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A process in which images or listings of goods and services are viewed remotely via electronic means, e.g., a vendor's Web site, items are selected for purchase, and the transaction is completed electronically with a credit card or an established credit account. Various encryption schemes may be, and usually are, used to reduce the risks of sending sensitive information, such as credit-card numbers, over the Internet or other telecommunications facility. INA wallet is a small software program used for online purchase transactions. Many payment solution companies, such as CyberCash, offer free Wallet software that allows several methods of payment to be defined within the wallet (for example, several different credit cards). Here's how it works: When you order something, the order is sent to the merchant. The merchant (actually, the merchant's server) sends back an invoice and asks the consumer to launch the Wallet in his computer (or to download it quickly if the consumer doesn't have it yet).When the consumer selects "Pay," the Cyber Cash software on the merchant server sends a message back to the consumer's PC that activates the "Wallet" software. The consumer selects one of the cards defined in the Wallet and clicks. The transaction includes real-time credit card authorization. CyberCash says" Soon we will incorporate an electronic "Cash" and "Coin" system to use for transactions that are considered small for credit cards. Online shopping is the process consumers go through to purchase products or services over the Internet. An online shop, e-shopping, e-store, internet shop, web shop, web store, online store, or virtual store evokes the physical analogy of buying products or services at a bricks-andmortar retailer or in a mall. The metaphor of an online catalog is also used, by analogy with mail order catalogs. All types of stores have retail web sites, including those that do and do not also have physical storefronts and paper catalogs. Online shopping is a type of electronic commerce used for business-to-business (B2B) and business-to-consumer (B2C) transactions. The term "Webshop" also refers to a place of business where web development, web hosting and other types of web related activities take place (Web refers to the World Wide Web and "shop" has a colloquial meaning used to describe the place where one's occupation is carried out).
HISTORY OF ONLINE SHOPPING
The idea of online shopping predates the World Wide Web, for there are earlier experiments involving real-time transaction processing from a domestic television. The technology, based on Videotext, was first demonstrated in 1979 by Michael Aldrich, who designed and installed systems in the UK, including the first Tesco pilot system in 1984. The first B2B was Thomson Holidays in 1981. History of Online Shopping starts not so long ago. Tim Berners-Lee created "The World Wide Web Browser" in 1990. In1994 few other developments took place. Online bank, the first of its kind opened this year. Another development was opening of online pizza shop by pizza hut. In the same year Netscape introduced SSL encryption to enable encryption over the data transferred online. This later became the necessity of online shopping. In 1995, Amazon started operation, one of the largest online shopping mall now. Then in 1996 eBay started its online shopping portal. 1998 witnessed use of electronic postage stamps, where people can download and print postal stamps after paying nominal fee. In 1999 the first online shop in UK launched.
With its advent in the early 1990s, online shopping has spread into every corner of life, linking people to the culture of capitalism in frequent and daily ways. It lets us buy what we want, when we want, at our convenience, and helps us to imagine ourselves buying, owning, and having positive outcomes by the goods available out there on the web. For some, shopping has become a way of identifying oneself in today's culture by what we purchase and how we use those purchases. Online shopping has always been middle to high class commodity since its first arrival on the internet in society.
In general, shopping has always catered to middle class and upper class women. Shopping is fragmented and pyramid-shaped. At the pinnacle are elegant boutiques for the affluent, a huge 2
belt of inelegant but ruthlessly efficient “discounters” flog plenty at the pyramid’s precarious middle. According to the analysis of Susan D. Davis, at its base are the world’s workers and poor, on whose cheapened labor the rest of the pyramid depends for its incredible abundance. Shopping has evolved from single stores to large malls containing many stores that most often offer attentive service, store credit, delivery, and acceptance of returns. These new additions to shopping have encouraged and targeted middle class women. In recent years, online shopping has become popular; however, it still caters to the middle and upper class. In order to shop online, one must be able to have access to a computer, a bank account and a debit card. Shopping has evolved with the growth of technology. According to research found in the Journal of Electronic Commerce, if we focus on the demographic characteristics of the in-home shopper, in general, the higher the level of education, income, and occupation of the head of the household, the more favorable the perception of non-store shopping. An influential factor in consumer attitude towards non-store shopping is exposure to technology, since it has been demonstrated that increased exposure to technology increases the probability of developing favorable attitudes towards new shopping channels. Online shopping widened the target audience to men and women of the middle class. At first, main users of online shopping were young men with a high level of income and a university education. This profile is changing. For example, in USA in the early years of Internet there were very few women users, but by 2001 women were 52.8% of the online population. Sociocultural pressure has made men generally more independent in their purchase decisions, while women place greater value on personal contact and social relations. In addition, male shoppers are more independent when deciding on purchasing products because, unlike women, they don’t necessarily need to see or try on the product.
One third of people that shop online use a search engine to find what they are looking for and about one fourth find websites by word of mouth. Word of mouth has become a leading way by which people find shopping websites. When an online shopper has a good first experience with a certain website, sixty percent of the time they will return to that website to buy more. 3
online shopping is arguably the most predictable way to shop. Cosmetics. most online retailers use shopping cart software to allow the consumer to accumulate multiple items and to adjust quantities. A "checkout" process follows (continuing the physical-store analogy) in which payment and delivery information is collected. like using e checks. Logistics Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly. One knows exactly what website to go to. The method of payment is decided upon the mutual trust and familiarity between online merchant and the customer. However. About one fourth of travelers buy their plane tickets online because it is a quick and easy way to compare airline travel and make a purchase. Various methods of payment are described below. From a sociological perspective. shoes. 4 . Payment Payment by credit card is the widely accepted method of payment for online shopping. Once a particular product has been found on the web site of the seller. and accessories are all very popular things bought online. and how long it will take for the product to reach them. nutrition products. The consumer often receives an e-mail confirmation once the transaction is complete. clothes. how much the product will cost. Some stores allow consumers to sign up for a permanent online account so that some or all of this information only needs to be entered once. Online shopping has become extremely routine and predictable. by analogy with filling a physical shopping cart or basket in a conventional store. payment & bank transfer are also common.Books are one of the things bought most online. However the other methods. which is one of its great appeals to the consumer. Less sophisticated stores may rely on consumers to phone or e-mail their orders (though credit card numbers are not accepted by e-mail. if necessary. and groceries are increasingly being purchased online. or do a search across many different vendors using a shopping search engine. Online shopping provides more freedom and control than shopping in a store. for security reasons).
Other sites allow customers from anywhere to send gifts anywhere. • Download: This is the method often used for digital media products such as software.D.O. offered by very few online stores) Cheque Delivery on payment Postal money order Bill Me Later Money bookers Reverse SMS billing to mobile phones Direct debit in some countries Some sites will not allow international credit cards and billing address and shipping address have to be in the same country in which site does its business. letting the consumer know their credit card was declined before they log off).Online shoppers commonly use credit card to make payments. While credit cards are currently the most popular means of paying for online goods and services. music. however some systems enable users to create accounts and pay by alternative means.. • 5 . Shipping: The product is shipped to the customer's address. such as: • • • • • • • • • • Debit card Various types of electronic money Cash on delivery (C. alternative online payments will account for 26% of e-commerce volume by 2009 according to Celent. or images. The financial part of a transaction might be processed in real time (for example. Product delivery Once a payment has been accepted the goods or services can be delivered in the following ways. movies. or might be done later as part of the fulfillment process.
bypassing the retailer's physical location to save time. accounting and warehousing can be automated to a large extent. because it is all about building relationships and making money.• Drop shipping: The order is passed to the manufacturer or third-party distributor. Many researchers notify that the uniqueness of the web has dissolved and the need for the design. This is the method often used in the bricks and clicks business model. • Other solutions allow the user to register and create an online shop on a portal that hosts multiple shops at the same time. Companies should always remember that there are certain things. It is usually installed on the company's own web server and may integrate into the existing supply chain so that ordering. which will be user centered. delivery. never go 6 . finds a local store using locator software and picks the product up at the closest store. • Consumer expectations The main idea of online shopping is not in having a good looking website that could be listed in a lot of search engines and it is not about the art behind the site. organizations try to adopt techniques of online shopping without understanding these techniques and/or without a sound business model. • In-store pickup: The customer orders online. the website should satisfy consumer's expectations. • A high end solution can be bought or rented as a standalone program or as an addition to an enterprise resource planning program. living up to promises. Commercial systems can also be tailored to ones needs so that the shop does not have to be created from scratch. It also is not only just about disseminating information. These systems do not use an online database. The shop is then generated as HTML files and graphics that can be uploaded to a web space. Mostly. who ships the item directly to the consumer. payment. Rather than supporting the organization’s culture and brand name. money. By using a framework already existing. software modules for different functionalities required by a web shop can be adapted and combined. Shopping cart systems • Simple systems allow the offline administration of products and categories. is very important. such as understanding the customer’s wants and needs. and space.
3 billion worth of clothes sold online represented about 10% of the domestic market. In most cases. predictability and control. Market share:E-commerce product sales totaled $146. And the reason will stay if consumers always get what they expect. merchandise must be shipped to the consumer.4 billion in the United States in 2006. sometimes because they find computers hard to use. introducing a significant delay and potentially uncertainty about whether or not the item was actually in stock at the time of purchase. and many consumers have Internet access both at work and at home. Searching or browsing an online catalog can be faster than browsing the aisles of a physical store. A visit to a conventional retail store requires travel and must take place during business hours. Consumers with dial-up Internet connections rather than broadband have much longer load times for content-rich web sites and have a considerably slower online shopping experience. because online shopping is becoming more and more popular and website that wants to gain more shoppers will use four major principles of McDonaldization: efficiency.out of style. The $18. 7 . Not all online retailers have succeeded in making their sites easy to use or reliable. For developing countries and low-income households in developed countries. because they give reason to come back. adoption of e-commerce in place of or in addition to conventional methods is limited by a lack of affordable Internet access. McDonaldization theory can be used in terms of online shopping. calculability. Convenience:Online stores are usually available 24 hours a day. representing about 6% of retail product sales in the country. Some consumers prefer interacting with people rather than computers (and vice versa).
Bricks and clicks stores offer the ability to buy online but pick up in a nearby store. Many stores give the consumer the delivery company's tracking number for their package when shipped, so they can check its status online and know exactly when it will arrive. For efficiency reasons, online stores generally do not ship products immediately upon receiving an order. Orders are only filled during warehouse operating hours, and there may be a delay of anywhere from a few minutes to a few days to a few weeks before in-stock items are actually packaged and shipped. Many retailers inform customers how long they can expect to wait before receiving a package, and whether or not they generally have a fulfillment backlog. A quick response time is sometimes an important factor in consumers' choice of merchant. A weakness of online shopping is that, even if a purchase can be made 24 hours a day, the customer must often be at home during normal business hours to accept the delivery. For many professionals this can be difficult, and absence at the time of delivery can result in delays, or in some cases, return of the item to the retailer.
Information and reviews:Online stores must describe products for sale with text, photos, and multimedia files, whereas in a physical retail store, the actual product and the manufacturer's packaging will be available for direct inspection (which might involve a test drive, fitting, or other experimentation). Some online stores provide or link to supplemental product information, such as instructions, safety procedures, demonstrations, or manufacturer specifications. Some provide background information, advice, or how-to guides designed to help consumers decide which product to buy. Some stores even allow customers to comment or rate their items. There are also dedicated review sites that host user reviews for different products. In a conventional retail store, clerks are generally available to answer questions. Some online stores have real-time chat features, but most rely on e-mail or phone calls to handle customer questions.
Price and selection:One advantage of shopping online is being able to quickly seek out deals for items or services with many different vendors (though some local search engines do exist to help consumers locate products for sale in nearby stores). Search engines and online price comparison services can be used to look up sellers of a particular product or service. Shoppers find a greater selection online in certain market segments (for example, computers and consumer electronics and in some cases lower prices. This is due to a relaxation of certain constraints, such as the size of a "brick-and-mortar" store, lower stocking costs (or none, if drop shipping is used), and lower staffing overhead. Shipping costs (if applicable) reduce the price advantage of online merchandise, though depending on the jurisdiction, a lack of sales tax may compensate for this. Shipping a small number of items, especially from another country, is much more expensive than making the larger shipments bricks-and-mortar retailers order. Some retailers (especially those selling small, high-value items like electronics) offer free shipping on sufficiently large orders.
Security & Safety Online:The important considerations after privacy are the security and safety features used by online malls. Remember that good websites are made in compliance with industrial standards such as SSL (secured socket layer). These standards use encryption technology to transfer information from your computer to online merchant's server. 9
By using SSL the information you sent are scrambled, this means it is not possible to get details without encryption code. Since this is done automatically in merchant’s server, it can be ensured that your personal details are secure. Thus make sure that you always do payment over SSL. When the company you want to deal is new to you, try to get maximum information about them before making any orders. Keep your password secret and make it in such a way that other may not be in a position to guess it. Credit card transactions are considered to be the safest mode of payment for online shopping. Make yourself understood with the company's policies especially on how they are going to keep your financial and personal data secured. Keep printed copies of purchase order and confirmation details, so that it can be used in the event of disputes. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) encryption has generally solved the problem of credit card numbers being intercepted in transit between the consumer and the merchant. Identity theft is still a concern for consumers when hackers break into a merchant's web site and steal names, addresses and credit card numbers. A number of high-profile break-ins in the 2000s have prompted some U.S. states to require disclosure to consumers when this happens. Computer security has thus become a major concern for merchants and e-commerce service providers, who deploy countermeasures such as firewalls and anti-virus software to protect their networks. Phishing is another danger, where consumers are fooled into thinking they are dealing with a reputable retailer, when they have actually been manipulated into feeding private information to a system operated by a malicious party. Denial of service attacks are a minor risk for merchants, as are server and network outages.
Online shopping procedure
phone numbers etc. The first step in the online shopping is to search for the specific product categories using integrated search function. The next step is to login using a username and password.Steps When Buying Online Online shopping malls are just an electronic catalogue of products. put it in a virtual "Shopping Cart" and continue shopping. almost all major online malls allow searching the entire catalogue. You might also want to select the payment modes for payment here. Some online malls even ask for your email. check out each of them. Enter the address to which you want the product to be delivered. After choosing the mode of payment there will other boxes to fill your billing address or the payment details. Many online malls first require you to register with them before allowing you to pay for the bought items.Online Shopping Guide . Hence to facilitate easier access to required products. After you have added enough items in shopping cart. 11 . You can add or delete the contents in shopping cart. Once you find the required product.
you will need to show these documents for verification. Diagram 12 . Keep the printed copy of the purchased order and confirmations for records. and accept or decline credit card transactions on behalf of the merchant through secure Internet connections. The service that automates the payment transaction between the shopper and merchant. Online Payment Gateway It provides a secure connection between your online store and your internet merchant account.Then wait for the confirmation of your order. The payment gateway is the infrastructure that allows a merchant to accept credit card and other forms of electronic payment. It is usually a third-party service that is actually a system of computer processes that process. In the event of any disputes. How it works. you can also modify the order by adding or removing items. verify. When referring to payment gateways used for Internet transactions. You can also cancel order if needed.
The response is then forwarded by the Payment Gateway to the merchants server. 13 . Check whether the website contains these policies. Also ensure that you get satisfied with their answers. However keep it in mind that these policies can be changed at varied circumstances. 5. 6. 7. If any phone number is given make a call and do some queries. 8. 2. You can also contact any friends or relatives who are staying near to the address of company. Good online merchants have cut out privacy and security policies so as to build the customer confidence. The response includes information that whether the payment has been approved or declined. You can even ask for references. The transactions details are then forwarded to the concerned Payment Gateway. Sometimes you tend to deal with unfamiliar companies. Merchants acquiring bank then forwards the transaction information to the issuing bank (one that issued the credit card to the customer). 3. Then the card issuing bank sends a response back to the Payment Gateway. The entire process typically takes less than 5 seconds. At the end of the bank day (or settlement period). 4. In such circumstances you can do few things so as to ensure the credibility of the company. At merchants server the response is encrypted again and is relayed back to the customer. The transaction information is then passed on to the merchants acquiring bank by the Payment Gateway.1. 2. If you go for online shopping. the acquiring bank (or card issuing bank) deposits the total of the approved funds in to the merchant’s nominated account. In case of declination the reason is also sent in the response. always better to deal with the companies which are known to you. This is usually done via SSL (Secure Socket Layer) encryption. This allows the customer to know that whether the order has been placed successfully or not. Visitor places the order on the website and it is sent to the merchant's web server in encrypted format. Online Shopping Tips 1.
8. 4. 7. immediately contact the credit card company and withhold the operation in that number. the site is secure. which is called uniform resource locator (URL). duration to get delivered etc. Credit card transactions are considered safest while doing online shopping.3. c) Ensure that you are actually visiting the real website rather than look-alike websites (made in order to deceive customer). Also note down the shipping cost. 14 . Secure websites send the data in scrambled form (encrypted). Note down who is paying the shipping charges and ensure that it is reasonable. ensure that you are using a secure website. When you transfer data online. it is better to avoid shopping from that site. If the padlock remains closed. You are suggested to approach cautiously in such cases. Watch out for extra ordinary claims or unbelievably low prices for the product with an critical eye. You can avoid answering questions you feel uncomfortable to answer. a) Look at the bottom of your browser for padlock displayed. All the other modes have limitations or are in risk of malpractices. b) Look at the website address and see that it contains https:// where "s" denotes the secured connection. 6. If any irregularities are found. Check the following conditions to ensure the security of the website. Make it as a practice that you are regularly checking the credit card transactions. You can check the address bar on browser to check the address. If the website keep on insisting answering those questions. Sometimes few company as many questions for the purpose of marketing. Ensure that your credit card number is not misused in any circumstances. Ensure that your choice of shipping is in compliance with what offered by merchant. 5.
You can efficiently use these facilities to decide weather a product or service is worth the price quoted. online shopping offers more convenience and save time in comparison with real world shopping 15 . the price comparison and quality comparison of the products and services are possible. Also note down the warranty period and warranty conditions. you need not have to worry about weather conditions as well. closing times or any other problems. online shops have no holidays. Another big advantage of online shopping is the flexibility of shopping. Online Shopping Advantages The major advantage of online shopping is the convenience it offers. The worry you may have on travelling. Is n't that amazing to have a shop open always? One of the advantages of online shopping is the facilities available for product. You can shop 24hrs a day. thus you can easily find out what other customers think about the product or services before buying it. With online shopping. Some online malls also provide customer reviews about each product. In short. 7 days a week and 365 days a year. price comparisons. If you are lucky you will be also getting amazing offers from different online stores that will effectively reduce the price than buying offline. Since so many companies have come up with the facilities of online shopping. Make a note of it imagining such a situation.9. Check out how the company is proposed to attend the complaints and clear it. Unlike offline shops. Good companies have their order cancellation or good return policies. traffic blocks and parking constraints in real world shopping can be avoided while shopping online. By sitting back at home you can now shop anything from candles to vehicles by several clicks of mouse buttons.
If the shipping cost is more than that you need to actually carry the product home. When you go for real world shopping. you can actually touch. Yet another concern is about online security. feel or sense it with different means. some online malls still uses the old fashioned images in product catalogues. Even though this problems has been rectified to certain extent by use of 3D product catalogues. the advantages outnumber the disadvantages and thus more and more people started buying online. you have to take additional care about your credit cards so that to protect from unauthorized usage. Another disadvantage of online shopping is tangibility factor. but for online shopping you can only view the electronic catalogues. Even though online shopping has several disadvantages. then online shopping become un attractive.Online Shopping Disadvantages One of the important disadvantages of online shopping is lack of personal interaction. Another factor is shipping cost. Seeing the picture of a product is far inferior to that of seeing it in real world. If you are shopping online. 16 . Online shopping lacks the real world shopping experience that we get shopping with relatives and friends offline.
CEO-H. while it was forced to pull out of Germany and South Korea when ventures there were unsuccessful.com Wal-Mart Stores. Arkansas Key peoples. Founded by Sam Walton in 1962. Brazil.walmartstores. 1969. It is the largest private employer in the world and the third-largest utility or commercial employer. Sam's Club. Neighborhood market Employees – approximate 21. Wal-Mart's investments outside North America have had mixed results: its operations in South America and China are highly successful. Inc.Bentonville. trailing the British National Health Service. it was incorporated on October 31. Chairman of the Executive committee of Board. Discount stores.www. Arkansas Founder – Sam Walton Headquarter.S. It also owns and operates the North American company.INTRODUCTION OF ONLINE SHOPPING WEB PORTALS ONLINE STORE WAL-MART Founded. and in Japan as Seiyu.com. 00. and the Indian Railways.000(2008) Websites. It has wholly owned operations in Argentina.Lee Scott. with an estimated 20% of the retail grocery and consumables business. discount department stores. It is the world's largest public corporation by revenue. Wal-Mart is the largest grocery retailer in the United States. Supercenters. 17 .1962 in Rogers. is an American public corporation that runs a chain of large. in the UK as ASDA. Wal-Mart operates in Mexico as Walmex. www. Canada. Robson Walton Industry – Retail. and listed on the New York Stock Exchange in 1972. and Puerto Rico.walmart. according to the 2008 Fortune Global 500.
C. The building is now occupied by a hardware store and a pawn shop. a regional retailer that owned a chain of variety stores called Ben Franklin and that offered him one in Newport. Arkansas. a businessman from Arkansas. History Sam Walton's original Walton's Five and Dime store in Bentonville. now serving as the Wal-Mart Visitor's Center. Arkansas. in Sikeston. Iowa where he remained for 18 months. grassroots organizations. 18 . and labour unions. others point out that Wal-Mart's rapid growth and logistical efficiency has enabled it to bring lower prices to consumers and more jobs and new small businesses to the communities in which it operates. specifically for its extensive foreign product sourcing. 1962. women's rights groups. In 1968.Wal-Mart has been criticized by some community groups. at a J. resistance to union representation. In 1945. Missouri and Claremore. and alleged sexism. Arkansas. On July 2. low rates of employee health insurance enrollment. it opened its first stores outside Arkansas. 1940.6 million in sales. Walton opened the first Wal-Mart Discount City store located at 719 Walnut Ave. Oklahoma. the company expanded to 24 stores across Arkansas and reached $12. in Rogers. Penney store in Des Moines. began his retail career when he started work on June 3. Sam Walton. Conversely. he met Butler Brothers. Within five years.
allowing the corporate office to track inventory and sales and to instantly communicate to stores. our strengths. and the company also rearranged other people in senior positions. and by its 25th anniversary in 1987 there were 1. That’s good news – in any language.000 associates. At the time. Our Culture What is “Culture?” It’s how we treat each other. Our Operations Today. Find out what we're passionate about. Starting with Sam’s 3 Basic Beliefs. it’s our special way of doing business. In 1988. here’s what makes us proud to be part of the Wal-Mart family. over 7. it was the largest private satellite network. It’s what makes us one of the world's most-admired companies. Walton remained as Chairman of the Board.198 stores with sales of $15. Our Principles Our founder Sam Walton gave our company a sense of honor and a set of values that are still very important to us. so they can live better. All around the world. and our reason for being. a $24 million investment linking all operating units of the company with its Bentonville office via two-way voice and data transmission and one-way video communication. 19 . Wal-Mart continued to grow rapidly. and serve more than 100 million customers per year.800 Wal-Mart stores and Sam’s Club locations in 16 markets worldwide employ more than 2 million associates. Incorporation and growth:In the 1980s.9 billion and 200.About Wal-MartOur Purpose We save people money so they can live better. we save people money.[ This year also marked the completion of the company's satellite network. Sam Walton stepped down as CEO and was replaced by David Glass.
value-priced general merchandise. 2008. The new logo made its debut on the company's walmart. as it is referred to on store advertisements.000 square feet. Wal-Mart Stores. The size of an average store is 107. The new logo received mixed reviews from some design critics.com. which was used for 18 years. brightly-lit aisles and shelves stocked with a variety of quality. Each store employs about 225 associates.com website on July 1. who question whether the new logo is as bold as competitors such as the Target bulls eye or as instantly recognizable as the former company logo. walmartstores. although the old logo still appears on the corporate site. The new logo will eventually replace store logos at the company's US locations throughout the year. 2008. Wal-Mart unveiled a new company logo. Wal-Mart international have not yet adopted the new logo. Our stores feature wide. Inc. including: Family apparel Health and beauty aids Electronics Toys Jewelry Automotive products Home furnishings Hardware Sporting goods House wares Wal-Mart Supercenters 20 . featuring the nonhyphenated name "Wal-Mart" followed by a stylized spark. Wal-Mart Discount Stores Sam Walton opened his first Wal-Mart discount store in 1962. Today. there are 886 stores offering a pleasant and convenient shopping experience across the United States.Recent initiatives In June 30. clean.
and most are open 24 hours. We save you time and money by combining a full grocery and our general merchandise under one roof.000 square feet and employ about 350 or more associates. Supercenters average 187. delicious meals at great prices. There are 2. We provide a fresh and convenient shopping experience for busy people who want an easy answer to the question. 'What's for dinner? 21 . onestop family shopping featuring our famous Every Day Low Prices. Marketside stores are small community pilot grocery stores specializing in fresh.622 Supercenters nationwide. In our stores. Supercenter groceries feature: Bakery goods Meat and dairy products Fresh produce Dry goods and staples Beverages Vision centers Tire & Lube Expresses Brand-name fast food restaurants Deli foods Frozen foods Canned and packaged goods Condiments and spices Household supplies Health clinics Employment Agencies Hair salons Marketside Opened in 2008. restaurant-quality prepared meals and their everyday favorite national brands . customers can shop for a variety of fresh ingredients.even freshly baked breads and a wide assortment of wines.Our Supercenters were developed in 1988 to meet the growing demand for convenient.
including: Fresh produce Meat and dairy products Frozen foods Dry goods and staples Health and beauty aids Stationery and paper goods Drive-through pharmacies Deli foods Bakery items Canned and packaged goods Condiments and spices Pet supplies Household supplies One-hour photo centers Walmart. roasted chickens. with over 200 under $10. First opened in 1998. A vast assortment of wines.com 22 . An assortment of HOT FOODS like pizzas. More than 300 NATURAL AND ORGANIC products throughout the entire store. each employing about 95 associates? A typical store is about 42. Each of their stores is open from 7 a. meats and flowers for GUARANTEED FRESHNESS.m. all the GROCERY BRANDS you want at low.000 square feet.* Plus. pharmaceuticals. Marketside offerings include: • • • • • • ENTRÉES AND SIDES inspired by classically trained chefs and ready to serve in minutes.m. low prices! Wal-Mart Neighborhood Markets Neighborhood Markets offer a quick and convenient shopping experience for customers who need groceries. to 10 p. and general merchandise all at our famous Every Day Low Prices. Neighborhood Markets feature a wide variety of products.Market side is a new chain of grocery stores opened in October 2008. there are now 150 Neighborhood Markets. soups and breads that are fresh out of our oven. the stores are said to be less than half the size of a conventional supermarket. Daily deliveries of fresh produce. as stated in the backgrounder found on Wal-Mart's official homepage.
S. That doesn't really matter.000 products. Wal-Mart is partnering with Bharti Enterprises in order to become a player in the Indian market.com brings the convenience.Founded in 2000.. we’re adding more great products every day. Walmart.com features many special offers available only online. found a partner to further explore the possibilities with. Wal-Mart is slowly changing their tune in the U. 23 . I don't know if Wal-Mart really does this. they should consider something similar in India sooner than later. But Wal-Mart or as it Indians pronounce it.000. which is expected to double in size by 2015. With our innovative “Site to Store” program. because the perception exists. Walmart.com and then have them shipped free to your local store for pickup. Walmart. India has tough Foreign Direct Investment regulations (FDI) preventing companies from moving into India directly. And. If your an advertiser it means that you have to figure out a way for Wal-Mart not to be hated by the small stores that it is going to displace. Wal-Mart. India is already one of Wal-Mart's biggest sources of product. Wal-mart in India- Wal-Mart ran into a little trouble with it planed to expand into India earlier this year. During the holidays. It’s also a convenient place to find out about our exciting in-store holiday specials. friendly service and Every Day Low Prices of your neighborhood Wal-Mart to the Internet. I've never spoken with a shop keeper that has been displaced. plus easy-to-use music downloads and digital one-hour photo services. you can purchase items at Walmart.com features more than 1. great merchandise selection.
Wal-Mart will continue to work with and develop local suppliers and create local beneficiaries along the supply chain. Under the agreement. 2007: Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart Stores. stationery. consumer durables and other general merchandise items.000. Wal-Mart is one of the top two sourcing retail companies from India. The Bharti Wal-Mart business-to-business (B2B) wholesale cash-and-carry joint venture will serve kirana stores. often helping small and medium sized enterprises transform into exporters with access to global markets over time. Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited. groceries and staples. available in our Featured Video section on the right side of this page. Inc. a joint venture for wholesale cash-and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India. manufacturers and farmers• Business-to-business wholesale cash-and-carry joint venture to set up world-class modern supply chain and back-end logistics infrastructure Driving efficiencies across the supply chain will help minimize wastage and provide • small retailers quality merchandise at competitive wholesale prices New Delhi. footwear. Learn more about Indian suppliers who have transformed their business through working with Wal-Mart in segments produced by CNBC TV-18. fruit and vegetable resellers. the venture is expected to open 10 to 15 wholesale cash-and-carry facilities and employ approximately 5. today announced that they have signed an agreement to establish Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited. Wholesale cash-and-carry operations provide small retailers and business owners a wide range of quality products at competitive wholesale prices that help them enhance their businesses and profitability. Wal-Mart announced an agreement with Bharti Enterprises to establish a joint venture. As a wholesale cash-and-carry business. clothing. for wholesale cash-and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India. August 6.000 square feet and sell a wide range of fruits and vegetables.In August 2007. A typical facility will stand between 50. Over the next seven years. in line with Government of India guidelines. Bharti and Wal-Mart will hold a 50:50 stake in Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited.000 and 100. Bharti Enterprises and Wal-Mart join hands in wholesale cash-and-carry to serve small retailers. restaurants and other business 24 .
bringing Wal-Mart’s global best practices in such areas as just-in-time inventory. The venture will support farmers and small manufacturers who have limited infrastructure and distribution strength. This will link farmers and small manufacturers directly to retailers. A typical facility will stand between 50. retail information systems.” Mike Duke. Wal-Mart Stores.owners. clothing. “We are delighted to partner with Wal-Mart for wholesale cash-and-carry and back-end supply chain management operations in India. consumer durables and other general merchandise items. Inc. footwear. small manufacturers and retailers. Chairman and Group CEO. It also will serve other retailers such as Bharti Retail. GPS for truck and trailer tracking. artisans. We are pleased to be a partner in developing this sector which is set to become a significant engine of India’s economic growth. and in turn.” said Sunil Bharti Mittal. in Bharti. cold chain infrastructure. stationery. This venture promises to bring great value to millions of farmers. groceries and staples. “We are delighted that. Vice Chairman. and the supply chain will enable minimum wastage. small manufacturers and retailers across India.000. We would also like to leverage our global scale to transform some of these suppliers into exporters with access to our global markets over time. in line with our global vision of saving people money so they can live better. Bharti Wal-Mart Private Limited will bring modern supply chain and back-end logistics expertise to India.000 and 100. Bharti Enterprises. which is setting up a chain of stores in India that are 100 percent owned and operated by Bharti. 25 . the venture is expected to open 10 to 15 wholesale cash-and-carry facilities and employ approximately 5.” The first wholesale cash-and-carry facility is targeted to open by the end of next year. consumers on the other. Through our wholesale cash-and-carry joint venture.000 square feet and sell a wide range of fruits and vegetables. and fuel management systems. we have a well-respected partner who has a deep understanding of the local market. The wholesale cash-and-carry venture will invest in setting up an efficient supply chain. said. Over the next seven years. “Wal-Mart's global expertise in supply chain and logistics will bring enhanced efficiencies across the retail ecosystem. particularly of fresh foods and vegetables. we will help drive efficiencies across the supply chain and work towards the betterment of India’s farmers. thereby maximizing value for farmers and manufacturers on the one end and retailers.
we are local.’ . logistics and cold chain that will be bring immense value to retailers. agribusiness. Bharti Teletech is the country’s largest manufacturer and exporter of telephone terminals.‘Bharti AXA Life Insurance Company Ltd. our endeavor is to work with and develop local suppliers and create local beneficiaries along the supply chain. Bharti has recently forayed into the retail business under a company called Bharti Retail Pvt. As a wholesale cash-and-carry business. and more choice at better prices. broadband and enterprise services. Country President for Wal-Mart's operations in India. Bharti Enterprises said.with AXA. world leader in financial protection and wealth management. needs and fashions. – ‘Field Fresh Foods Pvt. “Creating a strong back-end infrastructure will be one of the critical components in the development of modern retailing in India. Bharti Enterprises’ 100% subsidiary Bharti Retail. Bharti Airtel was recently ranked amongst the best performing companies in the world in the Business Week IT 100 list 2007. a group company.67 million customers as of end of June 2007 spanning mobile. across the country and ultimately benefit the entire retail ecosystem through better quality. Bharti also has a joint venture .” “One of the key reasons for Wal-Mart’s international success is the fact that in every location where we operate. is one of India’s leading private sector providers of telecommunications services with an aggregate of 44. has entered into a franchise agreement with Wal-Mart which will provide technical support to Bharti Retail. insurance and retail. Ltd. It is our hope that big and small retailers and businesses will be our customers. Ltd’ . 26 .In addition. Rajan Bharti Mittal. Bharti has a joint venture with FFF India Ltd.for global distribution of fresh fruits and vegetables.” About Bharti Enterprises:Bharti Enterprises is one of India’s leading business groups with interests in telecom. fixed line. both big and small. who will oversee the India joint venture. “We source local products from local suppliers that appeal to local tastes. Managing Director. Bharti Airtel Limited. that will own and manage the retail stores. Bharti has been a pioneering force in the telecom sector with many firsts and innovations to its credit. take advantage of the efficiencies we provide and derive significant benefits for their businesses.” said Raj Jain. This partnership is committed to bringing in world-class processes and technologies in the area of supply chain.
After signing the deal. Wal-mart to get 3% royalty for their brand name [Unconfirmed] • • • • • • 27 . Bharti and Wal-Mart Stores Inc have also unveiled the initial retail plans for their joint venture• • Bharti . Wal-Mart will power the logistics and back end operations.Wal-Mart to have equal stake in the company. Bharti has committed an immediate investment of $100 Million Bharti-Wal-Mart venture will start hiring for retail operations this week. Bharti-Wal-Mart to have Hyper marts and Neighbourhood stores [Just like the Reliance group] Bharti will very soon engage in talks with major real estate developers across India for store space. First store to be opened on 15th of August 2007. Bharti group will lead and manage the front end operations.
on the uniforms/smocks." this was the first official and consistently used logo. 2008 New logo adopted by Wal-Mart Stores U. and other things. 28 . 1992 – 2008 The star was adopted as an update to the existing logo in early 1992. However. 1981 – 1992 The logo was updated again in 1981.S. 1968-1981 The Discount City mark was used in print advertising. it was never used as building signage or in an annual report.Wal-Mart Logo Timeline 1964 – 1981 Also known as the "Frontier Font Logo. in-store signing.
com www.com 29 . www.com www.com www.bargainsbazaar.com www.egreetings.coolsavings.com www.mypoints.com www.amazon.americangreetings.com www.ebay.com www.buy.skumars.indiagifts.com www.futurebazaar.indianpurchase.indiashop.com www.indiastores.com www.com www.fabmart.com www.rediffshopping.ONLINE SHOPPING WEBSITES Some important online shopping websites.com www.malamall.com www.com www.com www.chennaibazaar.com www.indbazaar.
Rediff. Bangalore. USA. India Abroad Founded in 1996. Rediff.com ReviewCORPORATE PROFILE Rediff. News content includes: Current affairs and breaking news: Rediff provides breaking news focused on events of interest to Indians.com is headquartered in Mumbai.com is committed to offering a personalized and a secure surfing and shopping environment Rediff. USA. India Abroad. including feature news stories. Chennai.com is headquartered in Mumbai.com (NASDAQ: REDF) is one of the premier worldwide online providers of news. Rediff. Information and Content:Information and content channels currently include news. communication. Mission In The Internet Space:To provide world-class online consumer service offerings to Indians worldwide. including e-commerce and mobile services. Hyderabad and New York. business. entertainment and shopping services. 30 . movies.Rediff.com provides a platform for Indians worldwide to connect with one another online. Rediff.Shopping. communication and content services. free and paid community features and products. Rediff. Chennai. India with offices in New Delhi.com India website consists of information. India with offices in New Delhi. information. cricket/sports and several other topics of interest. interviews and online chats with leading Indian personalities.com additionally offers the Indian American community one of the oldest and largest Indian weekly newspapers. Hyderabad and New York.com additionally offers the Indian American community one of the oldest and largest Indian weekly newspapers. Bangalore. Founded in 1996. PRODUCT AND SERVICE OFFERINGS INDIA ONLINE BUSINESS:The Rediff.
com provides a combination of free and paid community features and products to consumers and businesses. instant messaging. Sports and Cricket: Provides coverage of Indian and global sporting news. Social Networking. stock market quotes and analysis. user ratings and check availability of the products in their city at local stores with complete contact details. regular columns. Box office information. Rediff. Message Boards. Drag & Drop facility to manage your folders and auto address completion.com is using world-class technology to drive community building. Blogs. Search. Rediffmail: Rediffmail is the flagship product of Rediff. regular columns and feature stories. Movies and Entertainment: For latest news and trends from Bollywood and Hollywood. interviews with movie personalities. scores and schedules. with statistics. The service covers more than 16 product categories under electronics and also covers Cars and Bikes as new categories. as well as personal portfolio tracker. 31 . Community Features and Products. Chat. Business: This channel covers the happenings of corporate India. There is indepth coverage of cricket news from India and around the globe. feature stories and interviews. Mobile services. These include e-mail. It supports eleven Indian languages and also comes with the integrated web-messenger allowing all Rediffmail users to chat in real-time with all their Rediff (Instant Messenger) users within their inbox.A key focus for Rediff. features. It is one of the most popular web email service used by Indians worldwide. price points. instant mail preview. Through a single login facility. quick attachments of up to 10 MB. Rediffmail offers users a complete outlook desktop experience with features like unlimited storage. regular columns. online shopping and auctions. movie reviews and slide shows. Rediff Product Search allows users to compare products across brands. Job Search is vertical search product which allows users to search for jobs across various job sites in India under several categories and locations in India.com. feature stories.
Pantaloon Retail was awarded the International Retailer of the Year . as espoused in the group’s core value of 'Indianness'. retail media and logistics. the group operates over 11 million square feet of retail space in over 63 cities and towns and 65 rural locations across India. Internet banking. 'Rewrite rules.2007. Kishore Biyani. which enables sellers to sell their products at dynamic prices based on supply and demand. Mr. credit card and cheques. group subsidiaries are present in consumer finance. Rediff Books is one of the biggest online book stores offering users the biggest catalogue of books. Users can avail of a variety of payment options such as Cash on delivery (COD). led by its founder and Group CEO. the largest retail trade association and the the Emerging Market Retailer of the Year 2007 at the World Retail Congress in Barcelona. 32 . Led by its flagship enterprise. FutureBazaar.comAbout the Future Group Future Group. This gives buyers a chance to buy their desired products at competitive prices. insurance. leisure and entertainment. Users can choose from over 2 million books or search for books from over 4000 authors. retail real estate development. capital. The group's corporate credo is. While retail forms the core business activity of Future Group. Pantaloon Retail. brand development. Future Group believes in developing strong insights on Indian consumers and building businesses based on Indian ideas. Rediff Auctions is an e-commerce platform. by the US-based National Retail Federation. Retain values'. is one of India’s leading business houses with multiple businesses spanning across the consumption space.E-commerce Rediff Shopping is an online marketplace where users can purchase products and services from various merchants.
000 products Delivery across more than 1500 cities and towns in India covering around 16. thus being able to offer us economies of scale thereby . The company was incorporated in 2006 and began business in 2007.com has the benefit of leveraging the sourcing network of the Future Group’s retail chains. dispatching.000 pin codes Fast deliveries – tie ups with world leaders in logistics & transportation services A dedicated Customer Care helpline for any queries Always offering Manufacturer’s guarantee as opposed to Seller’s guarantee. We also have partnerships with most of the brands available in the country. we enjoy the benefits of buying in bulk for the entire group. Our back-end infrastructure enables us to service around 15000 pin codes across India. As part of India’s largest retail chain. Gift Vouchers and so on. Seamless end-to-end Logistics Solution – We pride ourselves in having built an end-to-end logistics solution.com is owned and operated by Future Bazaar India Ltd. Core Competency of the business…what makes us different from others! A choice of more than 20.FutureBazaar.000 products which create the flexibility to offer a large range of choices to customers. and delivery confirmation upto post-sales support. MP3 players. which most of the other online shopping sites offer Aggressive Prices –FutureBazaar. which allows us to get the latest in the range to our customers. right from stocking. India’s largest retail conglomerate. We have been able to create some major popularity ripples with our corporate clients with products like mobiles. This sourcing network straddles a wide range of product requirements.unbelievable prices to it’s customers Unmatched Selection of Products and Brands – We have more than 20. T-shirts. laptops. Our aim is to get you a great range of products at great prices. (FBIL). FBIL is a part of the Future Group. 33 . electronics. FBIL is the e-commerce arm of the Future Group.
We also have a Risk Management team that scrutinises all payments to ensure that there are no fraudulent transactions. 95% of our deliveries take place within the committed time period. Guaranteed Delivery:Futurebazaar guarantees to deliver the exact product you selected. They are empowered to solve your problems and are aware of the processes and means to handle them. Please note that delivery times vary according to products.com PromiseManufacturer’s warranties on all products FutureBazaar sells only original products from authorized dealers. Secure Payments:We are committed to ensuring that no payment misuse happens. Customers can visit any of the authorized service centers of the manufacturer if required. 34 . or if the product was damaged in transit. and the chances of fraud in these channels are actually very low. please let us know and and we will ensure that we replace the product or ensure that your money is refunded. The invoice accompanying the product is your warranty document. we are omnipresent! Prompt Customer Support Our Customer Care is manned by dedicated personnel. we will contact you and update you about the status. In case you have received a different product. Our office address is also available for any one who wishes to contact us in person. being part of India’s largest retail company with a presence all over India. so all applicable products carry the original manufacturer’s warranty. your call is being taken seriously.The FutureBazaar. so please preserve it. who can take decisions and resolve your problems. they will trigger the required action on your behalf or advise you the best possible method to a successful fulfillment of all your queries/issues. Moreover. In case they cannot solve the problem at their end. without defects. Payments are protected both by us and by the policies of your bank. Be assured that when you call us. For the occasional delays. so we work with banks and payment gateways to ensure that your information is protected.
It also provides international shipping to certain countries for some of its products. The company began as an online bookstore named "Cadabra. while the largest brick-and-mortar bookstores and mail-order catalogs for books might offer 200.com". While company lore says Bezos wrote the business plan while he and his wife drove from New York to Seattle. with nearly three times the internet sales revenue of runner up Staples. Inc. a survey published by Verdict Research found that Amazon was the UK's favorite music and video retailer. Germany. China. computer software. furniture. It started as an on-line bookstore but soon diversified to product lines of VHS. his effort to fend off regret for not staking a claim in the Internet gold rush. A9. electronics. the United Kingdom. Inc. video games.com. a name quickly abandoned for sounding like "cadaver". Amazon has established separate websites in Canada. (NASDAQ: AMZN) is an American electronic commerce (e-commerce) company in Seattle. Washington. It is America's largest online retailer.com. toys. food. an on-line bookstore could offer more. 2009.Jeffery p.Bezos (CEO) Headquarter –USA Area served-Worldwide Industry-Retail (Amazon. DVD.com. Amazon was founded in 1994. and Japan.Amazon. in 1994 and launched it online in 1995. apparel. Jeff Bezos founded Amazon. and came third in overall retail rankings.000 titles. etc.com) Advertising –Web banners and video Amazon. music CDs and MP3s. On January 15. spurred by what Bezos called "regret minimization framework". Inc. Bezos 35 . France.com Founded -1994 Founder.
in March 1999. clothing. Product lines:Amazon has steadily branched into retail sales of music CDs. hair accessories.com Auctions. Amazon Auctions was followed by the launch of a fixed-price marketplace business called zShops in September 1999. When the dot-com bubble burst. headgear.3 million. toys & games. consumer electronics. cleaning products. watches. $588. Amazon's "slow" growth provoked stockholder complaints: that the company was not reaching profitability fast enough. and a failed Sotheby's/Amazon partnership called sothebys.renamed the company "Amazon" after the world's biggest river. lawn and garden items. health and personal-care items. jewelry. gourmet food. The company remains profitable: 2003 net income was $35. software. videotapes and DVDs. industrial & scientific supplies. Since 2000. and many e-companies went out of business. and more. Amazon's logotype is an arrow leading from A to Z. kitchen items. with full occupancy by 2011. carpets. clothing. However it failed to chip away at industry pioneer eBay's juggernaut growth. baby products. the strategy was effective. Amazon grew steadily in the late 1990s while other Internet companies grew blindingly fast. its own Web auctions service. $359 Amazon has announced plans to move its headquarters to the South Lake Union neighborhood of Seattle beginning in mid-2010. This move will consolidate all Seattle employees onto the new 11-building campus.50 million in 2004. beauty products. groceries. representing customer satisfaction (as it forms a smile) and the goal to have every product in the alphabet. tools. The list of products registered for coverage by the trademark grew to include items such as paints. apparel. sporting goods.com in November. Amazon's initial business plan was unusual: the company did not expect a profit for four to five years. footwear.amazon. and jewelry 36 . wallpaper. musical instruments. The company launched Amazon.
(2) the changes for retail outlets after the Internet came into place. Abstract:Alejandro Zentner. Using sports card trading as a case study. I also find that the presence of a university led to a reduction in the number of music specialty stores in the zip code.Abstract: Abhishek Malhotra University of Delhi. we provide empirical evidence on (1) the sorting of product quality between the online and offline segments.Department of Economics. I further study whether the number of employees and chain membership affected the survival probability.Review of literature 1. file sharing. and with a database of the location of universities. and online sales of records have affected the entry and exit of brick and mortar music specialty retailers. New Delhi 2007 This paper uses phonebook records of music retailers in the United States for the years 1998 and 2002 to examine how Internet use. 2007 Every new method of trade offers an opportunity for economic agents to compare its costs and benefits relative to the status quo. School of Management. I find that broadband connectedness increased the death rate of brick and mortar music stores and reduced their number. Such comparison motivates sorting across market segments and reshapes the whole marketplace. and (3) how supporting industries such as professional grading and card manufacturing adapted to take advantage of the new market. 37 . I analyze how online purchases. The Internet provides an excellent example: it introduces substantial search cost savings over brick and mortar retail stores but imposes new obstacles for sellers to convey quality. 2. with the number of broadband providers at the zip code level. By merging music store information with data on Internet activity and broadband connectedness at the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) level. and Internet use affected the survival probability and the change in the number of music stores between 1998 and 2002. broadband.
School of Public Policy and Management. 2006 The problem studied in this paper is a predigestion of the decision faced by online retailers that advertise on publisher or comparison-shopping websites. Abstract: Ramayya Krishnan. and numerical examples are given to show the revenue impact of dynamic listing control. 4. which means that the retailer pays only when a shopper clicks through to the product page of its website. we find similar average prices online and in physical stores and substantial price dispersion online. the retailer has to pay a certain amount to such third parties in an actionbased payment scheme. the retailer needs to decide dynamically whether or not to list on a third-party website. payment is based solely on click-through. and thus varies over time. The second states that Internet retailers will differentiate to avoid intense price competition. the CPC rate for a prominent placement is normally set by competitive bidding. Moreover. Department of Management. 38 . The structural properties of the optimal policy are discussed. The extra cost that is associated with shoppers who first click through to the thirdparty websites makes them less attractive as customers than those who directly visit the retailer's online store. Using data collected in April 1999 on the prices of 107 books in thirteen online and two physical bookstores. Mumbai. but also through the websites of one or more third parties. Only a fraction of such clicks lead to actual sales. The first states that all Internet retailers will charge the same low price for mass produced goods. Under the CPC scheme. Therefore. such as a cost-per-click (CPC) scheme. Business school. Analysis of product differentiation yields no clear results.3. 2005 Two conflicting predictions have emerged regarding the effect of low-cost information on price. The substantial premium charged by Amazon provides indirect evidence of product differentiation. Abstract: Vipul Patel. However. A retailer may sell its product not only through its online and bricks-and-mortar stores.
Banque Central du Luxembourg 2006 This paper studies the behaviour of Internet prices. price 39 . The data set covers a broad range of items typically sold over the Internet. and Management Sciences . Internet prices in the EU countries do not change less often than online prices in the US. there is substantial heterogeneity in the frequency of price change across shop types and product categories. First. on the other hand they reduce the cost of search. 6. which is decided by a number of factors. Germany. prices on the Internet are not necessarily more flexible than prices in traditional brick-and-mortar stores. consumers will continue to look for detailed information about the online retailers by visiting their web sites. demonstrate that consumers are increasingly using shop bots to conduct search. such as marginal search costs. which shows that on the one hand shop bots reduce the marginal benefit of searching additional online stores. The empirical finding is explained by an analytical model. That is. It includes more than 5 million daily price quotes downloaded from price comparison web sites in France. this study demonstrates the opposite result. consumers are actually visiting more online retailer web sites after using shop bots. Abstract: Operations. the UK and the US. It compares price rigidities on the Internet and in traditional brick-and-mortar stores and provides a cross-country perspective. Third. Surprisingly. and contrary to the recent findings for common CPI data. Finally. the average price change on the Internet is relatively large. The following results emerge from our analysis. Fourth. panel legit estimates suggest that the likelihood of observing a price change is a function of both state. but smaller than the respective values reported for CPI data. Online consumer click stream data from ComScore Inc.5. Abstract: Patrick Lunnemann.2007 Online price comparison agents (shop bots) allow consumers to instantaneously receive price and other information from many online retailers.and time-dependent factors. Second. Italy. Therefore whether shop bots reduce consumer search depends on the cost of reducing per unit of risk. This phenomenon raises such questions as "how do shop bots change consumers' search behavior?" and "do they reduce consumers' online search?" Conventional wisdom suggests that consumers are expected to search less because shop bots have displayed prices and other relative information from retailers on the search result page(s). This finding suggests that after searching for an item through a shop bots and receiving the price information.
implies an unambiguous welfare gain. Product Variety. price and quality correlation. 7. if caused by lower fixed costs. Welfare.dispersion and quality differentiation among stores. Shelf. This paper finds the conditions under which more variety. per-title fixed costs-are much lower at online stores than at conventional stores and that the welfare gains from electronic commerce are likely to be underestimated if one ignores changes in product variety. Washington. A calibration to the market of books confirms the intuition that fixed costs . Keywords: Fixed Costs. Choice Compass Lexicon. DC. We find that a product's choice probability increases when presented on the first screen or located near focal items especially when the latter are out-of-stock.in particular. In this paper. we examine whether and how such shelf effects translate into a stores grocery context. Electronic Commerce.2008 8. Keywords: Effects. The problem with product variety is that more variety does not necessarily imply higher welfare. Abstract: The impact of product variety on welfare has received little attention in the electronic commerce literature. These primacy and proximity effects have a stronger impact on choice decisions when assortments are more difficult to evaluate and when a clear shelf organization facilitates the use of shelf-based choice heuristics. Dec. and consumers' relative preference for service quality. 2006 Research on shelf effects in traditional grocery stores has shown that a product's absolute and relative shelf position may strongly affect consumer choices. Abstract: Faculty of Business and Economics (FBE). Internet 40 .
e. what we are going to study. To study sales promotional techniques to boast online shopping in India. it is very necessary to define the objective of the study i. 41 . Impact of advertising on online shopping. To find out influence of online advertising on the buying behaviour of the customer. • • • • • To check the consumer awareness & perception of online shopping in India. Satisfaction level at various components of online shopping.OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY “If you know where you are going. any road will take you there” Before the start of any research.
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY MARKETING RESEARCH Marketing research covers the field of problems. Non-professional and Retired persons are included. purchasing power. and loyalty towards specific brands and similar other marketing activities. SAMPLING METHOD 42 . as it exists at present. Research design is used to describe the state of affairs. • Further these are only the people based on whom analysis and interpretation is done. The major type of information used is primary data. and preference to decision making. TYPES OF RESEARCH DESIGN • • • The research design adopted for this study is exploratory research design. Professionals. periodicals. Both open ended and close ended questions are included. SAMPLE SIZE • A sample of 100 people will be taken for the survey. This is done thru primary survey. It studies an economic unit in respect of its various constituents such as consumers. buyers. It also tries to determine the contribution of other relevant factors such as habits. It studies their response pattern towards prize. RESEARCH INSTRUMENT • • A structured design questionnaire is used for surveying the consumers. promotion. and other aspects of marketing and related decision-making and their implementation. Exploratory research includes survey and fact finding enquiries of different kinds. techniques. websites. The literature review is a secondary data type. consumers. printed literature etc. The sources include books. Data Sources • • Both Secondary and Primary Sources of data will be used. Business persons. and sellers.
Schedule: Time frame for completion of the Project is 4months Sample unit. Methodology: • The study will be conducted by Personal Interview with the customers who interest in shopping. • The study on the customer satisfaction level that can be obtained through well formatted & designed questionnaire that is mentioned in the subsequent chapter. Amritsar 43 .Jalandhar. have • Observing & studying the behavior of the customers & their demand towards the different products. Process of collection & analysis of Data: After collecting the entire filled questionnaire the collected data will be transferred to a worksheet.• Random sampling method will be chosen to conduct the survey in which the samples are selected randomly. the data related to set objectives will then be classified and the findings will be graphically represented.
By analysing the responses to this question. can identify the number of times a customer is likely to shop in a month’s time.Of the consumers approached. The frequency points laid before the respondent have been the result of observation and interview. as well as companies. of respondent 7 25 55 5 8 INTERPRETATION. the researchers.DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 1. 44 . we. This question is aimed at understanding how frequently consumers visit shops and buy their products or avail of their services. How often you go for shopping Response Daily Once a week Once a month Fortnightly Quarterly No. 100 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question.
This question is aimed at analyzing the preferences of consumers purchase behaviour.The survey indicate that most of respondent make the purchase through offline. 45 . 2. How do you make a purchase? Response Online Offline No. 100 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question.. of respondent 45 55 INTERPRETATIONOf the consumers approached.
100 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. 46 . of Respondent 5 15 25 10 45 INTERPRETATIONOf the consumers approached. The survey indicates that the maximum respondent were not interested in online shopping. only those were interested who have no time for offline purchase. This question is aimed at analyzing the preferences of consumers purchase behaviour. Rate of preference towards online shopping Response Very interested Interested Average Least interested Not interested No. The reason behind is that they believe in the offline shopping.3. In online shopping.
The promotional advertisements also affect there buying behaviour. Most of the respondents were get to know about online shopping from Friends. of respondent 20 10 5 15 0 5 INTERPRETATIONThe survey depicts that the consumers are mostly quality and brand conscious. From where you get to know about online shopping Response Friends Internet Magazines Advertisement Newspaper Online Search No.4. Do you have own credit card 47 . internet and advertisement of the online portals. 5.
Why do you prefer online shopping 48 . of Respondent 55 0 Interpretation Of the consumers approached. This question is aimed to know about consumer have own credit card.Response Yes No No. Most of the people which I have surveyed who were purchasing the goods through online have their own credit card. 6. 55 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question.
most of the respondent said that the big advantage of online shopping is time saving process and providing the variety of the products. 7. of respondent 45 0 49 .Response Convenient Time saving Less costly Security Any other No. Are you aware about online shopping portals Response Yes No No. of respondent 7 30 4 4 0 INTERPRETATIONOut of 45 respondents.
com Amazon. 8. The highest number of responses has been attributed to online shopping portals.com Futurebazaar. Awareness of various online Portals Response Rediffshopping.com eBay. and offers products that appeal to a wide array of consumers.com 50 No. of respondent 17 17 0 6 0 .INTERPRETATIONThis question is aimed at analyzing the awareness of consumers among the different online shopping portals.com Malamaal. Online shopping attracts people of many income groups.
com.Wal-mart Others 0 5 Interpretation Of the consumers approached. The highest number of responses has been attributed to Rediffshopping. only 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. What type of products you purchase through online shopping Response Electronics goods Gifts Home goods Cosmetics Clothes and accessories 51 No.com/Amazon. of respondent 19 4 6 0 0 . They attract people of many income groups. This question is aimed at analyzing the preferences of consumers among the different online shopping portals. and offers products that appeal to a wide array of consumers. 9.com/eBay.
only 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. The high number of responses indicate that a large number of consumers visit online portal for Electronics goods/Home goods/gifts. of respondent 0 20 15 .Others 16 Interpretation Of the consumers approached. This question is aimed at identifying the products consumers shop online. Do you think that online shopping is secure in terms of online payment Response Strongly Agree Agree Neutral 52 No. 10.
11. There are also quite a few respondents who were strongly satisfied with the security of online payment. This helps to understand the current consumer perception of the security of online payment identified and the corresponding satisfaction levels. Rate the payment preference Response Debit Card Credit card Cash on Delivery Cheque SMS Billing 53 No. This question is aimed at understanding the satisfaction level of the consumers in terms of online payment.Disagree Strongly disagree 10 0 Interpretation Of the consumers approached. 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. of respondent 10 8 20 7 0 .
This indicates that although most consumers were satisfied with the delivery of the product. 12. of Respondents 23 22 0 .Postal money order 0 Interpretation Of the consumers approached. This question is aimed at understanding the payment preference of the consumer in online shopping. 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. Are the products purchases through online shopping as per the methodology of ‘What you see is what you get’ (WYSWYG)? Response Yes No Can’t Say 54 No.
This question is aimed at understanding what elements attract the consumer the most. Response Excellent Good Average 55 No. How do you rate the after sale support of the shopping portals from whom you purchase the product.Interpretation Of the consumers approached. The preference points laid before the respondent have been the result of observation and interview. of respondent 0 10 23 . 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. By analysing the responses to this question some were said satisfied and vice versa with the online purchase methodology ‘What you see is what you get’ (WYSWYG)? 13.
of respondent 35 7 3 56 . after sale support of shopping portals to the consumer the most. 45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. So most of the consumer were satisfied with the after sale support of the various shopping portals but some were not satisfied with after sale support. Are you satisfied with mode of payment for online shopping Response Yes No Can’t say No. This question is aimed at understanding. 14.Bad Extremely bad 7 5 Interpretation Of the consumers approached.
15.INTERPRETATION: Out of the different people I have surveyed most of the respondents were of the opinion that they were satisfied with mode of online shopping payment. of respondent 0 32 10 3 . And some respondent were said that they were not satisfied and some were have no opinion. Rate the following portals of online shopping as per the performance Response Highly satisfied Satisfied Neutral Dissatisfied 57 No.
45 people agreed to fill in the questionnaire and this specific question. Do you recommend to your friends for online shopping No.Highly dissatisfied 0 INTERPRETATION:Of the consumers approached. 16. This question is aimed at analyzing the preferences of consumers purchase behaviour towards the performance of shopping portals. of respondent 27 18 Response Yes No 58 . Out of 45 consumers 32 respondents were satisfied with the performance of online shopping portals and 3 percent were dissatisfied with online shopping portal’s performance.
Here. we came across many factors that influence the consumers’ perception of a store and their subsequent shopping and buying decisions. interviews and study conducted above. we present the findings gathered and the suggestions we offer to companies based on the data gathered and analyzed. most of respondent said that they would be recommended other to go for online shopping because online shopping is the time saving process and some respondent said that they would not be recommended other to go for online shopping . 59 .INTERPRETATION:Out of 45 respondent. FINDINGS In the surveys.
In online shopping.. 30-45. The survey indicates that the maximum respondent were not interested in online shopping. • Most of the respondents that I have been surveyed were spend on shopping in between 1000 to 6000. and above 60 years. internet and advertisement of the online portals. Most of the respondent said that the big advantage of online shopping is time saving process and providing the variety of the products. and offers products that appeal to a wide array of consumers. The highest number of response has been attributed to rediffshopping. • • • Most of the respondents were get to know about online shopping from Friends. 18-30. they were prefer to make the payment on the delivery of the product.com/Amazon. • • 60 . The highest number of responses has been attributed to offline purchase. The highest number of responses has been attributed to online shopping portals. 45-60. The reason behind is that they believe in the offline shopping. All of the people which I have surveyed who were purchasing the goods through online have their own credit card. The age groups were identified as key factors impacting shopping and purchase decisions of consumers • The highest responses have been attributed to once a month shopping. There are also quite a few respondents who were strongly satisfied with the security of online payment.Respondents were asked to choose among five age group categories.com. It can be deduced that consumers who shop only once a month look to buy groceries and other essentials to last them a month. Most of the respondent who make the purchase through online. • • • • • The high number of responses indicate that a large number of consumers visit online portal for Electronics goods/Home goods/gifts. viz. They attract people of many income groups.com/eBay. only 45 consumers were interested because they have no time for offline purchase.
As per the demographic distribution of sample size used in my research project I h have to come a conclusion that the awareness of online shopping is mostly falls in age group of 18-35 yrs which affects the people perception towards the online shopping is same as the dependent factor of the respondent. Most the people who make the purchase through online were satisfied with the mode of payment. This might be effect the final result.• Most of the consumer were satisfied with the after sale support of the various shopping portals but some were not satisfied with after sale support. 61 . • • • LIMITATION OF THE STUDY And necessary data to complete the project may not gather in proper manner. The limitations which we observe were as follows: • With respect to actual population the sample size was too small. Online shopping is the time saving process so most of the respondent said that they would be recommended other to go for online shopping.
62 .• Since the responses were only from some part of Jalandhar. SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATION • Providing quality service at affordable prices and having different types of products for different income customers is another advantage. Respondents may have given bias information. • • • • In the fast changing world the data collected soon become historic and research findings based on them irrelevant. Some customer’s problems don’t lead to valid research conclusion. The time limit for the research was small to collect adequate information for inference for the consumer buying behavior. the report cannot be generalized for whole Jalandhar.
• Online portals have endorsed very famous personalities which has attracted a lot of customers. the prices. This has resulted in increase of sale and the outdoor advertising techniques have also helped the online portals. Even though online shopping has several disadvantages. quality and sales strategy has helped in getting the middle income groups getting attracted towards online shopping. So various online shopping portals has to provide the security on payment procedure. If you are shopping online. • Considering the fact that there are a lot middle class families in India. • Delay in delivery and lower quality leads to dissatisfaction of customers. you have to take additional care about your credit cards so that to protect from unauthorized usage. Due to factors mentioned above online shoppers are not always satisfied. • Yet another concern is about online security. • People are loyal towards brand as they are highly satisfied with the quality and they have an assurance from the brand for their continued supply of quality products. • Online shopping lacks the real world shopping experience that we get shopping with relatives and friends offline. this is not a positive for the shopping portals. the advantages outnumber the disadvantages and thus more and more people started buying online. online portals has had a huge impact on the middle class section of India. There can be lot of apprehensions about online shopping when you 63 . Conclusion Online shopping is a different experience and you can make the shopping creative over the internet as you get used to it.
My survey indicates that the maximum consumer make the purchase offline because of the lack of awareness towards online shopping and shopping portals. In the conclusion part of my project. WYSWYG (what you see is what you get)approach is not being followed whole heartedly by online web portal as most of the people opined that the product purchase through online portals differs significantly from its original form .get in to it for the first time. Most of the people preferred online shopping because it is a time saving process. all people which I have surveyed were interested in shopping but. online shopping become more enjoyable and easier than real-world shopping. 64 . most of the people were having preference to shop offline and very few were interested to go online for shopping. As you experience more and more of it those apprehensions get disappeared slowly.The images of the product are mostly inflated which affects the perception of consumers towards online shopping. On the basis of survey the major drawback of the online shopping is lack of the security in the shopping payment through credit/Debit card. . Remember that if you stick to the basics.