsaljh {ks= esa ‘kjhj dk uD’kk vuqHko ds lkFk cny ldrk
gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] us=ghu czsy i<+us okys O;fDr;ksa esa ÁFke ¼baMsDl½
v¡xqyh esa dkWfVZdy mifLFkfr vf/kd ek=k esa gksrk gS vkSj rkj ok|
ctkus okyksa esa ck,¡ gkFk dh v¡xqfy;ksa esa dkWfVZdy mifLFkfr vf/kd
gksrh gSA

nnZ

gksequdqylA ‘kjhj ds bl fgLls ls vkus okys xzkfg;ksa dh la[;k
ds vuqikr esa lksesVkslsaljh dkWVZsDl dh lrg ij O;fDr dh Nfo
cukbZ xbZ gSA

foHksnu dh fof’k”V foHksnu {kerk
ckjhd fooj.k tkuus dh {kerk ‘kjhj ds fHkUu Hkkxksa esa vyx&vyx gksrh
gS vkSj ;s vaxqfy;ksa vkSj gksBksa ds ikl vR;ar vf/kd gksrs gSa Ropk bruh
laosnu’khy gS fd ,d feyhehVj Å¡pkbZ ds lkSosa fgLls ls Hkh de mBs
fcUnq dks eki lds&c’krsZ vki mls us=ghu O;fDr;ksa }kjk i<+h tkus okyh
czsy fyfi ds vuqlkj fy[ksaA vuqla/kku dk ,d {ks= crkrk gS fd xzkfg;ksa
ds fofHkUu Ádkj fdl Ádkj fofHkUu dk;ksZa esa ;ksxnku nsrs gSa] tSls
cukoV ds chp foHksn vFkok fdlh oLrq dk vkdkj igpkuukA
Li’kZ dsoy ,d fuf”Ø; vuqHkwfr ugha gS tks dsoy ÁkIr dh xbZ laonsuk
ds mŸkj esa lfØ; gksrh gSA ;g xfr’khyrk ds lfØ; fu;a=.k esa Hkh
‘kkfey gSA vki ds gkFk esa ek¡lisf’k;ksa dk fu;a=.k djus okys eksVj
dkWVsZDl esa ekStwn U;wjkWu] tks vkidh v¡xqfy;ksa dks fgykrs gSa] mUgsa
v¡xqfy;ksa ds fljksa ij fLFkr Li’kZ xzkfg;ksa ls ÁkIr laosnh fufof”V ÁkIr
gksrh gSA vki fdls csgrj :i ls igpku ldrs gSa] ,d og oLrq tks
vkids gkFk ls fQlyh tk jgh gS ;k laosnh vkSj eksVj Á.kkfy;ksa ds chp

;|fi T+;knkrj nnZ dks Li’kZ ds lkFk ,d vU; Ropk laosnuk ds :i
esa j[kk tkrk gS] ijUrq ;g vusd fHkUu&fHkUu dk;ksZa vkSj ,d vR;ar
fHkUu ‘kkjhfjd laxBu ds lkFk ,d Á.kkyh gSA bldh eq[; fo’ks”krk
;g gS fd ;g vfÁ; gksrh gS] ;g gj O;fDr esa vyx&vyx gksrh gS
vkSj rkTtqc dh ckr gS mÌhiu ds LoHkko ds ckjs esa nnZ xzkfg;ksa }kjk
Hksth xbZ lwpuk ¼,d ?kko vkSj dhM+s ds Mad ds dkj.k mRiUu nnZ esa
cgqr de varj gksrk gS½A Ákphu xzhd lH;rk esa nnZ dks ,d laosnuk
ds LFkku ij Hkkouk ds :i esa fy;k tkrk FkkA
tUrqvksa esa ,dy laosxh rarqvkasa ls vfHkysf[kr tkudkjh ls mÌhiu ds
Áfr mldh ÁfrfØ;k dk irk pyrk gS tks Ård esa {kfr djrs gSa ;k
dsoy psrkouh nsrs gSa&l?ku ;kaf=d mÌhiu ¼tSls fd pqHku½] l?ku
Å”ek] vkSj vusd Ádkj ds jklk;fud mÌhiuA ijUrq bu Á;ksxksa ls
bu fo”k;kRed vuqHko ds ckjs esa ÁR;{k :i ls dqN Hkh irk ugha
pyrk gSA
vkf.od thooSKkfud rduhdksa ls vc Kkr gqvk gS fd vusd
ukslhlsIVlZ dh lajpuk vkSj fo’ks”krk,¡ D;k gSaA buesa os xzkgh ‘kkfey
gSa tks 46 fMxzh lsfYl;l ls vf/kd xehZ ds gksus ij ÁfrfØ;k nsrs
gSa] Ård esa vEyh;rk ds Áfr vkSj ,d vk’p;Ztud ckr&fepZ ds
lfØ; ?kVdksa ds Áfr laosnu’khy gksrs gSaA l?ku ;kaf=d mÌhiu ds
mŸkj nsus okys xzkfg;ksa ds thu vc rd igpkus ugha x, gSa] ijUrq ;s
mifLFkr vo’; gksrs gSaA isjhQsjy vQjsaV rarqvksa ds nks oxZ
gkfudkjd mÌhiuksa ds mŸkj nsrs gSa % vis{kkÑr rhoz ek;fyysVsM rarq]
bUgsa ,ch rarq dgrs gSa vkSj ;s vR;ar ckjhd] /khes] xSj&ek;fyusVsM
lh rarq gSaA raf=dkvksa ds nksuksa lSV es: jTtq esa Áos’k djrs gSa] tgk¡
;s raf=dkvksa dh ,d J`a[kyk ds lkFk tqM+rs gSa] tks lsjsczy dkWVsZDl
rd tkrk gSA ,slk djus ds fy, os lkekukUrj vkjksgh ekxZ viukrs
gSa] ,d nnZ ds LFkku dh [kkst djrk gS ¼Li’kZ ds ekxZ ds leku½]
nwljk nnZ ds HkkoukRed i{k ds fy, mŸkjnk;h gSA

12

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

ekWQhZu

esV&,adsQsfyu

vusd jklk;fud VªkalfeVlZ ds lkFk ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM esV&,UdkQsfyu blesa ‘kkfey gSAa
nnZ fuokjd ekWQhZu mUgha xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gS] ftl ij dqN ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM
fØ;k djrs gSaA

efLr”d LraHk vkSj ,lhlh ¼,aVhfj;j flaxqysV½ vkSj balqyj
lfgr dkWVZsDl esa vusd {ks=ksa rd es: jTtq ¼uhps½ ds ,d
{ks= ls nnZ ds fy, ,d vkjksgh ekxZA
nwljk ekxZ dkf;d laonh dkWVZsDl dh rqyuk esa dkQh vyx Árhr gksrk gS
vkSj blesa ,aVhfj;j flaxqysV dkWVsZDl vkSj balqyj dkWVsZDl ‘kkfey gSaA
efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu Á;ksxksa esa fgIuksfll mi;ksx djrs gq, vc ;g laHko gS
fd nnZ dh ^^vfÁ;rk** dks nnZ ls vyx fd;k tk ldsA
Á;ksx esa ‘kkfey O;fDr;ksa us vius gkFk rst+ xeZ ikuh esa Mqck, vkSj fQj bUgsa
nnZ dh rhozrk c<+us ;k ?kVus vFkok nnZ dh vfÁ;rk ds fy, fgtksfll ds
ÁHkko esa j[kk x;kA ikWft+VªkWu ,fe’ku VkseksxzkQh ¼ihbZVh½ ds mi;ksx ls ;g
Kkr fd;k x;k Fkk fd vuqHko fd, x, nnZ esa cnyko ds nkSjku dkf;d
laosnh dkWVsZDl esa lfØ;rk gqbZ] tcfd nnZ dh vfÁ;rk ds vuqHko ds lkFk
,aVhfj;j flaxqysV dkWVsZDl dh lfØ;rk tqM+h gqbZ gSA

c<+s gq, nnZ dh daolZ ?kVuk gkbij,Ytsfl;k dgykrh gSA nnZ ds Lrj esa
deh vkrh gS] nnZ dh l?kurk esa o`f) gksrh gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh nksuksa gh ml
{ks= ij foLrkfjr gks tkrs gSa] ftl ij nnZ dk vuqHko fd;k tkrk gS vkSj
;gk¡ rd fd fouk’kdkjh mÌhiu dh vuqifLFkfr esa Hkh nnZ vuqHko gksrk gSA
;g ,d Áeq[k fDyfudy leL;k gks ldrk gSA gkbij,Ytsfl;k esa
isjhQsjy xzkgh vkSj vkjksgh nnZ ds ekxksZa ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij tfVy ?kVuk,a
‘kkfey gSaA buesa jklk;fud :i ls ekf/;r mŸkstuk vkSj laneu dh
var%fØ;k ‘kkfey gSaA iqjkus nnZ dh fLFkfr esa ns[kk x;k gkbij,Ytsfl;k
mŸkstuk esa o`f) vkSj laneu ds ruko ds QyLo:i gksrk gSA blesa ls
vf/kdka’k dk dkj.k] laosnh lwpuk dk Álalk/ku djus okys U;wjkWuksa dh
ÁfrfØ;k’khyrk esa cnyko dk gksuk gSA xzkgh v.kqvksa esa egRoiw.kZ cnyko
gksrs gSa] tks lacaf/kr U;wjksVªkalfeVlZ dh xfrfof/k dks ekf/;r djrs gSA
gkbij,Ytsfl;k dh dksf’kdh; ÁfØ;kvksa dh gekjh le> esa dkQh mUufr
gksus ds ckotwn] iqjkus nnZ dk fDyfudy mipkj vc Hkh nq[kn :i ls
vi;kZIr gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

nnZ ds fcuk thou \
gekjh bPNk nnZ ds lzksrksa ls nwj jgus] tSls fd MsafVLV ¼nk¡rksa ds MkDVj½]
dh gksrh gS] vki dYiuk dj ldrs gSa fd fdlh nnZ ds fcuk vkidk thou
fdruk vPNk gksxkA ,slk ugha gksrk gSA nnZ ds Áeq[k dk;ksZa esa ls ,d ;g
gS fd ge brus l{ke cusa fd nnZ iSnk djus okyh fLFkfr;ksa dks jksd ldsaA
ukslhlsfIVo raf=dkvksa esa ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y es: jTtq esa Áos’k dj Lopkfyr
lqj{kkRed fj¶ysDlst+ vkjaHk djrs gSa] tSls fd fonMªky fj¶ysDlA buls
[krjukd ;k Hk;Hkhr djus okyh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks Vkyus dk ekxZn’kZu
feyrk gSA
nnZ dk ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ eq[; dk;Z gS xfrfof/k dk laneu ;k #d
tkuk&vkjke djus ls Ård esa gqbZ {kfr dks Bhd djus esa enn feyrh gSA
fuLlansg dqN ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ;g egRoiw.kZ gS fd xfrfof/k ;k iyk;u dh
ÁfrfØ;k,¡ jksdh ugha tkrh gSaA bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls mcjus esa enn ds fy,
‘kjhj fØ;kfoKku dh ÁfØ;kvksa dk fodkl gqvk gS] tks ;k rks nnZ dks nck
nsrh gSa ;k mHkkj nsrh gSaA [kksth xbZ ,d ,slh ÁFke ekWM~;qysVjh ÁfØ;k Fkh
,.Mkstsul ,ukYtsfld dh fueqZfDrA laHkkfor pksV dh ifjfLFkfr esa] tSls
fd ;q) Hkwfe esa lSfud] nnZ dh vuqHkwfr ,d vk’p;Ztud Lrj rd ?kV
tkrh gS&’kk;n blfy, fd ;s inkFkZ fueZqDr gks tkrs gSaA tUrqvksa ds
Á;ksxksa ls irk pyk gS fd efLr”d {ks=ksa ds fo|qr mÌhiu ls] tSls fd]
,DosMDVy xzs inkFkZ ls nnZ ds Lrj esa ,d mYys[kuh; mUu;u gksrk gS
vkSj e/;efLr”d ls es: jTtq rd vojksgh ekxZ }kjk bls ekf/;r fd;k
tkrk gSA

ikjEifjd phuh fpfdRlk esa nnZ ls jkgr ds fy, ^^,D;wiapj uked fof/k dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA bl fof/k esa ‘kjhj dh esjhfM;u dgh tkus okyh fn’kk ds vuqlkj fo’ks”k
fLFkfr;ksa esa Ropk esa cgqr iryh lqb;k¡ Mkyh tkrh gSa] fQj mipkj djus okyk O;fDr
mUgsa ?kqekrk ;k buesa dEiu iSnk djrk gSA buls fuf’pr :i ls nnZ esa jkgr feyrh
gSA ijUrq vc rd dksbZ ;g ugha crk ldk fd ,slk D;ksa gSa \
pkyhl o”kZ igys bldh dk;Z fof/k tkuus ds fy, phu esa ,d vuqla/kku Á;ksx’kkyk dh
LFkkiuk gqbZA bldh ÁkfIr;ksa ls irk pyk fd dEiu dh ,d vko`fŸk ij fo|qr mÌhiu
ls ,.MkWfQZu uked ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM dh fueqZfDr ‘kq: gks tkrh gSA buesa ls ,d
gS esV&,UdsQsfyu] ,d vU; vko`fŸk ij mÌhiu ls Mk;ukfQZUl ds Áfr laosnu’khy ,d
vU; Á.kkyh lfØ; gks tkrh gSA bl dk;Z ls ,d de [kphZyh fo|qr ,D;wiapj e’khu
dks fodkl gqvk ¼ck,¡½ ftls nokvksa ds ctk; nnZ ls jkgr ikus esa mi;ksx fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ,d tksM+k bysDVªksM esa ls ,d gkFk ds ^^gsdw** fcUnq ij vkSj nwljk nnZ ds
LFkku ij j[kk tkrk gSA

;fn vki ,D;wiapj ds ckjs esa vkSj vf/kd i<+uk pkgrs gSa rks ;g osclkbV ns[ksa
http://acupuncture.com/Acup/AcuInd.htm

13

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

n`f”V
Ekkuo n`f”V ds lanHkZ esa vR;ar lfØ; tho gSa tks nqfu;k ds ckjs esa
fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, viuh vk¡[ksa yxkrkj bLrseky djrs gSaA vU;
ÁkbesVksa dh rjg lkeus fLFkr us=ksa ds lkFk ge viuh ut+j dk
mi;ksx ifjos’k ds vusd i{kksa dks le>us esa djrs gSa tks gekjs ‘kjhj
ls nwj fLFkr gSaA Ádk’k ,d Ádkj dh fo|qr pqEcdh; ÅtkZ gS tks
gekjh vk¡[kksa esa Áos’k djrh gS] tgk¡ fLFkr Ádk’k xzkfg;ksa ij ;g
fØ;k djrh gSA blds lkFk os ÁfØ;k,¡ ‘kq: gksrh gSa ftuls U;wjy
Ásj.kk mRiUu gksrh gS vkSj fQj ;g pk{kq”k efLr”d ds ekxkZas vkSj
usVodZ ls gksdj xqt+jrh gSA e/; efLr”d vkSj lsjsczy dkWVZsDl dks
tkus okys vyx&vyx ekxZ fofHkUu pk{kq”k ¼ns[kus ls lacaf/kr½ dk;Z
djrs gSaA bu dk;ksZa esa ‘kkfey gSa & fo’o esa xfr] vkdkj] jax vkSj
vU; foHksnh fo’ks”krkvksa dh igpku vkSj Áfrfuf/kRoA buesa lHkh rks
ugha fdUrq dqN pSrU;rk rd ugha igq¡prsA dkWVsZDl esa fn[kkbZ nsus
laca/kh fofHkUu fu.kZ;ksa ds fy, fo’ks”khÑr U;wjkWu cM+h la[;k esa fo’ks”k
pk{kq”k {ks= esa mifLFkr gksr gSaA

vk¡[k ij Ádk’k
vk¡[kksa esa I;wfiy ds ek/;e ls Ádk’k Áos’k djrk gS vkSj vk¡[k ds
ihNs jsfVuk ij dkWfuZ;k vkSj ySal dh lgk;rk ls bls Qksdl fd;k
tkrk gSA Iywfiy ds pkjksa vksj o.kZ ¼fixesaV½ ;qDr vkjfll gksrk gS]
tks QSy ;k fldqM+ ldrk gS] ftlls Ádk’k ds Lrj ds vuqlkj
I;wfiy cM+k ;k NksVk gks tkrk gSA ;g eku ysuk lgt gS fd vk¡[k
,d dSejs dh rjg dk;Z djrh gS] ftlls nqfu;k dh ,d ^^Nfo**
curh gSA igyk ;g fd ,d Nfo dHkh Hkh fLFkj ugha gksrh gS]
D;ksafd vk¡[ksa ges’kk ?kwerh jgrh gSaA nwljs] ;fn jsfVuk ij cuh ,d

Nfo efLr”d dks Hksth tkrh gS rks vxyk lans’k vk,xk ^^ns[k jgsa** vkSj
fQj fdlh vU; O;fDr dks bl ij ns[kus dh t+:jr gksxh] ,d ,slk
O;fDr tks efLr”d ds vanj gS! fcuk fdlh okLrfod fooj.k ds] ,d
vuUr fjxzs’ku dks jksdus ds ekxZ esa gekjs lkeus okLro esa cM+h leL;k
lkeus vkrh gS ftls pk{kq”k efLr”d dks lqy>kuk gS & fd ;g vk¡[k ls
feys dksM fd, x, lans’k fdl Ádkj mi;ksx esa ykrk gS vkSj fn[kkbZ
nsus okyh nqfu;k ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysrk gSA
,d ckj jsfVuk ij Qksdl gks tkus ij jsfVuk dh lrg ij O;fLFkr
QksVksfjlsIVj Ádk’k dk ÁR;qŸkj nsrs gSa tks NksVs&NksVs fo|qr iksVsaf’k;y
mRiUu dj mu ij iM+rk gSA ;s ladsr jsfVuk esa fLFkr dksf’kdkvksa ds
usVodZ ds ek/;e ls lkbusIl ls xqt+jrs gSa] blds ckn jsfVuy
xSaxfyvkWu dksf’kdk,¡ lfØ; gks tkrh gSa] ftuds ,DlkWu fey dj
vkWfIVd raf=dk cukrs gSaA ;s efLr”d esa Áos’k djrh gSa] tgk¡ ;s fof’k”V
dk;ksZa ds lkFk fofHkUu {ks=ksa ds ,D’ku iksVsfa ’k;y Ásf”kr djrs gSaA
xSaxfyvkWu dksf’kdk
ckbiksyj dksf’kdk
{ksSfrt dksf’kdk
jkWM~l
dksUl
Ádk’k

vk;fjl

I;wfiy
dkWfuZ;k
jsfVuk

ySal

jsfVuk

Qksfo;k
CykbaM LikWV
vkWfIVd raf=dk
ekuo us=A us= esa Áos’k djus okyk Ádk’k ihNs fLFkr jsfVuk
ij ySal }kjk Qksdl fd;k tkrk gSA ogk¡ xzkgh ÅtkZ dks Kkr
djrs gSa VªkalMD’ku dh ÁfØ;k }kjk ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ‘kq:
djrs gSa tks vkWfIVd raf=dk esa ;k=k djrs gSaA

14

vkWfIVd raf=dk
,ekfØu dksf’kdk

jsfVukA Ádk’k vkWfIVd raf=dk ds rarqvksa ls gksdj xqt+jrk gS vkSj
dksf’kdkvksa dk ,d usVodZ ¼mnkgj.k ds fy, ckb iksyj dksf’kdk,¡½
jsfVuk ds ihNs fLFkr jkWM~l vkSj dksUl ij iM+rk gSA
pk{kq”k Álalk/ku dh bl lcls ‘kq:vkrh voLFkk ds ckjs esa dkQh dqN
Kkr fd;k tk pqdk gSA bu dksf’kdkvksa dks jkWM dgrs gSa vkSj la[;k esa
dkQh vf/kd ;s Ádk’k xzkgh vU; dh vis{kk yxHkx 1000 xquk vf/kd
laosnh gksrs gSa( buls de la[;k esa dksUl gksrs gSaA eksVs rkSj ij dgk tk,
rks jkr ds le; vki viuh jkWM~l dh lgk;rk ls vkSj fnu ds le;
dksUl dh lgk;rk ls ns[krs gSaA rhu Ádkj ds dksUl gksrs gSa] tks Ádk’k
dh fofHkUu rjax nS/;Z ds Áfr laosnu’khy gksrs gSaA ;g dgdj bls dkQh
ljy cuk;k tk ldrk gS fd dksUl ls jaxhu n`’; fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa&ijUrq
;s blds fy, thoUr gSaA ;fn bu ij ,d gh jax dk Ádk’k yxkrkj
iM+rk gS] rks dksUl bls xzg.k dj ysrs gSa vkSj blds ckn FkksM+s le; ds
fy, gekjs jax ds fopkj esa dqN de ;ksxnku djrs gSa ¼ns[ksa Ák;ksfxd
ckWDl½A

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
fiNys 25 o”kksZa esa QksVksVªkalMD’ku ¼Ádk’k dk jkWM~l vkSj dksUl esa tkdj
fo|qr ladsrksa esa cnyuk½ dh ÁfØ;k ds ckjs esa vusd egRoiw.kZ [kkstsa dh
xbZ gSa] jax va/kRo dk vkuqokaf’kd vk/kkj] tks fof’k”V pk{kq”k o.kZdksa dh
vuqifLFkfr ds dkj.k jsfVuy usVodZ ds dk;Z vkSj xSaxfyvkWu dksf’kdkvksa
ds nks fofHkUu Ádkjksa dh mifLFkfr gSaA buesa ls yxHkx 90 Áfr’kr
dksf’kdk,¡ cgqr NksVh gksrh gSa] tcfd vU; 5 Áfr’kr ,e&Ádkj ;k
eSXuks lsY;qyj dksf’kdk,¡ gksrh gSaA ge ckn esa tkusaxs fd ,e&Ádkj dh
dksf’kdkvksa esa vlkekU;rk ls fMlysfDl;k ds fof’k”V ekeys fufgr gks
ldrs gSa ¼v/;k; 9½A
jax vuqdwyu ij ,d Á;ksx

nks cM+s xksyksa ds chp /ku ¼$½ ds ladsr ij U;wure 30 lsd.M ds
fy, /;ku dsfUnzr djsaA vc viuk iwjk /;ku fupys /ku ¼$½ ds
ladsr ij ys tk,¡A ^^ihys** jax ds nks cM+s xksys vc fdlh vU; jaxksa
ds yxrs gSAa D;k vki lksp ldrs gSa fd ,slk D;ksa gqvkA

ck;k¡

pk{kq”k {ks=
nk;k¡
vkWfIVd raf=dk
vkWfIVd
fd,Lek

ysVjy
tsfudqysV
ukfHkd

The

pk{kq”k dkWVZsDl

dkWVsZDl dk
ekxZ

vk¡[k ls efLr”d rd ekxZ
pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl esa vusd {ks= ‘kkfey gksrs gSa] tks ns[kus ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ls
fuiVrs gSa tSls vkdkj] jax] xfr’khyrk] nwjh vkfnA ;s dksf’kdk,¡ dkWyEl esa
O;ofLFkr gksrh gSAa pk{kq”k n`f”V ls ladYiuk xzkgh {ks= dh gS&jsfVuk dk og
{ks=] tgk¡ dksf’kdk Nfo ds ÁkFkfedrk okys Ádkj ds Áfr lfØ; gksxkA oh1
esa] dkWfVZdy Álalk/ku ds igys pj.k esa U;wjkWUl ,d fo’ks”k vfHkfoU;kl esa
js[kkvksa ;k fdukjksa ds Áfr loksZŸke :i ls ÁfrfØ;k nsrs gSaA ,d egRoiw.kZ
[kkst ;g Fkh fd dksf’kdkvksa ds fdlh ,d dkWye esa lHkh U;wjkWUl ,d leku
vfHkfoU;kl dh js[kkvksa dk fdukjksa ij fØ;k djsxa s vkSj ikl esa fLFkr dksf’kdk
LraHk dqN vyx vfHkfoU;kl ij loksZŸke :i ls fØ;k djrk gS vkSj blh rjg
oh1 dh lrg rd ;g tkjh jgrh gSA bldk vFkZ gS dkWfVZdy pk{kq”k
dksf’kdkvksa esa fo’o dh O;k[;k ds fy, ,d varfuZfgr laxBu gksrk gS] ijUrq
;g laxBu bE;wVscy ugha gSA nkbZa ;k ckbZa vk¡[k esa xfrfof/k }kjk ,d
dksf’kdk fdl lhek rd Ásfjr gks ldrh gS] bls vuqHko ls :ikUrfjr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA tSlk lHkh laosnh Á.kkfy;ksa ds lkFk gksrk gS] pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl
ÁR;kLFkrk n’kkZrk gSA

MsfoM gqcsy

VkWlZVsu ohly

pk{kq”k Álalk/ku esa vxys dne
ÁR;sd vk¡[k dh vkWfIVd raf=dk efLr”d ls tqMr+ h gSA ÁR;sd raf=dk
ds rarq vkWfIVd fd,Lek uked lajpuk ij feyrs gS]a buesa ls ^^vk/ks**
vkil esa ,d&nwljs dks dkVrs gSa] tgk¡ os nwljh vkWfIVd raf=dk ls
vkus okys vk/ks rarqvksa ls feyrs gSa] tks vkil esa dkVrs ugha gSaA ;s
xqPNs feydj vkWfIVd VSªDV cukrs gSa] vc buesa nksuksa vk¡[kksa ls vkus
okys rarq ‘kkfey gksrs gSa] tks vc lsjsczy dkWVsZDl esa fey tkrs gSa
¼ik’ohZ; tsfudqysV U;fDy;l uked ,d lajpuk esa lkbusfIVd fjys
ds ek/;e ls½ blh LFkku ij gekjs vkl&ikl dh nqfu;k dk fp=
curk gSA Li’kZ djus ds leku ¼fiNys v/;k; esa½ pk{kq”k fo’o dk
ck;k¡ fljk nkfgus gsfeLQs;j esa vkSj nk;k¡ fljk ck,¡ gsfeLQs;j esa
feyrk gSA bl U;wjy Áfrfuf/kRo ij nksuksa vk¡[kksa ls tkudkjh vkrh gS
vkSj efLr”d ds ihNs fLFkr dksf’kdk,¡ ¼oh1] oh2 uked {ks= esa½ fdlh
Hkh vk¡[k esa fn[kus okyh Nfo dks ns[k ldrh gSaA bls gh
ckbuksdqySfjVh dgrs gSaA

MsfoM gqcsy ¼ck,¡½ vkSj VkWlZVsu ohly ¼Åij½ }kjk
pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl ¼ck,¡½ esa dksf’kdkvksa ls dh xbZ fo|qr
fjdkWfMZxa ls Kkr gqvk fd dqN vn~Hkwr d.k gksrs gSAa
buesa vfHkfoU;kl p;u’khyrk] bu dksf’kdkvksa dk
lqanj] dkWye laxBu ¼uhps½ vkSj Á.kkyh dh
ÁR;kLFkrk ‘kkfey gSA bu [kkstksa ij ukscy iqjLdkj
fn;k x;kA

15

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
vuqla/kku vxz.kh
;fn vkidh n`f”V ugha gks rks D;k vki ns[k ldrs gSa \ efLr”d esa cgqr lkjs
pk{kq”k {ks=ksa dh [kkst ls Kkr gqvk gS fd dqN pk{kq”k {kerk,¡ fcuk fdlh psru
tkx:drk ds] gks ldrh gSaA dqN yksx ftuds ÁkFkfed pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl ¼oh1½ dks
LFkk;h {kfr gks pqdh gS] os vius n`f”V {ks= esa phts+ ugha ns[k ldrs gS] ijUrq tc
mu ls pht+ksa rd igq¡pus ds fy, dgk x;k] ftUgsa os ns[k ugha ldrs] rks mUgksaus
vR;ar ‘kq)rk ls ;g dk;Z fd;kA bl mRlqdrkiw.kZ fdUrq pfdr dj nsus okyh
?kVuk dks ^^CykbaM LikWV** dgras gSaA bls laHkOkr;k vk¡[k ls dkWVsZDl ds vU;
fgLlksa rd lekukUrj la;kstuksa }kjk ekf/;r fd;k tkrk gSA

dsoy dkys vkSj lQsn fcUnq \
vkjaHk esa bl fp= esa js[kkvksa vkSj
fdukjksa dks igpkuuk dfBu gksrk
gSA ijUrq tc ,d ckj vkidks irk
py tk, fd ;g kyes’ku dqŸkk gS]
rqjar gh mldk fp= vkidh vk¡[kksa
esa vk tkrk gSA pk{kq”k efLr”d
laosnh n`’; dh O;k[;k ds vkarfjd
efLr”d dk mi;ksx djrk gSA

,d O;fDr D;k ns[krk gS] blls vutku jgdj lkekU; O;fDr }kjk ns[kuk ,d
nSfud ÁfØ;k gSA ;fn vki dkj pykrs gq, ,d lkFkh ;k=h ls ckr djrs gSa rks
vkidh psru tkx:drk dks iwjh rjg ls ckrphr ij funsZf’kr fd;k tk ldrk
gS] tcfd vki dkj pykuk tkjh j[krs gSa] flxuy ij :drs gSa vkSj ck/kkvksa ls
cprs gSaA ;g {kerk ,d Ádkj dh dk;kZRed Cykb.M lkbV gSA

pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl dh baVªhdsV lfdZVªh ,d cM+h igsyh gS] ftlus raf=dk oSKkfudksa

dks igys ls O;Lr fd;k gqvk gSA U;wjkWu ds fofHkUu Ádkj 6 dkWfVZdy irksZa esa
O;ofLFkr gksrs gSa] tks LFkkuh; vR;ar ‘kq) ifjiFkksa esa ,d lkFk tqMs+ gksrs gSa] ftls geus
vHkh le>uk ‘kq: fd;k gSA buds dqN la;kstu mŸkstd vkSj dqN laned gksrs gSaA
dqN raf=dkfoKkfu;ksa us lq>ko fn;k gS fd tSls ,d dEI;wVj esa fpIl gksrh gSa] mlh
rjg dSuksfudy dkWfVZdy ekbØkslfdZV gksrk gSA lHkh blls lger ugha gSAa vc ge
ekurs gSa fd ,d pk{kq”k {ks= esa lfdZVªh esa vU; ds lkFk vusd lekurk,¡ gSa] ijUrq
buesa i;kZIr varj gks ldrs gS]a tks mu fofHkUu ekxksZa dks n’kkZrk gS] ftuesa pk{kq”k
efLr”d dk ÁR;sd Hkkx pk{kq”k fo’o ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dh O;k[;k djrk gSA pk{kq”k
Hkze ¼dYiuk½ ds v/;;u ls Hkh geas ml Ádkj ds Álalk/ku dh varn`f”V feyrh gS] tks
pk{kq”k fo’ys”k.k ds fofHkUu pj.kksa ij tkjh gSA

fczLVy ¼ck,¡½ esa bl Áfl) dSQs okWy dh Vkbysa okLro esa vk;rkdkj gSa&ijUrq ,slh
fn[kkbZ ugha nsrh gSaA Vkbyksa dh O;oLFkk ls js[kkvksa vkSj fdukjksa dk Álalk/ku djus
okys U;wjkWuksa ds chp tfVy mŸkstd vkSj laned var%fØ;kvksa }kjk ,d Hkze mRiUu
gksrk gSA dfut+k f=Hkqt ¼nk,¡½ okLro esa ugha gksrk gS&ijUrq vki bl ns[kuk can ugha
dj ldrs gSa! vkidh pk{kq”k Á.kkyh ;g ^^fu.kZ;** djrh gS fd bl rLohj esa vU;
pht+ksa ds Åij ,d lQsn f=Hkqt gSA

fu.kZ; rFkk vfu.kZ;
lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dk ,d Áeq[k dk;Z gS vusd lzksrksa ls ÁkIr laosnh lwpuk cukuk vkSj ml ij dk;Z
djukA fu.kZ; ysuk bl {kerk dk egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gSA ;g lskpus] Kku vk/kkfjr ÁfØ;k dk
^cks/kkRed** Hkkx gSA miyC/k laosnh lk{; dks fopkj esa fy;k tk, vkSj loksZŸke lk{; ij fodYi
pqus tk,¡ ¼tSls fd dk;Z djuk ;k xfrfof/k ugha djuk½ tks ml le; lk{; ij fodYi pqus tk,¡
¼tSls fd dk;Z djuk ;k xfrfof/k ugha djuk½ tks ml le; ÁkIr fd, tk ldrs gSaA dqN fu.kZ;
tfVy gksrs gSa vkSj dqN dks ysus esa lkspus dh t+:jr gksrh gS tcfd dqN ljy vkSj Lokpkfyr
gksr gSaA ljyre fu.kZ; esa laosnh fufof”V vkSj ekStwnk Kku dk feyk&tqyk :i ‘kkfey gksrk gSA

16

fu.kZ; ysus dk U;wjy vk/kkj le>us dk ,d rjhdk gS fd O;fDr viuh lkekU;
nSfud xfrfof/k;k¡ djs vkSj og tks Hkh xfrfof/k;k¡ djs] mlds U;wjkWu dh xfrfof/k dks
vfHkysf[kr fd;k tk,A ge vc feyh lsd.M ‘kq)rk rd vfHkys[ku dh dYiuk dj
ldrs gSa] tks efLr”d ds 10 11 U;wjkWuksa esa ls ÁR;sd dh gks ldrh gSA rc gekjs ikl
dkQh lkjs vk¡dM+s gksaxs ijUrq blds Álalk/ku dk dk;Z Hkh gksxkA gesa bldh O;k[;k
djus esa Hkh dfBukbZ gksxhA bldk dkj.k tkuu ds fy, ,d ckj mu dkj.kksa ds ckjs
esa lkspsa fd yksx dk;Z D;ksa djrs gSaA tc ge fdlh dks jsyos LVs’ku dh vksj tkrs
ns[krs gSa] mls Lo;a ;k=k djuh gS] Vsªu esa fdlh ls feyus tkuk gS ;k dsoy
^^Vªsu&LikWfVax** djuh gSA ;g Kkr gq, fcuk fd mldk bjknk D;k gSa] muds efLr”d
dh lfØ;rk vkSj muds O;ogkj ds iSVuZ ds chp fdlh lg&lac/a k dh O;k[;k djuk
dfBu gSA
vr% Ák;ksfxd raf=dk oSKkfud O;ogkjxr ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks fo’kq) Ák;ksfxd fu;a=.k
ds rgr ykus dk Á;kl djrs gSaA bls ,d fuf’k”V dk;Z dh LFkkiuk }kjk ;g
lqfuf’pr djrs gq, fd;k tk ldrk gS fd ekuo bls O;kid vH;kl ds ckn viuh
loksZŸke {kerk ds vuqlkj djrs gSa vkSj fQj vius fu”iknu dh fuxjkuh djrs gSaA
loksZŸke Ádkj dk dk;Z og gS tc jkspd gksus dh lhek rd i;kZIr tfVy gks] fQj
Hkh bruk ljy gks fd mldk fo’ys”k.k fd;k tk lds fd D;k py jgk gSA bldk
,d vPNk mnkgj.k gS mÌhiuksa ds fo”k; esa ,d pk{kq”k fu.kZ; dh ÁfØ;k&cgq/kk nks
mÌhiuksa ls vf/kd ugha gks&cgq/kk nks ls vf/kd mÌhiuksa ds lkFk mŸkj ,d ljy
fodYi gksrk gS ¼mnkgj.k% Ádk’k dks dkSu ;k fcUnq cM+k ;k vf/kd pednkj gS \½A
tcfd ;g dk;Z ljy yxrk gS] fQj Hkh blesa fu.kZ; ysus dk ,d iwjk pØ ‘kkfey
gSA laosnh lwpuk xzg.k dh tkrh gS vkSj bldk fo’ys”k.k fd;k tkrk gS( fy, ij
fu.kZ;ksa ds lgh rFkk xyr mŸkj gksrs gSa( bl ij Js; fn;k tkrk gS fd D;k fu”iknu
lgh Fkk ;k ughaA bl Ádkj dk vuqla/kku ^^n`f”V dh HkkSfrdh** dk ,d Ádkj gSA

xfr vkSj jax ds fo”k; esa jax
bls le; cM+h #fp dk fo”k; gS fd U;wjkWu fdl Ádkj pk{kq”k xfr’khyrk ds fo”k;
esa fu.kZ; ysus esa ‘kkfey gSaA pkgs oLrq py jgh gks ;k ugha] vkSj fdl fn’kk esa py
jgh gS] ;g euq”;ksa vkSj vU; tUrqvksa ds fy, vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ fu.kZ; gSA vkerkSj ij
lkis{k xfr’khyrk ;g ladsr nsrh gS fd ,d oLrq nwljh ikl esa fLFkr oLrq ls fHkUu
gSA ekuo efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu rduhdksa ¼v/;k; 14½ ds bLrseky ls vkSj xSj&ekuo
tUrqvksa esa vyx&vyx U;wjkWuksa dh xfrfof/k ds vfHkys[ku }kjk efLr”d ds {ks=ksa ds
chp la;kstuksa ds iSVuZ dh tk¡p }kjk fof’k”V ‘kkjhfjd {ks=ksa ds :i esa Álalk/ku
xfr’khy lwpuk esa ‘kkfey pk{kq”k efLr”d ds {ks=ksa dks vfHkKkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

A

B

C

D

xfr'khyrk dh laosnuk d- ÁkFkfed pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl ¼oh 1½ lfgr canj ds efLr”d dk ik’ohZ; n`’; ckbZa vksj rFkk ,eVh ¼dHkh&dHkh bls
oh 5 dgrs gSa½ uked ,d {ks=] ftlesa xfr ds Áfr laosnu’khy U;wjkWu ik, tkrs gSaA [k- xfr ds Áfr laosnu’khy U;wjkWu] ftlesa ,D’ku
iksVsaf’k;y ¼[kM+h yky js[kk,¡½ mŸkj if’pe fn’kk esa xfr gksus ds mŸkj esa vf/kdka’kr% rFkk foijhr fn’kk esa gksus ij dHkh&dHkkj iSnk gksrk
gSA ,eVh ¼;k oh 5½ ds fofHkUu dkWyeksa esa xfr dh fofHkUu fn’kkvksa ds fy, dksM djrk gSA x- xfr laosnu’khyrk ij Á;ksxksa esa Á;qDr
,d xksykdkj Vhoh LØhu] ftlesa fcUnq vO;ofLFkr :i ls lHkh fn’kkvksa esa ?kwers gSa ¼’kwU; Áfr’kr vklatu½ vFkok lHkh fcUnq ,d gh
fn’kk esa ?kwers gSa ¼’kr Áfr’kr vklatu½A ?k- fcUnqvksa dh laHkkfor fn’kk ds canj ds ladsr mudh vklatdrk ¼ihyh js[kk½ c<+us ds lkFk
c<+rs gSaA fofHkUu vfHkfoU;klksa ds dkWyeksa ds fo|qr y?kq mÌhiu vf/kekuh fn’kk dk vuqeku foLFkkfir djrs gSa ¼uhyh js[kk½A

bu {ks=ksa] {ks= ,eVh ;k oh 5 ds U;wjkWu ,d canj esa vfHkysf[kr fd,
x, gSa] tcfd ;g pyrs fQjrs fcUnqvksa ds iSVuZ ds fo”k; esa ,d ljy
pk{kq”k fu.kZ; ysrk gSA buesa ls vf/kdka’k fcUnq fofHkUu fn’kkvksa esa
;kn`fPNd :i ls ?kwers gSa] ijUrq budk dqN fgLlk dsoy ,d gh fn’kk
esa gh xfr djrk gS&Åij] uhps] nk,¡ ;k ck,¡A ns[kus okys O;fDr dks
iSVuZ dh lexz fn’kk ns[kuh gksrh gSA bl dk;Z dks vklku cukus ds
fy, fcUnqvksa ds ,d cM+s lewg dks ,d gh fn’kk esa xfr’khy cukdj
O;ofLFkr fd;k gk ldrk gS] ctk; fd bUgsa vyx&vyx fn’kkvksa esa
?kweus fn;k tk,] vFkok yxkrkj ?kweus okys fcUnqvkas dk vuqikr ?kVkdj
bUgsa dBksj cuk;k tk,A ;g irk pyrk gS fd oh 5 esa dksf’kdkvksa dh
lfØ;rk ‘kq)rkiwoZd xfr ladsr dh ‘kfDr Ánf’kZr djrh gSA U;wjkWu
xfr dh ,d fn’kk ds Áfr mŸkj nsrs gS] tc fcUnqvksa dh vf/kekuh xfr
fn’kk esa mudk vuqikr c<+rk gSA
vkuUnnk;h ckr ;g gS fd dqN vyx&vyx U;wjkWu ,d ns[kus okys
O;fDr dh rjg ls yxrs gSa] pkgs ;g canj gks ;k ekuo] buds
O;ogkjxr fu.kZ; ij fd;k tkrk gSA vfHkys[ku djus okys bysDVªksM
ds ek/;e ls ,sls U;wjkWuksa dk y?kq mÌhiu ml canj dh lkis{k
xfrfof/k;ksa ds fu.kZ; esa i{kikr dj ldrk gSA ;g mYys[kuh; gS fd
cM+h la[;k esa U;wjkWu pk{kq”k n`f”V ds Áfr laosnu’khy gSa vkSj ctk,
dqN U;wjkWu ds] vusd U;wjkWuksa dh lfØ;rk ij fuHkZj djrs gSaA jax ds
ckjs esa fu.kZ; Hkh blh Ádkj vkxs c<+rs gSa ¼vuqla/kku vxz.kh ckWDl
ns[ksa½A

usdlZ D;qc esa n`f”V yxkrkj cnyrh jgrh gSA jsfVuk ij Nfo
cnyrh ugha gSa] ijUrq vki lcls igys bl D;wc dk Åijh ck;k¡
dksuk ns[krs gSa vkSj /khjs&/khjs tSls ?kqy x;k gks] ,slk yxrk gSA
‘kk;n gh dHkh bls piVh lrg ij vkil eas dkVus okyh js[kkvksa ds
lSV ds :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA bues ls dqN dks U;wjy ladsr [kkstus
esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] tgk¡ dqN cnyus ;ksX; vkÑfr;k¡ gksrh gSa]
tc fdlh ,d fn, x, le; ij foU;kl ds ckjs esa pk{kq”k efLr”d
fu.kZ; ysrk gSA

17

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
vuqla/kku vxz.kh
jaxhu laosnh dksf’kdk,¡A dqN fof’k”V U;wjkWu Ádk’k dh fofHkUu rjax nS/;ksZa esa lfØ;rk ds vyx&vyx iSVuZ n’kkZrs gSaA dqN yach rjax nS/;Z dk loksZŸke
mŸkj nsrs gSa tcfd vU; NksVh ijA vki lksp ldrs gSa fd ;g jax ns[kus ds fy, i;kZIr gSa] ijUrq ,slk ugha gksrk gSA ckbZa vksj dh rqyuk esa nkbZa vksj lSy
Qk;fjax dh rqyuk djsAa D;k vkidks dksbZ varj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA

ckbZ vksjA eksafMª;u ¼dykdkj fi,V eksafMªu ds uke ij½ uked ,d
jaxhu iSpodZ dh Li”V fMt+kbuA ;g Ádk’k dh yach] e/;e vkSj
NksVh rjax nS/;ksZa ds fofHkUu la;ktuksa ls Ádkf’kr gS] rkfd ÁR;sd
iSuy Ádk’k dk ogh feJ.k n’kkZ,] pkgs gesa vkl&ikl ds iSpksa dh
mifLFkfr ds dkj.k vyx jax dk fn[kkbZ nsA oh 1 esa vfHkysf[kr]
ckbZ vksj dh dksf’kdk lHkh ekeyksa esa mlh lhek rd Qk;j djrh
gSA ;g jax dks ns[krh ugha gS] ;g ÁR;sd iSp ls ÁfrfcfEcr led{k
rjax nS/;Z feJ.k dk ÁR;qŸkj nsrh gSA

fo’okl djus dk vFkZ gS ns[kuk
oh 5 pk{kq”k mÌhiuksa dh xfr nt+Z djus ds vykok Hkh cgqr dqN djrk
gSA ;g ns[kh xbZ xfr dks nt+Z djrk gSA ;fn pk{kq”k rjdhcsa bl rjg
dh tkrh gSa fd bu fcUnqvksa dks dsoy vkl&ikl ds fcUnqvksa dh xfr
ds ek/;e ls ,d ;k vU; fdlh fn’kk esa pyrs gq, ns[kk tkrk gS]
vFkkZr xfr dk Hkze] Hkze ds {ks= esa laxr U;wjkWu ns[kh xbZ xfr ds ck,¡
;k nk,¡ vyx rjg ls Qk;j djrs gSaA ;fn xfr iwjh rjg ls fcuk
fdlh Øe ds gSa] rks nk;ha vksj xfr’khy gksus okys U;wjkWu dk Qk;j
vis{kkÑr vf/kd Vªk;y okyk gksrk gS] tc ns[kus okyk ;g fjiksVZ djrk
gS fd ;kn`fPNd xfr flxuy ^^nk;ha** vksj ¼vkSj blds foijhr½ py
jgk gSA ^^nk;ha** vFkok ^^ck;ha** vksj ds U;wjksuy fu.kZ;ksa ds chp dk varj
Ánf’kZr djrk gS fd xfr ds ckjs esa ns[kus okyk D;k ns[krk gS] uk fd
pyu’khy mÌhiu dk ije LoHkkoA
pk{kq”k fu.kZ; vkSj vfu.kZ; ds vU; mnkgj.kksa esa ‘kkfey gSa n`f”Vxr
y{;ksa dh ÁfrfØ;k] tks okLrfod :i ls vLi”V gSa] tSls fd rFkkdfFkr
usdj D;wc ¼fp=½A bl mÌhiu ds Ádkj ds lkFk ns[kus okyk vfu.kZ;
dh fLFkfr esa igq¡p tkrk gS] og yxkrkj ,d ls nwljh O;k[;k ds chp
my> tkrk gSA blh Ádkj dh Áfr}af}rk ns[kh tkrh gS tc ckbZa vk¡[k
[kM+h js[kkvksa dk iSVuZ ns[krh gS vkSj nk;ha vk¡[k {kSfrt js[kkvksa dk
iSVuZ ns[krh gSA ifj.kkeh n`f”V dks ckbuksdqyj jkboyjh dgrs gSa] igys
tc ns[kus okyk fjiksVZ djrk gS fd [kM+h js[kkvksa dh Áeq[krk gS vkSj
fQj nks ckj vkM+h js[kkvksa ds gksus dh fjiksVZ djrk gSA ,d ckj fQj]
pk{kq”k dkWVZsDl ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa U;wjkWu n’kkZrs gSa fd ns[kus okys dh
n`f”V dc {kSfrt ls Å/okZ/kj dh vksj tkrh gSA

17

nk;ha vksjA eksafMª;u ds ,d {ks= ij ,d okLrfod jax laosnh
dksf’kdk oh 4 esa Qk;j djrh gS] ftls ge yky jax ds :i esa
ns[krs gSa] tks vU; dh vis{kk de gSA ;g vody ÁR;qŸkj rjax
ÅtkZvksa ds lHkh fVªiysV ds lkFk gksrk gS tks ÁR;sd ls Ánf’kZr
gqvkA vr% oh 4 efLr”d dk og {ks= gks ldrk gS tks gesa jax
ns[kus esa leFkZ cukrk gS] tcfd dqN raf=dk oSKkfudksa dks ;g ‘kadk
gS fd dsoy ;gh {ks= ‘kkfey ugha gSA

gekjh fn[kkbZ nsus okyh nqfu;k vn~Hkqr gSA vk¡[kksa esa Áos’k djus okyk
Ádk’k gesa vius pkjksa vksj dh nqfu;k dks ns[kus esa leFkZ cukrkgS]
ftlesa dykÑfr;ksa ds ek/;e ls ljyre ls ysdj gesa pfdr dj nsus
okyh phtsa+ ‘kkfey gSaA blesa yk[kksa djksM+ksa U;wjkWu oh 5 {ks= esa ,d
U;wjkWu ds ek/;e ls Ádk’k dh ,d fdj.k dk ÁR;qŸkj nsus okys ,d
jsfVuy Ádk’kxzkgh ds dk;Z ls vkjaHk dj vius dk;Z djrs gSa] tks ;g
fu.kZ; ysrk gS fd D;k pk{kq”k nqfu;k esa dqN Hkh xfr’khy gSA ;g lHkh
gekjs efLr”d ds vanj fcuk fdlh Á;kl ds tkjh jgrk gSA ge bu
lc dks le> ugha ikrs gSa] ijUrq raf=dk oSKkfud bl fn’kk esa cM+s
dk;Z dj jgs gSaA
dksfyu CySdeksj us ;g le>us esa ;ksxnku fn;k
gS fd pk{kq”k Á.kkyh fdl Ádkj fodflr gksrh
gSA blesa Hkzw.kh; efLr”d ¼ck;k¡½ esa ekxZ ds
fofHkUu Hkkxksa ds chp var%fØ;kvksa dks v/;;u
djus ds fy, dksf’kdk lao/kZu lfgr vxz.kh
v/;;u ‘kkfey gSA nk;ha vksj gesa ,DlkWu ¼gjs
jax es½a fn[kkbZ nsrs gS]a tks vU; rarqvksa ¼larjh
jax½ ls tqM+us ds fy, fodkl’khy dkWVsZDl ls
fodflr gksrs gSa vkSj tks dkWVsZDl rd c<+us ds
igys ^^gkFk feykuk** pkgrs gSaA

: faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chvision.html
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biol/research/psychology/nsg

baVjusV fyaDl

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

xfr
,d xsan dks idM+us ds ckjs esa lkspsaA D;k vklku gS \ ,slk yxrk rks
gS] ijUrq bl ljy ls dk;Z dks djus esa Hkh vkids efLr”d dsk vusd
mYyss[kuh; dk;Z djus gksrs gSaA ge bu lcdks lgt eku ysrs gSa] fQj
Hkh buesa ;kstuk ‘kkfey gksrh gS % xsan gYdh gS ;k Hkkjh \ ;g fdl
fn’kk ls vk jgh gS \ ;g fdruh rst+h ls tk,xh \ blesa leUo;
gksrk gS % ,d O;fDr xsan dks idM+us ds fy, vius gkFkksa dk leUo;
fdl Ádkj djrk gS vkSj bldk loksZŸke rjhdk D;k gksxk \ vkSj
bldk fu”iknu gksrk gS % D;k vkids gkFk dks lgh LFkku feyrk gS
vkSj vkidh v¡xqfy;k¡ lgh le; ij can gks xbZa \ vc raf=dk
oSKkfud ;g tkurs gSa fd efLr”d ds vusd {ks= blesa ‘kkfey gksrs
gSaA bu {ks=ksa esa U;wjy xfrfof/k vkns’k dh ,d <hyh J`a[kyk cukus ds
fy, tqM+rh gS&,d eksVj Øe&lsjsczy dkWVsZDl vkSj csly xSaxfy;k ls
lsjscsye vkSj es: jTtqA

raf=dk ek¡lis’kh; tksM+
eksVj Øe ds lcls fupys LFkku ij] es: jTtq esa eksVj U;wjkWu
uked gt+kjksa fo’ks”khÑr raf=dk dksf’kdkvksa dh Qk;fjax nj c<+
tkrh gSA bu U;wjkWuksa ds ,DlkWu ek¡lisf’k;ksa esa tkrs gSa] tgk¡ os
ladqpu ;ksX; ek¡lis’kh; rarqvksa dks lfØ; cukrs gSaA ÁR;sd eksVj
U;wjkWu ds ,DlkWu ds vafre fljs ,d ek¡lis’kh rarq ds vanj lhfer
la[;k ij fo’ks”k raf=dk ek¡lis’kh; tksM+ cukrs gSa ¼uhps fp= ns[ksa½A
,d eksVj U;wjkWu ds ÁR;sd ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y ds dkj.k raf=dk fljksa
ls U;wjksVªkalfeVlZ eqDr gksrs gSa vkSj ek¡lis’kh rarqvksa esa blds laxr
,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y mRiUu gksrk gSA blds }kjk ÁR;sd ek¡lis’kh rUrq
ds vanj var% dksf’kdh; Hk.Mkjksa ls dSfY’k;e vk;u mRiUu gksrs gSaA
blls ek¡lis’kh rarqvksa esa ladqpu gksrk gS vkSj cy rFkk xfr mRiUu
gksrs gSaA

ek¡lisf’k;ksa ds lkFk tqM+h fo|qr lfØ;rk dh fjdkWfMZax
¼bysDVªks&ek;ksxzkfQd lfØ;rk½

Hkqtk dh ek¡lisf’k;ksa esa fo|qr dh ?kVuk Ropk esa ek/;e ls
,EiyhQk;j ds lkFk fjdkWMZ dh tk ldrh gS vkSj bu fo|qr&ek;ks
xzkfQd fjdkWfMZaXl ¼bZ,eth½ dks ÁR;sd ek¡lis’kh esa lfØ;rk dk Lrj
ekius ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA ¼Åij fp= ns[ksa½A
es: jTtq fofHkUu fj¶ysDl ekxksZa ds ek/;e ls ek¡lisf’k;ksa ds fu;a=.k
esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSA buesa fonMªky ds fj¶ysDl gSa
ftudh ‘kkjhfjd fLFkfr esa Hkwfedk gSA tkuk&ekuk ^^?kqVuk tdZ**
fj¶ysDl f[kapko ds fj¶ysDl dk ,d mnkgj.k gS] tks vis{kkÑr fo’ks”k
gS] D;ksafd blesa dsoy nks Ádkj dh raf=dk dksf’kdk,¡ ‘kkfey gSa&
laosnh U;wjkWu] tks ek¡lis’kh dh yackbZ dk flxuy nsrh gS] ;g
xfr’khyrk ds fy, eksVj U;wjkWu ds lkbusV ds ek/;e ls tqM+h gksrh
gSA ;s fj¶ysDl vkSj vf/kd tfVy ds lkFk es: ifjiFkksa esa la;ksftr
gksrs gSa] tks vf/kdka’kr% O;ogkjksa dks laxfBr djrs gSa] tSls fd pyrs
;k nkSM+rs le; gkFkksa dh xfr’khyrkA buesa eksVj U;wjkWuksa dh lefUor
mŸkstuk vkSj laneu ‘kkfey gSA
eksVj U;wjkWu ek¡lisf’k;ksa rd igq¡pus okys vafre lkekU; ekxZ gSa tks
vkidh vfLFk;ksa dks xfr’khy cukrs gSaA tcfd] efLr”d esa bu
dksf’kdkvksa dh lfØ;rk dks fu;af=r djus dh Áeq[k leL;k gSA
fdlh dk;Z fo’ks”k dks djus ds fy, fdl ek¡lis’kh dks xfr’khy
cukuk pkfg, vkSj fdruk rFkk fdl Lrj dk \

Øe dk mPpre fcUnq&eksVj dkWVsZDl
ek¡lisf’k;ksa dk ladqpu iSnk djus ds fy, raf=dk ek¡lis’kh tksM+ ij
vyx&vyx ek¡lis’kh rarqvksa ds lkFk raf=dk,¡ fo’ks”k lEidZ cukrh
gSaA tSls&tSls budk fodkl gksrk gS] ÁR;sd ek¡lis’kh rarq ij cgqr
lkjh raf=dkvksa ds rarq tkrs gSa] ijUrq U;wjkWuksa ds chp ÁfrLi)kZ ds
dkj.k dqN gV tkrs gSaA rc vafre lQy raf=dk ls ^^eksVj ,.M
IysV** ¼yky jax dh½ ,d fo’ks”k v.kq fMVsDVj ij U;wjks VªkalfeVj
,flVkby dksyhu fueqZDr djus ds fy, ‘ks”k jg tkrh gSA ;g rLohj
,d daQksdy lw{en’khZ dk mi;ksx djds cukbZ xbZ gSA

eksVj Øe ds foijhr fljs ij lsjsczy dkWVsZDl esa xfr’khyrk ds ÁR;sd
rRo ds fy, gt+kjksa&yk[kksa dksf’kdkvksa }kjk vla[; x.kuk,¡ dh tkuh
gSaA ;s x.kuk,¡ lqfuf’pr djrh gSa fd xfr lqpk# :i ls vkSj
dq’kyrkiwoZd dh xbZ gSA lsjsczy dkWVsZDl rFkk es: jTtq ds eksVj
U;wjkWuksa ds chp efLr”d LraHk ds egRoiw.kZ {ks= es: jTtq ls vkus okyh
Hkqtkvksa vkSj ek¡lisf’k;ksa dh lwpuk rFkk lsjsczy dkWVsZDl ls tkus okyh
lwpuk dks es: jTtq ls tksM+rs gSaA

19

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
iSjkbVy dkWVsZDl

eksVj dkWVsZDl

Áh eksVj dkWVsZDl

xfr ij ,d Á;ksx

eq>s dkSu pykrk gS \ vius nksLr ds lkFk ;g Á;ksx nk;ha gFksyh
ij ,d ot+unkj iqLrd j[ksaA vc ck;ha vksj ls vius nk,¡ gkFk ij
ls iqLrd dks mBk,¡A bl le; vkidk dk;Z nk,¡ gkFk dks fLFkj
j[kuk gS! vc nksckjk dksf’k’k djsaA vc dh ckj vki viuk gkFk
fLFkj j[ksa vkSj vkidk fe= iqLrd mBk,¡A dqN gh yksx ,slk dj
ikrs gSaA fpUrk ugha djs( vusd ckj Á;kl djus ds ckn vki ml
rjg ds Án’kZu ds leku dj ikrs gSa tc vkius Lo;a bls fd;k FkkA
lsjscsye

csly xSaxfy;k ¼vanj½

xfr dks fu;af=r djus okys efLr”d ds vusd {ks=

bl Á;ksx ls irk pyrk gS fd vkids efLr”d ds lsaljheksVj
{ks=ksa esa bl ckjs esa vf/kd Kku gksrk gS tc vki iwjk dk;Z
vius&vki djrs gSa] ctk; ml fLFkfr ds] tc vki ns[krs gSa fd
vU; dksbZ vkidh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, ‘kq:vkr ¼fVªxj½ djrk gSA

eksVj dkWVsZDl Årdksa dh ,d iryh iÍh gS] tks efLr”d ls lksesVks
lsaljh dkWVsZDl ds lkeus ls ÁR;{k :i ls ¼ns[ksa ist 12½ xqt+jrh gSA
;gk¡ iwjs ‘kjhj dk ekufp= gksrk gS % fofHkUu vaxksa ¼es: jTtq esa fLFkr
eksVj U;wjkWuksa ds la;kstuksa }kjk½ esa xfr mRiUu djus okyh dksf’kdk,¡
VksiksxzkfQd :i ls O;ofLFkr gksrh gSaA ,d fjdkWfMZax bysDVªksM dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, bl ekufp= ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx esa ik, tkus okys
U;wjkWu] mlls tqM+h ek¡lisf’k;ksa esa lfØ;rk ds igys yxHkx 100 feyh
lsd.M iwoZ lfØ; gks tkrs gSaA eksVj dkWVsZDl esa dksM fd;k x;k lans’k
yach cgl dk fo”k; Fkk&D;k dkWVsZDl esa ekStwn dksf’kdk,¡ mu
xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa tks og O;fDr djuk pkgrk gS
vFkok vyx&vyx ek¡lisf’k;ksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa ftUgsa bl dk;Z
ds fy, igys ladqfpr gksuk pkfg,A bl Á’u dk mŸkj dqN fHkUu gS&
vyx&vyx U;wjkWu buds fy, dksM ugha djrs gSaA blds LFkku ij
,d tula[;k dksM mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] ftlesa U;wjkWuksa ds ,d
lewg dh Qk;fjax }kjk xfrfof/k;k¡ fufnZ”V dh tkrh gSA
eksVj dkWVsZDl ds Bhd lkeus egRoiw.kZ Áh&eksVj {ks= gksrs gSa tks
;kstuk xfrfof/k;ksa esa ‘kkfey gSa] ;s xfr ds es: ifjiFk rS;kj djrs gSa]
rFkk ml ÁfØ;k esa Hkh ‘kkfey gSa] tks ns[kus dh xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj
gko&Hkko dks le>us ds chp fyad canjksa esa fejj U;wjkWu dh [kkst] tks
rc ÁR;qŸkj gSa tc canj gkFk dh xfr ns[krk gS vkSj tc tUrq Lo;a os
xfrfof/k;k¡ djrk gSA fejj U;wjkWu xfrfof/k;ksa dks lhfer djus vkSj
le>us esa egRoiw.kZ fl) gksus dh laHkkouk gSA iSjkbVy dkWVsZDl esa
eksVj dkWVsZDl ds ihNs vusd dkWfVZdy {ks= ‘kjhj ds LFkkfud
Áfrfuf/kRo vkSj gekjs vkl&ikl ds n`’; vkSj JO; y{;ksa ds lkFk
lacaf/kr gksrs gSaA buds vanj ,d ekufp= gksrk gS fd gekjs vax dgk¡
gSa vkSj gekjs lanHkZ esa jkspd y{; D;k gSaA bu {ks=ksa dks {kfr gksus ij]

mnkgj.k ds fy,] ,d vk?kkr ¼LVªksd½ ls pht+sa NwV ldrh gSa ;k
gekjs pkjksa vksj dh nqfu;k dks misf{kr ;k vLohdkj fd;k tk
ldrk gSA rFkkdfFkr iSjkbVy mis{kk okys jksxh pht+sa ¼vkerkSj ij
ck;ha vksj½ ugha ns[k ikrs gSa vkSj dqN yksx vius ‘kjhj dk ck;ka
fgLlk misf{kr djus yxrs gSaA

csly xSaxfy;k
csly xSaxfy;k lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j dh xgjkb;ksa esa dkWVsZDl ds uhps
fLFkr vkil esa tqM+s {ks=ksa dk ,d lewg gSA ;s xfr;ksa dh igy ds fy,
egRoiw.kZ gSa] tcfd os ;g dSls djrs gSa vHkh Li”V ugha gSA csly

^^--------------------------- fejj U;wjkWu euksfoKku esa ogh Hkwfedk fuHkk,axs tks Mh,u, dh thofoKku esa gS % ;g ,d lkFk ykus dh :ijs[kk Ánku
djsaxs vkSj ekufld {kerkvksa ds iks”kd dks le>kus esa lgk;rk djsaxs tks ;k rks jgL;e; cus jgrs gSa vkSj bu ij Á;ksx ugha fd, tk
ldrs gSaA ;s ÁkbesV efLr”d fodkl dh vksj cM+k dne gSaA**
oh- ,l- jkepanzu

20

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
xSaxfy;k ,d tfVy fQYVj dh rjg dk;Z djrs gSa] dkWVsZDl ¼lsaljh]
eksVj] ÁhÝaVy vkSj fyfEcd {ks=½ ds vxys fgLls ls ÁkIr fofo/k
buiqV dh fo’kky la[;k esa ls lwpuk pqurs gSaA csly xSaxfy;k dk
vkmViqV eksVj dkWVsZDl {ks=ksa dks QhMcSd nsrk gSA

dh vk;kstuk ls ysdj vkidh Hkqtkvksa dh xfr dh Áksxzkfeax vkSj
vkidh Hkqtk ds iksLpjy fj¶ysDl dk lek;kstuA lHkh Lrjksa ij
vkidks laosnh lwpuk dks flxuyksa dh /kkjk esa vko’;drk gksxh] tks
vkidh ek¡lisf’k;ksa esa tkrh gSA

,d lkekU; ekuo eksVj fodkj] ch ikfdZUlu chekjh dks dEidEih
vkSj xfr ‘kq: djus esa dfBukbZ ls igpkuk tk ldrk gSA ;g
,slh fLFkfr gS tSlk fd csly xSaxfy;k esa pqfuUnk fQYVj yxk;k
x;k gksA leL;k efLr”d ds lCLVsaf’k;k ukbxzk ¼blds dkys jax dh
mifLFkfr ds dkj.k ;g uke fn;k x;k gS½ uked fgLls esa U;wjkWu
ds g~kl ds dkj.k gksrh gS] ftls yEcs] Á{ksfir ,DlkWu csly
xSaxfy;k esa U;wjksVªkalfeVj Mksikekbu fueqZDr djrs gSa ¼uhps
vuqla/kku vxz.kh ij ckWDl ns[ksa½A Mksikekbu ,DlkWu dh csly
xSaxfy;k esa vius y{; ‘kq) O;oLFkk vR;ar vareqZ[kh gS] fofHkUu
U;wjksVªkalfeVlZ ds chp egRoiw.kZ var%fØ;k dk lq>ko feyrk gSA
,y&Mksik vkS”kf/k ds lkFk mipkj ls] tks efLr”d esa Mksikekbu esa
cny tkrk gS] Mksikekbu Lrj dks Bhd djrk gS vkSj xfr okil
ykSVkrk gS ¼ns[ksa v/;k; 16½A
csly xSaxfy;k dks lh[kus esa Hkh egRoiw.kZ ekuk
x;k gS] rkfd Qy Ánku djus okyh xfrfof/k;ksa
dks pquk tk ldsA

lsjscsye

lsjscsye dh ,d iqjfdats dksf’kdk] blds Áo/khZ xqPN ds o`gr dks
^^vcksZjkbts+’ku** n’kkZrh gqbZA ge ftu dkS’kyiw.kZ xfrfof/k;ksa dks lh[krs gSa
;g muds ‘kq) le; ds fy, vko’;d buiqV~l ÁkIr djrk gSA

lsjscsye dkS’kyiw.kZ dk;Z lqpk# :i ls djuk
egRoiw.kZ gSA ;g ,d lqanj U;wjksuy e’khu
e’khu gS] ftlesa varfuZfgr dksf’kdk okLrq’kkL=
dks foLrkj ls le>k x;k gSA csly xSaxfy;k
ds leku ;g eksVj fu;a=.k ls lacaf/kr
dkWfVZdy {ks=ksa ds lkFk vkSj efLr”d LraHk
lajpukvksa ds lkFk Hkh vPNh rjg ls tqM+k gksrk
gSA lsjscsye ds {kfr gksus ls lefUor xfr;k¡]
larqyu dk vHkko] yM+[kM+krh vkokt+ vkSj
vusd cks/kkRed dfBukb;k¡ vkfn Hkh gks tkrh
gSaA ckr tkuh&igpkuh lh yxrh gS \ lsjscsye
ij ,Ydksgy dk l’kDr ÁHkko gksrk gSA
lsjscsye eksVj vf/kxE;rk vkSj vuqdwyu ds
fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSA yxHkx LoSfPNd xfrfof/k;k¡ eksVj ifjiFkksa ds
ifjӄr fu;a=.k ij fuHkZj djrh gSa vkSj lsjscsye buds vuqdwyre
lek;kstu eas egRoiw.kZ gSu vxz.kh
&mnkgj.k ds fy, le; ds lanHkZ esaA blesa vR;ar fu;fer dkWfVZdy
O;oLFkk gS vkSj ,slk Árhr gksrk gS fd blus laosnh Á.kkyh] dkWfVZdy
eksVj {ks=] es: jTtq vkSj efLr”d LraHk ls lwpuk dh fo’kky ek=k ,d
lkFk fodflr dh gSA dkS’kyiw.kZ xfr;k¡ xzg.k djuk ,d dksf’kdh;
vf/kxe ÁfØ;k ij fuHkZj djrk gS ftls nh?kZ vof/k dq”Bk ¼,yVhMh½
dgrs gSa vkSj ;g dqN lkbusfIVd la;kstuksa dh ‘kfDr de djrk gS
¼ÁR;kLFkrk ij v/;k; ns[ksa½A lsjscsye ds dk;ksZa ds vusd fl)kar gSa(
vusd esa ;g fopkj fufgr gS fd blls ,d ^^ekWMy** curk gS fd eksVj
Á.kkyh dSls dk;Z djrh gS&,d Ádkj dk vkHkklh okLrfod fleqyVs j
tks vkids ‘kjhj ds vanj flj esa gSA ;g lkbusfIVd ÁR;kLFkrk dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, bl ekWMy dk fuekZ.k djrk gS] tks blds varfufgZr
usVodZ esa /kalk gksrk gSA vr% bl xsan dks nksckjk idM+sa vkSj bls le>sa
fd vkids eksVj Øe ds lHkh Lrjksa ij ‘kkfey gSa&pyu’khy pk{kq”k
y{; ds lanHkZ esa xfrfof/k

Mksikekbu ds ckjs esa ,d vuisf{kr dgkuh
fufgr xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj vknrksa ds jlk;u esa U;wjksVªkalfeVj Mksikekbu ‘kkfey gS]
tks csly xSaxfy;k eas fueqZDr gksrk gS] tgk¡ ;g esVkcksVªkWfid xzkgh ij dk;Z
djrk gS ¼v/;k; 3½A ;gk¡ ;g xfrfof/k ds ,d ÁksRlkgu vkSj mi;qDr :i esa
lfØ; gksrk gSA ,d ftKklk iSnk djus okyh ubZ [kkst ;g gS fd Mksikekbu
dh fueqZfDr ml le; mPpre gksrh gS tc fjokMZ vuisf{kr gksA vFkkZr~]
Mksikekbu U;wjkWu lh[kus dh ,d voLFkk ij lcls vf/kd l’kDr :i ls Qk;j
djrs gSa tc lgh vkmViqV ikus ds fy, eksVj Á.kkyh dks ,d l’kDr Ácyu
nsus esa okLro esa enn djrk gSA rc xfr;k¡ ,d Øe esa Mksikekbu ds yxkrkj
fudyus ds ek/;e ls ,d J`[a kyk esa ca/kh gks ldrh gSaA ckn eas] fo’ks”kdj ;fn
tfVy xfr;k¡ vknr cu tkrh gSa] Á.kkyh eqDr :i ls Mksikekbu fjokMZ ds
fcuk pyrh gSA bl fcUnq ij fo’ks”kdj ;fn xfr;ksa dks ‘kq) :i ls le; ij
fd;k tkuk gS] lsjscsye dh Hkwfedk ‘kq: gks tkrh gSA

xfr fu;a=.k ds ckjs esa raf=dk oSKkfudksa us fdl Ádkj tkudkjh ÁkIr dh] bldk bfrgkl tkusa %

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/brain/

21

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk ra= dk fodkl
efLr”d dh ewyHkwr ;kstuk gj O;fDr esa ,d leku gksrh gS vkSj lHkh
Lru/kkfj;ksa esa ,d leku gksrh gSA bldk fu/kkZj.k O;kid :i ls
vkuqokaf’kd Lrj ij fd;k tkrk gS] ijUrq blds usVodZ ds ckjhd
fooj.k efLr”d dh oS|qr lfØ;rk }kjk ÁHkkfor gksrs gSa] fo’ks”kd
vkjaafHkd thou ds nkSjkuA bldh tfVyrk dks ns[krs gq, ge vc rd
iwjh rjg ls ugha le> ik, gSa fd efLr”d dSls fodflr gksrk gS] ijUrq
vkuqokaf’kd Økafr ls gky ds o”kksZa esa Li”V varnZ`f”V mHkj dj vkbZ gSA

A

B

,d fu”ksfpr v.Mk ysa fQj vuqns’kksa dk ikyu djsa
ekuo ‘kjhj vkSj efLr”d ,d vdsyh dksf’kdk ls fodflr gksrk
gS&fu”ksfpr v.MkA ijUrq dSls \ fodkl thofoKku dk fu;a=.k fl)kar
;g gS fd thukse vuqns’kksa dk ,d lSV gS**] tks ‘kjhj ds vax cukrk gS]
;g C;w fÁaV ugha gaSA ;g thukse yxHkx 40]000 thuksa ls cuk gksrk gS
tks bl ÁfØ;k dks iwjk djrs gSaA bu vuqns’kksa dk ikyu dkxt+ eksM+us
dh phuh dyk gS&,d lhfer lSV tSls eksM+uk] >qdkuk vkSj [kksyuk
vkfn ls ,d ,slh lajpuk curh gS ftls ,d CY;w fÁaV ds :i esa of.kZr
djus ds fy, vusd vkjs[kksa dh t+:jr gksxhA ,d Hkwz.k ls ‘kq:vkr
djrs gq, vkuqokaf’kd vuqns’kksa dk ,d rqyukRed :i ls NksVk lewg
dksf’kdkvksa ds fofo/k Ádkj vkSj fodkl ds nkSjku efLr”d ds la;kstu
mRiUu djus esa l{ke gksrk gSA
vk’p;Ztud :i ls gekjs thu ÝwV ¶ykb MªkWlksfQyk ds leku gksrs
gSaA bl ÝwV ¶ykb ij fd, x, v/;;u /kU;okn ds ik= gSa] ftlesa
ekuo raf=dk ra= esa egRoiw.kZ ekus tkus okys vf/kdka’k thu igpkus x,
FksA efLr”d dk fodkl v/;;u djus okys raf=dk oSKkfud vusd
Ádkj ds tUrqvksa dk ijh{k.k djrs gSa&t+scjk fQ’k] eas<d] eqxhZ vkSj
pwgk&ÁR;sd esa ,d fo’ks”k vkf.od ;k dksf’kdh; ?kVuk ds ykHk gSaA
ts+cjk fQ’k dk Hkwz.k ikjn’khZ gksrk gS&ÁR;sd dksf’kdk dks fodflr gksrs
gq, lw{en’khZ esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA pwgs esa Átuu cM+h rsth ls gksrk
gS&blds thukse dk ekufp=.k fd;k x;k vkSj yxHkx iwjh rjg ls Øe
Kkr fd;k x;k gSA eqfxZ;k¡ vkSj esa<d vkuqokaf’kd v/;;uksa ds fy,
mrus mi;qDr ugha gSa] ijUrq muds Hkwz.k cM+s gksus ls buesa lw{e ‘kY;
fØ;k cnyko fd, tk ldrs gSa&tSls fd tc dksf’kdkvksa dks vlkekU;
fLFkfr;ksa esa ys tkus ij D;k gksrk gS] bldh tk¡p djukA

C
D
E
F

vkjafHkd dne -----------------efLr”d fodkl esa igyk dne dksf’kdk foHkktu gSA ,d vU; eq[;
dne dksf’kdk fHkUuu gS] ftlesa vyx&vyx dksf’kdk,¡ foHkktu jksd
nsrh gSa vkSj fof’k”V y{k.k ÁkIr djrh gSa&tSls U;wjkWu ;k fXy;y
dksf’kdk,¡a fHkUuu ls pht+sa LFkkfud :i esa O;ofLFkr gks tkrh gSaA
U;wjkWuksa ds fofHkUu Ádkj iSVuZ fuekZ.k uked ÁfØ;k esa fofHkUu LFkyksa
dh vksj pys tkrs gSA
ekuo Hkzw.kkoLFkk ds rhljs lIrkg esa tc Hkwz.k foHkktudkjh dksf’kdkvksa
dh dsoy nks la;ksftr ‘khV dk cuk gS] iSVuZ fuekZ.k dh ÁFke Áeq[k

22

U;wjy IysV eqM+dj U;wjy V~;wc cukrh gSA d- xHkZ/kkj.k ds 3
lIrkg ckn ,d ekuo Hkwz.kA [k- Hkwz.k dh Åijh ¼i`”B½ lrg cukus
okyh U;wjy IysVA x- dqN fnu ckn Hkzw.k esa vxys fljs ij cM+k
lk flj curk gSA U;wjy IysV nksuksa fljksa ij [kqyh jgrh gS ijUrq
chp esa can jgrh gSA x- ?k- ³- flj ls iw¡N rd v{k ds fofHkUu
Lrj U;wjy V~;wc vkos”Vu ds fofHkUu pj.k n’kkZrs gq,A

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
gSA nksgjh irZ dh Åijh lrg ij dksf’kdkvksa ds ,d NksVs VqdM+s dks
iwjk efLr”d rFkk es: jTtq cukus dk vuqns’k fn;k tkrk gSA ;s
dksf’kdk,¡ U;wjy IysV uked Vsful ds cYys ds vkdkj okyh ,d
lajpuk cukrh gSa] ftldk vxyk Hkkx efLr”d cukrk] tks es: jTtq
ds ihNs gksrk gSA bu dksf’kdkvksa dk Hkfo”; funsZf’kr djus okys
flxuy ml irZ ds uhps ls vkrs gS tks e/; js[kk dk <kapk vkSj Hkwz.k
dh ek¡lisf’k;k¡ cukrk gSA vkjafHkd raf=dk ra= ds fofHkUu {ks= thuksa
ds fofHkUu mi leqPp; vfHkO;Dr djrs gSa] efLr”d {ks=ksa&vxz
efLr”d] e/; efLr”d vkSj i’p efLr”d ds mn~Hko dk fof’k”V
dksf’kdh; okLrq’kkL= vkSj dk;ksZa ds lkFk iwokZuqekfur fd;k tkrk gSA

xksy ?kweuk
,d lIrkg ckn U;wjy IysV xksy ?kwe tkrh gS vkSj tqM+dj ,d V~;wc
cukrh gS rFkk Hkwz.k esa Mwc tkrh gS] tgk¡ blds Åij Hkkoh ,fiMfeZl cu
tkrh gSA vxys dqN lIrkgksa eas dksf’kdk ds vkdkj] foHkktu vkSj Áokl
rFkk dksf’kdk ls dksf’kdk vklatu eas ifjorZu lfgr dkQh vf/kd
ifjorZu gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] U;wjy V~;wc bl Ádkj eqM+ tkrh gS
fd flj dk fgLlk /kM+ ds lkFk 90 va’k ds dks.k ij jgsA ;g iSVuZ
Hksnu ds ckjhd ls ckjh Lrj rd vkxs c<+rk gS] varr% ;s u, U;wjkWuksa
U;wjy [kkagroove
p
neural

d

26 fnu

[k

28 fnu

neural
U;wjy Øscrest
LV

[k

x

x

35 fnu

?k
?k

49 fnu

³
xHkZ/kkj.k ds ¼d½ pkj lIrkg vkSj ¼[k½ 7 lIrkg ckn ekuo Hkwz.k dh
vkdkfjdhA fofHkUu {ks= foLrkfjr gksrs gSa vkSj flj&iw¡N v{k ds
lkFk blesa vusd eksM+ gksrs gSaA

23

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
dh oS;fDrd igpku cukrs gSaA ;gk¡ ckrsa fcxM+ ldrh gSaA U;wjy V~;wc
ds can gksus esa vlQy jgus ij Likbuk ckbfQMk dh fLFkfr curh gS]
;g vkerkSj ij es: jTtq ds fupys fgLls rd lhfer gksrh gSA bl ij
ruko gksus thou dks dksbZ [krjk ugha gksrk gSA blds foijhr flj ds
ikl blds can ugha gksus ij ,d laxfBr efLr”d iwjh rjg ls
vuqifLFkr gks ldrk gS] ftls ,usuflQsyh dgrs gSaA

thou esa viuk LFkku tkusa
iSVfuZax dk varfuZfgr fl)kar ;g gS fd dksf’kdkvksa dks raf=dk ra= ds
Á/kku v{kksa ds lkis{k&lkeus ls ihNs vkSj Åij ls uhps&viuh fLFkfr
irk gks tkrh gSA okLro esa ÁR;sd dksf’kdk viuh fLFkfr dks bu
vkFkksZxksuy funsZ’kkadksa ds lanHkZ esa ekirh gS] tSls fd uD’kk i<+us okyk
O;fDr igys ls fu/kkZfjr fcUnqvksa ls viuh fLFkfr ekirk gSA vkf.od
Lrj ij ;g ftl Ádkj dk;Z djrk gS og bl Ádkj gS fd Hkwz.k
U;wjy V~;wc esa LFkkuhÑr vusd /kqzo.kdkjh {ks=ksa dh LFkkiuk djrk gS]
tks flxuy v.kqvksa dk lzko djrk gSA bu ekeyksa esa ls ÁR;sd esa v.kq
vius lzksr ls folfjr gksdj nwjh lfgr lkanzrk dk ,d xq.kkad cukrs
gSaA fLFkfr dh laosnuk nsus dh ÁfØ;k dk ,d mnkgj.k es: jTtq v{k
ij Åij ls uhps ¼MkWlksZosaVªy½ gSA U;wjy V~;wc dk fupyk Hkkx&lksfud
gstgkWx ds vk’p;Ztud uke lfgr ,d lzkfor ÁksVhu dks vfHkO;Dr
djrk gSA lksfud gstgkWx ¶yksj IysV ls nwj folfjr gksrk gS vkSj
¶yksj IysV ls nwjh ds vuqlkj MkWlksZosaVªy v{k ij ekStwn dksf’kdkvkas
dks ÁHkkfor djrk gSA can gksus ij lksfud gstgkWx ,d thu dh
vfHkO;fDr dks mÌhfir djrk gS tks ,d fo’ks”k Ádkj dk U;wjkWu cukrs
gSaA lksfud gstgkWx dh u;h vYi lkUnzrk eksVj U;wjkWuksa ds vU; thuksa
dh vfHkO;fDr dks mÌhfir djrk gSA

jksduk vFkok tkuuk fd vki dgk¡ tk jgs gSAa
tc ,d U;wjkWu viuh igpku cuk ysrk gS vkSj blesa foHkktu :d
tkrk gSA ,d ioZrh; ekxZn’kZd ds leku o`f) ‘kadq ,d vuqdwy ekxZ
pqus esa vius dkS’kyksa dk bLrseky djrs gq, Årdksa ls xqt+jus ds fy,
fo’ks”khÑr gSaA ;fn ;g ,slk djrk gS rks ;g ,DlkWu dks ihNs dh vksj
Hkstrk gS] ftl Ádkj ,d dqŸkk fdlh foLrkfjr fu;a=.k esa j[kk tk,A
tc ,d ckj bldk y{; o`f) ‘kadq rd igq¡p tkrk gS rc bldh
pyus dh ‘kfDr lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj ;g ,d lkbusIl cukrk gSa
,Dlksuy ekxZn’kZu ,d mPpre [kksth lkgfld dk;Z gS] tks NksVh vkSj
cM+h nwfj;ksa ij ‘kq) gSA ;g ,dek= flaxy ekbaMsM ÁfØ;k gS] D;ksafd
;k mPp ‘kq)rk ds lkFk pquh xbZ y{; dksf’kdk gh ugha cfYd bls ikus
ds fy, o`f) ‘kadq dks fofHkUu LFkkuksa ds fy, vU; o`f) ‘kadqvksa dks ikj
djuk gksrk gSA bl ekxZ ds lkFk] ekxZn’kZu bafxr djrk gS fd o`f)
‘kadq dks vkdf”kZr ;k fodf”kZr djus ls o`f) ‘kadq mUgsa ekxZ <w¡<us esa
lgk;rk djrs gSa] tcfd bu ladsrksa dh vfHkO;fDr dk fu;eu djus ds
fy, vkf.od ÁfØ;k mŸkjnk;h gSA

fo|qr lfØ;rk }kjk rjk’kuk
U;wjkWuksa dh LFkkfud O;oLFkk rFkk buds tqM+ko dh mPp Lrjh; ‘kq)rk
vkjaHk ls ÁkIr dh tkrh gS] raf=dk ra= ds dqN fgLlksa dh ok;fjaax
xfrfof/k&vk/kkfjr ifj”dj.k esa Mkyh tkrh gS] tSls fd ,DlkWuksa dh
dkV&Nk¡V vkSj U;wjkWuksa dh xgjkbZA ;s {kfr;k¡ O;FkZ Árhr gksrh gSa]
ijUrq ;g ges’kk laHko ;k visf{kr ugha gksrk gS fd dsoy bl fuekZ.k
ls efLr”d dk lEiw.kZ vkSj =qfVghu fp= cuk;k tk ldsA fodkl dks
^^,d fVadjj** dgk x;k gS&ijUrq ;g ,d f’kYidkj Hkh gSA mnkgj.k

24

U;wjkWUl ¼uhys½ ls eqdkcyk djus okys ekxZn’khZ ladsrksa ds fofHkUu
Ádkj] tks vius ,DlkWu vkSj o`f) dksu foLrkfjr djrs gSa ¼lkeus dh
vksj ij daVd½A LFkkuh; vkSj nwj fLFkr D;w ¼ladsr½ o`f) dksu ds
fy, vkd”kZd ¼$½ vFko fod”kZd ¼&½ gks ldrs gSaA fof’k”V vkf.od
ekxZn’kZd ladsrksa ds mnkgj.k fn, x, gSaA
ds fy,] us= vkSj efLr”d esa U;wjkWuksa ds chp fcUnq ls fcUnq ekufp=.k]
tks Li”V :i ls ns[kus ds fy, okafNr gS] ;g jsfVuk esa ÁHkkoh
iSVuZ;qDr oS|qr lfØ;rk ds ek/;e ls vkaf’kd :i ls vftZr fd;k
tkrk gSA la;kstuksa dks ,d vkjafHkd ,DlqcjsaV lSV ,d egRoiw.kZ vof/k
ds nkSjku rjk’kk tkrk gS] ftlds ckn pk{kq”k Á.kkyh dk ewyHkwr iSVuZ
iwjk gks tkrk gS] ;g fLFkfr canjksa esa yxHkx vkB lIrkg ij vkSj
ekuoksa esa ‘kk;n ,d o”kZ dh vk;q esa vkrh gSA ,d varfuZfgr Á’u ;g
gS fd D;k ;g vkjafHkd fodkl dk;ZØe jksx dh otg ls U;wjkWu {kfr
ds ekeyksa esa iqu% lfØ; cuk;k tk ldrk gS ¼tSls vYt+hej vkSj
ikfdZUlu jksx½ vFkok es: jTtq esa {kfr] ftlds ifj.kke Lo:i ydok
gks tkrk gSaA ckn dh fLFkfr esa pksV ds ckn ,DlkWuksa dks nksckjk o`f) ds
fy, ÁksRlkfgr fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq D;k ;s nksckjk mi;qDr :i
ls tqM+ ldrs gSa] ;g vHkh l?ku tk¡p&iM+rky dk fo”k; gSA
vkuqokaf’kd Økafr
gesa efLr”d dk fuekZ.k djus okys thuksa dk lEiw.kZ dSVykWx rst+h ls
ÁkIr gksrk tk jgk gSA vkf.od tho oSKkfud fof/k;k¡ bl vn~Hkqr ‘kfDr
ds fy, /kU;okn dh ik= gSa] fodkl ds nkSjku ge tc vkSj tSls pkgsa
mudh vfHkO;fDr esa ekWMqyu }kjk thuksa ds dk;Z dk ijh{k.k dj ldrs
gSaA vc Áeq[k dk;Z gS ,d dk;Z’khy efLr”d esa dksf’kdkvksa dh ,d irZ
dks :ikUrfjr djus okys vkuqokaf’kd fu;a=.k dk Øe Kkr djukA ;g
raf=dkfoKku dh cM+h pqukSfr;ksa esa ls ,d gSA
vuqla/kku vxz.kh
LVse dksf’kdk,¡ vU; dksf’kdkvksa ds
fofHkUu Ádkjksa dh lHkh Jsf.k;ksa dks
:ikUrfjr djus dh laHkkO;rk
lfgr ;qDr ‘kjhj dh dksf’kdk,¡ gSaA
Hkzw.kh; LVse dksf’kdk,¡ fodkl ds
nkSjku cgqr tYnh fodflr gksrh
gSaA vU; Ádkj vfLFk eTtk vkSj
Hkwz.k uky esa ik, tkrs gSa] tks ,d
ek¡ ls mlds uotkr cPps dks
tksM+rs gSaA raf=dk oSKkfud bl
ckr dks tkuus dk Á;kl dj jgs gSa
fd ;fn LVse dksf’kdk dk bLrseky
o;Ld efLr”d ds {kfrxzLr U;wjkWuksa
dh ejEer ds fy, gksrk gSa bl
le; vf/kdka’k dk;Z tarqvksa ij
fd;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq vk’kk gS fd
var esa ge efLr”d ds jksxksa tSl
ikfdZUlUl jksx }kjk {kfrxzLr Hkkxksa
dh ejEer djus esas l{ke gksaxsA

efLr”d ds fodkl ds dqN fof’k”V pj.kksa ij ÁR;sd feuV vkids efLr”d esa 250]000 dksf’kdk,¡ tqM+ tkrh gSaA blds
fo”k; esa vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, i<+sa % http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/dev.html

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

fMLysfDl;k
D;k vkidks ;kn gS fd i<+uk lh[kuk fdruk dfBu gS \ cksyus ls
vyx] ftlds fodklkRed mn~Hko vR;ar iqjkus gSa] fy[ku vkSj i<+uk
vis{kkÑr gky esa gq, ekuoh; vkfo”dkj gSaA ;g ckr dsoy dqN
gt+kj o”kZ igys dh ckr gS fd nqfu;k ds lHkh Hkkxksa esa fc[kjs leqnk;ksa
us vuqHko fd;k fd cksys x, gt+kjksa ‘kCn vyx&vyx ¼vaxzsth esa 44
Qksuhe½ NksVh /ofu;k¡ ls feydj curs gSa vkSj bUgsa pk{kq”k ladsrksa dh
vis{kkÑr NksVh la[;k ls ÁLrqr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bu ladsrksa dks
lh[kus esa le; yxrk gS vkSj dqN cPpksa dks blesa dkQh dfBukbZ
gksrh gSa ;g cqf)eŸkk esa fdlh Ádkj dh deh ds dkj.k ugha gksrk gS]
buds efLr”d dks i<+uk lh[kus esa [kkl rkSj ij dfBukbZ gksrh gSA
nl esa ,d O;fDr dks bl fLFkfr dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS] vc
raf=dk oSKkfudksa us vc bls fodkl laca/kh fMLysfDl;k dk uke fn;k
gSA
fMLysfD;k ,d vke leL;k gSA dqN cPps ;g ugha tku ikrs fd mUgsa
i<+uk bruk dfBu D;ksa yxrk gS] tcfd os vius mu nksLrksa ftrus
cqf)eku gSa] ftUgsa ;g vklku yxrk gS] fMLysfDl;k ,d jgL; cuk
gqvk gSA vusd cPpksa esa vkRe fo’okl [kks tkrk gS] os fonzksgh] xqLlSy
vkSj fujadq’k cu tkrs gSaA fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r cPps vU; {ks=ksa&[ksy]
foKku] vfHkdyu] okf.kT; ;k dyk esa viuh ÁfrHkk dk Án’kZu djrs
gSa] c’krZsa fd i<+us dh vkjafHkd leL;kvksa ds dkj.k mUgksaus iwjk
vkRefo’okl vkSj vkRe lEeku [kks ugha fn;k gksA vr% fMLysfDl;k ds
tSfod vk/kkj dks le>uk vius vki esa egRoiw.kZ gS] cfYsd ;g jgL;
ds Hkkj dh jksdFkke esa Hkh ,d ;ksxnku gSA csgrj rjhds ls i<+us dh
le> Kkr gksus ls bl leL;k ds bykt ;k mcjus ds fy, jkLrk
feysxkA

i<+uk lh[kuk
i<+kbZ dh ÁfØ;k o.kZØekuqlkj pk{kq”k ladsrksa dks muds lgh Øe esa
igpkuus ij fuHkZj djrh gS&bls vkFkksZxzkQh dgrs gSa] tks Hkk”kk cPpk
lh[k jgk gS vkSj muds lgh Øe esa ‘kCnksa dh vyx&vyx /ofu
lquukA blesa fu”d”kZ.k ‘kkfey gS] ftls Qksusfed lajpuk dgrs gSa]
rkfd ladsrksa dks lgh /ofu;ksa esa cnyk tk ldsA nqHkkZX; ls vf/kdka’kr%
fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr ‘kCnksa dh vkFkksZxzkfQd vkSj QksuksykWftd
fo’ks”krkvksa dk fo’ys”k.k /khes vkSj v’kq) rjhds ls dj ikrs gaSA
vyx
v{kj

i<+kbZ ds nkSjku vk¡[k dh xfr;k¡A isu fjdkWMZj dh Åij vkSj uhps dh
xfr;k¡ nk,a vkSj ck,a ds laxr gSaA
vk¡[k dh xfrfof/k Á.kkyh ds pk{kq”k fu;a=.k ij cM+s U;wjkWu eSXukslsY;qyj
flLVe ds ,d usVodZ dk ÁHkko gksrk gSA bls ;g uke blfy, fn;k
x;k gS D;ksafd U;wjkWu ¼dksf’kdk,¡½ cgqr cM+s gksrs gSa ¼eSXuks½A bl usVodZ
dks jsfVuk ls vkjaHk djds lsjsczy dkWVsZDl vkSj lsjsczy ds ekxZ ds t+fj,
vk¡[k dh ek¡lisf’k;ksa ds eksVj U;wjkWuksa rd Vsªl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g
pyu’khy mÌhiuksa ds lkFk fo’ks”k :i ls fØ;k djrk gS vkSj blhfy, ;g
pyu’khy y{;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA bl Á.kkyh dh ,d
egRoiw.kZ fo’ks”krk ;g gS fd ;g xfr’khy ladsr i<+kbZ ds nkSjku mRiUu
gksrk gS] tc vk¡[k mu v{kjksa ds vkxs c<+ tkrh gS] ftlds fy, mUgsa
fLFkj fd;k x;k gSA ;g xfr =qfV ladsr vk¡[k dh xfr Á.kkyh esa okil
Hksth tkrh gS rkfd vk¡[k iqu% y{; ij vk ldsA blds cnys
eSXukslsY;qyj Á.kkyh vk¡[kksa dks fLFkj djus esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkrh gS vkSj bl Ádkj buds Øe fu/kkZj.k esa HkhA
ikoksZlsY;qyj irsZa
eSXukslsY;qyj irsZa

dq@r~@rk@

100 ekbØksehVj

/ofu
fo’ys”k.k

dqRrk

pk{kq”k
fo’ys”kd

bu v{kjksa dk lgh Øe nsus rFkk /ofu dh ‘kq)rk pk{kq”k vkSj JO;
ÁfØ;kvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSA vifjfpr ‘kCnksa ds fy, vkSj i<+uk ‘kq:
djus ds lkFk igys lHkh vifjfpr gSa] ÁR;sd v{kj dks igpkuk tkrk gS
vkSj rc bUgsa lgh Øe esa j[kk tkrk gSA ;g ÁfØ;k mruh ljy ugha
gS ftruh yxrh gS] D;ksafd vk¡[kksa dks ,d v{kj ls nwljs v{kj dh vksj
tkus esa cgqr de xfr djuh gksrh gSA vk¡[k ds ,d v{kj ij #dus ds
nkSjku mls igpkuk tkrk gSA ijUrq mudk Øe mlds }kjk r; fd;k
tkrk gS tc vk¡[k ml v{kj ij dsfUnzr Fkh] tc ml v{kj dks ns[kk
tk jgk FkkA vk¡[k D;k ns[krh gS] bls vk¡[k dh xfrfof/k Á.kkyh ls
ÁkIr ladsrksa ds lkFk lesfdr djus dh vko’;drk gksrh gS

iwjk
‘kCn

dqŸkk
ÁR;{k pk{kq”k
fo’ys”k.k

vFkZ
¼lhesafVd½

fu;a=.k

fMLysfDld

,d lkekU; O;fDr vkSj fMLysfDl;k ds dqN Ádkjksa
eas lqxfBr ikoksZ vkSj eSXukslsY;qyj dksf’kdkvksa
dks n’kkZrs ik’ohZ; tsuhdqysV ukfHkd dk Ård vfHkjatuA

25

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
raf=dk oSKkfudksa us ik;k gS fd pk{kq”k eSXukslsY;qyj Á.kkyh vusd
fMLysfDl;k ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa gYdh lh {kfrxzLr gksrh gSA efLr”d ds
Årdksa ij ÁR;{k :i ls ns[kuk bls ¼fp=½ mn?kkfVr djus dk ,d
rjhdk gS] ijUrq blds lkFk fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa dh pk{kq”k
xfr dh laosnu’khyrk lkekU; ikBdksa dh rqyuk esa det+ksj gksrh gS vkSj
mudh efLr”d rjax d ÁR;qŸkj vlkekU; gksrs gSa tks mÌhiu dh vksj
pyrs gSaA efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu ls pk{kq”k xfr ¼efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu ij
v/;k; 15 ns[ksa½ ds Áfr laosnu’khy {ks=ksa esa dk;kZRed lfØ;.k ds
ifjofrZr iSVuZ dk Hkh irk pyk gSA fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr ds
fu;a=.k vis{kkÑr dj fLFkj gksrs gSa% vr% os vf/kdka’kr% ;g f’kdk;r
djrs gSa fd ;s v{kj vkl&ikl rSjrs Árhr gksrs gSa vkSj tc os bUgsa i<+us
dk Á;kl djrs gSa rc os LFkku cny ysrs gSaA ;s pk{kq”k Hkze laHkor;k
pk{kq”k eSXukslsY;qyj Á.kkyh ds ifj.kke gSa] tks viuh vk¡[ksa fLFkj djus
esa vlQy jgrs gSa] tSlk fd vPNh rjg ls i<+us okyksa esa gksrk gSA

/ofu;ksa dks lgh Øe esa j[kuk
fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r vusd O;fDr;ksa esa ‘kCnksa dh /ofu;k¡ lgh Øe esa
j[kus esa Hkh leL;k gksrh gS ftlls os budk mPpkj.k xyr djrs gSa
¼tSls ykWyhikWi dks ikWyhikWi mPpfjr djuk½ vkSj tYnh&tYnh cksyus
okys ‘kCn lewgksa ¼Vax fV~oLVlZ½ esa Hkh ;s vPNs ugha gksrs gSaA tc ;s i<+uk
‘kq: djrs gSa] os v{kjksa dks mu /ofu;ksa esa vuwfnr djus esa vis{kkÑr /khes
vkSj v’kq) mPpkj.k djrs gSa] tSls mudh pk{kq”k leL;k,¡] ;g /ofu
laca/kh v{kerk laHkork;k ewyHkwr JO; dkS’kyksa dh gYdh v{kerk gSA
ge /ofu dh vko`fŸk vkSj mUgsa yk{k.khÑr djus okys rhozrk ifjorZu esa
Áeq[k ifjorZuksa dk irk yxkj Qksuhe uked v{kj /ofu;ksa dk irk
yxkrs gSaA bu /ofu ekWMqyuksa dk irk cM+s JO; U;wjkWuksa dh ,d Á.kkyh
}kjk yxk;k tkrk gS tks /ofu vko`fŸk vkSj l?kurk esa VSªd ifjorZu
djrk gSA bl ckr ds c<+rs Áek.k gSa fd ;s U;wjkWu vPNs ikBdksa vkSj
vusd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa fodflr ugha gksrs gSa vkSj ;g
fd leku Ádkj dh /ofu;ksa ds chp Js.khxr lhek js[kk,¡] tSls fd
vaxzsth ds ^ch* vkSj ^Mh* esa lqudj varj ugha dj ldrs gSa ¼ns[ksa fp=½A
vusd fMlysfDl;k ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa efLr”d dksf’kdkvksa ds {kfrxzLr
fodkl ds lk{; feys gSa] tks i<+us ls tqM+h mudh pk{kq”k vkSj JO;
leL;kvksa ls vkxs c<+ xbZ gSA ;s leL;k,¡ mu U;wjkWuksa esa gSa] tks iwjs
efLr”d esa usVodZ cukrk gS vkSj ;g VsEiksjy ifjorZruksa dk irk yxkus
ds fy, fo’ks”khÑr gSaA dksf’kdkvksa esa os gh lrgh v.kq gksrs gSa] ftuds
}kjk os vkil esa ,d&nwljs dks igpkurs gSa vkSj lEidZ cukrs gSa] ijUrq
;s ,.VhckWMh ds geys ds Áfr laosnu’khy gksrs gSaA

O;fDr vR;ar DyElh gksrs gSa vkSj cgq/kk mudh fy[kkoV vkerkSj ij [kjkc
gksrh gSA raf=dk ÁfrfcEcu ¼ns[ksa ist 4½ vkSj lsjscsye ds p;kip; v/;;uksa
ls irk pyrk gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa dk;Z esa {kfr gksrh gS
vkSj fy[kkoV eas dfBukb;ksa dh rg esa ;gh dkj.k gks ldrk gSA dqN raf=dk
foKkfu;ksa dk dguk gS fd dsoy xfr;ka ds fu”iknu ds vykok vkSj cksyuk]
;gka rd ckS/kkRed vk;kstuk ds igyqvksa lfgrA ;fn lgh gks rks lsjscsyj
dk;Z eas deh ls i<+us] fy[kus vkSj orZuh lh[kus dh leL;k,¡ c<+ ldrh gSaA

D;k fd;k tk ldrk gS \
fMLysfDl;k ds vusd mipkj gSa] ÁR;sd mipkj ,d ladYiuk ij vk/kkfjr
gS] tks blesa fufgr dkj.k ds fo”k; esa gksrs gSaA eSXukslsY;qyj ladYiuk ij
Qksdl] ijUrq vU; ‘kh”kZ vftZr ifjfLFkfr ds fofHkUu :iksa esa varj djrs gSa]
ftls lrgh vkSj xgu fMLysfDl;k dgrs gSa] ftUgsa vyx Ádkj ds mipkj
dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA lHkh rjg ds mipkj ‘kh?kz funku ij fuHkZj djrs
gSaA
oSKkfud ges’kk bu ckrksa ij fuHkZj ugha djrs vkSj fMLysfDl;k dk loksZŸke
mipkj vlgefr dk ,d ,slk {ks= gSA gky esa ;g lq>k;k x;k gS fd
ÁR;kLFkrk dh efLr”d dh lkekU; ÁfØ;kvksa dks mi;ksx djrs gq, /ofu;ksa ds
fo”k; esa lh[kus ds fy, ,d xyr ekxZ ij tkdj fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r
O;fDr;ksa esa l’kDr Álalk/ku esa leL;k gksrh gSA fopkj ;g gS fd ;fn cPpksa
dks dEI;wVj xse [ksyus dk ÁksRlkgu fn;k tk,] ftlesa os ,slh vkoktsa] lqurs
gSa] tks ml fcUnq ij tkdj /kheh gks tkrh gSa tgk¡ Qksusfed lhek js[kk,¡
vf/kd Li”V gks tkrh gSa] rks mUgsa ^^fuHkhZd vkSj ladh.kZ** cuk;k tk ldrk
gSA rc /ofu /khjs&/khjs c<+kbZ tkrh gSA ;g nkok fd;k tkrk gS fd ;g cgqr
vPNh rjg dk;Z djrk gS] ijUrq vc Hkh Lora= ijh{k.k djk, tk jgs gSaA bl
fopkj ds Áfr oSKkfud :i ls jkspd ckr ;g gS fd iwjh rjg ls lkekU;
efLr”d ÁfØ;k,¡ vkjafHkd vkuqokaf’kd vlkekU; ds lkFk var%fØ;k }kjk ,d
vfrjaftr ÁHkko mRiUu gksrk gSA
bl ckr ij cy nsuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr dqN
fopkjkRd fu.kZ;ksa ij vPNh rjg i<+us okyksa ls dqN csgrj gksrs gSa] tSls jax
esa Hksn djuk vkSj LFkkuh; ds ctk; oSf’od vkdkjkas esa foHksn djukA bl
ckr ls bldh O;k[;k dh tk ldrh gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r vusd
O;fDr vkerkSj ij nh?kZ ijkl tqM+ko] vuisf{kr tqM+ko ns[kus vkSj ^lexz*
lksp ds ekeys esa csgrj D;ksa gksrs gSaA ;g ;kn j[ksa fd fy;ksukMksZ n foalh]
gkal fØfLp;u ,aMjlu] ,fMlu vkSj vkbaLVkbu rFkk vU; vusd jpukRed
dykdkj vkSj vkfo”dkjd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r FksA

eSXukslsY;qyj Á.kkyh ls fo’ks”k :i ls lsjscsye dks cM+s buiqV feyrs gSa
¼v/;k; 7 xfr] ns[kas½A jkspd ckr ;g gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r dqN

26

fMLysfDl;k rFkk lh[kus dh vU; dfBukb;ksa ls lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV %

http://www.sfn.org/content/Publications/BrainBriefings/dyslexia.html
http://www.learningdisabilities.com/programs.shtml

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

ÁR;kLFkrk
gekjs iwjs thou Hkj gekjs efLr”d esa fujarj cnyko gksrs gSaA efLr”d
esa ekStwn cnyko dh ;g {kerk ÁR;kLFkrk dgykrh gS&IykfLVflu
ekWMy ds lkFk le:irk }kjk] ftuds vkarfjd fgLlksa dks yxkrkj
,d u;k vkdkj fn;k tk ldsA dqy feyk dj efLr”d ugha] ijUrq
vyx&vyx U;wjkWuksa dks fodkl ds nkSjku] tc ge ;qok gSa tc
efLr”d dh fdlh pksV ds dkj.k vkSj lh[kus ds nkSjku fofHkUu
dkj.kksa ls :ikUrfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA ÁR;kLFkrk dh fofHkUu
ÁfØ;k,¡ gSa] ftuesa ls lcls egRoiw.kZ lkbusfIVd ÁR;kLFkrk gS&;g
bls Kkr djus dk foKku gS fd U;wjkWu vkil esa lEidZ djus dh
{kerk dSls cnyrs gSaA

gekjs Hkfo”; dks u;k :i nsuk
tSlk geus fiNys v/;k; esa ns[kk] thou ds ‘kq#vkrh le; esa U;wjkWuksa
ds chp Qkbu V~;wfuax dh t+#jr gksrh gSA tc ge vius ifjos’k esa
dk;Z djrs gSa] ;s lkbusfIVd la;kstu cnyuk ‘kq# gks tkrs gSa&buds
LFkku ij u, U;wjkWu vk tkrs gSa] mi;ksxh la;kstu vc igys ls vf/kd
et+cwr cu tkrs gSa] vkSj tks la;kstu mi;ksx esa ugha vk jgs gSa] os
det+ksj ;k dHkh&dHkkj u”V Hkh gks tkrs gSaA lfØ; Ádkj ds
lkbusfIVl vkSj tks lfØ; :i ls cnyrs jgrs gSa] os cus jgrs gSa]
tcfd ‘ks”k esa dkV&NkaV gks tkrh gSA bldk fl)kar gS mi;ksx djks
;k [kks nks] ftlds }kjk ge vius efLr”d dks <kyrs gSaA
lkbusfIVd Vªkalfe’ku esa ,d jklk;fud U;wjksVªkalfeVj dh fueqZfDr
‘kkfey gS] tks xzkgh uked fof’k”V ÁksVhu v.kqvksa dks lfØ; cukrs gSaA
U;wjks VªkalfeVj fueqZfDr dk ,d lkekU; oS|qr ÁR;qŸkj lkbusfIVd
‘kfDr dk eki gSA ;g cny ldrk gS vkSj ;g dqN lsd.M] dqN
feuV ;k iwjs thou Hkj jg ldrk gSA raf=dk oSKkfud fo’ks”k :i ls
lkbusfIVd ‘kfDr esa yEcs le; rd fVds jgus okys ifjorZuksa esa #fp
j[krs gSa] ftUgsa U;wjksuy lfØ;rk dh laf{kIr vof/k esa mRiUu fd;k tk
ldrk gS] mYys[kuh; :i ls nh?kZ vof/k laHkkO;rk Kkr djus] tks
mudh ‘kfDr c<+krs gSa vkSj nh?kZ vof/k dqaBk ¼,yVhMh½ tks mUgsa daqfBr
djrs gSa] uked nks ÁfØ;kvksa esa mYys[kuh; :i ls ,slk gksrk gSA

bldh dk;Z’kSyh dk ,d uewuk
gekjs ‘kjhj esa ÁksVhu fufeZr djus ds fy, Á;qDr gksus okyk ,d
lkekU; ,ehuks ,flM XywVkesV gSA vkids lkeus ;g Lokn c<+kus okys
eksukslksfM;e XywVkesV ds :i esa vk;k gksxkA ;g ,d U;wjks VªkalfeVj gS
tks gekjs efLr”dksa ds lokZf/kd ÁR;kLFk lkbusIl ij dk;Z djrk gS&tks
,yVhih vkSj ,yVhMh Ánf’kZr djrs gSaA lkbusIl ds xzkgh i{k ij
mifLFkr XywVkesV pkj Ádkj ds gksrs gSa % buesa ls rhu vk;uksVªkWfid
xzkgh gSa vkSj bUgsa ,,eih,] ,u,eMh, vkSj dkbusV uke fn;k x;k gSA
pkSFkk Ádkj esVkcksVªkWfid gS vkSj bls ,eth,y;wvkj dgrs gSaA ;|fi]
lHkh Ádkj ds XywVkesV xzkgh ,d gh U;wjksVªkalfeVj ds Áfr fØ;k’khy
gksrs gSa( ;s dkQh vyx&vyx Ádkj ds dk;Z djrs gSaA vk;uksVªkWfid
XywVkesV xzkgh iksLV&lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;e mŸkstuk ¼bZih,lih½ mRiUu
djus ds fy, vius vk;u pSuyksa dk mi;ksx djrs gSa] tcfd
esVkcksVªkWfid vkSj XywVkesV xzkgh] tSlk geus igys U;wjks ekWM~;wysVjh
xfrfof/k esa crk;k gS ¼ist 8½] bl ÁR;qŸkj ds vkdkj vkSj LoHkko dk
ekWMqyu djrs gSaA lkbusfIVd ÁR;kLFkrk ds fy, lHkh Ádkj egRoiw.kZ
gSa] ijUrq ,,eih, vkSj ,u,eMh, xzkgh] ftuds ckjs esa ge lcls vf/kd
tkurs gSa vkSj ftUgsa vf/kdka’kr% ;knnk’r ds v.kq ekuk tkrk gSA budk
vf/kdka’k Kku mu nokvksa ds Ák;ksfxd dk;ksZa ls feyk gS] tks bu
xzkfg;ksa dh lfØ;rk :ikUrfjr djus ij dk;Z djrs gSa ¼ns[kas ckWDl ist
ua- 29 ij½A
,,eih, xzkgh lcls rst+h ls dk;Z djrs gSaA tc ,d ckj XywVkesV
bu xzkfg;ksa ij tqM+ tkrk gS rc ;s ,d Vªkafl,aV ,DlkbVsVjh iksLV
lkbusfIVd iksVsaf’k;y ¼tSlk fd v/;k; 3 esa crk;k x;k bZih,lih,l
gS½ mRiUu djus ds fy, vius vk;u pSuy [kksy nsrk gSA XywVkesV
lsd.M ds dqN fgLls rd ,,eih, xzkgh ij tqM+rk gS vkSj tc ,d
ckj ;g vyx gks tkrk gS vkSj bls lkbusIl ls fudky fn;k tkrk
gS] vk;u pSuy can gks tkrs gSa vkSj fo|qr laHkkO;rk viuh foJke dh
fLFkfr esa igq¡p tkrh gSA ,slk rc gksrk gS tc efLr”d ds U;wjkWu
vkil esa ÁR;sd dks rst+h ls lwpuk Ásf”kr djrs gSaA

XywVkesV lkbusfIVd
VfeZuyksa ls fueqZDr
gksrk gS] ;g
lkbusfIVd Dys¶V
ls vkxs c<+rk gS
vkSj XywVkesV
xzkfg;ksa ds fofHkUu
Ádkjksa ls tqM+ tkrk
gS&,,eih,]
,u,eMh, vkSj
,eth,y;wvkj@dqN
XywVkesV lkbusIl esa
dkbusV xzkgh Hkh
gksrs gSaA

27

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

,,eih,
xzfg;ksa ds
tfj, /kkjk
Áos’k djrh
gSk

vk/kkjHkwr ikjs”k.k

l?ku mÌhiu
l?ku mÌhiu }kjk
eSXuhf’k;e vk;u
ckgj tkus ls
,u,eMh, xzkgh eas
o`f) vkSj lksfM;e
rFkk dSfY’k;e dk
bu¶yDl ¼yky vkSj
gjs rhj½

,yVhih dk Ásj.k

,,eih, xzkgh la[;k
esa o`f)

,,eih, xzkgh
la[;k esa
o`f)]ftlls
/kkjk esa o`f)]
vkSj vf/kd
bZih,lih

,yVhih ¼,,eih, xzkgh la[;k esa o`f)½

,u,eMh, xzkgh ¼yky½ lh[kus dh vkf.od e’khujh gSaA
vk/kkjHkwr lfØ;rk vkSj ,yVhih ¼Åij ck,a½ ds izsj.k ds nkSjku
VªkalfeVj tkjh gksrs gSaA og LFky tgk¡ eSXuhf’k;e vk;u ¼NksVs
dkys xksys] Åij nk,a½ dSfYl;e vk;u ds pSuy dks CykWd dj
nsrh gS] dksf’kdk f>Yyh ds vanj gksrk gS vkSj l?ku fo/kzqohdj.k
}kjk foLFkkfir fd;k tkrk gS ¼vxyk fupyk fp=½A ,slk rc
gksrk gS tc U;wjkWu dks vU; U;wjkWukas ds lkFk viuh la;kstdrk
cnyus dh t+#jr gksrh gSA ,yVhih dk ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa ¼ihys
xzkgh] uhps ck,a½ dh cM+h la[;k ;k vf/kd l{ke ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa ¼uhps nk,a½ ds :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

,,eih, xzkgh
n{krk esa o`f)

,,eih, xzkgh
jklk;fud :i
ls :ikarfjr
rkfd vf/kd
/kkjk cus vkSj
vf/kd
bZih,lih

,yVhih ¼,,eih, xzkgh n{krk esa o`f)½

,u,uMh, xzkgh % izR;kLFkrk ‘kq# djus ds fy, vkf.od
izfØ;k
XywVkesV iksLV&lkbusfIVd U;wjkWu ij ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ij Hkh tqM+rk
gSA ;s egRoiw.kZ vkf.od e’khusa lkbusfIVd izR;kLFkrk ‘kq# djrh gSaA
;fn lkbusIl dks /khjs&/khjs lfØ; cuk;k tkrk gS rks ,u,eMh, xzkgh
blesa FkksM+h ;k u ds cjkcj Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd
tSls gh ,u,eMh, xzkgh vius vk;u pSuy [kksyrs gSa ;s pSuy
lkbusIl&eSXuhf’k;e vk;u esa mifLFkr vU; vk;u }kjk tqM+rs gSaA
ijUrq tc bu lkbusIl dks vusd Lianuksa ds t+fj, ‘kh?kzrk ls ,d
U;wjkWu ij buiqV ds ,d lewg ij lfØ; cuk;k tkrk gS rks
,u,eMh, xzkgh bl mŸkstuk dks rqjUr vuqHko dj ysrs gSaA ;g cM+h
lkbusfIVd xfrfof/k iksLV&lkbusfIVd U;wjkWu esa cM+k fo/kqzohdj.k
mRiUu djrh gS vkSj blds dkj.k fo|qr fod”kZ.k dh izfØ;k }kjk
,u,eMh, vk;u pSuyksa ls eSXuhf’k;e dks ckgj fudkyk tkrk gSA rc
,u,eMh, xzkgh rqjUr lkbusfIVd lapkj djrs gSaA ;s bl dk;Z dks nks
rjhdksa ls djrs gSa% igyk ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa ds lkeu ;s lksfM;e vkSj

28

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
iksVsf’k;e dk lapkyu djrs gSa] tks fo/kqzohdj.k esa tqM+ tkrs gSa( nwljk]
;s dSfYl;e vk;u dks U;wjkWu eas Áos’k djus nsrs gSaA nwljs ‘kCnksa esa]
,u,eMh, xzkgh l’kDrU;wjksuy xfrfof/k dk vuqHko djrs gSa vkSj
dSfYl;e ds mPpre fcUnq ds :i esa U;wjkWu dks ladsr Hkstrs gSaA
dSfYl;e dk ;g mPpre fcUnq Hkh laf{kIr gksrk gS vkSj vf/kd ls
vf/kd ,d lsd.M rd pyrk gS] tcfd XywVkesV ,u,eMh, xzkfg;kas ls
tqM+rk gSA tcfd] dSfYl;e vk;u ,d egRoiw.kZ v.kq gS] D;ksafd ;g
U;wjkWu dks ladsr nsrk gS tc ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa dks lfØ; cuk;k tkrk
gSA

efLr”d dk vH;kl dk;Z
,,eih, xzkfg;ksa esa ifjorZu gh iwjh dgkuh ugha gSA tSls gh
;knnk’r vf/kd LFkk;h cu tkrh gS rks efLr”d esa lajpukRed
ifjorZu gks ldrs gSaA ,yVhMh ds Ásj.k ds ckn vf/kd ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa okys lkbusIl viuk vkdkj cny ysrs gSa vkSj ;s vf/kd cM+s
gks ldrs gSa vFkok Áo/kZ esa ls u, lkbusIl fudy ldrs gSa] rkfd
vc ,d lkbusIl dk dk;Z nks }kjk fd;k tk ldsA blds foijhr]
,yVhMh ds Ásj.k ds ckn ,,eih, xzkgh [kks nsus ds ckn VwV&QwV ;k
ej ldrs gSaA gekjs efLr”d ds HkkSfrd inkFkZ efLr”d lfØ;rk ds
mŸkj esa ifjofrZr gksrk gSA efLr”d d leku vH;kl dk;Z&cs’kd
ekufld vH;kl dk;Z! et+cwr curh gSa] tc ge dljr djrs gSa]
Bhd blh rjg tc ge efLr”d dks T+;knk ls T+;knk mi;ksx djrs
gSa rks gekjs lkbusfIVd la;kstu la[;k esa c<+rs vkSj csgrj :i ls
O;ofLFkr gksrs gSaA

;knnk’r ij gkoh eu

lkbusIl ij gksus okys NksVs fo|qr oksYVst dh fuxjkuh esa Á;qDr midj.k

,d ckj U;wjkWu ds vanj tkus ij dSfYl;e lkbusIl ds ,dne ckgjh
fljs ij ekStwn ÁksVhuksa ls tqM+rk gS] tgk¡ ,u,eMh, xzkgh lfØ; gksrs
gSaA buesa ls vusd ÁksVhu HkkSfrd :i ls ,u,eMh, xzkgh ij tqM+s gksrs
gSa tks vkf.od e’khu ls tqM+s gksrs gSaA buesa ls dqN ,at+kbe gSa ftUgsa
dSfYl;e vk;u lfØ; cukrs gSa vkSj blls lkbusIl ds vanj ;k blds
ikl vU; ÁksVhuksa dk jklk;fud :ikUrj.k gksrk gSA ;s jklk;fud
ifjorZu ;knnk’r cukus ds vkjafHkd pj.k gSaA

,,eih, xzkgh% ;knnk’r Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, gekjh
vkf.od e’khusa
;fn ,u,eMh, xzkgh lfØ;u U;wjkWuksa ds tqM+ko esa ÁR;kLFk ifjorZuksa
dks vkjaHk djrk gS rks ‘kfDr esa ifjorZu dks D;k vfHkO;Dr djrk gS \
,slk gks ldrk gS fd vf/kd jklk;fud VªkalfeVj fueqDZ r gksrk gSA
,slk gks ldrk gS] ijUrq gesa ;g vPNh rjg ls irk gS fd ÁfØ;kvksa
ds ,d lSV esa lkbusIl ds iksLV&lkbusfIVd i{k ij ,,eih, xzkgh
‘kkfey gksrs gSaA bls djus ds vusd rjhds gSaA ,d rjhdk ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa dks vf/kd l{ke :i ls l{ke cukus dk gS] tSls fd lfØ;u
ds nkSjku U;wjkWu esa vf/kd /kkjk Áokfgr djukA nwljk rjhdk ;k gS
fd vf/kd ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dks lkbusIl esa Mkyus esa l{ke cukukA
nksuksa gh ekeykas esa blls cM+s bZih,lih curs gSa&,yVhih dh ?kVukA
blds foijhr ifjorZu ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dh n{krk ;k la[;k esa deh
ds QyLo:i ,yVhMh gks ldrk gSA ,yVhih ;k ,yVhMh dks Ásfjr
djus dh bl ÁfØ;k dh fo’ks”krk ;g gS fd ;g lknk gksrs gq, Hkh
HkO; gS&;g ,d ,dy Áo/khZ daVd ds vanj gks ldrk gS vkSj blds
}kjk vR;ar LFkkuhÑr rjhd ls lkbusfIVd ‘kfDr dks ifjofrZr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA ;g ,slk inkFkZ gS ftlls okLro esa ;knnk’r cuh gksrh
gS&,d eqÌk ge ftl ij vxys v/;k; esa ckr djsaxsA

29

ge fdruh vPNh rjg lh[krs gSa ;g gekjh HkkoukRed fLFkfr ij fuHkZj
djrk gS&ge Lo;a ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa fo’ks”kdj [kq’kh] mnklh ;k nnZukd
vuqHkoksa dks ;kn djus dk Á;kl djrs gSaA ge rc Hkh csgrj :i ls
lh[krs gSa tc ge /;ku nsrs gSa! eu dh bu fLFkfr;ksa esa U;wjks
ekWM~;wysVjksa dh fueqZfDr ‘kkfey gS] tSls fd ,flVkby dksyhu ¼vf/kd
/;ku nsus ds nkSjku½] Mksikekbu] ukWj,fMªusfyu vkSj LVhjkWbM gkWjeksu
tSls fd dkWfVZlkWy ¼ukWosYVh] ruko vkSj fpUrk ds nkSjku½A U;wjkWuksa ij
ekWM~;qysVj vusd dk;Z djrs gSa] buesa ls vusd ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ds
dk;Z esa ifjorZu ds ek/;e ls dk;Z djrs gSaA vU; xfrfof/k;ksa esa
‘kkfey gSa lh[kus ls fof’k”V :i ls tqM+s fo’ks”k thuksa dk lfØ;uA
buls cus ÁksVhu ,yVhih dks fLFkj djus rFkk yEcs le; rd fVdkÅ
cukus esa lgk;rk djrs gSaA

vkids vanj fLFkr MkWDVj
lkbusfIVd ÁR;kLFkrk gekjs efLr”dkas esa ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ dk;Z djrk
gS&;g efLr”d dks pksV ls mcjus esa lgk;rk dj ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds
fy,] ;fn fdlh fo’ks”k xfr dks fu;af=r djus okys U;wjkWu u”V gks tkrs
gSa] tSlk fd ,d vk?kkr ;k flj dh xaHkhj pksV ds nkSjku gksrk gS] lHkh
dk u”V gks tkuk t+#jh ugha gSA vf/kdka’k ifjfLFkfr;kas esa U;wjkWu Lo;a
o`f) ugha djrsA blds ctk; vU; U;wjkWu u”V gks pqds U;wjkWuksa dh leku
dk;kZRed Hkwfedkvksa dks viukrs vkSj dHkh&dHkh bls Lo;a dj ldrs gSa]
leku Ádkj ds vU; usVodZ cukrs gSaA ;g nksckjk lh[kus dh ÁfØ;k gS
vkSj ;g efLr”d dh nksckjk Bhd gks tkus dh dqN {kerkvksa ij Ádk’k
Mkyrh gSA
tsQjh okVfdUl] ,d fpfdRlk jlk;uK
ftUgksaus ,ih5 ¼uhps½ tSlh vkS”kf/k;ksa ds
fodkl }kjk efLr”d esa mŸkstd ikjs”k.k dk
v/;;u dk :ikUrfjr fd;k] tks fof’k”V
XywVkesV xzkfg;ksa ij fØ;k djrs gSaA

: http://www.cf.ac.uk/plasticity/index.html
http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/public/brainbasic.html

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

lh[kuk vkSj ;knnk’r

gekjh ;knsa gekjs O;fDrRo dks dsUnz gSaA ge esa ls gj ,d O;fDr dks
D;k ;kn jgrk gS] ;g lHkh esa fHkUu gksrk gS] ;gk¡ rd fd ,slh
fLFkfr;k¡ tc ge ,d lkFk FksA fQj Hkh ge vius fof’k”V rjhdksa es ge
lHkh dqN ?kVukvksa] rF;ksa] euksoSKkfud vuqHkwfr;ksa vkSj dkS’kyksa dks FkksM+s
le; esa fy,A efLr”d esa fofHkUu fo’ks”krkvksa ds lkFk vusd Ádkj dh
;knnk’r Á.kkyh gksrh gS vkSj ;g fofHkUu U;wjksuy usVodksZa }kjk
ekf/;r gksrh gSA ubZ ;knksa dks fuekZ.k lkbusfIVd ÁR;kLFkrk ij fuHkZj
djrk gS] ,slk ekuk tkrk gS] bls fiNys v/;k; esa le>k;k x;k gS]
ijUrq ge lwpuk iqu% ÁkfIr dh U;wjksuy ÁfØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa vc Hkh
dqN fuf’pr ugha dj lds gSaA tc ge viuh ;knnk’r ds fo”k; esa
f’kdk;r djrs gSa rks ;s cgqr vPNh fLFkfr esa gksrh gSa] ;g dsoy cw<+s
gksus ij ;k fdlh raf=dkfoKku laca/kh leL;k ds dkj.k gksrk gSA gekjs
;knnk’r c<+kus dk Á;kl fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq ,slk djus ls
vusd pht+ksa dks Hkwy tkus vFkok ;kn j[kus dh dher ij gksrk gSA

;knnk’r dh O;oLFkk
efLr”d dk ,slk dksbZ {ks= ugha gksrk gS tgk¡ gekjs }kjk lh[kh xbZ
lHkh tkudkfj;k¡ Hk.Mkfjr gksus ds fy, ,d= gksrh gSaA dk;Z’khy
;knnk’r vkids efLr”d eas ,d lpsr voLFkk esa lfØ; :i ls
tkudkjh cuk, j[krh gSA bl lwpuk ds dkQh cM+s] vf/kd fufӯ;
Hk.Mkj d{k nh?kZ vof/k ;knnk’r dgykrh gSA
vkarfjd
fy[kkoV

pk{kq”k LFkkfud Ldsp iSM

dsUnzh; dk;Zikyu Á.kkyh

pkfc;k¡ dgk¡ j[kh gSa bls ;kn djus esa djrs gSaA drZO; ikyu dh Hkkouk
Á.kkyh dk dsUnz gS&;g ,d ,slh fo’ks”krk gS tks lhfer {kerk vkSj n`f”V ls
vkrh gSA ;g vf/kdka’kr% dgk tkrk gS fd viuh dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r esa
7 vkSj 2 enksa dk dksbZ Øe ;kn j[k ldrs gSa % ;gh dkj.k gS fd vf/kdka’k
VsyhQksu 7 ;k 8 ls vf/kd vadksa ds ugha gksrs gSaA ijUrq bUgsa lgh Øe esa
;kn j[kuk vfuok;Z gSA vki vius fe=ksa ds lkFk cSBddj ,d ljy Á;ksx
esa viuh dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r dh {kerk vkSj lhfer n`f”V dk Án’kZu dj
ldrs gSaA
vYikof/k ;knnk’r ij ,d Á;ksx
vYikof/k ;k dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r ds ,d ,jy Á;ksx dks
^^ysVj&Liku** dgrs gSaA blds fy, vkidks de ls de nks
O;fDr;kas dh t+#jr gksrh gS] tcfd vf/kd yksxksa ds lkFk ;g
csgrj :i ls dk;Z djrk gSA vki esa ls ,d O;fDr de ls
de nks v{kjksa ls ‘kq: djrs gq, v{kjksa dh ,d J`a[kyk xksiuh;
:i ls fy[ks] /;ku jgs buls dksbZ ‘kCn ugha cus ¼mnkgj.k ds
fy, ,Dl Vh½A rc ;g O;fDr v{kjksa dh J`a[kyk vkxs pykrk
gS] ,d ckj esa ,d v{kj c<+kdj ¼mnkgj.k ds fy, 5 v{kjksa
dh J`a[kyk tSls D;woh,p ds ts+M vkSj 10 v{kjksa okyh J`a[kyk
tSls gh MCY;wlh;wdsD;wchih,lts+M½A buds rS;kj gks tkus ds
ckn Á;ksx ‘kq: gkrk gSA vU; O;fDr ¼;k d{kk½ yxHkx 5
lsd.M ckn ÁR;sd ds v{kjksa dh J`a[kyk dks lqurk gS] vkSj bUgsa
;knnk’r ds vk/kkj ij fy[kus dh dksf’k’k djrk gSA nks v{kjksa
dh J`a[kyk ds lkFk vkjaHk djrs gq, ;knnk’r dh ;g ijh{kk
yEch Ja`[kyk dh vksj pyrh gSA vf/kdka’kr% yksx 7 ls 8
v{kjksa rd bls ,dne Bhd rjg ls dj ikrs gSa vkSj blds
ckn xyfr;k¡ ‘kq: gksrh gSaA cgqr de yksx 10 v{kjksa rd
‘kq)rkiwoZd ;kn j[k ikrs gSaA bl vYikof/k ;knnk’r dh
{kerk dks ^^lkr ds vkxs&ihNs nks dh tknqbZ la[;k** dgrs gSaA

JO; vYikof/k Hk.Mkj
ekSu fjglZy ywi
efLr”d dh vYikof/k dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r Á.kkyh

dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r
gesa tks uke ;k VsyhQksu uacj dqN gh nsj ds fy, ;kn j[kus gSa] mUgsa
fy[kus ds fy, ,d MsLd ij ,d iSM dh rjg] efLr”d esa tkudkjh
dh cgqr FkksM+h lh ek=k ‘kq)rkiwoZd blesa cuk, j[kus ds fy, ,d
Á.kkyh gksrh gSA ge bldk mi;ksx ckrphr ds Áokg dh O;k[;k ds
fy,] ekufld :i ls xf.kr djus vkSj dqN le; igys geus viuh

30

,d dsUnzh; dk;Zikyu Á.kkyh ls nks vfrfjDr ;knnk’r Hk.Mkjksa }kjk lefFkZr
lwpuk Áokg dks fu;af=r fd;k tkrk gSA ,d ekSu fjglZy ywi ds lkFk ,d
QksuksykWftdy Hk.Mkj gksrk gS&vkids efLr”d dk og NksVk ;k fgLlk ftldk
bLrseky vki Lo;a ls dqN dgus esa djrs gSaA ;gk¡ rd fd ;fn vki dqN ‘kCn ;k
la[;k i<+rs gSa rks bl lwpuk dks QksuksykWftdy dksM esa cnyk tkrk gS vkSj bl
nks Hkkx okyh Á.kkyh esa FkksM+h nsj ds fy, Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tkrk gSA ,d pk{kq”k
LdspiSM gksrk gS tks oLrqvksa dh Nfo;k¡ yEcs le; rd Hk.Mkfjr dj ldrk gS]
ftls vki viuh eu dh vk¡[kksa ls vny&cny ldrs gSaA
dk;Z ‘khy ;knnk’kr vf/kdka’kr% ÝaVy vkSj iSjkbVy yksCl ij fLFkr gksrh gSA
efLr”d ihbZVh vkSj ,Q,evkjvkbZ mi;ksx djrs gq, efLr”d ÁfrfcEcu v/;;uksa
¼ist 41 ns[ksa½ ls bafxr gksrk gS fd dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r ds JO; fgLls vkerkSj ij
ck,a ÝaVy vkSj iSjkbVy yksCl ij ikf’oZr gksrs gSa] tgk¡ ;s ok.kh] vk;kstuk

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
vkSj fu.kZ; ysus esa ‘kkfey U;wjksuy usVodkZsa ds lkFk var%fØ;k djrs
gSaA bu xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, vPNh dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r vfuok;Z gSA
pk{kq”k LdspiSM nk,a gsfeLQs;j esa gksrk gS ¼v/;k; ds var esa ckWDl
ns[ksa½A
dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r blesa fdl izdkj ‘kkfey gksrh gS \ tUrq] ;gk¡
rd fd vf/kdka’k Lruik;h tUrqvkas esa gekjs leku vYikof/k
;knnk’r iz.kkyh dk ;g izdkj ugha gksrk gS vkSj ;g vkjafHkd
gksfefuM~l esa VsyhQksu uacj ;kn j[kus ds fy, Li”V :i ls
fodflr ugha gqbZ Fkh! NksVs cPpksa ds v/;;u ls Hkk”kk lh[kus esa
dk;Z’khy iz.kkyh dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk dk irk pyk gS] ftlls ;g
ladsr feyrk gS fd bl iz.kkyh dk fodkl ok.kh ds lkFk gqvk gSA
v{kjksa dks ,d js[kk esa j[krs gq, bUgsa ,d okD; ds Øe esa j[kus dh
‘kq)rk lgh vFkZ dks Bhd rjhds ls fudkyus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA

cgqr cM+k Hk.Mkj gSa fd Ýkal dh jkt/kkuh isfjl gS] fd Mh,u, {kkj ds tksM+ksa ds
Øe ds :i esa vkuqokaf’kd lwpuk dks dksM djrk gS] vkfn vkfnA egRoiw.kZ
fo’ks”krk gS fd ;s rF; Jsf.k;ksa esa O;ofLFkr fd, x, gSaA ;knnk’r esa ls dqN
[kkstus ds fy, ;g egRo j[krh gS fd [kkst izfØ;k d{k Hk.Mkj d{k ds Vªh
vkjs[kksa esa <wa< ldrh gSA ;fn lhesafVd ;knnk’r ml rjg O;ofLFkr dh tk
ldrh] ftl rjg dqN yksx vius ?kjksa esa fcuk fdlh O;ofLFkr Øe ds]
vLr&O;Lr :i ls ls j[krs rks gesa dqN Hkh ;kn j[kuk cgqr dfBu gks tkrkA
HkkX; esa efLr”d mu lHkh lwpukvksa dks pqurk gS] ftls ge Jsf.k;ksa esa dksM djrs
gSa] tcfd blls Ldwy esa ,d dq’ky f’k{kd dks lgk;rk feyrh gSA cs’kd] dqN
fo’ks”k dq’ky f’k{kd vius Nk=ksa esa fcuk fdlh iz;kl ds bu lajpukvksa dk
fuekZ.k dj ikrs gSaA
oLrq

nh?kZ vof/k ;knnk’r
nh?kZ vof/k ;knnk’r efLr”d ds O;kid :i ls QSys usVodZ esa fLFkr
fofHkUu iz.kkfy;ksa esa Hkh mi foHkkftr dh xbZ gSA fHkUu&fHkUu usVodZ
vyx&vyx dk;Z djrs gSaA eksVs rkSj ij dgk tk, rks lwpuk laosnh
iz.kkyh esa izos’k djrh gS vkSj fQj mu ekxksZa ij tkrh gS tgk¡ yxkrkj
c<+rh fo’ks”khÑr iznku fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] pk{kq”k iz.kkyh
esa izos’k djus okyh lwpuk jsf[kr dkWVsZDl ls rFkkdfFkr osaVªy ekxZ esa
usVodksaZ dsh ,d lh<+h ds t+fj, ehfM;y VsEiksjy yksCl rd tkrh gS]
tks oLrq dk vkdkj] jax] igpku dk Kku djkrs gSa] fd oLrq
tkuh&igpkuh gS ;k ugha] tc rd fd bl oLrq fo’ks”k dh dksbZ
;knnk’r cu ugha tkrh] fd bls dc vkSj dgk ns[kk x;k gSA

busfuesV

,fuesV
Lruik;h

fpfM+;k¡
mM+us okyh fpfM+;k¡

xkus okyh fpfM+;k¡
dSujht+

mM+ ugha ldus okyh fpfM+;k¡

vU; fpfM+;k¡
isafXoUl

ftu tUrqvksa ds ckjs esa ge tkurs gSa os ,d isM+ ds :i esa O;ofLFkr gSaA gesa vHkh
;g Kkr ugha gS fd efLr”d ds usVodZ bls dSls djrs gSaA

pht+ksa ds ckjs esa ge dkS’ky Hkh lh[krs gSa vkSj HkkoukRed vuqHkwfr;k¡
vftZr djrs gSaA ;g tkuuk fd ,d fi;kuks okLro esa fi;kuks gS% bls
ctkus esa l{ke gksuk ,d vU; ckr gSA lkbfdy pykuk Kkr gksuk
mi;ksxh gS] ijUrq lM+dksa ij pykrs le; dqN ifjfLFkfr;k¡ [krjukd
gks ldrh gSa ;g de egRoiw.kZ ugha gSA fopkj&foe’kZ iw.kZ vkSj O;kid
vH;kl ds ek/;e ls dkS’ky lh[ks tkrs gSa] tcfd HkkoukRed
vf/kxE;rk vf/kd rst+ izrhr gksrh gSA T+;knkrj bls rst+ gksuk pkfg,]
fo’ks”kdj mu ckrksa esa] ftUgsa lh[kus ls ge ?kcjkrs gSaA lh[kus ds nksuksa
izdkj daMh’kfuax dgykrs gSaA fo’ks”khÑr efLr”d {ks= blesa ‘kkfey
gSa&csly xSaxfy;k vkSj lsjscsye] tks dkS’ky lh[kus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSa
rFkk HkkoukRed vf/kxE;rk ds fy, ,fexMkyk egRoiw.kZ gSaA vusd tUrq
dkS’ky lh[krs gSa&muds thfor jgus ds fy, bldk cM+k egRo gSA
efLr”d {ks=ksa dh lh<+huqek jpuk ftlds ek/;e ls pk{kq”k lwpuk dk
izlalk/ku ns[kdj vkSj fQj ;knnk’r ds iz;kstu ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA
fo’ys”k.k dh bl lh<+h ds ckjs esa lkspus ds vusd rjhds gSaA igyk]
dkWVZsDl esa vusd {ks= gSa tks ,d n`f”Vd izLrqrhdj.k fudkyrs gSaA ftUgsa
ge Kkr djuk pkgrs gSaA bls Hk.Mkfjr djus vkSj ckn esa gekjs vklikl
dh pht+ksa dk igpkuus esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lekpkj i=ksa ds
dkVwZu] tSls dksbZ jktuhfrK vkfn dks igpkuus dh gekjh {kerk dks ;g
;knnk’r n’kkZrh gSA blls cgqr ut+nhdh laca/k j[kus okyh ;knnk’r dk
lhesafVd ;knnk’r dgrs gSa&;g rF;kRed Kku dk
fpEikath us ,d NM+h ls nhedksa dk f’kdkj djus dh dyk lh[kh gSA
NksVs fpEikath vius ekrk&firk dks ns[kdj ;g lh[krs gSA

31

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
;knnk’r [kksuk vkSj efLr”d esa ,filksfMd ;knnk’r dk
LFkkuhdj.k
efLr”d esa ;knnk’r iz.kkyh ds vafre izdkj dks ,filksfMd ;knnk’r
dgrs gSaA bldk mi;ksx vki vius O;fDrxr vuqHkokas dks ;kn j[kus
esa djrs gSaA ?kVukvksa dks ;kn j[kus dh vis{kk rF;ksa dks lh[kuk ,d
fopkj ls vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gS fd dksbZ ?kVuk dsoy ,d ckj gksrh gSA
;fn vki Hkwy tk,¡ fd vkius lqcg uk’rs eas D;k [kk;k Fkk ¼vlaHko½
;k fiNys fØlel esa D;k gqvk Fkk ¼laHkor;k½ vFkok vius Ldwy ds
igys fnu vkids lkFk D;k gqvk ¼laHkor;k½] vki bu lcdks d{kk ds
vfrfjDr ikB ds leku nksckjk lkeus ugha yk ldrs gSaA ;g iz.kkyh
tYnh lh[k yh tkrh gS D;ksafd ,slk gksuk gSA
geus mu raf=dk laca/kh jksfx;ksa ds v/;;u ls ,filksfMd ;knnk’r ds
ckjs esa cgqr dqN lh[k fy;k gS] ftUgsa efLr”d ds V~;wej ;k ok;jl
laØe.k tSls gihZt+ ,alsfQykbfVl gqvk gks] dHkh&dHkh bl izdkj dh
;knnk’r esa fo’ks”k izdkj dh dfe;k¡ gksrh gSaA bu jksfx;ksa ds
lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u ls blds ‘kkjhfjd laxBu vkSj vU; iz.kkfy;ksa
dks Kkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

,EusfLVd jksxh mu pht+ksa dks lh[k ldrs gSa] ftUgsa os psru voLFkk esa
;kn ugha j[k ikrs gSaA mUgsa eksVj dkS’ky fl[kk, tk ldrs gSa ;k os
mYVh vksj ls i<+uk tYnh lh[k tkrs gSaA
mYVh vksj ls tYnh&tYnh i<+us dk izf’k{k.k ikus esa dqN le; yxrk
gSA ;g ,EusfLVd ds lkFk gekjs fy, Hkh lR; gS] ijUrq tcfd ge ;g
fl[kk;k tkuk ;kn j[ksaxs] ftls os ;kn ugha j[krsA ;g psru tkx#drk
esa vn~Hkqr fola;kstu gSA ,EusfLVd o;fDr lh[krs le; fuf’pr :i ls
lpsr gksrk gS] ijUrq ckn esa tkdj bls Hkwy tkrs gSaA ;s yksx chrs le;
ls psru tkx#drk ugha ik ldrs gSaA bl rukoiw.kZ fLFkfr ds fy,
ftEesnkj {kfr vusd efLr”d ifjiFkksa esa gks ldrh gSA e/; efLr”d ds
esfeyjh fudk; vkSj FkSyes l uked {ks= lkekU; ;knnk’r ds fy,
egRoiw.kZ gSa] tSlk fgIiksdSEil uked ehfM;y VsEiksjy yksc lajpuk esa
gksrk gSA bu {ks=ksa esa gqbZ {kfr ls ,filksfMd vkSj lhesafVd ;knnk’rksa ds
fuekZ.k ij fo’ks”k izHkko iM+rk gSA

^^pksV gekjk mruk /;ku vkdf”kZr ugha djrh gS] ftruk pksV ;k jksx ds ek/;e
ls lkekU; dk;Z dks [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA**
¼lj gsujh gSM&20 oha lnh ds raf=dk oSKkfud½
,Eusfl;k uked fLFkfr ls ihfM+r O;fDr dsoy vk/ks ?k.Vs igys feys
vU; yksxksa dks ;kn ugha j[k ikrs gSaA mUgsa ;g ;kn ugha jgrk gS fd
mUgksaus vHkh D;k Hkkstu fd;k ;k D;k [kkus tk jgs gSa vkSj ;gk¡ rd
fd thou dh lk/kkj.k vfuok;Zrk,a Hkh Hkwy tkrs gSa fd mUgksaus dksbZ
pht+ ?kj esa dgk¡ j[kh gSA ,d tfVy vkjs[k fn[kkus ij] tSlk Åij
bulSV esa fn[kk;k x;k gS] os bldh izfrfyfi cuk ldrs gSa ijUrq ;g
vkjs[k ugha cuk ldrs gSaA lkFk gh geesa ls vf/kdka’k 30 feuV ckn
viuh ;knnk’r ls bls cuk ldrs gSaA vf/kdka’kr% muds chekj iM+us
ds igys dh dksbZ ckr mUgsa ;kn ugha jgrh gSA bls jsVªkxszM ,Eusfl;k
dgrs gSaA
,sls thou esa le; vkSj LFkku esa lHkh lajpukvksa dh deh gksrh gS
vkSj bls ^^uhan esa pyus** ds leku ,Eusfl;k ds jksfx;ksa ds ,d
O;kid v/;;u }kjk bls le>k;k x;k gSA fQj Hkh ;gh O;fDr
viuh Hkk”kk vkSj ‘kCnksa ds vFkZ ij tkudkjh j[krk gS rFkk lkFk dh
le>nkjh ls ckrphr djus ds fy, i;kZIr dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r j[krk
gSA ,slk rc rd ugha gksrk tc rd og ;s ckrsa mlds lkFk djs]
ftlds dqN nsj igys mlds vfLrRo dk fouk’kdkjh vyxko
mn~?kkfVr fd;k x;k gSA
Delayed Recall

NC
Copy

A

,eusflDl ¼,½ dsoy ckjhd vkjs[k dks ns[k ldrk gS vkSj tfVy
vkjs[k dh izfrfyfi Bhd oSlh gh cuk ldrk gS] ijUrq os lkekU;
O;fDr;ksa ¼,ulh½ dh rjg mls nsj rd ;kn ugha j[k ldrk gSA

32

nks lajpuk,¡ ,filksfMd ;knnk’r ds fy, vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gS&isjhjhuy
dkWVsZDl ¼ihvkj,p½] tks fiNys le; dh tkudkfj;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dk
ekf/;r djrk gS vkSj nwljk fgIiksdSEel tks ?kVukvksa vkSj LFkkuksa ds fy,
dksM cukrk gSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
;knnk’r dh vU; iz.kkfy;k¡
efLr”d esa vU; dgha pksV yxus ij vU; ;knnk’r iz.kkfy;k¡ izHkkfor
gksrh gSA g~klh ifjfLFkfr;k¡ tSls fd lhesafVd Mhesaf’k;k ¼vYt+hej jksx
dk ,d izdkj½ ls lhesafVd ;knnk’r ds [kjkc gks tkus ds vuks[ks
iSVuZ cu ldrs gSaA ‘kq#vkr esa jksxh vkidks ;g crkus esa l{ke gksaxs
fd iz;ksxkas esa mUgsa ,d fcYyh] ,d dqŸks ;k ,d dkj ;k jsy dh
rLohj fn[kkbZ tk jgh gSA ijUrq ckn ea jksx ds nkSjku is pwgs dh
rLohj dk pwgk dgus ls fgpdrs gSa] blds LFkku ij os bls ‘kk;n
dqŸkk dgsaA bldh iqf”V gksrh gS bl ckr ls fd rF;kRed lwpuk
busfuesV lwpuk ls nwj ,d LFkku ij ,fuesV lwpuk ,d lkFk Hk.Mkfjr
djus ds lkFk Js.khokj O;ofLFkr dh tkrh gSA

;knnk’r dk raf=dk thofoKku
U;wjksykWftdy jksfx;kas dk lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u djus ls gesa efLr”d
ds ;knnk’r laca/kh dk;ksZa dks [kkstus ls gesa efLr”d ds ;knnk’r
laca/kh dk;ksZa dks [ksktus esa enn feyrh gS] ijUrq ;g tkuuk fd ;s
U;wjkWu vkSj jklk;fud VªkalfeVlZ ds lanHkZ esa dSls dk;Z djrs gSa] esa
iz;ksx’kkyk tUrqvksa dk mi;ksx djrs gq, vuqla/kku lko/kkuhiwoZ d
vk;ksftr fd;k tkrk gSA
raf=dk oSKkfud vc ;g ekurs gSa fd fodkl’khy efLr”d esa U;wjy
la;kstuksa dh Qkbu V~;wfuax ds vusd igyw Hkh vkjafHkd vf/kxE;rk ds
nkSjku mi;ksx fd, tkrs gSaA ,d f’k’kq vkSj mldh ek¡ ds chp
fodflr gksus okys la;kstu dk v/;;u NksVs eqxksZa esa fd;k x;k gS
vkSj bls bfDizfVax dgrs gSaA vc ge tkurs gSa fd lh[kus dh ;g

fgIiksdSEil&

;g xkWYth vfHkjatu
dkys jax esa U;wjkWu
dk ,d lc&lSV
n’kkZrk gSA

izfØ;k NksVs eqxsZ esa efLr”d esa gksrh gS vkSj xzkfg;ksa ij fueqZDr jklk;fud
VªkalfeVlZ ek¡ dh ,d Nfo Hk.Mkfjr djus esa lgk;d gksrh gSA ;g Nfo vR;Ur
ckjhdh ls cuh gksrh gS tSls fd NksVs eqxsZ viuh ek¡ ds ihNs pyrs gSa vU; fdlh ds
ughaA NksVs tUrqvksa dks ;g tkuus dh vko’;drk Hkh gksrh gS fd os ,d ckj esa
FkksM+k lk [kkuk [kkdj tku ldsa fd dkSu lk Hkkstu [kkuk lqjf{kr gS vkSj ;g
lh[kuk fd mldk Lokn [kjkc gSA bls dsoy vkuqokaf’kd iwokZuqeku ij ugha NksM+k
tk ldrk gS&fodkl dh n`f”V ls V~;wu dh xbZ vf/kxe izfØ;k,¡ dh tk ldrh gSaA
bfEizafVax ;k Hkkstu dk Lokn ysus ds nkSjku lfØf;r xzkfg;ksa ds vkxs pydj
f}rh; lans’kokgd jlk;uksa dh Ja`[kyk efLr”d dksf’kdkvksa ds ukfHkd dks ladsr
Hkstrh gS] tgk¡ thUl dks ;knnk’r fVdkÅ cukus okys fo’ks”k izksVhuksa dks cukus ds
fy, lfØ; cuk;k tk,xkA
Iysl lSYl ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ [kkst gSA fgiiksdSEil esa ,sls U;wjkWUl
gksrs gSa tks ,D’ku iksVsaf’k;y dsoy rHkh vkjaHk djrs gSa tc tUrq ,d
tkus&igpkus LFkku ij gksaA fofHkUu dksf’kdk,¡ i;kZoj.k ds vyx&vyx
fgLlksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa rkfd dksf’kdkvksa dk ,d lewg iwjs {ks=
ds ekiu esa ‘kkfey gksA vkl&ikl ds efLr”d {ks= esa fLFkr vU;
dksf’kdk,¡ ml fn’kk ds fy, dksM djrh gSa ftl fn’kk esa og xfr’khy
gSA nks {ks= ,d lkFk dk;Z djrs gSa&LFkku dk uD’kk vkSj fn’kk dks
cks/k&buls tUrq vius vkl&ikl dh nqfu;k ds ckjs esa lh[krk gSA ;g
tUrqvksa ds fy, Li”V :i ls cgqr egRoiw.kZ gS] D;ksafd mudh
mŸkjthfork ds fy, Hkkstu vkSj ikuh rFkk okil vius ?kj] ?kksalys ;k
vU; fdlh fuokl esa vkuk dkQh vge gSA ;g [kksth vf/kxe iz.kkyh
lhesafVd vkSj ,filksfMd ;knnk’r ls lacaf/kr gSA ;s tUrq ,d LFkk;h
izfrfuf/kRo cukrs gS] tgk¡ pht+sa muds vf/kdkj {ks= esa gSa&Bhd mlh
rjg tks Kku ge nqfu;k ds ckjs esa vftZr djrs gSaA LFky dk uD’kk
;knnk’r dh ,d :ijs[kk iznku djrk gS] ftlesa ?kVuk,¡ ;kn j[kh
tkuh gSa&tSls fd vafre ckj Hk{kd tUrq dgk¡ fn[kkbZ fn;k FkkA Iysl
lSYl dsoy LFkku ds ckjs esa gh dksM ugha djrh] os tUrqvksa igys gks
pqdh ?kVuk,¡ ;kn j[kus esa lgk;rk djrh gSaA

fgIiksdSEil esa dksf’kdkvksa ds ikl pkj fjdkWfMaZx rkj nks rkjksa ¼1
vkSj 2] dHkh&dHkkh 4½ ij raf=dk iszj.kk tks ,d fo’ks”k LFky
¼xksykdkj vkos”Vd esa yky xeZ fcUnq½ ij Qk;j djus okys U;wjkWu
dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gSaA le; ds iSekus dks foLrkfjr djrs gq,
efLr”d dh rhfy;ksa dk vkdkj iznf’kZr gksrk gSA
;s uD’ks vkSj vU; ;knnk’r ds vos’ks”k fdl izdkj curs gSa \ ,d
mHkjrk fopkj ;g gS fd ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ij vk/kkfjr lkbusfIVd
izR;kLFkrk lfEefyr gSA blds fiNys v/;k; eas geus o.kZu fd;k gS
fd lkbusfIVd izR;kLFkrk dks lfØ; cukus ls U;wjkWu ds usVodZ esa
la;kstuksa dh ‘kfDr esa cnyko vkrk gS vkSj ;g fd lwpuk Hk.Mkfjr
djus dk ,d ekxZ gSA LFkkuksa ds ckjs esa lh[kus ij izHkko rc gksrk gS
tc ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa dks CykWd djus okyh nok fgIiksdSEil ij

33

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
yxkbZ tkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] pwgksa vkSj ew”kdksa dks ikuh dh
lrg ds uhps fLFkr ,d LFkku ij Nqis gq, IysVQkeZ dks [kkstus ds
fy, ikuh ds ,d iwy esa rSjus dks izf’k{k.k fn;k tkrk gSA ;s viuk
jkLrk [kkstus esa Iysl lSYl rFkk gSM Mk;jsD’ku lSYl dk mi;ksx
djrs gSa vkSj os ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa }kjk izR;kLFkrk ds mi;ksx ls
;knnk’r esa IysVQkWeZ dh lgh fLFkfr ds fy, dksM djrs gSaA thu
ukWd vkmV tUrqvksa dks rS;kj fd;k x;k gS] ftuesa ,u,eMh, xzkgh
muds fgIiksdSEil ls gVk fn, x, gSaA ;s tUrq lh[kus esa det+ksj
gksrs gSa vkSj buesa viw.kZ izdkj dh Iysl lSYl gksrh gSaA fiNys
v/;k; esa geus le>k;k gS fd lkbusfIVd Hkkj mŸkstd ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa esa ifjorZu ds ek/;e ls vfHkO;Dr fd, tkrs gSaA gesa vc
rd ;g irk ugha gS fd ;fn ;g ;knnk’r ds fy, lR; gS rks ;g
rqjUr dh l?ku vuqla/kku dk fo”k; gSA

pwgk iwy ds Nqis gq, IysVQkWeZ rd rSjrk gS ftl ij ;g [kM+k gSA

D;k ge viuh ;knnk’r c<+k ldrs gSa \
ge lHkh lksprs gSa fd gekjh ;knnk’r dh {kerk ;k LFkkf;Ro c<+
tk, rks vPNk gksA cw<+s yksx vkerkSj ij viuh ;knnk’r dh
f’kdk;r djrs gSaA ;|fi] ;knnk’r esa lq/kkj dh dher pqdkuh gksrh
gSA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd vPNh ;knnk’r ;kn j[kus vkSj Hkwy
tkus ds chp dk larqyu gSA ;fn ge bls lq/kkjuk pkgrs gSa rks gesa
fnuHkj esa gqbZ O;FkZ ckrksa dks ugha Hkwyuk pkfg, ftUgsa ;kn j[kus dh
dksbZ vko’;drk ugha gSA ,d vPNh ;knnk’r dk ^lkj* ;g gS fd
;g efLr”d esa lgh ckrksa dks ;kn vkSj O;ofLFkr djrh gS tks de
egRoiw.kZ izrhr gksrk gSA ,slk yxrk gS fd bldh laHkkouk ugha gS
fd gekjs ikl ,slh dksbZ xksyh gksxh tks tknw dh rjg gekjh
;knnk’r dks lq/kkj nsxh] de ls de lkekU; yksxksa esaA fodkl ls
lqfuf’pr gqvk gS fd ;g iz.kkyh vuqdwyre :i ls larqfyr gSA
;g dgk x;k gS fd okLro esa xaHkhj :i ls Hkwy tkus dk LoHkko
mu nokvksa ls c<+ tkrk gS tks ,u,eMh, ;k ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dks
csgrj rjhds ls dke djus nsrh gSa ;k f}rh; lans’kokgd ladsrksa dh
Ja`[kyk dks mÌhfir djus okyh nok] ftlds NksVs tUrqvksa esa lh[kus
ds v/;;u dks vfHkKkr fd;k x;k gSA raf=dkg~klh jksxksa ds c<+us ds
nkSjku Lvsfeax dk dqN ekxZ ikuk Hkh lgk;d gksxk] tSls fd
vYt+helZ jksx tks tYnh gh ;knnk’r ls tqM+h dksf’kdkvksa dks
izHkkfor djrh gSA bu fnuksa raf=dk foKku esa ekStwnk vUos”k.kksa esa ls
,d gS fo’ofo|ky;ksa] vuqla/kku laLFkkuksa vkSj QkekZL;qfVdy
dEifu;ksa esa oSKkfud bl izdkj dh ifj;kstukvksa ij dk;Z djrs gSaA
yxHkx lHkh fodflr ns’kksa dh tula[;k tukafddh esa o`)ksa dh
cgqyrk c<+us ds lkFk mUgsa yEck vkSj Lora= thou thus ds fy,
mipkj dh vR;Ur egŸkk gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

yanu ds VSDlh pkydksa dk fdjk, ij VSDlh pykus ds igys ‘kgj ds
lHkh jkLrksa ls ifjfpr gksuk iM+rk gSA tc vuqla/kkudrkZvksa us ,d
efLr”d LdSuj esa vuqHkoh VSDlh pkyd yxk, vkSj muls dgk fd os
ekcZy vkpZ ls ,fyQsaV ,.M dSly rd tkus dh dYiuk djsa] mUgksaus
pkydksa ds nk,a iSjkfgIiks dSEiy dkWVsZDl ¼yky {ks=½ esa vf/kd lfØ;rk
ns[khA VSDlh pkydksa dh lajpukRed ,evkjvkbZ LdSu esa muds
fgIiksdSEil ds fofHkUu fgLlksa dks lkis{k lkbt+ vyx&vyx gksrk gS]
tks blls lacaf/kr gS fd muesa ‘kgj ds jkLrs ;kn j[kus dh fdruh
{kerk gSA tcfd] blds vU; dkjd Hkh gks ldrs gSaA

crk;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq ;g de egRoiw.kZ ugha gSA fopkj ;g gS fd
lwpuk dks fdl izdkj dksM fd;k tkrk gS] bls Hk.Mkfjr] lesfdr
¼fLFkjhdj.k dh izfØ;k½ vkSj fQj iqu% izkfIr dSls dh tkrh gS] bldk
ykHk mBk;k tk,A /;ku nsuk] lh[kus ds l=ksa dk vk;kstu vkSj
fLFkjhdj.k izfØ;k esa lgk;rk ds fy, ckj&ckj ;kn fnykuk] lHkh
blds mnkgj.k gSaA ;knnk’r dh leL;k ls ihfM+r dqN cqtqxZ ^^U;wjks
ist** uked isftax iz.kkyh dh dkQh mi;ksxh ik jgs gSaA ;g iz.kkyh
mUgsa ;kn fnykrh gS fd mUgsa vxyk dke D;k djuk gS vkSj mUgsa
viuk fnu bl izdkj O;ofLFkr djus esa lgk;rk nsrh gS fd vU;Fkk os
bu dkeksa dks djuk Hkwy tk,aA ,filksfMd ;knnk’r vkSj lh[kus ds
dkS’ky ds fofHkUu izpkyu fl)karksa dks igpkurs gq, Hkh ;g vfuok;Z
gS& vki fdlh dkS’ky ds ckjs esa lqudj mls lh[k ugha ldsaxs] tcfd
;gk dk;Z ,filksfMd ;knnk’r ds fy, ,dne Bhd gSA fdlh dkS’ky
dks lh[kus ds fy, O;fDr dks ckj&ckj vH;kl djuk pkfg,] tSlk fd
laxhr ds f’k{kd ckj&ckj vius Nk=ksa dks ;kn fnykrs gSaA
,yku csMyh]
ftUgksaus dk;Z’khy ;knnk’r dk fopkj fodflr
fd;k] ftlesa fofHkUu var% fØ;kRed vusd
iz.kkfy;k¡ gksrh gSaA
QksuksykWftdy Hk.Mkj] fotq+vksLisfV;y Ldsp iSM vkSj dsUnzh;
dk;Zdkjh efLr”d ds fofHkUu fgLlksa esa fLFkr gksrs gSaA

;|fi] dqN oSKkfud ekurs gSa fd nokvksa ds lkFk cks/kkRed
vfHk;kaf=dh dh vko’;drk gksxhA vki vHkh cks/kkRed vfHk;kaf=dh
ds ckjs esa vf/kd i<+rs lqurs ugha gS] ftruk ubZ nokvksa ds ckjs esa

34

;knnk’r ds dqN vkSj iz;ksx djuk pkgrs gSa rks ns[ksa

http://www.exploratorium.edu/brain_explorer/memory.html

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

ruko

ruko thou dks Hkh izHkkfor djrk gSA ge lHkh bls vuqHko djrs gSaA
ijh{kkvksa] [ksydwn esa izfr;ksfxrkvksa ds nkSjku rFkk tc fe=ksa ,oa
nq’euksa ls eueqVko gksus ds le; ;g D;ksa gksrk gS vkSj bl nq[knk;h
laonsuk dk dkj.k D;k gS\ D;k ;g vPNk gS ;k dqN vkSj gS\ tc
dqN xyr gks tkrk gS rc D;k gksrk gS\ raf=dk oSKkfud ;g le>us
‘kq: dj jgs gSa fd efLr”d dSls ruko ds fy, jlk;fud izfrfØ;k
lefUor djrk gSA

ruko D;k gS vkSj gesa bldh vko’;drk D;ksa gksrh gS\
ruko tdM+us ds fy, [krjukd gSA ;g dsoy ruko esa gksuk ugha gS
& pwafd ges’kk ;g rukoiw.kZ ugha gS& ijUrq ;g ‘kjhj vkSj efLr”d
dh izR;k’kk vkSj okLro esa ge fdl pqukSrh dk vuqHko ,oa ,glkl
djrs gSa ds chp esy u gksuk gSA
cgqr lh pqukSfr;ka ftudk ge lkeuk djrs gSa] os euksoSKkfud gSa&
tSls&tSls ge vdkneh lQyrk] Ldwy Vhe esa txg ikus ds fy,
izfr;ksfxrk esa Hkkx ysrs gSa ;k ckn esa vius thou esa ukSdjh ds fy,
izfrLi/kkZ djrs gSa rc ;g vU;ksa ds lkFk vU;ksU;fØ;k dh dfBukb;ksa
ij fpUru djrs gSA vU; ruko ‘kkjhfjd gSa tSlk fd cgqr vf/kd
chekjh ;k dkj nq?kZVuk esa VwVh gqbZ Vkax vf/kdka’k ds lkFk ?kcM+kgV
vkSj fpUrk gksrh gSaA
ruko ,d ekSfyd izfØ;k gSA ;g lHkh vaxksa dks izHkkfor djrk gS]
ljyre cSDVhfj;k vkSj izksVkstksvk ls ysdj tfVy b;ksdkfj;ksVl
tSlkfd eekYl ¼Lru/kkjh½ rdA ,d lsy ds vaxksa vkSj gekjs ‘kjhjksa
ds O;f”V lsy esa eksysD;qy fodflr gq, gSa tks vkikrdkyhu flLVeksa
dh J`a[kyk eqgS;k djrs gSa tks vizR;kf’kr ckg~; pqukSfr;ksa vkSj muds
vkarfjd ifj.kkeksa ls eq[; lsy lac/a kh dk;ksZa dh j{kk djrs gaSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, fo’ks”k eksysD;qy ftls ghV&’kkWd izksVhu dgk tkrk
gS {kfrxzLr izksVhuksa dh j{kk djrk tgka mudh ejEer dh tk ldrh
gS ;k gkfujfgr mudk vi{k; fd;k tkrk gS bl izdkj ls lsyksa dh
fo”kkDrrk vkSj fuf”Ø;rk ls j{kk djrs gSaA tfVy vaxksa esa tSlkfd ge
yksxksa esa gesa izHkkfor djus okys lk/kkj.k pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus esa
lgk;rk djus ds fy, ruko flLVeksa us mPp tfVy izfØ;k,a
fodflr dh gSaA ;s ruko ls j{kk ds fy, cM+s usVodZ esa CykWd ds
fuekZ.k esa lsY;qyj izfrj{kk ra= dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA

la?k”kZ djuk ;k iyk;u djuk
igpkuus dh lcls ljy izfrfØ;k vuqdEik ¼lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ½ raf=dk
ra= dk rRdky lfØ;kUo;u gSA rukoiw.kZ pqukSrh izkIr djus ds
i’pkr vkSj mfpr izfrfØ;k dh ifjdYiuk djus ds ckn efLr”d
Rofjr xfr ls raf=dk dks lfØ; djrk gS tks efLr”d LVse ds
fu;a=.k dsUnzksa ls mRiUu gksrs gaSA buds dkj.k fofHkUu lajpuk esa
uksjkMªsukykbu vkSj ,Mªsuy XyS.M ¼tks fdMuh ds Åij fLFkr gksrk gS½
,Mªsukykbu fuxZe gksrk gSA muds fuxZe ls la?k”kZ ;k iyk;u dh
izfrfØ;k de gks tkrh gS& mRÑ”V rkRdkfyd izfrfØ;k tks [krjs ds
izR;qrj esa dh tkuh gSA ge lHkh vkjafHkd >qu>quh laosnuk] ilhuk
vkuk] ltxrk esa o`f) Rofjr ukM+h LiUn] mPp jDr pki vkSj Hk; dk
lkekU; vuqHkwfr igpkurs gSa] ftUgsa ge rukoiw.kZ pqukSrh ds rqjUr ckn
ds {k.kksa esa vuqHko djrs gSaA ;s ifjorZu fjlsIVj ¼xzkg~;½ tks jDr
oslsYl esa ik, tkrs gSa] ds dkj.k gksrs gS] tks mUgsa fldqM+us dks etcwj
djrk gS vkSj gekjk jDr pki Åij gksus yxrk gS vkSj fny esa lhus
esa ikSafMax laosnuk mRiUu djus vkSj mls c<+kus dk dk;Z djrk gS tks
/kM+du ds :i esa tkuh tkrh gSA Ropk esa Hkh fjlsIVj gSa ftudh otg
ls jks,a [kM+s gks tkrs gSa ¼xqt+cEIl½ vkSj vk¡r ¼xV½ esa lkeatL; fofgr
vCMksfeuy laonsuk mRiUu djrk gS ftldh vuqHkwfr ge lcdks ruko
ds :i esa gksrh gSA ;s ifjorZu ogka gesa la?k”kZ djus dk iyk;u djus
ds fy, rS;kj djus ds fufer gksrs gSa vkSj egRoiw.kZ vaxksa ekal isf’k;ksa
vkSj efLr”d esa jDr izokg ladsfUnzr djus ds fy, gksrs gaSA

gkbiksFkSysfed & fiV~;wVjh & ,Mªsuy ¼,pih,½ v{k

fgIiksdSEil
gkbiksFksykel
fiV~;wVjh

ruko vkSj efLr”d
efLr”d }kjk ruko dk cks/k gksrk gS vkSj izfrfØ;k lefUor gksrh gSA
efLr”d esa gekjk fLFkfr ds Kku dk ewY;kadu [kwu dh ukM+h esa
‘kkjhfjd ladsrksa ds lkFk vU;ksU;k; fØ;k djrk gS tSlkfd gkjeksu]
iks”kd vkSj Toyu’khy eksysD;qy vkSj eq[; vaxksa ,oa laonsukvksa dks
fu;af=r djus okyh ifj/kh; ulksa ls izkIr lwpuk ds lkFk ikjLifjd
fØ;k djrk gSA efLr”d fof’kf”V vkSj xzsMs izfrfØ;kvksa dh J`a[kyk,a
mRiUu djus ds fy, budks la?kfVr djrk gSA ;g ,slk fdl rjg ls
djrk gS] dks ge U;wjks,UMªksfØuksykWth ds v/;;u ls le> ik, gSaA
ruko ds lkFk ‘kjhj dks <yus ds fy, [kwu esa gkjeksu dk ifjpkyu
efLr”d }kjk fu;af=r gksrk gSA

,Mªsuy xzafFk
,pih, v{k% dsUnz esa gkbiksFksykel fiV~ohVjh ls gkjeksu ds lzko dks
fu;af=r djrk gS tks ,Mªsuy XyS.M ij dk;Z djrk gSA gkjeksu lzko
dk ukdkjkRed QhMcSd v{k ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij eqgS;k djk;k x;k
gSA

35

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
ruko ds izfr nwljk eq[; U;wjks,UMksfØu izfrfØ;k ‘kjhj vkSj efLr”d
dks tksM+rs gq, lfdZV dk lfØ;kUo;u gS tks ,pih, v{k dgykrk gSA
;g gkbiksFksykel fiV~;wVjh v{k ,Mªsuy dksVZsDl vkSj fgIiksdSEIkl dks
fo’ks”khÑr gkWekZsu izokfgr djus okyk CyM LVªhe gkbos ds tfj, ,d
lkFk tksM+rk gSA
gkbiksFksysel eq[; efLr”d {ks= gS tks gekjs cgq la[;d gkjeksuksa dks
fu;af=r djrk gSA vfexnyk lfgr laonsu’khy lwpuk dk fØ;kUOk;u
efLr”d ds {ks=ksa ls vkSj lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ raf=dk izfrfØ;kvksa dks fu;af=r
djus okys efLr”d LVse ds {ks=ksa ls etcwr fufo”V izkIr gksrh gSA ;g
lefUor gjeksu laca/kh izfrQy mRiUu djus ds fy, bUgsa la?kfVr
djrk gS tks lkfdZV ds vxys Hkkx fiV~;wVjh v{k dks mŸksftr djrk
gSA blds cnys esa ;g jDr esa lfMªuksdksfVZdksVªksfQu ¼,llhVh,p½ uke
dk gjeksu mRlftZr djrk gS ,llhVh,p rc dksfVZlksy dk lzko djus
ds fy, ,Mªsuy v{k ds Hkkx dks mŸksftr djrk gSA
dksfVZlksy ,d LVsjksbM gkjeksu gS tks vxys pj.k dh ruko izfrfØ;k
dks le>us dh dqath gSA ;g jDr ‘kdZjk vkSj vU; esVkcksfyd bZa/kuksa
tSlk fd olk ,lhM dks c<+krk gSA ;g cgq/kk izksVhu dh gkfu djrk
gS tks bZa/ku esa [kf.Mr gksrs gSa vkSj rRdky isf’k;ksa vkSj efLr”d ds
fy, rqjUr pkWdysV ckj dh vko’;drk gksrh gSaA dksfVZlksy ,Mªsuy
dks jDr pki c<+kus vkSj FkksM+s le; esa vkidks vPNk eglwl djus esa
enn djrk gSA Ldwy dksUlVZ esa ,dy xkuk xkus dk lkeuk djuk
iM+rk gS rks vafre pht tks vki djuk pkgrs gSa og gS] ?kcjkgV okyh
phtksa ds fo”k; lksprs jgukA vki bls ;FkklaHko de Lotkx#drk ls
djuk pkgrs gSa] dkfVZlksy o`f)] ikpu] tyu vkSj ;gka rd fd t[eksa
dk Hkjuk can dj nsrk gs& Li”Vr% ;s phtsa csgrj ckn esa dh tk
ldrh gSaA ;g ;kSusPNk Hkh can dj nsrk gSA lfdZV dk vafre dne
efLr”d dk dksfVZlksy QhMcSd gSA mPpre l?kurk dk dksfVZlksy
fllsIVj fgIiksdSEil esa gS] tks lh[kus vkSj Lej.k djus dh eq[;
lajpuk gS ijUrq dksfVZlksy vfexnyk ij Hkh dk;Z djrk gS tks Hk;
vkSj ?kcjkgV dk izfØ;kUo;u djrk gSA fuoy izHkko vfexnk dks
mŸksftr djuk gS] ;g lacaf/kr lwpuk dk tkuus ds fy, vuqer djuk
vkSj ;g lqfuf’pr djus ds fy, lalk/kuksa dh cokZnh vf/kd tfVy
ijurq lh[kus dh vuko’;d igyqvksa esa u dh tk, fgIiksdSEil dks
can djuk gSA
ruko vifjgk;Z gS] bldh vuqHkwfr ge lc djrs gSA ;g
euksoSKkfud] ‘kkjhfjd ;k ¼lkekU;r%½ nksuksa gksrk gSA

nks dksfVZlkys fjlsIVlZ vkSj fldqM+rh fgIiksdSEil dk fooj.k
fgIiksdSEil dk dksfVZlksy ds fy, mPp Lrj ds nks fjlsIVj gS&
ftUgsa ge fuEu ,evkj vkSj mPp th fjlsIVj dg ldrs gSaA fuEu
,evkj fjlsIVj ,pih, v{k ds jDr izokg gkbos esa dksfVZlksy ds
lkekU; :i ls ifjpkfyr Lrj }kjk lfØ;kfUor gksrk gSA ;g gekjs
lk/kkj.k esVkcksfyTe vkSj efLr”d izfØ;k dks vPNh rjg ls pkyw
j[krk gSA rFkkfi] tSls&tSls dksfVZlksy Lrj c<+us yxrk gS fo’ks”krk
lqcg esa] rc mPp thvkj fjlsIVj vf/kd izcy gksus yxrk gSA tc
ge ruko esa vk tkrs gSa rc dksfVZlksy dk Lrj cgqr vf/kd gks tkrk
gS] bl fjlsIVj dk lfØ;kUo;u LFkk;h gks tkrk gS vkSj rc
tsusfVdy :i ls fu;af=r dk;ZØe }kjk fgIiksdSEil can dj fn;k
tkrk gSA bu lcdks ,d lkFk feykus ls vkidks ?kaVh dh vkÑfr dh
oØ js[kk feysxhA ;g efLr”d ds dk;Z ds fy, ruko laca/kh mRÑ”V
oØ js[kk gS& FkksM+k gks rks vkids fy, vPNk gS blls FkksM+k vf/kd
csgrj gS ijUrq vR;kf/kd [kjkc gSA

36

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV

ruko ds fy, ?kaVs ds vkdkj dk oØA FkksM+k ruko phthsa dks csgrj cuk ldrk gS] ijarq vf/kd ls
ckr fcxM+ ldrh gSA

mnklh vkSj ruko&flLVe dh vfrlfØ;rk
jDr esa vR;kf/kd dksfVZlksy dqN Øksfud efLr”d jksxksa esa ns[kk tkrk
gSA fo’ks”k :Ik ls xaHkhj mnklh esa dfVZlksy vfr mRikfnr gksrk gS vkSj
gkfy; dk;Z fufnZ”V djrk gS fd bl ifjfLFkfr esa fgIiksdSEil Hkh
fldqM+ tkrk gSA ,sls v/;;uksa esa ifj.kkeLo:Ik xaHkhj mnklh dks
euksfpfdRld xaHkhj nh?kZof/kd ruko le>rs gSaA ;g lqfuf’pr ugha gS
fd of/kZr dksfVZlksy bl chekjh dk eq[; dkj.k gS u fd ;g flQZ
xaHkhj euksoSKkfud vlarqyu dk ifj.kke gS vkSj bldh lgorhZ ruko
gksrk gSA rFkkfi] dksfVZlksy ds mRiknu vkSj dk;Z dks can djds jksxh
dh mYys[kuh; :Ik ls lgk;rk dh tk ldrh gS fo’ks”k dj mu yksxksa
esa ftuesa mnklh jks/kh vkS”k/k dke;kc ugha gksrs gSA mnklh jks/kh vkS”kf/k
vfrfØ;k’khy ,pih, v{k dks lkekU; cukus esa cgq/kk lgk;rk djrk
gSA ,d jk; ;g gS fd os efLr”d esa ,slk ,evkj vkSj thvkj fllsIVj
dh l?kurk lek;ksftr djds djrs gSa fo’ks”kdj fgIiksdSEIl esa bl ij
dk;Z djus okys U;wjks oSKkfud ruko vlarqyu ds fy, vkSj vf/kd
izHkkodkjh mipkj fodflr djus vk’kk j[krs gSa tks QhM cSd fu;a=.k
iz.kkyh vkSj vR;kf/kd gkjeksuy ruko izfrfØ;k de djds dk;Z djrs
gSaA

ruko vkSj cq<+kik
efLr”d dk cw<+k gksuk dk;Z djus esa lk/kkj.k deh ds lkFk gksrk gS
fdUrq bl deh O;f”V;ksa esa vUrj gksrk gSA dqN O;fDr vk;q c<+us ds
lkFk vPNh vuqHkwfr {kerk cjdjkj j[krs gSa ¼lQy cq<+kik½ tcfd vU;
,slk ugha djrs gSa ¼vlQy cq<+kik½ D;k ge blds fy, eksysD;qyj dks
le> ldrs gS\ vlQy cq<+kik esa vlQy cq<+kik dh vis{kk dksfVZlksy
Lrj Å¡pk gksrs gSaA bl o`f) ds dkj.k ekufld {kerk esa fxjkoV vkrh
gS vkSj efLr”d ijh{k.kksa esa blds lkFk gh fgIiksdSEil ds vkdkj esa deh
ns[kh tkrh gSA pwgksa vkSj pqfg;k esa fd, x, iz;ksxksa us n’kkZ;k gS fd
tUe ls ruko gkjeksu Lrj fuEu j[kus ;k ek/;e vk;q ls LEkj.k nks”k
dks jksdrk gS vU;Fkk ;g vmipkfjr tula[;k esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
blfy, ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd ruko ds izfr vR;f/kd gkjeksu
izfrfØ;k okys O;f”V vf/kd rukoiw.kZ O;fDr;ksa dk gksuk vko’;d ugha
gS ijUrq os gS tks ruko ds izfr vR;f/kd izfrfØ;k djrs gSa&mu yksxksa
esa vf/kd Lej.k {k; gksrk gS vkSj c<+rh mez ds lkFk vU; vuqHkwfr
laca/kh nks”k ds f’kdkj gksrs gSaA ;fn ;g euq”; ds fy, Hkh lp lkfcr
gks rks ge ,sls izHkko ds Hkkj dks de djus esa leFkZ gks ldrs gSa ‘kk;n
ruko jks/kh vkS”k/k dk nksgu djds tks ,pih, ruko flLVe dks fu;af=r
djrk gSA ruko vk/kqfud thou dh eq[; fo’ks”krk gS& vkSj blds fo”k;
vkSj vf/kd dgk tk ldrk gSA ijUrq bldk o.kZu djus ds fy, gesa
izfrj{k.k flLVe ykuk gSA

: http://www.brainsource.com/stress_&_health.htm

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

izfrj{k.k ra=

dqN o”kZ igys rd efLr”d dks izfrjf{kr vax ekuk tkrk Fkk pawfd bl
ij Áfrjf{kr izfrfØ;k ;k mŸkstuk dk dksbZ izHkko ugha gksrk FkkA fu’p;
gh CyM czsu cSfj;j }kjk ckgjh ?kVukvksa ls dqN gn rd izfrjf{kr gksrk
gSA ;g okLro esa cSfj;j ugha gS ijUrq efLr”d jDr oslsYl esa fof’k”VhÑr
,aMksFksfy,y lsYl gS tks cM+s eksysD;qYl ds izokg ds fy, ;k jDr ls
izfrj{k.k lsyksa ds efLr”d esa izokg esa vis{kkÑr ck/kd gksrs gSaA rFkkfi
efLr”d ds izfr ;k lkSHkkX; dk n`f”Vdks.k ukVdh; :Ik ls fiNys n’kdksa
esa cny x;k gS pwafd efLr”d izfrj{k.k flLVe laca/kh vuqla/kku dk
ifj.kke ijLij fØ;k djrk gSA U;wjksMªE;wuksykWth vc vuqla/kku dk lfØ;
{ks= cu x;k gSA

‘kjhj j{kk
izfrj{k.k ra= cqjs vkØe.kdkfj;ksa ds fo:) gekjh izFke j{kk gSA ;s
vkØe.kdkjh okbjl] cSDVhfj;k vkSj [kehj tks lkekU; vkSj dksey gksrs
gSa tSlk fd tqdke tks vke rkSj ij lHkh tkurs gSa vkSj thou ds fy,
[krjukd mnkgj.kkFkZ ,pvkbZoh] esfuatkbfVl ;k V~;wcjDyksfllA
gekjh j{kk dbZ rjg ls dk;Z djrs gSA igys igy LFkkuh; :Ik ls fV’;w
ds Hkhrj tks laØfer] ?kk;y ;k mŸksftr gksrs gSa ftuds dkj.k lwtu]
nnZ] jDr izokg esa ifjorZu vkSj LFkkuh; Toyu’khy v.kq dk mRltZu
gksrk gSA vf/kd lkekU; :Ik ls izfrj{kkRed
ruko] lkekftd dkjd
efLr”d

gkbiksFksysel

g~;weksjy vkSj U;wjy
vQjsav

lhvkjih

flisFksfVd rf=dk r=
laØe.k
pksV
ÁToyu

fiV~;wVjh

,lhVh,p
ACTH

,fMªuy

XywdksdkWfVZdkWbM

LFkkuh; bQjsaV

bE;wu vkSj izfrj{kk ra=

iz.kkyh dk lfØ;u mŸksftr lsy tks C;wdksflV~l vkSj ekbØksQsxl
dgykrs gSa vkSj ,D;wV Qsl izksVhu tks vkØe.k LFky ij tkrs gSa] rkfd
os vkØe.kdkjh nq’eu dks igpku ldsa] ekj ldsa vkSj mUgsa gVk ldsaA
blds vfrfjDr ,D;wV pj.k dh izfrfØ;k tks y{k.k mRiUu djrs gSa
ftldk ge lcus vuqHko fd;k gS ¼cq[kkj nnZ] funzk] Hkw[k u yxuk]
v#fp gksuk½ buesa ls izR;sd izfrfØ;k laØe.k ls yM+us] ÅtkZ lajf{kr
djus vkSj ejEer esa lgk;rk djus esa lgk;rk nsrh gSa ijUrq tc
vR;kf/kd lfØ; fd, tkrs gSa vf/kd le; ds fy, os gkfudkjd gks
ldrs gSaA vr% mudks lko/kkuh iwoZd fu;af=r djus dh vko’;drk gSA

efLr”d vkSj j{kk izfrfØ;k,a
efLr”d ds ckjs esa ;g n`f”Vdks.k fd ;g lajf{kr vax gS] vc og cny
x;k gS vkSj bE;wu flLVe ds lkFk blds laca/k dh ,d vyx
ifjdYiuk dh xbZ gSA ;g blfy, gqvk D;ksafd ;g vc tku fy;k
x;k gS fd efLr”d bE;wu dh jpuk n’kkZrk gS vkSj mŸkstd izfr fØ;k
n’kkZrk gS] vkSj okLro esa ;g bE;wu flLVe ls izkIr ladsr ds izfr vkSj
{kfrxzLr fV’;w ls izkIr ladsrksa ds izfr izfrfØ;k dj ldrk gS vkSj
djrk gSA iqjkus fopkj esa myVQsj gqvk gSA iz;ksxksa ls irk pyk gS fd
efLr”d LFkkuh; bE¸;wu flLVe dk egRoiw.kZ fu;a=d vkSj cgqr vf/kd
Qsl izfrfØ;k dk fu;a=d gSA jksxksa ds izfr cgqr lh izfrfØ;k,a
tSlkfd cq[kkj ¼’kjhj dk rkieku½] funzk vkSj Hkw[k dk fu;a=.k eq[;r%
gkbiksFksysel }kjk gksrk gSA
efLr”d {kfrxzLr ;k laØfer fV’;wvksa ls ladsr izkIr djrk gS os
ewyr% U;wjy ¼laosnh ukM+h }kjk½ ;k gjeksuy ¼ifjpkfyr v.kq }kjk½ gks
ldrs gSA U;wjy ladsr lh&Qkbcj ds ek/;e ls izrhr gksrk gS ¼tks
nnZ dk Hkh lapkj djrk gS&v/;k; 5 ns[ksa½ vkSj fyoj ls osxl ukM+h
ds ek/;e ls &tks vR;kf/kd Qsl izksVhu ds mRiknu ds fy, eq[;
LFky gSA efLr”d esa eq[; ifjpkyu ladsrksa dh izÑfr dks iwjh rjg
ugha le>k tk ldrk gS ijUrq muesa izksLVkXyS.Mhu ¼ftUgsa ,Lizhu ls
jksdk tkrk gS½ vkSj dEyhesaV izksVhu ¼izksVhu dk ckWDl gS tks vkØed
lsyksa dks ekjus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSa½ ijUrq ‘kk;n vfr egRoiw.kZ ladsr
gSa izksVhuksa dk lewg tks fiNys 20 o”kksZa eas izdk’k esa vk, ftUgsa
lkbVksdkbUl ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA

j{kk eksysD;qy ds :Ik esa lkbVksdkbUl
lkbVksdkbUl ‘kjhj ds izfrdkjd gSaA vc 100 ls Hkh vf/kd gSa vkSj lc
le; vkSj vf/kd dh [kkst dh tk jgh gSA ;s izksVhu lk/kkj.kr% fuEu
Lrjksa ij ‘kjhj esa mRiUu fd, tkrs gSa ijUrq os jksxksa ;k pksV ds izR;qŸkj
esa rsth ls lfØ; fd, tkrs gSaA muesa baVjQsjksu] baVjY;qfdUl] V~;wej
esØksfll QSDVj vkSj dsseksdkbUl ‘kkfey gSA buesa ls cgqrksa dh mRiknu
{kfrxzLr fV’;wvksa ds Hkhrj LFkkuh; :I ls fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fudV ds
lsyksa ij fØ;k djrk gS ijUrq dqN jDr izokg esa izos’k djrs gSa tgka os
efLr”d lfgr nwjLFk vaxksa dks ladsr Hkstrs gSaA lkbVksdkbUl gh
vf/kdka’k jksxksa vkSj laØe.k ds izfr izfrfØ;k djrk gSA

efLr”d vkSj bE;wu flLVe ds leUo; ds fy, vusd efLr”d Á.kkfy;ka gSa

37

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

lkbVksdkbUl ds mRiknu ds fy, mŸkstdksa esa cSDVhfj;y ;k okbjy
mRiknu] lsyksa dks {kfr ;k lsy dh mŸkjthfork ds fy, [krjk tSlkfd
VkWDlhu ;k fuEu Lrj dk vkWDlhtuA lkbVksdkbUl mRiknu dk nwljk
egRoiw.kZ lapkyd gS efLr”d tks U;wjy ladsr fV’;wvksa dks nsus tfj,
¼eq[;r% lgkuqHkwfr laosnh ra= ds }kjk½ ;k gkekZsu ¼tSlk fd ,Mªsuy XyS.M½
ls dksfVZlksy] lkbVksdkbUl dks lfØ; ;k fuf”Ø; dj ldrs gSA
lkbVksdkbUl cgqr ls dk;Z djus okys izksVhu v.kq gSa fo’ks”k :Ik ls
bE;wu ra= ijA vf/kdka’k bE;wu ra= dks mŸksftr djrs gSa vkSj
mŸkstuk dk eq[; la?kVu tSlkfd lwtu] jDr izokg esa LFkkuh;
ifjorZu] vkSj mŸkstd v.kq ds nwljs izokg dk lzkoA os yxHkx lHkh
fQft;ksykWftdy ra=ksa esa dk;Z djrs gSa ftlesa ;Ñr ‘kkfey gS tgka os
vR;kf/kd Qsl izksVhu dks mŸksftr djrs gSA rFkkfi] ;|fi
lkbVksdkbUl vusd dk;ksZa esa Hkkx ysrk gS muesa Hkh egRoiw.kZ fHkUurk
gksrh gSA dqN mŸkstuk jks/kh gSa vkSj iwoZ mŸkstuk izfØ;k dk fu”ks/k
djrs gSa vf/kdka’kr% fudV ds lsyksa ij LFkkuh; :i ls dk;Z djrs gSa
tgka os mRiUu fd, tkrs gSa tcfd vU; ifjpkyu esa fueqZDr gksrs gSa
tSlk fd gjeksuA

ruko vkSj bE;wu flLVe
ge lcus lquk gS fd ruko vkSj ?kcjkgV gekjh Áfrj{kk dks de dj
ldrs gSa vkSj gesa jksxh cuk ldrs gSaA ge vc u dsoy ;g tkuus yxs
gSa fd ,pih, v{k dks lfØ; djds ruko dSls izR;{k :Ik esa efLr”d
dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gS ¼ftldk o.kZu fiNys v/;k; esa fd;k tk
pqdk gS½] ijUrq dSls ;g bE;wu ra= dks Hkh izHkkfor dj ldrk gS] blesa
dksbZ vk’p;Z ugha fd ;g vizR;{k ekxZ ds }kjk djrk gS og Hkh
efLr”d ds tfj,A ruko bE;wu ra= dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gS vkSj
jksxksa dh laHkkouk c<+rh gS] ijUrq ;g ruko ds izdkj ij fuHkZj gksrk gS
vkSj bl ij ge dSls izfrfØ;k djrs gSa] ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA dqN
yksx Li”V :i esa lQy gksrs gSaA ;g ruko dk izdkj gS ftlds lkFk
ge lek;kstu ugha dj ldrs gSa]

38

tks gekjh j{kk izfrfØ;kvksa dks cf/kr dj ldrk gS tSlk fd vf/kd dke dk
Hkkj eq[; vkinkA ruko vkSj bE;wu ra= ds chp laca/k ds fy, mŸkjnk;h
lVhd ra= dk iwjh rjg irk ugha yxk;k x;k gSA ijUrq ge tkurs gSa fd
eq[; fo’ks”krk gS gkbiksFksysfed &fiV~;wVjh ,Mªsuy v{k dks lfØ; djuk gSA
efLr”d esa ruko ds izfr ,d eq[; izfrfØ;k gkbiksFksysel esa izksVhu mRiknu
dk c<+ tkuk gS tks dksfVZdskVªksfQu fjyhftax QSDVj ¼lhvkj,Q½ dgykrk gSA
lhvkj,Q ,d vU; gjeksu ,Mªus ksdksVªksfQu fjyhftax QSDVj ¼,lhVh,p½
fueqZDr djus ds fy, gkbiksFksysel ls fiV~;wVjh v{k rd FkksM+h nwj dh ;k=k
djrk gSA ;g gkjeksu ,Mªsuy v{k esa ifjpkyu ds ekQZr LVsjksbM gkekZsu
fueqZDr djus ds fy, ¼ekuo esa dksfVZlksy½ ;k=k djrk gS tks bE;wu dk;ksZa
vkSj mŸkstukvksa dks nckus okys vR;f/kd l{keksa esa gSA ijUrq fdLlk blls
dgha vf/kd tfVy izrhr gksrk gS pwafd vU; gkekZsuy vkSj U;wjksuy rRo gSa
vkSj ge ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd gYds ruko ds dqN :i gekjs bE;wu dk;ksZa dks
lfØ; :Ik ls lq/kkj ldrs gSa

efLr”d ds Hkhrj bE;wu vkSj mŸkstd izfrfØ;k,a
gkfy;k vuqla/kkuksa us n’kkZ;k gS fd cgqr ls j{kk eksysD;qy tSlkfd
lkbVksdkbUl Hkh efLr”d ds jksxksa esa lfØ; ;ksxnku djrs gSa tSlk fd
cgqy Ldsysjksfll] nkSjk vkSj ,Yt+helZA ,slk yxrk gS fd efLr”d ds
Hkhrj gh ,sls eksysD;qy dk vR;kf/kd mRiknu raf=dkvksa uqdlku igq¡pk
ldrk gS fo’ks”kdj dqN [kkl lkbVksdkbUl efLr”d laca/kh jksxksa ds
fy, fofHkUu izdkj dh mipkj j.kuhfr;ksa dk fodkj bE;wu vkSj
mŸksTkd eksysD;qy dks jksdus ds fopkj ls fd;k tk jgk gSA blfy,
U;wjks bE;wuksykWth&tks U;wjks foKku ds {ks= esa u;k vkxarqd gS og cM+s
efLr”d jksxksa dk vkSj laHkkfor mipkj dk [kqyklk dj ldrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV : http://science.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

funzk

Z Z Zz

izR;sd jkf= ge vius ‘k;ud{k esa tkrs gS] fcLrj ij p<+rs gSa rFkk funzk
dh vpsr voLFkk esa pys tkrs gSaA ge esa ls vf/kdka’k yksx yxHkx 8 ?kaVs
rd lksrs gSa ftldk vFkZ gS fd ge vius thou dk yxHkx ,d frgkbZ
fgLlk vpsrkoLFkk esa fcrkrs gSa ftlds dqN Hkkx esa ge LoIukoLFkk esa jgrs
gSaA ;fn vki vU; xfrfof/k;ksa tSls nsj jkf= rd ikfVZ;ksa esa ‘kkfey jgus
vFkok ijh{kkvksa ds fy, ;kn djus gsrq v/kZjkf= rd i<+us ds fy, bl
cgqewY; le; dk iz;ksx djus gsrq funzk dk ifjgkj djus dk iz;kl djrs
gSa rks vki dk ‘kjhj rFkk fnekx ‘kh?kz gh vkidks lpsr djsxk fd vkidks
,slk ugha djuk pkfg,A ge funzk dks dqN le; ds fy, Vky ldrs gSa
fdUrq dHkh Hkh vf/kd le; ds fy, ugha funzk@tkx`rkoLFkk pØ ‘kjhj
rFkk fnekx ¼efLr”d½ dh vusd y;c) xfrfof/k;ksa esa ls ,d gS] os D;ksa
fo|eku gSa] buesa efLr”d ds dkSu ls Hkkx ‘kkfey gSa rFkk os fdl izdkj
dk;Z djrs gSaA

thou y?kq ¼lkeatL;½
funzk tkxj.k pØ ,d vartkZr lkeatL; gS tks thou ds vkjfEHkd o”kksZa
esa Øfed :i ls fnok&jkf= pØ esa vkc) gks tkrk gSA bls gh
ldkZfM;u lkeatL; dgk tkrk gS& bls ,slk blfy, dgk tkrk gS D;ksa
fd ^ldkZ* yxHkx ds fy, rFkk ^Mkbt+* fnu ds fy, iz;qDr fd;k tkus
okyk ySfVu ‘kCn gSA ;g thoui;UZr egRoiw.kZ gS% cPps ¼f’k’kq½ fnu vkSj
jkr nksuksa ds nkSjku y?kq vof/k;ksa ds fy, lksrs gSa( NksVs cPps vDlj
e/;kgu Hkkstu ds i’pkr >idh ysrs gSa tcfd o;Ld lkekU;r% dsoy
‘kr dks lksrs gSaA funzk vki ds fy, vPNh ¼lsgr ean½ gS& foalVu pfpZy]
tks nwljs fo’o;q) ds nkSjku iz/kkuea=h Fks] yxHkx ikap feuV dh dbZ ckj
eaf=eaMy cSBdksa ds nkSjku vYikof/k >ifd;ksa ds i{kdkj FksA
fnok&jkf= pØ esa funzk rFkk tkx`rkoLFkk dh lkekU; iSVuZ vkc)rk
n`f”Vd O;R;kfldk ds ,dne Åij fgiksFkSYel esa dksf’kdkvksa ds y?kq
lewg }kjk va’kr% fu;af=r gSa ftls lqijkdkb,TesfVd U;wfDy;l dgk
tkrk gSA U;wjksu] ftu esa viuk lapkyu bdV~Bs ledkfyd cukus ds fy,
vius nzqek’eksa ds chp vusd varxzZFkuksa dh vlkekU;rk gS] efLr”d dh
tSfod ?kM+h dk Hkkx gSaA ekuoksa esa ;g ?kM+h fnu ls dsoy dqN /kheh nj
ij pyrh jgrh gS fdUrq vk¡[k ls fufof”V;ksa }kjk lkekU;r% ;g irk
pyrk jgrk gS fd ;g fnu dk le; gS vFkok jkf= dk ge ;g tkurs gSa
D;ksafd nh?kkZof/k;ksa ds fy, lHkh izdkj ds ladsrksa ls nwj xgjh xqQkvksa esa
jgdj funzk iz;ksx esa Hkkx ysus okys yksx xfrfof/k ds ,sls iSVuZ viukrs gS
ftlesa yxHkx 25 ?kaVs dk LoPNsn funzk&tkxj.k pØ gksrk gSA

funzk dh voLFkk,a ¼pj.k½
funzk fcydqy vfØ; izfØ;k ugha gS tSlh og yxrh gSA ;fn fdlh O;fDr dks
funzk iz;ksx’kkyk esa ¼ftlesa fcLrj gSa u fd caSp½ mlds rkyw esa bySDVªkMksa ls
rkjc) dj fn;k tkrk gS rks efLr”d dk bysDVªks,ulsQsyksxzke ¼bZbZth½ vusd
lqLi”V pj.kksa ls xqjtrk gSA tkx`r gksus ij] gekjs efLr”d fuEu&vk;keh
oS|qr xfrfof/k n’kkZrs gSaA tc ge lks tkrs gSa rks bZbZth igys rks leery gks
tkrs gSa fdUrq fQj Øfed :i ls buds vk;ke esa o`f) gksrh gS rFkk izkf;drk
esa dHkh vkrh tkrh gS tSls&tSls ge funzk dh lqLi”V voLFkkvksa dh J`a[kyk ls
xqtjrs gSaA bu voLFkkvksa dks /kheh ygj funzk ¼,lMCY;w,l½ dgk tkrk gSA
oS|qr xfrfof/k esa bu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k vHkh rd iw.kZr;k le>s ugha tk lds
gSaA rFkkfi] ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd tSls&tSls efLr”d esa U;wjkWu viuh lkekU;
fufof”V;ksa ds izfr vuuqfØ;kRed gks tkrs gSa] os Øfed :i ,d nwljs ds lkFk
lgpkfyr gks tkrs gSa] tc dadkyh ekalis’kh lapyu dks fu;af=r djus okys
U;wjkWu lfØ; :i ls vo:) gks tkrs gS rks vkidh ekalis’kh xfrfof/k lekIr
gks tkrh gS fdUrq lkSHkkX;o’k ‘olu iz.kkyh rFkk g`n; dh /kM+du dks fu;af=r
djus okys U;wjkWu lkekU; :i ls dk; djrs jgrs gSaA
jkr Hkj ge funzk dh bu fofHkUu voLFkkvksa ls xqtjrs jgrs gSaA muesa ls ,d
voLFkk esa bZbZth] iqu% tkxzrkoLFkk dh Hkkafr gks tkrs gSa rFkk gekjh vka[ks
gekjh can iydksa ds chp vkxs ihNs gksrh jgrh gSaA ;g funzk dh dfFkr rhoz
v{kq lapyu ¼vkjbZ,e½ voLFkk gS tc gekjs }kjk Loiu ysus ds vf/kd
laHkkouk gksrh gSA ;fn yksxksa dks vkjbZ,e funzkoLFkk esa mBk;k tkrk gS rks os
yxHkx lnSo LoIu ysus dh lwpuk nsrs gSa& ;gk¡ rd fd os yksx Hkh tks
vk;ru ;g nkok djrs gS gSa fd mUgsa dHkh LoIu ugha vkrs ¼vius ifjokj ds
fdlh lnL; ij iz;ksx ds :i esa bldk iz;kl djsa½A oLrqr%] geesa ls
vf/kdka’k izR;sd jkr yxHkx 4 ls 6 ckj y?kq vof/k;ksa ds fy, vkbZ,e
funzkeXu gks tkrs gSaA f’k’kq dqN vf/kd vkjbZ,e funzk ysrs gSa rFkk i’kq Hkh
vkjbZ,e funzkeXu gksrs gSaA
tkx`r
vkjbZ,e
voLFkk 1
voLFkk 2
voLFkk 3
voLFkk 4
0

1

2

3

4

funzk ?kaVs

5

6

7

8

,d jkf= esa 8 ?kaVksa dh lkekU; funzk esa fofHkUu funzkoLFkk iSVuZ ‘kkfey
gksrs gS ftuesa izR;sd jkr yxHkx 4 ckj vkjbZ,e funzk dh y?kq vof/k;ka
¼yky {ks=½ vkrh gSA

funzk oapu
fnok izdk’k esa lfØ; ,llh,u

jkf= esa lqIrkoLFkk esa ,llh,u

lqij fdvk,t+esfVd U;wfDy;l efLr”d dh viuh O;fDrxr ?kM+h gSA

dqN o”kZ igys] ,d vejhdh ;qok] ftldk uke jSaMh xkbZuj Fkk] us vc
rd ntZ u dh xbZ nh?kZre vof/k ds fy, uhan ds fcuk jg dj fxUuh
cqu vkWQ fjdkWMZ esa LFkku cukus dk iz;kl djus rFkk mlesa lQy gksus
dk ladYiu fd;kA mldh vkadka{kk 264 ?kaVksa rd fcuk lks, jgus dh
Fkh rFkk mlus ,slk dj fn[kk;kA

39

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
;g vejhdh ukS lsuk esa fpfdRlksa }kjk Ik;Zosf{kr ,d lko/kkuhiowZd fu;af=r
iz;ksx Fkk& fdUrq ,slk iz;ksx ugha Fkk ftls nksgjkus dh ge vkidks vuq’kalk
djsaA vk’p;Ztud :i ls og vR;ar vPNh izdkj mŸkjthoh jgkA ftu
eq[; dfBukb;ksa dk mlus lkeuk fd;k ¼funzkyq eglwl djus ds vykok½] os
Fkha cksyus esa dfBukbZ] ladsUnz.k djus esa vleFkZrk] Lej.k’kfDr gkfu rFkk
Hkzkafrtud fnokLoIuA fdUrq mldk ‘kjhj mRÑ”V HkkSfrd fLFkfr esa jgk rFkk
og dHkh Hkh euksfof{kIr ugha gqvk vFkok okLrfodrk ls mldk lEidZ ugha
VwVkA iz;ksx iwjk djus ds i'pkr] mlus y?kq O;frØe n’kkZ;k] igyh jkr
og yxHkx iUnzg ?kaVs lks;k rFkk vuqorhZ jkrksa dks y?kq vfrfjDr vof/k;ksa ds
fy, lks;kA bl rFkk vusd vU; le:i iz;ksxksa ds funzk vuqla/kkudrkZvksa
dks fo’oLr dj fn;k gS fd funzk ls oLrqr% ykHkkfUor gksus okyk izeq[kr%
efLr”d gS rFkk ‘kjhj ugha gSA lko/kkuhiwoZd fu;af=r i'kq iz;ksxksa lfgr
vU; v/;;uksa ls Hkh blh izdkj ds fu”d”kZ fudkys x, gSaA

ge D;ksa lksrs gS\a
raf=dk foKku esa vusd eqÌs vHkh igsyh gh cus gq, gSa rFkk funzk muesa ls
,d gSA dqN yksxksa us rdZ fn;k gS fd funzk ek= i'kqvksa dks vpy j[kus
rFkk bl izdkj [krjs ls ckgj j[kus dk ,d lqfo/kktud mik; gSA fdUrq
blds lkFk blls Hkh dgha vf/kd dqN lacaf/kr gSA funzk oapu iz;ksx gesa
;g lkspus dk foo’k djrs gSa fd vkjbZ,e funzk rFkk ,lMCY;w,l ds dqN
pj.k efLr”d dks izÑfrLFk gksus esa leFkZ cukrs gSaA jkf= ds izFke 4 ?kaVksa
ds nkSjku gesa bl izdkj dh funzk vkrh gSA laHkor%] ;g efLr”d dks
iqu%O;ofLFkr gksus esa lgk;rk djrh gS rFkk ;g vko’;d dk;Z djus dk
,d vPNk dk;Z gS ‘kq”d xksnh esa uko ds lkFk lkn`’;rk djuk tc
efLr”d laosnh lwpuk dks izfØ;kfUor ugha dj jgk gS vFkok lrdZ ,oa
,dkxz ugha gksrk vFkok mls gekjh fØ;k,a fu;af=r ugha djuh iM+rh]
vuqla/kku ;g Hkh lq>krk gS fd funzk og le; gS tc ge mls lesfdr
djrs gS tks geus fiNys fnu lh[kk gS& Lej.k ‘kfDr dh ;g ,d vfuok;Z
izfØ;k gSA

lkeatL; ¼y;½ dSls dk;Z djrs gS\a
fofHkUu funzk voLFkkvksa ds chp laØe.kksa ds nkSjku fofHkUu efLr”d {ks=ksa esa
U;wjksuksa dh xfrfof/k dks vfHkys[kc) djds y;c) xfrfof/k;ksa ;Fkk funzk
ds raf=dk foKkuh izØeksa ds ckjs esa dkQh dqN irk yxk;k x;k gSA buls
,d efLr”d&Lda/k lfØ;.k iz.kkyh dk izdju gqvk gSSA ftlesa ,d izdkj
dh vkf.od J`a[kyk izfrfØ;k esa ,Mksuksflu uked U;wjks ekM~;wysVªjh

VªkalehVj lfgr fofHkUu U;wjks ekM~;wysVjh VªkalehVj varxzLr gSaA lgpkyu
izØe usVodksZa dks ,d funzk voLFkk ls nwljh voLFkk esa tkus esa lgk;rk
djrs gSa
raf=dk vkuqokaf’kdh ¼U;wjkstsusfVDl½ ls dkQh izxfr gkfly dh xbZ gSA
fofHkUu thuksa dks vfHkfpUgkafdr fd;k x;k gS tks ?kM+h dh dkWx ghyksa
¼nar&pØksa½ rFkk fudklksa dh Hkkafr y;c) xfrfu;kedksa ds vkf.od
la?kVd gSaA blesa ls vf/kdka’k dk;Z MªkslksfQyk ¼Qy eD[kh½ esa fd;k x;k
gS tgka ;g ik;k x;k gS fd nks thu ij ,oa fVe izksVhu mRikfnr djrs gSa
tks vius Loa; ds la’ys”k.k dks fofu;fer djus ds fy, var% fØ;k djrs
gSaA ,evkj,u, rFkk izksVhu la’ys”k.k fnu esa tYnh gh ‘kq: gks tkrs gSa]
izksVhu lafpr gksrs gS] ,d nwljs ds lkFk tqM+ tkrs gSa rFkk ;g lac/ku rc
viuk la’ys”k.k jksd nsrk gSA fnokizdk’k izksVhuksa dks voØfer djus esa
lgk;rk djrk gS ftudk Lrj varr% ,sls fcanq rd fxj tkrk gS tgka ij
rFkk fVe izksVhu cukus okys thu iqu% dke djuk vkjEHk dj nsrs gSaA ;g
pØ pyrk jgrk gS rFkk rc Hkh tkjh jgsxk ;fn U;wjksuksa dks ,d jdkch esa
thfor j[kk tkrk gSA gekjh rjg ds Lru/kkfj;ksa esa ?kM+h efD[k;ksa dh Hkkafr
gh vn~Hkqr :Ik ls le:i rjhds ls izpkyu djrh gSA pwafd ldkZfM;u y;
fodklkRed vFkZ esa dkQh iqjkru gSa] blesa laHkor% dksbZ vk’p;Z ugha gS fd
,d gh fdLe ds v.kq ,sls fHkUu thoksa esa ?kM+h dks lapkfyr djrs gSaA

vuqla/kku ekspZ
izdk’k

va/ksjk

izdk’k

va/ksjk

izdk’k

va/ksjk

izdk’k

va/ksjk

10

fnu

20

lkekU; pwgs ^^tSV ySx** n’kkZrs gSA
pwgs tks tsV ySx ugha n’kkZrs

30
40

mRifjorhZ pwgs rRdky ^^?kM+h varj.k** djrs gSaA

ldkZfM;u y; ds vkf.od izØeksa ds csgrj vocks/ku dk iz;kl djus ds fy,]] raf=dk foKkfu;ksa us vkuqokaf’kd :I ls ,sls pwgs rS;kj fd, gS
ftuesa lqijkfdvk,t esa fVd U;wfDyDl esa vfHkO;Dr thu **fudky fn, tkrs gSa** ;s ohvkbZohvkj 2 pwgsa vPNh izdkj thfor jgrs gSa rFkk
lkekU; pwgksa dh Hkkafr gh jkr rFkk fnu ds chp xfrfof/k iSVuksa esa ifjoZru n’kkZrs gSa Åij iSVuZ ds dkys fcanq n’kkZrs gSa fd pwgs dc lfØ;
gksrs gS & jkf= esa xfrfof/k dk ,d nSfud y; ¼xzs {ks=½ rFkkfi] og le;} tc ykbVsa can dk nh tkrh gSa] vdLekr 8 ?kaVs vkxs c<`k fn;k
tkrk gS ¼yxHkx 25 osa fnu½ rks lkekU; pwgs vius xfrfof/k iSVuksa dks varfjr djus esa dqN fnu yxkdj ^^tSV ySx** n’kkZrs gSaA ukWd vkÅV
¼thu fudkys x,½ pwgsa rRdky varj.k dj ysrs gSaA bl izdkj ds v/;;u ges mu vkf.od izØeksa ds ckjs esa lh[kus esa lgk;rk djrs gS ftuds
}kjk izdk’k ldkZfM;u xfrfu/kkZjd thuksa dks izf’kf{kr djrk gSA

40

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV: http://www.hhmi.org/lectures/2000/
http://www.cbt.virginia.edu, http://science.howstuffworks.com/sleep.htm

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

efLr”d Nfodj.k
diky oSKkfudksa us lkspk fd os [kksiM+h dh lrg ij xqeVs dk
ijh{k.k djds efLr”d dks le> ldsaxsA ;fn ;g vc vLokHkkfod gS]
mudh [kksiM+h ds ckgj ls bls ns[kdj efLr”d dks le>us dh
egRokdka{kk ;qxksa ls cgqrksa dks vkdf”kZr fd;k gSA vc ge okLro esa
vk/kqfud efLr”d Nfodj.k rduhdh ds tfj, ,slk dj ldrs gSaA
vk/kqfud LdSuj efLr”d esa jDr izokg vkSj ÅtkZ esVkcksfyTe dh
U;wjksuy ,oa Qkbcj ekxZ <kaps dh vkSj tc ge vyx&vyx phtsa
djrs gSa rc gksus okys raf=dh; dk;Zdykiksa esa gksus okys ifjorZrjksa
dh vk’p;Ztud Nfo iznku djus ds fy, fofHkUu lk/kuksa dk mi;ksx
djrs gSaA

vk/kqfud rduhfd;ksa dh lgt fot;
<kaps dk dk;Z laca/k LFkkfir djus ds iz;kl esa U;wjksykWftLV vkSj
U;wjkslkbdksykWftLV }kjk cgqr vf/kd lh[kk x;k tks iksLVekVZe esa
fnekx dh fdlh ,MhVht ;k O;ogkj dks efLr”d lajpuk dh eki ds
lkFk lacaf/kr djrs gSaA bl rjg ls efLr”d dk okDl {ks= dh czksdk
}kjk igpku dh xbZA bl rjhds dh vusd lQyrk,a Hkh fdUrq bldh
Hkh lhek,a gSaA dksbZ Hkh ljy :i ls ;g ugha eku ldrk fd efLr”d
ds {ks= dh {kfr ds dkj.k dk;Z dk {k; ml {ks= ds lkekU; dk;Z dks
n’kkZrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, vleFkZrk gks ldrh gS pwafd og {ks=
dV x;k gks ;k vU; {ks=ksa ls vyx gks x;k gS ftlds lkFk ;g
lekU;r% lacaf/kr jgrk gSA ;g Hkh lEHko gS fd {kfrxzLr u gq,
efLr”d {ks= dqN dk;Z dj ldrs gSa] tks lkekU; ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa
{kfrxzLr {ks= }kjk fd, tkrs gSaA ;g IykfLVflVh ds uke ls tkuk
tkrk gSA varr% cgqr gh de iSFkksykWftdy pksVsa lVhd dk;kZRed
{ks= esa lhfer gSa vkSj tc thfor gSa rc ejht ds v/;;u vkSj ckn
esa muds efLr”dksa ds fo’ys”k.k ds chp cgqr vf/kd foyEc gks ldrk
gSA
<kapkxr efLr”d Nfodj.k rduhdh yxHkx 30 o”kZ igys fodflr
gksuk ‘kq: fd;kA fpfdRlk ‘kjhj ‘kkfL=;ksa }kjk dk;kZRed Nfodj.k
izfof/k dk gkfy;k fodkl us fo’ks”k /;ku vkdf”kZr fd;k gSA ;s gesa
‘kCn’k% [kksiM+h ds vanj ns[kus vkSj ekuo efLr”d ds Hkhrj >kadus esa
leFkZ cukrk gS&pwafd ;g lksprk] lh[krk vkSj Loiu ns[krk gSA

;g dSls dk;Z djrk gS
raf=dh; dk;Zdykiksa dks ekWuhVj djus ds fy, bysDVªksfQft;ksykWftdy
rduhfd;ka lfØ;kfUor U;wjkWuksa dh esEczsu {kerk esa ifjorZuksa ij
vk/kkfjr gSaA efLr”d ijh{k.k rduhdh lfØ; U;wjkWu }kjk visf{kr ÅtkZ
esVkcksfyTe esa ifjorZuksa dks ekWfuVfjax djds dk;Z djrs gSaA
bysDVªks jlk;u rRp tks U;wjksu ds Hkhrj vkSj ckgj ¼tks flukfIVd vkSj
lfUufgr dk;Z {kerk gS½ izHkkfor vk;u izo`Ÿk djrs gSa vius dk;Z ds
fy, mUgsa ÅtkZ dh vko’;drk gksrh gsA bl ÅtkZ dk lzksr Xywdkst
dk vkWDlhMs’ku gSA lsjscsjy ifjpkyu ds }kjk Xywdkst vksj vkWDlhtu
efLr”d esa Hksts tkrs gSaA U;wjksokLdqyj lEidZ dh otg ls lfØ;k {ks=ksa
esa lsjscsjy jDr izokg esa LFkkuh; o`f) gksrh gSA ;g cgqr tYnh gksrh
gSA vk/kqfud raf=dk Nfodj.k LFkkuh; lsjscsjy jDr izokg esa bu
ifjorZuksa dks ekirk gS vkSj U;wjy dk;Zdyki ds lwpdkad ds :i esa
mudk mi;ksx djrk gSA
fodflr dh tkus okyh igyh dk;kZRed rduhdh dks iksthVªksu ,felu
VksekxzkQh ¼ihbZVh½ dgk tkrk FkkA bl izfØ;k esa jsfM;ks ,fDVo VsªllZ
dks ekuo ‘kjhj esa izo`Ÿk djuk ‘kkfey gSa tks tSo foKkuh laca/kh feJ.k
ls tqM+s gksrs gSa ¼tSlk fd vkS”k/ktks U;wjksVªkWlfeVj fllsIVjksa½A ejht ds
flj ds pkjksa vksj fMVsDVj dk fjax U;wfDy;j bZlksVksi }kjk mRlftZr
xkek ds lw{e rRoksa le; vkSj mudh fLFkfr fjdkWMZ djrk gS pwafd ;s
efLr”d ds vkj&ikj tkrk vkSj u”V djrk gSA ihbZVh dk mi;ksx
LFkkuh; lsjsczy jDr izokg esa ifjorZuksa dk uD’kk rS;kj djus ds fy,
iz;qDr gks ldrk gSA ,sls ifjeki ds ifj.kke Lo:i ekuo efLr”d ds
laosnh] eksVj vkSj vuqHkwfr efLr”d dk;ksZa ds LFkku fu/kkZj.k fd;k x;kA
ihbZVh ds vusdkusd nks”k gSa lcls izeq[k ;g gS fd blds fy, jsfM;ks
,fDVo Vsªlj dks izo`Ÿk djuk vko’;d gSA bldk eryc ;g gS fd
cgqr ls yksx ihbZVh ijh{k.k ugha djk ldrs gSa] tSlkfd cPps vkSj cPpk
tuus dh vk;q dh efgyk,a vkSj vla[; mik; dks ijh{k.k ds nkSjku
fd, tkrs gSa] os lhfer gSaA
,d vyx rduhdh ftls eSXusfVd fjlkssusUl besftax dgk tkrk gS] dk
fodkl fd;k x;k tks vki&ikj tkus okyk ugha gS vkSj jsfM;ks ,fDVo

ck,a % ÁFke czsu Ldsuj ds fodkl ds fy, ^chVYl* ds fjdkWMZ dh fcØh ls gq, ykHk ls bZ,evkkbZ us lgk;rk nhA buls vkSj ckn esa fodflr gqbZ e’khuksa ls raf=dkfoKkfu;ksa dks efLr”d ds ckjs esa ,d u, rjhds ls
ns[kus esa enn feyhA
nk,a % ,d vk/kqfud ,evkjvkbZ LdsujA blesa jksxh dks ,d est+ ij fyVkdj pqEcdksa ds ,d NYys ds chp Hkstk tkrk gS ftlesa 30 feuV ls ysdj ,d ?kaVs rd dk le; yx ldrk gSA

41

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
rRo dh blds fy, vko’;drk ugha gksrh gSA blls fdlh Hkh vk;q ds
yksxksa dk ijh{k.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,evkbZvkbZ dk mi;ksx vfr
lw{ere efLr”d <kapk dh Nfo Ánku djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj
,d gkfy;k fodkl tks fM¶;wtu VsUlj besftax ¼MhVhvkbZ½ dgykrk gS]
Qkbcj dh lQsn lkexzh dh C;kSjsokj Nfo laHko cukrk gS tks efLr”d
{ks= ls tksM+rk gSA

efLr”d dh jDr uyh dk fp=A blesa jDr Áokg vkSj U;wjy xfrfof/k dk irk
ykxk;k tk ldrk gSa

,evkjvkbZ ÁkS|ksfxdh dh lcls vf/kd mRlkgtud vuqÁ;ksx tks efLr”d
ds dk;kZas ds fo”k; esa n’kkZrk gSa % ;g QUD’kuy eSXusfVd fjlksusUl besftax
¼,Q,evkjvkbZ½ dgk tkrk gSA ;g rduhdh jDr esa vkWDlhgheksXyksfcu
vkSj fMvkWDlhtsusfVM gheksXyksfcu dh eSXusfVd rRoksa esa fHkUurk ij
vk/kkfjr
gS
¼blfy,
,Q,evkjvkbZ
esa
ladsr&CyM
vkWDlhtsu’ku&yscy&fMisUMsUV flXuy&chvks,yMh dgk tkrk gS½A pwafd
of/kZr U;wjkWuy dk;Zdyki vk;u dh xfr c<+krs gSa tks vk;u iEi dh
vko’;drk okyh ÅtkZ dks lfØ; djrk gSA ÅtkZ esVkcksfyTe vkSj
vkWDlhtu dh [kir esa o`f) gksrh gSA blls fMvkWDlhtsufs VM gheksXyksfcu
esa o`f) vkSj eSXusfVd ladsr esa deh gksrh gSA rFkkfi] vkWDlhtu dh [kir
esa o`f) ds ,d lsds.M ds Hkhrj gh LFkkuh; lsjsczy jDr Áokg esa o`f) gksrh
gSA lsjsczy jDr Áokg esa o`f) vkWDlhtu dh [kir esa o`f) ls vf/kd ls
vf/kd gksrh gS( blfy, vkWDlhgheksXyksfcu vkSj ladsr ds vkdkj esa lkis{k
o`f) gksrh gSA of/kZr lsjsczy jDr Áokg dk lVhd ra= vHkh rd vLi”V gS]
ijUrq U;wjksVªkalfeVj lacaf/kr ladsrhdj.k vc mŸkjnk;h le>k tkrk gSA

bldk mi;ksx

dEI;wVj ÁkS|ksfxdh ds lkFk] ihbZVh vkSj ,evkjvkbZ Ldsuj }kjk feys fp=
efLr”d ds vanj gksus okys jDr cgko dk Bhd&Bhd irk yxk;k tk ldrk
gSA

42

vki la[;kvksa dks vPNh rjg ?kVk ldrs gSaA ijUrq D;k vkius dHkh
efLr”d dks ?kVkus dh ps”Vk dh gS \ blesa dksbZ vk’p;Z ugha fd yM+dk
fojks/kkHkkl esa gS ¼dkVZwu½A 2 ;k 3 vk;keksa esa efLr”d dh Nfo dks ?kVkuk
MkVk fo’ys”kdksa ds fy, dfBu gks tkrk gSA vf/kdka’k ,Q,evkjvkbZ
v/;;uksa esa tc yksx lko/kkuh iwoZd fu;af=r dk;Z esa dk;Zjr jgrs gSa rc
chvks,yMh ladsr dk ifjekiu ‘kkfey gSaA ijh{k.k ds nkSjku] ejht pqEcd
ds cksj ds vanj ysV tkrk gS] vkSj laosnh ds Áfr muds O;ogkfjd
ÁfrfØ;kvksa dks ekWuhVj fd;k tkrk gSA cgqr vf/kd laosnh ÁLrqr fd,
tkrs gSa ;k rks n`’; gksrs gSa] ftUgsa inZs ij ejht ds ns[kus ds fy, Á{ksfir
fd, tkrs gS ;k JO; {ks= esa gsMQksu ds }kjk miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
xqIr n`’; tSlkfd vuqHkwfr lh[kus] Lej.k djus ;k ;kstuk cukus ds
n`’;ksa dk Hkh ijh{k.k djuk laHko gSA cgq/kk ,d ds ckn nwljs dks
djus ds fy, nks cgqr gh ,d leku dk;ksZa dh :ijs[kk rS;kj dh
tkrh gSA blds ihNs ;g vk’k; gS fd ÁFke dk;Z esa efLr”d dh
ÁfØ;k fufgr gksrh gS ftls Á;ksxdrkZ ns[kuk pkgrk gS tcfd nwljs esa
ugha gksrh gSA ÁkIr dh xbZ efLr”d dh Nfo;ksa dk Øe ,d nwljs ls
vyx dh tkrh gSa rkfd egRoiw.kZ efLr”d dh ÁfØ;k esa lafyIr
fof’k”V dk;Zdykiksa esa ifjorZuksa dh fidlsysfVM 2Mh Nfo mRiUu dh
tk ldsA bu Nfo;ksa dks 3 vk;keksa ¼fiNys i`”B dk dkVwZu ns[ksa½ esa
Nfo dks ÁHkkoiw.kZ rjhds ls O;odyu mRiUu djus ds fy, dEI;wVj
}kjk jkf’kÑr fd;k tkrk gSA gkfy;k fodklksas dk vk’k; ;g gS fd
;gka rd fd cgqr gh {kf.kd fopkj ;k efLr”d dh ?kVuk ¼,d ;k nks
lsds.M ds varjky dh NksVh ls NksVh ?kVuk½ dk ifjekiu fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ;g ?kVuk laca/kh ,Q,evkjvkbZ ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA
MkVk fo’ys”k.k dh tfVy Áfof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx ;g ijh{k.k djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gS fd D;k dk;Z djus ds nkSjku ladsrksa esa gksus okys
ifjorZu lkaf[;dh; :i ls fo’oluh; gSa ;k ughaA ,d cgqr vf/kd
Á;qDr gksus okyk fo’ys”k.k iSdst] ftlus Nfodj.k MkVk ds
lfØ;kUo;u dk ekudhdj.k fd;k gS] LVSfVdy ikjkesfVªd eSfiax

oh5 {ks= ds lfØ;.k ls xfr ds vocks/k dk Án’kZu gksrk gSA bl {ks= dh
fufof”V;ka dkWVsZDl ds oh2 {ks= vkSj iYohukj ¼iqy½ ls vkrh gS tks
efLr”d esa xgjkbZ ij fLFkr gksrk gSA lwpuk ds Áokg dk fu;a=.k dk
i'pisjkbVy dkWVZsDl ¼ihihlh½ djrk gSA ÁHkkoh la;kstdrk fo’ys”k.k ls
buds lkis{k ;ksxnku Kkr fd, tk ldrs gSaA

fnup;kZ ds rkSj ij ÁTofyr gksus okyk esfM,y VsEiksjy yksc dks ns[kus
esa vÁR;kf’kr pwd gksukA rFkkfi] u, ijh{k.k :irkfydk,a dqN esa
opZqvy okLrfodrk ‘kkfey gSa] os vU; {ks=ksa lfgr Lej.k esa
ÁfØ;kUo;u esa vc blds dk;Zdyki n’kkZrs gSa tSlkfd fÁÝUVy
dksVsZDl vkSj fÁdqulA u, euksoSKkfud vkSj vU; Nfodj.k voyksduksa
ds lkFk feydj lafyIr ;g fofo/k efLr”d {ks= ls gekjh efLr”d ds
Lej.k flLVe dh tkudkjh esa iqujh{k.k gqvk gSA

,d O;fDr dks LdSuj esa vusd Ádkj dh pk{kq”k Nfo;ksa ds ek/;e ls ns[kk
tk ldrk gSA buesa ls lHkh pk{kq”k dkWVsZDl ds ÁkFkfed {ks=ksa dks ^^tyk,axs**]
tks gS oh1 vkSj oh2A Dysoj ?kVko ds bLrseky ls Kkr gqvk gS fd jax
Álalk/ku ¼ck;ka½ oh4 {ks= eas gksrk gS] tcfd xfr ds ÁlaLdj.k ls oh5
lfØ; gks tkrk gSA ¼nk;ha vkSj&,d insZ ij vfu;fer :i ls ?kwers fcUnq½A

¼,lih,e½ dgykrk gSA ,lth,e eSiksa dks cgq/kk jaxhu cuk;k tkrk gS] dk;Z
ds lcls xeZ {ks=ksa ds fy, vkx dh rjg ihys jax dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS] B.Ms {ks=ksa ds fy, uhyk vkSj dkyk dk Á;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
efLr”d Nfodj.k oSKkfud bu {ks=ksa dks ^^ykbfVax vi** dgrs gSa tc dqN
[kkl dk;Z fd, tkrs gSaA ;fn O;fDr yxkrkj ifjofrZr gksrh psdcksMZ iSVuZ
dks /;ku ls ns[krk gS rks ÁkFkfed n`’; dksVsZDl esa LFkk;h lfØ;u ns[kk
tkrk gSA xfr’khy vkSj jaxhu jax iSVuksZa dk mi;ksx vkSj n`’; flLVe ds
fofHkUu {ks=ksa dks lfØ; djus ds fufer fMtkbu dh xbZ vU; mŸkstuk us
gesa ekuo n`f”V flLVe dh lajpuk ds ckjs esa cgqr vf/kd ubZ tkudkjh
fn;k gSA vU; laosnh ifjorZuksa ds fy, blh rjg ds v/;;u fd, x, gSA
;g lkspus dk LFkkuhdj.k rjhdk us i<+us ds fof’k”V la?kVdksa esa lafyIr
efLr”d ds {ks=ksa dh igpku djus esa Hkh lgk;rk dh gSA tSlkfd n`’;
‘kCnksa dks Loj foKkuh dksM esa cnyus] Lojksa dks ,d lEiw.kZ ‘kCn esa
lewgc) djuk] ‘kCnksa dk vFkZ fudkyus dh ÁfØ;k vkfnA lh[kus ds dk;kZa
dk Hkh v/;;u fd;k x;k gS] ftleas efLr”d {ks=ksa ls foPNsfnr dk;Z
‘kkfey gS tks nnZ dh ÁR;k’kk vkSj vuqHkwfr djus esa dk;Zjr gSA
rFkkfi] tSls tSls vuqla/kku c<+rk x;k cgqr ls vk’p;Ztud rF; lkeus
vk,A ,d ÁkjafHkd mnkgj.k gS] nh?kkZof/kd Lej.k ds dk;Z esa

fdl Ádkj ls fofHkUu efLr”d {ks= ijLij lacaf/kr gksrs gS ¼tks
bQsfDVo dusfDofoVh ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gS½ ds U;wjy dk;Zdyki dks
ns[kus ds fy, u, xf.krh; rduhfd;ksa dk Hkh fodkl fd;k tk jgk
gSA ;g mik; gekjs fy, ;g Á’kalk djuk lqdj cukrk gS fd dSls
efLr”d {ks= ,d Vhe ds :i esa dk;Z djrs gSa u fd ekewyh
vyx&vyx dk;kZRed gkWV&LiksV dh rjgA ;g vk’kk dh tkrh gS fd
;s ubZ rduhfd;ka] mPp QhYM {kerk okys pqEcd ds lkFk vkSj vf/kd
lVhd Nfo;ka Ánku djrh gSa] tks gesa vuqHkwfr ds lheysl fu;a=.k]
fopkj vkSj dk;Z esa ,d nwljs ls ckrphr djrs U;wjkWuksa ds usVodZ dh
fØ;kvksa ds ckjs esa cryk,xkA

vuql/a kku vxz.kh

fudksl yksxksFksfVl ,d ;qok vuqla/kkudrkZ gS ftlus efLr”d esa U;wjkWuksa ds
dk;Zdyki vkSj efLr”d Nfodj.k Á;ksxksa esa ns[ks x, ladsrksa ds chp laca/k
dk le>us esa cM+k ;ksxnku fn;k gSA
gkfy;k vuql/a kku ftlesa ,Q,evkjvkbZ ds lkFk fo|qrh; fjdkWfMZxa feyk;k
x;k gS us dk;Z {kerk fu”iknu dh vis{kk flukfIVd dk;Zdyki vkSj cksYM
ds chp cgqr vf/kd lfUudV laca/k n’kkZ;k gSA blfy, chvks,yMh ladsr
bldh dk;Z{kerk ÁfrQy dh vis{kk efLr”d {ks= ds Hkhrj flukfIVd
ÁfØ;kUo;u ds fo’oluh; lwpdkad gSA dk;Z ds LFkku fu/kkZj.k dh rtZ
ij chvks,yMh ladrs dh O;k[;k ds fy, bldk egRoiw.kZ fufgrkFkZ gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl: http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/bic/
http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/

43

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk usVodZ vkSj
Ñf=e efLr”d
okLrfod efLr”d ,d my>u Hkjk vax gSA bldh raf=dk] jDr lsy
vkSj nzo ls Hkjh osafVªdYl fyfiM esEczsu izksVhu vkSj vR;f/kd ikuh ls
cuh gksrh gSaA vki viuh maxyh ls efLr”d esa Nsn dj ldrs gSa]
ekbØksVkse ij dkV ldrs gSa] bldh raf=dkvksa esa bysDVªksM ?kqlk
ldrs gSa vkSj blds tfj, jDr pki ns[k ldrs gSaA efLr”d dk
v/;;u n`<+rk iwoZd thofoKku vkSj vkS”kf/k;ksa ij dsfUnzr gSa izrhr
gksrk gSA rFkkfi] blds ckjs esa vU; rjg dh lksp gS ftlus xf.krKksa]
HkkSfrdh foKkfu;ksa] vfHk;ark vkSj dEI;wVj foKkfu;ksa dk /;ku vkdf”kZr
fd;k gSA os efLr”d ds ckjs esa lehdj.k fy[kus] dEI;wVj dk eksMy
cukus vkSj ;gka rd fd gkMZos;j midj.k cukus ds }kjk lksprs gSa tks
gekjs flj ds Hkhrj okLrfod raf=dkvksa dh udy djrs gSaA
okLrfod efLr”d cgqr vf/kd vuqdwyuh; gksrs gSaA os ,slh phtsa
djus esa leFkZ gksrs gSa tSls gLrfyfi i<+uk] ftls geus igys dHkh
ugha ns[kk gS vkSj iwjh rjg vutku O;fDr dh cksyh dks le>ukA
vkSj os xyr gksus okyh phtksa dks cnkZ’r dj ldrs gSaA os thou Hkj
ds fy, ;Fkksfpr vPNh rjg dk;Z djrs gSa ;|fi lsy ejrs gSa vkSj
;gka rd fd o`)koLFkk esa Hkh efLr”d ubZ pky lh[kus esa leFkZ gksrs
gSaA vkt ds jkscksV izfrcaf/kr {ks= ds dk;Z djus esa cgqr vPNs gksrs gSa
ftuds fy, mudh fMtkbu dh xbZ gSA tSls NksVk lk dkj cukuk
ijUrq tc dqN xyr gks tkrk gS rc cnkZ’r ugha dj ldrs gSaA
lHkh okLrfod efLr”d cgqr vf/kd ijLij lacaf/kr raf=dh; usVodksZa
ls cus gksrs gSa mudh raf=dkvksa dks ÅtkZ dh vko’;drk gksrh gs vkSj
usVodZ ds fy, txg dh vko’;drk gksrh gSA gekjs efLr”d esa
vanktk 100 fcfy;u uoZ lsy 3-2 fefy;u fd-eh- rkj
fefy;u&fcfy;u dusD’ku lHkh 1-5 yhVj dh txg esa iSd gksrs gSa
ijUrq budk otu dsoy 1-5 fdyksxzke gksrk gS vkSj ekewyh 10 okWV
dh [kir djrs gSaA ;fn ge flfydkWu fpIl dk bLrseky djrs gq,
,sls efLr”d cukus dh ps”Vk djrs gSa rks ;g yxHkx 10 esxkokWV
[kir djsxk vFkkZr ,d uxj dks fo|qr nsus ds cjkcj fctyhA bl
ekeys dks vkSj vf/kd [kjkc gSa rks ,sls flfydkWu efLr”d }kjk
mRikfnr rki bls fi?kyk nsxkA gekjh pqukSrh dSls efLr”d ,slh
l{kerk vkSj fdQk;rh :i ls dk;Z djrs gSa vkSj efLr”d ds leku
e’khu cukus esa leku fl)karksa dk mi;ksx djuk gSA
vkids efLr”d esa 100]000]000]000 dksf’kdk,a gSa vkSj blesa
3]200]000 fdyksehVj yack rkj gS vkSj blds lkFk
1]000]000]000]000]000 lkbusfIVd dusD’ku gSa] tks 1-5 yhVj ds
1-5 fdyksxzke ds vanj iSd fd, x, gksrs gSaA fQj Hkh ;g ,d
ukbV cYc ds cjkcj fctyh [kpZ djrk gSA

44

flyhdkWu esa efLr”d lfdZV cukuk
ladsr nsus dh ÅtkZ ykxr&,d raf=dk ls nwljh rd efLr”d ds
fodkl esa lEHkor% ,d eq[; dkjd jgk gSA efLr”d dh dqy ÅtkZ
[kir dk yxHkx 50&80 izfr’kr uoZ Qkbcj ds lkFk dk;Z {kerk ds
laokgu esa [kir gksrh gS vkSj flukfIVd Vªkalfe’ku esaA ckdh fofuekZ.k
vkSj vuqj{k.k esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g ftl rjg e/kqeD[kh ds efLr”d
ds fy, lp gS oSlk gh gekjs efLr”d ds fy, Hkh lp gSA rFkkfi]
fMthVy dEI;wVj dh xfr ls ;fn rqyuk dh tk, rks uoZ pki dh
xfr cgqr /kheh gS&dsoy dqN gh ehVj izfr lsd.MA Øec) izfØ;d
tSls fMthVy dEI;wVj esa] ;g thou vlaHko cuk nsxkA tSo foKkuh
efLr”d dk fuekZ.k cgqr vf/kd lekukUrj usVodksZa dh rjg gqvk gSA
vf/kdka’k raf=dk,a dbZ gtkj nwljksa ls tqM+s gq, gSA bldks djus ds
fy, efLr”d blds rhu vk;keh vk;ru esa lHkh phtksa dk nksgu
djrk gS & lsy ds ‘khVksa dks rg esa eksM+dj caMyksa esa dusD’ku cukrk
gSA blds foijhr nks vk;keh fpIl vkSj lfdZV cksMksZa }kjk de la[;k
ds flyhdkWu raf=dkvksa ds chp lEidZ cukuk lhfer fd;k x;k gSA
vr% efLr”d ds foijhr flyhdkWu raf=dkvksa ds chp lh/kk lEidZ
xaHkhj :i ls izfrcaf/kr gSA rFkkfi] ikjEifjd bysDVªkWfud dh cgqr
vf/kd xfr dk nksgu djds vusdkusd flyhdkWu raf=dk ls pkiksa dks
cgqfo| fd;k tk ldrk gS&;g ,d gh rkj ls vusd vyx&vyx
lans’k Hkstus dh izfØ;k gSA bl rjg ls flyhdkWu vfHk;ark
thofoKkuh usVodksZa dh dusfDVfoVh dh ps”Vk ‘kq: dj ldrs gaSA
fo|qr ?kVkus ijUrq xfr c<+kus ds fy, raf=dh; :i ls izsfjr bathfu;jksa
us fMthVy dksfMax dh vis{kk ,ukykWx mi;ksx djus dk tho oSKkfud
j.kuhfr viuk;k gSA dkoZj ehM] dSfyQksfuZ;k esa flyhdkWu oSyh dk ,d
xq# raf=dk foKku dks izkS|ksfxdh esa ifjorZu dh O;k[;k djus ds fy,
^^U;wjksekfQZd bathfu;fjax dh O;k[;k nh gSA 0 ,l MhthVy dksfMax ds
ctk; okWYVst esa yxkrkj ifjorZuksa esa ,ukykWx dksM vkSj 1 ,l esa
tSlkfd os vius izkjafHkd mijkT; esa U;wjkWu djrs gSA ¼v/;k; 3½A rc
dqN pj.kksa esa ifjdyu fd;k tk ldrk gS pwafd flyhdkWu midj.kksa
dh ewy inkFkksZa dk nksgu fd;k tkrk gSA ,ukykWx x.kuk vklkuh ls
izkjafHkd ifjx.kuk eqgS;k djkrk gS % tksM+] ?kVko] ?kkrkadh vkSj
,dhdj.k] buesa ls lHkh fMthVy e’khuksa esa tfVy dk;Z gSaA tc
raf=dk,a&pkgss os thofoKkuh gksa ;k flyhdkWu&x.kuk djus vkSj fu.kZ;
ysrs gSa os yf{kr U;wjkWuksa dks mŸkj nsus ds fy, pki Mkmu ,Xtksu dk
ikjs”k.k djrs gSaA pwafd Likbd dksfMax ÅtkZ dh n`f”V ls eagxh gksrh gS]
l{ke dksfMax fjMuMslh dks de djds Likbd ds iSVuZ esa izLrqr lwpuk
dh ek=k c<+krh gSA ÅtkZ {kerk Hkh ;Fkk laHko de la[;k eas U;wjkWukas dk
mi;ksx djds c<+k;h tkrh gSA ;g LislZ dksfMax dgykrk gS vkSj ;g
Ñf=e raf=dh; usVodZ cukus okys bathfu;jksa ds fy, ,d nwljk
fMtkbu
fl)kar
eqgS;k
djrk
gSA

3
1
2

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
flyhdkWu jsfVuk

Ñf=e raf=dh; usVodZ

,d thofoKkuh usVodZ dk ljy Ñf=e laLdj.k cuk;k x;k gS tks
flyhdkWu jsfVuk dk cuk gS tks izdk’k xzg.k djrk gS vkSj lEiw.kZ
ykbfVax ifjfLFkfr esa ifjorZuksa dks Lor% gh izfrQy nsrk gSA ;g nks
flyhdkWu U;wjkWuksa dks tksM+rk gS] og n`’; dkWVsZDl esa okLrfod U;wjkWu
dh rjg gksrk gS ftldk dk;Z ykbu ds dks.kksa ds ckjs esa lwpuk ,d=
djuk vkSj jsfVuk dh Nfo dks foijhr :i esa mRiUu djuk gSA

Ñf=e raf=dh; usVodZ ¼,,u,u,l½ cgq/kk lh[kus vkSj Lej.k dks
v/;;u djus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gSA lk/kkj.k% mUgsa ikjEifjd
fMthVy dEI;wVj ds lkW¶Vos;j esa Mkyk tkrk gS] muesa vla[;
ljy dk;kZRed ,dd gksrs gSa] os usVodZ esa vkil esa tqM+s gksrs gSaA
,,u,u,l dk ljyre :i QhM QkjoMZ ,lksfl,Vj gS ftlesa
vkil esa tqM+s buiqV vkSj vkmViqV dh ijrsa gksrh gSa rkfd tc
buiqV iSVuZ dks izLrqr iqu% izkIr fd;k tkrk gS rc iSVuZ ls lacaf/kr
laxzfgr iSVuZ iqu%izkIr fd;k tkrk gS ¼vxys i`”B ij xf.krh; igsyh
dk ckWDl ns[ksa½A ,d vkSj vf/kd tfVy ,,u,u fjdjsaV U;wjy usV
gSA ;g ,d gh ijr ls cuk gksrk gS tgka izR;sd ,dd ijLij tqM+k
gksrk gS vkSj lHkh ,dd buiqV vkSj vkmViqV ds :i esa dk;Z djrs
gSaA lquus esa ;g FkksM+k vpEHkk yxrk gS ijUrq ;g fMtkbu usV dks
iSVuZ laxzg djus esa leFkZ cukrk gS u fd dsoy enksa ds tksM+sA bl
izdkj ds Lor% foPNsfnr gksus okys usVodZ dks fMdksfMax laxzfgr
iSVuZ dh iqu%izokgh [kkst djds izkIr fd;k tkrk gSA ;g n’kkZ;k
x;k gS fd 1000 ;wfuV ds usVodZ ds fy,] iqu%izkfIr iSVuZ ds nks”k
cgqr vf/kd gksus ds igys yxHkx 150 iSVuZ iqu%izkIr fd, tk ldrs
gSaA

bl izksVksVkbi esa U;wjkWu baVsxzsV&,.M&Qk;j U;wjkWu dgykrs gSa vkSj
U;wjkseksfQZd vfHk;ark budk mi;ksx cgqrk;r esa djrs gSaA os bls bl
uke ls tkurs gSa pwafd os Hkkfjr izfrQy tksM+rs gSa] okWYVst dh rjg
dksM djrs gSa tks muds flukfIll ij vkrs gSa vkSj dsoy Qk;j ,u
,D’ku {kerk ;fn okWYVst lSV izos’k }kj ij igq¡prk gSA flyhdkWu
U;wjkWu vius vki VªkalftLVlZ ls cus gksrs gSa ijUrq VªkaftLVlZ dk
mi;ksx djus ds ctk; tSlk fd ikjEifjd fMthVy flLVeksa esa
okWYVst dsk fLop djrs vkSj lar`Ir djrs gSa] VkaftLVlZ dks lapkyu
muds izkjafHkd nk;js esa gksrk gSA bl nk;js esa os okLrfod U;wjkWuksa ds
lsy esEcszu dh rjg dk;Z djrs gSaA vfrfjDr VªkaftLVj okWYVst dh
cjkcjh djus vkSj okLrfod vk;u pSuyksa dks le; vk/kkfjr /kkjk
izokgksa ds fufer lfØ; pkydRo iznku djrs gSaA ;g y?kq n`’;
flLVe dgha vf/kd O;kid Ñf=e n`’; flLVe dks izksVksVkbi gSA
ftudk fodkl fd;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq ;gka rd ;g Li”V dj nsrk
gS fd ljy fu.kZ; rd igq¡pus ds fy, dSls cgqr ‘kksj&xqy okyk
okLrfod nqfu;k dk buiqV dks rsth ls izfØ;kfUor fd;k tk ldrk
gSA ;g og lc dj ldrk gS ftldks djus ds fy, bldh :ijs[kk
rS;kj dh xbZ gSA vki n`’; ds ykbu dk vfHkeq[khdj.k crk,a&vkSj
raf=dk foKkuh igys ls gh midj.k ds ijh{k.k vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
izf’kf{kr djus ds fy, bl ljy flyhdkWu n`’; flLVe dk mi;ksx
dj jgs gSaA Ñf=e usVodksZa ds ckjs esa vfr egRoiw.kZ pht ;g gS fd
os okLrfod nqfu;k eas okLrfod le; vkSj cgqr de fo|qr esa dk;Z
djrs gSaA

,,u,u dh efLr”d ls lekurk muds lwpuk laxzfgr djus vkSj
izfØ;kfUor djus esa fufgr gSA ^Kku* ftldh os izfØ;kfUor djrs gSa
usVodZ esa gh gksrk gSA fMthVy dEI;wVj dh rjg mudk dksbZ Lej.k
LFkku ugha gS ftuds fy, T;ksferh; izfØ;kUo;d vkSj Lej.k dk
iM+rky djus okys vyx&vyx gksrs gSaA blds ctk, muesa dUVsaV
vkMsªlscy LVksjst gksrs gSaA ,,u,u esa dusD’ku ds Hkkj esa lwpuk ,d=
dh tkrh gS] mlh izdkj lh[kus ds nkSjku og flukfIll mudh {kerk
cnyrs gSaA ,,u,u dksbZ izfØ;k ds fy, Hkh dk;ZØfer ugha fd, tkrs
gSaA izR;sd U;wjkWu Hkhrj esa ewd gS vkSj dqy Hkkfjr buiqV ds vuqlkj
izfrfØ;k djrk gSA blds ckotwn mUgsa vkSj prqj dk;ksZa ds fy,
izf’kf{kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA yfuZax fu;e tks usVodZ dks izf’kf{kr
djrs gSa U;wjkWuksa ds chp lEidZ ds Hkkj dks cndydj ,slk djrs gSa]
,d lkekU; pht+ fu;e gksus ds ukrs og ,d fuf’pr iSVuZ ds fy,
usVodZ ds vkmViqV dks xzg.k djrk vkSj bfPNr iSVuZ ls bldh
rqyrk djrk gSA rqyuk esa fdlh izdkj dh =qfV dk mi;ksx rc
bfPNr fudVre vkmViqV izkIr djus ds fy, la;kstu dk Hkkj dks
lek;ksftr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSa usVodZ /khjs&/khjs =qfV ladsr
?kVkdj de dj nsrk gSaA ijUrq ;g /khjs&/khjs dk;Z djrk gSA
=qfV egRoiw.kZ gks tkrh gS&;g usVodZ xyrh ugha djrk gS rks dksbZ Hkh
yfuZax lEHo ugha gSA ;g yfuZax dh fo’ks”krk gS ftls utjvankt fd;k
tk ldrk gSA izf’kf{kr usVodZ ij tks fdlh rjg dh xyrh ugha
djrk gS og dsoy ,d dh izdkj ds buiqV ds fy, izfrfØ;k dj
ldrk gSA ,sls usVodksZa dks yk{kf.kd :i ls xSz.M enj dgk tkrk gS]
;g ikSjkf.kd dFkk ds xzS.M enj lsy ls lanfHkZr gS tks ekuo efLr”d
esa jgrk gS og rHkh izfrfØ;k dj ldrk gS tc mldh nknh lkeus
fn[kkbZ nsrh gS vkSj og dHkh xyrh ugha djrk gSA ;g okLrfod
nqfu;k ds vuqiz;ksx ds fy, cgqr mi;ksxh ugha gSa pwafd gesa izR;sd
pht lh[kus ds fy, vyx&vyx usVodZ dh vko’;drk gqbZ gSA
blds foijhr ,,u,u esa lqLi”V fufgr oLrq buiqV iSVuksaZ dks lkekU;
cukus dh mudh {kerk gS mUgsa dHkh izf’k{k.k ugha fn;k x;k gSA os
laca/k ns[krs gSa] iSVuZa esa laca/k cukrs vkSj fu;ferrkvksa dh [kkst djrs
gSaA vkSj os pwd ds izfr ekuo efLr”d dh rjg gh lgu’khy gksrs gSaA
os buiqV iSVuZ ds /ofu ;qDr ;k viw.kZ gksus ds ckotwn vc Hkh laxzfgr
iSVuZ iqu%izkIr dj ldrs gSaA ;s thofoKkuh efLr”dksa ds fy, Hkh cgqr
egRoiw.kZ fo’ks”krk,a gSa vkSj ,,u,u,l ;s phtsa Hkh dj ldrs gSaA

flfydkWu jsfVuk ds lkeus fLFkr ,d dSejk ySal

45

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
vk/kqfud x.kuk izkS|ksfxdh dk fojks/kkHkkl
orZeku ,,u,u,l dk fojks/kkHkkl ;g gSa fd os xf.krh; :i esa fMthVy
dEI;wVjksa esa udy fd, tkrs gSaA ;g mUgsa okLrfod nqfu;k dh
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa mudk mi;ksx djrk gS] tks cgqr vf/kd lhfer gS] pwafd
vuqdj.k le; ysrk gS vkSj blfy, ,,u,u,l okLrfod le; esa dk;Z
ugha dj ldrs gSaA ,,u,u,l vkWVkseksckby pykus ;k gokbZ tgkt
mM+kus ds fy, lgh fLFkr gksrh gSa pwafd os /ofu ds chp Hkh etcwr gksrs
gSa vkSj dqN usVodZ ds dk;Z u djus ij Hkh pyrs jgrs gSA rFkkfi]
fo’ks”kK fLkLVe ftudk iz;ksx lkekU;r% Lor% ik;yV esa fd;k tkrk gS
os fMthVy dEI;wVj dk;ZØfer gksrs gSa ftuesa ikjEifjd fu.kZ;kRed
lkW¶Vos;j vkSj lqj{kk ds fy, bldks ges’kk lgk;rk nsus dh vko’;drk
gksrh gSA ;fn gokbZ tgkt esa dHkh dksbZ pht cqjh rjg [kjkc gks tkrh
gS rks ,sls fo’ks”kK flLVe dk;Z ugha dj ldrs gSaA ;fn flyhdkWu U;wjkWu
lh[k ldrk gS tks vHkh rd ugha dj ldrs] rc cgqr lh ,slh leL;k,a
lekIr gks tk,axhA tSlk fd ge efLr”d ds dk;Z djus ds fo”k; vkSj
vf/kd tkurs gSa ge vkSj vf/kd tfVy raf=dh; usVodZ cukus esa leFkZ
gksaxs tks okLrfod efLr”d dh rjg dk;Z djsxkA

uksekM vkus okyh lkspus dh e”khu dk pqycqfy;k vfirq
fopkj”khy iztud gSA ;g csyukdkj Vksjlks ds lkFk nks QhV
Å¡pk gS] bls vk¡[k] dku] fxz¶j] cktw vkSj bldks irk yxkus esa
lgk;rk nsus ds fy, vU; laosnd gSaA okLro eas uksekM dk jkscksV
ls vyx djrk gS] og gS ;g fcuk dksMsM vuqns”k ;k fu;eksa sd
dk;Z djrk gSA ckotwn blds] blds ikl 10]000 mŸksftr
efLr’d lsyksa lfgr dEI;wVj }kjk mŸksftr efLr’d gS vkSj
okrkoj.k dh vuqHkwfr djus vkSj izfrfØ;k djus ds fy, fefy;u
ls Hkh vf/kd dusD”ku gSA ;g lkSE; fLFkfr esa dk;Z dj ldrk
gS vkSj viuh xyfr;ksa ls lh[k ldrk gS tSlkfd ;g NksVk jaxhu
D;qc lfgr isu fNrjko ls vpE;k djrk gSA dqN D;qc iV~Vhnkj
gksrs gS vkSj fo|qrh; :id ls laokgd gksrs gS tks mUgsa #fpdj
cukrs gSaA vU; D;qc /kCcsnkj gksrs gS vkSj fo|qr laokgu ugha
djrs tks mUgsa de :fpdj cukrs gSA D;qcksa dks ns[kus }kjk vkSj
p[kus ds }kjk vius fxzij ls bysfDVªdy lsalj esa] uksekM /kCcsnkj
D;qcksa dks NksM+us ds fy, lh[krk gS vkSj Lokfn’V iV~Vhnkj dks
pqurk gSA

46

xf.krh; igsyh fdrkc
fo”k;oLrq lek’kks/; laforfjr Lej.k

,sls rkjksa dh dYiuk djsa tks {kSfrt esa gSa vkSj pkj ds lkFk m/oZ
dV gksrk gS muds feyus dh fcUnq ij fLop gSa ¼pSuy d½ ;g
eSfVDl Lej.k gSA ck;ujh uEcj ds :Ik esa bls lwpuk izLrqr dh
tkrh gS tSlkfd 0011 vkSj 1010 vkSj ge tgka dgh 1 d] 1d ls
feyrk gS ogka fLop vkWu djus dh O;oLFkk djrs gS ¼ch dks uhys
esa n’kkZ;k x;k gS½A ;s bu nks uEcjksa dks tksfM+;ka feykrs gSaA
eSfVªDl izFke tksM+h ds Åij vU; uEcj laxzg dj ldrk gS
tSlkfd 1010 vkSj 0110A eSfVªDl dh vafre voLFkk esa 7 fLop
gksuh pkfg,A ;fn vc vki igyh la[;k nksckjk izLrqr djrs gSa
0011 & eSfVªDl ds vafre pj.k esa vkSj m/oZ rkj esa djsaV pkyw
djus dh O;oLFkk djrs gSa rks vki ik,axs fd la[;k 2120 ds
lekuqikr esa rg ij m/oZ rkjksa ls djsV ckgj vk,xkA ;g 0011
ds lkFk igys tksM+h cuk;h xbZ la[;k ugha gSA ijUrq ;fn vki
2120 dks iz;qDr la[;kvksa esa igys dh dqy la[;k ls Hkkx nsa[ks
¼0$0$1$1=2½ baVsxj fMfotu dk mi;ksx djds ¼,slk izdkj
tgka vki Lej.k ds ckjs Hkwyrs gSa½ rc vkidks 1010 feysxkA vr%
eSfVªDl us Lej.k gS fd 0011] 1010 ds lkFk tkrk gS ;|fi igys
ds Åij vU; lans’k laxzg fd;k x;k gSA vki f}rh; la[;k tksM+h
ds lkFk bl dk;Z dh tkap dj ldrs gSaA

A

B

C

D

;g ,d izdkj dk Lej.k gS tks efLr”d ds ikl gSA ;g fof’k”V
LFkku ij lwpuk ,d= ugha djrk gS& tSlk fd ihlh esaA lwpuk
usVodksZa ds chp forfjr dh tkrh gS laxzfgr dh tkrh gS pwafd
flukfIVd Hkkj esa ifjorZd gksrk gS vkSJ blds fufgr rRo ds
lanHkZ esa bl iqu% izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA leL;k ;g gS fd
bl izdkj ds Lej.k cgqr tYn ljkoksj gks tkrs gSa fo’ks”kdj tc
dsoy pkj rkj gksrs gSaA rFkkfi rkjksa dh 1000 tksfM+;ksa ds lkFk
eSfVªDl cgqr vf/kd ,d ds ckn nwljk lans’k fcuk vf/kd vM+pu
ds gh laxzfgr dj ldrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl: www.artificialbrains.com
http://www.ini.unizh.ch/

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

tc dksbZ ckr
fcxM+ tk,

efLr”d ,d uktqd vax gSA nq?kZVukvksa ls flj esa pksV yx ldrh gS
vkSj efLr”d jksxh gks ldrk gS rFkk lkekU; <ax ls dke djuk can dj
ldrk gSA fnekxh chekjh vusd y{k.k iSnk dj ldrh gS vkSj bUgsa
le>uk eqf’dy gks ldrk gSA fnekxh chekfj;ksa ds ewY;kadu ds fy,
raf=dkfoKkuh ¼U;wjksykWftLV½ ;k eu% fpfdRld }kjk uSnkfud dkS’ky
fn[kkus rFkk ifjӄr tSo&fpfdRlh; vkdyu ,oa fnekxh besaftax dh
t#jr gksrh gSA dqN chekfj;ka tSls fejxh vkSj fMizs’ku & cgqr vke gS]
;gka rd fd o`)ksa vkSj fd’kksjksa esa HkhA vU; jksx dqN de ik, tkrs gSa
tSls ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k] tks flQZ o`)koLFkk esa vke gksrs gSa tSls vYt+kbej
jksx] ysfdu fQj Hkh ;s jksx iaxq dj gh nsrs gSA dqN jksxksa esa vkuqoaf’kdh
dk rRo cgqr vf/kd gksrk gSA ftlls ,sls eqf’dy loky mB [kM+s gksrs
gSa fd D;k ge ;g tkuuk pkgsaxs fd D;k geesa ,sls laxr mRifjorZu
gq, gSa tks gesa ,sls jksxksa dk f’kdkj cuk nsaxsA

xM+cM+ flxufyax & fejxh
nkSjs ¼fejxh½ ds le;] O;fDr csgks’k gks tkrk gS vkSj t+Ekhu ij fxj
ldrk gS] mldh ‘kjhj vdM+ tkrk gS rFkk og dkairk gSA tc mUgsa
gks’k vkrk gS] rks os ;g ns[krs gSa fd mUgksaus viuh t+cku dkV yh gS
;k is’kkc dj fn;k gSA blds ckn os my>u ;k mUkhank eglwl dj
ldrs gSaA dbZ cPpksa dks Hkh ;g jksx gksrk gS ysfdu thou esa vkxs
pydj mUgsa cgqr de nkSjs iM+rs gSaA ysfdu nqHkkZX;o’k dqN yksxksa dks
;g nkSjk gj lIRkkg ;k gj jkst+ Hkh iM+ ldrk gSA
rks] xM+cM+h gS dgk¡ \ nkSjs ds nkSjku] U;wjkWu }kjk ^^,D’ku iksVsfU’k;y^^
NksM+us esa rst+h ‘kq: gksrh gSA bl pØ dks laned ¼xkck½ vkSj mRrstd
¼XywVkesaV½ U;wjksVªkalfeVjksa }kjk lapkfyr fd;k tkrk gSA tc mRrstdrk
esa deh viw.kZ jgrh gS rks nkSjs iM+kslh U;wjkWu ds vfu;af=r bLrseky ls
‘kq: gks ldrs gSaA ;g izfØ;k flQZ ,d gh LFky esa ¼ftlls vkaf’kd
nkSjk iM+rk gS½ ;k laiw.kZ dkWVZsDl ¼O;kid nkSjk½ esa QSy ldrh gSA
O;kid nkSjs esa bySDVªksbUlSWQsyksxzke ¼bZbZth½ dh lkekU; vYQk y; dk
LFkku nksuksa lsjsczy gsfeLQh;j bySfDVªd lfØ;rk dh cM+h] /kheh
ledkfyd rjaxsa ys ysrh gS ¼ns[ksa cSdMªkWi½A
dHkh&dHkkj iM+us okys nkSjs dkQh vke gSA ysfdu ckj&ckj iM+us okys
nkSjs fejxh de ik, tkrs gSa vkSj vf/kd d”Vnk;d gksrs gSaA buds
rkRdkfyd dkj.k Li”V ugha gSA fejxh ds jksfx;ksa dks ;s nkSjs Fkdku]
Hkkstu u djus] jDr esa ‘kdZjk dh deh] ‘kjkc] ;k Vsyhfot+u dh
didaikrh LØhu ls gks ldrs gSaA ihfM+r yksxksa dks lko/kkuh cjruh
pkfg,A

cSd MªkWi esa fejxh ds nkSjs ds le; bZbZth fn[kk;k x;k gSA

raf=dk foKku vuqla/kku us fejxh ls xzLr yksxksa dk thou lq/kkjus ds
fy, nks eq[; ;ksxnku fd, gSaA izFker%] mRrstd dh le> fodflr
djds] vc rd ,slh nok,a cuk ldrs gSa tks lkekU; fnekxh xfrfof/k
dks de fd, fcuk vlkekU; nkSjk izfØ;k dks ef)e dj ldrh gSaA
iqjkuh nok,a lkekU; funzkdkjh ¼flMsfVo½ dk dke djrh Fkh tcfd
vk/kqfud nok,a dgha vf/kd pqfuank <ax ls dke djrh gSaA nwljs fnekxh
besftax dh xq.koRrk esa lq/kkj dk vFkZ gS fd vR;f/kd d”Vnk;d nkSjksa
ls xzLr dqN yksxksa ds fy, vc muds nkSjksa ds lzksr dk lgh irk yxk
ikuk laHko gks x;k gSA blfy, vc U;wjksltZu ds fy, ;g laHko gks
x;k gS fd bl jksxxzLr fnekxh fV’;w dks dkV ns ftlls nkSjksa dh
vko`fRr de gks tkrh gS vkSj vHkh rd vizHkkfor fnekxh fV’;w rd
mlds QSyus dk tksf[ke Hkh ?kV tkrk gSA dbZ ckj fejxh dh
‘kY;&fpfdRlk vf/kd izcy ekuh tkrh gS ysfdu bldk vlj okdbZ
egRoiw.kZ gSA

fljnnZ vkSj ekbxzus
vf/kdrj yksxksa dks dHkh u dHkh fljnnZ gksrk gSA vdlj ;g
ekalisf’k;ksa esa ruko ds dkj.k gksrk gS vkSj blds fpUrk ugha djuh
pkfg,A dHkh dHkh [kkldj ;fn fljnnZ vdlj gksrk gks ;k Ropk ij
pdRrs ;k mYVh ds lkFk lkFk gksrk gS & rks bldk xaHkhj cqfu;knh
dkj.k gks ldrk gSA bu fLFkfr;ksa esa] nnZ fnekx ls ugha vkrk cfYd
fnekxh ijr ¼ykbfuax½ esfufUtl esa rdyhQ+ ;k f[kapko ls vkrk gSA
fljnnZ dk ,d vf/kd vke
dkj.k ekbxzsu gSA lkFk&lkFk
flj esa Hk;kud ihM+k ¼vdlj
,d rjQ½ esa yksxksa dks mcdkbZ
vkrh gSA pednkj jks’kuh ;k
‘kksj ls rdyhQ+ gksrh gS vkSj
mUgsa ^^ekbxzsUl vkWjk^^ eglwl
gksrk gS ftlesa pedrh jks’kuh
;k Vs<+h&es<+h ykbusa fn[kkbZ
nsrh gSA ^^vkWjk^^ vdlj
ekbxzsu ls igyk gksrk gSA

vc bl ckr dh laHkkouk fn[kkbZ
nsrh gS fd ekbxzsu fnekx ds ml fgLls esa ‘kq: gksrk gS tks lsjsczy jDr
okfgdkvksa ls vkus okyh nnZ dh laosnukvksa ij dkjZokbZ djrk gSA fnekxh
besftax ekbxzsu dh ‘kq:vkr esa bu fgLlksa esa vf/kd xfrfof/k fn[kkrh gSA
bldh izfrfØ;k LoLF;] LFkkuh; jDr&vkiwfrZ esa dqN nsj ds fy, o`f)
gks tkrh gS ¼tks pedrh jks’kuh tSls y{k.k iSnk djrh gS½] ftlds rqjUr
ckn jDr&izokg de gks tkrk gS ¼tks vLFkk;h detksjh esa izdV gksrk
gS½A
lsjksVksfuu ¼5 ,pVh½ fjlsIVjksa ds ckjs esa gekjh tkudkjh esa gqbZ izxfr
ds dkj.k fiNys n’kd esa ekbxzsu ds nkSjksa ds bykt esa Økafrdkjh
cnyko gq, gSaA

47

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Ik;kZIr ÅtkZ dk vHkko & i{kk?kkr

Vªkaft+,aV bLFksfed vVSd ¼VhvkbZ,½ uke ÁfØ;k esa] fnekx ds ,d
fgLls dks jDr dh vkiwfrZ can gks tkrh gS vkSj ,Vhih dh vkiwfrZ #d
tkrh gSA U;wjkWu vius vk;uh xzsfM,UV dks iqu%pktZ ugha dj ikrs vkSj
blfy, vkxs ,D’ku iksVsfU’ky lapkfyr ugha dj ldrsA mnkgj.kkFkZ]
;fn ck,a gsfeLQh;j dks eksVj dkWVZsDl dh jDr dh vkiwfrZ dkV nh
tk, rks nk;ka cktw vkSj Vkax ydok&xzLr gks tk,xkA ;fn ;g
#dkoV tYnh [kRe gks tk, rks U;wjkWu iqu% ,Vhih cuk ldrs gSa]
viuh esEczsu dks iqu%pktZ dj ldrs gSa vkSj lkekU; ÁfØ;k ‘kq: rks
tk,xhA lkSHkkX;o’k] VhvkbZ, esa dksbZ LFkk;h {kfr ugha gksrhA

tc yksxksa esa vpkud ‘kjhj ds ,d fgLls esa det+ksjh iSnk gks tkrh
gS] rc vke rkSj ij ;g fnekx ds nwljh rjQ dks ÁHkkfor djus okys
jDrk?kkr ds dkj.k gksrk gSA lUrqyu] laosnu ;k Hkk”kk vkSj t+cku ij
Hkh vlj gks ldrk gSA dbZ ckj ;s vlkekU;rk,a le; ds lkFk&lkFk
lq/kj tkrh gS] ;gka rd fd Åijh rkSj ij lkekU; fn[kkbZ nsus yxrh
gS] ysfdu i{kk?kkr vHkh Hkh e`R;q vkSj v’kDrrk dk cgqr Ápfyr
dkj.k gSA i{kk?kkr vusd ekiksa vkSj vkdkjksa esa ÁdV gksrk gS vkSj
blds ifj.kke cgqr gn rd fnekx ds ml fgLls ij fuHkZj djrk gS
tks ÁHkkfor gksrs gSaA

i{kk?kkr vf/kd xaHkhj leL;k gSA ;fn jDr dh vkiwfrZ yacs le; rd
ugha gks] rks vifjorZuh; {kfr gks ldrh gSA ,Vhih ds vHkko esa]
dksf’kdk,a gksfe;ksLVSfll cuk, ugha j[k ldrh vkSj os lwt ldrh gS
,oa QV ldrh gSaA U;wjkWu Hkh vpkud fu/kzoq.k ¼Mhiksyjkbt+½ gks
ldrs gSa ftlls laHkkfor :i ls fo”kSys U;wjksVªkalfeVj tSls fd
XywVkesaV fu;qfDr gks ldrs gSa vkSj fXy;y dksf’kdk,a] tks vke rkSj
ij ,Vhih vkfJr iEi ds tfj, vR;f/kd XywVkesaV dks lkQ+ dj nsrh
gS] os Hkh dke djuk can dj ldrh gSA ÅtkZ ds vHkko esa] fnekxh
dksf’kdkvksa dk thou cgqr vfuf’pr gks tkrk gSA

tks Hkh xM+cM+h iSnk gqbZ mldk laca/k ml ÅtkZ dh vkiwfrZ ls gS tks
fnekx dks dke djus ds fy, t+#jh gksrh gSA U;wjkWu vkSj fXy;k dks
dke djus vkSj ft+Unk jgus ds fy, ÅtkZ dh t#jr gksrh gSA lcls
egRoiw.kZ ÅtkZ gSa vkDlht+u vkSj Xywdkst ds :i esa dkckZsgkbMªsV( ;s
nksuksa feydj ,Vhih] tks dksf’kdkvksa dh ÅtkZ gS] ds fuekZ.k ds fy,
vko’;d lkexzh eqgS;k djkrs gSaA ;g ÅtkZ ¼nsf[k, v/;k; 2 vkSj
3½ oS|qr xfrfof/k ds vk/kkj esa jgus okys pktZ gq, vk;u ds Áokg
ds fy, t+#jh gSaA U;wjkWu dh ÅtkZ dk yxHkx nks&frgkbZ fgLlk
lksfM;e@iksVsf’k;e ist+ uked ,d ,at+kbe dks pykus ds fy,
bLrseky gksrk gS tks ^^,D’ku iksVsfU’k;y^^ gks tkus ds ckn lksfM;e
vkSj iksVsf’k;e ds vk;uh xzfs M,UV dks iqu%pktZ djrk gSA

i{kk?kkr ds nkSjku gksus okyh ÁfØ;kvksa ds lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u ds
t+fj, raf=dk foKkuh u, bykt fodflr djus esa lQY gks ik, gSaA
vusd i{kk?kkr okfgdkvksa dks vo#) dj nsus okys [kwu ds FkDdks]
¼CYkM DYkkWV½] ds dkj.k gksrs gSa vkSj ^^fV’;w Iykt+feukstu ,DVhos;j
¼Vhih,½ uked FkDdksa dks rksM+us okyh nok ls bykt djus ij FkDdksa
dks rksM+k tk ldrk gS vkSj jDr dk Áokg pkyw fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;fn ;g nok tYnh gh ns nh tk, rks Vhih, dk ifj.kkeksa ij
ukVdh; ÁHkko gks ldrk gSA nqHkkZX;o’k i{kk?kkr ds jksxh dks ,slh
nok tYnh nsuk ljy ugha gksxk D;ksafd laHkor% jksxh ds ifjokj dks
irk gh u gks fd gks D;k jgk gSA

esa ekbxzsu ds nkSjksa ds bykt esa Økafrdkjh cnyko gq, gSA nokvksa
dh ,d ubZ Js.kh dh [kkst dh xbZ gS tks lsjksVksfuu jhlsIVjksa ds
fo’ks”k mi lewg dks lfØ; dj nsrh gSaA ;s nok,a&fVªIVSu &
ekbxzsu dks mldh ‘kq:vkr esa gh jksd nsus ij vljdkjd gSA
;g mu vusdkusd rjhdksa esa ls ,d gS ftlus U;wjkslk;Ul ds
vuqla/kku us fo’o Hkj ds yk[kksa yksxksa ds thou dks lq/kkjus esa
;ksxnku fd;k gSA

efLr”d dk
nk;ka gsfeLQs;j

cka, gsfeLQs;j dh
dVh gqbZ lrg
vk?kkr LFky

nokvksa dh ,d ubZ Js.kh ls Hkh bykt fd;k tk jgk gS tks XywVkesaV
lfgr U;wjksVªkalfeVjksa] tks i{kk?kkr ds nkSjku fo”kSys Lrjksa rd tek gks
tkrs gSa] dks vo#) djrh gSaA ;s nok,a ;k rks Lo;a XywVkesaV jhlsIVjksa
dks ;k XywVkesaV }kjk lapkfyr var%dksf’kdk ladsr ekxkZsa dks vo#)
dj nsrh gSaA ,slh dbZ nok,a fodflr dh tk jgh gSaA vQlksl gS fd
buesa ls fdlh dk Hkh i{kk?kkr ij dksbZ vlj ugha gqvk gSA

vkuqokaf’kd jksx

vk?kkr LFky ds
vklikl
{kfrxzLr
dksf’kdkvksa dk
fiueczy

nk;ka lsjscy
s e
es: jTtq

efLr”d ls tqM+h
/kefu;k¡

i{kk?kkr esa efLr”d dh {kfr vkSj mlds vkl&ikl fiuEczy LFkku
ftls {kfrxzLr gksus dk [krjk gS] fn[kkus okyk fp=

48

cgqr le; ls fpfdRld fnekxh jksxksa dks ÁHkkfor LFkku ds vuqlkj
igpkurs jgs gSa vkSj mldk bykt djrs jgs gSaA vusd jksxksa ds laca/k
esa] mudk uke gh mudh xM+cM+h vkSj fnekx ds ÁHkkfor fgLls dk
|ksrd gksrk gS] ftls vdlj ySfVu ;k xzhd dk tkek iguk;k tkrk
gS] tSlfd ^^iSjkbVy ,VsfDl;ka^^A fiNys bl o”kkZsa esa vkuqoaf’kdh laca/kh
tkudkjh dh ckSNkj us fLFkfr dks iwjh rjg cny fn;k gSA vusd
vkuqokaf’kd jksxksa esa] xM+cM+h dgha vkSj gksrh gSA
dqN yksxksa dks fojklr esa ,slh leL;k feyrh gS ftlesa pyus&fQjus
ij iwjk fu;a=.k jgrk gS ysfdu le; chrus ij os vf/kdkf/kd
yM+[kM+kuk ‘kq: dj nsrs gSaA Likbukslsjscsyj ,VsfDl;k uked ;g jksx
& ,slk uke tks jksxksa ds ukedj.k ds Ákphu bfrgkl dks Áfrfcafcr
djrk gS & gesa bl jksx dks iSnk djus okys ;FkkrF; thu&nks”kksa dks
Li”V djrk gSA vc dbZ vkSj chekfj;ksa dks Hkh muds dkj.k ds
vuqlkj oxhZÑr fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj uSnkfud vkuqokaf’kd ijh{k.k
vc Likbuks lsyscsyj ,VsfDl;k ;k vU; vkuqokaf’kd jksxksa ls xzLr
yksxksa ds fy, vke ckr gks xbZ gSA vc jksx&funku igys dh vis{kk
dgha tYnh vkSj vf/kd lqfuf’prrk ds lkFk fd;k tk ldrk gSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
lh[kus esa v{kerk
‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k

’kks/k & efYViy LDysjksfll
efYViy LDysjksfll ;qok ckfyx yksxksa dk jksx gSA blesa ckj&ckj
det+ksjh] lqu gks tkuk] nksgjk fn[kkbZ nsuk ;k [kjkc larqyu tSls
y{k.k gksrs gSa tks Bhd gksus ls igys & okil lkekU; gksus rd &
dqN lIrkg rd jgrs gSaA chekjh vkSj Bhd gksus dh vof/k dk pØ
bl jksx dh fo’ks”krk gSA

lh[kus esa v{kerk vkSj ’kkbt+ksÝsfu;k laHkkfor ifjokj dh ihf<+;k
n’kkus okyk oa’ko`{k A ;g /;ku nsa fd ;s jksx dbZ ckj ,d ih<+h
NksM+ nsrs gSaA
gf.VaXVu jksx ,d raf=dk g~klh jksx gS tks ‘kjhj dh vlkekU;
vuSfPNd xfrfof/k ls tqM+k gksrk gS] bl ekeys esa ;g ml MkWDVj ds
uke ls tkuk tkrk gS ftlus bl jksx dk igys&igy [kqyklk fd;kA
;g gf.VaXVu uked ekuo thukse esa lcls cM+s thu esa ls ,d esa
ckjackj mRifjorZu ds dkj.k gksrk gSA ikfdZUlu jksx ¼/khekiu]
vdM+u] daidih vkSj yM+[kM+kgV iSnk djus okyk jksx½ ds vkjafHkd
:i^^ikfdZu^^ laca/kh thu dksfMax esa xM+cfM+;ksa ds dkj.k gksrs gSaA
funku esa enn djus ds lkFk lkFk] vkuqokaf’kd ijh{k.k dk mi;ksx
ifjokj ds vU; lnL;ksa dks ;g lykg nsus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk
gS fd muesa ;g jksx gksus dh ;k vkxs muds cPpksa ds ;g jksx gksus
dh fdruh laHkkouk gSaA
ysfdu] Hkys gh vkuqokaf’kdh Økafr us raf=dk iz.kkyh ds jksxksa ls yM+us
dk MkWDVjh rjhdk cny fn;k gks] fQj Hkh vHkh yach&[kkst&;k=k ‘kq:
gh gqbZ gSA ,d gh izdkj dk thu&nks”k vyx&vyx yksxksa esa
vyx&vyx jksx iSnk dj ldrk gS] vkSj vyx&vyx thu&nks”k cgqr
leku jksx iSnk dj ldrs gSaA ;g le; ikuk fd bu varjksa dh otg
D;k gS vkSj dSls gekjh vkuqokaf’kd lajpuk ml nqfu;k var%fØ;k djrh
gS ftlesa vki jgrs gSa vkSj tks vkius vius bnZ&fxnZ clkbZ gS] og
gekjs thuksfed ;qx dh vxyh cM+h pqukSrh gSA
ppkZ dk eqík
;fn vkidks ;g irk pys fd vkidks vkuqokaf’kd jksx gksus dk
[krjk gS rks D;k vki ;g fuf’pr tkuuk pkgsaxs \ D;k tUe ls
iwoZ thu dh igpku djuk lgh gksxk vkSj ftuesa jksx gks ldrk
gS mudk xHkZikr djkuk \ jksx ds iuius ls igys ihfM+r
O;fDr;ksa }kjk ft, x, mu mi;ksxh vkSj ykHkdj o”kkZsa dk D;k \

efYViy LDysjksfll raf=dk&iz.kkyh esa ‘kks/k ds dkj.k gksrk gS flesa
tyu gksrh gS vkSj fQj og Bhd gks tkrk gSA gekjh izfrj{k.k
iz.kkyh cSDVhfj;k ;k ok;jl }kjk iSnk fd, x, laØe.kksa ls yM+us
ds cuh gSA dbZ ckj blesa xM+cM+h gks tkrh gS vkSj ;g gekjs gh
vaxksa ij izgkj djus yxrh gSA ,slh chekjh dks ^^vkWVksbE;wu jksx^^
dgk tkrk gS vkSj os fdlh Hkh fV’;w dks izHkkfor dj ldrh gSaA
;fn izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh U;wjkWu ds pkjksa rjQ fyiVs ekbfyu ij
geyk djrh gS] rks tyu LFkkuh; :i ls gksrh gS tks
^^MhekbZfyus’ku^^ iSnk djrh gSA le; chrus ij tyu vke rkSj ij
‘kkar gks tkrh gS] ekbfyu esa lq/kkj gks tkrk gS vkSj lc lkekU; gks
tkrk gSA tyu gksrh D;ksa gS] ;g Li”V ugha gS vkSj
^^MhekbZfyus’ku^^ ds jksxh flQZ ,d gh ckj laf{kIr :Ik ls ihfM+Rk
gksrs gSaA ysfdu dqN yksxksa esa fnekx ds fofHkUu fgLlksa dks izHkkfor
djus okys ckj&ckj nkSjs iM+us dh izo`fRr gksrh gSA
pwafd gesa ;g tkudkjh ugha gS fd efYViy LDysjksfll esa tyu
D;ksa ‘kq: gksrh gS] ge bls iwjh rjg jksd ugha ldrsA ysfdu gesa
;g t+#j ekywe gS fd bu nkSjksa dks fLVjkW;M tSlh nokvksa dk
bLrseky djds NksVk fd;k tk ldrk gSaA cgqr xaHkhj ^^,e,l^^ okys
jksfx;ksa ds fy, dqN MkWDVj ;g ekurs gSa fd izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh ds
dqN fgLlksa dks ,t+SFkksizhu ;k ch&baVjQsjkWu tSlh nokvksa ls LFkk;h
rkSj ij ean djuk ykHkdj gks ldrk gSA vHkh Hkh muds iz;ksx dks
ysdj dkQ+h vfuf’prrk cuh gqbZ gSA
izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh ,sls lfU/k LFkkuksa ij Hkh d izgkj dj ldrh gS
tgka rf=dk,a ekalisf’k;ksa ls tqMrh gSa] ftls ^^ek;LFksfu;k xzSfol^^
uke jksx iSnk gksrkk] ;k mu raf=dkvksa ij geyk gksrk gS tks lq”kqEuk
ls mHkjrh gS] blds if.kkeLo:Ik xqfy;u ckjs flUMªkse^^ uke jksx
mRiUu gksrk gSA
tSdfyu M+;w izs&efYViy
LDysjksfll ls ihfM+r ,d
fo[;kr laxhrK

49

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
U;wjksfMtsujs’ku &
vYt+hej jksx

ysfdu vkuqokaf’kdh dkj.k dkQh egRoiw.kZ gSa D;ksafd Á;ksx’kkyk esa 3
i’kqvksa esa vkuqokaf’kdh Mkydj tks uLy rS;kj dh xbZ mlesa bl
ge dkSu gS] vyx&vyx ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk ge ij D;k vlj gksrk gS] ge chekjh ds y{k.k fn[kkbZ fn,A bu ij fd, x, vuqla/kku lksp
fdlls Áse djrs gS] ge fdl pht+ ls Hk;Hkhr gksrs gSa] ge D;k ;kn j[krs gS le>dj Áfrikfnr djuk gksxk] c<+k p<+k dj ughaA ysfdu buls gesa
bl lc fØ;kvksa dks gekjk efLr”d gh funsZf’kr djrk gSA euq”; ds LoHkko jksx dh ÁfØ;k dh tSfodh dks tkuus esa enn fey ldrh gSA
dk ;g egRoiw.kZ :i ml le; csdkj gks tkrk gS tc gekjk ;g efLr”d
/khjs&/khjs det+ksj gksdj dke djuk can dj nsrk gS vFkkZr~ tc vYt+hej vYt+hej jksx ds Ádksi dks jksdus ds fy, vHkh rd dksbZ bykt ekStwn
jksx tdM+ ysrk gSA vYt+hej jksx Msesaf’k;k dk gh ,d :i gS ftlesa ugha gS] gkykafd blds fy, cgqr rRijrk ls Á;kl fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj
ekufld ‘kfDr yxHkx u”V gks tkrh gSA 65 o”kZ dh vk;q okys O;fDr;ksa esa bl chekjh ds bykt gsrq i’kqvksa ij ‘kks/k djuk cgqr mi;ksxh gSA dgk
;g chekjh yxHkx 5 Áfr’kr vkSj 85 o”kZ ;k mlls vf/kd vk;q okys tkrk gSA ds ftu raf=dk dksf’kdkvksa esa dsfedy VªkalehVj
O;fDr;ksa esa 25 Áfr’kr rd gksrh gSA ;g vR;Ur nq[kn jksx gS% bles lcls ,flVydksyhu dk bLrseky gksrk gS mUgsa ;g chekjh [kkl rkSj ij tYnh
igys Lej.k ‘kfDr {kh.k gksrh gS mlds ckn O;fDr dh gjdrsa lkekU; ugha idM+rh gSA mu ,utkbuksa tks lkekU;r% bl U;wjksVªkalehVj dks u”V
jgrh vkSj vUrr% mldh ekSr gks tkrh gSA vius fÁ;tuksa dks bl rjg dks djrh gS] ds ÁHkko dks jksdrs gq, ‘ks”k ,flVdksyhu dh dkjZokbZ dks rst+
bl rjg dh fLFkfr esa ns[kuk fd ftlesa os Lo;a dks gh ugha igpku ikrs] djus ds fy, nh xbZ vkS”kf/k;ksa dk i'kqvksa vkSj dqN jksfx;ksa ds ekeyksa]
cgqr gh ihfM+r O;fDr vius fudV lacaf/k;ksa dks igpkuuk gh can dj nsrs gSa nksuksa ds fy, ekewyh :Ik ls vljnkj ekuk x;k gSA ysfdu ;s vkS”kf/k;ka
vkSj ge vius jkstejkZ ds /kkuksa tSls fd diMs] iguuk] [kkuk] ugkuk /kksuk bl chekjh ds Ádksi dks jksdu esa dke;kc ugha gSaA vkuqokaf’kdh ladsrksa]
vkSj vU; t#jh dk;ksZa ds fy, mu vkfJr gksus yxrs gSa] mudh ns[kHkky efLr”d dh cukoV vkSj euksoSKkfud dk;ZÁ.kkyh ds chp laca/k dks
tkudkjh vkSj mu ra=ksa dk Kku ftu otg ls ;s dksf’kdk,a u”V gksrh
djus okyksa dh ftanxh dh ,dne cny tkrh gSA
gSa] bu lc rF;ksa dks ysdj bldk gy <w<aus ls vUr esa bl ls jksx ij
dkcw ik;k tk ldrk gSA
^^vktdy firkth ;g Hkh ugha tkurs fd eSa dkSu gwaA yxrk gS fd os eq>s
fcYdqy Hkh ugha igpkursA mUgsa xqLlk vk tkrk gS] vkSj NksVh&NksVh ckr
ij Mj tkrs gSa & eq>s ,slk yxrk gS fd mUgsa ‘kk;n ;g Hkh ekywe ugha
gksrk fd muds vkl&ikl D;k gks jgk gSA ‘kq:&’kq: esa ,slk yxrk Fkk og
ges’kk pht+ksa dks j[kdj Hkwy tkrs gSaA fQj rks fLFkfr Hkh vkSj Hkh cnrj gks
xbZA uhan ugha vkrh Fkh] le; dk Kku ugha gksrk gS] vkSj rks vkSj mUgsa ;g
Hkh vkHkkl ugha gksrk Fkk fd os dgka ij gSA vc [kkuk [kkrs gq, mUgsa vius
crZuksa dk Hkh irk ugha pyuk vkSj [kkuk [kkus] diM+s iguus ds dke esa
mUgsa enn dh t#jr iM+rh gSA eSa ;g lc ugha dj ldrkA**

volknd fodkj ¼fMÁsflio fMlvkMZj½
;g tkudkjh gSjkuh gksrh gS fd fMÁs’ku vkSj U;wjksfMtsujs’ku esa xgjk
laca/k gS ysfdu vc ge tkurs gSa fd volkn ls xaHkhj :i ls ihfM+r
jksfx;ksa ds efLr”d dh dksf’kdk,a u”V gks ldrh gSA
volkn dh chekjh mu det+ksj
euksHkkoksa ls vyx gS] tks vkneh
le;&le; ij eglwl djrk
gSA ge ;gka lc esa ,d xaHkhj
chekjh dh fLFkfr dh ckr dj
jgs gS tc vkneh dk g¶rksa vkSj
eghuksa rd [kjkc ewM esa jgrk
gSA /khjs&/khjs mldh lkjh
#fp;ka lekIr gksus yxrh gS
vkSj fLFkfr bruh fcxM+

;g lc D;k gks jgk gSA tSls tSls vYt+hej dh chekjh c<+rh gS efLr”d
dh dksf’kdk,a u”V gksrh tkrh gSa] dkjVsDl iryh gksrh tkrh gS vkSj
osufVªdy ¼rjy inkFkZ tks efLr”d esa [kkyh LFkku dks Hkjrk gS½ QSyus
yxrk gSA jksx dk funku lkekU;r% mlds y{k.kksa ds vk/kkj ij fd;k
tkrk gS ysfdu bldh ekStwnxh dh fuf’pr :i ls iqf”V jksxh dh e`R;q ds
Ik’pkr mldh ‘ko&ijh{kk djus ij gh gksrh gS tc efLr”d lw{en’khZ
ijh{k.k ls irk pyrk gS dksf’kdk,a u”V gks pqdh gSa vkSj fc[kjs gq, NksVs
NksVs foÑr ,ehykW;M Iykdksa esa cgqr lk ,ehykW;M ÁksVhu vlkekU; :i
ls tek gks x;k gS rFkk mlesa jkM dh rjg ds ÁksVhuksa tks efLr”d dh
lkekU; dksf’kdk,a gS&Qkbfczysjh Vsaxy tekoM+k gks x;k gSA orZeku
vuqla/kku ifj;kstukvksa esa rf=dk euksoSKkfud ijh{k.k fof/k;ksa ds tfj,
ftUnk jgrs gq, bl jksx dk funku djus dk Á;kl fd;k tk jgk gSa]
ftuesa vYt+hej jksx dh vkjfEHkd voLFkkvksa esa mnkgj.kkFkZ gks jgs
ekufld cnykoksa dks igpkuus esa ij /;ku dsfUnzr fd;k tkr gS vkSj
bldk ijh{k.k fMÁs’ku ds jksfx;ksa ij fd;k tkrk gSA

tkrh gS fd volkn ls ihfM+r jksxh ejuk pkgrk gS vkSj gks ldrk gS fd og
Lo;a dks ekj gh nsA volkn ds jksxh ds dqN vU; y{k.k bl Ádkj gS% lgh
<ax ls uhan u vkuk] Hkw[k u yxuk fdlh pht+ ij /;ku dsfUnzr u dj ikuk
vkSj Lej.k ‘kfDr det+ksj gksukA vkSj thou ds Áfr yxko u jgukA lkSHkkX;
ls] bl chekjh dk iwjh rjg bykt+ gks ldrk gSA ,aVhfMÁsLV vkS”kf/k;ksa ls tks
U;wjkekWM~;wysVjh VªkalehVj tSls fd lsjksVksfuu vkSj uksjkMªsukykbu ds ÁHkko dks
rst djrh gSa] bl chekjh dk rst+h ls ¼g¶rksa esa½ bykt fd;k tk ldrk gSA
fo’ks”k rjg dh ckrphr ds tfj, bykt Hkh cgqr dkjxkj gS vkSj jklk;fud
efLr”d ds /kCcs ,ehykW;M Iykdksa
rFkk euksoSKkfud nksuksa Ádkj dk ,dlkFk bykt rks fo’ks”k :Ik ls ennxkj
¼tSls fd vk;rkdkj esa½ vkSj cgqr
fl) gks ldrk gSA
xgjs /kCcksa okyh xqfRFk;ksa ¼rhj½ dks
vk’p;Z dh ckr gS fd bl
n’kkZrs gSaA
chekjh y{k.k lHkh esa ,d tSls gksrs
gSaA fd bl chekjh ds y{k.k lHkh esa
,d tSls gksrs gSaA 5 esa ls 1 vkneh
iqu% vkuqokaf’kdh us gesa bl jksx dks tkuus dk ekSdk fn;k gS ftlesa thuksa esa
dqN gn rd volkn dh bl chekjh
ifjorZuksa dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gS ftls ,ehykW;M fÁdlZj ÁksVhu ¼ftlls
ls ihfM+r gksrk gSA

,feykW;M curk gS½ vkSj Áslsfufyal ¼ftls ,at+kbe dgrs gSa tk fÁdlZj ÁksVhu
dks uhps ykrk gS½ dgk tkrk gSA fo’ks”k :i ls ,iksfy;ks ÁksVhu bZ ¼LiksbZ½
thu ftls ,iksbZ&4 dgk x;k gS dk vkuqokf’kd :i esa :ikUrj.k bl chekjh
ds fy, ,d cgqr cM+k [krjk gSA ysfdu vkuqokaf’kdh gh blds fy, iwjh rjg
ls ftEesnkj ugha gSA i;kZojf.kd ?kVd tSls fd fo”k vkSj vU; vk?kkr tSls
fd nq?kZVuk fnekx ij pksV yxuk vkfn Hkh eq[; bldh [kkl otg cu
ldrs gSA

50

fouklsaV okWu n bEizs’kfuLV
isaVj volkn dh chekjh ls
xaHkhj :Ik ls ihfM+r FksA

xaHkhj vkSj yEcs le; ls pyh vk jgh
volkn dh chekjh ruko iSnk djus
okyh gkeksZuksa tSls fd
dkafVZlksy tks ruko dh fLFkfr ds
nkSjku rst+h ls iSnk gksrs gSa
¼v/;k;&12½] dk fu;a=.k fcxM+ tkrk
gSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
ysfdu yEcs le; ls lfØ; gks jgs ruko laca/kh gkeksZu efLr”d dh
dksf’kdkvksa fo’ks”k :i ls yykV vkSj duiVh ds ykscksa dks uqdlku
igqapk ldrs gSA gky esa irk pyk gS fd ,aVh fMÁslsaV vkS”kf/k;ksa ls
efLr”d dh dskf’kdkvksa dh fLFkfr esa lq/kkj gksrk gS vkSj fgIiksdSEil
esa u, U;wVªku iSnk fd, tkus dh nj esa o`f) gksrh gSA bl rjg ;s
vkS”kf/k;k¡ chekjh ls cpkrh gSa vkSj ;gka rd fd efLr”d ij iM+us
okys ruko ds cqjs ÁHkkoksa dks Hkh jksdrh gSA

’kkbt+ksÝsfu;k
vU; euf’pfdRlh; fodkj tks efLr”d dks dsfeLVªh vkSj efLr”d
dh lajpuk nksuksa esa vlkekU; ykrh gS] ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k dgk tkrk
gSA ;g mŸkjksrj o laHkor vixark dh fLFkfr gS tks lkS esa ls ,d
O;fDr dks ÁHkkfor djrh gSA ÁkS<+koLFkk ‘kq: gksrs gh bl chekjh ds
y{k.k fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gSa vkSj dSalj ls Hkh T;knk ?kkrd gSA
‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k dk Áeq[k y{k.k gS foHkze ¼vlkekU; Árhfr;k¡ &
lkekU;r% cqjs&cqjs fopkj vkuk tks cgqr Øwj fdLe ds gksrs gSa½ vkSj
efrHkze ¼bfUnz;k fodkj gks tkrk gS tc jksxh dh dqN vuqHkwfr gksus
yxrh gS tSls fd vkokt+ lqukbZ nsus yxrh gSa tcfd ogka dksbZ ugha
gksrk½A lksp&fopkj] ckr djus vkSj dk;Z dh {kerk rst+h ls de
fLFkfr dk xyr vFkZ fudkyk tkrk gSA
Ák;% *fo[kafMr O;fDrRo^ ds lkFk tksM+ fn;k tkrk gS tcfd
bldk mlls dksbZ laca/k ugha gksrk vkSj u gh ,slk dksbZ fu;e gS
fd blls jksxh fgald gks tkrk gSA okLro esa] f’kDRt+ksÝsfu;k jksx
ls ihfM+r O;fDr [krjukd gksus dh vis{kk Mjiksd gks tkrk gSA
;g chekjh vkuqokaf’kd gksrh gS ysfdu Áfrdwy fLFkfr;ka] i;kZoj.k
vkSj ruko Hkh bl chekjh dk dkj.k gks ldrs gSaA fQj Hkh]
tks ;g lHkh euksoSKkfud ifjorZu fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSa eq[;
:Ik ls efLr”d jksx dk gh y{k.k gSA cgqr igys ls ;g ekuk
tkrk gS fd bl fLFkfr esa efLr”d dks osufVªdy tk c<+ tkrs
gSa vkSj efLr”d ds vxzHkkx dh dksf’kdkvksa xfrfof/k /kheh
iM+ tkrh gSA
**igys rks gesa ;g irk gks ugha pyk fd gekjh csVh dks D;k gks
jgk gSA mlus ;wfuoflVhZ dh i<+kbZ Bhd&Bkd ‘kq: dh vkSj igys
o”kZ dh ijh{kk esa mlus dksbZ fnDdr eglwl ugha dhA blds ckn
mlesa cnyko vkus yxkA tc og ?kj esa gksrh rks ,dne ‘kkUr
vkSj vyx&vyx lh jgrh tcfd igys ckgj tkus ij Hkh og
,slh ugha Fkhaa mlus vius nksLrksa ls feyuk can dj fn;k ckn esa
rks geus ns[kk fd og viuh Dykl ls Hkh xSj&gkft+j gksus yxh
Fkh vkSj lkjk fnu fcLrj ij iM+h jgrh FkhA fQj ,d fnu mlus
gesa dgk fd mls Vsyhfot+u ls ,d fo’ks”k lans’k ÁkIr gqvk gS fd
mls fo’ks”k ‘kfDr;ka ÁkIr gSa vkSj mixzg mlds fopkjksa ds VsyhiSFkh
}kjk fu;af=r dj jgs gSaA og fcuk otg glaus yxrh vkSj fQj
jksuk ‘kq: dj nsrhA og dgrh fd mls vius vkl&ikl yksxksa dh
vkokt+ lqukbZ iM+rh gSa tks mls crkrh gSa fd mlus D;k D;k fd;k
gSA rc mUur esa irk pyk fd mls rks ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k dh chekjh
us tdM+ fy;k gSA
og igyh ckj esa nks eghus rd vLirky esa jghA vc og fu;fer
:Ik ls /;ku yxkrh gSA gkykafd og vc igys ls dkQh vPNh gS
vc mls mixzgksa ds ckjs esa fofp= Ádkj ds fopkj ugha vkus
ysfdu vc Hkh og fdlh ckr esa [kkl #fp ugha ysrhA mlus
;wfuoflVhZ dh viuh i<+kbZ can djuh iM+hA gkykafd mlus dqN
le; rd fdlh ,d LFkkuh; nqdku ij dke Hkh fd;k ysfdu
mls dqN g¶rks ds fy, fQj ls vLirky tkuk iM+k ftlls
mldh ukSdjh NwV xbZA vc og igys tSls ugha jgh gSA^^

Mksikekbu fjlsiVlZ dks jksdus okyh vkS”kf/k;ka y{k.kksa dh ckjEckjrk vkSj
ÁHkko dks de djus esa lgk;rk gksrh gS] ysfdu og bl chekjh dk mipkj
ugha dj ldrhA gky gh esa fd, x, v/;;u ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd tc
,EQsVkekbu tSlh vkS”kf/k;ksa dk Á;ksx djus gq, ijh{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rks
ml nkSjku ‘kkbt+ksÝsfu;k ds jksxh ds efLr”d esa fudys Mksikekbu esa
vlkekU;rkvksa dks [kkstuk laHko gksrk gSA bl foÑfr ds ckjs esa cgqr dqN
irk yxk, tkus dh t#jr gS% ‘ko&ijh{kk ds ckn fd, x, v/;;uksa ls
irk pyrk gSA dh fodkl ds nkSjku ftl rjg ls U;wu tqMr+ s gSa mlls
vlkekU;rk vk ldrh gS vkSj ;g Hkh fd vU; U;wjksVªkalehVj flLVEl tSls
fd XyqVkesV] Hkh xyr O;ogkj dj ldrs gSaA
ekufld fodkjksa dh ÁÑfr dks le>us ds gekjs Á;kl esfMdy
U;wjkslkbal ds fy, ,d vkf[kjh cM+h pqukSrh dks O;Dr djrs gSaA
fpfdRlk vuqla/kku ifj”kn vkSj osyde VªLV vkfn tSls laxBuksa us
vxys n’kd esa fd, tkus okys vuqla/kku ds fy, ,tsaMk esa ekufld
LokLF; ds eqÌs dks ‘kh”kZ ij j[kk gSA ,d egRowi.kZ orZeku ifj;kstuk esa
mu ifjokjksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj ¼ckWDl ns[ks½ ftuesa bl jksx ds gksus
dk tksf[ke T;knk gS] jksx dk v/;;u djus ds fy, vkuqokaf’kdh Kku
vkSj efLr”d tkap nksuksa ij fopkj fd;k tk jgk gSA **v.kq ¼eksysD;wy½
ls ysdj ‘k¸;kxr mipkj ¼osclkbV½^^ ds chp ds vUrj dks iVuk gh
,d lcls pqukSrhiw.kZ vuqla/kku Á;kl gSA

vuqla/kku {ks=
ifj.kke

tkap drkZ

euf’pfdRlk,a
thih
fo”k;
chekjh ls ihfM+r gksus okys
laHkkfor ifjokj

’kkbt+ksÝsfu;k dk Hkkoh v/;;u
raf=dk vkSj ef’pfdRlh; jksx ds vf/kdka’k v/;;u mUgha
yksxksa ij fd, tkrs gSa tks igys ls gh bl jksx ls ihfM+r
gksrs gSA LdkWVyS.M ds vuqla/kkudrkZ bl chekjh ds ihfM+r
gksus dks laHkkouk okys ifjokjksa ds lnL;ksa dk v/;;u djus
ds fy, vkuqokaf’kdh laca/kh lwpuk dk Á;ksx dj jgs gSaA ;g
ns[kus ds fy, fd D;k jksx ds vUnj&vUnj fodflr gksus
ds y{k.kksa dk irk yxk;k tk ldrk gS fu;fer vUrjkyksa
ij efLr”d dh tkap vkSj efLr”d ds dke djus dh fLFkfr
vkSj okLrfod y{k.kksa ds /;kuiwoZd ijh{k.k fd;k tkrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbVs:a Brain and spine foundation: http://www.bbsf.org.uk
British epilepsy association: http://www.epilepsy.org.uk Stroke: http://www.strokecenter.org
National Institute of Neurological disorders and stroke: http://www.ninds.nih.gov

51

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

raf=dk uhfr‘kkL=

,d ckj cgqr igys dh ckr gS ¼tSlkfd ifj;ksa dh dgkuh vdlj
‘kq: gksrh gS½] foKku rFkk izks|ksfxdh ds chp ,d Li”V lqfHkUurk
FkhA oSKkfudksa us ^^irk yxkus ds vkuan^^ dks NksM+dj vU; fdlh
iqjLdkj ds fcuk le; dh [kkst esa ,d vfu;af=r ekxZ dk ifj’khyu
fd;k] og pkgs mUgsa dgha Hkh D;ksa u ys tk,A bathfu;jksa rFkk
izkS|ksfxdhfonksa us ml lalkj dks] ftlesa ge jgrs gSa] cnyus ds fy,
oSKkfud iz;kl ds ifj.kkeksa dks vuqiz;qDr fd;kA rFkkfi] pkgs ;g
rhoz lqfHkUurk fdruh Hkh Hkzked izrhr u gks] ;d ,d ifj;ksa dh
dgkuh gS rFkk lnk jgsxhA vktdy oSKkfud ml lkekftd lanHkZ
lac/a k esa lokZf/kd tkx#d gS ftlesa os dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk fdl izdkj
og lanHkZ muds v/;;u dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gSA
lekt ij raf=dk foKku ds izHkko ls tqM+s iz’u raf=dk uhfr’kkL= ds
lkekU; ‘kh”kZd ds varxZr ,df=r fd, tkrs gSa tks raf=dk foKku
n’kZu’kkL= rFkk uhfr’kkL= dk pkSjkgk gSA blesa ;g ‘kkfey gS fd
fdl izdkj efLr”d ds laca/k esa [kkstsa ekuoksa ds :i esa gekjs vfLrRo
dh Hkkouk dks izHkkfor djrh gSa ¼tSls eR;Zrk dk raf=dk vk/kkj½A ;g
lkekftd uhfr ds fy, my>koksa ds ckjs esa gSa ¼tSls cPps dh ‘kS{kf.kd
laHkkO;rk½ rFkk fdl izdkj vuqla/kku fd;k tkrk gS ¼tSls Ik’kqvksa ij
iz;ksx dk uhfr’kkL= ;k ekuoksa ds lkFk /kks[ks dk iz;ksx½A rFkk ;g
bl ckjs esa gS fd fdl izdkj raf=dk foKkuh yksxksa dks ;g lalwfpr
djus esa lokZsRre :i ls jr gksxsa fd os D;k djrs gSa rFkk bl ckjs esa
fopkj dh lk>snkjh djsaxh fd mUgsa D;k djuk pkfg,A

lkekftd lanHkZ
gkykafd dqN raf=dk foKkuh ;g ekurs gSa fd mudh ladYiuk,a
lkekftd okLrfodrk ls fHkUu gSa] ,slk fojyk gh gksrk gSA 17oha
‘krkCnh esa] MsLdkVZsl us ;g Li”V djus ds fy, ,d nzoh; esaVkQksj
¼y{k.k½ dk iz;ksx fd;k fd fdl izdkj efLr”d dh euksn’kk
ekalisf’k;ksa dks lapkfyr djrh gS & ;g ty bathfu;jh ls m/kkj
fy;k x;k ,d y{k.k gS ftls mUgksaus Ýkalhlh psR;w esa ns[kkA 20oha
‘krh lekIr gksus ij] tks vkS|ksfxd ;qx dh |ksrd gS] raf=dk ‘kjhj
foKkfu;ksa us efLr”d dh tfVy ok;fjax dks ,d ^^ek;koh [kM~Mh^^
ds :I esa rFkk ckn esa ,d fo’kky ^^nwjHkk”k dsanz^^ ds :Ik esa of.kZr
fd;kA vc 21oha ‘krkCnh ds vkjEHk gksus ij] lax.kukRed y{k.k
izpqj gSa ;Fkk dkYifud vuqeku fd ^^lsjscjy dksVZsDl futh oYMZ
okbM cso dh Hkkafr izpkyu djrk gSA^^ ;s tfVy fopkj lalwfpr
djus ds lgk;rkFkZ va’kr% vk’kqys[ku gSa ijUrq lkFk gh ,slh
ladYiuk,a Hkh gSa tks oLrqr% ifj”Ñr efLr”d fl)kUrksa esa fufeZr gSaA
raf=dk foKkuh nSuafnolh; fo’o ls dVdj oSKkfud leL;kvksa ds
ckjs esa lksp ldrs gSa rFkk lksprs gSaA vdlj ;g fodkl ,d vewrZ
vuki’kuki ;qDr fo’o esa gksrk gS ftlesa lR; ds fy, ,d rikse;
[kkst ds lfUudj dqN dk;Z oLrqr% fd;k tk jgk gSA pkgs ;g mu
vk;fud /kkjkvksa dk ifjdYku djus laca/kh gks tks dk;Z&laHkkO;rk ds
izpkj esa varfgZr gSa] dSls jklk;fud lans’k fueqZDr fd, tkrs gSa rFkk
dk;Z djrs gSa vFkok fdl izdkj n`f”Vr fo’o ds igyqvksa dk n`f”Vd
dksVZSDl esa lsy Qk;fjax izfrfuf/kRo djrh gS & raf=dk foKku esa
vusd leL;kvksa dks ,d i`FkDÑr fdUrq o’; rjhds esa <kyk tk
ldrk gSA
fdUrq okLrfod fo’o dHkh Hkh cgqr nwj ugha gksrkA tc gesa ,d ckj
irk py tk, fd jklk;fud VªkalehVj fdl izdkj dk;Z djrs gSa rks
mu LekVZ vkS”k/kksa ds ckjs esa lkspuk LokHkkfod gS tks gesa csgrj
Lej.k djus esa lgk;rk dj ldrs gSaA dqN yksx U;wjksVkfDlUl
¼raf=dk ,tsaV½ ds ckjs esa lksp ldrs gSa tks bl laosnh izfØ;k dks
ckf/kr djrs gSa tSls ,atkbu vojks/kd tks tSfod la?k”kZ ds ,tsaVksa ls
rfud gh nwj gSA

^^efLr”d ds ckjs esa lkspuk ge lcls lacaf/kr gS ;g ‘kkfCnd
vFkZ esa fnekxh dk;Z gS^^
t+d gkWy] dSfyQksfuZ;k fo’ofo|ky;

52

;fn dksbZ ,slk vkS”k/k miyC/k gh tks vkidks ijh{kk ikl djus esa
lgk;rk dj lds rks D;k vki bls ysaxsA D;k blesa rFkk fdlh
f[kykM+h ds LVhjks;M dk iz;ksx dj viuk fu”iknu lq/kkjus esa vFkok
fdlh O;fDr }kjk volknjks/kh nok ysus esa dksbZ varj gSa \
efLRk”d Nfodj.k dk HkfOk”; de dkYifud uSfed f}fo/kkvksa ls
f?kjk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] efLr”d Nfodj.k rduhdsa leqfpr ijh{k.k
izfØ;kfof/k;ksa ls ‘kh?kz gh O;fDr dh OkkLrfod ;knksa dks feF;k ;knksa
ls lqfHkUu djuk O;ogk;Z cuk nsaxhA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
ÁfrfØ;k esa fHkUurk bl le; cgqr vf/kd gS fdUrq ,d fnu U;k;ky;ksa
ds ikl efLr”d LdSfuax ÁkS|ksfxdh miyC/k gksxh & ;g ,d Ádkj dk
lsjhczy vaxqfyeqnz.k gSa tks xokgksa dh ;FkkrF;rk dks LFkkfir djus esa
lgk;d gks ldrk gSA blls laKkukRed xksiuh;rk ds ckjs esa #fpdj
eqn~ns mRiUu gks ldrs gSaA
efLr”d ds ckjs esa u, fu”d”kZ lnSo gekjh Lo;a ds ckjs esa Hkkouk dks
la’kksf/kr djrs jgrs gSaA efLr”d ds fodkl ds ckjs esa ÁHkkoiw.kZ fopkjksa
esa vusd lkeftd laKku ls lacaf/kr fopkj ‘kkfey gSaA bl ckjs esa
mnh;eku tkx#drk gS fd eR;Zrk rFkk lpsruk HkkoukRed efLr”d ls
lfUudV ;qfXer gS tks iqjLdkj vkSj naM ds ladsrksa dks ÁfØ;kfUor
djrk gS & ,d ,slh laHkkouk ftlds ckjs esa fodklkRed uhfr’kkL= ds
‘kh”kZd ds rgr rdZ fn, x, gSA bu ds ckjs esa vkSj lh[kuk csgrjh ds
fy, dkQh ÁHkko’kkyh cy gS tks gesa ,d nwljs dh Hkkoukvksa ds ckjs esa
vf/kd voxr djkrk gSA U;wjksu IykfLVflVh dh gekjh orZeku iqjkru
ladYiukvksa esa bu fopkjksa dk fuekZ.k djus ls rkRdkfyd vdknfed
y{;ksa] tks vdlj ppkZ dk ,dek= dsanz gksrs gSa] ls dgha vkxs f’k{kk
ÁHkkfor gks ldrh gSA
;g ekuuk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gS fd raf=dk oSKkfud vius fo”k; ds Hkkoh
fn’kkvksa ds ckjs esa lger ugha gSA dqN vkf.od raf=dk thofoKkfu;ksa
ds fy, vR; lR; raf=dh; Á.kkyh ds vkf.od la?kVdksa esa lfUufgr gS
& ftuesa uohu Mh,u, rFkk ÁksVfed ÁkS|ksfxfd;ksa efLr”d ds iw.kZÙkj
Li”Vhdj.kksa dks vk’oLr djrh gSa ftuls vU; raf=dk oSKkfudksa }kjk
lkeuk dh tkus okyh leL;kvksa dk lek/kku gksxkA ;g vip;udrkZ
dh dk;Zlwph gS ftldk iw.kZ n’kZu’kkL=h; ,oa ÁkS|ksfxdh; fodkl dk
vdlj ehfM;k ys[kksa esa xq.kxku fd;k tkrk gSA fdUrq D;k ,slk
vip;udrkZ fo’okl mfpr gS \ ;k D;k efLr”d ,oa fnekx ds mPp
Lrjh; Li”Vhdj.k gS tks bl Ádkj de ugha fd, tk ldrs \ D;k
efLr”d ds la?kVu ls dksbZ mnh;eku y{k.k mRiUu gks jgs gSa \
var%fØ;kRed raf=dk oSKkfudksa dk ,d fHkUu dk;Zlwph esa n`< fo’okl
gSA os vk/kqfud raf=dk foKku ds Áfr vf/kd mnkj n`f”Vdks.k ds fy,
rdZ nsrs gS tks ,d ,slk n`f”Vdks.k gS tks lkekftd foKkuksa ds lkFk
bldh var%fØ;k dk vUos”k.k Hkh djrk gSA ;s ,sls eqn+ns gSa ftu ij
lkoZtfud eap ij lgt ppkZ ugha dh tkrh fdUrq fdl Ádkj dk
v/;;u fd;k tkuk pkfg,] ;s ,sls ekeys gS ftu ij lekt ds lkFk
ijke’kZ fd;k tkuk pkfg,A D;ksafd ,sls vuqla/kku ds fy, Hkqxrku djus
esa yksxksa ds dj blesa lgk;d gksrs gSaA
raf=dk uhfr’kkL= & dqN Bksl mnkgj.k
raf=dk uhfr’kkL= esa dqN eqn~ns lkekU; Kku ls dqN vf/kd ;ksxnku
nsrs gSA eku yks fdlh Á;ksx ds v/;/khu Lo;alsoh ds efLr”d LdSu ls
vÁR;kf’kr :i ls ,d ÁefLr”dh; vlkekU;rk mn~?kkfVr gks tSls
efLr”d vcqZn] vFkok dYiuk djsa fd ekuo raf=dk vkuqokaf’kdh LØhu
esa dksbZ O;fDr ,sls mRifjorZu dk /kkjd ik;k tk, ftlds dkj.k og
fdlh raf=dk g~klh jksx ds Áfr laosnu’khy gksA buesa ls ÁR;sd ekeys
esa D;k ml O;fDr dks bl ckjs esa crk;k tkuk pkfg,A lkekU; Kku
;g lq>krk gS fd ;g mÙkjnkf;Ro Lo;alsoh ij Mky fn;k tkuk pkfg,
ftls igys gh bl ckjs esa viuh lgefr ;k vlgefr nsus ds fy, dgk
tk,xk fd D;k LdSu ds nkSjku irk yxkbZ xbZ dksbZ laxr fpfdRlk
lwpuk crkbZ tkuh pkfg,A
rFkkfi] lwfpr lgefr ,d vtZu dk;Z gSA eku yks efLr”d
vuqla/kkudrkZ Á/kku ds fy, fdlh u, mipkj dk ijh{k.k dj jgk
gS ftlesa vkS”k/k ;k mldk ÁfrLFkkid ikjEifjd :Ik ls Á/kku ds
dqN ?kaVksa ds Hkhrj fn;k tkuk gSA ,sls ;kn`fPNd Áksrksdksy ds Bksl
oSKkfud dkj.k gSA fdUrq ge ;g ÁR;k’kk ugha dj ldrs fd fdls
Á?kkr gksxk rFkk ÁHkkfor O;fDr ds fy, lwfpr lgefr nsuk
lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbVsa

vlaHko gks ldrk gSA ;fn ;g O;fDr dks bl Ádkj dh vuqla/kku ifj;kstuk esa
Hkkx ysus ls jksds rks ;g mudk rFkk ijorhZ jksfx;ksa dk nh?kkZof/kd vojks/kd
gksxkA laca/kh Hkh laHkor% ,slh eu%voLFkk esa ugha gksaxs tgk¡ muds fy, miyC/k
le; esa lgefr dk fu.kZ; djuk lgt gksA D;k ge vis{kkÑr c`grj csgrjh ds
fy, lwfpr lgefr dk R;kx dj ldrs gSa rFkk vf/kR;kxksa dh ‘kq:vkr dj
ldrs gSa \ ;k D;k ,slk djuk ,d Nykok gS \
raf=dk uhfr’kkL= dk ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ igyw Ik’kq Á;ksxksa ls lacaf/kr gSA
Ik’kq vius efLr”dksa ij lapkfyr fd, tkus okys vkØked Á;ksxksa ds fy,
lgefr Ánku djus dh fLFkfr esa ugha gSA dqN yksxksa ds fy,] ,sls dk;Z dh
laHkkouk O;o/kkukdkjh gSA vU;ksa ds fy, blds }kjk LokLF; ,oa jksx esa
raf=dh; Á.kkyh dk vocks/ku v?kru] djus ds fy, is’kd’k fd;k tkus
okyk volj ,slk gS fd bldk ifj’khyu u djuk vrkfdZd gSA fu”i{k :Ik
ls bu eqn~nksa ij okn fookn djuk lgt ugha gS fdUrq ;g vko’;d gS fd
ge ,slk djsa rFkk gesa ,slk lEekuiwoZd <ax ls djuk pkfg,A
vf/kdka’k ;wjksih; ns’kksa esa Ik’kq Á;ksxksa dks vR;ar] dBksj rjhds ls fofu;fer
fd, tkrs gSaA vuqla/kkudrkZvksa }kjk ikB~;Øeksa esa Hkkx ysuk rFkk ijh{kk,a
ikl djuk visf{kr gS ftuesa muds dkuwu ds Kku rFkk mudh l{kerk dh
ijh{kk dh tkrh gS rkfd ;g lqfuf’pr fd;k tk lds fd Ik’kqvksa dks
vuko’;d ihM+k u nh tk,A ;g O;kid :Ik ls Lohdkj fd;k x;k gS fd
rhu vkj & vip;u ¼fjMD’ku½] ifj”dj.k ¼fjQkbuesaV½ rFkk ÁfrLFkkiu
¼fjIyslesVa ½ tSo fpfdRldksa }kjk vuqikyu fd, tkus okys vPNs fl)kUr gSaA
os ,slk dkuwu ds <kaps ds Hkhrj LosPNk ls djrs gSa rFkk blfy, ;g ;|fi
loZlEer :Ik ls rks ugha fdUrq O;kid :i ls yksd lEer gSA raf=dk
foKku esa vusd u, fu”d”kZ ÁfrLFkkiu rduhdksa ls mnh;eku gks jgsa gS tSls
Ård lao/kZu rFkk lax.kukRed ekWMfyaxA fdUrq ;s ltho efLr”d ds lHkh
v/;;uksa dks ÁfrLFkkfir ugha dj ldrs ftuls raf=dk foKku rFkk euksjksxksa
ds fy, vusd u, fu”d”kZ rFkk mipkj ÁkIr gks xbZ gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ]
ikfdZUlu jksx dk mipkj djus ds fy, ,y&Mksik dk Á;ksx pwgs ds efLRk”d
ij ukscy iqjLdkj fotsrk dk;Z ls mnh;eku gqvkA rFkk ubZ rduhdsa #X.k
O;fDRk;ksa rFkk #X.k i'kqvksa dh lgk;rkFkZ u, voljksa dh is’kd’k djrh gSA
dsoy lalwpuk ……………
;g ,d igsyhiw.kZ lR; gS fd ftu ns’kksa esa oSKkfud vke turk dks lalwpuk
nsus ds lokZf/kd Á;kl djrs gSa] os ns’k ,sls gS tgk¡ oSKkfudksa esa fo’okl ds
fuEurj Lrj gSa fdUrq ;g lglaca/k dkj.k ds leku ugha gS rFkk ;g
vlaHkkfor gS fd yksxksa dks lekt ij foKku ds ÁHkko ij ppkZ esa jr djus
dk ;g ftEesokj Á;kl & rFkk ,slk djus ds fy, dÙkZO; dh c<+rh Hkkouk
bl c<+rs gq, vfo’okl dk dkj.k gSA blds ctk; ;g laHkkouk gS fd #fp
j[kus okyh turk vf/kd ifj”Ñr gksrh tk jgh gS] u, ^^dfj’ek vkS”k/kksa^^ ds
ckjs esa mfpr :i ls vf/kd tkx#d rFkk foKku dh /kheh rFkk dbZ ckj
vfuf’pr Áxfr ds ckjs esa vf/kd voxr gksrh tk jgh gSA vfo’okl dks de
djuk va/kfo’okl iw.kZ vKkurk esa okil ykSVus dk i{k ysus dk vk/kkj ugha
gks ldrkA
raf=dk foKku ds laca/k esa ;qok yksxksa rFkk #fp j[kus okyh turk dks
‘kkfey djus dk ,d dkj.k ;g gS fd raf=dk oSKkfud vHkh Hkh vius {ks=
ds vusd dsanzh; rdkZ/kkjksa ds ckjs esa vHkh Hkh vlger gSA i`FkDÑr [kkstksa ds
ckjs esa ladsUnz.k djus ds ctk,] ehfM;k ds fy, ;g csgrj gksxk fd og
foKku ds ckjs esa ,d ÁfØ;k ds :i esa fopkj djsA ,d ,slh ÁfØ;k tks
vfuf’prrk rFkk okn fookn ls Hkjiwj gSA
raf=dk uhfr’kkL= ,d u;k {ks= gSA ;g ,d ftKklq foMEcuk gS fd ;g
fjpMZ QsueSu] ,d lS)kfUrd euksfoKkuh Fks ftUgksaus foKku ds dk;Z dks
djus dk viuk dkj.k ^^irk yxkus ds vkuan^^ ds :i esa fd;kA foMEcukiw.kZ
blfy, D;ksafd ;g QsueSu Fkk ftlus vius dks flj iSj rd ;g dk;Z djus
esa Mwcks fn;k fd pSysatj uked ,d vesfjdh varfj{k ‘kVy mM+ku ‘kq: djus
gh D;ksa foLQksV xqLr gks x;kA foKku dk ÁHkko ge lc ij iM+rk gSA

: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/may22/neuroethics.html
http://www.dana.org/books/press/neuroethics/

53

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

izf’k{k.k vkSj dSfj;j

tc vusd ;qok fo|kFkhZ foKku ds dSfj;j ds ckjs esa lksprs gS rks
muds le{k lQsn dksVksa vkSj iz;ksx’kkykvksa dh Nfo;ka mHkjrh gSA
vk’kktud :i ls] ;g iqfLrdk ;g n’kkZus esa dqN gn rd lQy jgh
gksxh fd raf=dk foKku ds vusd fHkUu fHkUu igyw gS rFkk efLr”d ij
;g vuqla/kku yksxksa ds thou dks vusd rjhdksa ls Li’kZ djsxkA
iz;ksx’kkyk ls vLirky rd rFkk thou ds vusd {ks=ksa esa bl {ks= ds
Hkhrj mRlkg’khy voljksa dh fofo/k J`a[kyk gSA

^^eSaus ,&Lrj ij foKku ,oa vaxzst+h dk v/;;u fd;k rFkk

fo’ofo|ky; raf=dk foKku ikB~;Øe

fQj eSa tho fOkKku dk v/;;u djus ds fy, ,fMucxZ xbZA

vusd fo’ofo|ky; vc raf=dkfoKku esa voj Lrkud mikf/k;ksa nsrs
gSaA vdlj ;g fo”k; thofoKku] ‘kjhjfoKku] QkekZdksYkkWth rFkk
euksfoKku tSls fo”k;ksa esa vkjfEHkd o”kkZsa ds izf’k{k.k ds i'pkr
fo’ks”kKrk ds :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA vkuqoaf’kdh rFkk vkf.od
thofoKku dk Kku Hkh ewY;oku gks ldrk gSA

eSaus vafre o”kZ esa raf=dk foKku esa fo’ks”kKrk gkfly dh rFkk

rFkkfi vkidks buesa ls dqN ikB~;Øeksa esa izos’k gsrq NBh d{kk ls
dsoy foKku ds fo”k;ksa dk v/;;u djuk vko’;d ugha gSA baVjusV
ij ;wlh,,l i`”Bksa dk v/;;u djds raf=dk foKku ikB~;Øeksa rFkk
mudh izos’k vis{kkvksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djsaA vki fo”k; ds
vuqlkj ;k mu fo’ofo|ky; ds vuqlkj bu dh tkudkjh izkIr dj
ldrs gSa tgk¡ vki vkosnu djus ds bPNqd gSaA

varr% ih,pMh dh vksj ys x;kA^^

fpfdRlk
fczVsu esa fpfdRlk ,d voj Lrkud mikf/k gSA vusd fo’ofo|ky;ksa
esa fpfdRLk fo|ky; gSa rFkk gky gh esa vusd u, fpfdRlk fo|ky;ksa
ds l`tu ds ek/;e ls izf’kf{kr fd, tk jgs fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k esa
foLrkj gqvk gSA fo”k; {ks=ksa ;Fkk U;wjksykWth ¼raf=dk foKku½]
U;wjksltZjh ¼raf=dk ‘kY; fpfdRlk½] lkbfd;kVjh ¼euksfoKku½ rFkk
jsfM;ksykWth ¼fofdj.k foKku½ esa fo’ks”kKrk izf’k{k.k ds ijorhZ o”kkZsa esa
vkrh gS fdUrq vdlj xfeZ;ksa dh NqfÍ;ksa esa rFkk varorhZ o”kkZsa ds
nkSjku raf=dk foKku vuqla/kku iz;ksx’kkykvksa esa dk;Z djus ds volj
vkrs gSaA fpfdRlk ikB~;Øeksa esa izos’k izkIr djus ds fy, izfrLi/kkZ
dkQh dM+h gS fdUrq fpfdRlk ds dSfj;j esa izkIr gksus okys iqjLdkj
Hkh Ik;kZIr gSaA
^^fo’ofo|ky; esa dk;Z djus dk fo’ks”kkf/kdkj ckSf)d Lora=rk
gSA dksbZ Hkh fnu ,d tSlk ugha gksrkA izR;sd fnu vki dqN u;k
lh[krs gS] izR;sd fnu vkidks esgur djuh iM+rh gS rFkk
pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA^^
ekfj;k fQV~t+ xksYM] yanu fo’ofo|ky; esa izksQslj
^^bl dk vkd”kZ.k [kkst djus dh laHkkouk] [kkstksa ls
vk’p;Zpfdr djus okyk vkuan izkIr djuk rFkk ifj.kkeh
varn`f”V dh NksVh NksVh mNkysa Fkk rFkk vHkh Hkh gSaA^^
fjpMZ fjcysLVj] ,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky; esa raf=dk ‘kjhj foKkuA

54

jkst+keaM ySaXkLVu
,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky; esa
raf=dk foKku esa ih,pMh fo|kFkhZ

oLrqr% viuk y{; gkfly fd;kA eSa HkkX;’kkyh Fkh fd eq>s
,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky; ds laKkukRed raf=dk foKku foHkkx
esa vuqla/kku lgk;d dk in izLrkfor fd;k x;k rFkk ;g

Fkkel isVh,
fpfdRlk fo|kFkhZ
,fMucxZ fo’ofo|ky;
^^eq>s fo|ky; ds le; ls gh dSfj;j ds :i esa fpfdRlk dks
viukus dk ‘kkSd Fkk rFkk eSaus ,fMucxZ esa bldh vPNh
izfr”Bk ds dkj.k vkosnu fd;kA r`rh; o”kZ esa eq>s ,d
varorhZ ch,llh ikB~;Øe djus dk volj fn;k x;k rFkk
EkSaus raf=dk foKku i<+us dk p;u fd;kA bl o”kZ eq>s
fpfdRlk esa dsanzd v/;;u djus dk volj izkIr gqvk rFkk
eSaus mlls dkQh dqN lh[kk rFkk OkLrqr% vkuan dk vuqHko
fd;kA^^

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
m|ksx ¼Hks”kt m|ksx½
ubZ nokb;ksa dk fujarj vkfo”dkj fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk mudk fodkl
fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk efLr”d vkS”k/k mipkj ds fy, ,d laosnh y{;
gSA Hks”kt dEifu;ka rFkk lkFk gh foRrh; lgk;rk nsus okyh vdknfed
laLFkk,a vius Lo;a ds vuqla/kku lapkfyr djrh gSA muesa ls vusd
iz;ksx’kkyk dkS’kyksa rFkk vuqHko dk fodkl djus dk lgk;rkFkZ m|ksx
esa dqN o”kkZsa dk dk;Z izLrkfor djrh gSA raf=dk foKku lfgr fofo/k
thofoKkuh foKku ikB~;Øeksa ls Lrkud okaNuh; deZpkjh curs gSa tc
muds ikl lgc) iz;ksx’kkyk vuqHko gksA

raf=dkfoKku vuqla/kku
vuqla/kku esa voljksa dh Hkkjh fofo/krk gSA bl {ks= esa efLr”d
Nfodj.k rFkk O;ogkjxr v/;;uksa ls ysdj raf=dk ‘kjhj foKkuh rFkk
vkf.od vkuqoaf’kdh vuqla/kku rd vusd rRo ‘kkfey gSaA
fo’ofo|ky;ksa esa vuqla/kkudrkZ yXu j[kus okys mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
vius fy, vuqdwy vdknfed v/;;u ekxZ <w<us esa izksRlkfgr djus esa
lnSo izLkUu jgrs gSaA

DEI;wfVax ¼ifjdYiu½ m|ksx
raf=dk foKku fo’ofo|ky; esa v/;;u djus ;ksX; fo”k; ds :i esa
gekjs fnekx esa ugha mHkjsxk ;fn ge ifjdYiu ;k lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh esa
dSfj;j dks viukus ds bPNqd gSaA fQj Hkh] tSlk fd geus bl iqfLrdk
esa ns[kk gS] ^^efLr”d & ’kSyh^^ ifjdYiu esa #fp c<+ jgh gS rFkk fo’o
O;kih osc ds fodkl ds lkFk blesa vo’; o`f) gksxhA efLr”d foKku
ds fpfdRlk fHkUu vuqiz;ksxksa esa #fp c<+rh tk jgh gSA

fo|ky; v/;kiu
raf=dk foKku dks fo|ky;ksa esa fo”k; ds :i esa ugha i<+k;k tkrkA
rFkkfi] raf=dk foKku esa mikf/k izkIr Lukrd tho foKku i<+kus ds
fy, vR;Ur mi;qDr gksxsa rFkk muds ikl lkaf[;dh; dkS’kyksa lfgr
vusd vU; dkS’ky gksaxs tks v/;kiu ds dSfj;j esa vewY; gks ldrs
gSaA

foKku rFkk ehfM;k
i=dkfjrk ls jsfM;ks rFkk nwjHkk”k rd] ehfM;k esa vkthfodk izfrLi/khZ
rFkk dBksj dk;Z dh vis{kk djus okyh gSA rFkkfi] foKku lapkj ds {ks=
esa izos’k ds vusd volj miyC/k gSA foKku esa fujarj mUufr gks jgh gS
rFkk ‘kSf{kd rFkk lkoZtfud fgr] nksuksa ds iz;kstukFkZ u, fu”d”kZ lwfpr
fd, tkus vko’;d gSA efLr”d vuqla/kku ij dk;Z bldk dksbZ viokn
ugha gSA blesa Hkkjh lkekftd #fp fo|eku gS] ftls ehfM;k }kjk Hkyh
Hkkafr LohÑr fd;k x;k gS rFkk uohure fu”d”kkZsa esa i;kZIr lkekftd
izHkko Mkyus dh laHkkouk gSA fo’ofo|ky; mikf/k izLrqr djus ds nkSjku
gkfly dh xbZ vPNh oSKkfud i`”B Hkwfe rFkk vuqla/kku ds vocks/ku ls
tfVy fu”d”kkZsa dks vU; oSKkfudksa rFkk turk dks lalwfpr djuk dgha
vf/kd lgt gksxk rFkk izHkkoiw.kZ gksxkA

foKku rFkk dyk
foKku rFkk dyk ikjEifjd :Ik ls vuU; ugha gSA dYiuk dks lfUufgr
djus okyk vfHkdYi O;kid Jksrkx.kksa@n’kZdksa dks foKku dk izLrqrhdj.k
djus esa laosnh gSA vtk;c?kj] nh?kkZ,a rFkk ehfM;k ,oa vU; laxBu
oSKkfudksa ,oa dykdkjksa ds chp iz;ksxkREkd] l`tukRed lg;ksxksa dks
izksRlkfgr rFkk foRriksf”kr djrs gSaA

: http://www.abpi-careers.org.uk/
www.gsk.com www.sciart.org

lacf/kr baVjusV lkbVsa

55

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
vkHkkj
ge vusd O;fDr;ksa ds _.kh gS ftUgksua s lg~n;rk ls ikB rFkk vkjs[kksa dk ;ksxnku fn;k ftUgsa bl iqfLrdk esa ‘kkfey fd;k x;k gSA gesa vk’kk gS fd
uhps nh xbZ lwph ifjiw.kZ gS rFkk ,sls fdlh Hkh O;fDr ls ge {kek izkFkhZ gS ftldk ;ksxnku bl lwph esa ‘kkfey gksus ls jg x;k gSA
iwjh iqfLrdk esa dkVZwu %& eMsysuk ehy ,oa jkcVZ fQfydksoLdhA eq[; i`”B %& ihVj czksQh] csojyh DykdZ] ekbdy gkmlj] MsfoM fyaMu] fjpMZ
fjcpsLVj] Hkhrjh eq[k i`”B ihVj lksekxzh bysu Lusy fylk dksdsu usyjA v/;k; 1 ¼raf=dh; iz.kkyh½ % esjhuk cs Vh oksxksfy;ks] ukscy eapA v/;k; 2
¼dk;Z laHkkO;rk½ % Vksfc;kl cksugks;dj] ihVj czksQh] ,fjd dsaMy] ukscy eapA v/;k; 3 ¼jklk;fud eSlsatj½ % esjhu Qhysat v/;k; 4 ¼vkS”k/k rFkk
efLr”d½ % yslyh bojlsu] v/;k; 5 ¼Li’kZ ,oa nnZ½ % lwlu ¶yhVoqM &okWd j( gu th’ksax] MksukYM izkblA v/;k; 6 ¼ladYiuk½ % dksyhu CySdeksj]
,aMh MksgVhZ] fcy U;wle] ,aMª;w ikdZj] v/;k; 7 ¼Lianu½ csojyh DykdZ] Vkse fxfyaxokVj] ekbdy gkSlj] fØl fe;ky] fjpMZ fjcpsLVj] oksyÝse ‘kYVt+A
v/;k; 8 ¼fodkl’khy raf=dh; iz.kkyh( ,aMª;w yElMu] v/;k; 9 ¼fMlysfDl;k½ tkWu LVhu] v/;k; 10 ¼U;wjksuy IykfLVflVh½ xzkge dksfyfxzt] ,aMª;w
MksgVhZ( dSFkh lkbDl] v/;k; 11 ¼lh[kuk ,oa Lej.k ‘kfDr½ VsM ctZj] fyfo;k Mh gkst] xzkge fgp] bfy;kuksj eSDok;j] ,aMª;w MksgVhZ] yslyh vaxj
yhMj] Qjsusg o/kkZ [kMse] v/;k; 12 ¼ruko½ % tksukFku lsdy] v/;k; 13 ¼efLr”d ,oa bE;wu ¼izfrjks/ku iz.kkyh½ % uSalh jksFkosyA v/;k; 14 ¼funzk ,oa
y;½ % ,aFkksuh gjekj v/;k; 15 ¼efLr”d Nfodj.k½ % ekdZ ckfLVu] fjpMZ Ýsdksfo;kd fudksl yksxksFksfjl] bfyfu;kj eSDok;j] fyaMl Hkjs] ,fytkcsFk
#ful] lsehj tSdhA v/;k; 16 ¼U;wVy usVodZ ,oa Ñf=d efLr”d½ % jksMuh Mksxykl] xsjh ,MyeSu] tSQ fØpej] dsoku ekfVZu A v/;k; 17 ¼tc
dksbZ ckr fcxM+ tk,½ % eSydkWu eSdfy;ksM] bZo tkuLVksu] okYVj ewj] MsfoM iksfVZ;l] ySu jhM] v/;k; 18 ¼raf=dk uhfr’kkL=½ dksfyu CySdeksj] dsusFk
ck;M] LVhQu jksM] fofy;e lSQk;j] v/;k; 19 ¼dSfj;j½ ;oksu ,ysu ¼ch,u,½ foDVksfj;k fxy] Hkhrjh i`”Bkoj.k mnkgj.k % ,fjd dsaMy ¼fgiksØsVl
mnkgj.k ds fy,½] fjpMZ ekWfjl
i`”Bkoj.k mnkgj.k ,oa ‘kCn % tsfuQj vkYVeSu] MsfoM dksadkj] Likbd xsjsy
fgUnh :ikUrj.k % Þjk”Vªh ; efLr”d vuq l a / kku dsU nz] ekuslj] xqM +x k¡o] Hkkjrß
fczfV’k raf=dkfoKku la?k ,d ykHk ugha dekus okyk fudk; gS rFkk /kekZFkZ la- 264450 ds :Ik esa iathÑr gSA
vkxs ds v/;;u

foKku rFkk raf=dk foKku ds ckjs esa lrr~ v/;;u ds fy, vusd jksekapdkjh iqLrdsa miyC/k gSa %&
oh ,l jkekpanzu ¼lkanzk CysdLyh½ QSaVEl bu fn czsu % g~;weu uspj ,aM fn vkdhZ VsDpj vkWQ fn ekbaM
QksFkZ Mkbesa’ku ifCydds’kUl
¼isij cSd & 6 ebZ 1999½ vkbZ,lch,u % 1857028953
QSVa l vax nnZ rFkk raf=dh; iz.kkyh ds lacaf/kr fodkjksa dk jksekapdkjh o.kZu
vksfyoj lSDl % fn eS u gw feLVq d fgt+ okbQ QkW j , gS V ¼fidkMks j ½
fidkMksj
¼isij cSd & 7 uoEcj] 1986½ vkbZ,lch,u % 0330294911
fnekx ij efLr”d {kfr ds izHkkoksa dk ,d euksjatd ¼gkL;kLin½ rFkk Hkyh izdkj fy[kk x;k o.kZu
thu Mksehfud ckWch & fn Mkbfoa x cs y ,a M fn cVj¶ykbZ
QksFkZ ,LVsV
¼isij cSd & 7 ebZ] 2002½ vkbZ,lch,u % 007139845
iz?kkr ds ifj.kke dk ,d vR;ar oS;fDrd rFkk g`n; fonkjd o.kZu

fjpMZ ih QsueSu & ‘;ks j yh ;w- vkj tks f da x ] fe- Qsu eSu( ,MosaplZ vkWQ , D;wfj;l dSjsDVj
isij cSd
19 uoEcj] 1992 vkbZ,lch,u % 009917331X
fQft+fLkLV ¼HkkSfrdh foKkuh½ cksaxks Mªe eSu ,aM vkWy jkmaM iksyheSFkA lHkh ;qok oSKkfudksa ds ghjksA
uSalh jksFkosy] Vw okaRl Vw ch , lkbfLVaV \ pwfta+x lkbl ,t+ , dSfj;j
Let ¼fun’kZd½ dSfEczt ;wfuoflZVh izSl
¼isijcSd& 19 flRkEcj] 2002½ vkbZ,lch,u % 0521520924
foKku dks dSfj;j ds :Ik esa pquus laca/kh Bksl O;kogkfjd lykg

56

fn fczfV’k U;wjks lkbal ,lksfl,s’ku] }kjk fn ‘ksfjaxVu fcfYMaXl] ,’kVu LVªh] fyojiwy ,y 683 thbZ
nwjHkk”k % 44 ¼dk;kZy;½ 151794 & 4943@5449 QSDl 44 ¼dk;kZy;½ 7945516@5517

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

^^yksxksa dks ;g tkudkjh gksuh pkfg, fd efLr”d rFkk dsoy efLr”d esa gh gekjh [kqf’k;ka]
izlUurk] galh rFkk et+kd ds lkFk lkFk gekjs nq[k] nnZ] fpark,a
rFkk Hk; izR;qRiUu gksrs gSaA blds ek/;e ls gh ge fo’ks”k
:Ik esa lksprs gS] ns[krs gSa] lqurs gS rFkk lqanj dks dq:Ik ls] [kjkc dks vPNs esa
rFkk euksjtad dks nq[kn ds vyx djrs gSaA^^
 
 

 

fgiksØhV & 5oh lnh bZ iw-

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 
foÙkh; lgk;rk
;g ifj;kstuk fczfV’k U;wjkslkbal ,lksfl,’ku] U;wjksykWth ,aM thvkbZ lasVj vkWQ ,Dlhysal QkWj Mªx fMLdojh] XySDlks fLeFkfdYku ,.M
fn lsaVj QkWj U;wjkslkbal vkWQ fn ;wfuoflZVh vkWQ ,fMucxZ }kjk lefFkZr gSA ys[kd mudh lg~n;iw.kZ lgk;rk ds fy, vkHkkjh gaSA

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software
lsjsczy dkWVsZDl

efLr”d ds vanj

dksf’kdk,¡ vkSj lkbusIl

n`f”V

;knnk’r

lksesVkslsaljh dkWVsZDl

lsjscsye

xfr’khyrk

csly xSaxfy;k

^^n lhØsV
ykbQ vkWQ
dk czsu** ls
fy, x,

U;w lkbafVLV }kjk izdkf’kr

Likbd xsjy

Likbd xsjy ds dkVZwu( tsfuQj vkYVesu vkSj MsfoM dkWUdj ds ‘kCn

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM “Neuroscience: Science of the Brain”
IBRO: Who we are and what do we do?
IBRO, The International Brain Research Organization, is an
international network of neuroscience organizations that promotes and
supports neuroscience training and research around the world. Our
members have a common interest in the brain. Some are academic or
industrial research scientists who are attempting to learn how the
brain works. They also study the changes that occur when the
brain goes wrong in the hope of discovering new cures and
treatments. Other members are doctors and clinical practitioners
who treat patients who suffer from psychiatric illnesses and brain
disorders. Many of us are teachers and students.
IBRO is active all around the world. Our members are divided into
six regional groups. Our primary purpose is to support young
people who wish to enter careers in brain research or become
clinicians treating psychiatric disorders. The six world regions are:






Africa Regional Committee (ARC)
Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Latin America Regional Committee (LARC)
US/Canada Regional Committee (NARC)
Western Europe Regional Committee (WERC)

Throughout the world IBRO runs Workshops and Schools, teaching young scientists about the brain
(neuroscience) and giving them the opportunity to learn practical skills for research. We provide
Studentships and Postdoctoral Fellowships so that aspiring neuroscientists from developing
countries can travel and work in the world’s most prestigious laboratories. We help young people who
have been tutored by world-renowned neuroscientists to return to their home countries and set up
laboratories where they will study the brain disorders that are important to them and their own
communities. We help these Returning Scientists to develop their careers in their own countries by
giving them access to our equipment exchange program (IBRO-Equip) and knowledge database,
IBRO-Edu. We also help young people travel to international conferences where they can present
their own research findings for discussion and learn about the most recent advances in their field. The
members of IBRO hope that these activities will encourage brilliant young people from all over the
world to fulfil their potential as neuroscientists.
This is a very important aspiration. The human brain is a fundamental part of our body as the nervous
system controls everything that we perceive, think and do. Without a healthy brain, an individual
cannot access reliable information about the world, and make appropriate physical and emotional
responses. The brain remains one of the least understood parts of our body, yet illnesses relating to
the brain affect almost every family. At least one in every four people will suffer a short- or long-term
brain disorder at some point in their lives. Brain disorders affect the way we interact with each other
and the manner in which our communities and families work. Often there is a progressive
deterioration in mental faculties that eventually results in a need for long-term care and prevents the
sufferer from making a social or economic contribution to their families.
Our limited understanding of the brain means that many brain disorders are presently untreatable and
often sufferers are stigmatized. Public Education about the Brain can assist individuals, their
families and communities to cope with brain disorders and access help. By working with
schoolchildren, we hope to inspire a few young people to become the future brain scientists we so
badly need.
The CDROM “Neuroscience: Science of the Brain” is part of IBRO’s public education effort. It
contains a booklet consisting of short articles about aspects of the brain. The British Neuroscience

1

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Association (BNA) and European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) originally commissioned the
booklet and the articles are written by leading neuroscientists. IBRO has commissioned the
translation of this booklet into over 20 languages. We want to enable you to promote better public
understanding of the brain. You are welcome to download these files, print and distribute the material
in part or in its entirety to be used as part of any Brain Awareness event. You may also make copies
of this CDROM. You may not use this material for personal gain.
The project to translate material for the purpose of public
education was initiated in 2005. As a pilot exercise, the booklet
was translated into Mandarin and Spanish. Volunteer translators
for the remaining versions were recruited to the project in 2006.
The project has been managed and organized by K. Esther
Binns, Chair of IBRO’s Public Education Committee). Esther
would like to express her personal thanks to Duncan Banks of the
BNA and Open University, UK for his considerable help and
advice. Without Duncan these translations would not have been
produced.

2

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

IBRO in your region: the work of the
regional committees

Africa Regional Committee (ARC)
The ARC is made up of neuroscientists and clinicians who work in Africa. Some of our members also
work in Europe and America but are of African origin and hold this world region in very high regard.
Africa is IBRO’s poorest region. Many citizens still do not receive any formal education, let alone have
the opportunity to attend a university and learn about the brain.
Yet there are many extremely talented young people in Africa. There are also several universities with
good reputations in medical science and biology. When young Africans are given the opportunity to
learn, they exploit this potential to the full. These students are best placed to advance neuroscience in
this region by studying the brain disorders that affect people on this continent.
In the 1970s, IBRO set out to develop neuroscience research and training in Africa. A series of
workshops helped to identify the problems and chart a course of development. This initiative now
continues under ARC. One of our major achievements has been the formation of the Society of
Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA), which has organized an international neuroscience meeting
biennially since 1993. The meetings have been held all over Africa: Nairobi, Kenya; Marrakech,
Morocco; Cape Town, South Africa, Dakar, Senegal, and Abuja, Nigeria. The meeting provides a
forum for African neuroscientists who rarely have the opportunity to attend international neuroscience
conferences to present their work as well as interact with neuroscientists from outside Africa.
Since 2001, ARC has organized IBRO African Neuroscience Schools providing teaching and research
training in neuroscience to junior faculty and graduate students. This programme has been highly
successful. So far 14 schools have been held and nearly 250 students have participated. Students
have gone on to obtain PhD in neuroscience in the USA, Canada and Sweden, as well as to visit
laboratories in Italy, Australia and the UK.
ARC also supports regional neuroscience meetings in Africa promoting the formation of regional
neuroscience societies. To date there are six African neuroscience societies represented on the IBRO
Governing Council (Moroccan Association of Neuroscience, Kenya Society for Neuroscience,
Association pour la Promotion des Neurosciences (DR Congo), Southern African Neuroscience
Society, Nigerian Society for Neuroscience, Society of Neuroscientists of Africa). In addition, a
number of African neuroscientists are represented on IBRO committees.
ARC also provides travel support for African neuroscientists to present their work at international
conferences. Through the initiative of Marina Bentivoglio, there is also the Levi-Montalcini Fellowship,
which provides support for African women to pursue higher degrees in Africa or outside. Through the
support of the US/Canada Regional Committee, African students have also attended summer courses
at the Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Raj Kalaria is Chair of the African Regional Committee. The booklet on this CDROM has been
translated into Arabic, Farsi, French and Swahili at the request of some of our African members.
Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
This Committee covers the most diverse region of IBRO, both geographically and culturally. Member
societies cover a vast area, from Japan to Australia and New Zealand and from Jordan to the
Philippines. It includes members from wealthy nations with substantial neuroscience research
communities such as Japan and Australia, emerging economies such as China and India, much
smaller communities such as Iran, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and United Arab Emirates, as well
as poorer countries where the only chance to study neuroscience is in another, wealthier country.

3

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Many languages are used in teaching in this region. This CDROM has translations of the teaching
booklet in Arabic, Bengali, Farsi, Hindi, Japanese, Mandarin and Punjabi.
IBRO trains students from the region in the latest neuroscience knowledge and techniques through its
schools in Hong Kong, India and Thailand and associate schools in China, India, Thailand, Iran, and
Singapore. Two more were held in Karachi (mid-November 2006) and Dubai (mid-December 2006).
Local support provides matching funds for the schools programme, e.g the International Society for
Neurochemistry co-sponsored a school in Singapore. There are more than 400 alumni from the
educational programmes organized by APRC.
IBRO offers Exchange Fellowships to young neuroscientists to carry out research for six months in a
host laboratory within the APRC region. Offers are made only to applicants who can provide strong
justification that he/she would return to their home country after the exchange. IBRO supports travel
awards for young people to attend courses in other countries, to present papers in conferences, as
well as to participate in the congresses held by the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Neuroscience
Societies (FAONS) every four years. The 4th FAONS Congress was held in Hong Kong, China,
November 30–December 2, 2006 and included a mini-symposium for IBRO alumni.
New discoveries about the brain from laboratories in the Asia-Pacific region and the rest of the world
will take centre-stage at IBRO's 7th World Congress of Neuroscience in Melbourne, Australia in July
2007. World-class brain research in the Asia-Pacific Region is done in the larger universities (such as
in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul, Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney),
as well as in Research Centres dedicated to neuroscience such as the RIKEN Brain Research
Institute in Wako, Japan, the Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai, the Institute of Biophysics in
Beijing, the National Brain Research Centre near Delhi, the National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurological Sciences in Bangalore, the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute in Sydney, the
Howard Florey Institute in Melbourne, and the new National Neuroscience Institute in Singapore.
Ying Shing Chan from Hong Kong has been the Chair of the Asia-Pacific Regional Committee since
2002. Elspeth McLachlan (Sydney) was the Founding Chair when the Committee was established in
1999.
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Historically, the CEERC supports brain researchers from all former socialist Eastern European
countries and now independent countries that were part of the USSR. Thus, besides Central
European countries and Russia, which extends to the Pacific Ocean, the CEERC supports Armenia,
Georgia, Azerbaidjan, and Northern Asian countries, too (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia,
Tadjikistan, Kirgizia).
At the end of the twentieth century great political change occurred throughout our region. Many
Central European countries have now joined the European Union and there has been a revolution in
the politics of education, student mobility and science research. In many ways there is now little
difference between Western and Eastern European countries in respect of brain research
development and achievements. In recognition of the changes that have occurred, IBRO has recently
brought together the neuroscience schools programmes of Western and Eastern Europe to create
PENS (Programme of European Neuroscience Schools).
The CEERC meets each year to discuss strategic issues and applications... In 2006 we awarded 19
stipends to representatives of 12 countries of the region to attend the FENS Forum. Research awards
within the region were given to R. Averkin (Ukraine) for work in Russia (Moscow) in 2006, and to M.
Balcerzyk (Poland) for a short-term visit to Ukraine (Kiev). A new CEERC initiative, ‘IBRO Lecturers’
Visits to the Region’ resulted in one award (up to 1,500Euros) for the visit of Prof. H. Atwood
(Canada) to Kazan (Russia). Eight conferences are supported in 2006.
Thus IBRO is helping to train young Eastern Europeans to pioneer brain research in their home
countries. Academics who have received training and support from IBRO include Natalia Lozovava
(Ukraine), who is currently working on the effects of cannabis-like chemicals on the brain at the
Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

4

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Pavel Balaban is Chair of the Central and Eastern European Regional Committee. There has been
great interest in this translation project throughout Eastern Europe and we have been able to make
the following translations: Armenian, Croatian, Greek, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian. The
translations into Farsi and Arabic may also be useful.
Latin American Regional Committee (LARC)
The LARC is active throughout Central America, the Caribbean and South America. It is made up of
14 neuroscience societies within the region. The most northerly is Mexico and the most southerly is
Chilli. Many people in this region speak either Portuguese or Spanish and this booklet is available in
both languages. The French version may be useful in some Caribbean areas.
The IBRO schools have helped to train many of the region’s brightest young scientists. During 2006
alone there were five schools located in Argentina, Brazil, Chilli and Venezuela. A strong partnership
between LARC and the Spanish Society for Neuroscience has resulted in a regular European School
for Latin American students in Seville, Spain.
We are active in supporting the continued education and careers of the IBRO School Alumni through
a range of travel and research fellowships. For example, Lucia Francini, Institute for Genetic
Engineering and Molecular Biology (INGEBI), Buenos Aires, Argentina, is spending a year in Dr Bruce
Lahn’s laboratory, in the Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Her research relates to determining the genes associated with cognitive skills such as language and
learning and the genetic deficits that can lead to problems such as schizophrenia, dyslexia, autism
and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hope that after this period of training Lucia
and others will return to work in their home countries.
Help to return home after training is made possible by the Return Home Programme, which has
recently announced the award of fellowships to two young neuroscientists in the region. So after
respective training periods in Italy and Canada, Elaine Gavioli, Universidade do Extremo Sul
Catarinense, Criciuma, Brazil and Valeria Della-Maggiore, Dept. of Physiology of the School of
Medicine, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, will return to work in their home countries.
Marta Hallak is Chair of the Latin American Regional Committee.
US/Canada Regional Committee (IAC-USNC/IBRO) and the& Western European Regional
Committee (WERC)
The Largest and most active communities of brain research are based in either North America or
Western Europe where they are well supported by the American Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and
the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), IBRO works closely with these
organizations but reserves much of its resources for the four regions where neuroscience is less well
supported. The US/Canada RC and WERC organize schools that bring students from around the
world to the premier research departments and locations so that they can experience first-rate
research with the worlds leading brain researchers.
We support studentships and fellowships for foreign students in North American and Western
European laboratories and provide travel fellowships so that students can travel to the world’s most
prestigious Brain Science conferences.
Biology is widely taught in schools in these areas and neuroscience degrees are available in many
universities. The booklet on this CDROM is useful for public education and high-school students (1418 years) and is available in English and several other European languages (Portuguese, Spanish,
French and Greek). Both North America and Western Europe have diverse multicultural populations
in which some members of the community use the language of their country of origin rather than the
first language of their nation. These individuals can be educationally disadvantaged in schools and
communities where science is not taught in their first language. The non-European language
translations of this booklet may be of great use for such groups. The full list of languages available
can be found at the end of this document.

5

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

IBRO is committed to
education and training

Workshops and schools
Each of the IBRO regions organises schools and workshops so that the regions most promising
students can be given training on particular areas of brain research and practical techniques.
Together the regional committees run around 20 schools each year. The IBRO schools board
supports and links these schools by offering advice on the organisation of individual schools and
teaching programmes: Arranging for teaching materials to be shared and disseminated amongst the
schools. Working in partnership with other national and international organisations providing similar
teaching and learning opportunities. Our aims are to strengthen and expand the programme by
attracting sponsors and new partnerships, help to publicize and explain the Programme to the
membership and public. All the attendees at IBRO schools are eligible to become IBRO School
Alumini and thereby benefit from the mutual support of other students and tutors throughout their
future careers in brain research.
IBRO is committed to promoting the best practice in all areas of brain research and thus in addition to
the above schools we run workshops devoted to the use and role of animals in research.
The Visiting Lecture team
IBRO is working to bring the best academic teaching on neuroscience to students all over the world.
Our Visiting Lecture Team is composed of five internationally recognised researchers who are able
to offer an experiment based lecture course in basic neuroscience at host institutions in developing
countries. The course normally covers; mechanisms of impulse conduction and synaptic
transmission; structure, function and pharmacology of membrane receptors and channels; information
processing in sensory systems; regulation of behavioural patterns; and neurodevelopment. Teaching
is given in 35 lecturers over nine days. Since 1994 the VLTP has given 31 courses in 20 countries.
These are amazing opportunities, as students form developing countries can rarely expect to be
taught by world leaders in their field.
Fellowships
Students that have attended the courses run by the visiting lecture team or attended IBRO schools
may decide to begin a career in brain research. IBRO wants to foster the careers of the most
promising young neuroscientists from diverse geographical and scientific areas. We focus our support
on the less well-developed countries where funding for research is very limited. Fellowships are
offered so that young scientists can broaden the scope of their training in neuroscience by working
abroad in good laboratories, or participating at international neuroscience meetings.
Return home programme
Students who have benefited from the best teaching opportunities through our VLT, Schools and
Fellowships have the potential can become excellent neuroscientists. So it will not surprise you to
know that they are sought after by academic and industrial institutions all over the world and often
tempted to leave their home countries and take jobs in Western Europe and America. IBRO believes
that this practice weakens the academic community in developing countries, so we try to encourage
our students to make their careers in their country of origin. The return home programme provides
grants, fellowships and travel assistance to support the careers of students who return to their
countries of origin.

6

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Alumni Success Stories

Oliver Mazodze an alumnus of IBRO’s African schools in Kenya
and South Africa travelled to the UK to spend 6 weeks as a
visiting scientist in the neurophysiology laboratory at
GlaxoSmithKline"s Harlow research facility.
Oliver is tenured member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences at
Bindura University of Science Education in Zimbabwe. Whist in
the UK he has learned in vitro electrophysiological techniques for
the study of neuronal activity. He intends to use these
techniques to begin researching the potential neurophysiologic
effects of extracts derived from a widely used African medicinal
plant. The training at GSK was under the guidance of Dr Jon
Spencer and Professor Andy Randall, two scientists he first
met in their capacity as tutors at the IBRO African School held in
November 2004 in Nairobi.
Oliver Mazodze (left) with Andy Randall (right)

Wael Mohamed Yousef attended IBRO schools in Mali and Kenya
and now works as an assistant lecturer of neuropharmacology at the
Faculty of Medicine, University of Menoufiya, Egypt.
Weal was awarded a scholarship from the Egyptian Government to
study fro a PhD in neuropharmacology with Professor Byron C.
Jones, Biobehavioral Health and Pharmacology, at Penn State
University, USA. During his 5 years in the USA Weal will learn
advanced techniques in the neuroscience and work on the
development of new drugs needed for many patients suffering from
neurological diseases. Afterwards he hopes to return and work in
Egypt.

Weal Yousef (left) with Byron Jones (right)

Bin Liu from a small island in the Shandong Province of China is one of
just three people who have obtained a doctoral degree from this region.
She obtained her PhD in Physiology from Qingdao University in China in
2004 and has since become an Assistant Professor at the Center for
New Drugs Evaluation, School of Pharmacy in Shandong University.
In 2005 she won an IBRO Research Fellowship to work in the
Department of Anatomy at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of
Medicine. Her studies in the USA focused on observing the effects of
gonadal steroid hormones against neurotoxins, which target the
nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rodents.
This fellowship has meant that Bin has received training in an excellent
laboratory and is now well placed to contribute to neuroscience research
in China.
Bin Liu

7

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Dimiter Prodanov from Bulgaria
attended an IBRO VLTP course in
1998, in Sofia, Bulgaria. He has
recently been awarded the John
G. Nicholls Fellowship for 2006.
He will spend a year Dr Jean
Delbeke of the Department of
Physiology & Pharmacology, the
Neural Rehabilitation Engineering
Laboratory at the Catholic
University of Louvain, Brussels,
Belgium.
The John G. Nicholls IBRO
Fellowship was created in honour
of John G. Nicholls who headed
IBRO’s Visiting Lecture Team
Programme (VLTP) from 1994 to
2002. The Fellowship aims to
assist annually one promising
Dimiter Prodanov
young researcher who wishes to
further his/her training in
neuroscience at a distinguished foreign laboratory for one year. The successful candidate is expected
to return to his/her home country after the training, bringing new knowledge and skills in the
neurosciences.

8

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

IBRO and Public Education on the brain

Given the impact that brain disorders can have on individuals, families and their communities and the
high global prevalence of these illnesses, we believe that each person needs some understanding of
the brain and how this part of our bodies can be kept healthy. So, together with other international
organisations that support brain research we are working to improve the public’s general
understanding of the central nervous system.
The Brain Campaign is an initiative by many like organisation to encourage those involved in
research to engage with public and share their knowledge and findings worldwide. While many of the
organisations involved have focussed their effort on their own world region, IBRO is committed to
public education in neuroscience in the developing world. We actively and financially support activities
and events being organised by academics in developing countries and taking place in the most
remote locations. We want all people in all corners of the globe to have access to public education
about the brain. We want all governments and health programmes to take the brain and psychiatric
illness seriously.
Since 2003 IBRO has supported this aspiration by helping to finance around 25 public education
events in approximately 15 countries. A wide variety of events have received support. Some
activities have taken place in schools in remote villages while others attract a massive audience by
occurring at agricultural shows or in train stations. Sometimes the event covers many aspects of
brain function and disease but at other times the focus is on a single disease or problem (eg Drugs,
head injury and epilepsy) that is relevant to the local community.
Many of the events that we have supported in the past have
taken place during a single week in March. This week is
designated Brain Awareness Week. The organisations
supporting Brain Awareness Week, which include IBRO, want
this to be a global celebration of the brain where those involved
in research explain the latest advances in understanding brain
function and treating brain disorders to people all over the
world. During Brain Awareness Week 2006 there were several
hundred events in over 62 countries.
Brain education events including those that are part of Brain Awareness Week are attempting to
spread knowledge of the brain to a wide audience that speaks in many languages. It is often helpful
to back up an event with some literature. Unfortunately, suitable written material is often unavailable
in local languages. IBRO has recognised this problem and is seeking to address the issue by
providing Multilingual teaching materials. The booklet on this CDROM is available in the following
languages: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Croation, English, Farsi, French, Greek, Hindi, Japanese,
Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swahili, and
Ukrainian.
We hope that some of these translations will be useful in your work to promote better public
understanding of the brain. If you would like to access these materials in other languages or are
willing to make translations for us in another language we would be delighted to make contact with
you.

9

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Neuroscience: Science of the Brain.
The original “English Language” version of this booklet was prepared and edited on behalf of The
British Neuroscience Association and the European Dana Alliance for the Brain by Richard
Morris (University of Edinburgh) and Marianne Fillenz (University of Oxford). You are reading one
of the translations of the booklet that were commissioned by the public education committee of the
International Brain Research Organisation. These translations have been made by members
of IBRO as part of their global effort to improve public understanding of the Brain. IBRO is grateful
to all the volunteers who have made these translations possible. See list
The graphic design of the original booklet was by Jane Grainger (Grainger Dunsmore Design
Studio, Edinburgh). We are grateful for contributions from our colleagues in the Division of
Neuroscience, particularly Victoria Gill, and others in the neuroscience community in Edinburgh.
We also thank members of the University Department of Physiology in Oxford, particularly Colin
Blakemore, and helpful colleagues in other institutions. Their names are listed below.
The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) is the professional body in the United Kingdom
that represents neuroscientists and is dedicated towards a better understanding of the nervous
system in health and disease. Its members range from established scientists holding positions in
Universities and Research Institutes through to postgraduate students. The BNA’s annual
meetings, generally held in the spring, provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research.
Numerous local groups around the country hold frequent seminars and these groups often
organise activities with the general public such as school visits and exhibitions in local museums.
See http://www.bna.org.uk/ for further information.
The goal of The European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) is to inform the general public
and decision makers about the importance of brain research. EDAB aims to advance knowledge
about the personal and public benefits of neuroscience and to disseminate information on the
brain, in health and disease, in an accessible and relevant way. Neurological and psychiatric
disorders affect millions of people of all ages and make a severe impact on the national economy.
To help overcome these problems, in 1997, 70 leading European neuroscientists signed a
Declaration of Achievable Research Goals and made a commitment to increase awareness of
brain disorders and of the importance of neuroscience. Since then, many others have been
elected, representing 24 European countries. EDAB has more than 125 members. See
http://www.edab.net/ for further information.
The International Brain Research Organisation Is an independent, international
organization dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between
brain researchers in all countries of the World. A present we represent the interests of about
51,000 neuroscientists in 111 countries. Since our formation in 1960 we have set up a
number of active programmes to stimulate international contacts in brain research. We
sponsor Symposia and Workshops and Neuroscience schools, worldwide. We offer postdoctoral fellowships and travel grants to students from less favoured countries. We also
publish the Journal “Neuroscience”. See http://www.ibro.info/ for further information.
The project to translate this booklet was initiated in 2005 by myself as chair of the IBRO Committee
for Public Education. Special thanks are due to Duncan Banks of the British Neuroscience
Association and Open University, Milton Keynes, UK who has made it technically possible to make so
many translations and produced the CDROM.

10

PDF Page Organizer - Foxit Software

Authors of the original chapters
Chapter
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

Authors
Maria Bentivogelio, Nobel Forum
Tobias Bohoffer, Peter Brophy, Eric Kandel, Nobel Forum
Marianne Fillenz
Leslie Iversen
Susan Fleetwood-Walker, Han Jiesheng, Donald Price
Andrew Parker
Beveley Clark, Tom Gillingwater, Michael Hausser, Chris Miall, Richard Ribchester, Wolfram Schultz,
Andrew Lumsden
John Stein
Graham Collingridge, Andre Doherty, Kathy Sykes
Ted Berger, Livia dev Hoz, Graham Hitch, Eleanor Maguire, Andrew Doherty, Leslie Underleider,
Fareneh Vargha-Khadem
Jonathan Seckl
Nancy Rothwell
Anthony Harmar
Mark Bastin, Richard Frackowiak, Nikos Logothetis, Elanor Maguire, Lindsay Murray, Elisabeth
Rounis, Semir Zeki.
Rodney Douglas, Gerry Eldelman, Jeff Krichmar, Kevan Martin
Malcolm Macleod, Eva Johnstone, Walter Muir, David Porteous, Ian Reid.
Colin Blakemore, Kenneth Boyd, Stephen Rose, William Saffire
Yvonne Allen (BNA), LARC, ARC, APRC, CEERC

11