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Neuroscience: The Science of the Brian


This is the Hindi language translation of the public education booklet. This translation
was made for The BNA by:



The National Brain Research Centre, Haryana, India


We are also grateful for the assistance of Vijiyalakshmi Ravindrath. National
Brain Research centre, New Delhi, India

The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) commissioned the booklet for the
purposes of teaching young people in the UK about their Brain and Neuroscience the
science of the brain. The booklet contains short explanatory chapters on different
subjects written by experts in each topic. The original booklet was published in 2004.
In 2005 the International Brain Research Organisation (IBRO) purchased the copyright
of the booklet. We have commissioned members of our organisation to translate the
booklet in multiple languages. In addition to the Hindi version that you are now
reading the booklet is available in a further sixteen languages also contained on this
CDROM.

We hope that you will use these translations for the purpose of improving public
understanding and awareness of the brain and the importance of brain research. IBRO
and the BNA are happy for you to make printed copies or clone theses PDF files.
However this should not be done for profit. For more information please read the
additional information that is appended at the end of the booklet.

Contents
Pages 2-61: Neuroscience The Science of the Brain (hindi version)
Page 62-72: Additional information (English only).
An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM:

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tks vf/kdkak yksxksa esa ckbZ vksj ikohZr gksrk gS dks vfHkKkr fd;k x;k gSA
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rLohjsa&;s gh
lsjscsye gSaA

baVjusV fyaDl % http://science.howstuffwords.com/brain.htm, http://faculty.washinton.edu/chudler/neurek.html


http://psych.honover.edu/krantz/neurotuthtml

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U;wjkWu vkSj ,Dku iksVsafk;y


pkgs U;wjkWu laosnh gks ;k pkyd] cM+k ;k NksVk] buesa lkekU; ckr ;g gS
fd budh xfrfof/k fo|qr vkSj jklk;fud] nksuksa dkj dh gksrh gSA
U;wjkWu vkil esa raf=dk .kkyh dh lexz fLFkfr ds fu;eu ds lkFk Likbuy pkyd U;wjkWu fijkfeMy dksfkdk
lg;ksx vkSj frLi)kZ djrs gSa( blh ds leku fd O;fDr lekt ds
fu.kZ; ysus dh f;k esa lg;ksx vkSj frLi)k djrk gSA ,DlkWu ls
kIr o/kksZa eas kIr jklk;fud ladsr] tks muls lEidZ djrs gSa] os fo|qr
ladsrksa esa cny tkrs gSaA ;s ladsr vU; lHkh lkbusIl ds ladsrksa esa ;k rks
tqM+ tkrs gSa ;k de gks tkrs gSa vkSj bldk fu.kZ; fy;k tkrk gS fd D;k
bu ladsrksa dks vU; dgha Hkstuk gS ;k ughaA rc fo|qr iksVsafk;y uhps
,DlkWu ls vxys U;wjkWu ds o/kksZa ij lkbusIl ij igqprk gS vkSj f;k
dksf'kdk dk;
tkjh jgrh gSA
dksf'kdk dk;

lsjscsye dh iqjfdats dksfkdk

dksf'kdk dk;
,DlkWu

xfr'khy U;wjkWu
tSlk fd geus fiNys v/;k; esa crk;k Fkk] U;wjkWu esa o/kZ] ,d
dksfkdkdk; vkSj ,d ,DlkWu rFkk lkbusfIVd kkfey gSaA ;g lajpuk
blds dk;kZRed mi Hkkxksa dks kfIr] lesdu vkSj lkj.k [k.Mksa dks
nfkZr djrh gSA LFkwy :i ls dgk tk, rks o/kZ kfIr djrs gaS]
dksfkdk dk; lesdu djrs gSa vkSj ,DlkWu lkj.k djrs gSa&bl ladYiuk
dks /kzqohdj.k dgrs gSa] D;ksafd os ftl lwpuk dk laalk/ku djrs gSa] og
,d gh fnkk esa tkrh gSA
o/kZ

dksfkdk dk;

kfIr

lesdu

,DlkWu

lkbusIl

lkj.k

,d U;wjkWu dh eq[; ladYiuk,


fdlh vU; lajpuk dh rjg ;g ,d lkFk tqM+k gksrk gSA U;wjkWu dh ckgjh f>fYy;k]
olk inkFkksZa dh cuh gksrh gaS vkSj ;s dksfkdk daadky ds pkjksa vksj yxh gksrh gaS] tks
ufydkdkj vkSj rarqor ksVhuksa dh NM+ksa ls curk gS] tks o/kkasZ vkSj ,DlkWu esa
foLrkfjr gksrs gSA ;g lajpuk ,d ufydkdkj dadky ds ij <kaps ij QSys
dSuokl dh rjg gSA U;wjkWu ds fofHkUu Hkkx fujarj :i ls xfrkhy gksrs gS] ,d
iqu%O;oLFkk dh f;k] tks viuh lf;rk vkSj vius iM+kSlh fgLlksa dh xfrkhyrk
nkkZrh gSA o/kZ viuk vkdkj cnyrs gaS] buds u, la;kstu curs gaS rFkk iqjkus
VwVrs gSa vkSj ,DlkWu ds u, fljs curs gaS] tSls&2 U;wjkWu vf/kd rst+ rjhds ls vkxs
c<+us dk ;k vis{kkr /khes rjhds ls] ;kl djrs gaSA
U;wjkWu ds vanj 3 van:uh [k.M gksrs gSaA ;s ksVhu ls cus gksrs gaS vkSj vf/kdkakr%
budk fuekZ.k dksfkdkdk; esa gksrk gS] tks dksfkdh; <kaps ds lkFk ifjogu fd,
tkrs gaSA o/kksZa ls fudyh NksVh lajpukvksa dks o/khZ daVd dgrs gSaA ;s mu LFkkuksa
ij gksrs gaS tgk vaanj vkus okys ,DlkWu tqM+rs gaSA daaVdksa ij varfjr ksVhu U;wjkWuy

,DlkWu

,DlkWu

U;wjkWu ds rhu dkj

la;kstdrk ds l`tu vkSj vuqj{k.k ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSaA ;s ksVhu


yxkrkj cnyrs jgrs gaS] ,d ds LFkku ij nwljs vk tkrs gaS] tc budk
dke iwjk gks tk,A bl iwjh xfrfof/k dks bZa/ku dh vko;drk gksrh gS
vkSj bl dk;Z ds fy, bUgsa dksfkdk ds vanj ekStwn tkZ QSDVjh
ekbVksdksafM;k ls kfDr feyrh gSA ,DlkWu ds vaR; fcUnq Hkh o`f)
dkjdksa uked v.kqvksa ds fr lf;rk nkkZrs gSaA bu dkjdksa dks vanj
xzg.k fd;k tkrk gS vkSj rc dksfkdkdk; esa Hkstk tkrk gS] tgk os
U;wjkWuy thuksa dh vfHkO;fDr dks Hkkfor djrs gaS vkSj bl dkj u,
ksVhuksa ds fuekZ.k dkss HkhA ;s U;wjkWu dks yEcs o/kZ rd c<+us ;k blds
vkdkj ;k dk;Z esa vU; xfrkhy ifjorZu djus eas l{ke cukrs gaSA
dksfkdkdk; ls gj le; lwpuk] ikskd rRoksa vkSj lanskksa dk
vknku&nku gksrk jgrk gSA

U;wjkWu ds rhu dkj

o/khZ daVd gjs jax dh NksVh lajpuk, gS tks ,d U;wjkWu ds gjs


o/kZ ls ckgj fudyrh gaSA bUgha LFkkuksa ij lkbusIl fLFkr gksrs gaSA

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kIr djuk vkSj fu.kZ; ysuk

,Dku iksVsafk;y

dksfkdk ds kfIr fcUnq ij o/kksZa dk vU; dksfkdkvksa ds vanj vkus


okys ,DlkWu ds lkFk utnhdh lEidZ gksrk gS] buesa ls R;sd ehVj ds
yxHkx 20 fcfy;u osa Hkkx ds cjkcj NksVs ls varjky ls vyx fd,
tkrs gaSA ,d o/kZ vU; dqN ;k vU; gtkjksa U;wjkWuksa ls lEidZ kIr
dj ldrk gSA ;s tksM+ ds fcUnq lkbusIl dgykrs gS] ;g kCn xzhd
Hkkkk ls fudyk gS ftldk vFkZ gksrk gS ^^,d lkFk tksM+uk**A lsjsczy
dkWVsZDl esa fLFkr buesa ls vf/kdkak dksfkdkvksa ds lkbusIl o/kZ
daVdksa ij fLFkr gksrs gaS] tks det+ksj ls laadsrksa dh [kkst esa NksVs
ekbksQksuksa dh rjg fpids gksrs gSA

,d U;wjkWu ls nwljs U;wjkWu ls lEidZ cukus ds fy, U;wjkWuy ladsru


lcls igys ,DlkWu ds ek/;e ls ;k=k djrs gSA ;g U;wjkWu bl dke
dks fdl dkj djrs gSa \

bu lEidZ fcUnqvksa ij raf=dk dksfkdkvksa ds chp lEidZ dks


lkbusfIVd lkj.k dgk tkrk gS vkSj blesa ,d jklk;fud f;k
kkfey gksrh gS ftldk ge vxys v/;k; esa foLrkj ls o.kZu djsaxsA
tc o/kZ jklk;fud lanskksa esa ls fdlh ,d dks kIr djrs gS tks
bls Hkstus okys ,DlkWu ls vyx gksdj bl varjky ls ckgj vk;k
gS] kIr djus okys o/khZ daVd ds vanj NksVh&NksVh fo|qr /kkjk,
okfgr gksrh gSaA dksfkdk esa vkus okyh bu /kkjkvksa dks mkstuk
dgrs gaS] vFkok ;s ,slh /kkjk, Hkh gks ldrh gaS tks dksfkdk ls ckgj
vk jgh gks] rc bUgsa laaneu dgrs gaSA fo|qr dh ;s lHkh /kukRed
vkSj _.kkRed rjaxas o/kksZa esa lafpr gksrh gS vkSj ;s dksfkdkdk; esa
QSy tkrh gSA ;fn ;s cgqr vf/kd lf; ugha gks rks fo|qr /kkjk
tYnh gh lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj vkxs dqN ugha gksrk gSA tcfd
;fn fo|qr /kkjk bruh vf/kd c<+ tk, fd og ,d Lrj ls ij
mB ik, rks U;wjkWu dh vksj ls vU; U;wjkWuksa dks lansk Hkstk tk,xkA

;s raf=dk rarq ds ek/;e ls ,d jLlh dh rjg ij&uhps tkrs


gq, ,d rjax ds :i esa ;k=k djrs gaSA ;g dk;Z djrk gS D;ksafd
,DlkWuy f>Yyh esa vk;u pSuy gksrs gaS] tks fo|qrh; n`fV ls
vkosfkr vk;uksa ds ek/;e ls [kqyrs vkSj can gks ldrs gSaA dqN
pSuy lksfM;e vk;uksa dks xqtjus nsrs gSa tcfd dqN iksVsfk;e
vk;uksa dks xqtjus nsrs gaSA tc ;s pSuy [kqyrs gS rc lksfM;e ;k
iksVsfk;e vk;u uhps dh vksj jklk;fud vkSj fo|qr o.krk ds
fo#) okfgr gksrs gaS] ;s dksfkdk ds vanj vkSj ckgj bldh
f>Yyh ds fo|qr fo/kzqohdj.k ds R;qkj esa dk;Z djrs gSaA

bldk mkj HkkSfrd vkSj jklk;fud o.krk esa fufgr tkZ ds nksgu
vkSj bu cyksa dks ,d l{ke :i ls ,d lkFk feykus ij fuHkZj djrk
gSA U;wjkWuksa ds ,DlkWu fo|qr mhiu mRiUu djrs gaS] ftls ,Dku
iksVsafk;y dgrs gaSA

vr% U;wjkWu ,d dkj dk dSydqysVj gS&ftlesa yxkrkj tksM+us vkSj


?kVkus dh f;k pyrh jgrh gSA tc ;g tksM+us ;k ?kVkus dk dk;Z
djrk gS rc ;g vU; U;wjkWuksa ls lansk kIr djrk gSA dqN lkbusIl
mkstuk iSnk djrs gSa tcfd dqN laneu djrs gaSA ;s ladsr laaosnuk]
fopkj vkSj xfrfof/k dk vk/kkj fdl dkj djrs gaS ;g mu usVodZ
ij dkQh gn rd fuHkZj djrk gS] ftlesa ;s U;wjkWu fLFkr gSaA
,Dku iksVsafk;y

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tc dksfkdk dk; ij ,Dku iksVsafk;y vkjEHk gksrk gS rks rc lcls igys
lksfM;e pSuy [kqyrs gSaA lksfM;e vk;uksa dk ,d Lianu dksfkdk dk; esa
tkrk gS vkSj feyh lsd.M ds vanj ,d u;k lkE; LFkkfir gks tkrk gSA rqjar
gh ikj f>Yyh oksYVst 100 feyh oksYV igqp tkrk gSA ;g vaan#uh f>Yyh ds
oksYVst ls c<+rk gS tks _.kkRed gksrk gS yxHkx &70 feyh oksYV ls ysdj
,d rd tks /kukRed gksrk gS yxHkx $30 feyh oksYVA ;g iksVsfk;e
pSuyksa ds chp pyrs gq, iksVsfk;e vk;u ds ,d Lianu dks vkjEHk djrk gS
tks dksfkdk ds ckgj fudy tk,A ;g lksfM;e vk;u ds vanj vkus ftruh
rst+ f;k gksrh gS vkSj cnys esa ;g f>Yyh ds iksVsafk;y dks vanj dh vksj
ekStwn ewy _.kkRed eku rd okil ys vkrh gSA ;g ,Dku iksVsafk;y dh
f;k mlls Hkh de le; esa iwjh gks tkrh gS] ftruk le; ?kj esa ,d fctyh
tykus vkSj mls rqjar can djus esa yxrk gSA mYys[kuh; ckr ;g gS fd bls
djus ds fy, dqN gh vk;u dksfkdk f>Yyh ls ikjxeu djrs gSa vkSj
dksfkdk nzO; ds vanj iksVsfk;e vkSj vk;uksa dh lkanzrk ,d ,Dku iksVsafk;y
ds nkSjku mYys[kuh; :i ls cnyrh ugha gSA ;|fi] yacs le; esa ;s vk;u]
vk;u iEiksa ds ek/;e ls larqyu cuk, j[krs gSa ftudk dk;Z vfrfjDr
lksfM;e vk;uksa dks ckgj fudky Qsaduk gSA ;g dqN ml dkj dh ?kVuk gS
tc unh esa rSjrh gqbZ ,d uko ds rys esa NksVk lk Nsn gks tk, vkSj ckYVh ls
Hkjdj ;gka Hkjs ikuh dks fudky dj uko dks lqjf{kr dj fy;k tk,] rFkk
ikuh ds ml ncko dks lgu djus dh rys dh lexz {kerk dks dksbZ {kfr uk
igqps ftl ij uko rSj jgh gSA
,Dku iksVsafk;y ,d fo|qrh; ?kVuk gS] tks tfVy gSA raf=dk rarq fo|qr
pkydksa dh rjg dk;Z djrs gS tcfd ;s balqysVsM rkjksa dh vis{kk de l{ke
gksrs gSaA vkSj bl dkj ,d fcUnq ij mRiUu ,Dku iksVsafk;y blds ikl
fLFkr lf; vkSj foJke voLFkk esa ekStwn f>fYy;ksa ds chp vU; o.krk dk
l`tu djrs gaSA bl dkj ,Dku iksVsafk;y fo/kqzohdj.k dh rjax esa lf; :i
ls vkxs c<+rk gS tks raf=dk rarq ds ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd QSy tkrk gSA
,Dku iksVsafk;y dh pkydrk esa vkidks fopkj djus esa ,d letkrrk dh
ckr lgk;rk ns ldrh gS fd ,Dku iksVsafk;y okLro esa ,d iVk[ks esa tkZ
dh ,d fljs ls nwljs fljs rd gksus okyh xfrkhyrk gSA igyh ckj Toyu
gksus ij xfrfof/k cgqr rst+h ls kq: gksrh gS tks ,Dku iksVsafk;y ds LFky
ij ,DlkWu esa vkus vkSj ckgj tkus okys vk;uksa ds led{k gksrk gS] fdUrq
Toyu ds vkxs c<+us dh lexz xfr vR;ar /kheh gksrh gSA raf=dk rarq dh
,d vnHkqr fokskrk ;g gS fd ekSu jgus dh ,d vof/k fjsDVjh vof/k ds
rqjar ckn ;g f>Yyh viuh foLQksVu {kerk nksckjk kIr dj ysrh gS] rFkk
vxys ,Dku iksVasfk;y ds fy, ,DlkWu f>Yyh dks rS;kj dj nsrh gSA
dqN fofkV leqnzh thoksa esa ik, tkus okys vR;ar cM+s U;wjkWu rFkk muds
,DlkWu dk mi;ksx djrs gq, blesa ls vf/kd Kku yxHkx 50 okZ igys
fd, x, vkp;Ztud ;ksxksa ls Kkr gks pqdk FkkA bu ,DlkWu ds cM+s
vkdkj dk gksus ls oSKkfud buds vanj NksVs&NksVs bysDVksM j[kdj
buesa gksus okys fo|qr oksYVst esa ifjorZu dks Kkr dj ldsA bu fnuksa
,d vk/kqfud fo|qr vfHkys[ku rduhd iSp DySfEiax ls raf=dk oSKkfud
lHkh dkj ds U;wjkWuksa esa vyx&vyx vk;u pSuy ds ek/;e ls vk;uksa
dh xfr dk v/;;u dj lds gaS vkSj bl dkj bu /kkjkvksa dk gekjs
efLrd dh rjg] vR;ar kq) ekiu fd;k x;k gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

mijksDr raf=dk rarq cSaxuh jax ls ,DlkWu nkkZ;k x;k gSA Loku dksfkdkvksa
yky esa fyiVs gksrs gSA ;s blds vklikl ls raf=dk esa vkus okys fo|qr ikjsk.k
dk balqysku djrs gSA ;s jax frnhfIrkhy jlk;u gSa tks ,d u,
[kkstsa ksVhu dkWEiysDl dks nkkZrs gS bl ksVhu dkWEiysDl dks rksMu+ s ls ,d
vkuqokafkd jksx gks tkrk gS tks ekalisfk;ksa dh rdyhQ iSnk djrk gSA

u, vuqla/kku ls gesa mu ksVhuksa ds ckjs esa irk pyrk gS tks bl ek;fyu


khFk dks cukrs gSaA ;g vkoj.k vk;fud /kkjkvksa dks fudy dj xyr LFkku
ij tkus ls jksdrk gSA rkfd fXy;y dksfkdk, ennxkj :i ls ,d NksVk
varjky NksM+ ldasA ;gka vk;u vius lksfM;e rFkk iksVsfk;e vk;u pSuyksa
dk lkanz.k djrs gSA vk;u pSuyksa ds ;s lewg ,sls ,EIyhQk;j dh rjg dk;Z
djrs gS tks ,Dku iksVsafk;y dks c<+krk gS vkSj mls cuk, j[krk gS] tSlk
fd ;g raf=dk ds vanj pyrk gksA ;g vR;ar rhoz xfr ls gks ldrk gSA
okLro esa ek;fyu ;qDr U;jkWu esa ,Dku iksVsafk;y U;wjkWu yxHkx 100 ehVj
fr lsd.M dh xfr ls py ldrk gSA
,Dku iksVsafk;y dh foHksnh fokskrk gks ldrh gS lHkh dqN ;k dqN ughaA
buds vkdkj esa fHkUurk ugha gksrh] dsoy buds gksus dh fLFkfr esa varj gksrk
gSA bl dkj ,d mhiu dh vof/k ;k mldh kfDr dk rjhdk ;g gS fd
blls ,Dku iksVsafk;y dh vko`fk esa fHkUurk }kjk fdlh vdsyh dksfkdk esa
dksfMr fd;k tk,A lcls vf/kd l{ke ,DlkWu ,d gtkj xquk fr lsd.M dh
vko`fk ij ,Dku iksVsafk;y mRiUu djsaA
,yu gksMdhu vkSj ,aM;w gDlys dks
raf=dk sj.kk ds ikjsk.k dh f;k
dh [kkst djus ds fy, ukscy
iqjLdkj fn;k x;k FkkA mUgksaus
IysekmFk esfju ck;ksykWth ;ksxkkyk
esa fLDOM ds ^^fokky ,DlkWu** esa
v/;;u fd;kA

,DlkWu dk balqysku
vusd ,DlkWuksa esa ,Dku iksVsafk;y Bhd rjg ls pyrk gS] cgqr rst ughaA vU;
esa ,Dku iksVsafk;y raf=dk esa vR;ar rst+ pyrk gSA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd ;s
,DlkWu olh; inkFkksZa ls fyiVs gksrs gS] tks ,d balqysfVax vkoj.k dh rjg dk;Z
djrk gS] tks ek;fyu khFk uked fXy;y dksfkdk f>fYy;ksa ls cuh gksrh gSaA

: http://psych.hanover.edu/Krantz/neurotut.html
http://www.neuro.wustl.edu/neuromuscular/

baVjusV fyaDl

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jklk;fud nwr
,Dku iksVsafk;y lkbusIl uked foksk {ks=ksa ls ,DlkWu ds ek/;e ls
xqtjrs gS] tgka ,d U;wjkWu ds o/kZ nwljs U;wjkWu ds o/kksZa ls lEidZ
djrs gSaA buesa ,d h&lkbusfIVax raf=dk fljk gksrk gS] tks
iksLV&lkbusfIVax ?kVd ls ,d NksVs varjky }kjk vyx fd;k tkrk
gS] tks vkerkSj ij ,d o/khZZ daVd ds ij fLFkr gksrk gSA ,DlkWu
ds ek/;e ls ,Dku iksVsafk;y ds vkxs c<+us ds fy, mkjnk;h fo|qr
/kkjk, bl lkbusfIVd varjky dks Hkj ugha ldrs gaSA bl varjky ls
gksdj xqtjus okys iksjk.k U;wjksVkalfeVj uked jklkfud nwr }kjk
iw.kZ gksrs gSAa
o`kkdkj FkSyksa esa iSd fd, gq,
jklk;fud VkalfeVj lkbusfIVd tksM+ksa ls
gksdj fueqfDr ds fy, miyC/k gS

lkbusfIVd DysV ds vklikl fXy;y dksfkdk, Hkh ?kwerh jgrh


gSaA buesa ls dqN ds vanj NksVs oSD;we Dyhuj gksrs gSa ftUgsa
VkaliksVZj dgrs gaS] ftudk dk;Z DysV esa ekStwn VkalfeVj dks lks[k
ysus dk gSA ;g vxyk ,Dku iksVsafk;y vkjEHk gksus ds igys
jklk;fud nwrksa dks ;gk ls gVk nsrk gSA fdUrq dqN Hkh O;FkZ ugha
tkrk&rc ;g fXy;y dksfkdk, VkalfeVj dk lalkf/kr djrh gSa
vkSj bUgsa Hkfo; esa mi;ksx ds fy, raf=dk fljksa dh Hk.Mkj.k
osfldy esa Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tkrk gSA fXy;y dksfkdk }kjk fd;k
tkus okyk j[kj[kko dsoy ,d ek= ek/;e ugha gS ftlds }kjk
U;wjksVkalfeVj lkbusIl ls gVk, tkrs gSaA dHkh&dHkkj raf=dk
dksfkdk, VkalfeVj v.kqvksa dks iqu% muds raf=dk fljksa esa okil
Hkst nsrh gSaA vU; ekeyksa esa VkalfeVj dks lkbusfIVd DysV esa
vU; jlk;uksa }kjk rksM+k tkrk gSA

vk;u pSuy [kksyus okys nwr

Hk.Mkj.k vkSj fueqZfDr


U;wjksVkalfeVj dks NksVs o`kkdkj FkSyksa esa tek fd;k tkrk gS] tks
,DlkWu ds fljs ij fLFkr gksrs gSa vkSj bUgsa lkbusfIVd osfldy dgrs
gSaA ;s osfldy Hk.Mkj.k ds fy, gksrs gaS vkSj raf=dk ds fljksa ds ikl
fLFkr osfldy fueqZfDr ds fy, rS;kj gksrs gaSA ,Dku iksVsafk;y vkjEHk
gksus ij dSfYl;e esa tkus ds fy, vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrs gaSaA blls
,atkbe lf; gks tkrs gaS] tks vusd hlkbusfIVd ksVhuksa ij dk;Z
djrs gaS ftUgsa vyx&vyx uke fn, x, gaS] tSls ^^Lus;j**] ^^Vsxfeu**
vkSj ^^czsfou** tks gky gh esa gq, oSKkfud vUosk.k dh fokskrkvksa ds
fy, okLro esa vPNs uke gSaA raf=dk oSKkfudksa us gky ghs esa ;g [kkstk
gS fd ;s hlkbusfIVd ksVhu vU; ds vklikl Vsfxax vkSj Vsfiax esa
yxs gksrs gaS] ftlls i;kZIr ek=k esa lkbusfIVd osfldy f>Yyh ds lkFk
tqM+rs gaS] QwVrs gSa vkSj raf=dk ds fljs ls jklk;fud nwr dks ckgj
fueqZDr djrs gaSA
rc ;g nwr lkbusfIVd DysV uked 22 uSuksehVj ds varjky ls
folfjr gksrk gSA tc lkbusfIVd dh f>Yyh raf=dk ds fljs ij okil
Qwy tkrh gS rc buesa lq/kkj gksrk gS] tgka buesa ,d lrr iqu%p.k
dh f;k esa dke vkus ds fy, U;wjksVkalfeVj nksckjk Hkj tkrs gaSA
tc ,d ckj ;g vU; i{k esa igqp tkrk gS] tks vR;ar rst+h ls ,d
feyh lsd.M ls Hkh de le; esa gksrk gS] rc ;g vxys U;wjkWu dh
f>Yyh esa fjlsIVj uked foksk vkf.od lajpuk ls f;k djrk gSA

xzkfg;ksa ds lkFk U;wjksVkalfeVj dh var%f;k rkys vkSj pkch ds


leku gSA fdlh xzkgh rkyk ds lkFk ,d U;wjksVkalfeVj pkch ds
tqM+us ls vkerkSj ij ,d vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrk gS] bu xzkfg;ksa dks
vk;uksVkfid xzkgh dgrs gSa fp= ns[ksaA ;fn vk;u pSuy ls
/kukRed vk;u tSls lksfM;e ;k dSfYl;e osk djrs gaS rks
/kukRed /kkjk ds var%okg ls mkstuk mRiUu gksrh gSA blds
QyLo:i mkstd iksLV lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;y uked f>Yyh
iksaVsafk;y esa ,d mrkj&p<+ko vkrk gSA k:ih rkSj ij ,d U;wjkWu
ij cM+h la[;k esa lkbusIl vkdj feyrs gSa] fdlh ,d le; buesa ls
dqN lf; gksrs gS vkSj dqN ugha gksrsA ;fn bu mkstd iksLV
lkbusfIVd iksVasfk;y dk ;ksx ,d sj.kk mRiUu djus ds Lrj rd
igqp tkrk gS rks ,d u, ,Dku iksVsafk;y dh vko;drk gksrh gS
vkSj blds ladsr kIrdrkZ U;wjkWu ds ,DlkWu esa mrj tkrs gSa] tSlk
fd fiNys v/;k; esa crk;k x;k FkkA
VkalfeVj khkZ

xzkgh

VkalfeVj
xzkgh

th&ksVhu

dksfkdk ds ckgj
IykTek f>Yyh
var%dksfkdh;
f}rh; nwr
bQsDVj

vk;uksVkfid xzkgh ck,a esa ,d pSuy gksrk gS ftlls gksdj lksfM;e vkSj
iksVsfk;e tSls vk;u xqtjrs gSaA ;g pSuy o`k ds :i esa O;ofLFkr 5
mi&bdkb;ksa ls cuk gksrk gSA esVkcksVkfid xzkgh nk,a esa pSuy ugha gksrs ijUrq
dksfkdk f>Yyh ds vanj th&ksVhu ls tqM+s gksrs gSa tks lansk vkxs c<+k ldrs gSaA

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efLrd esa eq[k mkstd U;wjksVkalfeVj XywVkesV gSA raf=dk lf;rk
esa vR;aaUr kq)rk dh vko;drk gksrh gS] ftlds fy, t:jh gS fd
vU; U;wjkWu esa ml xfrfof/k dk laneu fd;k tk,A blds fy,
laneu dh f;k gksrh gSA laned lkbusIlksa ij xzkfg;ksa dh lf;rk
ls vk;u pSuy [kqy tkrs gSa tks _.kkRed vkosfkr vk;uksa ds
var%okg dh vuqefr nsrs gaS vkSj bl dkj f>Yyh iksVsafk;y esa
laned iksLV lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;y uked ifjorZu gksrk gS fp=
ns[ksaA ;g ?kVuk f>Yyh ds fo/kzqohdj.k dk fojks/k djrh gS vkSj
kIrdrkZ U;wjkWu ds dksfkdk dk; ij ,d ,Dku iksVsafk;y dh
kq:vkr gksrh gSA nks dkj ds laned U;wjksVkalfeVj gksrs gSa&xkck
vkSj Xyk;fluA

dh laHkkouk ugha curh] tSlk vk;uksVkWfid xzkgh djrs gSa] cfYd


;g kh?kzrk ls var% dksfkdh; f}rh; nwr dks lf; dj nsrk gS
vkSj tSo jklk;fud f;kvksa esa kkfey gks tkrk gS ns[ksa fp=A
rc U;wjkWu dk p;kip; baftu vkjaHk gksrk gS vkSj dk;Z djus
yxrk gSA U;wjksekWM~;wysku ds Hkkoksa esa kkfey gSa vk;u pSuyksa]
xzkfg;ksa] VkaliksVZjksa vkSj thuksa dh vfHkO;fDr esa Hkh ifjorZuA ;s
ifjorZu vkjaHk esa /khes gksrs gSa vkSj mkstd rFkk laned VkalfeVjksa
}kjk vkjaHk fd, x, Hkkoksa dh rqyuk esa yacs le; rd pyrs gSa
rFkk buds Hkko lkbusl ls vkxs Hkh tkrs gSaA ;|fi] ;s ,Dku
iksVsafk;y vkjaHk ugha djrs gSa] U;wjy usVodZ ds ek/;e ls sj.kk
vkokxeu ij bldk xgjk Hkko gksrk gSA

lkbusfIVd Vkalfeku ,d vR;ar rhoz f;k gS] ,d lkbusIl ij


,Dku iksVsafk;y vkjEHk gksus ds le; ls vxys U;wjkWu esa ,d
bZih,lih mRiUu gksus rd dh f;k vR;ar rhoz&,d lsd.M ds
gtkjosa Hkkx ds cjkcj le; ysrh gSA fofHkUu U;wjkWuksa dks cgqr gh de
le; ds vanj XywVkesV dh vkiwfkZ dk le; fufpr djuk gksrk gS]
;fn kIrdrkZ U;wjkWu esa bZih,lih,l ls ,d ubZ iszj.kk dks lgk;rk
feyuh gS] vkSj laneu dh f;k dks Hkh dk;Z lekIr djus ds fy,
blh varjky ds vanj dk;Z djuk gksrk gSA

nwr dks vfHkKkr djuk

mkstd lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;y bZih,lih okLro esa f>Yyh ds


iksVsafk;y esa &70 feyhoksYV ls ysdj 0 feyhoksYV ds chp
foLFkkiu gSA ,d laned lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;y vkbZih,lih dk
blds foijhr Hkko gksrk gSA

ekWM~;qysV gksus okys lansk

xzkfg;ksa ls tqM+s th&ksVhu ij dk;Z djus okys vusd nwr ,flVkby


dksyhu] Mksikfeu vkSj ukWj,fMusfyu gSaA bu VkalfeVlZ dks fueqZDr djus
okys U;wjkWu dks dksfkdkvksa ij fofo/k dkj dk Hkko gksrk gS] ijUrq
mudk kkjhfjd laxBu Hkh mYys[kuh; gS] D;ksafd ;s la[;k esa de gksrs
gSa] ijUrq buds ,DlkWu efLrd esa O;kid :i ls {ksfir gksrs gSa fp=
ns[ksaA ekuo efLrd esa dsoy 1600 ukWj,fMusfyu U;wjkWu gksrs gSa] ijUrq
;s efLrd vkSj es# jTtq ds lkFk fgLlksa dks ,DlkWu Hkstrs gSaA ;s U;wjks
ekWM~;qysVjh VkalfeVlZ fokq) laosnh lwpuk ckgj ugha Hkstrs gSa] ijUrq
Qkbu V~;wu fc[kjs gq, U;wjksuy leqPp;ksa dks mudk fuiknu vuqdwyre
cukus ds fy, Hkstrs gSaA
uohurk vkSj ruko ds fofHkUu :iksa ds mkj esa ukWj,fMusfyu fueqZDr
gksrk gS vkSj bu pqukSfr;ksa ds fy, vyx&vyx tfVy mkj dh
O;oLFkk djrk gSA cgqr ls usVodksZa dks ;g ^^tkuuk** gksrk gS fd ;g
tho ruko esa gSA Mksikekbu ldkjkRed Hkkouk laca/kh fokskrkvksa ls
tqM+s efLrd dsUnzksa ij dk;Z dj tUrq ds fy, ykHkdkjh] dqN
fofkV ifjfLFkfr;k cukrh gS ns[ks v/;k; 4A blds foijhr
,flVkby dksyhu nksuksa rjg ls dk;Z djrh gSA ;g vk;uksVkWfid
vkSj esVkcksVkWfid xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gSA lcls igys [kksts x,
U;jksVkalfeVj esa pkyd U;wjkWu ls jsf[kr ekliskh rarqvksa rd raf=dk
ekliskh tksM+ ls gksdj ladsr Hkstus es vk;fud f;kvksa dk
mi;ksx djrk gSA ;g ,d U;wjks ekWM~;qysVj ds rkSj ij Hkh dk;Z dj
ldrk gSA ;g bl rjg Hkh dk;Z djrk gS mnkgj.k ds fy,] tc
vki fdlh ckr ij /;ku dsfUnzr djrs gsa rks efLrd ds Qkbu
V~;wfuax U;wjkWu dsoy mlh lwpuk ij dk;Z djrs gSaA

mkstd vkSj laned U;wjksVkalfeVj dh [kkst ds nkSjku U;wjkWu ls


fudyus okys vU; vusd jklk;fud inkFkksZa dh mifLFkfr dk irk
pyk gSA buesa ls vusd esVkscksVkfid xzkfg;ksa uked U;wjkWu dh f>Yyh
esa ekStwn ksVhuksa ls f;k djds raf=dk laca/kh f;kvksa dks Hkkfor
djrs gaSA bu xzkfg;ksa esa vk;u pSuy ugha gksrs] vkSj ;s geskk lkbusIl
ds {ks= esa ekStwn ugha gksrs] rFkk lcls egRoiw.kZ ckr fd ;s ,Dku
iksVsafk;y dh kq:vkr ugha djrs gSaA vc gekjk fopkj gS fd U;wjkWu
ds vanj tkus okyh jklk;fud f;kvksa dh O;kid J`a[kyk
lek;kstu ;k ekWM~;qyu dh gS] vkSj bl dkj esVkcksVkfid xzkfg;ksa
dh xfrfof/k dks U;wjksekWM~;qysku dgrs gSaA
esVkcksVkfid xzkgh vkerkSj ij dksfkdk p;kip; dks Hkkfor djus
okyh dksfkdkvksa ds vanj ekStwn ,atkbeksa ls ysdj dksfkdk ds ckgj
ekStwn ,at+kbeksa rd vkil esa tksM+us okys tfVy d.kksa esa ik, tkrs
gSaA tc ,d U;wjksVkalfeVj dks igpkuk tkrk gS vkSj ;g ,d
esVkcksVkfid xzkgh }kjk tqM+k gS] varjky Hkjus okys th&ksVhu uked
v.kq vkSj f>Yyh ls tqM+s vU; ,atkbe lkewfgd :i ls lf; gks
tkrs gSaA esVkcksVkWfid ekU;rk LFky ls VkalfeVj ds tqM+ko dh rqyuk
,d Ttoyu dqath ls dh tk ldrh gSA blls f>Yyh esa vk;u gksus

ukWj ,fMusfyu dksfkdk, yksdl lh#fy;l ,ylh esa fLFkr gksrh gSaA
bu dksfkdkvksa ds ,DlkWu e/; efLrd esa QSys gksrs gSa] tSls gkbiks
FkSysel ,pokbZih] lsjscsye lh vkSj lsjsczy dkWVsZDlA

lkbusIl ds fok; esa ,d vPNh osclkbV: http://synapses.mcg.edu/index.asp ns[ksaA

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u'khyh nok, vkSj efLrd

vusd O;fDr;ksa esa ukhyh nok, ysdj viuh psruk voLFkk esa ifjorZu
djus dh rhoz bPNk gksrh gSA os tkxrs jgus vkSj iwjh jkr u`R;&laxhr
es Mwcs jgus ds fy, dqN mhid ukhyh nok, ysrs gSaA dqN yksx
viuh raf=dkvksa dks kkar j[kus ds fy, flMsfVo funzkdkjd ysrs gSaA
;gk rd fd ,sls inkFkZ Hkh ysrs gSa tks mUgsa psru voLFkk ds u, :iksa
dk vuqHko djus esa l{ke cukrs gSa vkSj os viuh nSfud fparkvksa dks
Hkwy tkrs gSaA ;s lHkh ukhyh nok, efLrd esa U;wjksVkalfeVj ds lkFk
vkSj vU; jklk;fud nwr .kkfy;ksa ls vyx&vyx rjg ls f;k
djrh gSaA vusd ekeyksa esa] ukhyh nok, kfrd efLrd .kkfy;ksa
ij fu;a=.k dj ysrh gSa] ftudk laca/k vkuUn vkSj lq[kn vuqHkwfr ls
gS&;s euksoSKkfud f;k, Hkkstu djus] ihus] ;kSu f;k vkSj ;gk
rd fd lh[kus vkSj ;knnkr ds fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSaA

vkSj efLrd /khjs&/khjs bl ukhyh nok dh mifLFkfr dks viuk ysrs


gSa] ijUrq okLro esa efLrd esa D;k ifjorZu vkrs gSa ;g vHkh jgL;
cuk gqvk gSA tcfd] gsjksbu] ,fEQVsfeUl] fudksfVu] dksdsu vkSj
dsukfcl dh f;kkhyrk ds kFkfed LFky vyx&vyx gSa] bu lHkh
ukhyh nokvksa esa ,d ckr lkekU; gS fd ;s efLrd ds dqN fgLlksa
esa jklk;fud nwr Mksikfeu dh fueqZfDr dks c<+kok nsrs gSaA ;|fi]
vfuok;Z :i ls ;g t+:jh ugha gSa fd ^^vkuUn** dh vuqHkwfr kq: gks
tk,A ;g lkspk x;k gS fd Mksifeu dh ukhyh nok ds Hkko esa
fueqZfDr gh efLrd esa egRoiw.kZ vafre lkekU; ^^vkuUn** dk ekxZ gSaA
;g mu ladsrksa dks frfuf/kRo djrk gS tks O;fDr dks ukhyh nok
ysuk tkjh j[kus dk ksRlkgu nsrs gSaA

yr iM+us vkSj vknh gks tkus dk ekxZ

u'khyh nok,&;s fdl dkj dk;Z djrh gSa vkSj bUgsa ysus
ds fy, D;k [krjs gSa \
,Ydksgy

efLrd ij ;k efLrd dh jDr vkiwfrZ ij dk;Z djus okyh nok,


vueksy gks ldrh gSa&tSls fd tks nnZ esa jkgr nsrh gSaA euksjatd
ukhyh nok dk mi;ksx ,d iwjh rjg ls vyx ;kstu gS vkSj blds
lkFk tks leL;k tqM+h gS og gS bldk nq#i;ksxA bls mi;ksx djus
okys lHkh yksx bl ij fuHkZj ;k blds vknh gks ldrs gSaA rc mUgsa
rdyhQnsg kkjhfjd vkSj eukSoSKkfud y{k.kksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk
gS] tc os bldk mi;ksx can dj nsrs gSaA bl fuHkZjrk dh fLFkfr ls
bls mi;ksx djus okys yksxksa esa ukhyh nok dh bPNk mRiUu gksrh gS]
tcfd ,slk djus ls muds dk;Z] LokLF; vkSj ifjokj ij LiV :i ls
uqdlku gksrk gSA vR;ar vkxs igqps ekeyksa esa ukhyh nok ds vknh
O;fDr bUgsa ikus ds fy, vijk/k Hkh dj ldrs gSaA

,Ydksgy efLrd esa U;wjks VkalfeVj .kkyh ij dk;Z dj lf;


mksftr lanskksa dks /khek djus dk vkSj U;wjy lf;rk ds laneu dks
ksRlkgu nsus dk dk;Z djrk gSA ,Ydksgy dks Hkko ,d fMad ds ckn
vkjkensg vkSj vPNs euksfouksn dh voLFkkvksa ls vkxs c<+rk gS vkSj uhan
ds vkxs c<+dj pSrU;rk ds [kks tkus dh fLFkfr vk tkrh gSA ;gh dkj.k
gS fd iqfyl kjkc ihus vkSj xkM+h pykus ds fr bruh dBksj gksrh gs
vkSj bl eukso`fk dks turk dk Hkh bruk leFkZu kIr gSA dqN yksx
kjkc ihdj csgn ukjkt+ vkSj dqN rks fgald gks tkrs gSa vkSj ihus okyksa
esa nl esa ls ,d O;fDr kjkc ij fuHkZj gks tkrk gSA yacs le; rd
kjkc ihus okys yksxksa ds kjhj dks uqdlku gksrk gS] fokskdj ;r
fyoj dks vkSj blls efLrd dks LFkk;h {kfr igqp ldrh gSA tks
xHkZorh efgyk, kjkc dk lsou djrh gSa muds fkkq ds efLrd ds
{kfrxzLr gks tkus ,oa vYi ;k ean cqf) gks tkus dk tksf[ke gksrk gSA
fczVsu esa kjkc ls lacaf/kr jksxksa ls fr okZ 30]000 yksxksa dh ekSr gks
tkrh gSA

HkkX; ls gj ,slk O;fDr] tks vkuUn kfIr ds fy, ukhyh nok


ysrk gS] bldk vknh ugha cu tkrk gSA fuHkZjrk ds ekeys es
aukhyh nok, vyx&vyx Hkko j[krh gSa&dksdsu] gsjksbu vkSj
fudksfVu ds ekeys esa vf/kd tksf[ke ls ysdj ,Ydksgy] dsukfcl]
,DlVslh vkSj ,EQhVsfeUl ds ekeys esa tksf[ke dqN de gksrk gSA
kjhj }kjk bu ukhyh nokvksa ij fuHkZjrk ds c<+us ds nkSjku kjhj
76%
92%
46%
13%
16%
2%

,sls O;fDr;ksa dk frkr ftUgksaus dHkh Hkh


ukhyh nok dk mi;ksx ugha fd;kA

rEckdw

32%

kjkc

15%

ekfjtqvkuk

9%

VSaDosykbt+j vkSj
fpfdRld }kjk fy[kh
xbZ nok

9%

dksdsu
gsjksbu

17%
23%

,sls O;fDr;ksa dk frkr tks blds vknh gks x, gSaA

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esa Leksfdax ysus dk gSA dSukfcl ds /kq, esa fokksa dk ogh feJ.k gksrk gS
tks flxjsV esa gksrk gS vkSj bls cgq/kk rEckdw ds lkFk fy;k tkrk gSA
dSukfcl dks ihus okykssa esa QsaQM+ksa ds jksx vkSj dSalj gks ldrk gS&tcfd
vHkh rd ;g fl) ugha fd;k x;k gS blds nl ;ksDrkvksa esa ls ,d
O;fDr bl ij fuHkZj cu ldrk gS] tks yksx bls csprs gSa] os bl ckr ls
Hkyh&Hkkafr ifjfpr gksrs gSaA bldh vf/kd ek=k ckj&ckj ysus ls xkM+h
pykus ;k cqf) ds mi;ksx okys dk;Z ugha fd, tk ldrs gSa( ;ksxksa ls
;g fl) gqvk gS fd dSukfcl ds uks esa O;fDr dksbZ tfVy ekufld
dk;Z ugha dj ldrk gSA tcfd ;g vHkh rd fl) ugha gqvk fQj Hkh
dqN lk{; gSa fd ;qok yksxksa ij bldh cM+h ek=k ls laosnukhy O;fDr;ksa
esa ekufld jksx kkbt+kssfu;k gks ldrk gS ns[ksa ist 51A
,fEQVsfeUl

^^tyrh flxjsV okyk dadky** foalsaV oku xks?k] 1885

fudksfVu
fudksfVu lHkh rEckdw mRiknksa dk lf; ?kVd gSA fudksfVu efLrd
xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gS] tks lkekU;r% U;wjksVkalfeVj ,flVkby
dksyhu dks igpkurk gS( ;g efLrd esa kfrd lpsrd f;kvksa ds
lf;.k dk dk;Z djrk gSA bls ns[krs gq, ;g vkp;Z dh ckr ughaa gS
fd flxjsV ihus okys O;fDr ;g djrs gSa fd blls mUgsa /;ku dsfUnzr
djus esa enn feyrh gS vkSj ,d vPNh vuqHkwfr gksrh gSA ijskkuh ;g
gS fd fudksfVu vR;ar yr yxus okyk inkFkZ gS vkSj vusd flxjsV
ihus okys yksx bldk lsou blfy, ugha jksd ikrs D;ksafd os bls ugha
ysus ij gksus okys vf; y{k.kksa ls cpus ds LFkku ij bls tkjh j[kuk
csgrj le>rs gSaA bldk vkuUn nsj rd pyrk gSA tcfd efLrd ij
blds dksbZ [krjukd Hkko fn[kkbZ ugha nsrs] rEckdw ihuk QasQM+ksa ds
fy, vR;ar {kfrdkjd gS vkSj blds yacs le; rd lsou ls QsQM+s dk
dSalj vkSj QsaQM+ksa dh vU; chekfj;ksa ds lkFk g~n; jksx Hkh gks ldrs
gSaA fczVsu esa flxjsV ihus laca/kh jksxksa ds dkj.k fr okZ 100]000 ls
vf/kd yksxksa dh ekSr gks tkrh gSA

dSukfcl
dSukfcl gekjs lkeus ,d igsyh dh rjg lkeus vkrk gS] D;ksafd ;g
efLrd dh ,d egRoiw.kZ kfrd .kkyh ij dk;Z djrk gS] tks
jklk;fud :i ls ,dne dSukfcl dh rjg yxus okys U;wjksVkalfeVlZ
dk mi;ksx djrk gSA ;g .kkyh eklisfk;ksa ds fu;aa=.k vkSj nnZ ds
fr laosnukhyrk dk fu;eu djrh gSA ;fn cqf)ekuh ls mi;ksx
fd;k tk, rks ,d fpfdRlh; lanHkZ esa dSukfcl ,d vR;ar mi;ksxh
nok fl) gks ldrh gSA dSukfcl ,d dkj dk bu VkWfDldsaV ;k
ukhyh inkFkZ gS] tks vkuUnnk;h vkSj vkjke nsus okyk gks ldrk gSA
blls LoIu tSlh fLFkfr cu tkrh gS] ftlesa O;fDr ds eu esa /ofu;ksa]
jaxksa vkSj le; dh fLFkfr iwjh rjg ls cny tkrh gSA ,slk Kkr ugha
gqvk gS fd bldh vf/kd ek=k ds lsou ls fdlh dh ekSr gqbZ gks] fQj
Hkh cM+h ek=k ysus ij dqN yksxksa dks v#fpdj rdyhQ ds nkSjs iM+
ldrs gSaA dSukfcl dk mi;ksx fczVsu esa rhl okZ ls vk;q ds yxHkx
vk/ks yksxksa us vius thou esa dSukfcl dk de ls de ckj ;ksx
vo; fd;k gSA dqN yksxksa dk ekuuk gS fd bls vc dkuwuh cuk nsuk
pkfg, vkSj ,slk djus ls bldh vkiwfrZ dks vU; [krjukd vkSkf/k;ksa
ls vyx fd;k tk ldsxkA nqHkkZX; ls] tSlk fudksfVu ds lkFk gS] bls
kjhj esa foV djkus dk lcls vf/kd Hkkoh rjhdk bls /kq, ds :i

10

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV

,fEQVsfeUl ekuo fufeZZr jlk;u gSa ftlesa ^^MsDlsfMu**] ^^LihM** vkSj


esFkkeQsVkfeu O;qRiUu ftldk uke ^^,DlVslh** gS] kkfey gSA ;g
ukhyh nok, efLrd esa kfrd :i ls ik, tkus okys nks
U;wjksVkalfeVj dks fueqZDr dj efLrd esa dk;Z djrh gSaA igyk gS
Mksikfeu&tks laHkor;k lkDr mkstuk vkSj ,fEQVsfeUl ds vkuUnnk;h
Hkkoksa dks le>krh gSA nwljk gS lsjksVksfuu&tks vPNs gksus dh vuqHkwfr
iSnk djus ds fy, mkjnk;h ekuk tkrk gS vkSj blls LoIu tSlh
fLFkfr iSnk djrs gSa] ftuesa gsywflusku kkfey gksrk gSA MsDlsfMu vkSj
LihM eq[;r% Mksikfeu fueqZfDr] ,DlVslh vf/kd lsjksVksfuu dks
ksRlkgu nsrs gSaA vf/kd kfDrkkyh gsywflukstsu Mh&,y,lMh efLrd
esa lsjksVksfuu ij Hkh ppkZ dk;Z djrk gSA ,fEQVsfeu kfDrkkyh
eukshid gSa vkSj ;s [krjukd fl) gks ldrs gSa fokskdj vf/kd ek=k
esa ysus ijA tUrqvksa ds ;ksxksa ls nfkZr gqvk gS fd ,DlVslh ls
lsjksVksfuu dksfkdkvksa esa yach] kk;n LFkk;h deh vk ldrh gSA
det+ksj iM+ pqds mkjnk;h gSA R;sd okZ nt+Zuksa ;qok bls ysdj ekSr
dh xksn eas lks tkrs gSaA Hk;Hkhr dj nsus okys kkbt+kssfu;k tSls
lkbdksfll dh leL;k MsDlsfMu vkSj LihM ysus ds ckn gks ldrh gSA
vki kk;n ;g lksprs jg tk, fd LihM ysus ls vkidks ijh{kk esa
lgk;rk fey ldrh gS&ijarq ughaA ;g ,slk ugha djrk gSA
gsjksbu
gsjksbu ekWQhZu uked ouLifr mRikn dk ekuo fufeZr ,d
jklk;fud O;qRiUu gSA dSukfcl dh rjg gsjksbu efLrd esa ml
fgLls ij fu;a=.k djrk gS] tks ,.MksfQZUl ds uke ls Kkr
U;wjksVkalfeVlZ dk mi;ksx djrs gSa vkSj ;s kfrd :i ls miyC/k
gksrs gSaA ;s nnZ ds fu;a=.k esa egRoiw.kZ gSa vr% budh xfrfof/k;ksa dh
frfr djus okyh ukhyh nok, fpfdRlk dh n`fV ls vR;ar
egRoiw.kZ gSaA tc gsjksbu dks batsDku ;k /kq, ds :i esa fy;k tkrk
gS rks blls rqjar vkuUn dh vuqHkwfr gksrh gS&laHkor;k ykHkdkjh
f;kvksa ij ,.MkWfQZUl ds Hkko ds dkj.kA ;g cgqr vf/kd yr
yxkus okyh ukhyh nok gS] ijarq tSls&tSls fuHkZjrk c<+rh gS] ;s
vkuUnnk;h vuqHko tYnh gh xk;c gks tkrs gSa vkSj buds Lfkku ij
rhoz ^^bPNk** iSnk gksrh gSA ;g dkQh [krjukd ukhyh nok gS tks
e/;e :i ls vf/kd ek=k esa ;g lkal ysus ds fjysDlst+ dk
laneu djrk gS Hkh ?kkrd gSA gsjksbu ls vusd yksxksa dk thou uV
gks x;k gSA
dksdsu
dksdsu ,d vU; ouLifr O;qRiUu jklk;fud inkFkZ gS] ftlls
vkuUnnk;h blls l?ku vkuUn dh vuqHkwfr ds lkFk dk;Z dj ldrk
gSA ,fEQVsfuu dh rjg dksdsu ls efLrd esa vf/kd Mksikfeu vkSj
lsjksVksfuu miyC/k gks tkrk gSA tcfd] gsjksbu ds leku dksdsu ,d
[krjukd ukhyh nok gSA yksx blds uks ds vknh gksdj rqjar gh
fgald vkSj xqLlSy cu tkrs gSa [kklrkSj ij ^^Sd** ds :i esa vkSj rc
bldh vf/kd ek=k ysuk thou ds fy, ?kkrd gks ldrk gSA fuHkZjrk
dh ftEesnkjh vf/kd gS vkSj dksdsu dh vknr cuk, j[kuk bls ysus
okys O;fDr dks vijk/k dh vksj ys tk ldrh gSA

: www.knowthescore.info, www.nida.nih.gov/Infofax/ecstasy.html,
www.nida.nih.gov/MarijBroch/Marijteens.html

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LikZ vkSj nnZ

LikZ ,d foksk vuqHkwfr gS&vkil esa gkFk feykuk] ,d pqEcu] ,d


vkkhokZn nsukA ;g nqfu;k ds lkFk gekjk igyk lEidZ gSA gekjs
kjhjksa esa lksesVks lsaljh dkf;d laosnh nqfu;k ds fofHkUu i{kksa dks
igpkuus ds fy, xzkfg;ksa dh ,d J`a[kyk gksrh gS&LikZ] rkieku vkSj
kjhj dh fLFkfr&blds lkFk nnZ dh laosnuk ds fy, HkhA foHksnu dh
{kerk kjhj dh lrg ij vyx&vyx gksrh gS] D;ksafd ;g mu LFkkuksa
ij vfr laosnukhy gksrh gS tSls gekjh vaxqfy;ksa ds fljsA lf;
vUosk.k egRoiw.kZ gS] tks eksVj .kkyh ds lkFk egRoiw.kZ var%f;kvksa
dks ladsr nsrk gSA nnZ dh vuqHkwfr gesa lwfpr djrh gS vkSj gekjs
kjhj dks gksus okyh {kfr ds fr lpsr djrh gSA bldk lkDr
HkkoukRed Hkko gS vkSj ;g kjhj vkSj efLrd ds vanj lkDr
fu;a=.k ds rgr gksrk gSA

ehluj df.kdk

rst+h ls cnyrs NksVs x<~<ksa dEiu vkSj QM+QM+kgV dh vuqHkwfr ds fr loksZke :i


ls frf;k nsrs gSaA edsZYl fMLd Ropk esa LFkk;h :i ls cus x<~<ksa ds fr
laosnukhy gksrs gSa nkc dh vuqHkwfr] tcfd #fQuh fljs /khjs&/khjs cnyrs NksVs
x<~<ksa ds fr laosnukhy gksrs gSaA
xzkgh {ks= lksesVkslsaljh xzkgh ds fok; esa ,d egRoiw.kZ ladYiuk gSA ;g Ropk dk
,slk {ks= gS] tgk R;sd vyx&vyx xzkgh zfrf;k nsrk gSA isflfu;u df.kdkvksa
dk xzkgh {ks= ehluj df.kdk dh rqyuk esa cM+k gksrk gSA ;s nksuksa rFkk vU; xzkgh
feydj lqfufpr djrs gSa fd vkids iwjs 'kjhj ij vki gj dkj dh laosnuk dh
vuqHkwfr dj ldrs gSaA tc ,d ckj bUgsa mhiu feyrk gS rks ;s xzkgh laosnh raf=dk
ds ek/;e ls sj.kk Hkstrs gSa] tks es#jTtq dh i`B tM+ksa esa osk djrh gSA LikZ
xzkfg;ksa ls es#jTtq dks tksM+us okys ,DlkWu cM+s ek;fyusVsM rarq gSa] tks vR;ar rsth ls
lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dh vksj ckgj ls lwpuk lkfjr djrs gSaA B.M] xehZ vkSj nnZ dh
laosnuk ^^[kqys** fljksa okys ,DlkWu ls dh tkrh gS] tks vis{kkr /khjs lkj.k djrs
gSaA rki ds xzkfg;ksa esa vuqdwyu ns[ksa k;ksfxd ckWDl nkkZ;k tkrk gSA lksesVkslsla jh
dkWVsZDl uked dkWVsZDl eas kFkfed laosnh {ks= ij {ksi.k ds igys esMqyk vkSj
FkSysel esa LikZ djus ds fy, blesa fjys LVsku gksrs gSaA e/;js[kk dks ikj djus okyh
raf=dk, ,slh gksrh gSa fd kjhj ds nk, Hkkx dk frfuf/kRo ck;k xksyk)Z gsfeLQs;j
vkSj ck, dk frfuf/kRo nk;k xksyk)Z djrk gSA

,DlkWu

rkieku vuqdwyu ij ,d ;ksx


ekdsZYl fMLd

Losn xzafFk

;g cgqr ljy ;ksx gSA vkidks ,d ehVj yach /kkrq NM+] tSls VkWoy jsy vkSj

#fQuh vaR; vax

vkidh Ropk dh lrg


esa /kals gq, vusd dkj ds
vR;ar NksVs laosnh xzkgh

ikuh dh nks ckfYV;k pkfg,A ,d ckYVh esa dkQh rst+ xeZ ikuh vkSj nwljh esa
isfufl;u df.kdk

ftruk B.Mk laHko gks mruk j[kk tk,A nksuksa ckfYV;ksa esa viuk ,d&,d gkFk
j[ksa vkSj bUgsa de ls ,d feuV ds fy, j[ksaA vc vius gkFk fudky ysa] bUgsa

bldh kq#vkr Ropk ls gksrh gS

tYnh ls lq[kk yas vkSj /kkrq dh NM+ gkFk esa idM+saA vkidks ,slk yxsxk fd NM+

Ropk dh MeZy irZ esa /kals] lrg ds uhps vusd dkj ds y?kq xzkgh
mifLFkr gksrs gSaA ftl oSKkfud us lw{enkhZ esa bUgsa lcls igys ns[kk]
muds uke ij bUgsa isflfu;u vkSj ehluj df.kdk dgk tkrk gSA
edsZYl fMLd vkSj #fQuh vaR; fljs LikZ ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dk
vuqHko djrh gSA bu lHkh xzkfg;ksa esa vk;u pSuy gksrs gSa] tks ;kaf=d
fo#i.k ds mkj esa [kqyrs gSa] ,Dku iksVsafk;y ij lf; gks tkrs gSa]
ftUgsa lw{e bysDVksMksa ds ek/;e ls k;ksfxd :i ls vfHkysf[kr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA dqN okZ igys oSKkfudksa }kjk dqN vkp;Z esa Mky nsus
okys ;ksx fd, x,] mUgksaus ,dy laosnh raf=dk ls vfHkysf[kr djus
ds fy, viuh Ropk esa bysDVksM yxk,A buls vkSj bUgha ds leku
fupsrd ls Hkkfor tUrqvksa ij fd, x, ;ksxksa ls gesa Kkr gqvk gS
fd igys nks dkj ds xzkgh kh?kzrk ls vuqdwfyr gks tkrs gSa vkSj ;s

dk rkieku nksuksa fljksa ij vyx&vyx gSA ,slk D;ksa \

kjhj ls kIr fufofV tkudkjh dks kjhj dh lrg dk frfuf/kRo rS;kj djus ds
fy, lksesVkslsaljh dkWVsZDl ds ijs O;ofLFkr :i ls ^^ekufpf=r** fd;k tkrk gSA kjhj
ds dqN Hkkx] tSls fd vkidh vxqfy;ksa ds fljs vkSj eqg esa xzkfg;ksa dh cM+h la[;k
gksrh gS vkSj blds laxr laosnh raf=dkvksa dh Hkh mPp la[;k gksrh gSA gekjh ihB
tSls fgLlksa esa cgqr de xzkgh vkSj raf=dk, gksrh gSA ;|fi] lksesVkslsaljh dkWVsZDl esa
U;wjkWu dk iSfdax ?kuRo ,dlkj gksrk gSA blds QyLo:i] dkWVsZDl esa dksfkdk lrg

11

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dk ^^uDkk** dkQh fcxM+ tkrk gSA dHkh&dHkh bls laosnh gkseudqyl dgk
tkrk gS] ;fn ;g kjhj dh lrg ds vkj&ikj ,dlkj ?kuRo ij QSys
LikZ xzkfg;ksa dh iwjdrk ds lkFk ;fn ;g okLro esa ekStwn Fkk rks O;fDr
esa vkp;Ziw.kZ fofr gksxhA

foke okrkZ es: jTtq esa Fke fjyst+ ij vkjaHk gksrh gSA blesa eksVj
U;wjkWu ij ksf;kslsfIVo QhMcSd kkfey gksrk gS vkSj ;g dkf;d
laosnh .kkyh ds lHkh Lrjksa ij tkjh jgrk gSA kFkfed laosnh vkSj
eksVj dkWfVZdy efLrd esa vyx&cxy fLFkr gksrs gSaA

vki nks fcUnq foHksnu ijh{k.k ds lkFk kjhj esa bl vody laosnukhyrk
dk ijh{k.k dj ldrs gSaA dqN isij fDyi ysdj bUgsa ;w vkdkj esa eksM+sa]
dqN dk fljk 2&3 ls-eh- Hkkx NksM+ nsa] vU; dks ikl ls eksM+sa rc vius
,d fe= dh vk[kksa ij ih cka/kdj mls dgsa fd bu isij fDyi ds fljs
vkids kjhj ds fofHkUu Hkkxksa dks LikZ djsA vkidks ,d fljk vuqHko gqvk
;k nks \ D;k dHkh ,slk gqvk fd vkidks nks fDyi ls LikZ djus ij Hkh
vkidks ,d dk gh vuqHko gks \ ,slk D;ksa gqvk \

lf; vUosk.k vuqHkwfr ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA dYiuk djsa fd vki


fofHkUu cukoVksa ds chp foHksn djrs gSa] tSls fd fofHkUu diM+ksa ;k lSaM
isij ds vyx&vyx xzsMksa ds chp dk varjA vkids fopkj ls buesa ls
dkSu lh ifjfLFkfr lcls ckjhd foHksn iSnk djsxh %
uewus ij vkidh vxqyh dk fljk j[kuk \
uewus ij vkidh vxyh dk fljk fQjkuk \
vkidh vxqyh ds fljs ij uewuksa dks rst+h ls pykuk \
mDr O;ogkjkRed ;ksxksa ds ifj.kke ;g u mBkrs gSa fd lacaf/kr
laonh lwpuk dk foysk.k efLrd esa dgk fd;k tkrk gSA dk;kZRed
efLrd frfcEcu ls lq>ko feyrk gS fd cukoVksa dh igpku ;k
oLrqvksa dks Nwdj igpkuus esa dkWVsZDl ds fofHkUu {ks= kkfey gSaA
dkWVZsDl R;kLFkrk ds fok; esa varn`ZfV cukus ds fy, efLrd
frfcEcu Hkh vkjaHk fd;k tkrk gS] ftlls ;g mn~?kkfVr fd;k tkrk
gS fd lksesVkslsaljh {ks= esa kjhj dk uDkk vuqHko ds lkFk cny ldrk
gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] us=ghu czsy i<+us okys O;fDr;ksa esa Fke baMsDl
vxqyh esa dkWfVZdy mifLFkfr vf/kd ek=k esa gksrk gS vkSj rkj ok|
ctkus okyksa esa ck, gkFk dh vxqfy;ksa esa dkWfVZdy mifLFkfr vf/kd
gksrh gSA

nnZ

gksequdqylA kjhj ds bl fgLls ls vkus okys xzkfg;ksa dh la[;k


ds vuqikr esa lksesVkslsaljh dkWVZsDl dh lrg ij O;fDr dh Nfo
cukbZ xbZ gSA

foHksnu dh fofkV foHksnu {kerk


ckjhd fooj.k tkuus dh {kerk kjhj ds fHkUu Hkkxksa esa vyx&vyx gksrh
gS vkSj ;s vaxqfy;ksa vkSj gksBksa ds ikl vR;ar vf/kd gksrs gSa Ropk bruh
laosnukhy gS fd ,d feyhehVj pkbZ ds lkSosa fgLls ls Hkh de mBs
fcUnq dks eki lds&ckrsZ vki mls us=ghu O;fDr;ksa }kjk i<+h tkus okyh
czsy fyfi ds vuqlkj fy[ksaA vuqla/kku dk ,d {ks= crkrk gS fd xzkfg;ksa
ds fofHkUu dkj fdl dkj fofHkUu dk;ksZa esa ;ksxnku nsrs gSa] tSls
cukoV ds chp foHksn vFkok fdlh oLrq dk vkdkj igpkuukA
LikZ dsoy ,d fuf; vuqHkwfr ugha gS tks dsoy kIr dh xbZ laonsuk
ds mkj esa lf; gksrh gSA ;g xfrkhyrk ds lf; fu;a=.k esa Hkh
kkfey gSA vki ds gkFk esa eklisfk;ksa dk fu;a=.k djus okys eksVj
dkWVsZDl esa ekStwn U;wjkWu] tks vkidh vxqfy;ksa dks fgykrs gSa] mUgsa
vxqfy;ksa ds fljksa ij fLFkr LikZ xzkfg;ksa ls kIr laosnh fufofV kIr
gksrh gSA vki fdls csgrj :i ls igpku ldrs gSa] ,d og oLrq tks
vkids gkFk ls fQlyh tk jgh gS ;k laosnh vkSj eksVj .kkfy;ksa ds chp

;|fi T+;knkrj nnZ dks LikZ ds lkFk ,d vU; Ropk laosnuk ds :i


esa j[kk tkrk gS] ijUrq ;g vusd fHkUu&fHkUu dk;ksZa vkSj ,d vR;ar
fHkUu kkjhfjd laxBu ds lkFk ,d .kkyh gSA bldh eq[; fokskrk
;g gS fd ;g vf; gksrh gS] ;g gj O;fDr esa vyx&vyx gksrh gS
vkSj rkTtqc dh ckr gS mhiu ds LoHkko ds ckjs esa nnZ xzkfg;ksa }kjk
Hksth xbZ lwpuk ,d ?kko vkSj dhM+s ds Mad ds dkj.k mRiUu nnZ esa
cgqr de varj gksrk gSA kphu xzhd lH;rk esa nnZ dks ,d laosnuk
ds LFkku ij Hkkouk ds :i esa fy;k tkrk FkkA
tUrqvksa esa ,dy laosxh rarqvkasa ls vfHkysf[kr tkudkjh ls mhiu ds
fr mldh frf;k dk irk pyrk gS tks rd esa {kfr djrs gSa ;k
dsoy psrkouh nsrs gSa&l?ku ;kaf=d mhiu tSls fd pqHku] l?ku
ek] vkSj vusd dkj ds jklk;fud mhiuA ijUrq bu ;ksxksa ls
bu fok;kRed vuqHko ds ckjs esa R;{k :i ls dqN Hkh irk ugha
pyrk gSA
vkf.od thooSKkfud rduhdksa ls vc Kkr gqvk gS fd vusd
ukslhlsIVlZ dh lajpuk vkSj fokskrk, D;k gSaA buesa os xzkgh kkfey
gSa tks 46 fMxzh lsfYl;l ls vf/kd xehZ ds gksus ij frf;k nsrs
gSa] rd esa vEyh;rk ds fr vkSj ,d vkp;Ztud ckr&fepZ ds
lf; ?kVdksa ds fr laosnukhy gksrs gSaA l?ku ;kaf=d mhiu ds
mkj nsus okys xzkfg;ksa ds thu vc rd igpkus ugha x, gSa] ijUrq ;s
mifLFkr vo; gksrs gSaA isjhQsjy vQjsaV rarqvksa ds nks oxZ
gkfudkjd mhiuksa ds mkj nsrs gSa % vis{kkr rhoz ek;fyysVsM rarq]
bUgsa ,ch rarq dgrs gSa vkSj ;s vR;ar ckjhd] /khes] xSj&ek;fyusVsM
lh rarq gSaA raf=dkvksa ds nksuksa lSV es: jTtq esa osk djrs gSa] tgk
;s raf=dkvksa dh ,d J`a[kyk ds lkFk tqM+rs gSa] tks lsjsczy dkWVsZDl
rd tkrk gSA ,slk djus ds fy, os lkekukUrj vkjksgh ekxZ viukrs
gSa] ,d nnZ ds LFkku dh [kkst djrk gS LikZ ds ekxZ ds leku]
nwljk nnZ ds HkkoukRed i{k ds fy, mkjnk;h gSA

12

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ekWQhZu

esV&,adsQsfyu

vusd jklk;fud VkalfeVlZ ds lkFk ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM esV&,UdkQsfyu blesa kkfey gSAa
nnZ fuokjd ekWQhZu mUgha xzkfg;ksa ij dk;Z djrk gS] ftl ij dqN ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM
f;k djrs gSaA

efLrd LraHk vkSj ,lhlh ,aVhfj;j flaxqysV vkSj balqyj


lfgr dkWVZsDl esa vusd {ks=ksa rd es: jTtq uhps ds ,d
{ks= ls nnZ ds fy, ,d vkjksgh ekxZA
nwljk ekxZ dkf;d laonh dkWVZsDl dh rqyuk esa dkQh vyx rhr gksrk gS
vkSj blesa ,aVhfj;j flaxqysV dkWVsZDl vkSj balqyj dkWVsZDl kkfey gSaA
efLrd frfcEcu ;ksxksa esa fgIuksfll mi;ksx djrs gq, vc ;g laHko gS
fd nnZ dh ^^vf;rk** dks nnZ ls vyx fd;k tk ldsA
;ksx esa kkfey O;fDr;ksa us vius gkFk rst+ xeZ ikuh esa Mqck, vkSj fQj bUgsa
nnZ dh rhozrk c<+us ;k ?kVus vFkok nnZ dh vf;rk ds fy, fgtksfll ds
Hkko esa j[kk x;kA ikWft+VkWu ,feku VkseksxzkQh ihbZVh ds mi;ksx ls ;g
Kkr fd;k x;k Fkk fd vuqHko fd, x, nnZ esa cnyko ds nkSjku dkf;d
laosnh dkWVsZDl esa lf;rk gqbZ] tcfd nnZ dh vf;rk ds vuqHko ds lkFk
,aVhfj;j flaxqysV dkWVsZDl dh lf;rk tqM+h gqbZ gSA

c<+s gq, nnZ dh daolZ ?kVuk gkbij,Ytsfl;k dgykrh gSA nnZ ds Lrj esa
deh vkrh gS] nnZ dh l?kurk esa o`f) gksrh gS vkSj dHkh&dHkh nksuksa gh ml
{ks= ij foLrkfjr gks tkrs gSa] ftl ij nnZ dk vuqHko fd;k tkrk gS vkSj
;gk rd fd foukkdkjh mhiu dh vuqifLFkfr esa Hkh nnZ vuqHko gksrk gSA
;g ,d eq[k fDyfudy leL;k gks ldrk gSA gkbij,Ytsfl;k esa
isjhQsjy xzkgh vkSj vkjksgh nnZ ds ekxksZa ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij tfVy ?kVuk,a
kkfey gSaA buesa jklk;fud :i ls ekf/;r mkstuk vkSj laneu dh
var%f;k kkfey gSaA iqjkus nnZ dh fLFkfr esa ns[kk x;k gkbij,Ytsfl;k
mkstuk esa o`f) vkSj laneu ds ruko ds QyLo:i gksrk gSA blesa ls
vf/kdkak dk dkj.k] laosnh lwpuk dk lalk/ku djus okys U;wjkWuksa dh
frf;kkhyrk esa cnyko dk gksuk gSA xzkgh v.kqvksa esa egRoiw.kZ cnyko
gksrs gSa] tks lacaf/kr U;wjksVkalfeVlZ dh xfrfof/k dks ekf/;r djrs gSA
gkbij,Ytsfl;k dh dksfkdh; f;kvksa dh gekjh le> esa dkQh mUufr
gksus ds ckotwn] iqjkus nnZ dk fDyfudy mipkj vc Hkh nq[kn :i ls
vi;kZIr gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

nnZ ds fcuk thou \


gekjh bPNk nnZ ds lzksrksa ls nwj jgus] tSls fd MsafVLV nkrksa ds MkDVj]
dh gksrh gS] vki dYiuk dj ldrs gSa fd fdlh nnZ ds fcuk vkidk thou
fdruk vPNk gksxkA ,slk ugha gksrk gSA nnZ ds eq[k dk;ksZa esa ls ,d ;g
gS fd ge brus l{ke cusa fd nnZ iSnk djus okyh fLFkfr;ksa dks jksd ldsaA
ukslhlsfIVo raf=dkvksa esa ,Dku iksVsafk;y es: jTtq esa osk dj Lopkfyr
lqj{kkRed fjysDlst+ vkjaHk djrs gSa] tSls fd fonMky fjysDlA buls
[krjukd ;k Hk;Hkhr djus okyh ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks Vkyus dk ekxZnkZu
feyrk gSA
nnZ dk ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ eq[; dk;Z gS xfrfof/k dk laneu ;k #d
tkuk&vkjke djus ls rd esa gqbZ {kfr dks Bhd djus esa enn feyrh gSA
fuLlansg dqN ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa ;g egRoiw.kZ gS fd xfrfof/k ;k iyk;u dh
frf;k, jksdh ugha tkrh gSaA bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa ls mcjus esa enn ds fy,
kjhj f;kfoKku dh f;kvksa dk fodkl gqvk gS] tks ;k rks nnZ dks nck
nsrh gSa ;k mHkkj nsrh gSaA [kksth xbZ ,d ,slh Fke ekWM~;qysVjh f;k Fkh
,.Mkstsul ,ukYtsfld dh fueqZfDrA laHkkfor pksV dh ifjfLFkfr esa] tSls
fd ;q) Hkwfe esa lSfud] nnZ dh vuqHkwfr ,d vkp;Ztud Lrj rd ?kV
tkrh gS&kk;n blfy, fd ;s inkFkZ fueZqDr gks tkrs gSaA tUrqvksa ds
;ksxksa ls irk pyk gS fd efLrd {ks=ksa ds fo|qr mhiu ls] tSls fd]
,DosMDVy xzs inkFkZ ls nnZ ds Lrj esa ,d mYys[kuh; mUu;u gksrk gS
vkSj e/;efLrd ls es: jTtq rd vojksgh ekxZ }kjk bls ekf/;r fd;k
tkrk gSA

ikjEifjd phuh fpfdRlk esa nnZ ls jkgr ds fy, ^^,D;wiapj uked fof/k dk mi;ksx
fd;k tkrk gSA bl fof/k esa kjhj dh esjhfM;u dgh tkus okyh fnkk ds vuqlkj foksk
fLFkfr;ksa esa Ropk esa cgqr iryh lqb;k Mkyh tkrh gSa] fQj mipkj djus okyk O;fDr
mUgsa ?kqekrk ;k buesa dEiu iSnk djrk gSA buls fufpr :i ls nnZ esa jkgr feyrh
gSA ijUrq vc rd dksbZ ;g ugha crk ldk fd ,slk D;ksa gSa \
pkyhl okZ igys bldh dk;Z fof/k tkuus ds fy, phu esa ,d vuqla/kku ;ksxkkyk dh
LFkkiuk gqbZA bldh kfIr;ksa ls irk pyk fd dEiu dh ,d vko`fk ij fo|qr mhiu
ls ,.MkWfQZu uked ,.Mksthul vksfivkWbM dh fueqZfDr kq: gks tkrh gSA buesa ls ,d
gS esV&,UdsQsfyu] ,d vU; vko`fk ij mhiu ls Mk;ukfQZUl ds fr laosnukhy ,d
vU; .kkyh lf; gks tkrh gSA bl dk;Z ls ,d de [kphZyh fo|qr ,D;wiapj ekhu
dks fodkl gqvk ck, ftls nokvksa ds ctk; nnZ ls jkgr ikus esa mi;ksx fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ,d tksM+k bysDVksM esa ls ,d gkFk ds ^^gsdw** fcUnq ij vkSj nwljk nnZ ds
LFkku ij j[kk tkrk gSA

;fn vki ,D;wiapj ds ckjs esa vkSj vf/kd i<+uk pkgrs gSa rks ;g osclkbV ns[ksa
http://acupuncture.com/Acup/AcuInd.htm

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n`fV
Ekkuo n`fV ds lanHkZ esa vR;ar lf; tho gSa tks nqfu;k ds ckjs esa
fu.kZ; ysus ds fy, viuh vk[ksa yxkrkj bLrseky djrs gSaA vU;
kbesVksa dh rjg lkeus fLFkr us=ksa ds lkFk ge viuh ut+j dk
mi;ksx ifjosk ds vusd i{kksa dks le>us esa djrs gSa tks gekjs kjhj
ls nwj fLFkr gSaA dkk ,d dkj dh fo|qr pqEcdh; tkZ gS tks
gekjh vk[kksa esa osk djrh gS] tgk fLFkr dkk xzkfg;ksa ij ;g
f;k djrh gSA blds lkFk os f;k, kq: gksrh gSa ftuls U;wjy
sj.kk mRiUu gksrh gS vkSj fQj ;g pk{kqk efLrd ds ekxkZas vkSj
usVodZ ls gksdj xqt+jrh gSA e/; efLrd vkSj lsjsczy dkWVZsDl dks
tkus okys vyx&vyx ekxZ fofHkUu pk{kqk ns[kus ls lacaf/kr dk;Z
djrs gSaA bu dk;ksZa esa kkfey gSa & foo esa xfr] vkdkj] jax vkSj
vU; foHksnh fokskrkvksa dh igpku vkSj frfuf/kRoA buesa lHkh rks
ugha fdUrq dqN pSrU;rk rd ugha igqprsA dkWVsZDl esa fn[kkbZ nsus
laca/kh fofHkUu fu.kZ;ksa ds fy, fokskhr U;wjkWu cM+h la[;k esa foksk
pk{kqk {ks= esa mifLFkr gksr gSaA

vk[k ij dkk
vk[kksa esa I;wfiy ds ek/;e ls dkk osk djrk gS vkSj vk[k ds
ihNs jsfVuk ij dkWfuZ;k vkSj ySal dh lgk;rk ls bls Qksdl fd;k
tkrk gSA Iywfiy ds pkjksa vksj o.kZ fixesaV ;qDr vkjfll gksrk gS]
tks QSy ;k fldqM+ ldrk gS] ftlls dkk ds Lrj ds vuqlkj
I;wfiy cM+k ;k NksVk gks tkrk gSA ;g eku ysuk lgt gS fd vk[k
,d dSejs dh rjg dk;Z djrh gS] ftlls nqfu;k dh ,d ^^Nfo**
curh gSA igyk ;g fd ,d Nfo dHkh Hkh fLFkj ugha gksrh gS]
D;ksafd vk[ksa geskk ?kwerh jgrh gSaA nwljs] ;fn jsfVuk ij cuh ,d

Nfo efLrd dks Hksth tkrh gS rks vxyk lansk vk,xk ^^ns[k jgsa** vkSj
fQj fdlh vU; O;fDr dks bl ij ns[kus dh t+:jr gksxh] ,d ,slk
O;fDr tks efLrd ds vanj gS! fcuk fdlh okLrfod fooj.k ds] ,d
vuUr fjxzsku dks jksdus ds ekxZ esa gekjs lkeus okLro esa cM+h leL;k
lkeus vkrh gS ftls pk{kqk efLrd dks lqy>kuk gS & fd ;g vk[k ls
feys dksM fd, x, lansk fdl dkj mi;ksx esa ykrk gS vkSj fn[kkbZ
nsus okyh nqfu;k ds ckjs esa fu.kZ; ysrk gSA
,d ckj jsfVuk ij Qksdl gks tkus ij jsfVuk dh lrg ij O;fLFkr
QksVksfjlsIVj dkk dk R;qkj nsrs gSa tks NksVs&NksVs fo|qr iksVsafk;y
mRiUu dj mu ij iM+rk gSA ;s ladsr jsfVuk esa fLFkr dksfkdkvksa ds
usVodZ ds ek/;e ls lkbusIl ls xqt+jrs gSa] blds ckn jsfVuy
xSaxfyvkWu dksfkdk, lf; gks tkrh gSa] ftuds ,DlkWu fey dj
vkWfIVd raf=dk cukrs gSaA ;s efLrd esa osk djrh gSa] tgk ;s fofkV
dk;ksZa ds lkFk fofHkUu {ks=ksa ds ,Dku iksVsfa k;y sfkr djrs gSaA
xSaxfyvkWu dksfkdk
ckbiksyj dksfkdk
{ksSfrt dksfkdk
jkWM~l
dksUl
dkk

vk;fjl

I;wfiy
dkWfuZ;k
jsfVuk

ySal

jsfVuk

Qksfo;k
CykbaM LikWV
vkWfIVd raf=dk
ekuo us=A us= esa osk djus okyk dkk ihNs fLFkr jsfVuk
ij ySal }kjk Qksdl fd;k tkrk gSA ogk xzkgh tkZ dks Kkr
djrs gSa VkalMDku dh f;k }kjk ,Dku iksVsafk;y kq:
djrs gSa tks vkWfIVd raf=dk esa ;k=k djrs gSaA

14

vkWfIVd raf=dk
,ekfu dksfkdk

jsfVukA dkk vkWfIVd raf=dk ds rarqvksa ls gksdj xqt+jrk gS vkSj


dksfkdkvksa dk ,d usVodZ mnkgj.k ds fy, ckb iksyj dksfkdk,
jsfVuk ds ihNs fLFkr jkWM~l vkSj dksUl ij iM+rk gSA
pk{kqk lalk/ku dh bl lcls kq:vkrh voLFkk ds ckjs esa dkQh dqN
Kkr fd;k tk pqdk gSA bu dksfkdkvksa dks jkWM dgrs gSa vkSj la[;k esa
dkQh vf/kd ;s dkk xzkgh vU; dh vis{kk yxHkx 1000 xquk vf/kd
laosnh gksrs gSa( buls de la[;k esa dksUl gksrs gSaA eksVs rkSj ij dgk tk,
rks jkr ds le; vki viuh jkWM~l dh lgk;rk ls vkSj fnu ds le;
dksUl dh lgk;rk ls ns[krs gSaA rhu dkj ds dksUl gksrs gSa] tks dkk
dh fofHkUu rjax nS/;Z ds fr laosnukhy gksrs gSaA ;g dgdj bls dkQh
ljy cuk;k tk ldrk gS fd dksUl ls jaxhu n`; fn[kkbZ nsrs gSa&ijUrq
;s blds fy, thoUr gSaA ;fn bu ij ,d gh jax dk dkk yxkrkj
iM+rk gS] rks dksUl bls xzg.k dj ysrs gSa vkSj blds ckn FkksM+s le; ds
fy, gekjs jax ds fopkj esa dqN de ;ksxnku djrs gSa ns[ksa k;ksfxd
ckWDlA

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fiNys 25 okksZa esa QksVksVkalMDku dkk dk jkWM~l vkSj dksUl esa tkdj
fo|qr ladsrksa esa cnyuk dh f;k ds ckjs esa vusd egRoiw.kZ [kkstsa dh
xbZ gSa] jax va/kRo dk vkuqokafkd vk/kkj] tks fofkV pk{kqk o.kZdksa dh
vuqifLFkfr ds dkj.k jsfVuy usVodZ ds dk;Z vkSj xSaxfyvkWu dksfkdkvksa
ds nks fofHkUu dkjksa dh mifLFkfr gSaA buesa ls yxHkx 90 frkr
dksfkdk, cgqr NksVh gksrh gSa] tcfd vU; 5 frkr ,e&dkj ;k
eSXuks lsY;qyj dksfkdk, gksrh gSaA ge ckn esa tkusaxs fd ,e&dkj dh
dksfkdkvksa esa vlkekU;rk ls fMlysfDl;k ds fofkV ekeys fufgr gks
ldrs gSa v/;k; 9A
jax vuqdwyu ij ,d ;ksx

nks cM+s xksyksa ds chp /ku $ ds ladsr ij U;wure 30 lsd.M ds


fy, /;ku dsfUnzr djsaA vc viuk iwjk /;ku fupys /ku $ ds
ladsr ij ys tk,A ^^ihys** jax ds nks cM+s xksys vc fdlh vU; jaxksa
ds yxrs gSAa D;k vki lksp ldrs gSa fd ,slk D;ksa gqvkA

ck;k

pk{kqk {ks=
nk;k
vkWfIVd raf=dk
vkWfIVd
fd,Lek

ysVjy
tsfudqysV
ukfHkd

The

pk{kqk dkWVZsDl

dkWVsZDl dk
ekxZ

vk[k ls efLrd rd ekxZ


pk{kqk dkWVsZDl esa vusd {ks= kkfey gksrs gSa] tks ns[kus ds fofHkUu igyqvksa ls
fuiVrs gSa tSls vkdkj] jax] xfrkhyrk] nwjh vkfnA ;s dksfkdk, dkWyEl esa
O;ofLFkr gksrh gSAa pk{kqk n`fV ls ladYiuk xzkgh {ks= dh gS&jsfVuk dk og
{ks=] tgk dksfkdk Nfo ds kFkfedrk okys dkj ds fr lf; gksxkA oh1
esa] dkWfVZdy lalk/ku ds igys pj.k esa U;wjkWUl ,d foksk vfHkfoU;kl esa
js[kkvksa ;k fdukjksa ds fr loksZke :i ls frf;k nsrs gSaA ,d egRoiw.kZ
[kkst ;g Fkh fd dksfkdkvksa ds fdlh ,d dkWye esa lHkh U;wjkWUl ,d leku
vfHkfoU;kl dh js[kkvksa dk fdukjksa ij f;k djsxa s vkSj ikl esa fLFkr dksfkdk
LraHk dqN vyx vfHkfoU;kl ij loksZke :i ls f;k djrk gS vkSj blh rjg
oh1 dh lrg rd ;g tkjh jgrh gSA bldk vFkZ gS dkWfVZdy pk{kqk
dksfkdkvksa esa foo dh O;k[;k ds fy, ,d varfuZfgr laxBu gksrk gS] ijUrq
;g laxBu bE;wVscy ugha gSA nkbZa ;k ckbZa vk[k esa xfrfof/k }kjk ,d
dksfkdk fdl lhek rd sfjr gks ldrh gS] bls vuqHko ls :ikUrfjr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA tSlk lHkh laosnh .kkfy;ksa ds lkFk gksrk gS] pk{kqk dkWVsZDl
R;kLFkrk nkkZrk gSA

MsfoM gqcsy

VkWlZVsu ohly

pk{kqk lalk/ku esa vxys dne


R;sd vk[k dh vkWfIVd raf=dk efLrd ls tqMr+ h gSA R;sd raf=dk
ds rarq vkWfIVd fd,Lek uked lajpuk ij feyrs gS]a buesa ls ^^vk/ks**
vkil esa ,d&nwljs dks dkVrs gSa] tgk os nwljh vkWfIVd raf=dk ls
vkus okys vk/ks rarqvksa ls feyrs gSa] tks vkil esa dkVrs ugha gSaA ;s
xqPNs feydj vkWfIVd VSDV cukrs gSa] vc buesa nksuksa vk[kksa ls vkus
okys rarq kkfey gksrs gSa] tks vc lsjsczy dkWVsZDl esa fey tkrs gSa
ikohZ; tsfudqysV U;fDy;l uked ,d lajpuk esa lkbusfIVd fjys
ds ek/;e ls blh LFkku ij gekjs vkl&ikl dh nqfu;k dk fp=
curk gSA LikZ djus ds leku fiNys v/;k; esa pk{kqk foo dk
ck;k fljk nkfgus gsfeLQs;j esa vkSj nk;k fljk ck, gsfeLQs;j esa
feyrk gSA bl U;wjy frfuf/kRo ij nksuksa vk[kksa ls tkudkjh vkrh gS
vkSj efLrd ds ihNs fLFkr dksfkdk, oh1] oh2 uked {ks= esa fdlh
Hkh vk[k esa fn[kus okyh Nfo dks ns[k ldrh gSaA bls gh
ckbuksdqySfjVh dgrs gSaA

MsfoM gqcsy ck, vkSj VkWlZVsu ohly ij }kjk


pk{kqk dkWVsZDl ck, esa dksfkdkvksa ls dh xbZ fo|qr
fjdkWfMZxa ls Kkr gqvk fd dqN vn~Hkwr d.k gksrs gSAa
buesa vfHkfoU;kl p;ukhyrk] bu dksfkdkvksa dk
lqanj] dkWye laxBu uhps vkSj .kkyh dh
R;kLFkrk kkfey gSA bu [kkstksa ij ukscy iqjLdkj
fn;k x;kA

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vuqla/kku vxz.kh
;fn vkidh n`fV ugha gks rks D;k vki ns[k ldrs gSa \ efLrd esa cgqr lkjs
pk{kqk {ks=ksa dh [kkst ls Kkr gqvk gS fd dqN pk{kqk {kerk, fcuk fdlh psru
tkx:drk ds] gks ldrh gSaA dqN yksx ftuds kFkfed pk{kqk dkWVsZDl oh1 dks
LFkk;h {kfr gks pqdh gS] os vius n`fV {ks= esa phts+ ugha ns[k ldrs gS] ijUrq tc
mu ls pht+ksa rd igqpus ds fy, dgk x;k] ftUgsa os ns[k ugha ldrs] rks mUgksaus
vR;ar kq)rk ls ;g dk;Z fd;kA bl mRlqdrkiw.kZ fdUrq pfdr dj nsus okyh
?kVuk dks ^^CykbaM LikWV** dgras gSaA bls laHkOkr;k vk[k ls dkWVsZDl ds vU;
fgLlksa rd lekukUrj la;kstuksa }kjk ekf/;r fd;k tkrk gSA

dsoy dkys vkSj lQsn fcUnq \


vkjaHk esa bl fp= esa js[kkvksa vkSj
fdukjksa dks igpkuuk dfBu gksrk
gSA ijUrq tc ,d ckj vkidks irk
py tk, fd ;g kyesku dqkk gS]
rqjar gh mldk fp= vkidh vk[kksa
esa vk tkrk gSA pk{kqk efLrd
laosnh n`; dh O;k[;k ds vkarfjd
efLrd dk mi;ksx djrk gSA

,d O;fDr D;k ns[krk gS] blls vutku jgdj lkekU; O;fDr }kjk ns[kuk ,d
nSfud f;k gSA ;fn vki dkj pykrs gq, ,d lkFkh ;k=h ls ckr djrs gSa rks
vkidh psru tkx:drk dks iwjh rjg ls ckrphr ij funsZfkr fd;k tk ldrk
gS] tcfd vki dkj pykuk tkjh j[krs gSa] flxuy ij :drs gSa vkSj ck/kkvksa ls
cprs gSaA ;g {kerk ,d dkj dh dk;kZRed Cykb.M lkbV gSA

pk{kqk dkWVsZDl dh baVhdsV lfdZVh ,d cM+h igsyh gS] ftlus raf=dk oSKkfudksa

dks igys ls O;Lr fd;k gqvk gSA U;wjkWu ds fofHkUu dkj 6 dkWfVZdy irksZa esa
O;ofLFkr gksrs gSa] tks LFkkuh; vR;ar kq) ifjiFkksa esa ,d lkFk tqMs+ gksrs gSa] ftls geus
vHkh le>uk kq: fd;k gSA buds dqN la;kstu mkstd vkSj dqN laned gksrs gSaA
dqN raf=dkfoKkfu;ksa us lq>ko fn;k gS fd tSls ,d dEI;wVj esa fpIl gksrh gSa] mlh
rjg dSuksfudy dkWfVZdy ekbkslfdZV gksrk gSA lHkh blls lger ugha gSAa vc ge
ekurs gSa fd ,d pk{kqk {ks= esa lfdZVh esa vU; ds lkFk vusd lekurk, gSa] ijUrq
buesa i;kZIr varj gks ldrs gS]a tks mu fofHkUu ekxksZa dks nkkZrk gS] ftuesa pk{kqk
efLrd dk R;sd Hkkx pk{kqk foo ds fofHkUu igyqvksa dh O;k[;k djrk gSA pk{kqk
Hkze dYiuk ds v/;;u ls Hkh geas ml dkj ds lalk/ku dh varn`fV feyrh gS] tks
pk{kqk foysk.k ds fofHkUu pj.kksa ij tkjh gSA

fczLVy ck, esa bl fl) dSQs okWy dh Vkbysa okLro esa vk;rkdkj gSa&ijUrq ,slh
fn[kkbZ ugha nsrh gSaA Vkbyksa dh O;oLFkk ls js[kkvksa vkSj fdukjksa dk lalk/ku djus
okys U;wjkWuksa ds chp tfVy mkstd vkSj laned var%f;kvksa }kjk ,d Hkze mRiUu
gksrk gSA dfut+k f=Hkqt nk, okLro esa ugha gksrk gS&ijUrq vki bl ns[kuk can ugha
dj ldrs gSa! vkidh pk{kqk .kkyh ;g ^^fu.kZ;** djrh gS fd bl rLohj esa vU;
pht+ksa ds ij ,d lQsn f=Hkqt gSA

fu.kZ; rFkk vfu.kZ;


lsjsczy dkWVsZDl dk ,d eq[k dk;Z gS vusd lzksrksa ls kIr laosnh lwpuk cukuk vkSj ml ij dk;Z
djukA fu.kZ; ysuk bl {kerk dk egRoiw.kZ Hkkx gSA ;g lskpus] Kku vk/kkfjr f;k dk
^cks/kkRed** Hkkx gSA miyC/k laosnh lk{; dks fopkj esa fy;k tk, vkSj loksZke lk{; ij fodYi
pqus tk, tSls fd dk;Z djuk ;k xfrfof/k ugha djuk tks ml le; lk{; ij fodYi pqus tk,
tSls fd dk;Z djuk ;k xfrfof/k ugha djuk tks ml le; kIr fd, tk ldrs gSaA dqN fu.kZ;
tfVy gksrs gSa vkSj dqN dks ysus esa lkspus dh t+:jr gksrh gS tcfd dqN ljy vkSj Lokpkfyr
gksr gSaA ljyre fu.kZ; esa laosnh fufofV vkSj ekStwnk Kku dk feyk&tqyk :i kkfey gksrk gSA

16

fu.kZ; ysus dk U;wjy vk/kkj le>us dk ,d rjhdk gS fd O;fDr viuh lkekU;


nSfud xfrfof/k;k djs vkSj og tks Hkh xfrfof/k;k djs] mlds U;wjkWu dh xfrfof/k dks
vfHkysf[kr fd;k tk,A ge vc feyh lsd.M kq)rk rd vfHkys[ku dh dYiuk dj
ldrs gSa] tks efLrd ds 10 11 U;wjkWuksa esa ls R;sd dh gks ldrh gSA rc gekjs ikl
dkQh lkjs vkdM+s gksaxs ijUrq blds lalk/ku dk dk;Z Hkh gksxkA gesa bldh O;k[;k
djus esa Hkh dfBukbZ gksxhA bldk dkj.k tkuu ds fy, ,d ckj mu dkj.kksa ds ckjs
esa lkspsa fd yksx dk;Z D;ksa djrs gSaA tc ge fdlh dks jsyos LVsku dh vksj tkrs
ns[krs gSa] mls Lo;a ;k=k djuh gS] Vsu esa fdlh ls feyus tkuk gS ;k dsoy
^^Vsu&LikWfVax** djuh gSA ;g Kkr gq, fcuk fd mldk bjknk D;k gSa] muds efLrd
dh lf;rk vkSj muds O;ogkj ds iSVuZ ds chp fdlh lg&lac/a k dh O;k[;k djuk
dfBu gSA
vr% k;ksfxd raf=dk oSKkfud O;ogkjxr ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks fokq) k;ksfxd fu;a=.k
ds rgr ykus dk ;kl djrs gSaA bls ,d fufkV dk;Z dh LFkkiuk }kjk ;g
lqfufpr djrs gq, fd;k tk ldrk gS fd ekuo bls O;kid vH;kl ds ckn viuh
loksZke {kerk ds vuqlkj djrs gSa vkSj fQj vius fuiknu dh fuxjkuh djrs gSaA
loksZke dkj dk dk;Z og gS tc jkspd gksus dh lhek rd i;kZIr tfVy gks] fQj
Hkh bruk ljy gks fd mldk foysk.k fd;k tk lds fd D;k py jgk gSA bldk
,d vPNk mnkgj.k gS mhiuksa ds fok; esa ,d pk{kqk fu.kZ; dh f;k&cgq/kk nks
mhiuksa ls vf/kd ugha gks&cgq/kk nks ls vf/kd mhiuksa ds lkFk mkj ,d ljy
fodYi gksrk gS mnkgj.k% dkk dks dkSu ;k fcUnq cM+k ;k vf/kd pednkj gS \A
tcfd ;g dk;Z ljy yxrk gS] fQj Hkh blesa fu.kZ; ysus dk ,d iwjk p kkfey
gSA laosnh lwpuk xzg.k dh tkrh gS vkSj bldk foysk.k fd;k tkrk gS( fy, ij
fu.kZ;ksa ds lgh rFkk xyr mkj gksrs gSa( bl ij Js; fn;k tkrk gS fd D;k fuiknu
lgh Fkk ;k ughaA bl dkj dk vuqla/kku ^^n`fV dh HkkSfrdh** dk ,d dkj gSA

xfr vkSj jax ds fok; esa jax


bls le; cM+h #fp dk fok; gS fd U;wjkWu fdl dkj pk{kqk xfrkhyrk ds fok;
esa fu.kZ; ysus esa kkfey gSaA pkgs oLrq py jgh gks ;k ugha] vkSj fdl fnkk esa py
jgh gS] ;g euq;ksa vkSj vU; tUrqvksa ds fy, vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ fu.kZ; gSA vkerkSj ij
lkis{k xfrkhyrk ;g ladsr nsrh gS fd ,d oLrq nwljh ikl esa fLFkr oLrq ls fHkUu
gSA ekuo efLrd frfcEcu rduhdksa v/;k; 14 ds bLrseky ls vkSj xSj&ekuo
tUrqvksa esa vyx&vyx U;wjkWuksa dh xfrfof/k ds vfHkys[ku }kjk efLrd ds {ks=ksa ds
chp la;kstuksa ds iSVuZ dh tkp }kjk fofkV kkjhfjd {ks=ksa ds :i esa lalk/ku
xfrkhy lwpuk esa kkfey pk{kqk efLrd ds {ks=ksa dks vfHkKkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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xfr'khyrk dh laosnuk d- kFkfed pk{kqk dkWVsZDl oh 1 lfgr canj ds efLrd dk ikohZ; n`; ckbZa vksj rFkk ,eVh dHkh&dHkh bls
oh 5 dgrs gSa uked ,d {ks=] ftlesa xfr ds fr laosnukhy U;wjkWu ik, tkrs gSaA [k- xfr ds fr laosnukhy U;wjkWu] ftlesa ,Dku
iksVsafk;y [kM+h yky js[kk, mkj ifpe fnkk esa xfr gksus ds mkj esa vf/kdkakr% rFkk foijhr fnkk esa gksus ij dHkh&dHkkj iSnk gksrk
gSA ,eVh ;k oh 5 ds fofHkUu dkWyeksa esa xfr dh fofHkUu fnkkvksa ds fy, dksM djrk gSA x- xfr laosnukhyrk ij ;ksxksa esa ;qDr
,d xksykdkj Vhoh Lhu] ftlesa fcUnq vO;ofLFkr :i ls lHkh fnkkvksa esa ?kwers gSa kwU; frkr vklatu vFkok lHkh fcUnq ,d gh
fnkk esa ?kwers gSa kr frkr vklatuA ?k- fcUnqvksa dh laHkkfor fnkk ds canj ds ladsr mudh vklatdrk ihyh js[kk c<+us ds lkFk
c<+rs gSaA fofHkUu vfHkfoU;klksa ds dkWyeksa ds fo|qr y?kq mhiu vf/kekuh fnkk dk vuqeku foLFkkfir djrs gSa uhyh js[kkA

bu {ks=ksa] {ks= ,eVh ;k oh 5 ds U;wjkWu ,d canj esa vfHkysf[kr fd,


x, gSa] tcfd ;g pyrs fQjrs fcUnqvksa ds iSVuZ ds fok; esa ,d ljy
pk{kqk fu.kZ; ysrk gSA buesa ls vf/kdkak fcUnq fofHkUu fnkkvksa esa
;kn`fPNd :i ls ?kwers gSa] ijUrq budk dqN fgLlk dsoy ,d gh fnkk
esa gh xfr djrk gS&ij] uhps] nk, ;k ck,A ns[kus okys O;fDr dks
iSVuZ dh lexz fnkk ns[kuh gksrh gSA bl dk;Z dks vklku cukus ds
fy, fcUnqvksa ds ,d cM+s lewg dks ,d gh fnkk esa xfrkhy cukdj
O;ofLFkr fd;k gk ldrk gS] ctk; fd bUgsa vyx&vyx fnkkvksa esa
?kweus fn;k tk,] vFkok yxkrkj ?kweus okys fcUnqvkas dk vuqikr ?kVkdj
bUgsa dBksj cuk;k tk,A ;g irk pyrk gS fd oh 5 esa dksfkdkvksa dh
lf;rk kq)rkiwoZd xfr ladsr dh kfDr nfkZr djrh gSA U;wjkWu
xfr dh ,d fnkk ds fr mkj nsrs gS] tc fcUnqvksa dh vf/kekuh xfr
fnkk esa mudk vuqikr c<+rk gSA
vkuUnnk;h ckr ;g gS fd dqN vyx&vyx U;wjkWu ,d ns[kus okys
O;fDr dh rjg ls yxrs gSa] pkgs ;g canj gks ;k ekuo] buds
O;ogkjxr fu.kZ; ij fd;k tkrk gSA vfHkys[ku djus okys bysDVksM
ds ek/;e ls ,sls U;wjkWuksa dk y?kq mhiu ml canj dh lkis{k
xfrfof/k;ksa ds fu.kZ; esa i{kikr dj ldrk gSA ;g mYys[kuh; gS fd
cM+h la[;k esa U;wjkWu pk{kqk n`fV ds fr laosnukhy gSa vkSj ctk,
dqN U;wjkWu ds] vusd U;wjkWuksa dh lf;rk ij fuHkZj djrs gSaA jax ds
ckjs esa fu.kZ; Hkh blh dkj vkxs c<+rs gSa vuqla/kku vxz.kh ckWDl
ns[ksaA

usdlZ D;qc esa n`fV yxkrkj cnyrh jgrh gSA jsfVuk ij Nfo
cnyrh ugha gSa] ijUrq vki lcls igys bl D;wc dk ijh ck;k
dksuk ns[krs gSa vkSj /khjs&/khjs tSls ?kqy x;k gks] ,slk yxrk gSA
kk;n gh dHkh bls piVh lrg ij vkil eas dkVus okyh js[kkvksa ds
lSV ds :i esa ns[kk tkrk gSA bues ls dqN dks U;wjy ladsr [kkstus
esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] tgk dqN cnyus ;ksX; vkfr;k gksrh gSa]
tc fdlh ,d fn, x, le; ij foU;kl ds ckjs esa pk{kqk efLrd
fu.kZ; ysrk gSA

17

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vuqla/kku vxz.kh
jaxhu laosnh dksfkdk,A dqN fofkV U;wjkWu dkk dh fofHkUu rjax nS/;ksZa esa lf;rk ds vyx&vyx iSVuZ nkkZrs gSaA dqN yach rjax nS/;Z dk loksZke
mkj nsrs gSa tcfd vU; NksVh ijA vki lksp ldrs gSa fd ;g jax ns[kus ds fy, i;kZIr gSa] ijUrq ,slk ugha gksrk gSA ckbZa vksj dh rqyuk esa nkbZa vksj lSy
Qk;fjax dh rqyuk djsAa D;k vkidks dksbZ varj fn[kkbZ nsrk gSA

ckbZ vksjA eksafM;u dykdkj fi,V eksafMu ds uke ij uked ,d


jaxhu iSpodZ dh LiV fMt+kbuA ;g dkk dh yach] e/;e vkSj
NksVh rjax nS/;ksZa ds fofHkUu la;ktuksa ls dkfkr gS] rkfd R;sd
iSuy dkk dk ogh feJ.k nkkZ,] pkgs gesa vkl&ikl ds iSpksa dh
mifLFkfr ds dkj.k vyx jax dk fn[kkbZ nsA oh 1 esa vfHkysf[kr]
ckbZ vksj dh dksfkdk lHkh ekeyksa esa mlh lhek rd Qk;j djrh
gSA ;g jax dks ns[krh ugha gS] ;g R;sd iSp ls frfcfEcr led{k
rjax nS/;Z feJ.k dk R;qkj nsrh gSA

fookl djus dk vFkZ gS ns[kuk


oh 5 pk{kqk mhiuksa dh xfr nt+Z djus ds vykok Hkh cgqr dqN djrk
gSA ;g ns[kh xbZ xfr dks nt+Z djrk gSA ;fn pk{kqk rjdhcsa bl rjg
dh tkrh gSa fd bu fcUnqvksa dks dsoy vkl&ikl ds fcUnqvksa dh xfr
ds ek/;e ls ,d ;k vU; fdlh fnkk esa pyrs gq, ns[kk tkrk gS]
vFkkZr xfr dk Hkze] Hkze ds {ks= esa laxr U;wjkWu ns[kh xbZ xfr ds ck,
;k nk, vyx rjg ls Qk;j djrs gSaA ;fn xfr iwjh rjg ls fcuk
fdlh e ds gSa] rks nk;ha vksj xfrkhy gksus okys U;wjkWu dk Qk;j
vis{kkr vf/kd Vk;y okyk gksrk gS] tc ns[kus okyk ;g fjiksVZ djrk
gS fd ;kn`fPNd xfr flxuy ^^nk;ha** vksj vkSj blds foijhr py
jgk gSA ^^nk;ha** vFkok ^^ck;ha** vksj ds U;wjksuy fu.kZ;ksa ds chp dk varj
nfkZr djrk gS fd xfr ds ckjs esa ns[kus okyk D;k ns[krk gS] uk fd
pyukhy mhiu dk ije LoHkkoA
pk{kqk fu.kZ; vkSj vfu.kZ; ds vU; mnkgj.kksa esa kkfey gSa n`fVxr
y{;ksa dh frf;k] tks okLrfod :i ls vLiV gSa] tSls fd rFkkdfFkr
usdj D;wc fp=A bl mhiu ds dkj ds lkFk ns[kus okyk vfu.kZ;
dh fLFkfr esa igqp tkrk gS] og yxkrkj ,d ls nwljh O;k[;k ds chp
my> tkrk gSA blh dkj dh fr}af}rk ns[kh tkrh gS tc ckbZa vk[k
[kM+h js[kkvksa dk iSVuZ ns[krh gS vkSj nk;ha vk[k {kSfrt js[kkvksa dk
iSVuZ ns[krh gSA ifj.kkeh n`fV dks ckbuksdqyj jkboyjh dgrs gSa] igys
tc ns[kus okyk fjiksVZ djrk gS fd [kM+h js[kkvksa dh eq[krk gS vkSj
fQj nks ckj vkM+h js[kkvksa ds gksus dh fjiksVZ djrk gSA ,d ckj fQj]
pk{kqk dkWVZsDl ds fofHkUu {ks=ksa esa U;wjkWu nkkZrs gSa fd ns[kus okys dh
n`fV dc {kSfrt ls /okZ/kj dh vksj tkrh gSA

17

nk;ha vksjA eksafM;u ds ,d {ks= ij ,d okLrfod jax laosnh


dksfkdk oh 4 esa Qk;j djrh gS] ftls ge yky jax ds :i esa
ns[krs gSa] tks vU; dh vis{kk de gSA ;g vody R;qkj rjax
tkZvksa ds lHkh fViysV ds lkFk gksrk gS tks R;sd ls nfkZr
gqvkA vr% oh 4 efLrd dk og {ks= gks ldrk gS tks gesa jax
ns[kus esa leFkZ cukrk gS] tcfd dqN raf=dk oSKkfudksa dks ;g kadk
gS fd dsoy ;gh {ks= kkfey ugha gSA

gekjh fn[kkbZ nsus okyh nqfu;k vn~Hkqr gSA vk[kksa esa osk djus okyk
dkk gesa vius pkjksa vksj dh nqfu;k dks ns[kus esa leFkZ cukrkgS]
ftlesa dykfr;ksa ds ek/;e ls ljyre ls ysdj gesa pfdr dj nsus
okyh phtsa+ kkfey gSaA blesa yk[kksa djksM+ksa U;wjkWu oh 5 {ks= esa ,d
U;wjkWu ds ek/;e ls dkk dh ,d fdj.k dk R;qkj nsus okys ,d
jsfVuy dkkxzkgh ds dk;Z ls vkjaHk dj vius dk;Z djrs gSa] tks ;g
fu.kZ; ysrk gS fd D;k pk{kqk nqfu;k esa dqN Hkh xfrkhy gSA ;g lHkh
gekjs efLrd ds vanj fcuk fdlh ;kl ds tkjh jgrk gSA ge bu
lc dks le> ugha ikrs gSa] ijUrq raf=dk oSKkfud bl fnkk esa cM+s
dk;Z dj jgs gSaA
dksfyu CySdeksj us ;g le>us esa ;ksxnku fn;k
gS fd pk{kqk .kkyh fdl dkj fodflr gksrh
gSA blesa Hkzw.kh; efLrd ck;k esa ekxZ ds
fofHkUu Hkkxksa ds chp var%f;kvksa dks v/;;u
djus ds fy, dksfkdk lao/kZu lfgr vxz.kh
v/;;u kkfey gSA nk;ha vksj gesa ,DlkWu gjs
jax esa fn[kkbZ nsrs gS]a tks vU; rarqvksa larjh
jax ls tqM+us ds fy, fodklkhy dkWVsZDl ls
fodflr gksrs gSa vkSj tks dkWVsZDl rd c<+us ds
igys ^^gkFk feykuk** pkgrs gSaA

: faculty.washington.edu/chudler/chvision.html
http://www.ncl.ac.uk/biol/research/psychology/nsg

baVjusV fyaDl

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xfr
,d xsan dks idM+us ds ckjs esa lkspsaA D;k vklku gS \ ,slk yxrk rks
gS] ijUrq bl ljy ls dk;Z dks djus esa Hkh vkids efLrd dsk vusd
mYyss[kuh; dk;Z djus gksrs gSaA ge bu lcdks lgt eku ysrs gSa] fQj
Hkh buesa ;kstuk kkfey gksrh gS % xsan gYdh gS ;k Hkkjh \ ;g fdl
fnkk ls vk jgh gS \ ;g fdruh rst+h ls tk,xh \ blesa leUo;
gksrk gS % ,d O;fDr xsan dks idM+us ds fy, vius gkFkksa dk leUo;
fdl dkj djrk gS vkSj bldk loksZke rjhdk D;k gksxk \ vkSj
bldk fuiknu gksrk gS % D;k vkids gkFk dks lgh LFkku feyrk gS
vkSj vkidh vxqfy;k lgh le; ij can gks xbZa \ vc raf=dk
oSKkfud ;g tkurs gSa fd efLrd ds vusd {ks= blesa kkfey gksrs
gSaA bu {ks=ksa esa U;wjy xfrfof/k vknsk dh ,d <hyh J`a[kyk cukus ds
fy, tqM+rh gS&,d eksVj e&lsjsczy dkWVsZDl vkSj csly xSaxfy;k ls
lsjscsye vkSj es: jTtqA

raf=dk ekliskh; tksM+


eksVj e ds lcls fupys LFkku ij] es: jTtq esa eksVj U;wjkWu
uked gt+kjksa fokskhr raf=dk dksfkdkvksa dh Qk;fjax nj c<+
tkrh gSA bu U;wjkWuksa ds ,DlkWu eklisfk;ksa esa tkrs gSa] tgk os
ladqpu ;ksX; ekliskh; rarqvksa dks lf; cukrs gSaA R;sd eksVj
U;wjkWu ds ,DlkWu ds vafre fljs ,d ekliskh rarq ds vanj lhfer
la[;k ij foksk raf=dk ekliskh; tksM+ cukrs gSa uhps fp= ns[ksaA
,d eksVj U;wjkWu ds R;sd ,Dku iksVsafk;y ds dkj.k raf=dk fljksa
ls U;wjksVkalfeVlZ eqDr gksrs gSa vkSj ekliskh rarqvksa esa blds laxr
,Dku iksVsafk;y mRiUu gksrk gSA blds }kjk R;sd ekliskh rUrq
ds vanj var% dksfkdh; Hk.Mkjksa ls dSfYk;e vk;u mRiUu gksrs gSaA
blls ekliskh rarqvksa esa ladqpu gksrk gS vkSj cy rFkk xfr mRiUu
gksrs gSaA

eklisfk;ksa ds lkFk tqM+h fo|qr lf;rk dh fjdkWfMZax


bysDVks&ek;ksxzkfQd lf;rk

Hkqtk dh eklisfk;ksa esa fo|qr dh ?kVuk Ropk esa ek/;e ls


,EiyhQk;j ds lkFk fjdkWMZ dh tk ldrh gS vkSj bu fo|qr&ek;ks
xzkfQd fjdkWfMZaXl bZ,eth dks R;sd ekliskh esa lf;rk dk Lrj
ekius ds fy, bLrseky fd;k tkrk gSA ij fp= ns[ksaA
es: jTtq fofHkUu fjysDl ekxksZa ds ek/;e ls eklisfk;ksa ds fu;a=.k
esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk fuHkkrh gSA buesa fonMky ds fjysDl gSa
ftudh kkjhfjd fLFkfr esa Hkwfedk gSA tkuk&ekuk ^^?kqVuk tdZ**
fjysDl f[kapko ds fjysDl dk ,d mnkgj.k gS] tks vis{kkr foksk
gS] D;ksafd blesa dsoy nks dkj dh raf=dk dksfkdk, kkfey gSa&
laosnh U;wjkWu] tks ekliskh dh yackbZ dk flxuy nsrh gS] ;g
xfrkhyrk ds fy, eksVj U;wjkWu ds lkbusV ds ek/;e ls tqM+h gksrh
gSA ;s fjysDl vkSj vf/kd tfVy ds lkFk es: ifjiFkksa esa la;ksftr
gksrs gSa] tks vf/kdkakr% O;ogkjksa dks laxfBr djrs gSa] tSls fd pyrs
;k nkSM+rs le; gkFkksa dh xfrkhyrkA buesa eksVj U;wjkWuksa dh lefUor
mkstuk vkSj laneu kkfey gSA
eksVj U;wjkWu eklisfk;ksa rd igqpus okys vafre lkekU; ekxZ gSa tks
vkidh vfLFk;ksa dks xfrkhy cukrs gSaA tcfd] efLrd esa bu
dksfkdkvksa dh lf;rk dks fu;af=r djus dh eq[k leL;k gSA
fdlh dk;Z foksk dks djus ds fy, fdl ekliskh dks xfrkhy
cukuk pkfg, vkSj fdruk rFkk fdl Lrj dk \

e dk mPpre fcUnq&eksVj dkWVsZDl


eklisfk;ksa dk ladqpu iSnk djus ds fy, raf=dk ekliskh tksM+ ij
vyx&vyx ekliskh rarqvksa ds lkFk raf=dk, foksk lEidZ cukrh
gSaA tSls&tSls budk fodkl gksrk gS] R;sd ekliskh rarq ij cgqr
lkjh raf=dkvksa ds rarq tkrs gSa] ijUrq U;wjkWuksa ds chp frLi)kZ ds
dkj.k dqN gV tkrs gSaA rc vafre lQy raf=dk ls ^^eksVj ,.M
IysV** yky jax dh ,d foksk v.kq fMVsDVj ij U;wjks VkalfeVj
,flVkby dksyhu fueqZDr djus ds fy, ksk jg tkrh gSA ;g rLohj
,d daQksdy lw{enkhZ dk mi;ksx djds cukbZ xbZ gSA

eksVj e ds foijhr fljs ij lsjsczy dkWVsZDl esa xfrkhyrk ds R;sd


rRo ds fy, gt+kjksa&yk[kksa dksfkdkvksa }kjk vla[; x.kuk, dh tkuh
gSaA ;s x.kuk, lqfufpr djrh gSa fd xfr lqpk# :i ls vkSj
dqkyrkiwoZd dh xbZ gSA lsjsczy dkWVsZDl rFkk es: jTtq ds eksVj
U;wjkWuksa ds chp efLrd LraHk ds egRoiw.kZ {ks= es: jTtq ls vkus okyh
Hkqtkvksa vkSj eklisfk;ksa dh lwpuk rFkk lsjsczy dkWVsZDl ls tkus okyh
lwpuk dks es: jTtq ls tksM+rs gSaA

19

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iSjkbVy dkWVsZDl

eksVj dkWVsZDl

h eksVj dkWVsZDl

xfr ij ,d ;ksx

eq>s dkSu pykrk gS \ vius nksLr ds lkFk ;g ;ksx nk;ha gFksyh


ij ,d ot+unkj iqLrd j[ksaA vc ck;ha vksj ls vius nk, gkFk ij
ls iqLrd dks mBk,A bl le; vkidk dk;Z nk, gkFk dks fLFkj
j[kuk gS! vc nksckjk dksfkk djsaA vc dh ckj vki viuk gkFk
fLFkj j[ksa vkSj vkidk fe= iqLrd mBk,A dqN gh yksx ,slk dj
ikrs gSaA fpUrk ugha djs( vusd ckj ;kl djus ds ckn vki ml
rjg ds nkZu ds leku dj ikrs gSa tc vkius Lo;a bls fd;k FkkA
lsjscsye

csly xSaxfy;k vanj

xfr dks fu;af=r djus okys efLrd ds vusd {ks=

bl ;ksx ls irk pyrk gS fd vkids efLrd ds lsaljheksVj


{ks=ksa esa bl ckjs esa vf/kd Kku gksrk gS tc vki iwjk dk;Z
vius&vki djrs gSa] ctk; ml fLFkfr ds] tc vki ns[krs gSa fd
vU; dksbZ vkidh xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, kq:vkr fVxj djrk gSA

eksVj dkWVsZDl rdksa dh ,d iryh ih gS] tks efLrd ls lksesVks


lsaljh dkWVsZDl ds lkeus ls R;{k :i ls ns[ksa ist 12 xqt+jrh gSA
;gk iwjs kjhj dk ekufp= gksrk gS % fofHkUu vaxksa es: jTtq esa fLFkr
eksVj U;wjkWuksa ds la;kstuksa }kjk esa xfr mRiUu djus okyh dksfkdk,
VksiksxzkfQd :i ls O;ofLFkr gksrh gSaA ,d fjdkWfMZax bysDVksM dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, bl ekufp= ds fdlh Hkh Hkkx esa ik, tkus okys
U;wjkWu] mlls tqM+h eklisfk;ksa esa lf;rk ds igys yxHkx 100 feyh
lsd.M iwoZ lf; gks tkrs gSaA eksVj dkWVsZDl esa dksM fd;k x;k lansk
yach cgl dk fok; Fkk&D;k dkWVsZDl esa ekStwn dksfkdk, mu
xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa tks og O;fDr djuk pkgrk gS
vFkok vyx&vyx eklisfk;ksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa ftUgsa bl dk;Z
ds fy, igys ladqfpr gksuk pkfg,A bl u dk mkj dqN fHkUu gS&
vyx&vyx U;wjkWu buds fy, dksM ugha djrs gSaA blds LFkku ij
,d tula[;k dksM mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gS] ftlesa U;wjkWuksa ds ,d
lewg dh Qk;fjax }kjk xfrfof/k;k fufnZV dh tkrh gSA
eksVj dkWVsZDl ds Bhd lkeus egRoiw.kZ h&eksVj {ks= gksrs gSa tks
;kstuk xfrfof/k;ksa esa kkfey gSa] ;s xfr ds es: ifjiFk rS;kj djrs gSa]
rFkk ml f;k esa Hkh kkfey gSa] tks ns[kus dh xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj
gko&Hkko dks le>us ds chp fyad canjksa esa fejj U;wjkWu dh [kkst] tks
rc R;qkj gSa tc canj gkFk dh xfr ns[krk gS vkSj tc tUrq Lo;a os
xfrfof/k;k djrk gSA fejj U;wjkWu xfrfof/k;ksa dks lhfer djus vkSj
le>us esa egRoiw.kZ fl) gksus dh laHkkouk gSA iSjkbVy dkWVsZDl esa
eksVj dkWVsZDl ds ihNs vusd dkWfVZdy {ks= kjhj ds LFkkfud
frfuf/kRo vkSj gekjs vkl&ikl ds n`; vkSj JO; y{;ksa ds lkFk
lacaf/kr gksrs gSaA buds vanj ,d ekufp= gksrk gS fd gekjs vax dgk
gSa vkSj gekjs lanHkZ esa jkspd y{; D;k gSaA bu {ks=ksa dks {kfr gksus ij]

mnkgj.k ds fy,] ,d vk?kkr LVksd ls pht+sa NwV ldrh gSa ;k


gekjs pkjksa vksj dh nqfu;k dks misf{kr ;k vLohdkj fd;k tk
ldrk gSA rFkkdfFkr iSjkbVy mis{kk okys jksxh pht+sa vkerkSj ij
ck;ha vksj ugha ns[k ikrs gSa vkSj dqN yksx vius kjhj dk ck;ka
fgLlk misf{kr djus yxrs gSaA

csly xSaxfy;k
csly xSaxfy;k lsjsczy gsfeLQs;j dh xgjkb;ksa esa dkWVsZDl ds uhps
fLFkr vkil esa tqM+s {ks=ksa dk ,d lewg gSA ;s xfr;ksa dh igy ds fy,
egRoiw.kZ gSa] tcfd os ;g dSls djrs gSa vHkh LiV ugha gSA csly

^^--------------------------- fejj U;wjkWu euksfoKku esa ogh Hkwfedk fuHkk,axs tks Mh,u, dh thofoKku esa gS % ;g ,d lkFk ykus dh :ijs[kk nku
djsaxs vkSj ekufld {kerkvksa ds ikskd dks le>kus esa lgk;rk djsaxs tks ;k rks jgL;e; cus jgrs gSa vkSj bu ij ;ksx ugha fd, tk
ldrs gSaA ;s kbesV efLrd fodkl dh vksj cM+k dne gSaA**
oh- ,l- jkepanzu

20

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xSaxfy;k ,d tfVy fQYVj dh rjg dk;Z djrs gSa] dkWVsZDl lsaljh]
eksVj] haVy vkSj fyfEcd {ks= ds vxys fgLls ls kIr fofo/k
buiqV dh fokky la[;k esa ls lwpuk pqurs gSaA csly xSaxfy;k dk
vkmViqV eksVj dkWVsZDl {ks=ksa dks QhMcSd nsrk gSA

dh vk;kstuk ls ysdj vkidh Hkqtkvksa dh xfr dh ksxzkfeax vkSj


vkidh Hkqtk ds iksLpjy fjysDl dk lek;kstuA lHkh Lrjksa ij
vkidks laosnh lwpuk dks flxuyksa dh /kkjk esa vko;drk gksxh] tks
vkidh eklisfk;ksa esa tkrh gSA

,d lkekU; ekuo eksVj fodkj] ch ikfdZUlu chekjh dks dEidEih


vkSj xfr kq: djus esa dfBukbZ ls igpkuk tk ldrk gSA ;g
,slh fLFkfr gS tSlk fd csly xSaxfy;k esa pqfuUnk fQYVj yxk;k
x;k gksA leL;k efLrd ds lCLVsafk;k ukbxzk blds dkys jax dh
mifLFkfr ds dkj.k ;g uke fn;k x;k gS uked fgLls esa U;wjkWu
ds g~kl ds dkj.k gksrh gS] ftls yEcs] {ksfir ,DlkWu csly
xSaxfy;k esa U;wjksVkalfeVj Mksikekbu fueqZDr djrs gSa uhps
vuqla/kku vxz.kh ij ckWDl ns[ksaA Mksikekbu ,DlkWu dh csly
xSaxfy;k esa vius y{; kq) O;oLFkk vR;ar vareqZ[kh gS] fofHkUu
U;wjksVkalfeVlZ ds chp egRoiw.kZ var%f;k dk lq>ko feyrk gSA
,y&Mksik vkSkf/k ds lkFk mipkj ls] tks efLrd esa Mksikekbu esa
cny tkrk gS] Mksikekbu Lrj dks Bhd djrk gS vkSj xfr okil
ykSVkrk gS ns[ksa v/;k; 16A
csly xSaxfy;k dks lh[kus esa Hkh egRoiw.kZ ekuk
x;k gS] rkfd Qy nku djus okyh xfrfof/k;ksa
dks pquk tk ldsA

lsjscsye

lsjscsye dh ,d iqjfdats dksfkdk] blds o/khZ xqPN ds o`gr dks


^^vcksZjkbts+ku** nkkZrh gqbZA ge ftu dkSkyiw.kZ xfrfof/k;ksa dks lh[krs gSa
;g muds kq) le; ds fy, vko;d buiqV~l kIr djrk gSA

lsjscsye dkSkyiw.kZ dk;Z lqpk# :i ls djuk


egRoiw.kZ gSA ;g ,d lqanj U;wjksuy ekhu
ekhu gS] ftlesa varfuZfgr dksfkdk okLrqkkL=
dks foLrkj ls le>k x;k gSA csly xSaxfy;k
ds leku ;g eksVj fu;a=.k ls lacaf/kr
dkWfVZdy {ks=ksa ds lkFk vkSj efLrd LraHk
lajpukvksa ds lkFk Hkh vPNh rjg ls tqM+k gksrk
gSA lsjscsye ds {kfr gksus ls lefUor xfr;k]
larqyu dk vHkko] yM+[kM+krh vkokt+ vkSj
vusd cks/kkRed dfBukb;k vkfn Hkh gks tkrh
gSaA ckr tkuh&igpkuh lh yxrh gS \ lsjscsye
ij ,Ydksgy dk lkDr Hkko gksrk gSA
lsjscsye eksVj vf/kxE;rk vkSj vuqdwyu ds
fy, Hkh egRoiw.kZ gSA yxHkx LoSfPNd xfrfof/k;k eksVj ifjiFkksa ds
ifjr fu;a=.k ij fuHkZj djrh gSa vkSj lsjscsye buds vuqdwyre
lek;kstu eas egRoiw.kZ gSu vxz.kh
&mnkgj.k ds fy, le; ds lanHkZ esaA blesa vR;ar fu;fer dkWfVZdy
O;oLFkk gS vkSj ,slk rhr gksrk gS fd blus laosnh .kkyh] dkWfVZdy
eksVj {ks=] es: jTtq vkSj efLrd LraHk ls lwpuk dh fokky ek=k ,d
lkFk fodflr dh gSA dkSkyiw.kZ xfr;k xzg.k djuk ,d dksfkdh;
vf/kxe f;k ij fuHkZj djrk gS ftls nh?kZ vof/k dqBk ,yVhMh
dgrs gSa vkSj ;g dqN lkbusfIVd la;kstuksa dh kfDr de djrk gS
R;kLFkrk ij v/;k; ns[ksaA lsjscsye ds dk;ksZa ds vusd fl)kar gSa(
vusd esa ;g fopkj fufgr gS fd blls ,d ^^ekWMy** curk gS fd eksVj
.kkyh dSls dk;Z djrh gS&,d dkj dk vkHkklh okLrfod fleqyVs j
tks vkids kjhj ds vanj flj esa gSA ;g lkbusfIVd R;kLFkrk dk
mi;ksx djrs gq, bl ekWMy dk fuekZ.k djrk gS] tks blds varfufgZr
usVodZ esa /kalk gksrk gSA vr% bl xsan dks nksckjk idM+sa vkSj bls le>sa
fd vkids eksVj e ds lHkh Lrjksa ij kkfey gSa&pyukhy pk{kqk
y{; ds lanHkZ esa xfrfof/k

Mksikekbu ds ckjs esa ,d vuisf{kr dgkuh


fufgr xfrfof/k;ksa vkSj vknrksa ds jlk;u esa U;wjksVkalfeVj Mksikekbu kkfey gS]
tks csly xSaxfy;k eas fueqZDr gksrk gS] tgk ;g esVkcksVkWfid xzkgh ij dk;Z
djrk gS v/;k; 3A ;gk ;g xfrfof/k ds ,d ksRlkgu vkSj mi;qDr :i esa
lf; gksrk gSA ,d ftKklk iSnk djus okyh ubZ [kkst ;g gS fd Mksikekbu
dh fueqZfDr ml le; mPpre gksrh gS tc fjokMZ vuisf{kr gksA vFkkZr~]
Mksikekbu U;wjkWu lh[kus dh ,d voLFkk ij lcls vf/kd lkDr :i ls Qk;j
djrs gSa tc lgh vkmViqV ikus ds fy, eksVj .kkyh dks ,d lkDr cyu
nsus esa okLro esa enn djrk gSA rc xfr;k ,d e esa Mksikekbu ds yxkrkj
fudyus ds ek/;e ls ,d J`[a kyk esa ca/kh gks ldrh gSaA ckn eas] fokskdj ;fn
tfVy xfr;k vknr cu tkrh gSa] .kkyh eqDr :i ls Mksikekbu fjokMZ ds
fcuk pyrh gSA bl fcUnq ij fokskdj ;fn xfr;ksa dks kq) :i ls le; ij
fd;k tkuk gS] lsjscsye dh Hkwfedk kq: gks tkrh gSA

xfr fu;a=.k ds ckjs esa raf=dk oSKkfudksa us fdl dkj tkudkjh kIr dh] bldk bfrgkl tkusa %

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/brain/

21

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raf=dk ra= dk fodkl


efLrd dh ewyHkwr ;kstuk gj O;fDr esa ,d leku gksrh gS vkSj lHkh
Lru/kkfj;ksa esa ,d leku gksrh gSA bldk fu/kkZj.k O;kid :i ls
vkuqokafkd Lrj ij fd;k tkrk gS] ijUrq blds usVodZ ds ckjhd
fooj.k efLrd dh oS|qr lf;rk }kjk Hkkfor gksrs gSa] fokskd
vkjaafHkd thou ds nkSjkuA bldh tfVyrk dks ns[krs gq, ge vc rd
iwjh rjg ls ugha le> ik, gSa fd efLrd dSls fodflr gksrk gS] ijUrq
vkuqokafkd kafr ls gky ds okksZa esa LiV varnZ`fV mHkj dj vkbZ gSA

,d fuksfpr v.Mk ysa fQj vuqnskksa dk ikyu djsa


ekuo kjhj vkSj efLrd ,d vdsyh dksfkdk ls fodflr gksrk
gS&fuksfpr v.MkA ijUrq dSls \ fodkl thofoKku dk fu;a=.k fl)kar
;g gS fd thukse vuqnskksa dk ,d lSV gS**] tks kjhj ds vax cukrk gS]
;g C;w faV ugha gaSA ;g thukse yxHkx 40]000 thuksa ls cuk gksrk gS
tks bl f;k dks iwjk djrs gSaA bu vuqnskksa dk ikyu dkxt+ eksM+us
dh phuh dyk gS&,d lhfer lSV tSls eksM+uk] >qdkuk vkSj [kksyuk
vkfn ls ,d ,slh lajpuk curh gS ftls ,d CY;w faV ds :i esa of.kZr
djus ds fy, vusd vkjs[kksa dh t+:jr gksxhA ,d Hkwz.k ls kq:vkr
djrs gq, vkuqokafkd vuqnskksa dk ,d rqyukRed :i ls NksVk lewg
dksfkdkvksa ds fofo/k dkj vkSj fodkl ds nkSjku efLrd ds la;kstu
mRiUu djus esa l{ke gksrk gSA
vkp;Ztud :i ls gekjs thu wV ykb MkWlksfQyk ds leku gksrs
gSaA bl wV ykb ij fd, x, v/;;u /kU;okn ds ik= gSa] ftlesa
ekuo raf=dk ra= esa egRoiw.kZ ekus tkus okys vf/kdkak thu igpkus x,
FksA efLrd dk fodkl v/;;u djus okys raf=dk oSKkfud vusd
dkj ds tUrqvksa dk ijh{k.k djrs gSa&t+scjk fQk] eas<d] eqxhZ vkSj
pwgk&R;sd esa ,d foksk vkf.od ;k dksfkdh; ?kVuk ds ykHk gSaA
ts+cjk fQk dk Hkwz.k ikjnkhZ gksrk gS&R;sd dksfkdk dks fodflr gksrs
gq, lw{enkhZ esa ns[kk tk ldrk gSA pwgs esa tuu cM+h rsth ls gksrk
gS&blds thukse dk ekufp=.k fd;k x;k vkSj yxHkx iwjh rjg ls e
Kkr fd;k x;k gSA eqfxZ;k vkSj esa<d vkuqokafkd v/;;uksa ds fy,
mrus mi;qDr ugha gSa] ijUrq muds Hkwz.k cM+s gksus ls buesa lw{e kY;
f;k cnyko fd, tk ldrs gSa&tSls fd tc dksfkdkvksa dks vlkekU;
fLFkfr;ksa esa ys tkus ij D;k gksrk gS] bldh tkp djukA

C
D
E
F

vkjafHkd dne -----------------efLrd fodkl esa igyk dne dksfkdk foHkktu gSA ,d vU; eq[;
dne dksfkdk fHkUuu gS] ftlesa vyx&vyx dksfkdk, foHkktu jksd
nsrh gSa vkSj fofkV y{k.k kIr djrh gSa&tSls U;wjkWu ;k fXy;y
dksfkdk,a fHkUuu ls pht+sa LFkkfud :i esa O;ofLFkr gks tkrh gSaA
U;wjkWuksa ds fofHkUu dkj iSVuZ fuekZ.k uked f;k esa fofHkUu LFkyksa
dh vksj pys tkrs gSA
ekuo Hkzw.kkoLFkk ds rhljs lIrkg esa tc Hkwz.k foHkktudkjh dksfkdkvksa
dh dsoy nks la;ksftr khV dk cuk gS] iSVuZ fuekZ.k dh Fke eq[k

22

U;wjy IysV eqM+dj U;wjy V~;wc cukrh gSA d- xHkZ/kkj.k ds 3


lIrkg ckn ,d ekuo Hkwz.kA [k- Hkwz.k dh ijh i`B lrg cukus
okyh U;wjy IysVA x- dqN fnu ckn Hkzw.k esa vxys fljs ij cM+k
lk flj curk gSA U;wjy IysV nksuksa fljksa ij [kqyh jgrh gS ijUrq
chp esa can jgrh gSA x- ?k- - flj ls iwN rd v{k ds fofHkUu
Lrj U;wjy V~;wc vkosVu ds fofHkUu pj.k nkkZrs gq,A

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gSA nksgjh irZ dh ijh lrg ij dksfkdkvksa ds ,d NksVs VqdM+s dks
iwjk efLrd rFkk es: jTtq cukus dk vuqnsk fn;k tkrk gSA ;s
dksfkdk, U;wjy IysV uked Vsful ds cYys ds vkdkj okyh ,d
lajpuk cukrh gSa] ftldk vxyk Hkkx efLrd cukrk] tks es: jTtq
ds ihNs gksrk gSA bu dksfkdkvksa dk Hkfo; funsZfkr djus okys
flxuy ml irZ ds uhps ls vkrs gS tks e/; js[kk dk <kapk vkSj Hkwz.k
dh eklisfk;k cukrk gSA vkjafHkd raf=dk ra= ds fofHkUu {ks= thuksa
ds fofHkUu mi leqPp; vfHkO;Dr djrs gSa] efLrd {ks=ksa&vxz
efLrd] e/; efLrd vkSj ip efLrd ds mn~Hko dk fofkV
dksfkdh; okLrqkkL= vkSj dk;ksZa ds lkFk iwokZuqekfur fd;k tkrk gSA

xksy ?kweuk
,d lIrkg ckn U;wjy IysV xksy ?kwe tkrh gS vkSj tqM+dj ,d V~;wc
cukrh gS rFkk Hkwz.k esa Mwc tkrh gS] tgk blds ij Hkkoh ,fiMfeZl cu
tkrh gSA vxys dqN lIrkgksa eas dksfkdk ds vkdkj] foHkktu vkSj okl
rFkk dksfkdk ls dksfkdk vklatu eas ifjorZu lfgr dkQh vf/kd
ifjorZu gksrs gSaA mnkgj.k ds fy,] U;wjy V~;wc bl dkj eqM+ tkrh gS
fd flj dk fgLlk /kM+ ds lkFk 90 vak ds dks.k ij jgsA ;g iSVuZ
Hksnu ds ckjhd ls ckjh Lrj rd vkxs c<+rk gS] varr% ;s u, U;wjkWuksa
U;wjy [kkagroove
p
neural

26 fnu

[k

28 fnu

neural
U;wjy screst
LV

[k

35 fnu

?k
?k

49 fnu

xHkZ/kkj.k ds d pkj lIrkg vkSj [k 7 lIrkg ckn ekuo Hkwz.k dh


vkdkfjdhA fofHkUu {ks= foLrkfjr gksrs gSa vkSj flj&iwN v{k ds
lkFk blesa vusd eksM+ gksrs gSaA

23

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dh oS;fDrd igpku cukrs gSaA ;gk ckrsa fcxM+ ldrh gSaA U;wjy V~;wc
ds can gksus esa vlQy jgus ij Likbuk ckbfQMk dh fLFkfr curh gS]
;g vkerkSj ij es: jTtq ds fupys fgLls rd lhfer gksrh gSA bl ij
ruko gksus thou dks dksbZ [krjk ugha gksrk gSA blds foijhr flj ds
ikl blds can ugha gksus ij ,d laxfBr efLrd iwjh rjg ls
vuqifLFkr gks ldrk gS] ftls ,usuflQsyh dgrs gSaA

thou esa viuk LFkku tkusa


iSVfuZax dk varfuZfgr fl)kar ;g gS fd dksfkdkvksa dks raf=dk ra= ds
/kku v{kksa ds lkis{k&lkeus ls ihNs vkSj ij ls uhps&viuh fLFkfr
irk gks tkrh gSA okLro esa R;sd dksfkdk viuh fLFkfr dks bu
vkFkksZxksuy funsZkkadksa ds lanHkZ esa ekirh gS] tSls fd uDkk i<+us okyk
O;fDr igys ls fu/kkZfjr fcUnqvksa ls viuh fLFkfr ekirk gSA vkf.od
Lrj ij ;g ftl dkj dk;Z djrk gS og bl dkj gS fd Hkwz.k
U;wjy V~;wc esa LFkkuhr vusd /kqzo.kdkjh {ks=ksa dh LFkkiuk djrk gS]
tks flxuy v.kqvksa dk lzko djrk gSA bu ekeyksa esa ls R;sd esa v.kq
vius lzksr ls folfjr gksdj nwjh lfgr lkanzrk dk ,d xq.kkad cukrs
gSaA fLFkfr dh laosnuk nsus dh f;k dk ,d mnkgj.k es: jTtq v{k
ij ij ls uhps MkWlksZosaVy gSA U;wjy V~;wc dk fupyk Hkkx&lksfud
gstgkWx ds vkp;Ztud uke lfgr ,d lzkfor ksVhu dks vfHkO;Dr
djrk gSA lksfud gstgkWx yksj IysV ls nwj folfjr gksrk gS vkSj
yksj IysV ls nwjh ds vuqlkj MkWlksZosaVy v{k ij ekStwn dksfkdkvkas
dks Hkkfor djrk gSA can gksus ij lksfud gstgkWx ,d thu dh
vfHkO;fDr dks mhfir djrk gS tks ,d foksk dkj dk U;wjkWu cukrs
gSaA lksfud gstgkWx dh u;h vYi lkUnzrk eksVj U;wjkWuksa ds vU; thuksa
dh vfHkO;fDr dks mhfir djrk gSA

jksduk vFkok tkuuk fd vki dgk tk jgs gSAa


tc ,d U;wjkWu viuh igpku cuk ysrk gS vkSj blesa foHkktu :d
tkrk gSA ,d ioZrh; ekxZnkZd ds leku o`f) kadq ,d vuqdwy ekxZ
pqus esa vius dkSkyksa dk bLrseky djrs gq, rdksa ls xqt+jus ds fy,
fokskhr gSaA ;fn ;g ,slk djrk gS rks ;g ,DlkWu dks ihNs dh vksj
Hkstrk gS] ftl dkj ,d dqkk fdlh foLrkfjr fu;a=.k esa j[kk tk,A
tc ,d ckj bldk y{; o`f) kadq rd igqp tkrk gS rc bldh
pyus dh kfDr lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj ;g ,d lkbusIl cukrk gSa
,Dlksuy ekxZnkZu ,d mPpre [kksth lkgfld dk;Z gS] tks NksVh vkSj
cM+h nwfj;ksa ij kq) gSA ;g ,dek= flaxy ekbaMsM f;k gS] D;ksafd
;k mPp kq)rk ds lkFk pquh xbZ y{; dksfkdk gh ugha cfYd bls ikus
ds fy, o`f) kadq dks fofHkUu LFkkuksa ds fy, vU; o`f) kadqvksa dks ikj
djuk gksrk gSA bl ekxZ ds lkFk] ekxZnkZu bafxr djrk gS fd o`f)
kadq dks vkdfkZr ;k fodfkZr djus ls o`f) kadq mUgsa ekxZ <w<us esa
lgk;rk djrs gSa] tcfd bu ladsrksa dh vfHkO;fDr dk fu;eu djus ds
fy, vkf.od f;k mkjnk;h gSA

fo|qr lf;rk }kjk rjkkuk


U;wjkWuksa dh LFkkfud O;oLFkk rFkk buds tqM+ko dh mPp Lrjh; kq)rk
vkjaHk ls kIr dh tkrh gS] raf=dk ra= ds dqN fgLlksa dh ok;fjaax
xfrfof/k&vk/kkfjr ifjdj.k esa Mkyh tkrh gS] tSls fd ,DlkWuksa dh
dkV&NkV vkSj U;wjkWuksa dh xgjkbZA ;s {kfr;k O;FkZ rhr gksrh gSa]
ijUrq ;g geskk laHko ;k visf{kr ugha gksrk gS fd dsoy bl fuekZ.k
ls efLrd dk lEiw.kZ vkSj =qfVghu fp= cuk;k tk ldsA fodkl dks
^^,d fVadjj** dgk x;k gS&ijUrq ;g ,d fkYidkj Hkh gSA mnkgj.k

24

U;wjkWUl uhys ls eqdkcyk djus okys ekxZnkhZ ladsrksa ds fofHkUu


dkj] tks vius ,DlkWu vkSj o`f) dksu foLrkfjr djrs gSa lkeus dh
vksj ij daVdA LFkkuh; vkSj nwj fLFkr D;w ladsr o`f) dksu ds
fy, vkdkZd $ vFko fodkZd & gks ldrs gSaA fofkV vkf.od
ekxZnkZd ladsrksa ds mnkgj.k fn, x, gSaA
ds fy,] us= vkSj efLrd esa U;wjkWuksa ds chp fcUnq ls fcUnq ekufp=.k]
tks LiV :i ls ns[kus ds fy, okafNr gS] ;g jsfVuk esa Hkkoh
iSVuZ;qDr oS|qr lf;rk ds ek/;e ls vkafkd :i ls vftZr fd;k
tkrk gSA la;kstuksa dks ,d vkjafHkd ,DlqcjsaV lSV ,d egRoiw.kZ vof/k
ds nkSjku rjkkk tkrk gS] ftlds ckn pk{kqk .kkyh dk ewyHkwr iSVuZ
iwjk gks tkrk gS] ;g fLFkfr canjksa esa yxHkx vkB lIrkg ij vkSj
ekuoksa esa kk;n ,d okZ dh vk;q esa vkrh gSA ,d varfuZfgr u ;g
gS fd D;k ;g vkjafHkd fodkl dk;Ze jksx dh otg ls U;wjkWu {kfr
ds ekeyksa esa iqu% lf; cuk;k tk ldrk gS tSls vYt+hej vkSj
ikfdZUlu jksx vFkok es: jTtq esa {kfr] ftlds ifj.kke Lo:i ydok
gks tkrk gSaA ckn dh fLFkfr esa pksV ds ckn ,DlkWuksa dks nksckjk o`f) ds
fy, ksRlkfgr fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq D;k ;s nksckjk mi;qDr :i
ls tqM+ ldrs gSa] ;g vHkh l?ku tkp&iM+rky dk fok; gSA
vkuqokafkd kafr
gesa efLrd dk fuekZ.k djus okys thuksa dk lEiw.kZ dSVykWx rst+h ls
kIr gksrk tk jgk gSA vkf.od tho oSKkfud fof/k;k bl vn~Hkqr kfDr
ds fy, /kU;okn dh ik= gSa] fodkl ds nkSjku ge tc vkSj tSls pkgsa
mudh vfHkO;fDr esa ekWMqyu }kjk thuksa ds dk;Z dk ijh{k.k dj ldrs
gSaA vc eq[k dk;Z gS ,d dk;Zkhy efLrd esa dksfkdkvksa dh ,d irZ
dks :ikUrfjr djus okys vkuqokafkd fu;a=.k dk e Kkr djukA ;g
raf=dkfoKku dh cM+h pqukSfr;ksa esa ls ,d gSA
vuqla/kku vxz.kh
LVse dksfkdk, vU; dksfkdkvksa ds
fofHkUu dkjksa dh lHkh Jsf.k;ksa dks
:ikUrfjr djus dh laHkkO;rk
lfgr ;qDr kjhj dh dksfkdk, gSaA
Hkzw.kh; LVse dksfkdk, fodkl ds
nkSjku cgqr tYnh fodflr gksrh
gSaA vU; dkj vfLFk eTtk vkSj
Hkwz.k uky esa ik, tkrs gSa] tks ,d
ek ls mlds uotkr cPps dks
tksM+rs gSaA raf=dk oSKkfud bl
ckr dks tkuus dk ;kl dj jgs gSa
fd ;fn LVse dksfkdk dk bLrseky
o;Ld efLrd ds {kfrxzLr U;wjkWuksa
dh ejEer ds fy, gksrk gSa bl
le; vf/kdkak dk;Z tarqvksa ij
fd;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq vkkk gS fd
var esa ge efLrd ds jksxksa tSl
ikfdZUlUl jksx }kjk {kfrxzLr Hkkxksa
dh ejEer djus esas l{ke gksaxsA

efLrd ds fodkl ds dqN fofkV pj.kksa ij R;sd feuV vkids efLrd esa 250]000 dksfkdk, tqM+ tkrh gSaA blds
fok; esa vf/kd tkudkjh ds fy, i<+sa % http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/dev.html

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fMLysfDl;k
D;k vkidks ;kn gS fd i<+uk lh[kuk fdruk dfBu gS \ cksyus ls
vyx] ftlds fodklkRed mn~Hko vR;ar iqjkus gSa] fy[ku vkSj i<+uk
vis{kkr gky esa gq, ekuoh; vkfodkj gSaA ;g ckr dsoy dqN
gt+kj okZ igys dh ckr gS fd nqfu;k ds lHkh Hkkxksa esa fc[kjs leqnk;ksa
us vuqHko fd;k fd cksys x, gt+kjksa kCn vyx&vyx vaxzsth esa 44
Qksuhe NksVh /ofu;k ls feydj curs gSa vkSj bUgsa pk{kqk ladsrksa dh
vis{kkr NksVh la[;k ls Lrqr fd;k tk ldrk gSA bu ladsrksa dks
lh[kus esa le; yxrk gS vkSj dqN cPpksa dks blesa dkQh dfBukbZ
gksrh gSa ;g cqf)ekk esa fdlh dkj dh deh ds dkj.k ugha gksrk gS]
buds efLrd dks i<+uk lh[kus esa [kkl rkSj ij dfBukbZ gksrh gSA
nl esa ,d O;fDr dks bl fLFkfr dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gS] vc
raf=dk oSKkfudksa us vc bls fodkl laca/kh fMLysfDl;k dk uke fn;k
gSA
fMLysfD;k ,d vke leL;k gSA dqN cPps ;g ugha tku ikrs fd mUgsa
i<+uk bruk dfBu D;ksa yxrk gS] tcfd os vius mu nksLrksa ftrus
cqf)eku gSa] ftUgsa ;g vklku yxrk gS] fMLysfDl;k ,d jgL; cuk
gqvk gSA vusd cPpksa esa vkRe fookl [kks tkrk gS] os fonzksgh] xqLlSy
vkSj fujadqk cu tkrs gSaA fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r cPps vU; {ks=ksa&[ksy]
foKku] vfHkdyu] okf.kT; ;k dyk esa viuh frHkk dk nkZu djrs
gSa] ckrZsa fd i<+us dh vkjafHkd leL;kvksa ds dkj.k mUgksaus iwjk
vkRefookl vkSj vkRe lEeku [kks ugha fn;k gksA vr% fMLysfDl;k ds
tSfod vk/kkj dks le>uk vius vki esa egRoiw.kZ gS] cfYsd ;g jgL;
ds Hkkj dh jksdFkke esa Hkh ,d ;ksxnku gSA csgrj rjhds ls i<+us dh
le> Kkr gksus ls bl leL;k ds bykt ;k mcjus ds fy, jkLrk
feysxkA

i<+uk lh[kuk
i<+kbZ dh f;k o.kZekuqlkj pk{kqk ladsrksa dks muds lgh e esa
igpkuus ij fuHkZj djrh gS&bls vkFkksZxzkQh dgrs gSa] tks Hkkkk cPpk
lh[k jgk gS vkSj muds lgh e esa kCnksa dh vyx&vyx /ofu
lquukA blesa fudkZ.k kkfey gS] ftls Qksusfed lajpuk dgrs gSa]
rkfd ladsrksa dks lgh /ofu;ksa esa cnyk tk ldsA nqHkkZX; ls vf/kdkakr%
fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr kCnksa dh vkFkksZxzkfQd vkSj QksuksykWftd
fokskrkvksa dk foysk.k /khes vkSj vkq) rjhds ls dj ikrs gaSA
vyx
v{kj

i<+kbZ ds nkSjku vk[k dh xfr;kA isu fjdkWMZj dh ij vkSj uhps dh


xfr;k nk,a vkSj ck,a ds laxr gSaA
vk[k dh xfrfof/k .kkyh ds pk{kqk fu;a=.k ij cM+s U;wjkWu eSXukslsY;qyj
flLVe ds ,d usVodZ dk Hkko gksrk gSA bls ;g uke blfy, fn;k
x;k gS D;ksafd U;wjkWu dksfkdk, cgqr cM+s gksrs gSa eSXuksA bl usVodZ
dks jsfVuk ls vkjaHk djds lsjsczy dkWVsZDl vkSj lsjsczy ds ekxZ ds t+fj,
vk[k dh eklisfk;ksa ds eksVj U;wjkWuksa rd Vsl fd;k tk ldrk gSA ;g
pyukhy mhiuksa ds lkFk foksk :i ls f;k djrk gS vkSj blhfy, ;g
pyukhy y{;ksa dk irk yxkus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA bl .kkyh dh ,d
egRoiw.kZ fokskrk ;g gS fd ;g xfrkhy ladsr i<+kbZ ds nkSjku mRiUu
gksrk gS] tc vk[k mu v{kjksa ds vkxs c<+ tkrh gS] ftlds fy, mUgsa
fLFkj fd;k x;k gSA ;g xfr =qfV ladsr vk[k dh xfr .kkyh esa okil
Hksth tkrh gS rkfd vk[k iqu% y{; ij vk ldsA blds cnys
eSXukslsY;qyj .kkyh vk[kksa dks fLFkj djus esa ,d egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk
fuHkkrh gS vkSj bl dkj buds e fu/kkZj.k esa HkhA
ikoksZlsY;qyj irsZa
eSXukslsY;qyj irsZa

dq@r~@rk@

100 ekbksehVj

/ofu
foysk.k

dqRrk

pk{kqk
foyskd

bu v{kjksa dk lgh e nsus rFkk /ofu dh kq)rk pk{kqk vkSj JO;


f;kvksa ij fuHkZj djrk gSA vifjfpr kCnksa ds fy, vkSj i<+uk kq:
djus ds lkFk igys lHkh vifjfpr gSa] R;sd v{kj dks igpkuk tkrk gS
vkSj rc bUgsa lgh e esa j[kk tkrk gSA ;g f;k mruh ljy ugha
gS ftruh yxrh gS] D;ksafd vk[kksa dks ,d v{kj ls nwljs v{kj dh vksj
tkus esa cgqr de xfr djuh gksrh gSA vk[k ds ,d v{kj ij #dus ds
nkSjku mls igpkuk tkrk gSA ijUrq mudk e mlds }kjk r; fd;k
tkrk gS tc vk[k ml v{kj ij dsfUnzr Fkh] tc ml v{kj dks ns[kk
tk jgk FkkA vk[k D;k ns[krh gS] bls vk[k dh xfrfof/k .kkyh ls
kIr ladsrksa ds lkFk lesfdr djus dh vko;drk gksrh gS

iwjk
kCn

dqkk
R;{k pk{kqk
foysk.k

vFkZ
lhesafVd

fu;a=.k

fMLysfDld

,d lkekU; O;fDr vkSj fMLysfDl;k ds dqN dkjksa


eas lqxfBr ikoksZ vkSj eSXukslsY;qyj dksfkdkvksa
dks nkkZrs ikohZ; tsuhdqysV ukfHkd dk rd vfHkjatuA

25

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raf=dk oSKkfudksa us ik;k gS fd pk{kqk eSXukslsY;qyj .kkyh vusd
fMLysfDl;k ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa gYdh lh {kfrxzLr gksrh gSA efLrd ds
rdksa ij R;{k :i ls ns[kuk bls fp= mn?kkfVr djus dk ,d
rjhdk gS] ijUrq blds lkFk fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa dh pk{kqk
xfr dh laosnukhyrk lkekU; ikBdksa dh rqyuk esa det+ksj gksrh gS vkSj
mudh efLrd rjax d R;qkj vlkekU; gksrs gSa tks mhiu dh vksj
pyrs gSaA efLrd frfcEcu ls pk{kqk xfr efLrd frfcEcu ij
v/;k; 15 ns[ksa ds fr laosnukhy {ks=ksa esa dk;kZRed lf;.k ds
ifjofrZr iSVuZ dk Hkh irk pyk gSA fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr ds
fu;a=.k vis{kkr dj fLFkj gksrs gSa% vr% os vf/kdkakr% ;g fkdk;r
djrs gSa fd ;s v{kj vkl&ikl rSjrs rhr gksrs gSa vkSj tc os bUgsa i<+us
dk ;kl djrs gSa rc os LFkku cny ysrs gSaA ;s pk{kqk Hkze laHkor;k
pk{kqk eSXukslsY;qyj .kkyh ds ifj.kke gSa] tks viuh vk[ksa fLFkj djus
esa vlQy jgrs gSa] tSlk fd vPNh rjg ls i<+us okyksa esa gksrk gSA

/ofu;ksa dks lgh e esa j[kuk


fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r vusd O;fDr;ksa esa kCnksa dh /ofu;k lgh e esa
j[kus esa Hkh leL;k gksrh gS ftlls os budk mPpkj.k xyr djrs gSa
tSls ykWyhikWi dks ikWyhikWi mPpfjr djuk vkSj tYnh&tYnh cksyus
okys kCn lewgksa Vax fV~oLVlZ esa Hkh ;s vPNs ugha gksrs gSaA tc ;s i<+uk
kq: djrs gSa] os v{kjksa dks mu /ofu;ksa esa vuwfnr djus esa vis{kkr /khes
vkSj vkq) mPpkj.k djrs gSa] tSls mudh pk{kqk leL;k,] ;g /ofu
laca/kh v{kerk laHkork;k ewyHkwr JO; dkSkyksa dh gYdh v{kerk gSA
ge /ofu dh vko`fk vkSj mUgsa yk{k.khr djus okys rhozrk ifjorZu esa
eq[k ifjorZuksa dk irk yxkj Qksuhe uked v{kj /ofu;ksa dk irk
yxkrs gSaA bu /ofu ekWMqyuksa dk irk cM+s JO; U;wjkWuksa dh ,d .kkyh
}kjk yxk;k tkrk gS tks /ofu vko`fk vkSj l?kurk esa VSd ifjorZu
djrk gSA bl ckr ds c<+rs ek.k gSa fd ;s U;wjkWu vPNs ikBdksa vkSj
vusd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa fodflr ugha gksrs gSa vkSj ;g
fd leku dkj dh /ofu;ksa ds chp Js.khxr lhek js[kk,] tSls fd
vaxzsth ds ^ch* vkSj ^Mh* esa lqudj varj ugha dj ldrs gSa ns[ksa fp=A
vusd fMlysfDl;k ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa efLrd dksfkdkvksa ds {kfrxzLr
fodkl ds lk{; feys gSa] tks i<+us ls tqM+h mudh pk{kqk vkSj JO;
leL;kvksa ls vkxs c<+ xbZ gSA ;s leL;k, mu U;wjkWuksa esa gSa] tks iwjs
efLrd esa usVodZ cukrk gS vkSj ;g VsEiksjy ifjorZruksa dk irk yxkus
ds fy, fokskhr gSaA dksfkdkvksa esa os gh lrgh v.kq gksrs gSa] ftuds
}kjk os vkil esa ,d&nwljs dks igpkurs gSa vkSj lEidZ cukrs gSa] ijUrq
;s ,.VhckWMh ds geys ds fr laosnukhy gksrs gSaA

O;fDr vR;ar DyElh gksrs gSa vkSj cgq/kk mudh fy[kkoV vkerkSj ij [kjkc
gksrh gSA raf=dk frfcEcu ns[ksa ist 4 vkSj lsjscsye ds p;kip; v/;;uksa
ls irk pyrk gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr;ksa esa dk;Z esa {kfr gksrh gS
vkSj fy[kkoV eas dfBukb;ksa dh rg esa ;gh dkj.k gks ldrk gSA dqN raf=dk
foKkfu;ksa dk dguk gS fd dsoy xfr;ka ds fuiknu ds vykok vkSj cksyuk]
;gka rd ckS/kkRed vk;kstuk ds igyqvksa lfgrA ;fn lgh gks rks lsjscsyj
dk;Z eas deh ls i<+us] fy[kus vkSj orZuh lh[kus dh leL;k, c<+ ldrh gSaA

D;k fd;k tk ldrk gS \


fMLysfDl;k ds vusd mipkj gSa] R;sd mipkj ,d ladYiuk ij vk/kkfjr
gS] tks blesa fufgr dkj.k ds fok; esa gksrs gSaA eSXukslsY;qyj ladYiuk ij
Qksdl] ijUrq vU; khkZ vftZr ifjfLFkfr ds fofHkUu :iksa esa varj djrs gSa]
ftls lrgh vkSj xgu fMLysfDl;k dgrs gSa] ftUgsa vyx dkj ds mipkj
dh vko;drk gksrh gSA lHkh rjg ds mipkj kh?kz funku ij fuHkZj djrs
gSaA
oSKkfud geskk bu ckrksa ij fuHkZj ugha djrs vkSj fMLysfDl;k dk loksZke
mipkj vlgefr dk ,d ,slk {ks= gSA gky esa ;g lq>k;k x;k gS fd
R;kLFkrk dh efLrd dh lkekU; f;kvksa dks mi;ksx djrs gq, /ofu;ksa ds
fok; esa lh[kus ds fy, ,d xyr ekxZ ij tkdj fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r
O;fDr;ksa esa lkDr lalk/ku esa leL;k gksrh gSA fopkj ;g gS fd ;fn cPpksa
dks dEI;wVj xse [ksyus dk ksRlkgu fn;k tk,] ftlesa os ,slh vkoktsa] lqurs
gSa] tks ml fcUnq ij tkdj /kheh gks tkrh gSa tgk Qksusfed lhek js[kk,
vf/kd LiV gks tkrh gSa] rks mUgsa ^^fuHkhZd vkSj ladh.kZ** cuk;k tk ldrk
gSA rc /ofu /khjs&/khjs c<+kbZ tkrh gSA ;g nkok fd;k tkrk gS fd ;g cgqr
vPNh rjg dk;Z djrk gS] ijUrq vc Hkh Lora= ijh{k.k djk, tk jgs gSaA bl
fopkj ds fr oSKkfud :i ls jkspd ckr ;g gS fd iwjh rjg ls lkekU;
efLrd f;k, vkjafHkd vkuqokafkd vlkekU; ds lkFk var%f;k }kjk ,d
vfrjaftr Hkko mRiUu gksrk gSA
bl ckr ij cy nsuk egRoiw.kZ gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r O;fDr dqN
fopkjkRd fu.kZ;ksa ij vPNh rjg i<+us okyksa ls dqN csgrj gksrs gSa] tSls jax
esa Hksn djuk vkSj LFkkuh; ds ctk; oSfod vkdkjkas esa foHksn djukA bl
ckr ls bldh O;k[;k dh tk ldrh gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r vusd
O;fDr vkerkSj ij nh?kZ ijkl tqM+ko] vuisf{kr tqM+ko ns[kus vkSj ^lexz*
lksp ds ekeys esa csgrj D;ksa gksrs gSaA ;g ;kn j[ksa fd fy;ksukMksZ n foalh]
gkal ffLp;u ,aMjlu] ,fMlu vkSj vkbaLVkbu rFkk vU; vusd jpukRed
dykdkj vkSj vkfodkjd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r FksA

eSXukslsY;qyj .kkyh ls foksk :i ls lsjscsye dks cM+s buiqV feyrs gSa


v/;k; 7 xfr] ns[kasA jkspd ckr ;g gS fd fMLysfDl;k ls ihfM+r dqN

26

fMLysfDl;k rFkk lh[kus dh vU; dfBukb;ksa ls lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV %

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R;kLFkrk
gekjs iwjs thou Hkj gekjs efLrd esa fujarj cnyko gksrs gSaA efLrd
esa ekStwn cnyko dh ;g {kerk R;kLFkrk dgykrh gS&IykfLVflu
ekWMy ds lkFk le:irk }kjk] ftuds vkarfjd fgLlksa dks yxkrkj
,d u;k vkdkj fn;k tk ldsA dqy feyk dj efLrd ugha] ijUrq
vyx&vyx U;wjkWuksa dks fodkl ds nkSjku] tc ge ;qok gSa tc
efLrd dh fdlh pksV ds dkj.k vkSj lh[kus ds nkSjku fofHkUu
dkj.kksa ls :ikUrfjr fd;k tk ldrk gSA R;kLFkrk dh fofHkUu
f;k, gSa] ftuesa ls lcls egRoiw.kZ lkbusfIVd R;kLFkrk gS&;g
bls Kkr djus dk foKku gS fd U;wjkWu vkil esa lEidZ djus dh
{kerk dSls cnyrs gSaA

gekjs Hkfo; dks u;k :i nsuk


tSlk geus fiNys v/;k; esa ns[kk] thou ds kq#vkrh le; esa U;wjkWuksa
ds chp Qkbu V~;wfuax dh t+#jr gksrh gSA tc ge vius ifjosk esa
dk;Z djrs gSa] ;s lkbusfIVd la;kstu cnyuk kq# gks tkrs gSa&buds
LFkku ij u, U;wjkWu vk tkrs gSa] mi;ksxh la;kstu vc igys ls vf/kd
et+cwr cu tkrs gSa] vkSj tks la;kstu mi;ksx esa ugha vk jgs gSa] os
det+ksj ;k dHkh&dHkkj uV Hkh gks tkrs gSaA lf; dkj ds
lkbusfIVl vkSj tks lf; :i ls cnyrs jgrs gSa] os cus jgrs gSa]
tcfd ksk esa dkV&NkaV gks tkrh gSA bldk fl)kar gS mi;ksx djks
;k [kks nks] ftlds }kjk ge vius efLrd dks <kyrs gSaA
lkbusfIVd Vkalfeku esa ,d jklk;fud U;wjksVkalfeVj dh fueqZfDr
kkfey gS] tks xzkgh uked fofkV ksVhu v.kqvksa dks lf; cukrs gSaA
U;wjks VkalfeVj fueqZfDr dk ,d lkekU; oS|qr R;qkj lkbusfIVd
kfDr dk eki gSA ;g cny ldrk gS vkSj ;g dqN lsd.M] dqN
feuV ;k iwjs thou Hkj jg ldrk gSA raf=dk oSKkfud foksk :i ls
lkbusfIVd kfDr esa yEcs le; rd fVds jgus okys ifjorZuksa esa #fp
j[krs gSa] ftUgsa U;wjksuy lf;rk dh laf{kIr vof/k esa mRiUu fd;k tk
ldrk gS] mYys[kuh; :i ls nh?kZ vof/k laHkkO;rk Kkr djus] tks
mudh kfDr c<+krs gSa vkSj nh?kZ vof/k dqaBk ,yVhMh tks mUgsa daqfBr
djrs gSa] uked nks f;kvksa esa mYys[kuh; :i ls ,slk gksrk gSA

bldh dk;ZkSyh dk ,d uewuk


gekjs kjhj esa ksVhu fufeZr djus ds fy, ;qDr gksus okyk ,d
lkekU; ,ehuks ,flM XywVkesV gSA vkids lkeus ;g Lokn c<+kus okys
eksukslksfM;e XywVkesV ds :i esa vk;k gksxkA ;g ,d U;wjks VkalfeVj gS
tks gekjs efLrdksa ds lokZf/kd R;kLFk lkbusIl ij dk;Z djrk gS&tks
,yVhih vkSj ,yVhMh nfkZr djrs gSaA lkbusIl ds xzkgh i{k ij
mifLFkr XywVkesV pkj dkj ds gksrs gSa % buesa ls rhu vk;uksVkWfid
xzkgh gSa vkSj bUgsa ,,eih,] ,u,eMh, vkSj dkbusV uke fn;k x;k gSA
pkSFkk dkj esVkcksVkWfid gS vkSj bls ,eth,y;wvkj dgrs gSaA ;|fi]
lHkh dkj ds XywVkesV xzkgh ,d gh U;wjksVkalfeVj ds fr f;kkhy
gksrs gSa( ;s dkQh vyx&vyx dkj ds dk;Z djrs gSaA vk;uksVkWfid
XywVkesV xzkgh iksLV&lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;e mkstuk bZih,lih mRiUu
djus ds fy, vius vk;u pSuyksa dk mi;ksx djrs gSa] tcfd
esVkcksVkWfid vkSj XywVkesV xzkgh] tSlk geus igys U;wjks ekWM~;wysVjh
xfrfof/k esa crk;k gS ist 8] bl R;qkj ds vkdkj vkSj LoHkko dk
ekWMqyu djrs gSaA lkbusfIVd R;kLFkrk ds fy, lHkh dkj egRoiw.kZ
gSa] ijUrq ,,eih, vkSj ,u,eMh, xzkgh] ftuds ckjs esa ge lcls vf/kd
tkurs gSa vkSj ftUgsa vf/kdkakr% ;knnkr ds v.kq ekuk tkrk gSA budk
vf/kdkak Kku mu nokvksa ds k;ksfxd dk;ksZa ls feyk gS] tks bu
xzkfg;ksa dh lf;rk :ikUrfjr djus ij dk;Z djrs gSa ns[kas ckWDl ist
ua- 29 ijA
,,eih, xzkgh lcls rst+h ls dk;Z djrs gSaA tc ,d ckj XywVkesV
bu xzkfg;ksa ij tqM+ tkrk gS rc ;s ,d Vkafl,aV ,DlkbVsVjh iksLV
lkbusfIVd iksVsafk;y tSlk fd v/;k; 3 esa crk;k x;k bZih,lih,l
gS mRiUu djus ds fy, vius vk;u pSuy [kksy nsrk gSA XywVkesV
lsd.M ds dqN fgLls rd ,,eih, xzkgh ij tqM+rk gS vkSj tc ,d
ckj ;g vyx gks tkrk gS vkSj bls lkbusIl ls fudky fn;k tkrk
gS] vk;u pSuy can gks tkrs gSa vkSj fo|qr laHkkO;rk viuh foJke dh
fLFkfr esa igqp tkrh gSA ,slk rc gksrk gS tc efLrd ds U;wjkWu
vkil esa R;sd dks rst+h ls lwpuk sfkr djrs gSaA

XywVkesV lkbusfIVd
VfeZuyksa ls fueqZDr
gksrk gS] ;g
lkbusfIVd DysV
ls vkxs c<+rk gS
vkSj XywVkesV
xzkfg;ksa ds fofHkUu
dkjksa ls tqM+ tkrk
gS&,,eih,]
,u,eMh, vkSj
,eth,y;wvkj@dqN
XywVkesV lkbusIl esa
dkbusV xzkgh Hkh
gksrs gSaA

27

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,,eih,
xzfg;ksa ds
tfj, /kkjk
osk djrh
gSk

vk/kkjHkwr ikjsk.k

l?ku mhiu
l?ku mhiu }kjk
eSXuhfk;e vk;u
ckgj tkus ls
,u,eMh, xzkgh eas
o`f) vkSj lksfM;e
rFkk dSfYk;e dk
buyDl yky vkSj
gjs rhj

,yVhih dk sj.k

,,eih, xzkgh la[;k


esa o`f)

,,eih, xzkgh
la[;k esa
o`f)]ftlls
/kkjk esa o`f)]
vkSj vf/kd
bZih,lih

,yVhih ,,eih, xzkgh la[;k esa o`f)

,u,eMh, xzkgh yky lh[kus dh vkf.od ekhujh gSaA


vk/kkjHkwr lf;rk vkSj ,yVhih ij ck,a ds izsj.k ds nkSjku
VkalfeVj tkjh gksrs gSaA og LFky tgk eSXuhfk;e vk;u NksVs
dkys xksys] ij nk,a dSfYl;e vk;u ds pSuy dks CykWd dj
nsrh gS] dksfkdk f>Yyh ds vanj gksrk gS vkSj l?ku fo/kzqohdj.k
}kjk foLFkkfir fd;k tkrk gS vxyk fupyk fp=A ,slk rc
gksrk gS tc U;wjkWu dks vU; U;wjkWukas ds lkFk viuh la;kstdrk
cnyus dh t+#jr gksrh gSA ,yVhih dk ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa ihys
xzkgh] uhps ck,a dh cM+h la[;k ;k vf/kd l{ke ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa uhps nk,a ds :i esa O;Dr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

,,eih, xzkgh
n{krk esa o`f)

,,eih, xzkgh
jklk;fud :i
ls :ikarfjr
rkfd vf/kd
/kkjk cus vkSj
vf/kd
bZih,lih

,yVhih ,,eih, xzkgh n{krk esa o`f)

,u,uMh, xzkgh % izR;kLFkrk kq# djus ds fy, vkf.od


izf;k
XywVkesV iksLV&lkbusfIVd U;wjkWu ij ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ij Hkh tqM+rk
gSA ;s egRoiw.kZ vkf.od ekhusa lkbusfIVd izR;kLFkrk kq# djrh gSaA
;fn lkbusIl dks /khjs&/khjs lf; cuk;k tkrk gS rks ,u,eMh, xzkgh
blesa FkksM+h ;k u ds cjkcj Hkwfedk fuHkkrs gSaA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd
tSls gh ,u,eMh, xzkgh vius vk;u pSuy [kksyrs gSa ;s pSuy
lkbusIl&eSXuhfk;e vk;u esa mifLFkr vU; vk;u }kjk tqM+rs gSaA
ijUrq tc bu lkbusIl dks vusd Lianuksa ds t+fj, kh?kzrk ls ,d
U;wjkWu ij buiqV ds ,d lewg ij lf; cuk;k tkrk gS rks
,u,eMh, xzkgh bl mkstuk dks rqjUr vuqHko dj ysrs gSaA ;g cM+h
lkbusfIVd xfrfof/k iksLV&lkbusfIVd U;wjkWu esa cM+k fo/kqzohdj.k
mRiUu djrh gS vkSj blds dkj.k fo|qr fodkZ.k dh izf;k }kjk
,u,eMh, vk;u pSuyksa ls eSXuhfk;e dks ckgj fudkyk tkrk gSA rc
,u,eMh, xzkgh rqjUr lkbusfIVd lapkj djrs gSaA ;s bl dk;Z dks nks
rjhdksa ls djrs gSa% igyk ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa ds lkeu ;s lksfM;e vkSj

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iksVsfk;e dk lapkyu djrs gSa] tks fo/kqzohdj.k esa tqM+ tkrs gSa( nwljk]
;s dSfYl;e vk;u dks U;wjkWu eas osk djus nsrs gSaA nwljs kCnksa esa]
,u,eMh, xzkgh lkDrU;wjksuy xfrfof/k dk vuqHko djrs gSa vkSj
dSfYl;e ds mPpre fcUnq ds :i esa U;wjkWu dks ladsr Hkstrs gSaA
dSfYl;e dk ;g mPpre fcUnq Hkh laf{kIr gksrk gS vkSj vf/kd ls
vf/kd ,d lsd.M rd pyrk gS] tcfd XywVkesV ,u,eMh, xzkfg;kas ls
tqM+rk gSA tcfd] dSfYl;e vk;u ,d egRoiw.kZ v.kq gS] D;ksafd ;g
U;wjkWu dks ladsr nsrk gS tc ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa dks lf; cuk;k tkrk
gSA

efLrd dk vH;kl dk;Z


,,eih, xzkfg;ksa esa ifjorZu gh iwjh dgkuh ugha gSA tSls gh
;knnkr vf/kd LFkk;h cu tkrh gS rks efLrd esa lajpukRed
ifjorZu gks ldrs gSaA ,yVhMh ds sj.k ds ckn vf/kd ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa okys lkbusIl viuk vkdkj cny ysrs gSa vkSj ;s vf/kd cM+s
gks ldrs gSa vFkok o/kZ esa ls u, lkbusIl fudy ldrs gSa] rkfd
vc ,d lkbusIl dk dk;Z nks }kjk fd;k tk ldsA blds foijhr]
,yVhMh ds sj.k ds ckn ,,eih, xzkgh [kks nsus ds ckn VwV&QwV ;k
ej ldrs gSaA gekjs efLrd ds HkkSfrd inkFkZ efLrd lf;rk ds
mkj esa ifjofrZr gksrk gSA efLrd d leku vH;kl dk;Z&cskd
ekufld vH;kl dk;Z! et+cwr curh gSa] tc ge dljr djrs gSa]
Bhd blh rjg tc ge efLrd dks T+;knk ls T+;knk mi;ksx djrs
gSa rks gekjs lkbusfIVd la;kstu la[;k esa c<+rs vkSj csgrj :i ls
O;ofLFkr gksrs gSaA

;knnkr ij gkoh eu

lkbusIl ij gksus okys NksVs fo|qr oksYVst dh fuxjkuh esa ;qDr midj.k

,d ckj U;wjkWu ds vanj tkus ij dSfYl;e lkbusIl ds ,dne ckgjh


fljs ij ekStwn ksVhuksa ls tqM+rk gS] tgk ,u,eMh, xzkgh lf; gksrs
gSaA buesa ls vusd ksVhu HkkSfrd :i ls ,u,eMh, xzkgh ij tqM+s gksrs
gSa tks vkf.od ekhu ls tqM+s gksrs gSaA buesa ls dqN ,at+kbe gSa ftUgsa
dSfYl;e vk;u lf; cukrs gSa vkSj blls lkbusIl ds vanj ;k blds
ikl vU; ksVhuksa dk jklk;fud :ikUrj.k gksrk gSA ;s jklk;fud
ifjorZu ;knnkr cukus ds vkjafHkd pj.k gSaA

,,eih, xzkgh% ;knnkr Hk.Mkfjr djus ds fy, gekjh


vkf.od ekhusa
;fn ,u,eMh, xzkgh lf;u U;wjkWuksa ds tqM+ko esa R;kLFk ifjorZuksa
dks vkjaHk djrk gS rks kfDr esa ifjorZu dks D;k vfHkO;Dr djrk gS \
,slk gks ldrk gS fd vf/kd jklk;fud VkalfeVj fueqDZ r gksrk gSA
,slk gks ldrk gS] ijUrq gesa ;g vPNh rjg ls irk gS fd f;kvksa
ds ,d lSV esa lkbusIl ds iksLV&lkbusfIVd i{k ij ,,eih, xzkgh
kkfey gksrs gSaA bls djus ds vusd rjhds gSaA ,d rjhdk ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa dks vf/kd l{ke :i ls l{ke cukus dk gS] tSls fd lf;u
ds nkSjku U;wjkWu esa vf/kd /kkjk okfgr djukA nwljk rjhdk ;k gS
fd vf/kd ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dks lkbusIl esa Mkyus esa l{ke cukukA
nksuksa gh ekeykas esa blls cM+s bZih,lih curs gSa&,yVhih dh ?kVukA
blds foijhr ifjorZu ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dh n{krk ;k la[;k esa deh
ds QyLo:i ,yVhMh gks ldrk gSA ,yVhih ;k ,yVhMh dks sfjr
djus dh bl f;k dh fokskrk ;g gS fd ;g lknk gksrs gq, Hkh
HkO; gS&;g ,d ,dy o/khZ daVd ds vanj gks ldrk gS vkSj blds
}kjk vR;ar LFkkuhr rjhd ls lkbusfIVd kfDr dks ifjofrZr fd;k
tk ldrk gSA ;g ,slk inkFkZ gS ftlls okLro esa ;knnkr cuh gksrh
gS&,d eqk ge ftl ij vxys v/;k; esa ckr djsaxsA

29

ge fdruh vPNh rjg lh[krs gSa ;g gekjh HkkoukRed fLFkfr ij fuHkZj


djrk gS&ge Lo;a ls tqM+h ?kVukvksa fokskdj [kqkh] mnklh ;k nnZukd
vuqHkoksa dks ;kn djus dk ;kl djrs gSaA ge rc Hkh csgrj :i ls
lh[krs gSa tc ge /;ku nsrs gSa! eu dh bu fLFkfr;ksa esa U;wjks
ekWM~;wysVjksa dh fueqZfDr kkfey gS] tSls fd ,flVkby dksyhu vf/kd
/;ku nsus ds nkSjku] Mksikekbu] ukWj,fMusfyu vkSj LVhjkWbM gkWjeksu
tSls fd dkWfVZlkWy ukWosYVh] ruko vkSj fpUrk ds nkSjkuA U;wjkWuksa ij
ekWM~;qysVj vusd dk;Z djrs gSa] buesa ls vusd ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ds
dk;Z esa ifjorZu ds ek/;e ls dk;Z djrs gSaA vU; xfrfof/k;ksa esa
kkfey gSa lh[kus ls fofkV :i ls tqM+s foksk thuksa dk lf;uA
buls cus ksVhu ,yVhih dks fLFkj djus rFkk yEcs le; rd fVdk
cukus esa lgk;rk djrs gSaA

vkids vanj fLFkr MkWDVj


lkbusfIVd R;kLFkrk gekjs efLrdkas esa ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ dk;Z djrk
gS&;g efLrd dks pksV ls mcjus esa lgk;rk dj ldrk gSA mnkgj.k ds
fy,] ;fn fdlh foksk xfr dks fu;af=r djus okys U;wjkWu uV gks tkrs
gSa] tSlk fd ,d vk?kkr ;k flj dh xaHkhj pksV ds nkSjku gksrk gS] lHkh
dk uV gks tkuk t+#jh ugha gSA vf/kdkak ifjfLFkfr;kas esa U;wjkWu Lo;a
o`f) ugha djrsA blds ctk; vU; U;wjkWu uV gks pqds U;wjkWuksa dh leku
dk;kZRed Hkwfedkvksa dks viukrs vkSj dHkh&dHkh bls Lo;a dj ldrs gSa]
leku dkj ds vU; usVodZ cukrs gSaA ;g nksckjk lh[kus dh f;k gS
vkSj ;g efLrd dh nksckjk Bhd gks tkus dh dqN {kerkvksa ij dkk
Mkyrh gSA
tsQjh okVfdUl] ,d fpfdRlk jlk;uK
ftUgksaus ,ih5 uhps tSlh vkSkf/k;ksa ds
fodkl }kjk efLrd esa mkstd ikjsk.k dk
v/;;u dk :ikUrfjr fd;k] tks fofkV
XywVkesV xzkfg;ksa ij f;k djrs gSaA

: http://www.cf.ac.uk/plasticity/index.html
http://www.bris.ac.uk/synaptic/public/brainbasic.html

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl

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lh[kuk vkSj ;knnkr

gekjh ;knsa gekjs O;fDrRo dks dsUnz gSaA ge esa ls gj ,d O;fDr dks
D;k ;kn jgrk gS] ;g lHkh esa fHkUu gksrk gS] ;gk rd fd ,slh
fLFkfr;k tc ge ,d lkFk FksA fQj Hkh ge vius fofkV rjhdksa es ge
lHkh dqN ?kVukvksa] rF;ksa] euksoSKkfud vuqHkwfr;ksa vkSj dkSkyksa dks FkksM+s
le; esa fy,A efLrd esa fofHkUu fokskrkvksa ds lkFk vusd dkj dh
;knnkr .kkyh gksrh gS vkSj ;g fofHkUu U;wjksuy usVodksZa }kjk
ekf/;r gksrh gSA ubZ ;knksa dks fuekZ.k lkbusfIVd R;kLFkrk ij fuHkZj
djrk gS] ,slk ekuk tkrk gS] bls fiNys v/;k; esa le>k;k x;k gS]
ijUrq ge lwpuk iqu% kfIr dh U;wjksuy f;kvksa ds ckjs esa vc Hkh
dqN fufpr ugha dj lds gSaA tc ge viuh ;knnkr ds fok; esa
fkdk;r djrs gSa rks ;s cgqr vPNh fLFkfr esa gksrh gSa] ;g dsoy cw<+s
gksus ij ;k fdlh raf=dkfoKku laca/kh leL;k ds dkj.k gksrk gSA gekjs
;knnkr c<+kus dk ;kl fd;k tk ldrk gS] ijUrq ,slk djus ls
vusd pht+ksa dks Hkwy tkus vFkok ;kn j[kus dh dher ij gksrk gSA

;knnkr dh O;oLFkk
efLrd dk ,slk dksbZ {ks= ugha gksrk gS tgk gekjs }kjk lh[kh xbZ
lHkh tkudkfj;k Hk.Mkfjr gksus ds fy, ,d= gksrh gSaA dk;Zkhy
;knnkr vkids efLrd eas ,d lpsr voLFkk esa lf; :i ls
tkudkjh cuk, j[krh gSA bl lwpuk ds dkQh cM+s] vf/kd fuf;
Hk.Mkj d{k nh?kZ vof/k ;knnkr dgykrh gSA
vkarfjd
fy[kkoV

pk{kqk LFkkfud Ldsp iSM

dsUnzh; dk;Zikyu .kkyh

pkfc;k dgk j[kh gSa bls ;kn djus esa djrs gSaA drZO; ikyu dh Hkkouk
.kkyh dk dsUnz gS&;g ,d ,slh fokskrk gS tks lhfer {kerk vkSj n`fV ls
vkrh gSA ;g vf/kdkakr% dgk tkrk gS fd viuh dk;Zkhy ;knnkr esa
7 vkSj 2 enksa dk dksbZ e ;kn j[k ldrs gSa % ;gh dkj.k gS fd vf/kdkak
VsyhQksu 7 ;k 8 ls vf/kd vadksa ds ugha gksrs gSaA ijUrq bUgsa lgh e esa
;kn j[kuk vfuok;Z gSA vki vius fe=ksa ds lkFk cSBddj ,d ljy ;ksx
esa viuh dk;Zkhy ;knnkr dh {kerk vkSj lhfer n`fV dk nkZu dj
ldrs gSaA
vYikof/k ;knnkr ij ,d ;ksx
vYikof/k ;k dk;Zkhy ;knnkr ds ,d ,jy ;ksx dks
^^ysVj&Liku** dgrs gSaA blds fy, vkidks de ls de nks
O;fDr;kas dh t+#jr gksrh gS] tcfd vf/kd yksxksa ds lkFk ;g
csgrj :i ls dk;Z djrk gSA vki esa ls ,d O;fDr de ls
de nks v{kjksa ls kq: djrs gq, v{kjksa dh ,d J`a[kyk xksiuh;
:i ls fy[ks] /;ku jgs buls dksbZ kCn ugha cus mnkgj.k ds
fy, ,Dl VhA rc ;g O;fDr v{kjksa dh J`a[kyk vkxs pykrk
gS] ,d ckj esa ,d v{kj c<+kdj mnkgj.k ds fy, 5 v{kjksa
dh J`a[kyk tSls D;woh,p ds ts+M vkSj 10 v{kjksa okyh J`a[kyk
tSls gh MCY;wlh;wdsD;wchih,lts+MA buds rS;kj gks tkus ds
ckn ;ksx kq: gkrk gSA vU; O;fDr ;k d{kk yxHkx 5
lsd.M ckn R;sd ds v{kjksa dh J`a[kyk dks lqurk gS] vkSj bUgsa
;knnkr ds vk/kkj ij fy[kus dh dksfkk djrk gSA nks v{kjksa
dh J`a[kyk ds lkFk vkjaHk djrs gq, ;knnkr dh ;g ijh{kk
yEch Ja`[kyk dh vksj pyrh gSA vf/kdkakr% yksx 7 ls 8
v{kjksa rd bls ,dne Bhd rjg ls dj ikrs gSa vkSj blds
ckn xyfr;k kq: gksrh gSaA cgqr de yksx 10 v{kjksa rd
kq)rkiwoZd ;kn j[k ikrs gSaA bl vYikof/k ;knnkr dh
{kerk dks ^^lkr ds vkxs&ihNs nks dh tknqbZ la[;k** dgrs gSaA

JO; vYikof/k Hk.Mkj


ekSu fjglZy ywi
efLrd dh vYikof/k dk;Zkhy ;knnkr .kkyh

dk;Zkhy ;knnkr
gesa tks uke ;k VsyhQksu uacj dqN gh nsj ds fy, ;kn j[kus gSa] mUgsa
fy[kus ds fy, ,d MsLd ij ,d iSM dh rjg] efLrd esa tkudkjh
dh cgqr FkksM+h lh ek=k kq)rkiwoZd blesa cuk, j[kus ds fy, ,d
.kkyh gksrh gSA ge bldk mi;ksx ckrphr ds okg dh O;k[;k ds
fy,] ekufld :i ls xf.kr djus vkSj dqN le; igys geus viuh

30

,d dsUnzh; dk;Zikyu .kkyh ls nks vfrfjDr ;knnkr Hk.Mkjksa }kjk lefFkZr


lwpuk okg dks fu;af=r fd;k tkrk gSA ,d ekSu fjglZy ywi ds lkFk ,d
QksuksykWftdy Hk.Mkj gksrk gS&vkids efLrd dk og NksVk ;k fgLlk ftldk
bLrseky vki Lo;a ls dqN dgus esa djrs gSaA ;gk rd fd ;fn vki dqN kCn ;k
la[;k i<+rs gSa rks bl lwpuk dks QksuksykWftdy dksM esa cnyk tkrk gS vkSj bl
nks Hkkx okyh .kkyh esa FkksM+h nsj ds fy, Hk.Mkfjr fd;k tkrk gSA ,d pk{kqk
LdspiSM gksrk gS tks oLrqvksa dh Nfo;k yEcs le; rd Hk.Mkfjr dj ldrk gS]
ftls vki viuh eu dh vk[kksa ls vny&cny ldrs gSaA
dk;Z khy ;knnkkr vf/kdkakr% aVy vkSj iSjkbVy yksCl ij fLFkr gksrh gSA
efLrd ihbZVh vkSj ,Q,evkjvkbZ mi;ksx djrs gq, efLrd frfcEcu v/;;uksa
ist 41 ns[ksa ls bafxr gksrk gS fd dk;Zkhy ;knnkr ds JO; fgLls vkerkSj ij
ck,a aVy vkSj iSjkbVy yksCl ij ikfoZr gksrs gSa] tgk ;s ok.kh] vk;kstuk

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vkSj fu.kZ; ysus esa kkfey U;wjksuy usVodkZsa ds lkFk var%f;k djrs
gSaA bu xfrfof/k;ksa ds fy, vPNh dk;Zkhy ;knnkr vfuok;Z gSA
pk{kqk LdspiSM nk,a gsfeLQs;j esa gksrk gS v/;k; ds var esa ckWDl
ns[ksaA
dk;Zkhy ;knnkr blesa fdl izdkj kkfey gksrh gS \ tUrq] ;gk
rd fd vf/kdkak Lruik;h tUrqvkas esa gekjs leku vYikof/k
;knnkr iz.kkyh dk ;g izdkj ugha gksrk gS vkSj ;g vkjafHkd
gksfefuM~l esa VsyhQksu uacj ;kn j[kus ds fy, LiV :i ls
fodflr ugha gqbZ Fkh! NksVs cPpksa ds v/;;u ls Hkkkk lh[kus esa
dk;Zkhy iz.kkyh dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk dk irk pyk gS] ftlls ;g
ladsr feyrk gS fd bl iz.kkyh dk fodkl ok.kh ds lkFk gqvk gSA
v{kjksa dks ,d js[kk esa j[krs gq, bUgsa ,d okD; ds e esa j[kus dh
kq)rk lgh vFkZ dks Bhd rjhds ls fudkyus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSA

cgqr cM+k Hk.Mkj gSa fd kal dh jkt/kkuh isfjl gS] fd Mh,u, {kkj ds tksM+ksa ds
e ds :i esa vkuqokafkd lwpuk dks dksM djrk gS] vkfn vkfnA egRoiw.kZ
fokskrk gS fd ;s rF; Jsf.k;ksa esa O;ofLFkr fd, x, gSaA ;knnkr esa ls dqN
[kkstus ds fy, ;g egRo j[krh gS fd [kkst izf;k d{k Hk.Mkj d{k ds Vh
vkjs[kksa esa <wa< ldrh gSA ;fn lhesafVd ;knnkr ml rjg O;ofLFkr dh tk
ldrh] ftl rjg dqN yksx vius ?kjksa esa fcuk fdlh O;ofLFkr e ds]
vLr&O;Lr :i ls ls j[krs rks gesa dqN Hkh ;kn j[kuk cgqr dfBu gks tkrkA
HkkX; esa efLrd mu lHkh lwpukvksa dks pqurk gS] ftls ge Jsf.k;ksa esa dksM djrs
gSa] tcfd blls Ldwy esa ,d dqky fk{kd dks lgk;rk feyrh gSA cskd] dqN
foksk dqky fk{kd vius Nk=ksa esa fcuk fdlh iz;kl ds bu lajpukvksa dk
fuekZ.k dj ikrs gSaA
oLrq

nh?kZ vof/k ;knnkr


nh?kZ vof/k ;knnkr efLrd ds O;kid :i ls QSys usVodZ esa fLFkr
fofHkUu iz.kkfy;ksa esa Hkh mi foHkkftr dh xbZ gSA fHkUu&fHkUu usVodZ
vyx&vyx dk;Z djrs gSaA eksVs rkSj ij dgk tk, rks lwpuk laosnh
iz.kkyh esa izosk djrh gS vkSj fQj mu ekxksZa ij tkrh gS tgk yxkrkj
c<+rh fokskhr iznku fd;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] pk{kqk iz.kkyh
esa izosk djus okyh lwpuk jsf[kr dkWVsZDl ls rFkkdfFkr osaVy ekxZ esa
usVodksaZ dsh ,d lh<+h ds t+fj, ehfM;y VsEiksjy yksCl rd tkrh gS]
tks oLrq dk vkdkj] jax] igpku dk Kku djkrs gSa] fd oLrq
tkuh&igpkuh gS ;k ugha] tc rd fd bl oLrq foksk dh dksbZ
;knnkr cu ugha tkrh] fd bls dc vkSj dgk ns[kk x;k gSA

busfuesV

,fuesV
Lruik;h

fpfM+;k
mM+us okyh fpfM+;k

xkus okyh fpfM+;k


dSujht+

mM+ ugha ldus okyh fpfM+;k

vU; fpfM+;k
isafXoUl

ftu tUrqvksa ds ckjs esa ge tkurs gSa os ,d isM+ ds :i esa O;ofLFkr gSaA gesa vHkh
;g Kkr ugha gS fd efLrd ds usVodZ bls dSls djrs gSaA

pht+ksa ds ckjs esa ge dkSky Hkh lh[krs gSa vkSj HkkoukRed vuqHkwfr;k
vftZr djrs gSaA ;g tkuuk fd ,d fi;kuks okLro esa fi;kuks gS% bls
ctkus esa l{ke gksuk ,d vU; ckr gSA lkbfdy pykuk Kkr gksuk
mi;ksxh gS] ijUrq lM+dksa ij pykrs le; dqN ifjfLFkfr;k [krjukd
gks ldrh gSa ;g de egRoiw.kZ ugha gSA fopkj&foekZ iw.kZ vkSj O;kid
vH;kl ds ek/;e ls dkSky lh[ks tkrs gSa] tcfd HkkoukRed
vf/kxE;rk vf/kd rst+ izrhr gksrh gSA T+;knkrj bls rst+ gksuk pkfg,]
fokskdj mu ckrksa esa] ftUgsa lh[kus ls ge ?kcjkrs gSaA lh[kus ds nksuksa
izdkj daMhkfuax dgykrs gSaA fokskhr efLrd {ks= blesa kkfey
gSa&csly xSaxfy;k vkSj lsjscsye] tks dkSky lh[kus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSa
rFkk HkkoukRed vf/kxE;rk ds fy, ,fexMkyk egRoiw.kZ gSaA vusd tUrq
dkSky lh[krs gSa&muds thfor jgus ds fy, bldk cM+k egRo gSA
efLrd {ks=ksa dh lh<+huqek jpuk ftlds ek/;e ls pk{kqk lwpuk dk
izlalk/ku ns[kdj vkSj fQj ;knnkr ds iz;kstu ds fy, fd;k
tkrk gSA
foysk.k dh bl lh<+h ds ckjs esa lkspus ds vusd rjhds gSaA igyk]
dkWVZsDl esa vusd {ks= gSa tks ,d n`fVd izLrqrhdj.k fudkyrs gSaA ftUgsa
ge Kkr djuk pkgrs gSaA bls Hk.Mkfjr djus vkSj ckn esa gekjs vklikl
dh pht+ksa dk igpkuus esa mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lekpkj i=ksa ds
dkVwZu] tSls dksbZ jktuhfrK vkfn dks igpkuus dh gekjh {kerk dks ;g
;knnkr nkkZrh gSA blls cgqr ut+nhdh laca/k j[kus okyh ;knnkr dk
lhesafVd ;knnkr dgrs gSa&;g rF;kRed Kku dk
fpEikath us ,d NM+h ls nhedksa dk fkdkj djus dh dyk lh[kh gSA
NksVs fpEikath vius ekrk&firk dks ns[kdj ;g lh[krs gSA

31

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;knnkr [kksuk vkSj efLrd esa ,filksfMd ;knnkr dk
LFkkuhdj.k
efLrd esa ;knnkr iz.kkyh ds vafre izdkj dks ,filksfMd ;knnkr
dgrs gSaA bldk mi;ksx vki vius O;fDrxr vuqHkokas dks ;kn j[kus
esa djrs gSaA ?kVukvksa dks ;kn j[kus dh vis{kk rF;ksa dks lh[kuk ,d
fopkj ls vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gS fd dksbZ ?kVuk dsoy ,d ckj gksrh gSA
;fn vki Hkwy tk, fd vkius lqcg ukrs eas D;k [kk;k Fkk vlaHko
;k fiNys flel esa D;k gqvk Fkk laHkor;k vFkok vius Ldwy ds
igys fnu vkids lkFk D;k gqvk laHkor;k] vki bu lcdks d{kk ds
vfrfjDr ikB ds leku nksckjk lkeus ugha yk ldrs gSaA ;g iz.kkyh
tYnh lh[k yh tkrh gS D;ksafd ,slk gksuk gSA
geus mu raf=dk laca/kh jksfx;ksa ds v/;;u ls ,filksfMd ;knnkr ds
ckjs esa cgqr dqN lh[k fy;k gS] ftUgsa efLrd ds V~;wej ;k ok;jl
lae.k tSls gihZt+ ,alsfQykbfVl gqvk gks] dHkh&dHkh bl izdkj dh
;knnkr esa foksk izdkj dh dfe;k gksrh gSaA bu jksfx;ksa ds
lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u ls blds kkjhfjd laxBu vkSj vU; iz.kkfy;ksa
dks Kkr fd;k tk ldrk gSA

,EusfLVd jksxh mu pht+ksa dks lh[k ldrs gSa] ftUgsa os psru voLFkk esa
;kn ugha j[k ikrs gSaA mUgsa eksVj dkSky fl[kk, tk ldrs gSa ;k os
mYVh vksj ls i<+uk tYnh lh[k tkrs gSaA
mYVh vksj ls tYnh&tYnh i<+us dk izfk{k.k ikus esa dqN le; yxrk
gSA ;g ,EusfLVd ds lkFk gekjs fy, Hkh lR; gS] ijUrq tcfd ge ;g
fl[kk;k tkuk ;kn j[ksaxs] ftls os ;kn ugha j[krsA ;g psru tkx#drk
esa vn~Hkqr fola;kstu gSA ,EusfLVd o;fDr lh[krs le; fufpr :i ls
lpsr gksrk gS] ijUrq ckn esa tkdj bls Hkwy tkrs gSaA ;s yksx chrs le;
ls psru tkx#drk ugha ik ldrs gSaA bl rukoiw.kZ fLFkfr ds fy,
ftEesnkj {kfr vusd efLrd ifjiFkksa esa gks ldrh gSA e/; efLrd ds
esfeyjh fudk; vkSj FkSyes l uked {ks= lkekU; ;knnkr ds fy,
egRoiw.kZ gSa] tSlk fgIiksdSEil uked ehfM;y VsEiksjy yksc lajpuk esa
gksrk gSA bu {ks=ksa esa gqbZ {kfr ls ,filksfMd vkSj lhesafVd ;knnkrksa ds
fuekZ.k ij foksk izHkko iM+rk gSA

^^pksV gekjk mruk /;ku vkdfkZr ugha djrh gS] ftruk pksV ;k jksx ds ek/;e
ls lkekU; dk;Z dks [kqyk NksM+ fn;k tkrk gSA**
lj gsujh gSM&20 oha lnh ds raf=dk oSKkfud
,Eusfl;k uked fLFkfr ls ihfM+r O;fDr dsoy vk/ks ?k.Vs igys feys
vU; yksxksa dks ;kn ugha j[k ikrs gSaA mUgsa ;g ;kn ugha jgrk gS fd
mUgksaus vHkh D;k Hkkstu fd;k ;k D;k [kkus tk jgs gSa vkSj ;gk rd
fd thou dh lk/kkj.k vfuok;Zrk,a Hkh Hkwy tkrs gSa fd mUgksaus dksbZ
pht+ ?kj esa dgk j[kh gSA ,d tfVy vkjs[k fn[kkus ij] tSlk ij
bulSV esa fn[kk;k x;k gS] os bldh izfrfyfi cuk ldrs gSa ijUrq ;g
vkjs[k ugha cuk ldrs gSaA lkFk gh geesa ls vf/kdkak 30 feuV ckn
viuh ;knnkr ls bls cuk ldrs gSaA vf/kdkakr% muds chekj iM+us
ds igys dh dksbZ ckr mUgsa ;kn ugha jgrh gSA bls jsVkxszM ,Eusfl;k
dgrs gSaA
,sls thou esa le; vkSj LFkku esa lHkh lajpukvksa dh deh gksrh gS
vkSj bls ^^uhan esa pyus** ds leku ,Eusfl;k ds jksfx;ksa ds ,d
O;kid v/;;u }kjk bls le>k;k x;k gSA fQj Hkh ;gh O;fDr
viuh Hkkkk vkSj kCnksa ds vFkZ ij tkudkjh j[krk gS rFkk lkFk dh
le>nkjh ls ckrphr djus ds fy, i;kZIr dk;Zkhy ;knnkr j[krk
gSA ,slk rc rd ugha gksrk tc rd og ;s ckrsa mlds lkFk djs]
ftlds dqN nsj igys mlds vfLrRo dk foukkdkjh vyxko
mn~?kkfVr fd;k x;k gSA
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,eusflDl , dsoy ckjhd vkjs[k dks ns[k ldrk gS vkSj tfVy


vkjs[k dh izfrfyfi Bhd oSlh gh cuk ldrk gS] ijUrq os lkekU;
O;fDr;ksa ,ulh dh rjg mls nsj rd ;kn ugha j[k ldrk gSA

32

nks lajpuk, ,filksfMd ;knnkr ds fy, vR;Ur egRoiw.kZ gS&isjhjhuy


dkWVsZDl ihvkj,p] tks fiNys le; dh tkudkfj;ksa dh vuqHkwfr dk
ekf/;r djrk gS vkSj nwljk fgIiksdSEel tks ?kVukvksa vkSj LFkkuksa ds fy,
dksM cukrk gSA

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;knnkr dh vU; iz.kkfy;k
efLrd esa vU; dgha pksV yxus ij vU; ;knnkr iz.kkfy;k izHkkfor
gksrh gSA g~klh ifjfLFkfr;k tSls fd lhesafVd Mhesafk;k vYt+hej jksx
dk ,d izdkj ls lhesafVd ;knnkr ds [kjkc gks tkus ds vuks[ks
iSVuZ cu ldrs gSaA kq#vkr esa jksxh vkidks ;g crkus esa l{ke gksaxs
fd iz;ksxkas esa mUgsa ,d fcYyh] ,d dqks ;k ,d dkj ;k jsy dh
rLohj fn[kkbZ tk jgh gSA ijUrq ckn ea jksx ds nkSjku is pwgs dh
rLohj dk pwgk dgus ls fgpdrs gSa] blds LFkku ij os bls kk;n
dqkk dgsaA bldh iqfV gksrh gS bl ckr ls fd rF;kRed lwpuk
busfuesV lwpuk ls nwj ,d LFkku ij ,fuesV lwpuk ,d lkFk Hk.Mkfjr
djus ds lkFk Js.khokj O;ofLFkr dh tkrh gSA

;knnkr dk raf=dk thofoKku


U;wjksykWftdy jksfx;kas dk lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u djus ls gesa efLrd
ds ;knnkr laca/kh dk;ksZa dks [kkstus ls gesa efLrd ds ;knnkr
laca/kh dk;ksZa dks [ksktus esa enn feyrh gS] ijUrq ;g tkuuk fd ;s
U;wjkWu vkSj jklk;fud VkalfeVlZ ds lanHkZ esa dSls dk;Z djrs gSa] esa
iz;ksxkkyk tUrqvksa dk mi;ksx djrs gq, vuqla/kku lko/kkuhiwoZ d
vk;ksftr fd;k tkrk gSA
raf=dk oSKkfud vc ;g ekurs gSa fd fodklkhy efLrd esa U;wjy
la;kstuksa dh Qkbu V~;wfuax ds vusd igyw Hkh vkjafHkd vf/kxE;rk ds
nkSjku mi;ksx fd, tkrs gSaA ,d fkkq vkSj mldh ek ds chp
fodflr gksus okys la;kstu dk v/;;u NksVs eqxksZa esa fd;k x;k gS
vkSj bls bfDizfVax dgrs gSaA vc ge tkurs gSa fd lh[kus dh ;g

fgIiksdSEil&

;g xkWYth vfHkjatu
dkys jax esa U;wjkWu
dk ,d lc&lSV
nkkZrk gSA

izf;k NksVs eqxsZ esa efLrd esa gksrh gS vkSj xzkfg;ksa ij fueqZDr jklk;fud
VkalfeVlZ ek dh ,d Nfo Hk.Mkfjr djus esa lgk;d gksrh gSA ;g Nfo vR;Ur
ckjhdh ls cuh gksrh gS tSls fd NksVs eqxsZ viuh ek ds ihNs pyrs gSa vU; fdlh ds
ughaA NksVs tUrqvksa dks ;g tkuus dh vko;drk Hkh gksrh gS fd os ,d ckj esa
FkksM+k lk [kkuk [kkdj tku ldsa fd dkSu lk Hkkstu [kkuk lqjf{kr gS vkSj ;g
lh[kuk fd mldk Lokn [kjkc gSA bls dsoy vkuqokafkd iwokZuqeku ij ugha NksM+k
tk ldrk gS&fodkl dh n`fV ls V~;wu dh xbZ vf/kxe izf;k, dh tk ldrh gSaA
bfEizafVax ;k Hkkstu dk Lokn ysus ds nkSjku lff;r xzkfg;ksa ds vkxs pydj
f}rh; lanskokgd jlk;uksa dh Ja`[kyk efLrd dksfkdkvksa ds ukfHkd dks ladsr
Hkstrh gS] tgk thUl dks ;knnkr fVdk cukus okys foksk izksVhuksa dks cukus ds
fy, lf; cuk;k tk,xkA
Iysl lSYl ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ [kkst gSA fgiiksdSEil esa ,sls U;wjkWUl
gksrs gSa tks ,Dku iksVsafk;y dsoy rHkh vkjaHk djrs gSa tc tUrq ,d
tkus&igpkus LFkku ij gksaA fofHkUu dksfkdk, i;kZoj.k ds vyx&vyx
fgLlksa ds fy, dksM djrh gSa rkfd dksfkdkvksa dk ,d lewg iwjs {ks=
ds ekiu esa kkfey gksA vkl&ikl ds efLrd {ks= esa fLFkr vU;
dksfkdk, ml fnkk ds fy, dksM djrh gSa ftl fnkk esa og xfrkhy
gSA nks {ks= ,d lkFk dk;Z djrs gSa&LFkku dk uDkk vkSj fnkk dks
cks/k&buls tUrq vius vkl&ikl dh nqfu;k ds ckjs esa lh[krk gSA ;g
tUrqvksa ds fy, LiV :i ls cgqr egRoiw.kZ gS] D;ksafd mudh
mkjthfork ds fy, Hkkstu vkSj ikuh rFkk okil vius ?kj] ?kksalys ;k
vU; fdlh fuokl esa vkuk dkQh vge gSA ;g [kksth vf/kxe iz.kkyh
lhesafVd vkSj ,filksfMd ;knnkr ls lacaf/kr gSA ;s tUrq ,d LFkk;h
izfrfuf/kRo cukrs gS] tgk pht+sa muds vf/kdkj {ks= esa gSa&Bhd mlh
rjg tks Kku ge nqfu;k ds ckjs esa vftZr djrs gSaA LFky dk uDkk
;knnkr dh ,d :ijs[kk iznku djrk gS] ftlesa ?kVuk, ;kn j[kh
tkuh gSa&tSls fd vafre ckj Hk{kd tUrq dgk fn[kkbZ fn;k FkkA Iysl
lSYl dsoy LFkku ds ckjs esa gh dksM ugha djrh] os tUrqvksa igys gks
pqdh ?kVuk, ;kn j[kus esa lgk;rk djrh gSaA

fgIiksdSEil esa dksfkdkvksa ds ikl pkj fjdkWfMaZx rkj nks rkjksa 1


vkSj 2] dHkh&dHkkh 4 ij raf=dk iszj.kk tks ,d foksk LFky
xksykdkj vkosVd esa yky xeZ fcUnq ij Qk;j djus okys U;wjkWu
dk izfrfuf/kRo djrs gSaA le; ds iSekus dks foLrkfjr djrs gq,
efLrd dh rhfy;ksa dk vkdkj iznfkZr gksrk gSA
;s uDks vkSj vU; ;knnkr ds vosksk fdl izdkj curs gSa \ ,d
mHkjrk fopkj ;g gS fd ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa ij vk/kkfjr lkbusfIVd
izR;kLFkrk lfEefyr gSA blds fiNys v/;k; eas geus o.kZu fd;k gS
fd lkbusfIVd izR;kLFkrk dks lf; cukus ls U;wjkWu ds usVodZ esa
la;kstuksa dh kfDr esa cnyko vkrk gS vkSj ;g fd lwpuk Hk.Mkfjr
djus dk ,d ekxZ gSA LFkkuksa ds ckjs esa lh[kus ij izHkko rc gksrk gS
tc ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa dks CykWd djus okyh nok fgIiksdSEil ij

33

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yxkbZ tkrh gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,] pwgksa vkSj ewkdksa dks ikuh dh
lrg ds uhps fLFkr ,d LFkku ij Nqis gq, IysVQkeZ dks [kkstus ds
fy, ikuh ds ,d iwy esa rSjus dks izfk{k.k fn;k tkrk gSA ;s viuk
jkLrk [kkstus esa Iysl lSYl rFkk gSM Mk;jsDku lSYl dk mi;ksx
djrs gSa vkSj os ,u,eMh, xzkfg;ksa }kjk izR;kLFkrk ds mi;ksx ls
;knnkr esa IysVQkWeZ dh lgh fLFkfr ds fy, dksM djrs gSaA thu
ukWd vkmV tUrqvksa dks rS;kj fd;k x;k gS] ftuesa ,u,eMh, xzkgh
muds fgIiksdSEil ls gVk fn, x, gSaA ;s tUrq lh[kus esa det+ksj
gksrs gSa vkSj buesa viw.kZ izdkj dh Iysl lSYl gksrh gSaA fiNys
v/;k; esa geus le>k;k gS fd lkbusfIVd Hkkj mkstd ,,eih,
xzkfg;ksa esa ifjorZu ds ek/;e ls vfHkO;Dr fd, tkrs gSaA gesa vc
rd ;g irk ugha gS fd ;fn ;g ;knnkr ds fy, lR; gS rks ;g
rqjUr dh l?ku vuqla/kku dk fok; gSA

pwgk iwy ds Nqis gq, IysVQkWeZ rd rSjrk gS ftl ij ;g [kM+k gSA

D;k ge viuh ;knnkr c<+k ldrs gSa \


ge lHkh lksprs gSa fd gekjh ;knnkr dh {kerk ;k LFkkf;Ro c<+
tk, rks vPNk gksA cw<+s yksx vkerkSj ij viuh ;knnkr dh
fkdk;r djrs gSaA ;|fi] ;knnkr esa lq/kkj dh dher pqdkuh gksrh
gSA bldk dkj.k ;g gS fd vPNh ;knnkr ;kn j[kus vkSj Hkwy
tkus ds chp dk larqyu gSA ;fn ge bls lq/kkjuk pkgrs gSa rks gesa
fnuHkj esa gqbZ O;FkZ ckrksa dks ugha Hkwyuk pkfg, ftUgsa ;kn j[kus dh
dksbZ vko;drk ugha gSA ,d vPNh ;knnkr dk ^lkj* ;g gS fd
;g efLrd esa lgh ckrksa dks ;kn vkSj O;ofLFkr djrh gS tks de
egRoiw.kZ izrhr gksrk gSA ,slk yxrk gS fd bldh laHkkouk ugha gS
fd gekjs ikl ,slh dksbZ xksyh gksxh tks tknw dh rjg gekjh
;knnkr dks lq/kkj nsxh] de ls de lkekU; yksxksa esaA fodkl ls
lqfufpr gqvk gS fd ;g iz.kkyh vuqdwyre :i ls larqfyr gSA
;g dgk x;k gS fd okLro esa xaHkhj :i ls Hkwy tkus dk LoHkko
mu nokvksa ls c<+ tkrk gS tks ,u,eMh, ;k ,,eih, xzkfg;ksa dks
csgrj rjhds ls dke djus nsrh gSa ;k f}rh; lanskokgd ladsrksa dh
Ja`[kyk dks mhfir djus okyh nok] ftlds NksVs tUrqvksa esa lh[kus
ds v/;;u dks vfHkKkr fd;k x;k gSA raf=dkg~klh jksxksa ds c<+us ds
nkSjku Lvsfeax dk dqN ekxZ ikuk Hkh lgk;d gksxk] tSls fd
vYt+helZ jksx tks tYnh gh ;knnkr ls tqM+h dksfkdkvksa dks
izHkkfor djrh gSA bu fnuksa raf=dk foKku esa ekStwnk vUosk.kksa esa ls
,d gS foofo|ky;ksa] vuqla/kku laLFkkuksa vkSj QkekZL;qfVdy
dEifu;ksa esa oSKkfud bl izdkj dh ifj;kstukvksa ij dk;Z djrs gSaA
yxHkx lHkh fodflr nskksa dh tula[;k tukafddh esa o`)ksa dh
cgqyrk c<+us ds lkFk mUgsa yEck vkSj Lora= thou thus ds fy,
mipkj dh vR;Ur egkk gSA

vuqla/kku vxz.kh

yanu ds VSDlh pkydksa dk fdjk, ij VSDlh pykus ds igys kgj ds


lHkh jkLrksa ls ifjfpr gksuk iM+rk gSA tc vuqla/kkudrkZvksa us ,d
efLrd LdSuj esa vuqHkoh VSDlh pkyd yxk, vkSj muls dgk fd os
ekcZy vkpZ ls ,fyQsaV ,.M dSly rd tkus dh dYiuk djsa] mUgksaus
pkydksa ds nk,a iSjkfgIiks dSEiy dkWVsZDl yky {ks= esa vf/kd lf;rk
ns[khA VSDlh pkydksa dh lajpukRed ,evkjvkbZ LdSu esa muds
fgIiksdSEil ds fofHkUu fgLlksa dks lkis{k lkbt+ vyx&vyx gksrk gS]
tks blls lacaf/kr gS fd muesa kgj ds jkLrs ;kn j[kus dh fdruh
{kerk gSA tcfd] blds vU; dkjd Hkh gks ldrs gSaA

crk;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq ;g de egRoiw.kZ ugha gSA fopkj ;g gS fd


lwpuk dks fdl izdkj dksM fd;k tkrk gS] bls Hk.Mkfjr] lesfdr
fLFkjhdj.k dh izf;k vkSj fQj iqu% izkfIr dSls dh tkrh gS] bldk
ykHk mBk;k tk,A /;ku nsuk] lh[kus ds l=ksa dk vk;kstu vkSj
fLFkjhdj.k izf;k esa lgk;rk ds fy, ckj&ckj ;kn fnykuk] lHkh
blds mnkgj.k gSaA ;knnkr dh leL;k ls ihfM+r dqN cqtqxZ ^^U;wjks
ist** uked isftax iz.kkyh dh dkQh mi;ksxh ik jgs gSaA ;g iz.kkyh
mUgsa ;kn fnykrh gS fd mUgsa vxyk dke D;k djuk gS vkSj mUgsa
viuk fnu bl izdkj O;ofLFkr djus esa lgk;rk nsrh gS fd vU;Fkk os
bu dkeksa dks djuk Hkwy tk,aA ,filksfMd ;knnkr vkSj lh[kus ds
dkSky ds fofHkUu izpkyu fl)karksa dks igpkurs gq, Hkh ;g vfuok;Z
gS& vki fdlh dkSky ds ckjs esa lqudj mls lh[k ugha ldsaxs] tcfd
;gk dk;Z ,filksfMd ;knnkr ds fy, ,dne Bhd gSA fdlh dkSky
dks lh[kus ds fy, O;fDr dks ckj&ckj vH;kl djuk pkfg,] tSlk fd
laxhr ds fk{kd ckj&ckj vius Nk=ksa dks ;kn fnykrs gSaA
,yku csMyh]
ftUgksaus dk;Zkhy ;knnkr dk fopkj fodflr
fd;k] ftlesa fofHkUu var% f;kRed vusd
iz.kkfy;k gksrh gSaA
QksuksykWftdy Hk.Mkj] fotq+vksLisfV;y Ldsp iSM vkSj dsUnzh;
dk;Zdkjh efLrd ds fofHkUu fgLlksa esa fLFkr gksrs gSaA

;|fi] dqN oSKkfud ekurs gSa fd nokvksa ds lkFk cks/kkRed


vfHk;kaf=dh dh vko;drk gksxhA vki vHkh cks/kkRed vfHk;kaf=dh
ds ckjs esa vf/kd i<+rs lqurs ugha gS] ftruk ubZ nokvksa ds ckjs esa

34

;knnkr ds dqN vkSj iz;ksx djuk pkgrs gSa rks ns[ksa

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ruko

ruko thou dks Hkh izHkkfor djrk gSA ge lHkh bls vuqHko djrs gSaA
ijh{kkvksa] [ksydwn esa izfr;ksfxrkvksa ds nkSjku rFkk tc fe=ksa ,oa
nqeuksa ls eueqVko gksus ds le; ;g D;ksa gksrk gS vkSj bl nq[knk;h
laonsuk dk dkj.k D;k gS\ D;k ;g vPNk gS ;k dqN vkSj gS\ tc
dqN xyr gks tkrk gS rc D;k gksrk gS\ raf=dk oSKkfud ;g le>us
kq: dj jgs gSa fd efLrd dSls ruko ds fy, jlk;fud izfrf;k
lefUor djrk gSA

ruko D;k gS vkSj gesa bldh vko;drk D;ksa gksrh gS\


ruko tdM+us ds fy, [krjukd gSA ;g dsoy ruko esa gksuk ugha gS
& pwafd geskk ;g rukoiw.kZ ugha gS& ijUrq ;g kjhj vkSj efLrd
dh izR;kkk vkSj okLro esa ge fdl pqukSrh dk vuqHko ,oa ,glkl
djrs gSa ds chp esy u gksuk gSA
cgqr lh pqukSfr;ka ftudk ge lkeuk djrs gSa] os euksoSKkfud gSa&
tSls&tSls ge vdkneh lQyrk] Ldwy Vhe esa txg ikus ds fy,
izfr;ksfxrk esa Hkkx ysrs gSa ;k ckn esa vius thou esa ukSdjh ds fy,
izfrLi/kkZ djrs gSa rc ;g vU;ksa ds lkFk vU;ksU;f;k dh dfBukb;ksa
ij fpUru djrs gSA vU; ruko kkjhfjd gSa tSlk fd cgqr vf/kd
chekjh ;k dkj nq?kZVuk esa VwVh gqbZ Vkax vf/kdkak ds lkFk ?kcM+kgV
vkSj fpUrk gksrh gSaA
ruko ,d ekSfyd izf;k gSA ;g lHkh vaxksa dks izHkkfor djrk gS]
ljyre cSDVhfj;k vkSj izksVkstksvk ls ysdj tfVy b;ksdkfj;ksVl
tSlkfd eekYl Lru/kkjh rdA ,d lsy ds vaxksa vkSj gekjs kjhjksa
ds O;fV lsy esa eksysD;qy fodflr gq, gSa tks vkikrdkyhu flLVeksa
dh J`a[kyk eqgS;k djrs gSa tks vizR;kfkr ckg~; pqukSfr;ksa vkSj muds
vkarfjd ifj.kkeksa ls eq[; lsy lac/a kh dk;ksZa dh j{kk djrs gaSA
mnkgj.k ds fy, foksk eksysD;qy ftls ghV&kkWd izksVhu dgk tkrk
gS {kfrxzLr izksVhuksa dh j{kk djrk tgka mudh ejEer dh tk ldrh
gS ;k gkfujfgr mudk vi{k; fd;k tkrk gS bl izdkj ls lsyksa dh
fokkDrrk vkSj fuf;rk ls j{kk djrs gSaA tfVy vaxksa esa tSlkfd ge
yksxksa esa gesa izHkkfor djus okys lk/kkj.k pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djus esa
lgk;rk djus ds fy, ruko flLVeksa us mPp tfVy izf;k,a
fodflr dh gSaA ;s ruko ls j{kk ds fy, cM+s usVodZ esa CykWd ds
fuekZ.k esa lsY;qyj izfrj{kk ra= dk mi;ksx djrs gSaA

la?kkZ djuk ;k iyk;u djuk


igpkuus dh lcls ljy izfrf;k vuqdEik lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ raf=dk
ra= dk rRdky lf;kUo;u gSA rukoiw.kZ pqukSrh izkIr djus ds
ipkr vkSj mfpr izfrf;k dh ifjdYiuk djus ds ckn efLrd
Rofjr xfr ls raf=dk dks lf; djrk gS tks efLrd LVse ds
fu;a=.k dsUnzksa ls mRiUu gksrs gaSA buds dkj.k fofHkUu lajpuk esa
uksjkMsukykbu vkSj ,Msuy XyS.M tks fdMuh ds ij fLFkr gksrk gS
,Msukykbu fuxZe gksrk gSA muds fuxZe ls la?kkZ ;k iyk;u dh
izfrf;k de gks tkrh gS& mRV rkRdkfyd izfrf;k tks [krjs ds
izR;qrj esa dh tkuh gSA ge lHkh vkjafHkd >qu>quh laosnuk] ilhuk
vkuk] ltxrk esa o`f) Rofjr ukM+h LiUn] mPp jDr pki vkSj Hk; dk
lkekU; vuqHkwfr igpkurs gSa] ftUgsa ge rukoiw.kZ pqukSrh ds rqjUr ckn
ds {k.kksa esa vuqHko djrs gSaA ;s ifjorZu fjlsIVj xzkg~; tks jDr
oslsYl esa ik, tkrs gSa] ds dkj.k gksrs gS] tks mUgsa fldqM+us dks etcwj
djrk gS vkSj gekjk jDr pki ij gksus yxrk gS vkSj fny esa lhus
esa ikSafMax laosnuk mRiUu djus vkSj mls c<+kus dk dk;Z djrk gS tks
/kM+du ds :i esa tkuh tkrh gSA Ropk esa Hkh fjlsIVj gSa ftudh otg
ls jks,a [kM+s gks tkrs gSa xqt+cEIl vkSj vkr xV esa lkeatL; fofgr
vCMksfeuy laonsuk mRiUu djrk gS ftldh vuqHkwfr ge lcdks ruko
ds :i esa gksrh gSA ;s ifjorZu ogka gesa la?kkZ djus dk iyk;u djus
ds fy, rS;kj djus ds fufer gksrs gSa vkSj egRoiw.kZ vaxksa ekal isfk;ksa
vkSj efLrd esa jDr izokg ladsfUnzr djus ds fy, gksrs gaSA

gkbiksFkSysfed & fiV~;wVjh & ,Msuy ,pih, v{k

fgIiksdSEil
gkbiksFksykel
fiV~;wVjh

ruko vkSj efLrd


efLrd }kjk ruko dk cks/k gksrk gS vkSj izfrf;k lefUor gksrh gSA
efLrd esa gekjk fLFkfr ds Kku dk ewY;kadu [kwu dh ukM+h esa
kkjhfjd ladsrksa ds lkFk vU;ksU;k; f;k djrk gS tSlkfd gkjeksu]
ikskd vkSj Toyukhy eksysD;qy vkSj eq[; vaxksa ,oa laonsukvksa dks
fu;af=r djus okyh ifj/kh; ulksa ls izkIr lwpuk ds lkFk ikjLifjd
f;k djrk gSA efLrd fofkfV vkSj xzsMs izfrf;kvksa dh J`a[kyk,a
mRiUu djus ds fy, budks la?kfVr djrk gSA ;g ,slk fdl rjg ls
djrk gS] dks ge U;wjks,UMksfuksykWth ds v/;;u ls le> ik, gSaA
ruko ds lkFk kjhj dks <yus ds fy, [kwu esa gkjeksu dk ifjpkyu
efLrd }kjk fu;af=r gksrk gSA

,Msuy xzafFk
,pih, v{k% dsUnz esa gkbiksFksykel fiV~ohVjh ls gkjeksu ds lzko dks
fu;af=r djrk gS tks ,Msuy XyS.M ij dk;Z djrk gSA gkjeksu lzko
dk ukdkjkRed QhMcSd v{k ds fofHkUu Lrjksa ij eqgS;k djk;k x;k
gSA

35

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ruko ds izfr nwljk eq[; U;wjks,UMksfu izfrf;k kjhj vkSj efLrd
dks tksM+rs gq, lfdZV dk lf;kUo;u gS tks ,pih, v{k dgykrk gSA
;g gkbiksFksykel fiV~;wVjh v{k ,Msuy dksVZsDl vkSj fgIiksdSEIkl dks
fokskhr gkWekZsu izokfgr djus okyk CyM LVhe gkbos ds tfj, ,d
lkFk tksM+rk gSA
gkbiksFksysel eq[; efLrd {ks= gS tks gekjs cgq la[;d gkjeksuksa dks
fu;af=r djrk gSA vfexnyk lfgr laonsukhy lwpuk dk f;kUOk;u
efLrd ds {ks=ksa ls vkSj lgkuqHkwfriw.kZ raf=dk izfrf;kvksa dks fu;af=r
djus okys efLrd LVse ds {ks=ksa ls etcwr fufoV izkIr gksrh gSA ;g
lefUor gjeksu laca/kh izfrQy mRiUu djus ds fy, bUgsa la?kfVr
djrk gS tks lkfdZV ds vxys Hkkx fiV~;wVjh v{k dks mksftr djrk
gSA blds cnys esa ;g jDr esa lfMuksdksfVZdksVksfQu ,llhVh,p uke
dk gjeksu mRlftZr djrk gS ,llhVh,p rc dksfVZlksy dk lzko djus
ds fy, ,Msuy v{k ds Hkkx dks mksftr djrk gSA
dksfVZlksy ,d LVsjksbM gkjeksu gS tks vxys pj.k dh ruko izfrf;k
dks le>us dh dqath gSA ;g jDr kdZjk vkSj vU; esVkcksfyd bZa/kuksa
tSlk fd olk ,lhM dks c<+krk gSA ;g cgq/kk izksVhu dh gkfu djrk
gS tks bZa/ku esa [kf.Mr gksrs gSa vkSj rRdky isfk;ksa vkSj efLrd ds
fy, rqjUr pkWdysV ckj dh vko;drk gksrh gSaA dksfVZlksy ,Msuy
dks jDr pki c<+kus vkSj FkksM+s le; esa vkidks vPNk eglwl djus esa
enn djrk gSA Ldwy dksUlVZ esa ,dy xkuk xkus dk lkeuk djuk
iM+rk gS rks vafre pht tks vki djuk pkgrs gSa og gS] ?kcjkgV okyh
phtksa ds fok; lksprs jgukA vki bls ;FkklaHko de Lotkx#drk ls
djuk pkgrs gSa] dkfVZlksy o`f)] ikpu] tyu vkSj ;gka rd fd t[eksa
dk Hkjuk can dj nsrk gs& LiVr% ;s phtsa csgrj ckn esa dh tk
ldrh gSaA ;g ;kSusPNk Hkh can dj nsrk gSA lfdZV dk vafre dne
efLrd dk dksfVZlksy QhMcSd gSA mPpre l?kurk dk dksfVZlksy
fllsIVj fgIiksdSEil esa gS] tks lh[kus vkSj Lej.k djus dh eq[;
lajpuk gS ijUrq dksfVZlksy vfexnyk ij Hkh dk;Z djrk gS tks Hk;
vkSj ?kcjkgV dk izf;kUo;u djrk gSA fuoy izHkko vfexnk dks
mksftr djuk gS] ;g lacaf/kr lwpuk dk tkuus ds fy, vuqer djuk
vkSj ;g lqfufpr djus ds fy, lalk/kuksa dh cokZnh vf/kd tfVy
ijurq lh[kus dh vuko;d igyqvksa esa u dh tk, fgIiksdSEil dks
can djuk gSA
ruko vifjgk;Z gS] bldh vuqHkwfr ge lc djrs gSA ;g
euksoSKkfud] kkjhfjd ;k lkekU;r% nksuksa gksrk gSA

nks dksfVZlkys fjlsIVlZ vkSj fldqM+rh fgIiksdSEil dk fooj.k


fgIiksdSEil dk dksfVZlksy ds fy, mPp Lrj ds nks fjlsIVj gS&
ftUgsa ge fuEu ,evkj vkSj mPp th fjlsIVj dg ldrs gSaA fuEu
,evkj fjlsIVj ,pih, v{k ds jDr izokg gkbos esa dksfVZlksy ds
lkekU; :i ls ifjpkfyr Lrj }kjk lf;kfUor gksrk gSA ;g gekjs
lk/kkj.k esVkcksfyTe vkSj efLrd izf;k dks vPNh rjg ls pkyw
j[krk gSA rFkkfi] tSls&tSls dksfVZlksy Lrj c<+us yxrk gS fokskrk
lqcg esa] rc mPp thvkj fjlsIVj vf/kd izcy gksus yxrk gSA tc
ge ruko esa vk tkrs gSa rc dksfVZlksy dk Lrj cgqr vf/kd gks tkrk
gS] bl fjlsIVj dk lf;kUo;u LFkk;h gks tkrk gS vkSj rc
tsusfVdy :i ls fu;af=r dk;Ze }kjk fgIiksdSEil can dj fn;k
tkrk gSA bu lcdks ,d lkFk feykus ls vkidks ?kaVh dh vkfr dh
o js[kk feysxhA ;g efLrd ds dk;Z ds fy, ruko laca/kh mRV
o js[kk gS& FkksM+k gks rks vkids fy, vPNk gS blls FkksM+k vf/kd
csgrj gS ijUrq vR;kf/kd [kjkc gSA

36

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV

ruko ds fy, ?kaVs ds vkdkj dk oA FkksM+k ruko phthsa dks csgrj cuk ldrk gS] ijarq vf/kd ls
ckr fcxM+ ldrh gSA

mnklh vkSj ruko&flLVe dh vfrlf;rk


jDr esa vR;kf/kd dksfVZlksy dqN ksfud efLrd jksxksa esa ns[kk tkrk
gSA foksk :Ik ls xaHkhj mnklh esa dfVZlksy vfr mRikfnr gksrk gS vkSj
gkfy; dk;Z fufnZV djrk gS fd bl ifjfLFkfr esa fgIiksdSEil Hkh
fldqM+ tkrk gSA ,sls v/;;uksa esa ifj.kkeLo:Ik xaHkhj mnklh dks
euksfpfdRld xaHkhj nh?kZof/kd ruko le>rs gSaA ;g lqfufpr ugha gS
fd of/kZr dksfVZlksy bl chekjh dk eq[; dkj.k gS u fd ;g flQZ
xaHkhj euksoSKkfud vlarqyu dk ifj.kke gS vkSj bldh lgorhZ ruko
gksrk gSA rFkkfi] dksfVZlksy ds mRiknu vkSj dk;Z dks can djds jksxh
dh mYys[kuh; :Ik ls lgk;rk dh tk ldrh gS foksk dj mu yksxksa
esa ftuesa mnklh jks/kh vkSk/k dke;kc ugha gksrs gSA mnklh jks/kh vkSkf/k
vfrf;kkhy ,pih, v{k dks lkekU; cukus esa cgq/kk lgk;rk djrk
gSA ,d jk; ;g gS fd os efLrd esa ,slk ,evkj vkSj thvkj fllsIVj
dh l?kurk lek;ksftr djds djrs gSa fokskdj fgIiksdSEIl esa bl ij
dk;Z djus okys U;wjks oSKkfud ruko vlarqyu ds fy, vkSj vf/kd
izHkkodkjh mipkj fodflr djus vkkk j[krs gSa tks QhM cSd fu;a=.k
iz.kkyh vkSj vR;kf/kd gkjeksuy ruko izfrf;k de djds dk;Z djrs
gSaA

ruko vkSj cq<+kik


efLrd dk cw<+k gksuk dk;Z djus esa lk/kkj.k deh ds lkFk gksrk gS
fdUrq bl deh O;fV;ksa esa vUrj gksrk gSA dqN O;fDr vk;q c<+us ds
lkFk vPNh vuqHkwfr {kerk cjdjkj j[krs gSa lQy cq<+kik tcfd vU;
,slk ugha djrs gSa vlQy cq<+kik D;k ge blds fy, eksysD;qyj dks
le> ldrs gS\ vlQy cq<+kik esa vlQy cq<+kik dh vis{kk dksfVZlksy
Lrj pk gksrs gSaA bl o`f) ds dkj.k ekufld {kerk esa fxjkoV vkrh
gS vkSj efLrd ijh{k.kksa esa blds lkFk gh fgIiksdSEil ds vkdkj esa deh
ns[kh tkrh gSA pwgksa vkSj pqfg;k esa fd, x, iz;ksxksa us nkkZ;k gS fd
tUe ls ruko gkjeksu Lrj fuEu j[kus ;k ek/;e vk;q ls LEkj.k nksk
dks jksdrk gS vU;Fkk ;g vmipkfjr tula[;k esa ns[kk tkrk gSA
blfy, ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd ruko ds izfr vR;f/kd gkjeksu
izfrf;k okys O;fV vf/kd rukoiw.kZ O;fDr;ksa dk gksuk vko;d ugha
gS ijUrq os gS tks ruko ds izfr vR;f/kd izfrf;k djrs gSa&mu yksxksa
esa vf/kd Lej.k {k; gksrk gS vkSj c<+rh mez ds lkFk vU; vuqHkwfr
laca/kh nksk ds fkdkj gksrs gSaA ;fn ;g euq; ds fy, Hkh lp lkfcr
gks rks ge ,sls izHkko ds Hkkj dks de djus esa leFkZ gks ldrs gSa kk;n
ruko jks/kh vkSk/k dk nksgu djds tks ,pih, ruko flLVe dks fu;af=r
djrk gSA ruko vk/kqfud thou dh eq[; fokskrk gS& vkSj blds fok;
vkSj vf/kd dgk tk ldrk gSA ijUrq bldk o.kZu djus ds fy, gesa
izfrj{k.k flLVe ykuk gSA

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izfrj{k.k ra=

dqN okZ igys rd efLrd dks izfrjf{kr vax ekuk tkrk Fkk pawfd bl
ij frjf{kr izfrf;k ;k mkstuk dk dksbZ izHkko ugha gksrk FkkA fup;
gh CyM czsu cSfj;j }kjk ckgjh ?kVukvksa ls dqN gn rd izfrjf{kr gksrk
gSA ;g okLro esa cSfj;j ugha gS ijUrq efLrd jDr oslsYl esa fofkVhr
,aMksFksfy,y lsYl gS tks cM+s eksysD;qYl ds izokg ds fy, ;k jDr ls
izfrj{k.k lsyksa ds efLrd esa izokg esa vis{kkr ck/kd gksrs gSaA rFkkfi
efLrd ds izfr ;k lkSHkkX; dk n`fVdks.k ukVdh; :Ik ls fiNys nkdksa
esa cny x;k gS pwafd efLrd izfrj{k.k flLVe laca/kh vuqla/kku dk
ifj.kke ijLij f;k djrk gSA U;wjksME;wuksykWth vc vuqla/kku dk lf;
{ks= cu x;k gSA

kjhj j{kk
izfrj{k.k ra= cqjs vke.kdkfj;ksa ds fo:) gekjh izFke j{kk gSA ;s
vke.kdkjh okbjl] cSDVhfj;k vkSj [kehj tks lkekU; vkSj dksey gksrs
gSa tSlk fd tqdke tks vke rkSj ij lHkh tkurs gSa vkSj thou ds fy,
[krjukd mnkgj.kkFkZ ,pvkbZoh] esfuatkbfVl ;k V~;wcjDyksfllA
gekjh j{kk dbZ rjg ls dk;Z djrs gSA igys igy LFkkuh; :Ik ls fV;w
ds Hkhrj tks lafer] ?kk;y ;k mksftr gksrs gSa ftuds dkj.k lwtu]
nnZ] jDr izokg esa ifjorZu vkSj LFkkuh; Toyukhy v.kq dk mRltZu
gksrk gSA vf/kd lkekU; :Ik ls izfrj{kkRed
ruko] lkekftd dkjd
efLrd

gkbiksFksysel

g~;weksjy vkSj U;wjy


vQjsav

lhvkjih

flisFksfVd rf=dk r=
lae.k
pksV
Toyu

fiV~;wVjh

,lhVh,p
ACTH

,fMuy

XywdksdkWfVZdkWbM

LFkkuh; bQjsaV

bE;wu vkSj izfrj{kk ra=

iz.kkyh dk lf;u mksftr lsy tks C;wdksflV~l vkSj ekbksQsxl


dgykrs gSa vkSj ,D;wV Qsl izksVhu tks vke.k LFky ij tkrs gSa] rkfd
os vke.kdkjh nqeu dks igpku ldsa] ekj ldsa vkSj mUgsa gVk ldsaA
blds vfrfjDr ,D;wV pj.k dh izfrf;k tks y{k.k mRiUu djrs gSa
ftldk ge lcus vuqHko fd;k gS cq[kkj nnZ] funzk] Hkw[k u yxuk]
v#fp gksuk buesa ls izR;sd izfrf;k lae.k ls yM+us] tkZ lajf{kr
djus vkSj ejEer esa lgk;rk djus esa lgk;rk nsrh gSa ijUrq tc
vR;kf/kd lf; fd, tkrs gSa vf/kd le; ds fy, os gkfudkjd gks
ldrs gSaA vr% mudks lko/kkuh iwoZd fu;af=r djus dh vko;drk gSA

efLrd vkSj j{kk izfrf;k,a


efLrd ds ckjs esa ;g n`fVdks.k fd ;g lajf{kr vax gS] vc og cny
x;k gS vkSj bE;wu flLVe ds lkFk blds laca/k dh ,d vyx
ifjdYiuk dh xbZ gSA ;g blfy, gqvk D;ksafd ;g vc tku fy;k
x;k gS fd efLrd bE;wu dh jpuk nkkZrk gS vkSj mkstd izfr f;k
nkkZrk gS] vkSj okLro esa ;g bE;wu flLVe ls izkIr ladsr ds izfr vkSj
{kfrxzLr fV;w ls izkIr ladsrksa ds izfr izfrf;k dj ldrk gS vkSj
djrk gSA iqjkus fopkj esa myVQsj gqvk gSA iz;ksxksa ls irk pyk gS fd
efLrd LFkkuh; bE;wu flLVe dk egRoiw.kZ fu;a=d vkSj cgqr vf/kd
Qsl izfrf;k dk fu;a=d gSA jksxksa ds izfr cgqr lh izfrf;k,a
tSlkfd cq[kkj kjhj dk rkieku] funzk vkSj Hkw[k dk fu;a=.k eq[;r%
gkbiksFksysel }kjk gksrk gSA
efLrd {kfrxzLr ;k lafer fV;wvksa ls ladsr izkIr djrk gS os
ewyr% U;wjy laosnh ukM+h }kjk ;k gjeksuy ifjpkfyr v.kq }kjk gks
ldrs gSA U;wjy ladsr lh&Qkbcj ds ek/;e ls izrhr gksrk gS tks
nnZ dk Hkh lapkj djrk gS&v/;k; 5 ns[ksa vkSj fyoj ls osxl ukM+h
ds ek/;e ls &tks vR;kf/kd Qsl izksVhu ds mRiknu ds fy, eq[;
LFky gSA efLrd esa eq[; ifjpkyu ladsrksa dh izfr dks iwjh rjg
ugha le>k tk ldrk gS ijUrq muesa izksLVkXyS.Mhu ftUgsa ,Lizhu ls
jksdk tkrk gS vkSj dEyhesaV izksVhu izksVhu dk ckWDl gS tks vked
lsyksa dks ekjus ds fy, egRoiw.kZ gSa ijUrq kk;n vfr egRoiw.kZ ladsr
gSa izksVhuksa dk lewg tks fiNys 20 okksZa eas izdkk esa vk, ftUgsa
lkbVksdkbUl ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA

j{kk eksysD;qy ds :Ik esa lkbVksdkbUl


lkbVksdkbUl kjhj ds izfrdkjd gSaA vc 100 ls Hkh vf/kd gSa vkSj lc
le; vkSj vf/kd dh [kkst dh tk jgh gSA ;s izksVhu lk/kkj.kr% fuEu
Lrjksa ij kjhj esa mRiUu fd, tkrs gSa ijUrq os jksxksa ;k pksV ds izR;qkj
esa rsth ls lf; fd, tkrs gSaA muesa baVjQsjksu] baVjY;qfdUl] V~;wej
esksfll QSDVj vkSj dsseksdkbUl kkfey gSA buesa ls cgqrksa dh mRiknu
{kfrxzLr fV;wvksa ds Hkhrj LFkkuh; :I ls fd;k tkrk gS vkSj fudV ds
lsyksa ij f;k djrk gS ijUrq dqN jDr izokg esa izosk djrs gSa tgka os
efLrd lfgr nwjLFk vaxksa dks ladsr Hkstrs gSaA lkbVksdkbUl gh
vf/kdkak jksxksa vkSj lae.k ds izfr izfrf;k djrk gSA

efLrd vkSj bE;wu flLVe ds leUo; ds fy, vusd efLrd .kkfy;ka gSa

37

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lkbVksdkbUl ds mRiknu ds fy, mkstdksa esa cSDVhfj;y ;k okbjy


mRiknu] lsyksa dks {kfr ;k lsy dh mkjthfork ds fy, [krjk tSlkfd
VkWDlhu ;k fuEu Lrj dk vkWDlhtuA lkbVksdkbUl mRiknu dk nwljk
egRoiw.kZ lapkyd gS efLrd tks U;wjy ladsr fV;wvksa dks nsus tfj,
eq[;r% lgkuqHkwfr laosnh ra= ds }kjk ;k gkekZsu tSlk fd ,Msuy XyS.M
ls dksfVZlksy] lkbVksdkbUl dks lf; ;k fuf; dj ldrs gSA
lkbVksdkbUl cgqr ls dk;Z djus okys izksVhu v.kq gSa foksk :Ik ls
bE;wu ra= ijA vf/kdkak bE;wu ra= dks mksftr djrs gSa vkSj
mkstuk dk eq[; la?kVu tSlkfd lwtu] jDr izokg esa LFkkuh;
ifjorZu] vkSj mkstd v.kq ds nwljs izokg dk lzkoA os yxHkx lHkh
fQft;ksykWftdy ra=ksa esa dk;Z djrs gSa ftlesa ;r kkfey gS tgka os
vR;kf/kd Qsl izksVhu dks mksftr djrs gSA rFkkfi] ;|fi
lkbVksdkbUl vusd dk;ksZa esa Hkkx ysrk gS muesa Hkh egRoiw.kZ fHkUurk
gksrh gSA dqN mkstuk jks/kh gSa vkSj iwoZ mkstuk izf;k dk fuks/k
djrs gSa vf/kdkakr% fudV ds lsyksa ij LFkkuh; :i ls dk;Z djrs gSa
tgka os mRiUu fd, tkrs gSa tcfd vU; ifjpkyu esa fueqZDr gksrs gSa
tSlk fd gjeksuA

ruko vkSj bE;wu flLVe


ge lcus lquk gS fd ruko vkSj ?kcjkgV gekjh frj{kk dks de dj
ldrs gSa vkSj gesa jksxh cuk ldrs gSaA ge vc u dsoy ;g tkuus yxs
gSa fd ,pih, v{k dks lf; djds ruko dSls izR;{k :Ik esa efLrd
dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gS ftldk o.kZu fiNys v/;k; esa fd;k tk
pqdk gS] ijUrq dSls ;g bE;wu ra= dks Hkh izHkkfor dj ldrk gS] blesa
dksbZ vkp;Z ugha fd ;g vizR;{k ekxZ ds }kjk djrk gS og Hkh
efLrd ds tfj,A ruko bE;wu ra= dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gS vkSj
jksxksa dh laHkkouk c<+rh gS] ijUrq ;g ruko ds izdkj ij fuHkZj gksrk gS
vkSj bl ij ge dSls izfrf;k djrs gSa] ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA dqN
yksx LiV :i esa lQy gksrs gSaA ;g ruko dk izdkj gS ftlds lkFk
ge lek;kstu ugha dj ldrs gSa]

38

tks gekjh j{kk izfrf;kvksa dks cf/kr dj ldrk gS tSlk fd vf/kd dke dk
Hkkj eq[; vkinkA ruko vkSj bE;wu ra= ds chp laca/k ds fy, mkjnk;h
lVhd ra= dk iwjh rjg irk ugha yxk;k x;k gSA ijUrq ge tkurs gSa fd
eq[; fokskrk gS gkbiksFksysfed &fiV~;wVjh ,Msuy v{k dks lf; djuk gSA
efLrd esa ruko ds izfr ,d eq[; izfrf;k gkbiksFksysel esa izksVhu mRiknu
dk c<+ tkuk gS tks dksfVZdskVksfQu fjyhftax QSDVj lhvkj,Q dgykrk gSA
lhvkj,Q ,d vU; gjeksu ,Mus ksdksVksfQu fjyhftax QSDVj ,lhVh,p
fueqZDr djus ds fy, gkbiksFksysel ls fiV~;wVjh v{k rd FkksM+h nwj dh ;k=k
djrk gSA ;g gkjeksu ,Msuy v{k esa ifjpkyu ds ekQZr LVsjksbM gkekZsu
fueqZDr djus ds fy, ekuo esa dksfVZlksy ;k=k djrk gS tks bE;wu dk;ksZa
vkSj mkstukvksa dks nckus okys vR;f/kd l{keksa esa gSA ijUrq fdLlk blls
dgha vf/kd tfVy izrhr gksrk gS pwafd vU; gkekZsuy vkSj U;wjksuy rRo gSa
vkSj ge ;g Hkh tkurs gSa fd gYds ruko ds dqN :i gekjs bE;wu dk;ksZa dks
lf; :Ik ls lq/kkj ldrs gSa

efLrd ds Hkhrj bE;wu vkSj mkstd izfrf;k,a


gkfy;k vuqla/kkuksa us nkkZ;k gS fd cgqr ls j{kk eksysD;qy tSlkfd
lkbVksdkbUl Hkh efLrd ds jksxksa esa lf; ;ksxnku djrs gSa tSlk fd
cgqy Ldsysjksfll] nkSjk vkSj ,Yt+helZA ,slk yxrk gS fd efLrd ds
Hkhrj gh ,sls eksysD;qy dk vR;kf/kd mRiknu raf=dkvksa uqdlku igqpk
ldrk gS fokskdj dqN [kkl lkbVksdkbUl efLrd laca/kh jksxksa ds
fy, fofHkUu izdkj dh mipkj j.kuhfr;ksa dk fodkj bE;wu vkSj
mksTkd eksysD;qy dks jksdus ds fopkj ls fd;k tk jgk gSA blfy,
U;wjks bE;wuksykWth&tks U;wjks foKku ds {ks= esa u;k vkxarqd gS og cM+s
efLrd jksxksa dk vkSj laHkkfor mipkj dk [kqyklk dj ldrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV : http://science.howstuffworks.com/immune-system.htm

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funzk

Z Z Zz

izR;sd jkf= ge vius k;ud{k esa tkrs gS] fcLrj ij p<+rs gSa rFkk funzk
dh vpsr voLFkk esa pys tkrs gSaA ge esa ls vf/kdkak yksx yxHkx 8 ?kaVs
rd lksrs gSa ftldk vFkZ gS fd ge vius thou dk yxHkx ,d frgkbZ
fgLlk vpsrkoLFkk esa fcrkrs gSa ftlds dqN Hkkx esa ge LoIukoLFkk esa jgrs
gSaA ;fn vki vU; xfrfof/k;ksa tSls nsj jkf= rd ikfVZ;ksa esa kkfey jgus
vFkok ijh{kkvksa ds fy, ;kn djus gsrq v/kZjkf= rd i<+us ds fy, bl
cgqewY; le; dk iz;ksx djus gsrq funzk dk ifjgkj djus dk iz;kl djrs
gSa rks vki dk kjhj rFkk fnekx kh?kz gh vkidks lpsr djsxk fd vkidks
,slk ugha djuk pkfg,A ge funzk dks dqN le; ds fy, Vky ldrs gSa
fdUrq dHkh Hkh vf/kd le; ds fy, ugha funzk@tkx`rkoLFkk p kjhj
rFkk fnekx efLrd dh vusd y;c) xfrfof/k;ksa esa ls ,d gS] os D;ksa
fo|eku gSa] buesa efLrd ds dkSu ls Hkkx kkfey gSa rFkk os fdl izdkj
dk;Z djrs gSaA

thou y?kq lkeatL;


funzk tkxj.k p ,d vartkZr lkeatL; gS tks thou ds vkjfEHkd okksZa
esa fed :i ls fnok&jkf= p esa vkc) gks tkrk gSA bls gh
ldkZfM;u lkeatL; dgk tkrk gS& bls ,slk blfy, dgk tkrk gS D;ksa
fd ^ldkZ* yxHkx ds fy, rFkk ^Mkbt+* fnu ds fy, iz;qDr fd;k tkus
okyk ySfVu kCn gSA ;g thoui;UZr egRoiw.kZ gS% cPps fkkq fnu vkSj
jkr nksuksa ds nkSjku y?kq vof/k;ksa ds fy, lksrs gSa( NksVs cPps vDlj
e/;kgu Hkkstu ds ipkr >idh ysrs gSa tcfd o;Ld lkekU;r% dsoy
kr dks lksrs gSaA funzk vki ds fy, vPNh lsgr ean gS& foalVu pfpZy]
tks nwljs foo;q) ds nkSjku iz/kkuea=h Fks] yxHkx ikap feuV dh dbZ ckj
eaf=eaMy cSBdksa ds nkSjku vYikof/k >ifd;ksa ds i{kdkj FksA
fnok&jkf= p esa funzk rFkk tkx`rkoLFkk dh lkekU; iSVuZ vkc)rk
n`fVd O;R;kfldk ds ,dne ij fgiksFkSYel esa dksfkdkvksa ds y?kq
lewg }kjk vakr% fu;af=r gSa ftls lqijkdkb,TesfVd U;wfDy;l dgk
tkrk gSA U;wjksu] ftu esa viuk lapkyu bdV~Bs ledkfyd cukus ds fy,
vius nzqekeksa ds chp vusd varxzZFkuksa dh vlkekU;rk gS] efLrd dh
tSfod ?kM+h dk Hkkx gSaA ekuoksa esa ;g ?kM+h fnu ls dsoy dqN /kheh nj
ij pyrh jgrh gS fdUrq vk[k ls fufofV;ksa }kjk lkekU;r% ;g irk
pyrk jgrk gS fd ;g fnu dk le; gS vFkok jkf= dk ge ;g tkurs gSa
D;ksafd nh?kkZof/k;ksa ds fy, lHkh izdkj ds ladsrksa ls nwj xgjh xqQkvksa esa
jgdj funzk iz;ksx esa Hkkx ysus okys yksx xfrfof/k ds ,sls iSVuZ viukrs gS
ftlesa yxHkx 25 ?kaVs dk LoPNsn funzk&tkxj.k p gksrk gSA

funzk dh voLFkk,a pj.k


funzk fcydqy vf; izf;k ugha gS tSlh og yxrh gSA ;fn fdlh O;fDr dks
funzk iz;ksxkkyk esa ftlesa fcLrj gSa u fd caSp mlds rkyw esa bySDVkMksa ls
rkjc) dj fn;k tkrk gS rks efLrd dk bysDVks,ulsQsyksxzke bZbZth vusd
lqLiV pj.kksa ls xqjtrk gSA tkx`r gksus ij] gekjs efLrd fuEu&vk;keh
oS|qr xfrfof/k nkkZrs gSaA tc ge lks tkrs gSa rks bZbZth igys rks leery gks
tkrs gSa fdUrq fQj fed :i ls buds vk;ke esa o`f) gksrh gS rFkk izkf;drk
esa dHkh vkrh tkrh gS tSls&tSls ge funzk dh lqLiV voLFkkvksa dh J`a[kyk ls
xqtjrs gSaA bu voLFkkvksa dks /kheh ygj funzk ,lMCY;w,l dgk tkrk gSA
oS|qr xfrfof/k esa bu ifjorZuksa ds dkj.k vHkh rd iw.kZr;k le>s ugha tk lds
gSaA rFkkfi] ;g ekuk tkrk gS fd tSls&tSls efLrd esa U;wjkWu viuh lkekU;
fufofV;ksa ds izfr vuuqf;kRed gks tkrs gSa] os fed :i ,d nwljs ds lkFk
lgpkfyr gks tkrs gSa] tc dadkyh ekaliskh lapyu dks fu;af=r djus okys
U;wjkWu lf; :i ls vo:) gks tkrs gS rks vkidh ekaliskh xfrfof/k lekIr
gks tkrh gS fdUrq lkSHkkX;ok olu iz.kkyh rFkk g`n; dh /kM+du dks fu;af=r
djus okys U;wjkWu lkekU; :i ls dk; djrs jgrs gSaA
jkr Hkj ge funzk dh bu fofHkUu voLFkkvksa ls xqtjrs jgrs gSaA muesa ls ,d
voLFkk esa bZbZth] iqu% tkxzrkoLFkk dh Hkkafr gks tkrs gSa rFkk gekjh vka[ks
gekjh can iydksa ds chp vkxs ihNs gksrh jgrh gSaA ;g funzk dh dfFkr rhoz
v{kq lapyu vkjbZ,e voLFkk gS tc gekjs }kjk Loiu ysus ds vf/kd
laHkkouk gksrh gSA ;fn yksxksa dks vkjbZ,e funzkoLFkk esa mBk;k tkrk gS rks os
yxHkx lnSo LoIu ysus dh lwpuk nsrs gSa& ;gk rd fd os yksx Hkh tks
vk;ru ;g nkok djrs gS gSa fd mUgsa dHkh LoIu ugha vkrs vius ifjokj ds
fdlh lnL; ij iz;ksx ds :i esa bldk iz;kl djsaA oLrqr%] geesa ls
vf/kdkak izR;sd jkr yxHkx 4 ls 6 ckj y?kq vof/k;ksa ds fy, vkbZ,e
funzkeXu gks tkrs gSaA fkkq dqN vf/kd vkjbZ,e funzk ysrs gSa rFkk ikq Hkh
vkjbZ,e funzkeXu gksrs gSaA
tkx`r
vkjbZ,e
voLFkk 1
voLFkk 2
voLFkk 3
voLFkk 4
0

funzk ?kaVs

,d jkf= esa 8 ?kaVksa dh lkekU; funzk esa fofHkUu funzkoLFkk iSVuZ kkfey
gksrs gS ftuesa izR;sd jkr yxHkx 4 ckj vkjbZ,e funzk dh y?kq vof/k;ka
yky {ks= vkrh gSA

funzk oapu
fnok izdkk esa lf; ,llh,u

jkf= esa lqIrkoLFkk esa ,llh,u

lqij fdvk,t+esfVd U;wfDy;l efLrd dh viuh O;fDrxr ?kM+h gSA

dqN okZ igys] ,d vejhdh ;qok] ftldk uke jSaMh xkbZuj Fkk] us vc
rd ntZ u dh xbZ nh?kZre vof/k ds fy, uhan ds fcuk jg dj fxUuh
cqu vkWQ fjdkWMZ esa LFkku cukus dk iz;kl djus rFkk mlesa lQy gksus
dk ladYiu fd;kA mldh vkadka{kk 264 ?kaVksa rd fcuk lks, jgus dh
Fkh rFkk mlus ,slk dj fn[kk;kA

39

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;g vejhdh ukS lsuk esa fpfdRlksa }kjk Ik;Zosf{kr ,d lko/kkuhiowZd fu;af=r
iz;ksx Fkk& fdUrq ,slk iz;ksx ugha Fkk ftls nksgjkus dh ge vkidks vuqkalk
djsaA vkp;Ztud :i ls og vR;ar vPNh izdkj mkjthoh jgkA ftu
eq[; dfBukb;ksa dk mlus lkeuk fd;k funzkyq eglwl djus ds vykok] os
Fkha cksyus esa dfBukbZ] ladsUnz.k djus esa vleFkZrk] Lej.kkfDr gkfu rFkk
Hkzkafrtud fnokLoIuA fdUrq mldk kjhj mRV HkkSfrd fLFkfr esa jgk rFkk
og dHkh Hkh euksfof{kIr ugha gqvk vFkok okLrfodrk ls mldk lEidZ ugha
VwVkA iz;ksx iwjk djus ds i'pkr] mlus y?kq O;fre nkkZ;k] igyh jkr
og yxHkx iUnzg ?kaVs lks;k rFkk vuqorhZ jkrksa dks y?kq vfrfjDr vof/k;ksa ds
fy, lks;kA bl rFkk vusd vU; le:i iz;ksxksa ds funzk vuqla/kkudrkZvksa
dks fooLr dj fn;k gS fd funzk ls oLrqr% ykHkkfUor gksus okyk izeq[kr%
efLrd gS rFkk kjhj ugha gSA lko/kkuhiwoZd fu;af=r i'kq iz;ksxksa lfgr
vU; v/;;uksa ls Hkh blh izdkj ds fudkZ fudkys x, gSaA

ge D;ksa lksrs gS\a


raf=dk foKku esa vusd eqs vHkh igsyh gh cus gq, gSa rFkk funzk muesa ls
,d gSA dqN yksxksa us rdZ fn;k gS fd funzk ek= i'kqvksa dks vpy j[kus
rFkk bl izdkj [krjs ls ckgj j[kus dk ,d lqfo/kktud mik; gSA fdUrq
blds lkFk blls Hkh dgha vf/kd dqN lacaf/kr gSA funzk oapu iz;ksx gesa
;g lkspus dk fook djrs gSa fd vkjbZ,e funzk rFkk ,lMCY;w,l ds dqN
pj.k efLrd dks izfrLFk gksus esa leFkZ cukrs gSaA jkf= ds izFke 4 ?kaVksa
ds nkSjku gesa bl izdkj dh funzk vkrh gSA laHkor%] ;g efLrd dks
iqu%O;ofLFkr gksus esa lgk;rk djrh gS rFkk ;g vko;d dk;Z djus dk
,d vPNk dk;Z gS kqd xksnh esa uko ds lkFk lkn`;rk djuk tc
efLrd laosnh lwpuk dks izf;kfUor ugha dj jgk gS vFkok lrdZ ,oa
,dkxz ugha gksrk vFkok mls gekjh f;k,a fu;af=r ugha djuh iM+rh]
vuqla/kku ;g Hkh lq>krk gS fd funzk og le; gS tc ge mls lesfdr
djrs gS tks geus fiNys fnu lh[kk gS& Lej.k kfDr dh ;g ,d vfuok;Z
izf;k gSA

lkeatL; y; dSls dk;Z djrs gS\a


fofHkUu funzk voLFkkvksa ds chp lae.kksa ds nkSjku fofHkUu efLrd {ks=ksa esa
U;wjksuksa dh xfrfof/k dks vfHkys[kc) djds y;c) xfrfof/k;ksa ;Fkk funzk
ds raf=dk foKkuh izeksa ds ckjs esa dkQh dqN irk yxk;k x;k gSA buls
,d efLrd&Lda/k lf;.k iz.kkyh dk izdju gqvk gSSA ftlesa ,d izdkj
dh vkf.od J`a[kyk izfrf;k esa ,Mksuksflu uked U;wjks ekM~;wysVjh

VkalehVj lfgr fofHkUu U;wjks ekM~;wysVjh VkalehVj varxzLr gSaA lgpkyu


ize usVodksZa dks ,d funzk voLFkk ls nwljh voLFkk esa tkus esa lgk;rk
djrs gSa
raf=dk vkuqokafkdh U;wjkstsusfVDl ls dkQh izxfr gkfly dh xbZ gSA
fofHkUu thuksa dks vfHkfpUgkafdr fd;k x;k gS tks ?kM+h dh dkWx ghyksa
nar&pksa rFkk fudklksa dh Hkkafr y;c) xfrfu;kedksa ds vkf.od
la?kVd gSaA blesa ls vf/kdkak dk;Z MkslksfQyk Qy eD[kh esa fd;k x;k
gS tgka ;g ik;k x;k gS fd nks thu ij ,oa fVe izksVhu mRikfnr djrs gSa
tks vius Loa; ds laysk.k dks fofu;fer djus ds fy, var% f;k djrs
gSaA ,evkj,u, rFkk izksVhu laysk.k fnu esa tYnh gh kq: gks tkrs gSa]
izksVhu lafpr gksrs gS] ,d nwljs ds lkFk tqM+ tkrs gSa rFkk ;g lac/ku rc
viuk laysk.k jksd nsrk gSA fnokizdkk izksVhuksa dks vofer djus esa
lgk;rk djrk gS ftudk Lrj varr% ,sls fcanq rd fxj tkrk gS tgka ij
rFkk fVe izksVhu cukus okys thu iqu% dke djuk vkjEHk dj nsrs gSaA ;g
p pyrk jgrk gS rFkk rc Hkh tkjh jgsxk ;fn U;wjksuksa dks ,d jdkch esa
thfor j[kk tkrk gSA gekjh rjg ds Lru/kkfj;ksa esa ?kM+h efD[k;ksa dh Hkkafr
gh vn~Hkqr :Ik ls le:i rjhds ls izpkyu djrh gSA pwafd ldkZfM;u y;
fodklkRed vFkZ esa dkQh iqjkru gSa] blesa laHkor% dksbZ vkp;Z ugha gS fd
,d gh fdLe ds v.kq ,sls fHkUu thoksa esa ?kM+h dks lapkfyr djrs gSaA

vuqla/kku ekspZ
izdkk

va/ksjk

izdkk

va/ksjk

izdkk

va/ksjk

izdkk

va/ksjk

10

fnu

20

lkekU; pwgs ^^tSV ySx** nkkZrs gSA


pwgs tks tsV ySx ugha nkkZrs

30
40

mRifjorhZ pwgs rRdky ^^?kM+h varj.k** djrs gSaA

ldkZfM;u y; ds vkf.od izeksa ds csgrj vocks/ku dk iz;kl djus ds fy,]] raf=dk foKkfu;ksa us vkuqokafkd :I ls ,sls pwgs rS;kj fd, gS
ftuesa lqijkfdvk,t esa fVd U;wfDyDl esa vfHkO;Dr thu **fudky fn, tkrs gSa** ;s ohvkbZohvkj 2 pwgsa vPNh izdkj thfor jgrs gSa rFkk
lkekU; pwgksa dh Hkkafr gh jkr rFkk fnu ds chp xfrfof/k iSVuksa esa ifjoZru nkkZrs gSa ij iSVuZ ds dkys fcanq nkkZrs gSa fd pwgs dc lf;
gksrs gS & jkf= esa xfrfof/k dk ,d nSfud y; xzs {ks= rFkkfi] og le;} tc ykbVsa can dk nh tkrh gSa] vdLekr 8 ?kaVs vkxs c<`k fn;k
tkrk gS yxHkx 25 osa fnu rks lkekU; pwgs vius xfrfof/k iSVuksa dks varfjr djus esa dqN fnu yxkdj ^^tSV ySx** nkkZrs gSaA ukWd vkV
thu fudkys x, pwgsa rRdky varj.k dj ysrs gSaA bl izdkj ds v/;;u ges mu vkf.od izeksa ds ckjs esa lh[kus esa lgk;rk djrs gS ftuds
}kjk izdkk ldkZfM;u xfrfu/kkZjd thuksa dks izfkf{kr djrk gSA

40

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbV: http://www.hhmi.org/lectures/2000/


http://www.cbt.virginia.edu, http://science.howstuffworks.com/sleep.htm

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efLrd Nfodj.k
diky oSKkfudksa us lkspk fd os [kksiM+h dh lrg ij xqeVs dk
ijh{k.k djds efLrd dks le> ldsaxsA ;fn ;g vc vLokHkkfod gS]
mudh [kksiM+h ds ckgj ls bls ns[kdj efLrd dks le>us dh
egRokdka{kk ;qxksa ls cgqrksa dks vkdfkZr fd;k gSA vc ge okLro esa
vk/kqfud efLrd Nfodj.k rduhdh ds tfj, ,slk dj ldrs gSaA
vk/kqfud LdSuj efLrd esa jDr izokg vkSj tkZ esVkcksfyTe dh
U;wjksuy ,oa Qkbcj ekxZ <kaps dh vkSj tc ge vyx&vyx phtsa
djrs gSa rc gksus okys raf=dh; dk;Zdykiksa esa gksus okys ifjorZrjksa
dh vkp;Ztud Nfo iznku djus ds fy, fofHkUu lk/kuksa dk mi;ksx
djrs gSaA

vk/kqfud rduhfd;ksa dh lgt fot;


<kaps dk dk;Z laca/k LFkkfir djus ds iz;kl esa U;wjksykWftLV vkSj
U;wjkslkbdksykWftLV }kjk cgqr vf/kd lh[kk x;k tks iksLVekVZe esa
fnekx dh fdlh ,MhVht ;k O;ogkj dks efLrd lajpuk dh eki ds
lkFk lacaf/kr djrs gSaA bl rjg ls efLrd dk okDl {ks= dh czksdk
}kjk igpku dh xbZA bl rjhds dh vusd lQyrk,a Hkh fdUrq bldh
Hkh lhek,a gSaA dksbZ Hkh ljy :i ls ;g ugha eku ldrk fd efLrd
ds {ks= dh {kfr ds dkj.k dk;Z dk {k; ml {ks= ds lkekU; dk;Z dks
nkkZrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy, vleFkZrk gks ldrh gS pwafd og {ks=
dV x;k gks ;k vU; {ks=ksa ls vyx gks x;k gS ftlds lkFk ;g
lekU;r% lacaf/kr jgrk gSA ;g Hkh lEHko gS fd {kfrxzLr u gq,
efLrd {ks= dqN dk;Z dj ldrs gSa] tks lkekU; ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa
{kfrxzLr {ks= }kjk fd, tkrs gSaA ;g IykfLVflVh ds uke ls tkuk
tkrk gSA varr% cgqr gh de iSFkksykWftdy pksVsa lVhd dk;kZRed
{ks= esa lhfer gSa vkSj tc thfor gSa rc ejht ds v/;;u vkSj ckn
esa muds efLrdksa ds foysk.k ds chp cgqr vf/kd foyEc gks ldrk
gSA
<kapkxr efLrd Nfodj.k rduhdh yxHkx 30 okZ igys fodflr
gksuk kq: fd;kA fpfdRlk kjhj kkfL=;ksa }kjk dk;kZRed Nfodj.k
izfof/k dk gkfy;k fodkl us foksk /;ku vkdfkZr fd;k gSA ;s gesa
kCnk% [kksiM+h ds vanj ns[kus vkSj ekuo efLrd ds Hkhrj >kadus esa
leFkZ cukrk gS&pwafd ;g lksprk] lh[krk vkSj Loiu ns[krk gSA

;g dSls dk;Z djrk gS


raf=dh; dk;Zdykiksa dks ekWuhVj djus ds fy, bysDVksfQft;ksykWftdy
rduhfd;ka lf;kfUor U;wjkWuksa dh esEczsu {kerk esa ifjorZuksa ij
vk/kkfjr gSaA efLrd ijh{k.k rduhdh lf; U;wjkWu }kjk visf{kr tkZ
esVkcksfyTe esa ifjorZuksa dks ekWfuVfjax djds dk;Z djrs gSaA
bysDVks jlk;u rRp tks U;wjksu ds Hkhrj vkSj ckgj tks flukfIVd vkSj
lfUufgr dk;Z {kerk gS izHkkfor vk;u izo`k djrs gSa vius dk;Z ds
fy, mUgsa tkZ dh vko;drk gksrh gsA bl tkZ dk lzksr Xywdkst
dk vkWDlhMsku gSA lsjscsjy ifjpkyu ds }kjk Xywdkst vksj vkWDlhtu
efLrd esa Hksts tkrs gSaA U;wjksokLdqyj lEidZ dh otg ls lf;k {ks=ksa
esa lsjscsjy jDr izokg esa LFkkuh; o`f) gksrh gSA ;g cgqr tYnh gksrh
gSA vk/kqfud raf=dk Nfodj.k LFkkuh; lsjscsjy jDr izokg esa bu
ifjorZuksa dks ekirk gS vkSj U;wjy dk;Zdyki ds lwpdkad ds :i esa
mudk mi;ksx djrk gSA
fodflr dh tkus okyh igyh dk;kZRed rduhdh dks iksthVksu ,felu
VksekxzkQh ihbZVh dgk tkrk FkkA bl izf;k esa jsfM;ks ,fDVo VsllZ
dks ekuo kjhj esa izo`k djuk kkfey gSa tks tSo foKkuh laca/kh feJ.k
ls tqM+s gksrs gSa tSlk fd vkSk/ktks U;wjksVkWlfeVj fllsIVjksaA ejht ds
flj ds pkjksa vksj fMVsDVj dk fjax U;wfDy;j bZlksVksi }kjk mRlftZr
xkek ds lw{e rRoksa le; vkSj mudh fLFkfr fjdkWMZ djrk gS pwafd ;s
efLrd ds vkj&ikj tkrk vkSj uV djrk gSA ihbZVh dk mi;ksx
LFkkuh; lsjsczy jDr izokg esa ifjorZuksa dk uDkk rS;kj djus ds fy,
iz;qDr gks ldrk gSA ,sls ifjeki ds ifj.kke Lo:i ekuo efLrd ds
laosnh] eksVj vkSj vuqHkwfr efLrd dk;ksZa ds LFkku fu/kkZj.k fd;k x;kA
ihbZVh ds vusdkusd nksk gSa lcls izeq[k ;g gS fd blds fy, jsfM;ks
,fDVo Vslj dks izo`k djuk vko;d gSA bldk eryc ;g gS fd
cgqr ls yksx ihbZVh ijh{k.k ugha djk ldrs gSa] tSlkfd cPps vkSj cPpk
tuus dh vk;q dh efgyk,a vkSj vla[; mik; dks ijh{k.k ds nkSjku
fd, tkrs gSa] os lhfer gSaA
,d vyx rduhdh ftls eSXusfVd fjlkssusUl besftax dgk tkrk gS] dk
fodkl fd;k x;k tks vki&ikj tkus okyk ugha gS vkSj jsfM;ks ,fDVo

ck,a % Fke czsu Ldsuj ds fodkl ds fy, ^chVYl* ds fjdkWMZ dh fch ls gq, ykHk ls bZ,evkkbZ us lgk;rk nhA buls vkSj ckn esa fodflr gqbZ ekhuksa ls raf=dkfoKkfu;ksa dks efLrd ds ckjs esa ,d u, rjhds ls
ns[kus esa enn feyhA
nk,a % ,d vk/kqfud ,evkjvkbZ LdsujA blesa jksxh dks ,d est+ ij fyVkdj pqEcdksa ds ,d NYys ds chp Hkstk tkrk gS ftlesa 30 feuV ls ysdj ,d ?kaVs rd dk le; yx ldrk gSA

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rRo dh blds fy, vko;drk ugha gksrh gSA blls fdlh Hkh vk;q ds
yksxksa dk ijh{k.k fd;k tk ldrk gSA ,evkbZvkbZ dk mi;ksx vfr
lw{ere efLrd <kapk dh Nfo nku djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS vkSj
,d gkfy;k fodkl tks fM;wtu VsUlj besftax MhVhvkbZ dgykrk gS]
Qkbcj dh lQsn lkexzh dh C;kSjsokj Nfo laHko cukrk gS tks efLrd
{ks= ls tksM+rk gSA

efLrd dh jDr uyh dk fp=A blesa jDr okg vkSj U;wjy xfrfof/k dk irk
ykxk;k tk ldrk gSa

,evkjvkbZ kS|ksfxdh dh lcls vf/kd mRlkgtud vuq;ksx tks efLrd


ds dk;kZas ds fok; esa nkkZrk gSa % ;g QUDkuy eSXusfVd fjlksusUl besftax
,Q,evkjvkbZ dgk tkrk gSA ;g rduhdh jDr esa vkWDlhgheksXyksfcu
vkSj fMvkWDlhtsusfVM gheksXyksfcu dh eSXusfVd rRoksa esa fHkUurk ij
vk/kkfjr
gS
blfy,
,Q,evkjvkbZ
esa
ladsr&CyM
vkWDlhtsuku&yscy&fMisUMsUV flXuy&chvks,yMh dgk tkrk gSA pwafd
of/kZr U;wjkWuy dk;Zdyki vk;u dh xfr c<+krs gSa tks vk;u iEi dh
vko;drk okyh tkZ dks lf; djrk gSA tkZ esVkcksfyTe vkSj
vkWDlhtu dh [kir esa o`f) gksrh gSA blls fMvkWDlhtsufs VM gheksXyksfcu
esa o`f) vkSj eSXusfVd ladsr esa deh gksrh gSA rFkkfi] vkWDlhtu dh [kir
esa o`f) ds ,d lsds.M ds Hkhrj gh LFkkuh; lsjsczy jDr okg esa o`f) gksrh
gSA lsjsczy jDr okg esa o`f) vkWDlhtu dh [kir esa o`f) ls vf/kd ls
vf/kd gksrh gS( blfy, vkWDlhgheksXyksfcu vkSj ladsr ds vkdkj esa lkis{k
o`f) gksrh gSA of/kZr lsjsczy jDr okg dk lVhd ra= vHkh rd vLiV gS]
ijUrq U;wjksVkalfeVj lacaf/kr ladsrhdj.k vc mkjnk;h le>k tkrk gSA

bldk mi;ksx

dEI;wVj kS|ksfxdh ds lkFk] ihbZVh vkSj ,evkjvkbZ Ldsuj }kjk feys fp=
efLrd ds vanj gksus okys jDr cgko dk Bhd&Bhd irk yxk;k tk ldrk
gSA

42

vki la[;kvksa dks vPNh rjg ?kVk ldrs gSaA ijUrq D;k vkius dHkh
efLrd dks ?kVkus dh psVk dh gS \ blesa dksbZ vkp;Z ugha fd yM+dk
fojks/kkHkkl esa gS dkVZwuA 2 ;k 3 vk;keksa esa efLrd dh Nfo dks ?kVkuk
MkVk foyskdksa ds fy, dfBu gks tkrk gSA vf/kdkak ,Q,evkjvkbZ
v/;;uksa esa tc yksx lko/kkuh iwoZd fu;af=r dk;Z esa dk;Zjr jgrs gSa rc
chvks,yMh ladsr dk ifjekiu kkfey gSaA ijh{k.k ds nkSjku] ejht pqEcd
ds cksj ds vanj ysV tkrk gS] vkSj laosnh ds fr muds O;ogkfjd
frf;kvksa dks ekWuhVj fd;k tkrk gSA cgqr vf/kd laosnh Lrqr fd,
tkrs gSa ;k rks n`; gksrs gSa] ftUgsa inZs ij ejht ds ns[kus ds fy, {ksfir
fd, tkrs gS ;k JO; {ks= esa gsMQksu ds }kjk miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA

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xqIr n`; tSlkfd vuqHkwfr lh[kus] Lej.k djus ;k ;kstuk cukus ds
n`;ksa dk Hkh ijh{k.k djuk laHko gSA cgq/kk ,d ds ckn nwljs dks
djus ds fy, nks cgqr gh ,d leku dk;ksZa dh :ijs[kk rS;kj dh
tkrh gSA blds ihNs ;g vkk; gS fd Fke dk;Z esa efLrd dh
f;k fufgr gksrh gS ftls ;ksxdrkZ ns[kuk pkgrk gS tcfd nwljs esa
ugha gksrh gSA kIr dh xbZ efLrd dh Nfo;ksa dk e ,d nwljs ls
vyx dh tkrh gSa rkfd egRoiw.kZ efLrd dh f;k esa lafyIr
fofkV dk;Zdykiksa esa ifjorZuksa dh fidlsysfVM 2Mh Nfo mRiUu dh
tk ldsA bu Nfo;ksa dks 3 vk;keksa fiNys i`B dk dkVwZu ns[ksa esa
Nfo dks Hkkoiw.kZ rjhds ls O;odyu mRiUu djus ds fy, dEI;wVj
}kjk jkfkr fd;k tkrk gSA gkfy;k fodklksas dk vkk; ;g gS fd
;gka rd fd cgqr gh {kf.kd fopkj ;k efLrd dh ?kVuk ,d ;k nks
lsds.M ds varjky dh NksVh ls NksVh ?kVuk dk ifjekiu fd;k tk
ldrk gSA ;g ?kVuk laca/kh ,Q,evkjvkbZ ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA
MkVk foysk.k dh tfVy fof/k;ksa dk mi;ksx ;g ijh{k.k djus ds
fy, fd;k tkrk gS fd D;k dk;Z djus ds nkSjku ladsrksa esa gksus okys
ifjorZu lkaf[;dh; :i ls fooluh; gSa ;k ughaA ,d cgqr vf/kd
;qDr gksus okyk foysk.k iSdst] ftlus Nfodj.k MkVk ds
lf;kUo;u dk ekudhdj.k fd;k gS] LVSfVdy ikjkesfVd eSfiax

oh5 {ks= ds lf;.k ls xfr ds vocks/k dk nkZu gksrk gSA bl {ks= dh


fufofV;ka dkWVsZDl ds oh2 {ks= vkSj iYohukj iqy ls vkrh gS tks
efLrd esa xgjkbZ ij fLFkr gksrk gSA lwpuk ds okg dk fu;a=.k dk
i'pisjkbVy dkWVZsDl ihihlh djrk gSA Hkkoh la;kstdrk foysk.k ls
buds lkis{k ;ksxnku Kkr fd, tk ldrs gSaA

fnup;kZ ds rkSj ij Tofyr gksus okyk esfM,y VsEiksjy yksc dks ns[kus
esa vR;kfkr pwd gksukA rFkkfi] u, ijh{k.k :irkfydk,a dqN esa
opZqvy okLrfodrk kkfey gSa] os vU; {ks=ksa lfgr Lej.k esa
f;kUo;u esa vc blds dk;Zdyki nkkZrs gSa tSlkfd fUVy
dksVsZDl vkSj fdqulA u, euksoSKkfud vkSj vU; Nfodj.k voyksduksa
ds lkFk feydj lafyIr ;g fofo/k efLrd {ks= ls gekjh efLrd ds
Lej.k flLVe dh tkudkjh esa iqujh{k.k gqvk gSA

,d O;fDr dks LdSuj esa vusd dkj dh pk{kqk Nfo;ksa ds ek/;e ls ns[kk
tk ldrk gSA buesa ls lHkh pk{kqk dkWVsZDl ds kFkfed {ks=ksa dks ^^tyk,axs**]
tks gS oh1 vkSj oh2A Dysoj ?kVko ds bLrseky ls Kkr gqvk gS fd jax
lalk/ku ck;ka oh4 {ks= eas gksrk gS] tcfd xfr ds laLdj.k ls oh5
lf; gks tkrk gSA nk;ha vkSj&,d insZ ij vfu;fer :i ls ?kwers fcUnqA

,lih,e dgykrk gSA ,lth,e eSiksa dks cgq/kk jaxhu cuk;k tkrk gS] dk;Z
ds lcls xeZ {ks=ksa ds fy, vkx dh rjg ihys jax dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk
gS] B.Ms {ks=ksa ds fy, uhyk vkSj dkyk dk ;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
efLrd Nfodj.k oSKkfud bu {ks=ksa dks ^^ykbfVax vi** dgrs gSa tc dqN
[kkl dk;Z fd, tkrs gSaA ;fn O;fDr yxkrkj ifjofrZr gksrh psdcksMZ iSVuZ
dks /;ku ls ns[krk gS rks kFkfed n`; dksVsZDl esa LFkk;h lf;u ns[kk
tkrk gSA xfrkhy vkSj jaxhu jax iSVuksZa dk mi;ksx vkSj n`; flLVe ds
fofHkUu {ks=ksa dks lf; djus ds fufer fMtkbu dh xbZ vU; mkstuk us
gesa ekuo n`fV flLVe dh lajpuk ds ckjs esa cgqr vf/kd ubZ tkudkjh
fn;k gSA vU; laosnh ifjorZuksa ds fy, blh rjg ds v/;;u fd, x, gSA
;g lkspus dk LFkkuhdj.k rjhdk us i<+us ds fofkV la?kVdksa esa lafyIr
efLrd ds {ks=ksa dh igpku djus esa Hkh lgk;rk dh gSA tSlkfd n`;
kCnksa dks Loj foKkuh dksM esa cnyus] Lojksa dks ,d lEiw.kZ kCn esa
lewgc) djuk] kCnksa dk vFkZ fudkyus dh f;k vkfnA lh[kus ds dk;kZa
dk Hkh v/;;u fd;k x;k gS] ftleas efLrd {ks=ksa ls foPNsfnr dk;Z
kkfey gS tks nnZ dh R;kkk vkSj vuqHkwfr djus esa dk;Zjr gSA
rFkkfi] tSls tSls vuqla/kku c<+rk x;k cgqr ls vkp;Ztud rF; lkeus
vk,A ,d kjafHkd mnkgj.k gS] nh?kkZof/kd Lej.k ds dk;Z esa

fdl dkj ls fofHkUu efLrd {ks= ijLij lacaf/kr gksrs gS tks


bQsfDVo dusfDofoVh ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gS ds U;wjy dk;Zdyki dks
ns[kus ds fy, u, xf.krh; rduhfd;ksa dk Hkh fodkl fd;k tk jgk
gSA ;g mik; gekjs fy, ;g kalk djuk lqdj cukrk gS fd dSls
efLrd {ks= ,d Vhe ds :i esa dk;Z djrs gSa u fd ekewyh
vyx&vyx dk;kZRed gkWV&LiksV dh rjgA ;g vkkk dh tkrh gS fd
;s ubZ rduhfd;ka] mPp QhYM {kerk okys pqEcd ds lkFk vkSj vf/kd
lVhd Nfo;ka nku djrh gSa] tks gesa vuqHkwfr ds lheysl fu;a=.k]
fopkj vkSj dk;Z esa ,d nwljs ls ckrphr djrs U;wjkWuksa ds usVodZ dh
f;kvksa ds ckjs esa cryk,xkA

vuql/a kku vxz.kh

fudksl yksxksFksfVl ,d ;qok vuqla/kkudrkZ gS ftlus efLrd esa U;wjkWuksa ds


dk;Zdyki vkSj efLrd Nfodj.k ;ksxksa esa ns[ks x, ladsrksa ds chp laca/k
dk le>us esa cM+k ;ksxnku fn;k gSA
gkfy;k vuql/a kku ftlesa ,Q,evkjvkbZ ds lkFk fo|qrh; fjdkWfMZxa feyk;k
x;k gS us dk;Z {kerk fuiknu dh vis{kk flukfIVd dk;Zdyki vkSj cksYM
ds chp cgqr vf/kd lfUudV laca/k nkkZ;k gSA blfy, chvks,yMh ladsr
bldh dk;Z{kerk frQy dh vis{kk efLrd {ks= ds Hkhrj flukfIVd
f;kUo;u ds fooluh; lwpdkad gSA dk;Z ds LFkku fu/kkZj.k dh rtZ
ij chvks,yMh ladrs dh O;k[;k ds fy, bldk egRoiw.kZ fufgrkFkZ gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl: http://www.dcn.ed.ac.uk/bic/


http://www.fil.ion.ucl.ac.uk/

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raf=dk usVodZ vkSj


f=e efLrd
okLrfod efLrd ,d my>u Hkjk vax gSA bldh raf=dk] jDr lsy
vkSj nzo ls Hkjh osafVdYl fyfiM esEczsu izksVhu vkSj vR;f/kd ikuh ls
cuh gksrh gSaA vki viuh maxyh ls efLrd esa Nsn dj ldrs gSa]
ekbksVkse ij dkV ldrs gSa] bldh raf=dkvksa esa bysDVksM ?kqlk
ldrs gSa vkSj blds tfj, jDr pki ns[k ldrs gSaA efLrd dk
v/;;u n`<+rk iwoZd thofoKku vkSj vkSkf/k;ksa ij dsfUnzr gSa izrhr
gksrk gSA rFkkfi] blds ckjs esa vU; rjg dh lksp gS ftlus xf.krKksa]
HkkSfrdh foKkfu;ksa] vfHk;ark vkSj dEI;wVj foKkfu;ksa dk /;ku vkdfkZr
fd;k gSA os efLrd ds ckjs esa lehdj.k fy[kus] dEI;wVj dk eksMy
cukus vkSj ;gka rd fd gkMZos;j midj.k cukus ds }kjk lksprs gSa tks
gekjs flj ds Hkhrj okLrfod raf=dkvksa dh udy djrs gSaA
okLrfod efLrd cgqr vf/kd vuqdwyuh; gksrs gSaA os ,slh phtsa
djus esa leFkZ gksrs gSa tSls gLrfyfi i<+uk] ftls geus igys dHkh
ugha ns[kk gS vkSj iwjh rjg vutku O;fDr dh cksyh dks le>ukA
vkSj os xyr gksus okyh phtksa dks cnkZr dj ldrs gSaA os thou Hkj
ds fy, ;Fkksfpr vPNh rjg dk;Z djrs gSa ;|fi lsy ejrs gSa vkSj
;gka rd fd o`)koLFkk esa Hkh efLrd ubZ pky lh[kus esa leFkZ gksrs
gSaA vkt ds jkscksV izfrcaf/kr {ks= ds dk;Z djus esa cgqr vPNs gksrs gSa
ftuds fy, mudh fMtkbu dh xbZ gSA tSls NksVk lk dkj cukuk
ijUrq tc dqN xyr gks tkrk gS rc cnkZr ugha dj ldrs gSaA
lHkh okLrfod efLrd cgqr vf/kd ijLij lacaf/kr raf=dh; usVodksZa
ls cus gksrs gSa mudh raf=dkvksa dks tkZ dh vko;drk gksrh gs vkSj
usVodZ ds fy, txg dh vko;drk gksrh gSA gekjs efLrd esa
vanktk 100 fcfy;u uoZ lsy 3-2 fefy;u fd-eh- rkj
fefy;u&fcfy;u dusDku lHkh 1-5 yhVj dh txg esa iSd gksrs gSa
ijUrq budk otu dsoy 1-5 fdyksxzke gksrk gS vkSj ekewyh 10 okWV
dh [kir djrs gSaA ;fn ge flfydkWu fpIl dk bLrseky djrs gq,
,sls efLrd cukus dh psVk djrs gSa rks ;g yxHkx 10 esxkokWV
[kir djsxk vFkkZr ,d uxj dks fo|qr nsus ds cjkcj fctyhA bl
ekeys dks vkSj vf/kd [kjkc gSa rks ,sls flfydkWu efLrd }kjk
mRikfnr rki bls fi?kyk nsxkA gekjh pqukSrh dSls efLrd ,slh
l{kerk vkSj fdQk;rh :i ls dk;Z djrs gSa vkSj efLrd ds leku
ekhu cukus esa leku fl)karksa dk mi;ksx djuk gSA
vkids efLrd esa 100]000]000]000 dksfkdk,a gSa vkSj blesa
3]200]000 fdyksehVj yack rkj gS vkSj blds lkFk
1]000]000]000]000]000 lkbusfIVd dusDku gSa] tks 1-5 yhVj ds
1-5 fdyksxzke ds vanj iSd fd, x, gksrs gSaA fQj Hkh ;g ,d
ukbV cYc ds cjkcj fctyh [kpZ djrk gSA

44

flyhdkWu esa efLrd lfdZV cukuk


ladsr nsus dh tkZ ykxr&,d raf=dk ls nwljh rd efLrd ds
fodkl esa lEHkor% ,d eq[; dkjd jgk gSA efLrd dh dqy tkZ
[kir dk yxHkx 50&80 izfrkr uoZ Qkbcj ds lkFk dk;Z {kerk ds
laokgu esa [kir gksrh gS vkSj flukfIVd Vkalfeku esaA ckdh fofuekZ.k
vkSj vuqj{k.k esa fy;k tkrk gSA ;g ftl rjg e/kqeD[kh ds efLrd
ds fy, lp gS oSlk gh gekjs efLrd ds fy, Hkh lp gSA rFkkfi]
fMthVy dEI;wVj dh xfr ls ;fn rqyuk dh tk, rks uoZ pki dh
xfr cgqr /kheh gS&dsoy dqN gh ehVj izfr lsd.MA ec) izf;d
tSls fMthVy dEI;wVj esa] ;g thou vlaHko cuk nsxkA tSo foKkuh
efLrd dk fuekZ.k cgqr vf/kd lekukUrj usVodksZa dh rjg gqvk gSA
vf/kdkak raf=dk,a dbZ gtkj nwljksa ls tqM+s gq, gSA bldks djus ds
fy, efLrd blds rhu vk;keh vk;ru esa lHkh phtksa dk nksgu
djrk gS & lsy ds khVksa dks rg esa eksM+dj caMyksa esa dusDku cukrk
gSA blds foijhr nks vk;keh fpIl vkSj lfdZV cksMksZa }kjk de la[;k
ds flyhdkWu raf=dkvksa ds chp lEidZ cukuk lhfer fd;k x;k gSA
vr% efLrd ds foijhr flyhdkWu raf=dkvksa ds chp lh/kk lEidZ
xaHkhj :i ls izfrcaf/kr gSA rFkkfi] ikjEifjd bysDVkWfud dh cgqr
vf/kd xfr dk nksgu djds vusdkusd flyhdkWu raf=dk ls pkiksa dks
cgqfo| fd;k tk ldrk gS&;g ,d gh rkj ls vusd vyx&vyx
lansk Hkstus dh izf;k gSA bl rjg ls flyhdkWu vfHk;ark
thofoKkuh usVodksZa dh dusfDVfoVh dh psVk kq: dj ldrs gaSA
fo|qr ?kVkus ijUrq xfr c<+kus ds fy, raf=dh; :i ls izsfjr bathfu;jksa
us fMthVy dksfMax dh vis{kk ,ukykWx mi;ksx djus dk tho oSKkfud
j.kuhfr viuk;k gSA dkoZj ehM] dSfyQksfuZ;k esa flyhdkWu oSyh dk ,d
xq# raf=dk foKku dks izkS|ksfxdh esa ifjorZu dh O;k[;k djus ds fy,
^^U;wjksekfQZd bathfu;fjax dh O;k[;k nh gSA 0 ,l MhthVy dksfMax ds
ctk; okWYVst esa yxkrkj ifjorZuksa esa ,ukykWx dksM vkSj 1 ,l esa
tSlkfd os vius izkjafHkd mijkT; esa U;wjkWu djrs gSA v/;k; 3A rc
dqN pj.kksa esa ifjdyu fd;k tk ldrk gS pwafd flyhdkWu midj.kksa
dh ewy inkFkksZa dk nksgu fd;k tkrk gSA ,ukykWx x.kuk vklkuh ls
izkjafHkd ifjx.kuk eqgS;k djkrk gS % tksM+] ?kVko] ?kkrkadh vkSj
,dhdj.k] buesa ls lHkh fMthVy ekhuksa esa tfVy dk;Z gSaA tc
raf=dk,a&pkgss os thofoKkuh gksa ;k flyhdkWu&x.kuk djus vkSj fu.kZ;
ysrs gSa os yf{kr U;wjkWuksa dks mkj nsus ds fy, pki Mkmu ,Xtksu dk
ikjsk.k djrs gSaA pwafd Likbd dksfMax tkZ dh n`fV ls eagxh gksrh gS]
l{ke dksfMax fjMuMslh dks de djds Likbd ds iSVuZ esa izLrqr lwpuk
dh ek=k c<+krh gSA tkZ {kerk Hkh ;Fkk laHko de la[;k eas U;wjkWukas dk
mi;ksx djds c<+k;h tkrh gSA ;g LislZ dksfMax dgykrk gS vkSj ;g
f=e raf=dh; usVodZ cukus okys bathfu;jksa ds fy, ,d nwljk
fMtkbu
fl)kar
eqgS;k
djrk
gSA

3
1
2

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flyhdkWu jsfVuk

f=e raf=dh; usVodZ

,d thofoKkuh usVodZ dk ljy f=e laLdj.k cuk;k x;k gS tks


flyhdkWu jsfVuk dk cuk gS tks izdkk xzg.k djrk gS vkSj lEiw.kZ
ykbfVax ifjfLFkfr esa ifjorZuksa dks Lor% gh izfrQy nsrk gSA ;g nks
flyhdkWu U;wjkWuksa dks tksM+rk gS] og n`; dkWVsZDl esa okLrfod U;wjkWu
dh rjg gksrk gS ftldk dk;Z ykbu ds dks.kksa ds ckjs esa lwpuk ,d=
djuk vkSj jsfVuk dh Nfo dks foijhr :i esa mRiUu djuk gSA

f=e raf=dh; usVodZ ,,u,u,l cgq/kk lh[kus vkSj Lej.k dks


v/;;u djus ds fy, iz;qDr gksrs gSA lk/kkj.k% mUgsa ikjEifjd
fMthVy dEI;wVj ds lkWVos;j esa Mkyk tkrk gS] muesa vla[;
ljy dk;kZRed ,dd gksrs gSa] os usVodZ esa vkil esa tqM+s gksrs gSaA
,,u,u,l dk ljyre :i QhM QkjoMZ ,lksfl,Vj gS ftlesa
vkil esa tqM+s buiqV vkSj vkmViqV dh ijrsa gksrh gSa rkfd tc
buiqV iSVuZ dks izLrqr iqu% izkIr fd;k tkrk gS rc iSVuZ ls lacaf/kr
laxzfgr iSVuZ iqu%izkIr fd;k tkrk gS vxys i`B ij xf.krh; igsyh
dk ckWDl ns[ksaA ,d vkSj vf/kd tfVy ,,u,u fjdjsaV U;wjy usV
gSA ;g ,d gh ijr ls cuk gksrk gS tgka izR;sd ,dd ijLij tqM+k
gksrk gS vkSj lHkh ,dd buiqV vkSj vkmViqV ds :i esa dk;Z djrs
gSaA lquus esa ;g FkksM+k vpEHkk yxrk gS ijUrq ;g fMtkbu usV dks
iSVuZ laxzg djus esa leFkZ cukrk gS u fd dsoy enksa ds tksM+sA bl
izdkj ds Lor% foPNsfnr gksus okys usVodZ dks fMdksfMax laxzfgr
iSVuZ dh iqu%izokgh [kkst djds izkIr fd;k tkrk gSA ;g nkkZ;k
x;k gS fd 1000 ;wfuV ds usVodZ ds fy,] iqu%izkfIr iSVuZ ds nksk
cgqr vf/kd gksus ds igys yxHkx 150 iSVuZ iqu%izkIr fd, tk ldrs
gSaA

bl izksVksVkbi esa U;wjkWu baVsxzsV&,.M&Qk;j U;wjkWu dgykrs gSa vkSj


U;wjkseksfQZd vfHk;ark budk mi;ksx cgqrk;r esa djrs gSaA os bls bl
uke ls tkurs gSa pwafd os Hkkfjr izfrQy tksM+rs gSa] okWYVst dh rjg
dksM djrs gSa tks muds flukfIll ij vkrs gSa vkSj dsoy Qk;j ,u
,Dku {kerk ;fn okWYVst lSV izosk }kj ij igqprk gSA flyhdkWu
U;wjkWu vius vki VkalftLVlZ ls cus gksrs gSa ijUrq VkaftLVlZ dk
mi;ksx djus ds ctk; tSlk fd ikjEifjd fMthVy flLVeksa esa
okWYVst dsk fLop djrs vkSj lar`Ir djrs gSa] VkaftLVlZ dks lapkyu
muds izkjafHkd nk;js esa gksrk gSA bl nk;js esa os okLrfod U;wjkWuksa ds
lsy esEcszu dh rjg dk;Z djrs gSaA vfrfjDr VkaftLVj okWYVst dh
cjkcjh djus vkSj okLrfod vk;u pSuyksa dks le; vk/kkfjr /kkjk
izokgksa ds fufer lf; pkydRo iznku djrs gSaA ;g y?kq n`;
flLVe dgha vf/kd O;kid f=e n`; flLVe dks izksVksVkbi gSA
ftudk fodkl fd;k tk jgk gS] ijUrq ;gka rd ;g LiV dj nsrk
gS fd ljy fu.kZ; rd igqpus ds fy, dSls cgqr kksj&xqy okyk
okLrfod nqfu;k dk buiqV dks rsth ls izf;kfUor fd;k tk ldrk
gSA ;g og lc dj ldrk gS ftldks djus ds fy, bldh :ijs[kk
rS;kj dh xbZ gSA vki n`; ds ykbu dk vfHkeq[khdj.k crk,a&vkSj
raf=dk foKkuh igys ls gh midj.k ds ijh{k.k vkSj fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
izfkf{kr djus ds fy, bl ljy flyhdkWu n`; flLVe dk mi;ksx
dj jgs gSaA f=e usVodksZa ds ckjs esa vfr egRoiw.kZ pht ;g gS fd
os okLrfod nqfu;k eas okLrfod le; vkSj cgqr de fo|qr esa dk;Z
djrs gSaA

,,u,u dh efLrd ls lekurk muds lwpuk laxzfgr djus vkSj


izf;kfUor djus esa fufgr gSA ^Kku* ftldh os izf;kfUor djrs gSa
usVodZ esa gh gksrk gSA fMthVy dEI;wVj dh rjg mudk dksbZ Lej.k
LFkku ugha gS ftuds fy, T;ksferh; izf;kUo;d vkSj Lej.k dk
iM+rky djus okys vyx&vyx gksrs gSaA blds ctk, muesa dUVsaV
vkMslscy LVksjst gksrs gSaA ,,u,u esa dusDku ds Hkkj esa lwpuk ,d=
dh tkrh gS] mlh izdkj lh[kus ds nkSjku og flukfIll mudh {kerk
cnyrs gSaA ,,u,u dksbZ izf;k ds fy, Hkh dk;Zfer ugha fd, tkrs
gSaA izR;sd U;wjkWu Hkhrj esa ewd gS vkSj dqy Hkkfjr buiqV ds vuqlkj
izfrf;k djrk gSA blds ckotwn mUgsa vkSj prqj dk;ksZa ds fy,
izfkf{kr fd;k tk ldrk gSA yfuZax fu;e tks usVodZ dks izfkf{kr
djrs gSa U;wjkWuksa ds chp lEidZ ds Hkkj dks cndydj ,slk djrs gSa]
,d lkekU; pht+ fu;e gksus ds ukrs og ,d fufpr iSVuZ ds fy,
usVodZ ds vkmViqV dks xzg.k djrk vkSj bfPNr iSVuZ ls bldh
rqyrk djrk gSA rqyuk esa fdlh izdkj dh =qfV dk mi;ksx rc
bfPNr fudVre vkmViqV izkIr djus ds fy, la;kstu dk Hkkj dks
lek;ksftr djus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSa usVodZ /khjs&/khjs =qfV ladsr
?kVkdj de dj nsrk gSaA ijUrq ;g /khjs&/khjs dk;Z djrk gSA
=qfV egRoiw.kZ gks tkrh gS&;g usVodZ xyrh ugha djrk gS rks dksbZ Hkh
yfuZax lEHo ugha gSA ;g yfuZax dh fokskrk gS ftls utjvankt fd;k
tk ldrk gSA izfkf{kr usVodZ ij tks fdlh rjg dh xyrh ugha
djrk gS og dsoy ,d dh izdkj ds buiqV ds fy, izfrf;k dj
ldrk gSA ,sls usVodksZa dks yk{kf.kd :i ls xSz.M enj dgk tkrk gS]
;g ikSjkf.kd dFkk ds xzS.M enj lsy ls lanfHkZr gS tks ekuo efLrd
esa jgrk gS og rHkh izfrf;k dj ldrk gS tc mldh nknh lkeus
fn[kkbZ nsrh gS vkSj og dHkh xyrh ugha djrk gSA ;g okLrfod
nqfu;k ds vuqiz;ksx ds fy, cgqr mi;ksxh ugha gSa pwafd gesa izR;sd
pht lh[kus ds fy, vyx&vyx usVodZ dh vko;drk gqbZ gSA
blds foijhr ,,u,u esa lqLiV fufgr oLrq buiqV iSVuksaZ dks lkekU;
cukus dh mudh {kerk gS mUgsa dHkh izfk{k.k ugha fn;k x;k gSA os
laca/k ns[krs gSa] iSVuZa esa laca/k cukrs vkSj fu;ferrkvksa dh [kkst djrs
gSaA vkSj os pwd ds izfr ekuo efLrd dh rjg gh lgukhy gksrs gSaA
os buiqV iSVuZ ds /ofu ;qDr ;k viw.kZ gksus ds ckotwn vc Hkh laxzfgr
iSVuZ iqu%izkIr dj ldrs gSaA ;s thofoKkuh efLrdksa ds fy, Hkh cgqr
egRoiw.kZ fokskrk,a gSa vkSj ,,u,u,l ;s phtsa Hkh dj ldrs gSaA

flfydkWu jsfVuk ds lkeus fLFkr ,d dSejk ySal

45

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vk/kqfud x.kuk izkS|ksfxdh dk fojks/kkHkkl
orZeku ,,u,u,l dk fojks/kkHkkl ;g gSa fd os xf.krh; :i esa fMthVy
dEI;wVjksa esa udy fd, tkrs gSaA ;g mUgsa okLrfod nqfu;k dh
ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa mudk mi;ksx djrk gS] tks cgqr vf/kd lhfer gS] pwafd
vuqdj.k le; ysrk gS vkSj blfy, ,,u,u,l okLrfod le; esa dk;Z
ugha dj ldrs gSaA ,,u,u,l vkWVkseksckby pykus ;k gokbZ tgkt
mM+kus ds fy, lgh fLFkr gksrh gSa pwafd os /ofu ds chp Hkh etcwr gksrs
gSa vkSj dqN usVodZ ds dk;Z u djus ij Hkh pyrs jgrs gSA rFkkfi]
fokskK fLkLVe ftudk iz;ksx lkekU;r% Lor% ik;yV esa fd;k tkrk gS
os fMthVy dEI;wVj dk;Zfer gksrs gSa ftuesa ikjEifjd fu.kZ;kRed
lkWVos;j vkSj lqj{kk ds fy, bldks geskk lgk;rk nsus dh vko;drk
gksrh gSA ;fn gokbZ tgkt esa dHkh dksbZ pht cqjh rjg [kjkc gks tkrh
gS rks ,sls fokskK flLVe dk;Z ugha dj ldrs gSaA ;fn flyhdkWu U;wjkWu
lh[k ldrk gS tks vHkh rd ugha dj ldrs] rc cgqr lh ,slh leL;k,a
lekIr gks tk,axhA tSlk fd ge efLrd ds dk;Z djus ds fok; vkSj
vf/kd tkurs gSa ge vkSj vf/kd tfVy raf=dh; usVodZ cukus esa leFkZ
gksaxs tks okLrfod efLrd dh rjg dk;Z djsxkA

uksekM vkus okyh lkspus dh ekhu dk pqycqfy;k vfirq


fopkjkhy iztud gSA ;g csyukdkj Vksjlks ds lkFk nks QhV
pk gS] bls vk[k] dku] fxzj] cktw vkSj bldks irk yxkus esa
lgk;rk nsus ds fy, vU; laosnd gSaA okLro eas uksekM dk jkscksV
ls vyx djrk gS] og gS ;g fcuk dksMsM vuqnsk ;k fu;eksa sd
dk;Z djrk gSA ckotwn blds] blds ikl 10]000 mksftr
efLrd lsyksa lfgr dEI;wVj }kjk mksftr efLrd gS vkSj
okrkoj.k dh vuqHkwfr djus vkSj izfrf;k djus ds fy, fefy;u
ls Hkh vf/kd dusDku gSA ;g lkSE; fLFkfr esa dk;Z dj ldrk
gS vkSj viuh xyfr;ksa ls lh[k ldrk gS tSlkfd ;g NksVk jaxhu
D;qc lfgr isu fNrjko ls vpE;k djrk gSA dqN D;qc iV~Vhnkj
gksrs gS vkSj fo|qrh; :id ls laokgd gksrs gS tks mUgsa #fpdj
cukrs gSaA vU; D;qc /kCcsnkj gksrs gS vkSj fo|qr laokgu ugha
djrs tks mUgsa de :fpdj cukrs gSA D;qcksa dks ns[kus }kjk vkSj
p[kus ds }kjk vius fxzij ls bysfDVdy lsalj esa] uksekM /kCcsnkj
D;qcksa dks NksM+us ds fy, lh[krk gS vkSj LokfnV iV~Vhnkj dks
pqurk gSA

46

xf.krh; igsyh fdrkc


fok;oLrq lekkks/; laforfjr Lej.k

,sls rkjksa dh dYiuk djsa tks {kSfrt esa gSa vkSj pkj ds lkFk m/oZ
dV gksrk gS muds feyus dh fcUnq ij fLop gSa pSuy d ;g
eSfVDl Lej.k gSA ck;ujh uEcj ds :Ik esa bls lwpuk izLrqr dh
tkrh gS tSlkfd 0011 vkSj 1010 vkSj ge tgka dgh 1 d] 1d ls
feyrk gS ogka fLop vkWu djus dh O;oLFkk djrs gS ch dks uhys
esa nkkZ;k x;k gSA ;s bu nks uEcjksa dks tksfM+;ka feykrs gSaA
eSfVDl izFke tksM+h ds ij vU; uEcj laxzg dj ldrk gS
tSlkfd 1010 vkSj 0110A eSfVDl dh vafre voLFkk esa 7 fLop
gksuh pkfg,A ;fn vc vki igyh la[;k nksckjk izLrqr djrs gSa
0011 & eSfVDl ds vafre pj.k esa vkSj m/oZ rkj esa djsaV pkyw
djus dh O;oLFkk djrs gSa rks vki ik,axs fd la[;k 2120 ds
lekuqikr esa rg ij m/oZ rkjksa ls djsV ckgj vk,xkA ;g 0011
ds lkFk igys tksM+h cuk;h xbZ la[;k ugha gSA ijUrq ;fn vki
2120 dks iz;qDr la[;kvksa esa igys dh dqy la[;k ls Hkkx nsa[ks
0$0$1$1=2 baVsxj fMfotu dk mi;ksx djds ,slk izdkj
tgka vki Lej.k ds ckjs Hkwyrs gSa rc vkidks 1010 feysxkA vr%
eSfVDl us Lej.k gS fd 0011] 1010 ds lkFk tkrk gS ;|fi igys
ds ij vU; lansk laxzg fd;k x;k gSA vki f}rh; la[;k tksM+h
ds lkFk bl dk;Z dh tkap dj ldrs gSaA

;g ,d izdkj dk Lej.k gS tks efLrd ds ikl gSA ;g fofkV


LFkku ij lwpuk ,d= ugha djrk gS& tSlk fd ihlh esaA lwpuk
usVodksZa ds chp forfjr dh tkrh gS laxzfgr dh tkrh gS pwafd
flukfIVd Hkkj esa ifjorZd gksrk gS vkSJ blds fufgr rRo ds
lanHkZ esa bl iqu% izkIr fd;k tk ldrk gSA leL;k ;g gS fd
bl izdkj ds Lej.k cgqr tYn ljkoksj gks tkrs gSa fokskdj tc
dsoy pkj rkj gksrs gSaA rFkkfi rkjksa dh 1000 tksfM+;ksa ds lkFk
eSfVDl cgqr vf/kd ,d ds ckn nwljk lansk fcuk vf/kd vM+pu
ds gh laxzfgr dj ldrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV fyaDl: www.artificialbrains.com


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tc dksbZ ckr
fcxM+ tk,

efLrd ,d uktqd vax gSA nq?kZVukvksa ls flj esa pksV yx ldrh gS


vkSj efLrd jksxh gks ldrk gS rFkk lkekU; <ax ls dke djuk can dj
ldrk gSA fnekxh chekjh vusd y{k.k iSnk dj ldrh gS vkSj bUgsa
le>uk eqfdy gks ldrk gSA fnekxh chekfj;ksa ds ewY;kadu ds fy,
raf=dkfoKkuh U;wjksykWftLV ;k eu% fpfdRld }kjk uSnkfud dkSky
fn[kkus rFkk ifjr tSo&fpfdRlh; vkdyu ,oa fnekxh besaftax dh
t#jr gksrh gSA dqN chekfj;ka tSls fejxh vkSj fMizsku & cgqr vke gS]
;gka rd fd o`)ksa vkSj fdkksjksa esa HkhA vU; jksx dqN de ik, tkrs gSa
tSls kkbt+kssfu;k] tks flQZ o`)koLFkk esa vke gksrs gSa tSls vYt+kbej
jksx] ysfdu fQj Hkh ;s jksx iaxq dj gh nsrs gSA dqN jksxksa esa vkuqoafkdh
dk rRo cgqr vf/kd gksrk gSA ftlls ,sls eqfdy loky mB [kM+s gksrs
gSa fd D;k ge ;g tkuuk pkgsaxs fd D;k geesa ,sls laxr mRifjorZu
gq, gSa tks gesa ,sls jksxksa dk fkdkj cuk nsaxsA

xM+cM+ flxufyax & fejxh


nkSjs fejxh ds le;] O;fDr csgksk gks tkrk gS vkSj t+Ekhu ij fxj
ldrk gS] mldh kjhj vdM+ tkrk gS rFkk og dkairk gSA tc mUgsa
gksk vkrk gS] rks os ;g ns[krs gSa fd mUgksaus viuh t+cku dkV yh gS
;k iskkc dj fn;k gSA blds ckn os my>u ;k mUkhank eglwl dj
ldrs gSaA dbZ cPpksa dks Hkh ;g jksx gksrk gS ysfdu thou esa vkxs
pydj mUgsa cgqr de nkSjs iM+rs gSaA ysfdu nqHkkZX;ok dqN yksxksa dks
;g nkSjk gj lIRkkg ;k gj jkst+ Hkh iM+ ldrk gSA
rks] xM+cM+h gS dgk \ nkSjs ds nkSjku] U;wjkWu }kjk ^^,Dku iksVsfUk;y^^
NksM+us esa rst+h kq: gksrh gSA bl p dks laned xkck vkSj mRrstd
XywVkesaV U;wjksVkalfeVjksa }kjk lapkfyr fd;k tkrk gSA tc mRrstdrk
esa deh viw.kZ jgrh gS rks nkSjs iM+kslh U;wjkWu ds vfu;af=r bLrseky ls
kq: gks ldrs gSaA ;g izf;k flQZ ,d gh LFky esa ftlls vkafkd
nkSjk iM+rk gS ;k laiw.kZ dkWVZsDl O;kid nkSjk esa QSy ldrh gSA
O;kid nkSjs esa bySDVksbUlSWQsyksxzke bZbZth dh lkekU; vYQk y; dk
LFkku nksuksa lsjsczy gsfeLQh;j bySfDVd lf;rk dh cM+h] /kheh
ledkfyd rjaxsa ys ysrh gS ns[ksa cSdMkWiA
dHkh&dHkkj iM+us okys nkSjs dkQh vke gSA ysfdu ckj&ckj iM+us okys
nkSjs fejxh de ik, tkrs gSa vkSj vf/kd dVnk;d gksrs gSaA buds
rkRdkfyd dkj.k LiV ugha gSA fejxh ds jksfx;ksa dks ;s nkSjs Fkdku]
Hkkstu u djus] jDr esa kdZjk dh deh] kjkc] ;k Vsyhfot+u dh
didaikrh Lhu ls gks ldrs gSaA ihfM+r yksxksa dks lko/kkuh cjruh
pkfg,A

cSd MkWi esa fejxh ds nkSjs ds le; bZbZth fn[kk;k x;k gSA

raf=dk foKku vuqla/kku us fejxh ls xzLr yksxksa dk thou lq/kkjus ds


fy, nks eq[; ;ksxnku fd, gSaA izFker%] mRrstd dh le> fodflr
djds] vc rd ,slh nok,a cuk ldrs gSa tks lkekU; fnekxh xfrfof/k
dks de fd, fcuk vlkekU; nkSjk izf;k dks ef)e dj ldrh gSaA
iqjkuh nok,a lkekU; funzkdkjh flMsfVo dk dke djrh Fkh tcfd
vk/kqfud nok,a dgha vf/kd pqfuank <ax ls dke djrh gSaA nwljs fnekxh
besftax dh xq.koRrk esa lq/kkj dk vFkZ gS fd vR;f/kd dVnk;d nkSjksa
ls xzLr dqN yksxksa ds fy, vc muds nkSjksa ds lzksr dk lgh irk yxk
ikuk laHko gks x;k gSA blfy, vc U;wjksltZu ds fy, ;g laHko gks
x;k gS fd bl jksxxzLr fnekxh fV;w dks dkV ns ftlls nkSjksa dh
vko`fRr de gks tkrh gS vkSj vHkh rd vizHkkfor fnekxh fV;w rd
mlds QSyus dk tksf[ke Hkh ?kV tkrk gSA dbZ ckj fejxh dh
kY;&fpfdRlk vf/kd izcy ekuh tkrh gS ysfdu bldk vlj okdbZ
egRoiw.kZ gSA

fljnnZ vkSj ekbxzus


vf/kdrj yksxksa dks dHkh u dHkh fljnnZ gksrk gSA vdlj ;g
ekalisfk;ksa esa ruko ds dkj.k gksrk gS vkSj blds fpUrk ugha djuh
pkfg,A dHkh dHkh [kkldj ;fn fljnnZ vdlj gksrk gks ;k Ropk ij
pdRrs ;k mYVh ds lkFk lkFk gksrk gS & rks bldk xaHkhj cqfu;knh
dkj.k gks ldrk gSA bu fLFkfr;ksa esa] nnZ fnekx ls ugha vkrk cfYd
fnekxh ijr ykbfuax esfufUtl esa rdyhQ+ ;k f[kapko ls vkrk gSA
fljnnZ dk ,d vf/kd vke
dkj.k ekbxzsu gSA lkFk&lkFk
flj esa Hk;kud ihM+k vdlj
,d rjQ esa yksxksa dks mcdkbZ
vkrh gSA pednkj jkskuh ;k
kksj ls rdyhQ+ gksrh gS vkSj
mUgsa ^^ekbxzsUl vkWjk^^ eglwl
gksrk gS ftlesa pedrh jkskuh
;k Vs<+h&es<+h ykbusa fn[kkbZ
nsrh gSA ^^vkWjk^^ vdlj
ekbxzsu ls igyk gksrk gSA

vc bl ckr dh laHkkouk fn[kkbZ


nsrh gS fd ekbxzsu fnekx ds ml fgLls esa kq: gksrk gS tks lsjsczy jDr
okfgdkvksa ls vkus okyh nnZ dh laosnukvksa ij dkjZokbZ djrk gSA fnekxh
besftax ekbxzsu dh kq:vkr esa bu fgLlksa esa vf/kd xfrfof/k fn[kkrh gSA
bldh izfrf;k LoLF;] LFkkuh; jDr&vkiwfrZ esa dqN nsj ds fy, o`f)
gks tkrh gS tks pedrh jkskuh tSls y{k.k iSnk djrh gS] ftlds rqjUr
ckn jDr&izokg de gks tkrk gS tks vLFkk;h detksjh esa izdV gksrk
gSA
lsjksVksfuu 5 ,pVh fjlsIVjksa ds ckjs esa gekjh tkudkjh esa gqbZ izxfr
ds dkj.k fiNys nkd esa ekbxzsu ds nkSjksa ds bykt esa kafrdkjh
cnyko gq, gSaA

47

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Ik;kZIr tkZ dk vHkko & i{kk?kkr

Vkaft+,aV bLFksfed vVSd VhvkbZ, uke f;k esa] fnekx ds ,d


fgLls dks jDr dh vkiwfrZ can gks tkrh gS vkSj ,Vhih dh vkiwfrZ #d
tkrh gSA U;wjkWu vius vk;uh xzsfM,UV dks iqu%pktZ ugha dj ikrs vkSj
blfy, vkxs ,Dku iksVsfUky lapkfyr ugha dj ldrsA mnkgj.kkFkZ]
;fn ck,a gsfeLQh;j dks eksVj dkWVZsDl dh jDr dh vkiwfrZ dkV nh
tk, rks nk;ka cktw vkSj Vkax ydok&xzLr gks tk,xkA ;fn ;g
#dkoV tYnh [kRe gks tk, rks U;wjkWu iqu% ,Vhih cuk ldrs gSa]
viuh esEczsu dks iqu%pktZ dj ldrs gSa vkSj lkekU; f;k kq: rks
tk,xhA lkSHkkX;ok] VhvkbZ, esa dksbZ LFkk;h {kfr ugha gksrhA

tc yksxksa esa vpkud kjhj ds ,d fgLls esa det+ksjh iSnk gks tkrh
gS] rc vke rkSj ij ;g fnekx ds nwljh rjQ dks Hkkfor djus okys
jDrk?kkr ds dkj.k gksrk gSA lUrqyu] laosnu ;k Hkkkk vkSj t+cku ij
Hkh vlj gks ldrk gSA dbZ ckj ;s vlkekU;rk,a le; ds lkFk&lkFk
lq/kj tkrh gS] ;gka rd fd ijh rkSj ij lkekU; fn[kkbZ nsus yxrh
gS] ysfdu i{kk?kkr vHkh Hkh e`R;q vkSj vkDrrk dk cgqr pfyr
dkj.k gSA i{kk?kkr vusd ekiksa vkSj vkdkjksa esa dV gksrk gS vkSj
blds ifj.kke cgqr gn rd fnekx ds ml fgLls ij fuHkZj djrk gS
tks Hkkfor gksrs gSaA

i{kk?kkr vf/kd xaHkhj leL;k gSA ;fn jDr dh vkiwfrZ yacs le; rd
ugha gks] rks vifjorZuh; {kfr gks ldrh gSA ,Vhih ds vHkko esa]
dksfkdk,a gksfe;ksLVSfll cuk, ugha j[k ldrh vkSj os lwt ldrh gS
,oa QV ldrh gSaA U;wjkWu Hkh vpkud fu/kzoq.k Mhiksyjkbt+ gks
ldrs gSa ftlls laHkkfor :i ls fokSys U;wjksVkalfeVj tSls fd
XywVkesaV fu;qfDr gks ldrs gSa vkSj fXy;y dksfkdk,a] tks vke rkSj
ij ,Vhih vkfJr iEi ds tfj, vR;f/kd XywVkesaV dks lkQ+ dj nsrh
gS] os Hkh dke djuk can dj ldrh gSA tkZ ds vHkko esa] fnekxh
dksfkdkvksa dk thou cgqr vfufpr gks tkrk gSA

tks Hkh xM+cM+h iSnk gqbZ mldk laca/k ml tkZ dh vkiwfrZ ls gS tks
fnekx dks dke djus ds fy, t+#jh gksrh gSA U;wjkWu vkSj fXy;k dks
dke djus vkSj ft+Unk jgus ds fy, tkZ dh t#jr gksrh gSA lcls
egRoiw.kZ tkZ gSa vkDlht+u vkSj Xywdkst ds :i esa dkckZsgkbMsV( ;s
nksuksa feydj ,Vhih] tks dksfkdkvksa dh tkZ gS] ds fuekZ.k ds fy,
vko;d lkexzh eqgS;k djkrs gSaA ;g tkZ nsf[k, v/;k; 2 vkSj
3 oS|qr xfrfof/k ds vk/kkj esa jgus okys pktZ gq, vk;u ds okg
ds fy, t+#jh gSaA U;wjkWu dh tkZ dk yxHkx nks&frgkbZ fgLlk
lksfM;e@iksVsfk;e ist+ uked ,d ,at+kbe dks pykus ds fy,
bLrseky gksrk gS tks ^^,Dku iksVsfUk;y^^ gks tkus ds ckn lksfM;e
vkSj iksVsfk;e ds vk;uh xzfs M,UV dks iqu%pktZ djrk gSA

i{kk?kkr ds nkSjku gksus okyh f;kvksa ds lko/kkuhiwoZd v/;;u ds


t+fj, raf=dk foKkuh u, bykt fodflr djus esa lQY gks ik, gSaA
vusd i{kk?kkr okfgdkvksa dks vo#) dj nsus okys [kwu ds FkDdks]
CYkM DYkkWV] ds dkj.k gksrs gSa vkSj ^^fV;w Iykt+feukstu ,DVhos;j
Vhih, uked FkDdksa dks rksM+us okyh nok ls bykt djus ij FkDdksa
dks rksM+k tk ldrk gS vkSj jDr dk okg pkyw fd;k tk ldrk gSA
;fn ;g nok tYnh gh ns nh tk, rks Vhih, dk ifj.kkeksa ij
ukVdh; Hkko gks ldrk gSA nqHkkZX;ok i{kk?kkr ds jksxh dks ,slh
nok tYnh nsuk ljy ugha gksxk D;ksafd laHkor% jksxh ds ifjokj dks
irk gh u gks fd gks D;k jgk gSA

esa ekbxzsu ds nkSjksa ds bykt esa kafrdkjh cnyko gq, gSA nokvksa
dh ,d ubZ Js.kh dh [kkst dh xbZ gS tks lsjksVksfuu jhlsIVjksa ds
foksk mi lewg dks lf; dj nsrh gSaA ;s nok,a&fVIVSu &
ekbxzsu dks mldh kq:vkr esa gh jksd nsus ij vljdkjd gSA
;g mu vusdkusd rjhdksa esa ls ,d gS ftlus U;wjkslk;Ul ds
vuqla/kku us foo Hkj ds yk[kksa yksxksa ds thou dks lq/kkjus esa
;ksxnku fd;k gSA

efLrd dk
nk;ka gsfeLQs;j

cka, gsfeLQs;j dh
dVh gqbZ lrg
vk?kkr LFky

nokvksa dh ,d ubZ Js.kh ls Hkh bykt fd;k tk jgk gS tks XywVkesaV


lfgr U;wjksVkalfeVjksa] tks i{kk?kkr ds nkSjku fokSys Lrjksa rd tek gks
tkrs gSa] dks vo#) djrh gSaA ;s nok,a ;k rks Lo;a XywVkesaV jhlsIVjksa
dks ;k XywVkesaV }kjk lapkfyr var%dksfkdk ladsr ekxkZsa dks vo#)
dj nsrh gSaA ,slh dbZ nok,a fodflr dh tk jgh gSaA vQlksl gS fd
buesa ls fdlh dk Hkh i{kk?kkr ij dksbZ vlj ugha gqvk gSA

vkuqokafkd jksx

vk?kkr LFky ds
vklikl
{kfrxzLr
dksfkdkvksa dk
fiueczy

nk;ka lsjscy
s e
es: jTtq

efLrd ls tqM+h
/kefu;k

i{kk?kkr esa efLrd dh {kfr vkSj mlds vkl&ikl fiuEczy LFkku


ftls {kfrxzLr gksus dk [krjk gS] fn[kkus okyk fp=

48

cgqr le; ls fpfdRld fnekxh jksxksa dks Hkkfor LFkku ds vuqlkj


igpkurs jgs gSa vkSj mldk bykt djrs jgs gSaA vusd jksxksa ds laca/k
esa] mudk uke gh mudh xM+cM+h vkSj fnekx ds Hkkfor fgLls dk
|ksrd gksrk gS] ftls vdlj ySfVu ;k xzhd dk tkek iguk;k tkrk
gS] tSlfd ^^iSjkbVy ,VsfDl;ka^^A fiNys bl okkZsa esa vkuqoafkdh laca/kh
tkudkjh dh ckSNkj us fLFkfr dks iwjh rjg cny fn;k gSA vusd
vkuqokafkd jksxksa esa] xM+cM+h dgha vkSj gksrh gSA
dqN yksxksa dks fojklr esa ,slh leL;k feyrh gS ftlesa pyus&fQjus
ij iwjk fu;a=.k jgrk gS ysfdu le; chrus ij os vf/kdkf/kd
yM+[kM+kuk kq: dj nsrs gSaA Likbukslsjscsyj ,VsfDl;k uked ;g jksx
& ,slk uke tks jksxksa ds ukedj.k ds kphu bfrgkl dks frfcafcr
djrk gS & gesa bl jksx dks iSnk djus okys ;FkkrF; thu&nkskksa dks
LiV djrk gSA vc dbZ vkSj chekfj;ksa dks Hkh muds dkj.k ds
vuqlkj oxhZr fd;k tk ldrk gS vkSj uSnkfud vkuqokafkd ijh{k.k
vc Likbuks lsyscsyj ,VsfDl;k ;k vU; vkuqokafkd jksxksa ls xzLr
yksxksa ds fy, vke ckr gks xbZ gSA vc jksx&funku igys dh vis{kk
dgha tYnh vkSj vf/kd lqfufprrk ds lkFk fd;k tk ldrk gSA

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lh[kus esa v{kerk
kkbt+kssfu;k

kks/k & efYViy LDysjksfll


efYViy LDysjksfll ;qok ckfyx yksxksa dk jksx gSA blesa ckj&ckj
det+ksjh] lqu gks tkuk] nksgjk fn[kkbZ nsuk ;k [kjkc larqyu tSls
y{k.k gksrs gSa tks Bhd gksus ls igys & okil lkekU; gksus rd &
dqN lIrkg rd jgrs gSaA chekjh vkSj Bhd gksus dh vof/k dk p
bl jksx dh fokskrk gSA

lh[kus esa v{kerk vkSj kkbt+kssfu;k laHkkfor ifjokj dh ihf<+;k


nkkus okyk oako`{k A ;g /;ku nsa fd ;s jksx dbZ ckj ,d ih<+h
NksM+ nsrs gSaA
gf.VaXVu jksx ,d raf=dk g~klh jksx gS tks kjhj dh vlkekU;
vuSfPNd xfrfof/k ls tqM+k gksrk gS] bl ekeys esa ;g ml MkWDVj ds
uke ls tkuk tkrk gS ftlus bl jksx dk igys&igy [kqyklk fd;kA
;g gf.VaXVu uked ekuo thukse esa lcls cM+s thu esa ls ,d esa
ckjackj mRifjorZu ds dkj.k gksrk gSA ikfdZUlu jksx /khekiu]
vdM+u] daidih vkSj yM+[kM+kgV iSnk djus okyk jksx ds vkjafHkd
:i^^ikfdZu^^ laca/kh thu dksfMax esa xM+cfM+;ksa ds dkj.k gksrs gSaA
funku esa enn djus ds lkFk lkFk] vkuqokafkd ijh{k.k dk mi;ksx
ifjokj ds vU; lnL;ksa dks ;g lykg nsus ds fy, fd;k tk ldrk
gS fd muesa ;g jksx gksus dh ;k vkxs muds cPpksa ds ;g jksx gksus
dh fdruh laHkkouk gSaA
ysfdu] Hkys gh vkuqokafkdh kafr us raf=dk iz.kkyh ds jksxksa ls yM+us
dk MkWDVjh rjhdk cny fn;k gks] fQj Hkh vHkh yach&[kkst&;k=k kq:
gh gqbZ gSA ,d gh izdkj dk thu&nksk vyx&vyx yksxksa esa
vyx&vyx jksx iSnk dj ldrk gS] vkSj vyx&vyx thu&nksk cgqr
leku jksx iSnk dj ldrs gSaA ;g le; ikuk fd bu varjksa dh otg
D;k gS vkSj dSls gekjh vkuqokafkd lajpuk ml nqfu;k var%f;k djrh
gS ftlesa vki jgrs gSa vkSj tks vkius vius bnZ&fxnZ clkbZ gS] og
gekjs thuksfed ;qx dh vxyh cM+h pqukSrh gSA
ppkZ dk eqk
;fn vkidks ;g irk pys fd vkidks vkuqokafkd jksx gksus dk
[krjk gS rks D;k vki ;g fufpr tkuuk pkgsaxs \ D;k tUe ls
iwoZ thu dh igpku djuk lgh gksxk vkSj ftuesa jksx gks ldrk
gS mudk xHkZikr djkuk \ jksx ds iuius ls igys ihfM+r
O;fDr;ksa }kjk ft, x, mu mi;ksxh vkSj ykHkdj okkZsa dk D;k \

efYViy LDysjksfll raf=dk&iz.kkyh esa kks/k ds dkj.k gksrk gS flesa


tyu gksrh gS vkSj fQj og Bhd gks tkrk gSA gekjh izfrj{k.k
iz.kkyh cSDVhfj;k ;k ok;jl }kjk iSnk fd, x, lae.kksa ls yM+us
ds cuh gSA dbZ ckj blesa xM+cM+h gks tkrh gS vkSj ;g gekjs gh
vaxksa ij izgkj djus yxrh gSA ,slh chekjh dks ^^vkWVksbE;wu jksx^^
dgk tkrk gS vkSj os fdlh Hkh fV;w dks izHkkfor dj ldrh gSaA
;fn izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh U;wjkWu ds pkjksa rjQ fyiVs ekbfyu ij
geyk djrh gS] rks tyu LFkkuh; :i ls gksrh gS tks
^^MhekbZfyusku^^ iSnk djrh gSA le; chrus ij tyu vke rkSj ij
kkar gks tkrh gS] ekbfyu esa lq/kkj gks tkrk gS vkSj lc lkekU; gks
tkrk gSA tyu gksrh D;ksa gS] ;g LiV ugha gS vkSj
^^MhekbZfyusku^^ ds jksxh flQZ ,d gh ckj laf{kIr :Ik ls ihfM+Rk
gksrs gSaA ysfdu dqN yksxksa esa fnekx ds fofHkUu fgLlksa dks izHkkfor
djus okys ckj&ckj nkSjs iM+us dh izo`fRr gksrh gSA
pwafd gesa ;g tkudkjh ugha gS fd efYViy LDysjksfll esa tyu
D;ksa kq: gksrh gS] ge bls iwjh rjg jksd ugha ldrsA ysfdu gesa
;g t+#j ekywe gS fd bu nkSjksa dks fLVjkW;M tSlh nokvksa dk
bLrseky djds NksVk fd;k tk ldrk gSaA cgqr xaHkhj ^^,e,l^^ okys
jksfx;ksa ds fy, dqN MkWDVj ;g ekurs gSa fd izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh ds
dqN fgLlksa dks ,t+SFkksizhu ;k ch&baVjQsjkWu tSlh nokvksa ls LFkk;h
rkSj ij ean djuk ykHkdj gks ldrk gSA vHkh Hkh muds iz;ksx dks
ysdj dkQ+h vfufprrk cuh gqbZ gSA
izfrj{k.k iz.kkyh ,sls lfU/k LFkkuksa ij Hkh d izgkj dj ldrh gS
tgka rf=dk,a ekalisfk;ksa ls tqMrh gSa] ftls ^^ek;LFksfu;k xzSfol^^
uke jksx iSnk gksrkk] ;k mu raf=dkvksa ij geyk gksrk gS tks lqkqEuk
ls mHkjrh gS] blds if.kkeLo:Ik xqfy;u ckjs flUMkse^^ uke jksx
mRiUu gksrk gSA
tSdfyu M+;w izs&efYViy
LDysjksfll ls ihfM+r ,d
fo[;kr laxhrK

49

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U;wjksfMtsujsku &
vYt+hej jksx

ysfdu vkuqokafkdh dkj.k dkQh egRoiw.kZ gSa D;ksafd ;ksxkkyk esa 3


ikqvksa esa vkuqokafkdh Mkydj tks uLy rS;kj dh xbZ mlesa bl
ge dkSu gS] vyx&vyx ifjfLFkfr;ksa dk ge ij D;k vlj gksrk gS] ge chekjh ds y{k.k fn[kkbZ fn,A bu ij fd, x, vuqla/kku lksp
fdlls se djrs gS] ge fdl pht+ ls Hk;Hkhr gksrs gSa] ge D;k ;kn j[krs gS le>dj frikfnr djuk gksxk] c<+k p<+k dj ughaA ysfdu buls gesa
bl lc f;kvksa dks gekjk efLrd gh funsZfkr djrk gSA euq; ds LoHkko jksx dh f;k dh tSfodh dks tkuus esa enn fey ldrh gSA
dk ;g egRoiw.kZ :i ml le; csdkj gks tkrk gS tc gekjk ;g efLrd
/khjs&/khjs det+ksj gksdj dke djuk can dj nsrk gS vFkkZr~ tc vYt+hej vYt+hej jksx ds dksi dks jksdus ds fy, vHkh rd dksbZ bykt ekStwn
jksx tdM+ ysrk gSA vYt+hej jksx Msesafk;k dk gh ,d :i gS ftlesa ugha gS] gkykafd blds fy, cgqr rRijrk ls ;kl fd;k tk jgk gS vkSj
ekufld kfDr yxHkx uV gks tkrh gSA 65 okZ dh vk;q okys O;fDr;ksa esa bl chekjh ds bykt gsrq ikqvksa ij kks/k djuk cgqr mi;ksxh gSA dgk
;g chekjh yxHkx 5 frkr vkSj 85 okZ ;k mlls vf/kd vk;q okys tkrk gSA ds ftu raf=dk dksfkdkvksa esa dsfedy VkalehVj
O;fDr;ksa esa 25 frkr rd gksrh gSA ;g vR;Ur nq[kn jksx gS% bles lcls ,flVydksyhu dk bLrseky gksrk gS mUgsa ;g chekjh [kkl rkSj ij tYnh
igys Lej.k kfDr {kh.k gksrh gS mlds ckn O;fDr dh gjdrsa lkekU; ugha idM+rh gSA mu ,utkbuksa tks lkekU;r% bl U;wjksVkalehVj dks uV
jgrh vkSj vUrr% mldh ekSr gks tkrh gSA vius f;tuksa dks bl rjg dks djrh gS] ds Hkko dks jksdrs gq, ksk ,flVdksyhu dh dkjZokbZ dks rst+
bl rjg dh fLFkfr esa ns[kuk fd ftlesa os Lo;a dks gh ugha igpku ikrs] djus ds fy, nh xbZ vkSkf/k;ksa dk i'kqvksa vkSj dqN jksfx;ksa ds ekeyksa]
cgqr gh ihfM+r O;fDr vius fudV lacaf/k;ksa dks igpkuuk gh can dj nsrs gSa nksuksa ds fy, ekewyh :Ik ls vljnkj ekuk x;k gSA ysfdu ;s vkSkf/k;ka
vkSj ge vius jkstejkZ ds /kkuksa tSls fd diMs] iguuk] [kkuk] ugkuk /kksuk bl chekjh ds dksi dks jksdu esa dke;kc ugha gSaA vkuqokafkdh ladsrksa]
vkSj vU; t#jh dk;ksZa ds fy, mu vkfJr gksus yxrs gSa] mudh ns[kHkky efLrd dh cukoV vkSj euksoSKkfud dk;Z.kkyh ds chp laca/k dks
tkudkjh vkSj mu ra=ksa dk Kku ftu otg ls ;s dksfkdk,a uV gksrh
djus okyksa dh ftanxh dh ,dne cny tkrh gSA
gSa] bu lc rF;ksa dks ysdj bldk gy <w<aus ls vUr esa bl ls jksx ij
dkcw ik;k tk ldrk gSA
^^vktdy firkth ;g Hkh ugha tkurs fd eSa dkSu gwaA yxrk gS fd os eq>s
fcYdqy Hkh ugha igpkursA mUgsa xqLlk vk tkrk gS] vkSj NksVh&NksVh ckr
ij Mj tkrs gSa & eq>s ,slk yxrk gS fd mUgsa kk;n ;g Hkh ekywe ugha
gksrk fd muds vkl&ikl D;k gks jgk gSA kq:&kq: esa ,slk yxrk Fkk og
geskk pht+ksa dks j[kdj Hkwy tkrs gSaA fQj rks fLFkfr Hkh vkSj Hkh cnrj gks
xbZA uhan ugha vkrh Fkh] le; dk Kku ugha gksrk gS] vkSj rks vkSj mUgsa ;g
Hkh vkHkkl ugha gksrk Fkk fd os dgka ij gSA vc [kkuk [kkrs gq, mUgsa vius
crZuksa dk Hkh irk ugha pyuk vkSj [kkuk [kkus] diM+s iguus ds dke esa
mUgsa enn dh t#jr iM+rh gSA eSa ;g lc ugha dj ldrkA**

volknd fodkj fMsflio fMlvkMZj


;g tkudkjh gSjkuh gksrh gS fd fMsku vkSj U;wjksfMtsujsku esa xgjk
laca/k gS ysfdu vc ge tkurs gSa fd volkn ls xaHkhj :i ls ihfM+r
jksfx;ksa ds efLrd dh dksfkdk,a uV gks ldrh gSA
volkn dh chekjh mu det+ksj
euksHkkoksa ls vyx gS] tks vkneh
le;&le; ij eglwl djrk
gSA ge ;gka lc esa ,d xaHkhj
chekjh dh fLFkfr dh ckr dj
jgs gS tc vkneh dk grksa vkSj
eghuksa rd [kjkc ewM esa jgrk
gSA /khjs&/khjs mldh lkjh
#fp;ka lekIr gksus yxrh gS
vkSj fLFkfr bruh fcxM+

;g lc D;k gks jgk gSA tSls tSls vYt+hej dh chekjh c<+rh gS efLrd
dh dksfkdk,a uV gksrh tkrh gSa] dkjVsDl iryh gksrh tkrh gS vkSj
osufVdy rjy inkFkZ tks efLrd esa [kkyh LFkku dks Hkjrk gS QSyus
yxrk gSA jksx dk funku lkekU;r% mlds y{k.kksa ds vk/kkj ij fd;k
tkrk gS ysfdu bldh ekStwnxh dh fufpr :i ls iqfV jksxh dh e`R;q ds
Ikpkr mldh ko&ijh{kk djus ij gh gksrh gS tc efLrd lw{enkhZ
ijh{k.k ls irk pyrk gS dksfkdk,a uV gks pqdh gSa vkSj fc[kjs gq, NksVs
NksVs for ,ehykW;M Iykdksa esa cgqr lk ,ehykW;M ksVhu vlkekU; :i
ls tek gks x;k gS rFkk mlesa jkM dh rjg ds ksVhuksa tks efLrd dh
lkekU; dksfkdk,a gS&Qkbfczysjh Vsaxy tekoM+k gks x;k gSA orZeku
vuqla/kku ifj;kstukvksa esa rf=dk euksoSKkfud ijh{k.k fof/k;ksa ds tfj,
ftUnk jgrs gq, bl jksx dk funku djus dk ;kl fd;k tk jgk gSa]
ftuesa vYt+hej jksx dh vkjfEHkd voLFkkvksa esa mnkgj.kkFkZ gks jgs
ekufld cnykoksa dks igpkuus esa ij /;ku dsfUnzr fd;k tkr gS vkSj
bldk ijh{k.k fMsku ds jksfx;ksa ij fd;k tkrk gSA

tkrh gS fd volkn ls ihfM+r jksxh ejuk pkgrk gS vkSj gks ldrk gS fd og


Lo;a dks ekj gh nsA volkn ds jksxh ds dqN vU; y{k.k bl dkj gS% lgh
<ax ls uhan u vkuk] Hkw[k u yxuk fdlh pht+ ij /;ku dsfUnzr u dj ikuk
vkSj Lej.k kfDr det+ksj gksukA vkSj thou ds fr yxko u jgukA lkSHkkX;
ls] bl chekjh dk iwjh rjg bykt+ gks ldrk gSA ,aVhfMsLV vkSkf/k;ksa ls tks
U;wjkekWM~;wysVjh VkalehVj tSls fd lsjksVksfuu vkSj uksjkMsukykbu ds Hkko dks
rst djrh gSa] bl chekjh dk rst+h ls grksa esa bykt fd;k tk ldrk gSA
foksk rjg dh ckrphr ds tfj, bykt Hkh cgqr dkjxkj gS vkSj jklk;fud
efLrd ds /kCcs ,ehykW;M Iykdksa
rFkk euksoSKkfud nksuksa dkj dk ,dlkFk bykt rks foksk :Ik ls ennxkj
tSls fd vk;rkdkj esa vkSj cgqr
fl) gks ldrk gSA
xgjs /kCcksa okyh xqfRFk;ksa rhj dks
vkp;Z dh ckr gS fd bl
nkkZrs gSaA
chekjh y{k.k lHkh esa ,d tSls gksrs
gSaA fd bl chekjh ds y{k.k lHkh esa
,d tSls gksrs gSaA 5 esa ls 1 vkneh
iqu% vkuqokafkdh us gesa bl jksx dks tkuus dk ekSdk fn;k gS ftlesa thuksa esa
dqN gn rd volkn dh bl chekjh
ifjorZuksa dk mYys[k fd;k x;k gS ftls ,ehykW;M fdlZj ksVhu ftlls
ls ihfM+r gksrk gSA

,feykW;M curk gS vkSj slsfufyal ftls ,at+kbe dgrs gSa tk fdlZj ksVhu
dks uhps ykrk gS dgk tkrk gSA foksk :i ls ,iksfy;ks ksVhu bZ LiksbZ
thu ftls ,iksbZ&4 dgk x;k gS dk vkuqokfkd :i esa :ikUrj.k bl chekjh
ds fy, ,d cgqr cM+k [krjk gSA ysfdu vkuqokafkdh gh blds fy, iwjh rjg
ls ftEesnkj ugha gSA i;kZojf.kd ?kVd tSls fd fok vkSj vU; vk?kkr tSls
fd nq?kZVuk fnekx ij pksV yxuk vkfn Hkh eq[; bldh [kkl otg cu
ldrs gSA

50

fouklsaV okWu n bEizskfuLV


isaVj volkn dh chekjh ls
xaHkhj :Ik ls ihfM+r FksA

xaHkhj vkSj yEcs le; ls pyh vk jgh


volkn dh chekjh ruko iSnk djus
okyh gkeksZuksa tSls fd
dkafVZlksy tks ruko dh fLFkfr ds
nkSjku rst+h ls iSnk gksrs gSa
v/;k;&12] dk fu;a=.k fcxM+ tkrk
gSA

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ysfdu yEcs le; ls lf; gks jgs ruko laca/kh gkeksZu efLrd dh
dksfkdkvksa foksk :i ls yykV vkSj duiVh ds ykscksa dks uqdlku
igqapk ldrs gSA gky esa irk pyk gS fd ,aVh fMslsaV vkSkf/k;ksa ls
efLrd dh dskfkdkvksa dh fLFkfr esa lq/kkj gksrk gS vkSj fgIiksdSEil
esa u, U;wVku iSnk fd, tkus dh nj esa o`f) gksrh gSA bl rjg ;s
vkSkf/k;k chekjh ls cpkrh gSa vkSj ;gka rd fd efLrd ij iM+us
okys ruko ds cqjs Hkkoksa dks Hkh jksdrh gSA

kkbt+kssfu;k
vU; eufpfdRlh; fodkj tks efLrd dks dsfeLVh vkSj efLrd
dh lajpuk nksuksa esa vlkekU; ykrh gS] kkbt+kssfu;k dgk tkrk
gSA ;g mkjksrj o laHkor vixark dh fLFkfr gS tks lkS esa ls ,d
O;fDr dks Hkkfor djrh gSA kS<+koLFkk kq: gksrs gh bl chekjh ds
y{k.k fn[kkbZ nsus yxrs gSa vkSj dSalj ls Hkh T;knk ?kkrd gSA
kkbt+kssfu;k dk eq[k y{k.k gS foHkze vlkekU; rhfr;k &
lkekU;r% cqjs&cqjs fopkj vkuk tks cgqr wj fdLe ds gksrs gSa vkSj
efrHkze bfUnz;k fodkj gks tkrk gS tc jksxh dh dqN vuqHkwfr gksus
yxrh gS tSls fd vkokt+ lqukbZ nsus yxrh gSa tcfd ogka dksbZ ugha
gksrkA lksp&fopkj] ckr djus vkSj dk;Z dh {kerk rst+h ls de
fLFkfr dk xyr vFkZ fudkyk tkrk gSA
k;% *fo[kafMr O;fDrRo^ ds lkFk tksM+ fn;k tkrk gS tcfd
bldk mlls dksbZ laca/k ugha gksrk vkSj u gh ,slk dksbZ fu;e gS
fd blls jksxh fgald gks tkrk gSA okLro esa] fkDRt+kssfu;k jksx
ls ihfM+r O;fDr [krjukd gksus dh vis{kk Mjiksd gks tkrk gSA
;g chekjh vkuqokafkd gksrh gS ysfdu frdwy fLFkfr;ka] i;kZoj.k
vkSj ruko Hkh bl chekjh dk dkj.k gks ldrs gSaA fQj Hkh]
tks ;g lHkh euksoSKkfud ifjorZu fn[kkbZ iM+rs gSa eq[;
:Ik ls efLrd jksx dk gh y{k.k gSA cgqr igys ls ;g ekuk
tkrk gS fd bl fLFkfr esa efLrd dks osufVdy tk c<+ tkrs
gSa vkSj efLrd ds vxzHkkx dh dksfkdkvksa xfrfof/k /kheh
iM+ tkrh gSA
**igys rks gesa ;g irk gks ugha pyk fd gekjh csVh dks D;k gks
jgk gSA mlus ;wfuoflVhZ dh i<+kbZ Bhd&Bkd kq: dh vkSj igys
okZ dh ijh{kk esa mlus dksbZ fnDdr eglwl ugha dhA blds ckn
mlesa cnyko vkus yxkA tc og ?kj esa gksrh rks ,dne kkUr
vkSj vyx&vyx lh jgrh tcfd igys ckgj tkus ij Hkh og
,slh ugha Fkhaa mlus vius nksLrksa ls feyuk can dj fn;k ckn esa
rks geus ns[kk fd og viuh Dykl ls Hkh xSj&gkft+j gksus yxh
Fkh vkSj lkjk fnu fcLrj ij iM+h jgrh FkhA fQj ,d fnu mlus
gesa dgk fd mls Vsyhfot+u ls ,d foksk lansk kIr gqvk gS fd
mls foksk kfDr;ka kIr gSa vkSj mixzg mlds fopkjksa ds VsyhiSFkh
}kjk fu;af=r dj jgs gSaA og fcuk otg glaus yxrh vkSj fQj
jksuk kq: dj nsrhA og dgrh fd mls vius vkl&ikl yksxksa dh
vkokt+ lqukbZ iM+rh gSa tks mls crkrh gSa fd mlus D;k D;k fd;k
gSA rc mUur esa irk pyk fd mls rks kkbt+kssfu;k dh chekjh
us tdM+ fy;k gSA
og igyh ckj esa nks eghus rd vLirky esa jghA vc og fu;fer
:Ik ls /;ku yxkrh gSA gkykafd og vc igys ls dkQh vPNh gS
vc mls mixzgksa ds ckjs esa fofp= dkj ds fopkj ugha vkus
ysfdu vc Hkh og fdlh ckr esa [kkl #fp ugha ysrhA mlus
;wfuoflVhZ dh viuh i<+kbZ can djuh iM+hA gkykafd mlus dqN
le; rd fdlh ,d LFkkuh; nqdku ij dke Hkh fd;k ysfdu
mls dqN grks ds fy, fQj ls vLirky tkuk iM+k ftlls
mldh ukSdjh NwV xbZA vc og igys tSls ugha jgh gSA^^

Mksikekbu fjlsiVlZ dks jksdus okyh vkSkf/k;ka y{k.kksa dh ckjEckjrk vkSj


Hkko dks de djus esa lgk;rk gksrh gS] ysfdu og bl chekjh dk mipkj
ugha dj ldrhA gky gh esa fd, x, v/;;u ls ;g irk pyrk gS fd tc
,EQsVkekbu tSlh vkSkf/k;ksa dk ;ksx djus gq, ijh{k.k fd, tkrs gSa rks
ml nkSjku kkbt+kssfu;k ds jksxh ds efLrd esa fudys Mksikekbu esa
vlkekU;rkvksa dks [kkstuk laHko gksrk gSA bl fofr ds ckjs esa cgqr dqN
irk yxk, tkus dh t#jr gS% ko&ijh{kk ds ckn fd, x, v/;;uksa ls
irk pyrk gSA dh fodkl ds nkSjku ftl rjg ls U;wu tqMr+ s gSa mlls
vlkekU;rk vk ldrh gS vkSj ;g Hkh fd vU; U;wjksVkalehVj flLVEl tSls
fd XyqVkesV] Hkh xyr O;ogkj dj ldrs gSaA
ekufld fodkjksa dh fr dks le>us ds gekjs ;kl esfMdy
U;wjkslkbal ds fy, ,d vkf[kjh cM+h pqukSrh dks O;Dr djrs gSaA
fpfdRlk vuqla/kku ifjkn vkSj osyde VLV vkfn tSls laxBuksa us
vxys nkd esa fd, tkus okys vuqla/kku ds fy, ,tsaMk esa ekufld
LokLF; ds eqs dks khkZ ij j[kk gSA ,d egRowi.kZ orZeku ifj;kstuk esa
mu ifjokjksa dks /;ku esa j[kdj ckWDl ns[ks ftuesa bl jksx ds gksus
dk tksf[ke T;knk gS] jksx dk v/;;u djus ds fy, vkuqokafkdh Kku
vkSj efLrd tkap nksuksa ij fopkj fd;k tk jgk gSA **v.kq eksysD;wy
ls ysdj k;kxr mipkj osclkbV^^ ds chp ds vUrj dks iVuk gh
,d lcls pqukSrhiw.kZ vuqla/kku ;kl gSA

vuqla/kku {ks=
ifj.kke

tkap drkZ

eufpfdRlk,a
thih
fok;
chekjh ls ihfM+r gksus okys
laHkkfor ifjokj

kkbt+kssfu;k dk Hkkoh v/;;u


raf=dk vkSj efpfdRlh; jksx ds vf/kdkak v/;;u mUgha
yksxksa ij fd, tkrs gSa tks igys ls gh bl jksx ls ihfM+r
gksrs gSA LdkWVyS.M ds vuqla/kkudrkZ bl chekjh ds ihfM+r
gksus dks laHkkouk okys ifjokjksa ds lnL;ksa dk v/;;u djus
ds fy, vkuqokafkdh laca/kh lwpuk dk ;ksx dj jgs gSaA ;g
ns[kus ds fy, fd D;k jksx ds vUnj&vUnj fodflr gksus
ds y{k.kksa dk irk yxk;k tk ldrk gS fu;fer vUrjkyksa
ij efLrd dh tkap vkSj efLrd ds dke djus dh fLFkfr
vkSj okLrfod y{k.kksa ds /;kuiwoZd ijh{k.k fd;k tkrk gSA

lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbVs:a Brain and spine foundation: http://www.bbsf.org.uk


British epilepsy association: http://www.epilepsy.org.uk Stroke: http://www.strokecenter.org
National Institute of Neurological disorders and stroke: http://www.ninds.nih.gov

51

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raf=dk uhfrkkL=

,d ckj cgqr igys dh ckr gS tSlkfd ifj;ksa dh dgkuh vdlj


kq: gksrh gS] foKku rFkk izks|ksfxdh ds chp ,d LiV lqfHkUurk
FkhA oSKkfudksa us ^^irk yxkus ds vkuan^^ dks NksM+dj vU; fdlh
iqjLdkj ds fcuk le; dh [kkst esa ,d vfu;af=r ekxZ dk ifjkhyu
fd;k] og pkgs mUgsa dgha Hkh D;ksa u ys tk,A bathfu;jksa rFkk
izkS|ksfxdhfonksa us ml lalkj dks] ftlesa ge jgrs gSa] cnyus ds fy,
oSKkfud iz;kl ds ifj.kkeksa dks vuqiz;qDr fd;kA rFkkfi] pkgs ;g
rhoz lqfHkUurk fdruh Hkh Hkzked izrhr u gks] ;d ,d ifj;ksa dh
dgkuh gS rFkk lnk jgsxhA vktdy oSKkfud ml lkekftd lanHkZ
lac/a k esa lokZf/kd tkx#d gS ftlesa os dk;Z djrs gSa rFkk fdl izdkj
og lanHkZ muds v/;;u dks izHkkfor dj ldrk gSA
lekt ij raf=dk foKku ds izHkko ls tqM+s izu raf=dk uhfrkkL= ds
lkekU; khkZd ds varxZr ,df=r fd, tkrs gSa tks raf=dk foKku
nkZukkL= rFkk uhfrkkL= dk pkSjkgk gSA blesa ;g kkfey gS fd
fdl izdkj efLrd ds laca/k esa [kkstsa ekuoksa ds :i esa gekjs vfLrRo
dh Hkkouk dks izHkkfor djrh gSa tSls eR;Zrk dk raf=dk vk/kkjA ;g
lkekftd uhfr ds fy, my>koksa ds ckjs esa gSa tSls cPps dh kS{kf.kd
laHkkO;rk rFkk fdl izdkj vuqla/kku fd;k tkrk gS tSls Ikkqvksa ij
iz;ksx dk uhfrkkL= ;k ekuoksa ds lkFk /kks[ks dk iz;ksxA rFkk ;g
bl ckjs esa gS fd fdl izdkj raf=dk foKkuh yksxksa dks ;g lalwfpr
djus esa lokZsRre :i ls jr gksxsa fd os D;k djrs gSa rFkk bl ckjs esa
fopkj dh lk>snkjh djsaxh fd mUgsa D;k djuk pkfg,A

lkekftd lanHkZ
gkykafd dqN raf=dk foKkuh ;g ekurs gSa fd mudh ladYiuk,a
lkekftd okLrfodrk ls fHkUu gSa] ,slk fojyk gh gksrk gSA 17oha
krkCnh esa] MsLdkVZsl us ;g LiV djus ds fy, ,d nzoh; esaVkQksj
y{k.k dk iz;ksx fd;k fd fdl izdkj efLrd dh euksnkk
ekalisfk;ksa dks lapkfyr djrh gS & ;g ty bathfu;jh ls m/kkj
fy;k x;k ,d y{k.k gS ftls mUgksaus kalhlh psR;w esa ns[kkA 20oha
krh lekIr gksus ij] tks vkS|ksfxd ;qx dh |ksrd gS] raf=dk kjhj
foKkfu;ksa us efLrd dh tfVy ok;fjax dks ,d ^^ek;koh [kM~Mh^^
ds :I esa rFkk ckn esa ,d fokky ^^nwjHkkk dsanz^^ ds :Ik esa of.kZr
fd;kA vc 21oha krkCnh ds vkjEHk gksus ij] lax.kukRed y{k.k
izpqj gSa ;Fkk dkYifud vuqeku fd ^^lsjscjy dksVZsDl futh oYMZ
okbM cso dh Hkkafr izpkyu djrk gSA^^ ;s tfVy fopkj lalwfpr
djus ds lgk;rkFkZ vakr% vkkqys[ku gSa ijUrq lkFk gh ,slh
ladYiuk,a Hkh gSa tks oLrqr% ifjr efLrd fl)kUrksa esa fufeZr gSaA
raf=dk foKkuh nSuafnolh; foo ls dVdj oSKkfud leL;kvksa ds
ckjs esa lksp ldrs gSa rFkk lksprs gSaA vdlj ;g fodkl ,d vewrZ
vukikuki ;qDr foo esa gksrk gS ftlesa lR; ds fy, ,d rikse;
[kkst ds lfUudj dqN dk;Z oLrqr% fd;k tk jgk gSA pkgs ;g mu
vk;fud /kkjkvksa dk ifjdYku djus laca/kh gks tks dk;Z&laHkkO;rk ds
izpkj esa varfgZr gSa] dSls jklk;fud lansk fueqZDr fd, tkrs gSa rFkk
dk;Z djrs gSa vFkok fdl izdkj n`fVr foo ds igyqvksa dk n`fVd
dksVZSDl esa lsy Qk;fjax izfrfuf/kRo djrh gS & raf=dk foKku esa
vusd leL;kvksa dks ,d i`FkDr fdUrq o; rjhds esa <kyk tk
ldrk gSA
fdUrq okLrfod foo dHkh Hkh cgqr nwj ugha gksrkA tc gesa ,d ckj
irk py tk, fd jklk;fud VkalehVj fdl izdkj dk;Z djrs gSa rks
mu LekVZ vkSk/kksa ds ckjs esa lkspuk LokHkkfod gS tks gesa csgrj
Lej.k djus esa lgk;rk dj ldrs gSaA dqN yksx U;wjksVkfDlUl
raf=dk ,tsaV ds ckjs esa lksp ldrs gSa tks bl laosnh izf;k dks
ckf/kr djrs gSa tSls ,atkbu vojks/kd tks tSfod la?kkZ ds ,tsaVksa ls
rfud gh nwj gSA

^^efLrd ds ckjs esa lkspuk ge lcls lacaf/kr gS ;g kkfCnd


vFkZ esa fnekxh dk;Z gS^^
t+d gkWy] dSfyQksfuZ;k foofo|ky;

52

;fn dksbZ ,slk vkSk/k miyC/k gh tks vkidks ijh{kk ikl djus esa
lgk;rk dj lds rks D;k vki bls ysaxsA D;k blesa rFkk fdlh
f[kykM+h ds LVhjks;M dk iz;ksx dj viuk fuiknu lq/kkjus esa vFkok
fdlh O;fDr }kjk volknjks/kh nok ysus esa dksbZ varj gSa \
efLRkd Nfodj.k dk HkfOk; de dkYifud uSfed f}fo/kkvksa ls
f?kjk gSA mnkgj.kkFkZ] efLrd Nfodj.k rduhdsa leqfpr ijh{k.k
izf;kfof/k;ksa ls kh?kz gh O;fDr dh OkkLrfod ;knksa dks feF;k ;knksa
ls lqfHkUu djuk O;ogk;Z cuk nsaxhA

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frf;k esa fHkUurk bl le; cgqr vf/kd gS fdUrq ,d fnu U;k;ky;ksa
ds ikl efLrd LdSfuax kS|ksfxdh miyC/k gksxh & ;g ,d dkj dk
lsjhczy vaxqfyeqnz.k gSa tks xokgksa dh ;FkkrF;rk dks LFkkfir djus esa
lgk;d gks ldrk gSA blls laKkukRed xksiuh;rk ds ckjs esa #fpdj
eqn~ns mRiUu gks ldrs gSaA
efLrd ds ckjs esa u, fudkZ lnSo gekjh Lo;a ds ckjs esa Hkkouk dks
lakksf/kr djrs jgrs gSaA efLrd ds fodkl ds ckjs esa Hkkoiw.kZ fopkjksa
esa vusd lkeftd laKku ls lacaf/kr fopkj kkfey gSaA bl ckjs esa
mnh;eku tkx#drk gS fd eR;Zrk rFkk lpsruk HkkoukRed efLrd ls
lfUudV ;qfXer gS tks iqjLdkj vkSj naM ds ladsrksa dks f;kfUor
djrk gS & ,d ,slh laHkkouk ftlds ckjs esa fodklkRed uhfrkkL= ds
khkZd ds rgr rdZ fn, x, gSA bu ds ckjs esa vkSj lh[kuk csgrjh ds
fy, dkQh Hkkokkyh cy gS tks gesa ,d nwljs dh Hkkoukvksa ds ckjs esa
vf/kd voxr djkrk gSA U;wjksu IykfLVflVh dh gekjh orZeku iqjkru
ladYiukvksa esa bu fopkjksa dk fuekZ.k djus ls rkRdkfyd vdknfed
y{;ksa] tks vdlj ppkZ dk ,dek= dsanz gksrs gSa] ls dgha vkxs fk{kk
Hkkfor gks ldrh gSA
;g ekuuk Hkh egRoiw.kZ gS fd raf=dk oSKkfud vius fok; ds Hkkoh
fnkkvksa ds ckjs esa lger ugha gSA dqN vkf.od raf=dk thofoKkfu;ksa
ds fy, vR; lR; raf=dh; .kkyh ds vkf.od la?kVdksa esa lfUufgr gS
& ftuesa uohu Mh,u, rFkk ksVfed kS|ksfxfd;ksa efLrd ds iw.kZkj
LiVhdj.kksa dks vkoLr djrh gSa ftuls vU; raf=dk oSKkfudksa }kjk
lkeuk dh tkus okyh leL;kvksa dk lek/kku gksxkA ;g vip;udrkZ
dh dk;Zlwph gS ftldk iw.kZ nkZukkL=h; ,oa kS|ksfxdh; fodkl dk
vdlj ehfM;k ys[kksa esa xq.kxku fd;k tkrk gSA fdUrq D;k ,slk
vip;udrkZ fookl mfpr gS \ ;k D;k efLrd ,oa fnekx ds mPp
Lrjh; LiVhdj.k gS tks bl dkj de ugha fd, tk ldrs \ D;k
efLrd ds la?kVu ls dksbZ mnh;eku y{k.k mRiUu gks jgs gSa \
var%f;kRed raf=dk oSKkfudksa dk ,d fHkUu dk;Zlwph esa n`< fookl
gSA os vk/kqfud raf=dk foKku ds fr vf/kd mnkj n`fVdks.k ds fy,
rdZ nsrs gS tks ,d ,slk n`fVdks.k gS tks lkekftd foKkuksa ds lkFk
bldh var%f;k dk vUosk.k Hkh djrk gSA ;s ,sls eqn+ns gSa ftu ij
lkoZtfud eap ij lgt ppkZ ugha dh tkrh fdUrq fdl dkj dk
v/;;u fd;k tkuk pkfg,] ;s ,sls ekeys gS ftu ij lekt ds lkFk
ijkekZ fd;k tkuk pkfg,A D;ksafd ,sls vuqla/kku ds fy, Hkqxrku djus
esa yksxksa ds dj blesa lgk;d gksrs gSaA
raf=dk uhfrkkL= & dqN Bksl mnkgj.k
raf=dk uhfrkkL= esa dqN eqn~ns lkekU; Kku ls dqN vf/kd ;ksxnku
nsrs gSA eku yks fdlh ;ksx ds v/;/khu Lo;alsoh ds efLrd LdSu ls
vR;kfkr :i ls ,d efLrdh; vlkekU;rk mn~?kkfVr gks tSls
efLrd vcqZn] vFkok dYiuk djsa fd ekuo raf=dk vkuqokafkdh Lhu
esa dksbZ O;fDr ,sls mRifjorZu dk /kkjd ik;k tk, ftlds dkj.k og
fdlh raf=dk g~klh jksx ds fr laosnukhy gksA buesa ls R;sd ekeys
esa D;k ml O;fDr dks bl ckjs esa crk;k tkuk pkfg,A lkekU; Kku
;g lq>krk gS fd ;g mkjnkf;Ro Lo;alsoh ij Mky fn;k tkuk pkfg,
ftls igys gh bl ckjs esa viuh lgefr ;k vlgefr nsus ds fy, dgk
tk,xk fd D;k LdSu ds nkSjku irk yxkbZ xbZ dksbZ laxr fpfdRlk
lwpuk crkbZ tkuh pkfg,A
rFkkfi] lwfpr lgefr ,d vtZu dk;Z gSA eku yks efLrd
vuqla/kkudrkZ /kku ds fy, fdlh u, mipkj dk ijh{k.k dj jgk
gS ftlesa vkSk/k ;k mldk frLFkkid ikjEifjd :Ik ls /kku ds
dqN ?kaVksa ds Hkhrj fn;k tkuk gSA ,sls ;kn`fPNd ksrksdksy ds Bksl
oSKkfud dkj.k gSA fdUrq ge ;g R;kkk ugha dj ldrs fd fdls
?kkr gksxk rFkk Hkkfor O;fDr ds fy, lwfpr lgefr nsuk
lacaf/kr baVjusV lkbVsa

vlaHko gks ldrk gSA ;fn ;g O;fDr dks bl dkj dh vuqla/kku ifj;kstuk esa
Hkkx ysus ls jksds rks ;g mudk rFkk ijorhZ jksfx;ksa dk nh?kkZof/kd vojks/kd
gksxkA laca/kh Hkh laHkor% ,slh eu%voLFkk esa ugha gksaxs tgk muds fy, miyC/k
le; esa lgefr dk fu.kZ; djuk lgt gksA D;k ge vis{kkr c`grj csgrjh ds
fy, lwfpr lgefr dk R;kx dj ldrs gSa rFkk vf/kR;kxksa dh kq:vkr dj
ldrs gSa \ ;k D;k ,slk djuk ,d Nykok gS \
raf=dk uhfrkkL= dk ,d vU; egRoiw.kZ igyw Ikkq ;ksxksa ls lacaf/kr gSA
Ikkq vius efLrdksa ij lapkfyr fd, tkus okys vkked ;ksxksa ds fy,
lgefr nku djus dh fLFkfr esa ugha gSA dqN yksxksa ds fy,] ,sls dk;Z dh
laHkkouk O;o/kkukdkjh gSA vU;ksa ds fy, blds }kjk LokLF; ,oa jksx esa
raf=dh; .kkyh dk vocks/ku v?kru] djus ds fy, iskdk fd;k tkus
okyk volj ,slk gS fd bldk ifjkhyu u djuk vrkfdZd gSA fui{k :Ik
ls bu eqn~nksa ij okn fookn djuk lgt ugha gS fdUrq ;g vko;d gS fd
ge ,slk djsa rFkk gesa ,slk lEekuiwoZd <ax ls djuk pkfg,A
vf/kdkak ;wjksih; nskksa esa Ikkq ;ksxksa dks vR;ar] dBksj rjhds ls fofu;fer
fd, tkrs gSaA vuqla/kkudrkZvksa }kjk ikB~;eksa esa Hkkx ysuk rFkk ijh{kk,a
ikl djuk visf{kr gS ftuesa muds dkuwu ds Kku rFkk mudh l{kerk dh
ijh{kk dh tkrh gS rkfd ;g lqfufpr fd;k tk lds fd Ikkqvksa dks
vuko;d ihM+k u nh tk,A ;g O;kid :Ik ls Lohdkj fd;k x;k gS fd
rhu vkj & vip;u fjMDku] ifjdj.k fjQkbuesaV rFkk frLFkkiu
fjIyslesVa tSo fpfdRldksa }kjk vuqikyu fd, tkus okys vPNs fl)kUr gSaA
os ,slk dkuwu ds <kaps ds Hkhrj LosPNk ls djrs gSa rFkk blfy, ;g ;|fi
loZlEer :Ik ls rks ugha fdUrq O;kid :i ls yksd lEer gSA raf=dk
foKku esa vusd u, fudkZ frLFkkiu rduhdksa ls mnh;eku gks jgsa gS tSls
rd lao/kZu rFkk lax.kukRed ekWMfyaxA fdUrq ;s ltho efLrd ds lHkh
v/;;uksa dks frLFkkfir ugha dj ldrs ftuls raf=dk foKku rFkk euksjksxksa
ds fy, vusd u, fudkZ rFkk mipkj kIr gks xbZ gSaA mnkgj.kkFkZ]
ikfdZUlu jksx dk mipkj djus ds fy, ,y&Mksik dk ;ksx pwgs ds efLRkd
ij ukscy iqjLdkj fotsrk dk;Z ls mnh;eku gqvkA rFkk ubZ rduhdsa #X.k
O;fDRk;ksa rFkk #X.k i'kqvksa dh lgk;rkFkZ u, voljksa dh iskdk djrh gSA
dsoy lalwpuk
;g ,d igsyhiw.kZ lR; gS fd ftu nskksa esa oSKkfud vke turk dks lalwpuk
nsus ds lokZf/kd ;kl djrs gSa] os nsk ,sls gS tgk oSKkfudksa esa fookl ds
fuEurj Lrj gSa fdUrq ;g lglaca/k dkj.k ds leku ugha gS rFkk ;g
vlaHkkfor gS fd yksxksa dks lekt ij foKku ds Hkko ij ppkZ esa jr djus
dk ;g ftEesokj ;kl & rFkk ,slk djus ds fy, dkZO; dh c<+rh Hkkouk
bl c<+rs gq, vfookl dk dkj.k gSA blds ctk; ;g laHkkouk gS fd #fp
j[kus okyh turk vf/kd ifjr gksrh tk jgh gS] u, ^^dfjek vkSk/kksa^^ ds
ckjs esa mfpr :i ls vf/kd tkx#d rFkk foKku dh /kheh rFkk dbZ ckj
vfufpr xfr ds ckjs esa vf/kd voxr gksrh tk jgh gSA vfookl dks de
djuk va/kfookl iw.kZ vKkurk esa okil ykSVus dk i{k ysus dk vk/kkj ugha
gks ldrkA
raf=dk foKku ds laca/k esa ;qok yksxksa rFkk #fp j[kus okyh turk dks
kkfey djus dk ,d dkj.k ;g gS fd raf=dk oSKkfud vHkh Hkh vius {ks=
ds vusd dsanzh; rdkZ/kkjksa ds ckjs esa vHkh Hkh vlger gSA i`FkDr [kkstksa ds
ckjs esa ladsUnz.k djus ds ctk,] ehfM;k ds fy, ;g csgrj gksxk fd og
foKku ds ckjs esa ,d f;k ds :i esa fopkj djsA ,d ,slh f;k tks
vfufprrk rFkk okn fookn ls Hkjiwj gSA
raf=dk uhfrkkL= ,d u;k {ks= gSA ;g ,d ftKklq foMEcuk gS fd ;g
fjpMZ QsueSu] ,d lS)kfUrd euksfoKkuh Fks ftUgksaus foKku ds dk;Z dks
djus dk viuk dkj.k ^^irk yxkus ds vkuan^^ ds :i esa fd;kA foMEcukiw.kZ
blfy, D;ksafd ;g QsueSu Fkk ftlus vius dks flj iSj rd ;g dk;Z djus
esa Mwcks fn;k fd pSysatj uked ,d vesfjdh varfj{k kVy mM+ku kq: djus
gh D;ksa foLQksV xqLr gks x;kA foKku dk Hkko ge lc ij iM+rk gSA

: http://www.stanford.edu/dept/news/report/news/may22/neuroethics.html
http://www.dana.org/books/press/neuroethics/

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izfk{k.k vkSj dSfj;j

tc vusd ;qok fo|kFkhZ foKku ds dSfj;j ds ckjs esa lksprs gS rks


muds le{k lQsn dksVksa vkSj iz;ksxkkykvksa dh Nfo;ka mHkjrh gSA
vkkktud :i ls] ;g iqfLrdk ;g nkkZus esa dqN gn rd lQy jgh
gksxh fd raf=dk foKku ds vusd fHkUu fHkUu igyw gS rFkk efLrd ij
;g vuqla/kku yksxksa ds thou dks vusd rjhdksa ls LikZ djsxkA
iz;ksxkkyk ls vLirky rd rFkk thou ds vusd {ks=ksa esa bl {ks= ds
Hkhrj mRlkgkhy voljksa dh fofo/k J`a[kyk gSA

^^eSaus ,&Lrj ij foKku ,oa vaxzst+h dk v/;;u fd;k rFkk

foofo|ky; raf=dk foKku ikB~;e

fQj eSa tho fOkKku dk v/;;u djus ds fy, ,fMucxZ xbZA

vusd foofo|ky; vc raf=dkfoKku esa voj Lrkud mikf/k;ksa nsrs


gSaA vdlj ;g fok; thofoKku] kjhjfoKku] QkekZdksYkkWth rFkk
euksfoKku tSls fok;ksa esa vkjfEHkd okkZsa ds izfk{k.k ds i'pkr
fokskKrk ds :i esa fy;k tkrk gSA vkuqoafkdh rFkk vkf.od
thofoKku dk Kku Hkh ewY;oku gks ldrk gSA

eSaus vafre okZ esa raf=dk foKku esa fokskKrk gkfly dh rFkk

rFkkfi vkidks buesa ls dqN ikB~;eksa esa izosk gsrq NBh d{kk ls
dsoy foKku ds fok;ksa dk v/;;u djuk vko;d ugha gSA baVjusV
ij ;wlh,,l i`Bksa dk v/;;u djds raf=dk foKku ikB~;eksa rFkk
mudh izosk vis{kkvksa ds ckjs esa tkudkjh izkIr djsaA vki fok; ds
vuqlkj ;k mu foofo|ky; ds vuqlkj bu dh tkudkjh izkIr dj
ldrs gSa tgk vki vkosnu djus ds bPNqd gSaA

varr% ih,pMh dh vksj ys x;kA^^

fpfdRlk
fczVsu esa fpfdRlk ,d voj Lrkud mikf/k gSA vusd foofo|ky;ksa
esa fpfdRLk fo|ky; gSa rFkk gky gh esa vusd u, fpfdRlk fo|ky;ksa
ds l`tu ds ek/;e ls izfkf{kr fd, tk jgs fo|kfFkZ;ksa dh la[;k esa
foLrkj gqvk gSA fok; {ks=ksa ;Fkk U;wjksykWth raf=dk foKku]
U;wjksltZjh raf=dk kY; fpfdRlk] lkbfd;kVjh euksfoKku rFkk
jsfM;ksykWth fofdj.k foKku esa fokskKrk izfk{k.k ds ijorhZ okkZsa esa
vkrh gS fdUrq vdlj xfeZ;ksa dh Nqf;ksa esa rFkk varorhZ okkZsa ds
nkSjku raf=dk foKku vuqla/kku iz;ksxkkykvksa esa dk;Z djus ds volj
vkrs gSaA fpfdRlk ikB~;eksa esa izosk izkIr djus ds fy, izfrLi/kkZ
dkQh dM+h gS fdUrq fpfdRlk ds dSfj;j esa izkIr gksus okys iqjLdkj
Hkh Ik;kZIr gSaA
^^foofo|ky; esa dk;Z djus dk fokskkf/kdkj ckSf)d Lora=rk
gSA dksbZ Hkh fnu ,d tSlk ugha gksrkA izR;sd fnu vki dqN u;k
lh[krs gS] izR;sd fnu vkidks esgur djuh iM+rh gS rFkk
pqukSfr;ksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+rk gSA^^
ekfj;k fQV~t+ xksYM] yanu foofo|ky; esa izksQslj
^^bl dk vkdkZ.k [kkst djus dh laHkkouk] [kkstksa ls
vkp;Zpfdr djus okyk vkuan izkIr djuk rFkk ifj.kkeh
varn`fV dh NksVh NksVh mNkysa Fkk rFkk vHkh Hkh gSaA^^
fjpMZ fjcysLVj] ,fMucxZ foofo|ky; esa raf=dk kjhj foKkuA

54

jkst+keaM ySaXkLVu
,fMucxZ foofo|ky; esa
raf=dk foKku esa ih,pMh fo|kFkhZ

oLrqr% viuk y{; gkfly fd;kA eSa HkkX;kkyh Fkh fd eq>s


,fMucxZ foofo|ky; ds laKkukRed raf=dk foKku foHkkx
esa vuqla/kku lgk;d dk in izLrkfor fd;k x;k rFkk ;g

Fkkel isVh,
fpfdRlk fo|kFkhZ
,fMucxZ foofo|ky;
^^eq>s fo|ky; ds le; ls gh dSfj;j ds :i esa fpfdRlk dks
viukus dk kkSd Fkk rFkk eSaus ,fMucxZ esa bldh vPNh
izfrBk ds dkj.k vkosnu fd;kA r`rh; okZ esa eq>s ,d
varorhZ ch,llh ikB~;e djus dk volj fn;k x;k rFkk
EkSaus raf=dk foKku i<+us dk p;u fd;kA bl okZ eq>s
fpfdRlk esa dsanzd v/;;u djus dk volj izkIr gqvk rFkk
eSaus mlls dkQh dqN lh[kk rFkk OkLrqr% vkuan dk vuqHko
fd;kA^^

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m|ksx Hkskt m|ksx
ubZ nokb;ksa dk fujarj vkfodkj fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk mudk fodkl
fd;k tk jgk gS rFkk efLrd vkSk/k mipkj ds fy, ,d laosnh y{;
gSA Hkskt dEifu;ka rFkk lkFk gh foRrh; lgk;rk nsus okyh vdknfed
laLFkk,a vius Lo;a ds vuqla/kku lapkfyr djrh gSA muesa ls vusd
iz;ksxkkyk dkSkyksa rFkk vuqHko dk fodkl djus dk lgk;rkFkZ m|ksx
esa dqN okkZsa dk dk;Z izLrkfor djrh gSA raf=dk foKku lfgr fofo/k
thofoKkuh foKku ikB~;eksa ls Lrkud okaNuh; deZpkjh curs gSa tc
muds ikl lgc) iz;ksxkkyk vuqHko gksA

raf=dkfoKku vuqla/kku
vuqla/kku esa voljksa dh Hkkjh fofo/krk gSA bl {ks= esa efLrd
Nfodj.k rFkk O;ogkjxr v/;;uksa ls ysdj raf=dk kjhj foKkuh rFkk
vkf.od vkuqoafkdh vuqla/kku rd vusd rRo kkfey gSaA
foofo|ky;ksa esa vuqla/kkudrkZ yXu j[kus okys mu fo|kfFkZ;ksa dks
vius fy, vuqdwy vdknfed v/;;u ekxZ <w<us esa izksRlkfgr djus esa
lnSo izLkUu jgrs gSaA

DEI;wfVax ifjdYiu m|ksx


raf=dk foKku foofo|ky; esa v/;;u djus ;ksX; fok; ds :i esa
gekjs fnekx esa ugha mHkjsxk ;fn ge ifjdYiu ;k lwpuk izkS|ksfxdh esa
dSfj;j dks viukus ds bPNqd gSaA fQj Hkh] tSlk fd geus bl iqfLrdk
esa ns[kk gS] ^^efLrd & kSyh^^ ifjdYiu esa #fp c<+ jgh gS rFkk foo
O;kih osc ds fodkl ds lkFk blesa vo; o`f) gksxhA efLrd foKku
ds fpfdRlk fHkUu vuqiz;ksxksa esa #fp c<+rh tk jgh gSA

fo|ky; v/;kiu
raf=dk foKku dks fo|ky;ksa esa fok; ds :i esa ugha i<+k;k tkrkA
rFkkfi] raf=dk foKku esa mikf/k izkIr Lukrd tho foKku i<+kus ds
fy, vR;Ur mi;qDr gksxsa rFkk muds ikl lkaf[;dh; dkSkyksa lfgr
vusd vU; dkSky gksaxs tks v/;kiu ds dSfj;j esa vewY; gks ldrs
gSaA

foKku rFkk ehfM;k


i=dkfjrk ls jsfM;ks rFkk nwjHkkk rd] ehfM;k esa vkthfodk izfrLi/khZ
rFkk dBksj dk;Z dh vis{kk djus okyh gSA rFkkfi] foKku lapkj ds {ks=
esa izosk ds vusd volj miyC/k gSA foKku esa fujarj mUufr gks jgh gS
rFkk kSf{kd rFkk lkoZtfud fgr] nksuksa ds iz;kstukFkZ u, fudkZ lwfpr
fd, tkus vko;d gSA efLrd vuqla/kku ij dk;Z bldk dksbZ viokn
ugha gSA blesa Hkkjh lkekftd #fp fo|eku gS] ftls ehfM;k }kjk Hkyh
Hkkafr Lohr fd;k x;k gS rFkk uohure fudkkZsa esa i;kZIr lkekftd
izHkko Mkyus dh laHkkouk gSA foofo|ky; mikf/k izLrqr djus ds nkSjku
gkfly dh xbZ vPNh oSKkfud i`B Hkwfe rFkk vuqla/kku ds vocks/ku ls
tfVy fudkkZsa dks vU; oSKkfudksa rFkk turk dks lalwfpr djuk dgha
vf/kd lgt gksxk rFkk izHkkoiw.kZ gksxkA

foKku rFkk dyk


foKku rFkk dyk ikjEifjd :Ik ls vuU; ugha gSA dYiuk dks lfUufgr
djus okyk vfHkdYi O;kid Jksrkx.kksa@nkZdksa dks foKku dk izLrqrhdj.k
djus esa laosnh gSA vtk;c?kj] nh?kkZ,a rFkk ehfM;k ,oa vU; laxBu
oSKkfudksa ,oa dykdkjksa ds chp iz;ksxkREkd] l`tukRed lg;ksxksa dks
izksRlkfgr rFkk foRriksfkr djrs gSaA

: http://www.abpi-careers.org.uk/
www.gsk.com www.sciart.org

lacf/kr baVjusV lkbVsa

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vkHkkj
ge vusd O;fDr;ksa ds _.kh gS ftUgksua s lg~n;rk ls ikB rFkk vkjs[kksa dk ;ksxnku fn;k ftUgsa bl iqfLrdk esa kkfey fd;k x;k gSA gesa vkkk gS fd
uhps nh xbZ lwph ifjiw.kZ gS rFkk ,sls fdlh Hkh O;fDr ls ge {kek izkFkhZ gS ftldk ;ksxnku bl lwph esa kkfey gksus ls jg x;k gSA
iwjh iqfLrdk esa dkVZwu %& eMsysuk ehy ,oa jkcVZ fQfydksoLdhA eq[; i`B %& ihVj czksQh] csojyh DykdZ] ekbdy gkmlj] MsfoM fyaMu] fjpMZ
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An introduction to IBRO and the CDROM Neuroscience: Science of the Brain


IBRO: Who we are and what do we do?
IBRO, The International Brain Research Organization, is an
international network of neuroscience organizations that promotes and
supports neuroscience training and research around the world. Our
members have a common interest in the brain. Some are academic or
industrial research scientists who are attempting to learn how the
brain works. They also study the changes that occur when the
brain goes wrong in the hope of discovering new cures and
treatments. Other members are doctors and clinical practitioners
who treat patients who suffer from psychiatric illnesses and brain
disorders. Many of us are teachers and students.
IBRO is active all around the world. Our members are divided into
six regional groups. Our primary purpose is to support young
people who wish to enter careers in brain research or become
clinicians treating psychiatric disorders. The six world regions are:

Africa Regional Committee (ARC)


Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Latin America Regional Committee (LARC)
US/Canada Regional Committee (NARC)
Western Europe Regional Committee (WERC)

Throughout the world IBRO runs Workshops and Schools, teaching young scientists about the brain
(neuroscience) and giving them the opportunity to learn practical skills for research. We provide
Studentships and Postdoctoral Fellowships so that aspiring neuroscientists from developing
countries can travel and work in the worlds most prestigious laboratories. We help young people who
have been tutored by world-renowned neuroscientists to return to their home countries and set up
laboratories where they will study the brain disorders that are important to them and their own
communities. We help these Returning Scientists to develop their careers in their own countries by
giving them access to our equipment exchange program (IBRO-Equip) and knowledge database,
IBRO-Edu. We also help young people travel to international conferences where they can present
their own research findings for discussion and learn about the most recent advances in their field. The
members of IBRO hope that these activities will encourage brilliant young people from all over the
world to fulfil their potential as neuroscientists.
This is a very important aspiration. The human brain is a fundamental part of our body as the nervous
system controls everything that we perceive, think and do. Without a healthy brain, an individual
cannot access reliable information about the world, and make appropriate physical and emotional
responses. The brain remains one of the least understood parts of our body, yet illnesses relating to
the brain affect almost every family. At least one in every four people will suffer a short- or long-term
brain disorder at some point in their lives. Brain disorders affect the way we interact with each other
and the manner in which our communities and families work. Often there is a progressive
deterioration in mental faculties that eventually results in a need for long-term care and prevents the
sufferer from making a social or economic contribution to their families.
Our limited understanding of the brain means that many brain disorders are presently untreatable and
often sufferers are stigmatized. Public Education about the Brain can assist individuals, their
families and communities to cope with brain disorders and access help. By working with
schoolchildren, we hope to inspire a few young people to become the future brain scientists we so
badly need.
The CDROM Neuroscience: Science of the Brain is part of IBROs public education effort. It
contains a booklet consisting of short articles about aspects of the brain. The British Neuroscience

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Association (BNA) and European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) originally commissioned the
booklet and the articles are written by leading neuroscientists. IBRO has commissioned the
translation of this booklet into over 20 languages. We want to enable you to promote better public
understanding of the brain. You are welcome to download these files, print and distribute the material
in part or in its entirety to be used as part of any Brain Awareness event. You may also make copies
of this CDROM. You may not use this material for personal gain.
The project to translate material for the purpose of public
education was initiated in 2005. As a pilot exercise, the booklet
was translated into Mandarin and Spanish. Volunteer translators
for the remaining versions were recruited to the project in 2006.
The project has been managed and organized by K. Esther
Binns, Chair of IBROs Public Education Committee). Esther
would like to express her personal thanks to Duncan Banks of the
BNA and Open University, UK for his considerable help and
advice. Without Duncan these translations would not have been
produced.

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IBRO in your region: the work of the


regional committees

Africa Regional Committee (ARC)


The ARC is made up of neuroscientists and clinicians who work in Africa. Some of our members also
work in Europe and America but are of African origin and hold this world region in very high regard.
Africa is IBROs poorest region. Many citizens still do not receive any formal education, let alone have
the opportunity to attend a university and learn about the brain.
Yet there are many extremely talented young people in Africa. There are also several universities with
good reputations in medical science and biology. When young Africans are given the opportunity to
learn, they exploit this potential to the full. These students are best placed to advance neuroscience in
this region by studying the brain disorders that affect people on this continent.
In the 1970s, IBRO set out to develop neuroscience research and training in Africa. A series of
workshops helped to identify the problems and chart a course of development. This initiative now
continues under ARC. One of our major achievements has been the formation of the Society of
Neuroscientists of Africa (SONA), which has organized an international neuroscience meeting
biennially since 1993. The meetings have been held all over Africa: Nairobi, Kenya; Marrakech,
Morocco; Cape Town, South Africa, Dakar, Senegal, and Abuja, Nigeria. The meeting provides a
forum for African neuroscientists who rarely have the opportunity to attend international neuroscience
conferences to present their work as well as interact with neuroscientists from outside Africa.
Since 2001, ARC has organized IBRO African Neuroscience Schools providing teaching and research
training in neuroscience to junior faculty and graduate students. This programme has been highly
successful. So far 14 schools have been held and nearly 250 students have participated. Students
have gone on to obtain PhD in neuroscience in the USA, Canada and Sweden, as well as to visit
laboratories in Italy, Australia and the UK.
ARC also supports regional neuroscience meetings in Africa promoting the formation of regional
neuroscience societies. To date there are six African neuroscience societies represented on the IBRO
Governing Council (Moroccan Association of Neuroscience, Kenya Society for Neuroscience,
Association pour la Promotion des Neurosciences (DR Congo), Southern African Neuroscience
Society, Nigerian Society for Neuroscience, Society of Neuroscientists of Africa). In addition, a
number of African neuroscientists are represented on IBRO committees.
ARC also provides travel support for African neuroscientists to present their work at international
conferences. Through the initiative of Marina Bentivoglio, there is also the Levi-Montalcini Fellowship,
which provides support for African women to pursue higher degrees in Africa or outside. Through the
support of the US/Canada Regional Committee, African students have also attended summer courses
at the Marine Biology Laboratory, Woods Hole and Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory.
Raj Kalaria is Chair of the African Regional Committee. The booklet on this CDROM has been
translated into Arabic, Farsi, French and Swahili at the request of some of our African members.
Asia-Pacific Regional Committee (APRC)
This Committee covers the most diverse region of IBRO, both geographically and culturally. Member
societies cover a vast area, from Japan to Australia and New Zealand and from Jordan to the
Philippines. It includes members from wealthy nations with substantial neuroscience research
communities such as Japan and Australia, emerging economies such as China and India, much
smaller communities such as Iran, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and United Arab Emirates, as well
as poorer countries where the only chance to study neuroscience is in another, wealthier country.

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Many languages are used in teaching in this region. This CDROM has translations of the teaching
booklet in Arabic, Bengali, Farsi, Hindi, Japanese, Mandarin and Punjabi.
IBRO trains students from the region in the latest neuroscience knowledge and techniques through its
schools in Hong Kong, India and Thailand and associate schools in China, India, Thailand, Iran, and
Singapore. Two more were held in Karachi (mid-November 2006) and Dubai (mid-December 2006).
Local support provides matching funds for the schools programme, e.g the International Society for
Neurochemistry co-sponsored a school in Singapore. There are more than 400 alumni from the
educational programmes organized by APRC.
IBRO offers Exchange Fellowships to young neuroscientists to carry out research for six months in a
host laboratory within the APRC region. Offers are made only to applicants who can provide strong
justification that he/she would return to their home country after the exchange. IBRO supports travel
awards for young people to attend courses in other countries, to present papers in conferences, as
well as to participate in the congresses held by the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Neuroscience
Societies (FAONS) every four years. The 4th FAONS Congress was held in Hong Kong, China,
November 30December 2, 2006 and included a mini-symposium for IBRO alumni.
New discoveries about the brain from laboratories in the Asia-Pacific region and the rest of the world
will take centre-stage at IBRO's 7th World Congress of Neuroscience in Melbourne, Australia in July
2007. World-class brain research in the Asia-Pacific Region is done in the larger universities (such as
in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, Beijing, Shanghai, Hong Kong, Seoul, Melbourne, Canberra and Sydney),
as well as in Research Centres dedicated to neuroscience such as the RIKEN Brain Research
Institute in Wako, Japan, the Institute of Neuroscience in Shanghai, the Institute of Biophysics in
Beijing, the National Brain Research Centre near Delhi, the National Institute of Mental Health and
Neurological Sciences in Bangalore, the Prince of Wales Medical Research Institute in Sydney, the
Howard Florey Institute in Melbourne, and the new National Neuroscience Institute in Singapore.
Ying Shing Chan from Hong Kong has been the Chair of the Asia-Pacific Regional Committee since
2002. Elspeth McLachlan (Sydney) was the Founding Chair when the Committee was established in
1999.
Central and Eastern Europe Regional Committee (CEERC)
Historically, the CEERC supports brain researchers from all former socialist Eastern European
countries and now independent countries that were part of the USSR. Thus, besides Central
European countries and Russia, which extends to the Pacific Ocean, the CEERC supports Armenia,
Georgia, Azerbaidjan, and Northern Asian countries, too (Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenia,
Tadjikistan, Kirgizia).
At the end of the twentieth century great political change occurred throughout our region. Many
Central European countries have now joined the European Union and there has been a revolution in
the politics of education, student mobility and science research. In many ways there is now little
difference between Western and Eastern European countries in respect of brain research
development and achievements. In recognition of the changes that have occurred, IBRO has recently
brought together the neuroscience schools programmes of Western and Eastern Europe to create
PENS (Programme of European Neuroscience Schools).
The CEERC meets each year to discuss strategic issues and applications... In 2006 we awarded 19
stipends to representatives of 12 countries of the region to attend the FENS Forum. Research awards
within the region were given to R. Averkin (Ukraine) for work in Russia (Moscow) in 2006, and to M.
Balcerzyk (Poland) for a short-term visit to Ukraine (Kiev). A new CEERC initiative, IBRO Lecturers
Visits to the Region resulted in one award (up to 1,500Euros) for the visit of Prof. H. Atwood
(Canada) to Kazan (Russia). Eight conferences are supported in 2006.
Thus IBRO is helping to train young Eastern Europeans to pioneer brain research in their home
countries. Academics who have received training and support from IBRO include Natalia Lozovava
(Ukraine), who is currently working on the effects of cannabis-like chemicals on the brain at the
Center for Neurogenomics and Cognitive Research, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.

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Pavel Balaban is Chair of the Central and Eastern European Regional Committee. There has been
great interest in this translation project throughout Eastern Europe and we have been able to make
the following translations: Armenian, Croatian, Greek, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Ukrainian. The
translations into Farsi and Arabic may also be useful.
Latin American Regional Committee (LARC)
The LARC is active throughout Central America, the Caribbean and South America. It is made up of
14 neuroscience societies within the region. The most northerly is Mexico and the most southerly is
Chilli. Many people in this region speak either Portuguese or Spanish and this booklet is available in
both languages. The French version may be useful in some Caribbean areas.
The IBRO schools have helped to train many of the regions brightest young scientists. During 2006
alone there were five schools located in Argentina, Brazil, Chilli and Venezuela. A strong partnership
between LARC and the Spanish Society for Neuroscience has resulted in a regular European School
for Latin American students in Seville, Spain.
We are active in supporting the continued education and careers of the IBRO School Alumni through
a range of travel and research fellowships. For example, Lucia Francini, Institute for Genetic
Engineering and Molecular Biology (INGEBI), Buenos Aires, Argentina, is spending a year in Dr Bruce
Lahns laboratory, in the Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
Her research relates to determining the genes associated with cognitive skills such as language and
learning and the genetic deficits that can lead to problems such as schizophrenia, dyslexia, autism
and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hope that after this period of training Lucia
and others will return to work in their home countries.
Help to return home after training is made possible by the Return Home Programme, which has
recently announced the award of fellowships to two young neuroscientists in the region. So after
respective training periods in Italy and Canada, Elaine Gavioli, Universidade do Extremo Sul
Catarinense, Criciuma, Brazil and Valeria Della-Maggiore, Dept. of Physiology of the School of
Medicine, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, will return to work in their home countries.
Marta Hallak is Chair of the Latin American Regional Committee.
US/Canada Regional Committee (IAC-USNC/IBRO) and the& Western European Regional
Committee (WERC)
The Largest and most active communities of brain research are based in either North America or
Western Europe where they are well supported by the American Society for Neuroscience (SfN) and
the Federation of European Neuroscience Societies (FENS), IBRO works closely with these
organizations but reserves much of its resources for the four regions where neuroscience is less well
supported. The US/Canada RC and WERC organize schools that bring students from around the
world to the premier research departments and locations so that they can experience first-rate
research with the worlds leading brain researchers.
We support studentships and fellowships for foreign students in North American and Western
European laboratories and provide travel fellowships so that students can travel to the worlds most
prestigious Brain Science conferences.
Biology is widely taught in schools in these areas and neuroscience degrees are available in many
universities. The booklet on this CDROM is useful for public education and high-school students (1418 years) and is available in English and several other European languages (Portuguese, Spanish,
French and Greek). Both North America and Western Europe have diverse multicultural populations
in which some members of the community use the language of their country of origin rather than the
first language of their nation. These individuals can be educationally disadvantaged in schools and
communities where science is not taught in their first language. The non-European language
translations of this booklet may be of great use for such groups. The full list of languages available
can be found at the end of this document.

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IBRO is committed to
education and training

Workshops and schools


Each of the IBRO regions organises schools and workshops so that the regions most promising
students can be given training on particular areas of brain research and practical techniques.
Together the regional committees run around 20 schools each year. The IBRO schools board
supports and links these schools by offering advice on the organisation of individual schools and
teaching programmes: Arranging for teaching materials to be shared and disseminated amongst the
schools. Working in partnership with other national and international organisations providing similar
teaching and learning opportunities. Our aims are to strengthen and expand the programme by
attracting sponsors and new partnerships, help to publicize and explain the Programme to the
membership and public. All the attendees at IBRO schools are eligible to become IBRO School
Alumini and thereby benefit from the mutual support of other students and tutors throughout their
future careers in brain research.
IBRO is committed to promoting the best practice in all areas of brain research and thus in addition to
the above schools we run workshops devoted to the use and role of animals in research.
The Visiting Lecture team
IBRO is working to bring the best academic teaching on neuroscience to students all over the world.
Our Visiting Lecture Team is composed of five internationally recognised researchers who are able
to offer an experiment based lecture course in basic neuroscience at host institutions in developing
countries. The course normally covers; mechanisms of impulse conduction and synaptic
transmission; structure, function and pharmacology of membrane receptors and channels; information
processing in sensory systems; regulation of behavioural patterns; and neurodevelopment. Teaching
is given in 35 lecturers over nine days. Since 1994 the VLTP has given 31 courses in 20 countries.
These are amazing opportunities, as students form developing countries can rarely expect to be
taught by world leaders in their field.
Fellowships
Students that have attended the courses run by the visiting lecture team or attended IBRO schools
may decide to begin a career in brain research. IBRO wants to foster the careers of the most
promising young neuroscientists from diverse geographical and scientific areas. We focus our support
on the less well-developed countries where funding for research is very limited. Fellowships are
offered so that young scientists can broaden the scope of their training in neuroscience by working
abroad in good laboratories, or participating at international neuroscience meetings.
Return home programme
Students who have benefited from the best teaching opportunities through our VLT, Schools and
Fellowships have the potential can become excellent neuroscientists. So it will not surprise you to
know that they are sought after by academic and industrial institutions all over the world and often
tempted to leave their home countries and take jobs in Western Europe and America. IBRO believes
that this practice weakens the academic community in developing countries, so we try to encourage
our students to make their careers in their country of origin. The return home programme provides
grants, fellowships and travel assistance to support the careers of students who return to their
countries of origin.

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Alumni Success Stories

Oliver Mazodze an alumnus of IBROs African schools in Kenya


and South Africa travelled to the UK to spend 6 weeks as a
visiting scientist in the neurophysiology laboratory at
GlaxoSmithKline"s Harlow research facility.
Oliver is tenured member of the Dept. of Biological Sciences at
Bindura University of Science Education in Zimbabwe. Whist in
the UK he has learned in vitro electrophysiological techniques for
the study of neuronal activity. He intends to use these
techniques to begin researching the potential neurophysiologic
effects of extracts derived from a widely used African medicinal
plant. The training at GSK was under the guidance of Dr Jon
Spencer and Professor Andy Randall, two scientists he first
met in their capacity as tutors at the IBRO African School held in
November 2004 in Nairobi.
Oliver Mazodze (left) with Andy Randall (right)

Wael Mohamed Yousef attended IBRO schools in Mali and Kenya


and now works as an assistant lecturer of neuropharmacology at the
Faculty of Medicine, University of Menoufiya, Egypt.
Weal was awarded a scholarship from the Egyptian Government to
study fro a PhD in neuropharmacology with Professor Byron C.
Jones, Biobehavioral Health and Pharmacology, at Penn State
University, USA. During his 5 years in the USA Weal will learn
advanced techniques in the neuroscience and work on the
development of new drugs needed for many patients suffering from
neurological diseases. Afterwards he hopes to return and work in
Egypt.

Weal Yousef (left) with Byron Jones (right)

Bin Liu from a small island in the Shandong Province of China is one of
just three people who have obtained a doctoral degree from this region.
She obtained her PhD in Physiology from Qingdao University in China in
2004 and has since become an Assistant Professor at the Center for
New Drugs Evaluation, School of Pharmacy in Shandong University.
In 2005 she won an IBRO Research Fellowship to work in the
Department of Anatomy at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of
Medicine. Her studies in the USA focused on observing the effects of
gonadal steroid hormones against neurotoxins, which target the
nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of rodents.
This fellowship has meant that Bin has received training in an excellent
laboratory and is now well placed to contribute to neuroscience research
in China.
Bin Liu

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Dimiter Prodanov from Bulgaria


attended an IBRO VLTP course in
1998, in Sofia, Bulgaria. He has
recently been awarded the John
G. Nicholls Fellowship for 2006.
He will spend a year Dr Jean
Delbeke of the Department of
Physiology & Pharmacology, the
Neural Rehabilitation Engineering
Laboratory at the Catholic
University of Louvain, Brussels,
Belgium.
The John G. Nicholls IBRO
Fellowship was created in honour
of John G. Nicholls who headed
IBROs Visiting Lecture Team
Programme (VLTP) from 1994 to
2002. The Fellowship aims to
assist annually one promising
Dimiter Prodanov
young researcher who wishes to
further his/her training in
neuroscience at a distinguished foreign laboratory for one year. The successful candidate is expected
to return to his/her home country after the training, bringing new knowledge and skills in the
neurosciences.

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IBRO and Public Education on the brain

Given the impact that brain disorders can have on individuals, families and their communities and the
high global prevalence of these illnesses, we believe that each person needs some understanding of
the brain and how this part of our bodies can be kept healthy. So, together with other international
organisations that support brain research we are working to improve the publics general
understanding of the central nervous system.
The Brain Campaign is an initiative by many like organisation to encourage those involved in
research to engage with public and share their knowledge and findings worldwide. While many of the
organisations involved have focussed their effort on their own world region, IBRO is committed to
public education in neuroscience in the developing world. We actively and financially support activities
and events being organised by academics in developing countries and taking place in the most
remote locations. We want all people in all corners of the globe to have access to public education
about the brain. We want all governments and health programmes to take the brain and psychiatric
illness seriously.
Since 2003 IBRO has supported this aspiration by helping to finance around 25 public education
events in approximately 15 countries. A wide variety of events have received support. Some
activities have taken place in schools in remote villages while others attract a massive audience by
occurring at agricultural shows or in train stations. Sometimes the event covers many aspects of
brain function and disease but at other times the focus is on a single disease or problem (eg Drugs,
head injury and epilepsy) that is relevant to the local community.
Many of the events that we have supported in the past have
taken place during a single week in March. This week is
designated Brain Awareness Week. The organisations
supporting Brain Awareness Week, which include IBRO, want
this to be a global celebration of the brain where those involved
in research explain the latest advances in understanding brain
function and treating brain disorders to people all over the
world. During Brain Awareness Week 2006 there were several
hundred events in over 62 countries.
Brain education events including those that are part of Brain Awareness Week are attempting to
spread knowledge of the brain to a wide audience that speaks in many languages. It is often helpful
to back up an event with some literature. Unfortunately, suitable written material is often unavailable
in local languages. IBRO has recognised this problem and is seeking to address the issue by
providing Multilingual teaching materials. The booklet on this CDROM is available in the following
languages: Arabic, Armenian, Bengali, Croation, English, Farsi, French, Greek, Hindi, Japanese,
Mandarin, Polish, Portuguese, Punjabi, Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Spanish, Swahili, and
Ukrainian.
We hope that some of these translations will be useful in your work to promote better public
understanding of the brain. If you would like to access these materials in other languages or are
willing to make translations for us in another language we would be delighted to make contact with
you.

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Neuroscience: Science of the Brain.


The original English Language version of this booklet was prepared and edited on behalf of The
British Neuroscience Association and the European Dana Alliance for the Brain by Richard
Morris (University of Edinburgh) and Marianne Fillenz (University of Oxford). You are reading one
of the translations of the booklet that were commissioned by the public education committee of the
International Brain Research Organisation. These translations have been made by members
of IBRO as part of their global effort to improve public understanding of the Brain. IBRO is grateful
to all the volunteers who have made these translations possible. See list
The graphic design of the original booklet was by Jane Grainger (Grainger Dunsmore Design
Studio, Edinburgh). We are grateful for contributions from our colleagues in the Division of
Neuroscience, particularly Victoria Gill, and others in the neuroscience community in Edinburgh.
We also thank members of the University Department of Physiology in Oxford, particularly Colin
Blakemore, and helpful colleagues in other institutions. Their names are listed below.
The British Neuroscience Association (BNA) is the professional body in the United Kingdom
that represents neuroscientists and is dedicated towards a better understanding of the nervous
system in health and disease. Its members range from established scientists holding positions in
Universities and Research Institutes through to postgraduate students. The BNAs annual
meetings, generally held in the spring, provide a forum for the presentation of the latest research.
Numerous local groups around the country hold frequent seminars and these groups often
organise activities with the general public such as school visits and exhibitions in local museums.
See http://www.bna.org.uk/ for further information.
The goal of The European Dana Alliance for the Brain (EDAB) is to inform the general public
and decision makers about the importance of brain research. EDAB aims to advance knowledge
about the personal and public benefits of neuroscience and to disseminate information on the
brain, in health and disease, in an accessible and relevant way. Neurological and psychiatric
disorders affect millions of people of all ages and make a severe impact on the national economy.
To help overcome these problems, in 1997, 70 leading European neuroscientists signed a
Declaration of Achievable Research Goals and made a commitment to increase awareness of
brain disorders and of the importance of neuroscience. Since then, many others have been
elected, representing 24 European countries. EDAB has more than 125 members. See
http://www.edab.net/ for further information.
The International Brain Research Organisation Is an independent, international
organization dedicated to the promotion of neuroscience and of communication between
brain researchers in all countries of the World. A present we represent the interests of about
51,000 neuroscientists in 111 countries. Since our formation in 1960 we have set up a
number of active programmes to stimulate international contacts in brain research. We
sponsor Symposia and Workshops and Neuroscience schools, worldwide. We offer postdoctoral fellowships and travel grants to students from less favoured countries. We also
publish the Journal Neuroscience. See http://www.ibro.info/ for further information.
The project to translate this booklet was initiated in 2005 by myself as chair of the IBRO Committee
for Public Education. Special thanks are due to Duncan Banks of the British Neuroscience
Association and Open University, Milton Keynes, UK who has made it technically possible to make so
many translations and produced the CDROM.

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Authors of the original chapters


Chapter
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Authors
Maria Bentivogelio, Nobel Forum
Tobias Bohoffer, Peter Brophy, Eric Kandel, Nobel Forum
Marianne Fillenz
Leslie Iversen
Susan Fleetwood-Walker, Han Jiesheng, Donald Price
Andrew Parker
Beveley Clark, Tom Gillingwater, Michael Hausser, Chris Miall, Richard Ribchester, Wolfram Schultz,
Andrew Lumsden
John Stein
Graham Collingridge, Andre Doherty, Kathy Sykes
Ted Berger, Livia dev Hoz, Graham Hitch, Eleanor Maguire, Andrew Doherty, Leslie Underleider,
Fareneh Vargha-Khadem
Jonathan Seckl
Nancy Rothwell
Anthony Harmar
Mark Bastin, Richard Frackowiak, Nikos Logothetis, Elanor Maguire, Lindsay Murray, Elisabeth
Rounis, Semir Zeki.
Rodney Douglas, Gerry Eldelman, Jeff Krichmar, Kevan Martin
Malcolm Macleod, Eva Johnstone, Walter Muir, David Porteous, Ian Reid.
Colin Blakemore, Kenneth Boyd, Stephen Rose, William Saffire
Yvonne Allen (BNA), LARC, ARC, APRC, CEERC

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