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R institute of Technology
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AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION Aim:To study the ampltude modulation and demodulation. Apparatus: 1.Amplitude modulation and demodulation. 2.Signal generator. 3.Oscilloscope 4.Connecting wires..
Theory: Amplitude modulation (AM)is defined as a process in which the amplitude of the carrier wave C(t) is varied abot a mean value ,linearly with the base band signal. An AM wave may thus be described , in its most general form,as a function of time as fallows. S(t)=Ac[1+Ka m(t)]Cos(2∏fct) Where Ka--Amplitude sensivity of the modulator S(t)-Modulated signal Ac-Carrier amplitude m(t)Message Signal The amplitude of Ka m(t) is always less than unity,that is │Ka m(t)│<1 for all t It ensures that the function 1+Ka m(t) is always positive.When the amplitude sensivity Ka of the modulator is large enough to make │Ka m(t) │>1for any t,the carrier wave becomes over modulated ,resulting in carrier phase reversal when ever the factor 1+Ka m(t)crosses zero.The modulated wave then exhibits envelope distortion as shown in fig below.
analog communication lab manual
C.M.R institute of Technology
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analog communication lab manual
C.M.R institute of Technology Circuit diagram:
Redefining Quality education
The absolute maximum value of Ka m(t) percentage of modulation. Vmax-Vmin percentage of modulation = -----------------Vmax +Vmin The Carrier frequency fc is much greater than the highest frequency component W of message signal m(t),that is Fc>>W Where W is the message band width. If the condition is vot satisfied ,and envolop cannot be visualized(and there fore detected)satisfactorly. Procedure: 1.Switch on the trainer and check the o/p of carrier generator on oscilloscope. 2.Connect around 20 -20 khz with 2 volts A.F signal at AF i/pto the modulator circuit. 3.Connect the carrier signal at Carrier i/p of modulator circuit.
analog communication lab manual
C.M.R institute of Technology
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4.Observe the Modulator output signal at AM O/P spring by making necessary changes in A.F signal. 5.Vary the modulating frequency and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated wave forms. 6. The deapth of modulation can be varied using the variable knob(potentio meter)provided at A.F signal. 7. The percentage of modulation or modulation factor can be calculated using the fallowing formule. % of modulation= Vmax-Vmin -----------------Vmax +Vmin
Vmax-Vmin Modulation factor (m)= -----------------Vmax +Vmin 8.Connect the output of the modulator to the input of demodulator circuit and observe the out put which is same as input. RESULT:Amplitude modulation and demodulation are studied
2-nd B.Tech 4 analog communication lab manual
C.M.R institute of Technology
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AIM:- To study frequency modulation and demodulation and to calculate frequency deviation and frequency index. APPARATUS:1. frequency modulation and demodulation trainer 2. CRO 3. Signal generator 4. Connecting wires and probes Frequency modulator:
analog communication lab manual
M.Tech 6 analog communication lab manual .C.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education FREQUENCY DEMODULATOR 2-nd B.
we may distinguish two cases of FM: a. To tackle the spectral analysis of an FM signal: 1. is made proportional to the instantaneous amplitude of the modulating voltage.M. b. rather its analysis is much more difficult than that of an AM signal. the spectrum of an FM signal is not related in a simple manner to that of modulating signal. 2. If β > 1 radian.Tech 7 analog communication lab manual . that of a single – tone modulation that produces a narrow band FM signal. the carrier frequency is directly varied in accordance with the input base band signal. In the direct method . the modulating signal is first used to produce a narrow band FM signal. By the definition of FM. Consider the simplest case possible. then Narrow band FM. namely . but this time the FM is wide band signal. and the constant K f represents the frequency sensitivity of the modulator expressed in Hertz per volt. as fi(t) = fC+ kfm(t) The term fC represents the frequency of the unmodulated carrier . Unlike AM. the amount by which the carrier frequency is varied from its unmodulated value. In general. and frequency multiplication is next used to increase the frequency deviation to the desired level. FM is that form of angle modulation in which the instantaneous frequency f i(t) is varied linearly with the message signal m(t). The indirect method is the preferred choice for FM 2-nd B. β =Δf / fm Depending on the value of the modulation index β. called the deviation . ∆f frequency deviation The ratio of the frequency deviation to the modulation frequency is called the modulation index (β) of the FM signal. direct FM and indirect FM. then wide Band FM.C. Generation of FM signals: There are essentially two basic methods of generating frequency modulated signals. a sinusoidal modulating signal is defined by m(t) = Am Cos(2∏fm t) Instantaneous frequency of the resulting FM signal equals fi(t) = fC + Kf Am Cos(2∏fm t) = fC + ∆f Cos(2∏fm t) Where ∆f = Kf Am. The rate at which this frequency variation changes or takes place is equal to the modulating frequency. namely. Consider the more general case also involving a single – tone modulation. which is readily accomplished using a voltage – controlled oscillator. We may define an approximate rule for the transmission bandwidth of an FM signal generated by a single – tone modulating signal of frequency fm as BT = 2Δf + 2fm = 2Δf(1+ 1 / β) This relation is known as carson’s rule. while its frequency and rate of change are varied by the modulating signal. In the indirect method.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education THEORY:FM is a system in which the amplitude of the modulated carrier is kept constant. If β < 1 radian.
Basically. Connect Oscilloscope to the FM O/P and observe that carrier frequency at that point without any A.F signal) . Switch on the Physitech experimental board. Connect around 1 KHZ with 2 volts sine wave (A. followed by envelope detectors and finally a summer. 3. Vary the modulating frequency (A. PROCEDURE: 1. there by resulting in a narrow band FM signal. below Indirect method of generating a wide band FM signal(fig) The message signal m(t) is first integrated and then used to phase – modulate a crystal controlled oscillator. To minimize the distortion inherent in the phase modulator.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education when the stability of carrier frequency is of major concern as in commercial radio broad casting. Demodulation of FM signals: Frequency demodulation is the process that enables us to recover the original modulating signal from a frequency – modulated signal. and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated wave form. Observe the output at demodulation o/p on second channel of CRO. Here we describe a direct method of frequency demodulation involving the use of popular device known as a frequency discriminator . Indirect FM: A simplified block diagram of an indirect FM system is shown in fig. Frequency Discriminator(fig) We may model the ideal frequency discriminator as a pair of slope circuits with their complex transfer functions. 6. 8. below. A frequency multiplier consists of a nonlinear device followed by a band pass filter. the maximum phase deviation or modulation index β is kept small.Tech 8 analog communication lab manual .M. Signal) to the input of the frequency modulator ( At AF input) 4. Now observe the frequency modulation output on the 1st channel of CRO and adjust the amplitude of the AF signal to get clear frequency modulated wave form. Frequency multipler(fig) The implication of the nonlinear device being memory less is that it has no energy – storage elements. 7. the use of crystal control provides frequency stability. Vary the potentiometer provided in the demodulator section. This scheme is called a balanced frequency discriminator. 5. whose instantaneous output amplitude is directly proportional to the instantaneous frequency of the input FM signal. the frequency discriminator consists of a slope circuit followed by an envelop detector. 2-nd B.This signal is next multiplied in frequency by means of a frequency multiplier so as to produce the desired wide band FM signal.F . 2. Connect the FM o/p to the FM i/p of De-modulator. as shown in fig.F input.C.
M.C.Tech 9 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education BALANCED MODULATOR 2-nd B.
so as to suppress the carrier wave. A Balanced Modulator that generates DSB(product) signal is shown in fig below. BNC Probes THEORY: In Balanced modulator.M. two non-linear devices are connected in the balnced mode. Signal Generator (2) 3. In amplitude modulation the amplitude of a sinusoidal carrier wave is varied in accordance with the baseband signal. The efficient utilization of the communication channel requires a shift of the range of baseband frequencies into other frequency ranges suitable for transmission a corresponding shift back to the original frequency range after reception. Balanced Modulator trainer. This is accomplished by using a process known as demodulation which is the reverse of the modulation process. A shift of the range of frequency in a signal is accomplished by which some characteristic of a carrier is varied in accordance with a modulating wave. At the receiving end of the communications system. The term baseband is used to designate the band of frequencies representing the original signal as delivered by a sources of information. 2.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education INTRODUCTION: The purpose of communication system is to transmit information bearing signals or baseband signals through a communication channel separating the transmitter from the receiver.Tech 10 analog communication lab manual .C. The base band signal is reffered to as the modulated wave. AIM: To Study Balanced Modulator Apparatus: 1. 2-nd B. we usually require the original baseband signal or modulating wave to be restored. CRO 4.
National. Figure is the 1496 balanced modulator which is manufactured by Motorola. If x(t) is band limited to fx and if fc > 2 fx . This device uses a differential amplifier configuration. Its carrier suppression is rated at a minimum of -50db with a typical value -65 db at 500KHz. Figure shows IC that have been specifically designed for use as balanced modulators. 2-nd B. then the band pass filter output will be the desired product signal. and Signetics.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education The Balanced Modulator consists of summing devise(operational amplifiers) and two matched nonlinear elements.Tech 11 analog communication lab manual .M.C.
Tech 12 analog communication lab manual . Hence. Connect your oscilloscope to the output .20 log Epk sideband Eout carrier only dB = . But in a balanced modulator. the bandpass filter must be carefully designed. You will verify that it does suppress the carrier and also adjust it for optimum carrier suppression. The output should not be close to zero. Procedure: 1. Connect 200Hz sine wave.C. Calculate the carrier suppression in dB. Increase the oscilloscope’s vertical input sensitivity to measure the output voltage. 2. Switch on the trainer. E out carrier only. Observe the output. dB = . Adjust R1 (1K linear pot). 6. so filter design is not so stringent.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education The trainer contains a balanced modulator using a 1496 integrated circuit. Measure the peak side band output voltage. and 100 KHz square wave from the Function Generators. 2-nd B. 3.M.______________________ Result :generation of ssb(sc) is studied and wave forms are observed. Set the vertical input control to 1V/cm. the undesired non-linear terms(harmonics) are eliminated by a band pass filter. Epk sidebands = __________________________. Disconnect the SINE input to R1(1K). Vary R1(1K) both clockwise and counter clockwise. Advantage of Balanced Modulator: In simple non-linear circuits. Connect the SINE input to R1(1K) and adjust R1 for maximum output without producing clipping.the undesired non-linear terms are automatically balanced out and at the output we get only the desired terms. 4. 5. 7.
EMPHASIS AND DE . 2-nd B.M.EMPHASE AIM: To study the frequency response curve of Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphase.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education PRE .Tech 13 analog communication lab manual .C.
The process of lowering the 2-nd B.Tech 14 analog communication lab manual . is higher . Lower the threshold level. CRO 4. 2. The threshold effect is more serious in FM as compared to AM. and a small signal is needed to avoid threshold level in the FM receivers. Physitech’s Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphasis trainer.M. because in FM. Redefining Quality education THEORY: Frequency modulation is much more immune to noise than amplitude modulation and is significantly more immune than phase modulation. better is the system because threshold can be avoided at a comparatively lower ratio. at which threshold effect starts. Funtion generator 3.C. Connecting wires.R institute of Technology APPARATUS: 1. the signal to noise ratio at the input of a detector .
if the higher frequencies were arificially boosted at the transmitter and correspondingly cut at the receiver . any noise side band voltage. Their effect on the output is reduced. there by increasing the signal – to – noise ratio. below. and in the sound transmissions accompanying television.De.C. and the compensation at the receiver is called de-emphasis. notably Europeon and Australian broad casting and TV sound transmission. the emphasized signal had twice the deviation it would have had without pre-emphasis and was thus more immune to noise. 1. Pre – Emphasis and De. are de-emphasized with it and therefore have a correspondingly lower amplitude than they would have had without emphasis. whereas the other is unaffected (being at a much lower frequency) . is termed pre-emphasis .emphasis Two modulating signals having the same initial amplitude has been taken. i. FM broadcasting . FMFB ( Frequency Modulation with Feed Back) Pre-Emphasis and De-Emphasis: The noise triangle shows. The amount of pre-emphasis in U. has been standaralized as 75µs. This boosting of the higher modulating frequencies .S . Two methods are used for the improvement of the threshold. a . in accordance with a prearranged curve. use 50µs.e . The usage of micro seconds for defining emphasis is standard.Emphasis circuits. Before demodulation. an improvement in noise immunity could be expected. whereas a number of other services. or threshold reduction. pre-emphasis b. noise has a greater effect on the higher modulating frequencies than on the lower ones. A 75µs de-emphasis corresponds to 2-nd B.. with one them Pre-Emphasized to twice this amplitude. 2. Thus.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education threshold level is known as threshold improvement . to ensure that both signals have the same amplitude in the output of the receiver .Tech 15 analog communication lab manual . The receiver will naturally have to de-emphasize the first signal by a factor of 2. An example of a circuit used for each function is shown in fig.M. When this signal is de-emphasized. while susceptible to noise interference.
4. 7. If emphasis were applied to amplitude modulation.Tech 16 analog communication lab manual . the time constant is suitably selected depending upon the application.) 3. Observe the De-Emphasis output at AF O/P of De-Emphasis circuit. 2-nd B. particularly in view of the huge numbers of receivers in use. some improvement would also result.6mV. by connecting either 75mH or 50mH. 8. With 50µs de-emphasis it would be 3180Hz.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education a frequency response curve that is 3dB down of the frequency whose time constant RC is 75µs. 2. but it is not as great as in FM because the highest modulating frequencies in AM are no more affected by noise than any others.. Give the input from signal generator to AF I/P of pre.etc. Calculate the attenuation and logF Values. Connect the output of Pre-Emphasis to the I/P of De-emphasis circuit. Fig. By varying the amplitude knob set the input voltage to some milli volts say(4mV. 10.C. Observe the output wavefrom on CRO channel – 1.emphasis circuit.M. Apart from that . Measure the output voltage in CRO for each frequency and notedown the values. as used in the united states. Plot the graph between frequencies on X-axis and attenuation on Y-axis to show the emphasis curve. 9. This frequency is given by f = 1/2ПRC and is therefore 2120Hz. 6. The output of pre-emphasis circuit must below the audio frequency range. PROCEDURE: 1. it would be difficult to introduce preemphasis and de-emphasis in existing AM services since extensive modifications would be needed. below shows Pre-Emphasis and De-emphasis curves for a 75µs emphasis. Various values of R and C are available so that. 5. Swich on Physitech’s Pre-emphasis and De-Emphasis Trainer.
VCE(max) = 45V 3.R institute of Technology OBSERVATIONS: S.No Frequency in Hz Input V I = V Out (Volts) Redefining Quality education Log(F) Attenuation In Db 20log(VO / Vi) Data Specifications : BC 107 transistor 1.M. VCB(max) = 50V 2. VEB(max) = 6V 4.Tech 17 analog communication lab manual .C. IC(max) = 100mA SINGLE SIDE BAND SYSTEM TRAINER 2-nd B.
Two balanced modulators 4. RF Generator 2. Facility is provided to adjust phase of the output signal. Control is provided to balance the output. On board generated carrier( which is used in the modulator ) is used as synchronous signal.Balanced Modulator: This has been developed using MC 1496IC. Summer and Subtractors: These circuits are simple summing and subtracting amplifiers using OP-AMP. is versatile and can be used up to 200MHz. AF Generator: This is a sine co-sine generator using OP-AMP . The MC 1496 is a monolithic balanced modulator / balanced demodulator. A three position switch is provided to select output frequency .Tech 18 analog communication lab manual . In this unit IC MC 1496 is used as synchronous demodulator. AGC control is provided to adjust the signal shape. 4. 3. in both frequency and phase with the carrier wave c(t) used in the balanced modulator to generate s(t) . Subtrator Circuit description: 1. An individual controls are provided to vary the output voltage. This kit consists of wired circuitry of : 1. TL084 is a FET input general purpose quad OP-AMP integrated circuit. IC TL 084 is used as an active component. Phase shift networks is included in the same block to produce another carrier signal of same frequency with 900 out of phase. MC 1496 is a monolithic integrated circuit Balanced modulator / Demodulator. These modulators are used in this experiment to produce DSB – SC signals. is versatile and can be used up to 200MHz.M. Summer 6. TL084 is a FET input general purpose quad OP-AMP integrated circuit. IC TL 084 is used as an active component. AF Generator 3. As individual controls are provided to vary the output voltage. It is assumed that the local oscillator signal is exactly coherent or synchronous. Synchronous Detector 5. 2-nd B.C. Sychronous detector: This base band signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSB –SC signal s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated sine wave carrier and then low pass filtering the product.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education INTRODUCTION: Education Trainer PHY – 165 is a useful educational kit for the demonstration of Single Side Band Signal generation using Phase shift method and demodulation of SSB signal using Synchronous detector (product detector) . 5. 2. RF Generator: Colpitts oscillator using FET is used here to generate RF signal of approximately 100KHz frequency to use as carrier signal in this experiment. This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or synchronous detection.
Patch Chords Theory: The phase shift method makes use of two balanced modulators and two phase shift networks as shown in fig. Frequency Counter 4. whereas the other recives modulating signal shifted by 900and ( co-sine) and the carrier (RF) signal with 00 phase shift voltage. Apparatus: 1. 2-nd B. One of the modulators receives the carrier signal shifted by 90 0 and the modulating signal with 00( sine ) phase shift.To study single side band signle generation using phase shift method and demodulation using Synchronous detector .M.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education AIM:.Tech 19 analog communication lab manual . Dual trace Oscilloscope 3. SSB trainer Board 2.C.
7. and the other lags it by 900 . and adjust the balance control until you get the output wave forms(DSB –SC) as shown in figure. Measure and record the AF signals frequency using frequency using frequency counter. Calculate theoretical frequency of SSB(LSB) and compare it with the practical value. The upper sidebands are in phase at the adder and therefore they add together and gives SSB upper side band signal. 9. connect balanced modulator outputs(DSB-SC) to subtractor. A switch is provided to select the required frequency (2K. Set the AF signal amplitudes to 8 Vpp using amplitude control and connect to the balanced modulators as shown in below figure. one is direct output and the another is 90 0 phase shift with the direct output . Observe the output of the RF generator using CRO.4K or 6 KHz) of the AF generator with the help of switch and adjust the AGC potentiometer until the output amplitude is = 10Vpp ( when amplitude controls are in maximum condition). PROCEDURE: 1. The two lower sidebands are thus out of phase. One of the lower sidebands leads the reference voltage by 900 . 14. Observe the outputs of both the balanced modulators simultaneously using Dual trace Oscilloscope. they cancel each other. Set the amplitudes of the RF signals to 0. When they combined in the subtrator . To get SSB lower side band signal. 13. 4K or 6KHz) . LSB = RF frequency – AF frequency To get SSB upper side band signal. AGC potentiometer is provided to adjust the gain of the oscillator (or to set the output to good shape) And the amplitude is = 10V pp ( potentiometers are provided to vary the output amplitude) Measure and record the RF signal frequency using frequency counter. Measure and record the SSB signal frequency using counter. The output frequency is 100KHz and the amplitude is ≥0. There are two outputs from the AF generator.M. 5. 8.1 VPP and connect 00 phase shift signal to one balanced modulator and 900 phase shift to another balanced modulator as shown in figure. Measure and record the SSB upper side band signal frequency using counter. 3. Study the circuit operation of SSB system thoroughly. the upper side bands are cancel because in phase and lower side bands add together and gives SSB lower side band signal. and when combined in the adder . It will be shown that both upper sidebands leads the input carrier voltage by 900. Selected the required frequency (2K. 10.C. 12.Tech 20 analog communication lab manual . 4. one is direct output and the another is 900 phase shift with the direct output.2Vpp ( potentiometers are provided to vary the output amplitude) Observe the output of the AF generator using CRO. 2. 6.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education Both modulators produce an output consisting only of sidebands. 11. connect the output of the balanced modulator to the summer circuit. 2-nd B. There are two outputs from the RF generator.
17. Observe the detector output using CRO and compare it with the modulating signal (AF signal) 18. Connect SSB signal from the summer( or ) subtrator to the SSB signal input of the synchronous detector and RF signal(00) to the RF input of the synchronous detector. MIXER CHARACTERISTICS 2-nd B.Tech 21 analog communication lab manual .C.R institute of Technology 15. USB = RF frequency + AF frequency Ex: If RF frequency is 100KHz and AF frequency is 2KHz Then USB = 100KHz + 2KHz = 102KHz Demodulation of SSB signal : 16. Redefining Quality education Calculate theoretical value of the SSB(USB) frequency and compare it with practical value.M. Observe the SSB signal for the different frequencies of the modulating (AF) signal.
BNC Probes THEORY: A mixer is a non-linear circuit with two input signals and one output signal. CRO 4. AIM: To observer the characteristics of a Frequency Mixer and to measure its conversion gain. Another type of mixer circuit . 2. APPARATUS : 1. The output signal is a distorted combination of the two input signals. Because of the nonlinear distortion. The frequency convertors and mixers perform the job of frequency changers. The non linear mixer circuit produces the sum and difference frequency components (f1 ± f C) along with the input frequencies and their harmonics. Let the two input frequencies. The IFT is tuned by adjusting the core of the transformer. Some mixer circuits use separate devices for mixing and generating local oscillator voltage.M. A mixer circuit finds its application in a super heterodyne receiver in converting a RF signal into an IF signal with the help of a local Oscillator.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education INTRODUCTION: A Mixer is a non – linear device that mixes the incoming signal of frequency (f C) with a local oscillator voltage of frequency (f1) and generates an output voltage of an intermediate frequency (f1 – f C) . They are also referred to as frequency converters.Tech 22 analog communication lab manual . The process is known as inductive tuning. In addition to the harmonics. The desired intermediate frequency fi = (f1 . known as self excited mixer utilizes a single device as mixer and local oscillator. frequency mixer trainer kit. Signal generator – (2) 3. a frequency signal with frequency = ( Fx – Fy) and also appear across output terminals. The mixer is also known as first detector. the output signal contains signal frequencies and their harmonics. Such circuits are referred as separately excited mixers. 2-nd B.f C) is selected by a tuned circuit known as input intermediate frequency transformer(IFT). given be Fx and Fy.C.
3. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram. Vary Base signal frequency and note down O/P amplitude. Plot conversion gain vs base signal frequency.Tech 23 analog communication lab manual .M. which is the intermediate frequency for Radio Receivers . The output reaches to a maximum value at a particular frequency. In non – linear mode of operation.C. signal to the emitter of the transistor. one signal drives the bvase. a sinusoidal signal with frequencies is observed across the output terminals PROCEDURE 1. its harmonics. by choosing local Oscillator frequency to 1455 KHz the difference frequency becomes 455KHz. sum frequency and also difference frequency . CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: In a transistor Mixer. Calculate coversion gain.2455 kHz can be filtered out with the help of low pass filter But in out Physitech’s frequency mixer trainer we are giving low frequencies ( in the range of 60 – 100 KHz) for getting clear output without distortion. 2. Hence . the collector current contains fundamental frequency. 1000KHz. The low pass filter filters out all other frequencies except. Apply 99 KHz signal to the base of the transistor and 100KHz. OBSERVATIONS: 2-nd B. One of the input signals should be large enough to drive the transistor into non – linear operation. the difference frequency component. Other frequencies such as 1455 KHz . the other signal drives the Emitter. Observe a sinusoidal signal with 1 KHz frequency across output terminals. 4. Conversion gain = O/P Voltage Base signal voltage 5.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education If RF signal frequency RF is 1000KHz.
R institute of Technology SL.NO Frequency (Base signal) (Hz) Redefining Quality education Voltage (Base Signal) (V) O/P DATA SPECIFICATIONS: Transistor 2N2369 VCB( max) = 40V VCE( max) = 15V VEB( max) = 4V IC( max) = 500mA PHASE LOCK LOOP USING LM 565 2-nd B.C.M.Tech 24 analog communication lab manual .
R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education AIM:. FM demodulator . Physitech’s Phase Lock Loop Using LM565 trainer.C. THEORY: PLL has emerged as one of the fundamental building block in electronic technology. It is used for the frequency multiplication. Connecting Wires. 2-nd B. APPARATUS:1.Tech 25 analog communication lab manual . FM steriodetector .To study phase lock loop and its capture range.M. 3. 2. CRO 4. frequency shift keying decoders. Function generator. lock range and free running VCO frequency. local oscillator in TV and FM tuner.
which is also called free running frequency ‘F O’ is given by F O = in Hz 2-nd B. The output voltage of the phase detector is a DC voltage and thereforem is often refers to as error voltage .below. Phase lock state. Thus .C. The VCO frequency is compared with the input frequencies and adjusted until it is equal to the input frequency . whose frequency in the obsence of any synchoronising input. The phase detector or comparator compares the input frequency . PLL keeps its output frequency constant at the input frequency.Tech 26 analog communication lab manual . In short . The DC level. The output of the phase detector is proportional to the phase difference between f in . Free running state. When phase is locked. The VCO frequency cantinues to change (output frequency ) until it equals the input frequency and the PLL is then in the phase locked state. The output of the phase detector is then applied to the LPF . ( output frequency). a LPF and a voltage controlled oscillator(VCO) connected together in the form of a feed back system. Capture range / mode 3. with feedback frequency .R institute of Technology The block diagram of a PLL is shown in the fig. the PLL goes through 3 states. the PLL is in the free running state. Redefining Quality education It consists of a phase detector. Before input is applied. and f out . 2. which removes the high frequency noise and produces a DC lend. Once the input frequency is applied. f out . The IC LM565 has a voltage controlled oscillator(VCO). any frequency modulator may serve as a VCO. fin . the VCO frequency starts to change and the PLL is said to be the capture range/mode. the loop tracks any change in the input frequency through its repetitive action.M. The output frequency of the VCO is directly proportional to the input DC level. 1. In effect. in term is the input to the VCO. . The VCO is a sinusoidal generator whose frequency is determined by a voltage applied to it from an external source.
Now compare the theoretical values and practical values using the given formula.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education Where . During lock. Connect 10k resistor from pin 8 to + 5V 4.1 µf capacitor between pin 7 and + 5V (C2) 9. 7. This gives a DC component output available at pin 7 and this is also fed internally to VCO voltage control. or as it is connected to VCO input (pin4) of phase camparator block. 12. 2. the average DC level of the phase camporator output signals is directly proportional to this frequency of the input signal. Consequently the linearity of the phase comparator output with frequency is determined by the voltage to frequency transfer function of the VCO. 10. The input signal can be directly coupled if the DC resistance seen from pins 2&3 are equal and there is no DC voltage difference between the pins. Connect 0. As the input frequency shifts. Without giving input measure(f O) free running frequency. Connect + 5V to pin 10 of LM 565. Short pin 4 to pin 5. Change R-C components to shift VCO center frequency and see how lock range of the input varies. PROCEDURE: 1. 11. the gain of the output stage 2-nd B. Connect pin 2 to oscillator or function generator through a 1µf capacitor. Thus if a resistance is connected between pin 1 .Tech 27 analog communication lab manual . FC = Where C2 is the filter capacitor in farads. Connection diagram for this experiment is also some as fig(2) with small changes. Connect output to the second channel of the CRO. 6. R1 should be with in the range of 2 to 20k ohms with an optimum value of the order of 4k ohms. once locked to the input signal. 3. By varying the frequency in different steps observe that of one frequency the wave form will be phase locked. Lock Range or Tracking Range: It is the range of frequencies in the vicinity of f O over which the VCO. R1 = external resistor C1 = external capacitor The above said VCO output can be divided. . it is this output signal which caused the VCO to shift its frequency to match that of the input. C1 can be any value. Connect -5V to pin 1. The VCO free funning frequency FO should be adjusted to be at the center of the input signal frequency range. Pin 6 provides a DC reference voltage that is also to the DC potential of the demodulated output(pin7) . Connect 0.M.C. 8. Connect output to the second channel is of CRO. FM DEMODUALTION: The IC LM 565 phase locked loop is a general purpose circuit designed for highlylinear FM demodulation. will remain locked and is given by F2 = Hz Capture Range : (f C) : Is the range of frequencies in the vicinity of ‘f O’ over which the loop will acquire lock with an input signal initially starting out of lock and is given by .01 µf capacitor from pin 9 to – 5V 5. which compare & phase of VCO with that of external input signal.6&7. adjust the amplitude aroung 2Vpp.
For higher orders of multiplication.Tech 28 analog communication lab manual . a large lock range is desired the second scheme is more desirable. A small capacitor (typically 1kpf) should be connected between pins 7 and 8 to eliminate the possible oscillation in the control current source. FREQUENCY MULTIPLICATION: There are two methods by which frequency multiplication can be achieved by using 565 IC. If the input frequency is to be constant with little tracking required the loop can generally be locked to any one of the first five hormonics. Single loop filter is formed by the capacitors C2 connected between pin 7 and + 5V supply.C. 1. The first method is the simplest. Inclusion of a digital frequency divider or counter in loop between the VCO and phase camporator.M. As shown in fig(3) the loop is broken the VCO and the phase 2-nd B. 2. A limitation of this method is that the lock range decreases as successively higher and weaker hormonics are used for locking. In this way the lock range can be reduced from ± 60% of FO to approximately ± 20% of FO ( at ± 6V) . Locking to a harmonic of the input signal. This allows the lock range to be decreased with little change in free running.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education can be reduced with little change in the DC voltage level at theoutput . and can be achived by setting the free running frequency of the VCO to a multiple of the input frequency.
M.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education comporator and a ÷10 counter is inserted which is also provided on the trainer . Fig. the frequency limit of the input signal must be determined. and its fundamental will be the desired multiple of the input frequency . 4. The filter capacitor C2 should be large enough to eliminate variations in the modulated output voltage (at pin7) in order stabilize the VCO frequency. The fundamental of the divided VCO frequency is locked to the frequency in this case so that the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency. Input impedance : 10kΩ typically. Operating frequency range : 0. The output can now be taken as the VCO square wave output . So that the output frequency of the divider is midway between the input frequency limits. The important Characterisitics of the 565 PLL are : 1.The amount of the multiplication is determined by the frequency divider. 2. 2-nd B. Input level required for tracking 10mV (rms) minimum to 3V peak to peak maximum. Operating voltage range : ±6V to ±12V. The free running frequency FO of the VCO is their adjusted by means of R1 & C1. as long as the loop is in lock.001Hz to 500 Hz.3 Circuit Diagram for Frequency Multiplication To setup the circuit ( fig.3) .Tech 29 analog communication lab manual . 3.C.
typical. Drift in VCO center frequency with supply voltage:1. 7. 6. Band width adjustment range : < ± 1 to > ± 60%.C. 10.R institute of Technology 5. Drift in VCO center frequency ( f out) with temperature:300ppm/ oC typically.M.5. 2-nd B.1V maximum. Triangle wave amplitude : 2-4 V pp at ± 6V typically. Result: study phase lock loop and its capture range. Output source current : 10 mA typically. Redefining Quality education Output sink current : 1mA. 8. lock range and free running VCO frequency.Tech 30 analog communication lab manual . 9.
Coherent or synchronous detector for demodulating DSB-SC modulated wave It is assumed that the local oscillator signal is exactly coherent or synchronized. as in fig. Pilot carrier is one synchronization technique. in both frequency and phase. The AM-SC with partially suppressed carrier is equivalent to an over modulated AM signal. Precision phase and frequency control of the local carrier needs an expensive and a complicated circuitry at the receiver. The base band signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSB-SC wave S(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product. suppressed carrier balanced madulator without transformer or tuned circuits. This system . A small amount of carrier signal known as pilot carrier is transmitted along with the modulated signal from the transmitter.M. This method of demodulation is known as Coherent of Synchronous demodulation. It can be used as an DSB product detecto. and is used to phase lock the locally generated carrier at the receiver. below. This small amount of carrier signal is known as pilot carrier. The phase locking provides synchronization. CRO 4. Connecting Wires THEORY: The phase and frequency of the locally generated carrier in synchronous detector is extremely critical . This pilot carrier. AM 2-nd B. where a weak carrier is transmitted along with AM –SC signal.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education SYNCHRONOUS DETECTOR AIM: To study about detection of AM demodulator (or) Syncronous Demodulator. is amplified. The process in which a large carrier is transmitted along with AM-SC signal is called amplitude modulation. with the carrier wave C(t) used in the product modulator to generate S(t) . APPARATUS: 1.C. The type MC1496 is a Monolithic modulator / demodulator which is designed to produce the product of a voltage and a switching signal. It is used as a broad band double side band. Function Generator 3. separated at the receiver by an appropriate filter. The large carrier simplifies the reception system. as the carrier is not totally syppressed. is also referred to as partially suppressed carrier system. Physitech’s Syncronous Detector trainer kit 2.Tech 31 analog communication lab manual .
Here in this circuit if the input signal falls during modulation valley’s distortion is not significant in most applications. the modulating signal is applied to both the inputs at a level of about 600 mv. The ckt.Tech 32 analog communication lab manual . Observe the Syncronous Detector AF output on the Oscilloscope. Set it to 100 kHz(For Synchronous ckt) 2. Connect 200 Hz AF signal externally from the signal generator to the AF input Terminal provided on the kit. 5. can be used as AM detectors. mixer frequency double & phase detector. shows external connections of MC 1496 which is used as an DSB ( double side band) product detector for this purpose all frequencies except the desired demodulated audio are in the spectrum and can be easily filtered at the output. while the carrier signal is applied to the lower differential amplifier. This IC drives dual differential amplifier. The circuit consist of differential amplifier. Observe the carrier signal at the terminal provided on the kit. AM demodulator. SYNCHRONOUS DETECTOR 2-nd B. Ideally a constant amplitude carrier signal would be obtained by passing the modulating signal through limted ahead of the corresponding input terminals However in the upper input signal is at a high enough level typically 300mV. The signal amplitude variations of upper signal do not appear in the output signal. Adjust the amplitude pot of signal generator such that you should observe on AM wave form at the AM output terminal. For this purpose. is no significant in most application. Due to this reason the product detector of fig.M. The modulating signal is applied to the upper differential amplifier. of fig. It has an advantage of linear operation and ability to have detector stage with gain.C. Connect the AM output to the AM input of the Syncrounous circuit.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education modulator. Connect the carrier output to the carrier input of Syncronous circuit. PROCEDURE: 1. In this Physitech’s Make Syncronous Detector Trainer Kit variable carrier signals generator internally built ranges is of 50Hz to 150 KHz AM wave is generated internally by using IC 1496 configuration. 4. 3. As a result the usual carrier null adjustment not be included.
Tech 33 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education 2-nd B.M.C.
Tech 34 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology EXPECTED WAVE FORMS: a. Demodulated Signal Redefining Quality education 2-nd B. Modulated Signal d.C. Sinusoidal modulating Signal c.M. Carrier wave b.
Now study the detector output for applied input of over modulation and undermodulation condition of the AM. It can be seen from the fig.F. but at high and low audio frequencies Zm may have a reactive component. but it does ensure that a negative AGC voltage will be available. 5. 6. The combination of R3 – C3 is low pass filter designed to remove AF components. 4. The depth of modulation can be varied using the variable knob (potentiometer) provided at A. Connecting wires PROCEDURE: 1. Fig(1) shows a practical diode detector. Diode Detector Trainer 2.F ripple.C. Oscilloscope 3. This has no effect on detection. that the dc diode load is equal to R1+R2. Capacitor C2 is a coupling capacitor. The unwanted components are removed in a practical detector. assuming that the capacitors have reactances which may be ignored. The simple diode detector has the disadvantages that demodulated output voltage in addition to being proportional to the modulating voltage. 2-nd B. also has dc component which represents the average envelope amplitude(i. 8. whereas the audio load impedance Zm is equal to R1 in series with the parallel combination of R2. Vary the modulating frequency and amplitude and observe the effects on the modulated waveform. Input.F signal at AF I/P to the modulator circuit. Here tow resistors are used to ensure that there is a series dc path to ground for the diode.M. In this diode has been reversed.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education DIODE DETECTOR The diode is by far the most common device used for A. but at the same time a low pass filter has been added in the form of R1-C1 . carrier strength ) and a small R. causing a phase shift and distortion as well as an uneven frequency response. 2. Connect the output of the modulator to the input of demodulator circuit and observe the demodulated output.F signal. whose main function is to prevent the diode dc output from reaching the volume control R4. proving a dc voltage whose amplitude is proportional to the carrier strength and which may be used for automatic gain control.R3 and R4. This will be true at medium frequencies .Tech 35 analog communication lab manual . so that the negative envelope is demodulated. this has the function of removing any RF ripple that might still be present. APPARATUS: 1.e. 3. Connect around 1KHz with 2 Volts A. 7. AIM:-To study the Demodulation of AM wave using diode detector. Connect the output of the demodulator to the input of amplifier circuit and observe the amplified output. Observe the modulator output signal at AM O/P Spring by making necessary changes in A.M demodulation or detection. Switch on the trainer and check the O/P of carrier generator on oscilloscope.
Apply the required voltages wherever needed. EXPECTED WAVE FORMS 2-nd B. Donot apply stress on the components.Tech 36 analog communication lab manual .1.C.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education PRECATIONS:.M. 3. 2. Connect the circuit as shown in the circuit diagram.
Tech 37 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education 2-nd B.C.M.
Tech 38 analog communication lab manual . one of the two input signals is high. 2-nd B. Even though most of the monolithic PLL IC s use analogue phase detector.Fig . 2) f1 – Square wave with 50% duty cycle with same frequency as f0 and variable phase when compared with f0. The trainer consists of the following in built provisions.The phase detector compares the phase of the two input signals and generates a voltage that is proportional to the phase difference between them.C. The output of EX. 3) Inbuilt wired circuits of three types of digital phase detectors EXCLUSIVE – OR PHASE DETECTOR:. and only if .M. the majority of descrete phase detectors in use are of the digital type mainly because of its simplicity. ii) Edge – triggered phase detector using flip flop.OR circuit is high if. It is one of the simplest type of digital phase detector.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education DIGITALL PHASE DETECTOR INTRODUCTION:. iii) Monolithic phase detectors. 1 shows Exclusive – OR phase detector. Examples of digital phase detectors are : i) Exclusive – OR phase detector. 1) f0 – Reference square wave with 50% duty cycle with variable frequency. There are two types of phase detectors linear and digital phase detectors.
. Ex – OR gate is generally used if the input signals (f1 and f0) are square waves ( signals with 50% duty cycle). One limitation of Ex – OR Phase detector is that the output depends on the duty cycle. shows the two input signals and corresponding output signal.M. 2-nd B.C.Tech 39 analog communication lab manual . Fig 2.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education Here we realized Ex-OR phase detector using 7486 IC. The DC output voltage is a function of the phase error between the two inputs.
The signals f1 and f0 are connected to the set and reset inputs . The input and output waveforms are as shown in fig.C.M. The RS flip flop works best even with low duty cycle (<50%) 2-nd B.4.shows a simple set reset flip flop as a phase detecto.Tech 40 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education R. The average or DC value of the output Q of flip flop will be proportional to the pahse difference between the two input signals.S FLIP FLOP PHASE DETECTOR:Fig.
M.Tech 41 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education DUAL D FLIP FLOP PAHSE DETECTOR:The dual D flip flop shown in Fig5.C. D flips go high on the leading edge of the input wave forms and remain high until they are reset.6 Fig. The reset signal occurs when both inputs are high . The input and output wave forms are as shown in fig. but not necessarily in phase. When both signals are the same.5RS Flip Flop Phase Detector 2-nd B. is less sensitive to the duty cycle of the input wave forms. the dc output voltage will be same as in the RS flip flop detector. When both signals are in phase and of the same frequency. both outputs will remain low and no pump signal will be applied to the low pass filter.
This device contains four independent gates each of which performs the logic exclusive – OR function 2-nd B.Tech 42 analog communication lab manual .M.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education IC 7486 IC 7486 is a Quad 2 input exclusive – OR gate.C.
Storage Temperature range : -65ºC to 150ºC.R institute of Technology Absolute maximum ratings : 1. Input voltage :7V 3.M.Tech 43 analog communication lab manual .C. Function Table: Redefining Quality education Y = AB + BA INPUTS OUTPUT A B Y L L L L H H H L H H H L H =High Logic Level L = Low Logic Level 2-nd B. Supply voltage :7V 2.
PROCEDURE: 1. Squelch Circuit consists of wired circuitry of 1. Observe the output of the AM generator using CRO.M wave form. Apart from eliminating inconvenience. Dual trace Oscilloscope.To study Squelch circuit. Thus no signal or noise is passed.M signal and adjust the sensitivity of squelch circuit by varying the potentiometer provided at the base of the transistor Q2.e in the abcence of transmission on a given channel or between stations. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION: The sqelch circuit as shown in fig(1) . APPARATUS: 1.F output from the detector to the input of the A. 2. AIM: . In some circumstances this is not particularly important. The receiver acquires its maximum sensitivity and amplifies the noise present at its input. A.F and A.M. It enables the receiver’s output to remain in cutt off unless the carrier is present. 2. but in many others it can be annoying and tiring. AM Generator 2.M output to the input of the detector provided on board and monitor the detectors outputs of A. The audio amplifier now functions as though squelch were not there.F and AGC outputs. Patching wires. Apply the 500Hz of A. the dc amplifier.Tech 44 analog communication lab manual . Study the circuit operation of squelch circuit.F signal to the input of AM generator marked as A. DC Amplifier. consists of a dc amplifier to which AGC is applied and which operates upon the first Audio amplifier of the receiver. When the AGC is low or Zero . ambulance and coast radio stations. in which a receiver must be monitored at all times but transmission essporatic. Sqelch is also called muting or quieting circuit. The squelch circuit is normally inserted immediately after the detector. so that the only now on Q1 is its self bias. such a system must naturally increase the efficiency of the operator. Funtion generator 4. Detector with A. Now you can study the effect of the squelch circuit by varying the amplitude of the A.F input. are the principle beneficiaries of squelch.F amplifier and AGC output to the input of the DC amplifier. Adjust the amplitudes of A.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education SQUELCH CIRCUIT INTRODUCTION: When no carrier present at the input of a receiver. Measure the AGC output with a DC voltmeter. 3.F and AGC .M generators to get proper output of A. 3.F amplifier. This is because AGC disappear in the abcence of any carrier. this dc amplifier no longer draws current. Q2 is in conduction and draws current so that bias voltage of Q1 drops and cutts of the A.C. 4. i. 3. Systems such as those used by police. Squelch circuit trainer Board. When the AGC voltage becomes sufficiently negative to cutt off Q2.F Amplifier 4. 2-nd B. Connect the A. 5. a sensitive receiver will produce a disagreeable amount of loud noise. Now connect the A.
M.Tech 45 analog communication lab manual .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education AGC CHARACTERISTICS TRAINER 2-nd B.C.
a mixer. using two variable tuned circuits that each other and the local oscillator. The output signal from the amplifier is fed to one input of the mixer circuit and the local oscillator signal to the other. THEORY: The main purpose of the receiver is to recreate the original message signal from the degraded version of the transmitted signal after propagation through the free space. The AGC signal is used as a bias signal to reduce the gain of the RF and the IF amplifiers to prevent detector overload an strong signals. The two tuned RF circuits form a band pass filter to pass the desired RF signal frequency while blocking others. The local oscillator is variable tuned so as to track the incoming signal frequencies. The output is the minimum signal level at the input of the detector required to make the detector perform satisfactory. AGC Characteristics Trainer 20 MHz Dual trace Oscilloscope Patch Chords. If amplifiers.C. The mixer output (the difference frequency for down – conversion) is fed to multistage tuned. In this trainer we used Radio receiver IC 1619S which is having in built RF amplifier. The detailed pin configuration and functional diagrams are given at the end of this manual. which are fixed – tune and provided with sufficient selectivity to reject adjacent channel signals.M. The detector also provides signals for automatic gain control(AGC) . THE SUPER HETERODYNE RECEIVER: The Basic receiver is shown in fig(1) . audio amplifier to drive a speaker. The input is the minimum variable signal level to be presented at the antenna terminals. This stage acts to boost the weak signal level from the antenna above the noise level to provide same signal selectivity and to prevent other channel signal to pass through.To study the AGC characteristics of a Radio receiver.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education AIM : . AGC is a system be means of which the overall gain of a radio receiver is varied automaticcly with the changing strength of the received signal. Where the audio signal is extracted from the IF signal or demodulated. The gain required in the RF and IF amplifier chain of the receiver depends on the required input and output. 2. local oscillator. The output from the IF amplifier chain is fed to the detector circuit. to keep the output substantially constant. The audio signal from the detector is passed through a low pass filter to remove unwanted high frequency components and then through a volume control to audio amplifier. 3. The first stage is a tuned RF amplifier.Tech 46 analog communication lab manual . IF amplifiers and an AGC detector. APPARATUS: 1. PROCEDURE: 2-nd B. The audio amplifier is usually one low – level audio stage followed by a power amplifier and a speaker.
5. 2. Plot the AF output vs RF input on graph which will be as shown in the fig. Set amplitude to aroung 1 mV. Select carrier frequency of 1000KHz . 4. Connect CRO at the output of the Audio amplifier. AF frequency 1KHz and apply AM signal to the input of receiver .2 2-nd B.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education 1.M.Tech 47 analog communication lab manual .C. 3. Increase the RF level in appropriate steps and note down corresponding output A. Tune the mixer – Local oscillator for maximum AF signal output at detector output and measure the audio signal.F signal amplitude .
M.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education 2-nd B.Tech 48 analog communication lab manual .C.
Frequency sysnthesizer trainer. APPARATUS: 1. CRO Connecting wires 2-nd B.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education FREQUENCY SYSNTHESIZER USING LM 565 AIM: To study phase lock loop and its capture range.Tech 49 analog communication lab manual . 2.C. lock range and free running VCO Frequecy and constructing frequency sysnthesizer.M. 3.
Thus .R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education THEORY: PLL has merged as one of the fundamental building block in electronic technology. The VCO frequency continues to change (output frequency) until it equals the input frequency and the PLL is then in the phase locked state. with feedback frequency. The DC level. interm is the input to the VCO. which is also called free running frequency ‘F 0’ is given by 2-nd B. the VCO frequency starts to change and the PLL is said to be the capture range/mode. fin. 2. the loop tracks any change in the input frequency through its repetitive action. In effect. frequency shift keying decoders . Once the input frequency applied. Capture range / mode. free running state. The output of the phase detector is then applied to the LPF. The VCO frequency is compared with the input frequencies and adjusted until it is equal to the input frequency. Phase lock state. Before input is applied. In short . The output frequency of the VCO is directly proportional to the input DC level. The output of the phase detector is proportional to the phase difference betwwn fin and fout . PLL keeps its output frequency constant at the input frequency. the PLL is in the free funning state. The IC LM565 has a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) . 3. The phase detector or comparator compares the input frequency. When phase is locked. It is used for the frequency multiplication. FM demodulator. The block diagram of a PLL is shown in the fig. fout(output frequency) . fn Low pass Filter Pase detct or fout fout VCO It consists of a phase detector . The output voltage of the phase detector is a DC voltage and therefore. which removes the high frequency noise and produces a DC lend.M. is often refers to as error voltage.C.Tech 50 analog communication lab manual . The VCO is a sinusoidal generator whose frequency is determined by a voltage applied to it from an external source. any frequency modulator may serve as a VCO. local oscillator in TV and FM tuner. a LPF and a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) connected together in the form of a feed back system. below. whose frequency in the absence of any synchronizing input . FM sterio detector. the PLL goes through 3 states: 1.
Change R-C components to shift VCO center frequency and see how lock range of the input varies.Tech 51 analog communication lab manual . FREQUENCY SYSNTHESIZER 2-nd B. once locked to the input signal.47 μf capacitor. Connect pin2 to oscillator or function generator through a 0. Now compare the theoretical values and practical values using the given formula. which compare & phase of VCO with that of external input signal . or as it is connected to VCO input (pin4) of phase comparator block. R1 = external resistor C1 = external capacitor The above said VCO output can be divided . 8.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education F0 = 1.C. LOCK RANGE OR TRACKING RANGE: It is the range of frequencies in the vicinity of f 0 over which the VCO. 10. 11. Connect the input signal to the channel 1 of CRO. 3. Connect + 5V to pin 10 of LM 565 Connect -5V to pin1 Connect 1k potentiometer from pin 8 to + 5V Connect 0. By varying the frequency in different steps observe that at one frequency the wave form will be phase locked.01μf capacitor from pin 9 to . Connect output to the second channel of the CRO. 4. 5.1 μf capacitor between pin 7 and + 5V (C2) 9.2 / 4R1C1 in Hz Where .M. adjust the amplitude around 2Vpp. 7. will remain locked and is given by F2 = ± 8f0 / Vcc Hz CAPTURE RANGE : (fc) is the range of frequencies in the vicinity of fo over which the loop will acquire lock with an input signal initially starting out of lock and is given by … FC = ± Where C2 is the filter capacitor in farads. Without giving input measure (fo) free running frequency. 2. This gives a DC component output available at pin 7 and this is also fed internally to VCO voltage control.5V Short pin 4 to pin 5. PROCEDURE: 1. 12. 6. Connect 0.
Input level required for tracking 10 mV(rms) minimum to 3V peak to peak maximum. Output sink current : 1 mA. Drift in VCO center frequency (f out) with temperature : 300 ppm/º typically. Operating frequency range : 0. The fundamental of the divided VCO frequency is locked to the frequency in this case so that the VCO is actually running at a multiple of the input frequency . Drift in VCO center frequency with supply voltage : 1.M. A limitation of this method is that the lock range decreases as successively higher and weaker harmonics are used for locking. The filter capacitor C2 should be large enough to eliminate variations in the modulated output voltage(at pin 7) in order stabilize the VCO frequency. Operating voltage range : ± 6V to ±12V. 5. and can be3 achieved by setting the free runningfrequency of the VCO to a multiple of the input frequency. 1V miximum. 4. The important Characterisitics of the 565 PLL are: 1.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education Sysnthesizer is an equipment capable of generating a very large number of extremely stable frequencies within some design range. 2-nd B. 7. 3. 2.C. 1. Input impedance : 10 KΩ typically. The first method is the simplest. So that the output frequency of the divider is mid way between the input frequency limits. a large lock range is desired for which the second scheme is more desirable. and its fundamental will be the desired multiple of the input frequency. Locking to a harmonic of the input signal. This inbuilt source is virtually a direct synthesizer. There are two methods by which frequency multiplication can be achieved by using 565 IC. Inclusion of a digital frequency divider or counter in loop between the VCO and phase comparator. the frequency limit of the input signal must be determined.Tech 52 analog communication lab manual .Phase comparator and a divide counter is inserted which is also provided To setup the circuit(fig3) . The amount of the multiplication is determined by the frequency divider. 2.5 . Output source current : 10 mA typically. For higher orders of multiplication. while generally employing only one single stable source. as long as the loop is in lock. If the input frequency is to be constant with little tracking required the loop can generally be locked to any one of the first five hormonics .001Hz to 500KHz. typical. The output can now be taken as the VCO square wave output. The required frequency range in most synthesizers now a days is obtained from a variable voltage controller oscillator(VCO) . whose output is corrected by comparison with that of a reference source. 6. 8. The free running frequency Fo of the VCO is then adjusted by means of R & C. As shown in fig(3) the loop is broken between the VCO and the on the trainer .
Tech 53 analog communication lab manual .0047 μF 2 10 20 100 500 • • Reference frequency (FR) provided on board is 1 KHz.047 μF 0.47μF 0.R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education Table showing different values of Capacitance for different frequencies. VALUE OF ‘C’ N FR 1 KHz 1 KHz 1 KHz 1 KHz 1 KHz OUTPUT FREQ.01 μF 0.C.1 μF 0. After connecting corresponding C value adjust 1k potentiometer to get locking 2-nd B.M. F0 = Nfr 2 KHz 10 KHz 20 KHz 100 KHz 200 KHz 0.
R institute of Technology Redefining Quality education 2-nd B.Tech 54 analog communication lab manual .C.M.
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