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Soft Switching Techniques

Soft Switching Techniques

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Published by: matlab5903 on Oct 07, 2011
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01/04/2013

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Power Electronics

Chapter 7 Soft-Switching Techniques

Power Electronics

Pursuing of higher switching frequency
Better waveform • PWM waveform will be closer to expected waveform • Harmonics is easier to be filtered

Benefits

Smaller volume and weight • 4.44fNφ =4.44fNAB •

f =

1 2π LC

Faster response

2

Disadvantages of higher switching frequency

Power Electronics

Disadvantages Higher power losses on power semiconductor devices
– Power loss=f x Energy loss at each switching

More severe electromagnetic interference (EMI)
– Steeper edges introduce more noises – Easier to be radiated

Solution Soft-switching techniques

3

Outline Power Electronics
7.1 Basic concepts on soft-switching 7.2 Classification of soft-switching techniques 7.3 Typical soft-switching circuits and techniques

4

Power Electronics

7.1 Basic concepts on soft-switching
Hard-switching
u i
O

u

i

u i

i

u

t

O

t

p
O

p

t
a) Turning-on

O

t
b) Turning-off

The process of power semiconductor device hard-switching
5

The concept of soft-switching

Power Electronics

Soft-switching
u i
O

u

i

u i

i

u

t

O

t

p
O

p

t
a) Turning-on

O

t
b) Turning-off

The process of power semiconductor device soft-switching
6

Two types of soft-switching

Power Electronics

ZVS—Zero-voltage switching
Specifically means zero-voltage turn-on, i.e., the voltage across the device is reduced to zero before the current increases

ZCS—Zero-current switching
Specifically means zero-current turn-off, i.e., the current flowing through the device is reduced to zero before the voltage increases

7

Power Electronics

7.2 Classification of soft-switching techniques
Quasi-resonant soft-switching ZVS PWM (zero-voltage-switching PWM) and ZCS PWM (zero-current-switching PWM) ZVT PWM (zero-voltage-transition PWM) and ZCT PWM (zero-current-transition PWM)

8

The concept of basic switch cell

Power Electronics

S

L

S

L

VD a) L S VD L S

VD

b)

VD

c)

d)
9

Power Electronics

Quasi-Resonant Converter—QRC
ZVS QRC ZCS QRC ZVS MRC (multi-resonant converter) Resonant DC link converter
Cr Lr S VD L S Cr VD Cr1 Lr L S Cr2 Lr L VD

a) ZVS QRC

b) ZCS QRC

c) ZVS MRC

Basic switching cells for QRC
10

Power Electronics

ZVS PWM converter and ZCS PWM converter
Feature: use of auxiliary switch
Cr S S1 Lr VD

L S

Lr S1 Cr

L

VD b)

a)

Basic switching cells for a) ZVS PWM and b) ZCS PWM

11

ZVT PWM converter and ZCT PWM converter

Power Electronics

Feature: auxiliary switch is in parallel with main switch
Lr Cr S1 S VD1 L VD S VD1 b) Lr Cr S1 L VD

a)

Basic switching cells for a) ZVT PWM and b) ZCT PWM

12

Power Electronics

7.3 Typical soft-switching circuits and techniques
ZVS QRC Resonant DC link converter Phase-shift full bridge ZVS PWM converter ZVT PWM converter

13

ZVS QRC

Power Electronics

Cr S VDS Lr

S
A L

O uS (uCr)
C R

t

Ui

VD

O iS O iLr O uVD O

t t

+

uCr

IL

+ Ui

uCr

iLr

Cr A Ui

Cr

t

t t0t1 t2 t3t4 t5t6 t0

to ~ t1

t1 ~ t2
14

Power Electronics

Resonant DC link converter
Circuit
Lr
VDS
uCr Ui

Ui

S Cr
O iLr IL O t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t0

t

Equivalent circuit to RDCL
iLr Lr Ui Cr + S uCr VDS L R IL

t

15

Power Electronics

Summary of QRC
Disadvantages
– Voltage stress increased due to the resonant peak – Current RMS value increased due to large circulating energy – Variable switching frequency due to pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) control

16

Phase-shift full-bridge ZVS PWM converter

Power Electronics

S1

Circuit

O S2 O S4 O S3 O uAB

t t t t t

S1 A Ui S2

CS1 S3 Lr B

CS3

+ VD1 uR L VD2 C R

O uLr O iLr O uT1 O uR O iL O iVD1 O iVD2 O t8 t9 t 0 t 1 t2 t3 t4 t5 t 6 t7 t8 t9 t0

t

t

CS2 S 4

CS4

t

t t

t t

17

Phase-shift full-bridge ZVS PWM converter

Power Electronics

CS1 A Ui CS2

iLr Lr

iL kT:1 VD1 L + Uo R
iLr Ui S2 Lr

CS3

VDS3 VD1

iL L + Uo R VD2

B CS4

VDS2 S4

Equivalent circuit during t1 ~ t2

Equivalent circuit during t3 ~ t4

18

Power Electronics

Summary of ZVS or ZCS PWM converter
Improvement over QRC
– Voltage and current are basically square-wave, therefore stresses are greatly reduced – Constant switching frequency due to pulse-width modulation (PWM) control

19

ZVT PWM converter

Power Electronics

Circuit
IL L VDS Ui S Lr Cr S1 iVD VD iLr

S O S1 O uS t t t

+

R

VD1 C Uo

O iLr IL O iS1

t

Equivalent circuit during t1 ~ t2
IL L Ui VDS Cr S1 iLr Lr

O uS1 O iD O iS O t0 t1 t2 t3 t4 t5

t

t t

t

20

Power Electronics

Summary of ZVT or ZCT PWM converter
Improvement over ZVS or ZCS PWM converter
– Soft-switching can be achieved in a wider range of input voltage and load current – Circulating energy is reduced to minimum so that efficiency is increased

21

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