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Lecture 10 MEMS

# Lecture 10 MEMS

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# Lecture 9 Biomedical Microtechnology and Nanotechnology

Microfabrication and Nanofabrication applied to Biomedical Instrumentation

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
The values of various parameters depends on the dimensions of the system and this proves to be helpful in a number of cases.

Example : Cantilever bending (Mechanical Parameters)
Density of Material = 3.5 x 103 kg/m3 Young’s Modulus = 1012 N/m2 Deflection d Force F

Material properties such as Young’s modulus remain approximately the same in the micro and macro versions. However, they are relatively more different in case of nano dimensions because nano dimensions come closer to molecular level.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Consider that the dimensions of the cantilever are reduced 10000 times, i.e the length, breadth and thickness change from 100 cm, 10cm and 1cm to 100microns, 10 microns and 1 micron respectively. If S represents any dimension in general then, Mass Mass = Density x Volume = Constant x S3 Therefore mass goes down (104)3 or is reduced 1012 times as the original beam Strength to Mass Ratio Total strength scales with its cross-sectional area. Hence, total strength scales as S2. Hence, total strength to mass ratio scales as S-1. As a result, the micro cantilever is 104 times stronger than the macro model.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Deflection
Force

Fl 3 4 Fl 3 d= = 3EI Ebt 3

length

Young’s Modulus

Force will vary with cross-sectional area if the stress is to be kept constant Therefore, deflection is proportional to S1. Therefore, the same stress is generated in the two models if the deflection in the microcantilever is 10-4 times the deflection in the macro model, thus maintaining the bending shape. A much smaller force can be sensed (10-8 times) with the micro cantilever.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Frequency
Frequency scales as the square root of the ratio of the stiffness and mass. Thus, frequency scales as S-1. Hence, micro and nano applications can be high frequency applications. Huang et al have achieved a nanomechanical silicon carbide resonator for ultra high frequency applications. Resonant frequencies have been as high as 632 MHz.
Reference :
http://www.bu.edu/nems/SiC%20high%20frequency%20Henry.pdf

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Example : Capacitor (Electrical Parameters)
If the same electric field E = 108 V/m needs to be mainitained between the plates of a micro sized capacitor and a macro sized capacitor, then Voltage Voltage = E x gap Thus, voltage will scale as the gap between the plates. Therefore a much smaller voltage will be required in the micro case to produce the same effect. +V gnd
gap

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Electrostatic Force Electrostatic force = Area x (electrostatic field)2 Thus, electrostatic force scales as S2 if electrostatic field is maintained same. However, if voltage is to be maintained same, electrostatic force would be independent of scaling. However, its effect in the micro case would be more pronounced because relatively, inertial forces are very low. Electromagnetic force scales as S4 if magnetic field is to be constant and thus, the world of mems relies on electrostatic motors as opposed to electromagnetic motors . Capacitance Capacitance scales as S1.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS

An electrostatic micromotor

An electrostatic comb drive actuator

Advantages of Micro/Nano Fluidics for Biomedical Applications
• • • • • • Device size for hand-held instrumentation and point-of-care testing is minimal. Provides for efficient use of expensive chemical reagents and low production costs per device allowing disposable microfluidic systems. Precise volumetric control of samples and reagents is possible, which leads to higher sensitivities. High-throughput biological screening is made possible by faster sampling times through parallel processing of samples. In-situ production of unstable compounds for biological assays is also possible. Ratio of surface area to volume is high and thus, the sensing is more effective in case of electrochemical sensors etc.

Disadvantages of Micro/Nano Fluidics for Biomedical Applications
• Bubbles block exits. This could be controlled by either priming at high pressures or by using different priming agents such as ethanol or carbon dioxide. • Unwanted particles Fine filtering of solutions becomes important. • Surface tension plays funny. Microscale modeling needs to be done and mechanics is not particularly intuitive. However, surface tension forces could be exploited as well ! • Interfacing with the macroscale equipment is not easy.

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Taken from : www.heartcenteronline.com

Micro/Nano applied to BME
Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Procedure

Stent Procedure Balloon Angioplasty
http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_dil ation_art.htm

http://www.mdmercy.com/vascular/discoveries/bal

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micromachined silicon neural probe arrays
Taken from
http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pdf

Michigan Probe

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Drug Delivery Probes

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micro/Nano applied to BME

An implantable blood pressure sensor developed by CardioMEMS

Surgical microgripper actuated by SMA
Taken from
http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pd f

Micro/Nano Fabrication Techniques

Generalized Microfabrication

Photolithography
Clean wafer : to remove particles on the surface as well as any traces of organic, ionic, and metallic impurities Dehydration bake: to drive off the absorbed water on the surface to promote the adhesion of PR Coating : a) Coat wafer with adhesion promoting film (e.g., HMDS) (optional) b) Coat with photoresist Soft bake : to drive off excess solvent and to promote adhesion Exposure Post exposure bake (optional): to suppress standing wave-effect Develop Clean, Dry Hard bake: to harden the PR and improve adhesion to the substrate

Photolithography

Taken from : http://www2.ece.jhu.edu/faculty/andreou/495/2003/LectureNotes/Handout3a_PhotolithographyI.pdf

Oxidation
Thermal Oxidation of Silicon is done in a furnace in wet or dry conditions

Doping
Purpose of Doping in MEMS - Make P++ etch stop - Change restivity of the film (e.g. make piezoresistor,connecting wire) Dopants : N type (Phosphorous, Arsenic), P type (Boron) Doping Methods 2. Diffusion Dopants are diffused thermally into the substrate in furnace at 950 – 1280 0C. It is governed by Fick’s Laws of Diffusion.

2. Ion Implantation Dopant ions bombarded into targeting substrate by high energy. Ion implantation are able to place any ion at any depth in sample.

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
1. Evaporation
Deposition is achieved by evaporation or sublimation of heated metal onto substrate. This can be done either by resistance heating or by e-beam bombardment.

Thermal Evaporator

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
2. Sputtering
Sputtering is achieved by accelerated inert ion (Ar+) by DC or RF drive in plasma through potential gradient to bombard metallic target. Then the targeting material is sputtered away and deposited onto substrate placed on anode.

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Materials deposited Polysilicon, silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon carbide (SiC) etc. How does CVD Work? Gaseous reactants are introduced into chamber at elevated temperatures. Reactant reacts and deposits onto substrate Types of CVD LPCVD (Low Pressure CVD), PECVD (Plasma Enhanced CVD) Salient Features CVD results depend on pressure, gas, and temperature Can be diffusion or reaction limited Varies from film composition, crystallization, deposition rate and electrical and mechanical properties

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
1. Dry Chemical Etching
HF Etching HF is a powerful etchant and hence, highly dangerous. XeF2 Etching 2XeF2+Si→2Xe+SiF4 Isotropic etching (typically 1-3µm/min) Does not attack aluminum, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
Plasma Etching

Reaction Mechanism Produce reactive species in gas-phase Adsorption, and diffuse over the surface

Reactive species diffuse to the solid Reaction Desorption Diffusion

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
3. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE)
A very high-aspect-ratio silicon etch method (usually > 30:1) BOSCH Process Etch rate is 1.5 – 4 µm/min SF6 to etch silicon Approx. 10nm flourcarbon polymer (similar is plasma deposited using C4H8 Energetic ions (SF6+) remove protective polymer at the bottom trench

Subtractive Processes

DRIE Etched Pillars

Subtractive Processes
Wet Etching
Isotropic Wet Etching
Isotropic etchants etch in all directions at nearly the same rate. Commonly use chemical for Silicon is HNA (HF/HNO3/Acetic Acid) This results in a finite amount of undercutting

Subtractive Processes
Wet Etching
Anisotropic Wet Etching
Anisotropic etchants etch much faster in one direction than in another. Etchants are generally Alkali Hydroxides (KOH, NaOH, CeOH, ..) KOH on silicon Slower etch rate on (111) planes Higher etch rate on (100) and (110) planes (400 times more faster than the (111) plane) Typical concentration of KOH is around 40 wt% Reaction : Silicon (s) + Water + Hydroxide Ions → Silicates + Hydrogen

Metal Patterning

Surface Micromachining

Example

1. Pumping membrane 3. Inlet 5. Large mesa 7. Bottom glass plate

2. Pumping chamber 4. Outlet 6. Upper glass plate 8. patterned thin layer (for improved fluidics)

An insulin pump fabricated by classic MEMS technology (Surface Micromachining)

MEMS Packaging

Fabrication of Microfluidic Channels

Materials
• Silicon / Si compounds - Classical MEMS approach - Etching involved • Polymers / Plastics - Newer methods - primary die yet needed - easy fabrication of subsequent components

Etching Methods
Step 1 : Etching of Si - Isotropic / Anisotropic - HNA for isotropic - KOH/EDP/TMAH for anisotropic - RIE can also be used for high aspect ratios

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure of channel b) Bonding another substrate c) LPCVD coating d) Ground Plate Supported Insulating Channels

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure d) Closing Holes in the mask material - channel is defined by a sequence of holes. - channel formed by underetching

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure e) Burying channels beneath surface - Trench made using RIE. - KOH etching to form microchannels - Oxide fills trench

Surface Micromachining

A Comparative study

Using Polymers/Plastics
• • • • • Imprinting and Hot Embossing Injection Molding Laser Photoablation Soft Lithography X ray Lithography (LIGA)

Imprinting/Embossing
• Stamp made in Si or metal • Stamp pressed on Plastic to form microfluidic channels • Many common plastics successfully imprinted

Soft Lithography
• Elastomeric polymer cast in a Si stamp and cured • Polymer is peeled off • Channel architecture thus transferred to the polymer • PDMS technology is becoming popular

Laser Photoablation
• High aspect ratio channels achievable • Laser pulses in the UV region used • Sealing by thermal lamination with a PET/PE film at 1250C • Depth controllable

References
http://www.kuos.org/archives/MEMS%20Short%20Course.pdf http://mems.colorado.edu/c1.res.ppt/ppt/g.tutorial/ppt.htm http://mems.cwru.edu/shortcourse/ http://www2.ece.jhu.edu/faculty/andreou/495/2003/LectureNotes/Handout3a_Ph otolithographyI.pdf http://www.memsnet.org

Lecture 9 Biomedical Microtechnology and Nanotechnology
Microfabrication and Nanofabrication applied to Biomedical Instrumentation

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
The values of various parameters depends on the dimensions of the system and this proves to be helpful in a number of cases.

Example : Cantilever bending (Mechanical Parameters)
Density of Material = 3.5 x 103 kg/m3 Young’s Modulus = 1012 N/m2 Deflection d Force F

Material properties such as Young’s modulus remain approximately the same in the micro and macro versions. However, they are relatively more different in case of nano dimensions because nano dimensions come closer to molecular level.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Consider that the dimensions of the cantilever are reduced 10000 times, i.e the length, breadth and thickness change from 100 cm, 10cm and 1cm to 100microns, 10 microns and 1 micron respectively. If S represents any dimension in general then, Mass Mass = Density x Volume = Constant x S3 Therefore mass goes down (104)3 or is reduced 1012 times as the original beam Strength to Mass Ratio Total strength scales with its cross-sectional area. Hence, total strength scales as S2. Hence, total strength to mass ratio scales as S-1. As a result, the micro cantilever is 104 times stronger than the macro model.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Deflection
Force

Fl 3 4 Fl 3 d= = 3EI Ebt 3

length

Young’s Modulus

Force will vary with cross-sectional area if the stress is to be kept constant Therefore, deflection is proportional to S1. Therefore, the same stress is generated in the two models if the deflection in the microcantilever is 10-4 times the deflection in the macro model, thus maintaining the bending shape. A much smaller force can be sensed (10-8 times) with the micro cantilever.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Frequency
Frequency scales as the square root of the ratio of the stiffness and mass. Thus, frequency scales as S-1. Hence, micro and nano applications can be high frequency applications. Huang et al have achieved a nanomechanical silicon carbide resonator for ultra high frequency applications. Resonant frequencies have been as high as 632 MHz.
Reference :
http://www.bu.edu/nems/SiC%20high%20frequency%20Henry.pdf

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Example : Capacitor (Electrical Parameters)
If the same electric field E = 108 V/m needs to be mainitained between the plates of a micro sized capacitor and a macro sized capacitor, then Voltage Voltage = E x gap Thus, voltage will scale as the gap between the plates. Therefore a much smaller voltage will be required in the micro case to produce the same effect. +V gnd
gap

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS
Electrostatic Force Electrostatic force = Area x (electrostatic field)2 Thus, electrostatic force scales as S2 if electrostatic field is maintained same. However, if voltage is to be maintained same, electrostatic force would be independent of scaling. However, its effect in the micro case would be more pronounced because relatively, inertial forces are very low. Electromagnetic force scales as S4 if magnetic field is to be constant and thus, the world of mems relies on electrostatic motors as opposed to electromagnetic motors . Capacitance Capacitance scales as S1.

Why Micro/Nano ?
SCALING OF PARAMETERS

An electrostatic micromotor

An electrostatic comb drive actuator

Advantages of Micro/Nano Fluidics for Biomedical Applications
• • • • • • Device size for hand-held instrumentation and point-of-care testing is minimal. Provides for efficient use of expensive chemical reagents and low production costs per device allowing disposable microfluidic systems. Precise volumetric control of samples and reagents is possible, which leads to higher sensitivities. High-throughput biological screening is made possible by faster sampling times through parallel processing of samples. In-situ production of unstable compounds for biological assays is also possible. Ratio of surface area to volume is high and thus, the sensing is more effective in case of electrochemical sensors etc.

Disadvantages of Micro/Nano Fluidics for Biomedical Applications
• Bubbles block exits. This could be controlled by either priming at high pressures or by using different priming agents such as ethanol or carbon dioxide. • Unwanted particles Fine filtering of solutions becomes important. • Surface tension plays funny. Microscale modeling needs to be done and mechanics is not particularly intuitive. However, surface tension forces could be exploited as well ! • Interfacing with the macroscale equipment is not easy.

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Taken from : www.heartcenteronline.com

Micro/Nano applied to BME
Balloon Angioplasty and Stent Procedure

Stent Procedure Balloon Angioplasty
http://www.med.umich.edu/1libr/aha/aha_dil ation_art.htm

http://www.mdmercy.com/vascular/discoveries/bal

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micromachined silicon neural probe arrays
Taken from
http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pdf

Michigan Probe

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Drug Delivery Probes

Micro/Nano applied to BME

Micro/Nano applied to BME

An implantable blood pressure sensor developed by CardioMEMS

Surgical microgripper actuated by SMA
Taken from
http://www.ee.ucla.edu/~jjudy/publications/conference/msc_2000_judy.pd f

Micro/Nano Fabrication Techniques

Generalized Microfabrication

Photolithography
Clean wafer : to remove particles on the surface as well as any traces of organic, ionic, and metallic impurities Dehydration bake: to drive off the absorbed water on the surface to promote the adhesion of PR Coating : a) Coat wafer with adhesion promoting film (e.g., HMDS) (optional) b) Coat with photoresist Soft bake : to drive off excess solvent and to promote adhesion Exposure Post exposure bake (optional): to suppress standing wave-effect Develop Clean, Dry Hard bake: to harden the PR and improve adhesion to the substrate

Photolithography

Taken from : http://www2.ece.jhu.edu/faculty/andreou/495/2003/LectureNotes/Handout3a_PhotolithographyI.pdf

Oxidation
Thermal Oxidation of Silicon is done in a furnace in wet or dry conditions

Doping
Purpose of Doping in MEMS - Make P++ etch stop - Change restivity of the film (e.g. make piezoresistor,connecting wire) Dopants : N type (Phosphorous, Arsenic), P type (Boron) Doping Methods 2. Diffusion Dopants are diffused thermally into the substrate in furnace at 950 – 1280 0C. It is governed by Fick’s Laws of Diffusion.

2. Ion Implantation Dopant ions bombarded into targeting substrate by high energy. Ion implantation are able to place any ion at any depth in sample.

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
1. Evaporation
Deposition is achieved by evaporation or sublimation of heated metal onto substrate. This can be done either by resistance heating or by e-beam bombardment.

Thermal Evaporator

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)
2. Sputtering
Sputtering is achieved by accelerated inert ion (Ar+) by DC or RF drive in plasma through potential gradient to bombard metallic target. Then the targeting material is sputtered away and deposited onto substrate placed on anode.

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)
Materials deposited Polysilicon, silicon nitride (Si3N4), silicon oxide (SiOx), silicon carbide (SiC) etc. How does CVD Work? Gaseous reactants are introduced into chamber at elevated temperatures. Reactant reacts and deposits onto substrate Types of CVD LPCVD (Low Pressure CVD), PECVD (Plasma Enhanced CVD) Salient Features CVD results depend on pressure, gas, and temperature Can be diffusion or reaction limited Varies from film composition, crystallization, deposition rate and electrical and mechanical properties

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
1. Dry Chemical Etching
HF Etching HF is a powerful etchant and hence, highly dangerous. XeF2 Etching 2XeF2+Si→2Xe+SiF4 Isotropic etching (typically 1-3µm/min) Does not attack aluminum, silicon dioxide, and silicon nitride

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
Plasma Etching

Reaction Mechanism Produce reactive species in gas-phase Adsorption, and diffuse over the surface

Reactive species diffuse to the solid Reaction Desorption Diffusion

Subtractive Processes
Dry Etching
3. Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE)
A very high-aspect-ratio silicon etch method (usually > 30:1) BOSCH Process Etch rate is 1.5 – 4 µm/min SF6 to etch silicon Approx. 10nm flourcarbon polymer (similar is plasma deposited using C4H8 Energetic ions (SF6+) remove protective polymer at the bottom trench

Subtractive Processes

DRIE Etched Pillars

Subtractive Processes
Wet Etching
Isotropic Wet Etching
Isotropic etchants etch in all directions at nearly the same rate. Commonly use chemical for Silicon is HNA (HF/HNO3/Acetic Acid) This results in a finite amount of undercutting

Subtractive Processes
Wet Etching
Anisotropic Wet Etching
Anisotropic etchants etch much faster in one direction than in another. Etchants are generally Alkali Hydroxides (KOH, NaOH, CeOH, ..) KOH on silicon Slower etch rate on (111) planes Higher etch rate on (100) and (110) planes (400 times more faster than the (111) plane) Typical concentration of KOH is around 40 wt% Reaction : Silicon (s) + Water + Hydroxide Ions → Silicates + Hydrogen

Metal Patterning

Surface Micromachining

Example

1. Pumping membrane 3. Inlet 5. Large mesa 7. Bottom glass plate

2. Pumping chamber 4. Outlet 6. Upper glass plate 8. patterned thin layer (for improved fluidics)

An insulin pump fabricated by classic MEMS technology (Surface Micromachining)

MEMS Packaging

Fabrication of Microfluidic Channels

Materials
• Silicon / Si compounds - Classical MEMS approach - Etching involved • Polymers / Plastics - Newer methods - primary die yet needed - easy fabrication of subsequent components

Etching Methods
Step 1 : Etching of Si - Isotropic / Anisotropic - HNA for isotropic - KOH/EDP/TMAH for anisotropic - RIE can also be used for high aspect ratios

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure of channel b) Bonding another substrate c) LPCVD coating d) Ground Plate Supported Insulating Channels

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure d) Closing Holes in the mask material - channel is defined by a sequence of holes. - channel formed by underetching

Etching Methods
Step 2 : Closure e) Burying channels beneath surface - Trench made using RIE. - KOH etching to form microchannels - Oxide fills trench

Surface Micromachining

A Comparative study

Using Polymers/Plastics
• • • • • Imprinting and Hot Embossing Injection Molding Laser Photoablation Soft Lithography X ray Lithography (LIGA)

Imprinting/Embossing
• Stamp made in Si or metal • Stamp pressed on Plastic to form microfluidic channels • Many common plastics successfully imprinted

Soft Lithography
• Elastomeric polymer cast in a Si stamp and cured • Polymer is peeled off • Channel architecture thus transferred to the polymer • PDMS technology is becoming popular

Laser Photoablation
• High aspect ratio channels achievable • Laser pulses in the UV region used • Sealing by thermal lamination with a PET/PE film at 1250C • Depth controllable

References
http://www.kuos.org/archives/MEMS%20Short%20Course.pdf http://mems.colorado.edu/c1.res.ppt/ppt/g.tutorial/ppt.htm http://mems.cwru.edu/shortcourse/ http://www2.ece.jhu.edu/faculty/andreou/495/2003/LectureNotes/Handout3a_Ph otolithographyI.pdf http://www.memsnet.org

Applications

WPI’s Nitric Oxide Nanosensor

Nitric Oxide Sensor
• Developed at Dr.Thakor’s Lab, BME, JHU • Electrochemical detection of NO

Left: Schematic of the 16-electrode sensor array. Right: Close-up of a single site. The underlying metal is Au and appears reddish under the photoresist. The dark layer is C (300µm-x-300µm)

A E

B

F

C

G

D

H

Cartoon of the fabrication sequence for the NO sensor array
A) Bare 4” Si wafer B) 5µm of photoresist was spin-coated on to the surface, followed by a prebake for 1min at 90°C. C) The samples were then exposed through a mask for 16s using UV light at 365nm and an intensity of 15mW/cm2. D) Patterned photoresist after development. E) 20nm of Ti, 150nm of Au and 50nm of C were evaporated on. F) The metal on the unexposed areas was removed by incubation in an acetone bath. G)A 2nd layer of photoresist, which serves as the insulation layer, was spun on and patterned. H) The windows in the second layer also defined the microelectrode sites.

NO Sensor Calibration

NO Sensor Calibration

Multichannel NO Recordings

Michigan Probes for Neural Recordings

Neural Recording Microelectrodes

Reference : http://www.acreo.se/acreo-rd/IMAGES/PUBLICATIONS/PROCEEDINGS/ABSTRACTKINDLUNDH.PDF

Multi-electrode Neural Recording

Reference : http://www.cyberkineticsinc.com/technology.htm

Reference : http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/neuronal-networks/mmep.htm

Reference : Lutz Hesse, Thomas Schanze, Marcus Wilms and Marcus Eger, “Implantation of retina stimulation electrodes and recording of electrical stimulation responses in the visual cortex of the cat”, Graefe’s Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2000) 238:840–845

Intraocular Stimulation Electrodes

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