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A SURVEY OF HISTORY OF ENGLISH LITERATURE (1)
Old English Literature. 600 AD – 1065 (Started in 6
Medieval Period 1066-1450/1485/1500 The Renaissance 1450/1485/1500- 1660 Neo-Classical 1660 – 1798 • Restoration • Augustan • Age of sensibility
The Romantic Period 1789 – 1832 Victorian 1832-1901 Modern 1901- 1939/1945 Post Modern 1939/ 1945 – Present _____________________________________________________________________ Celts were the first people who lived in England. Then Romans occupied England. After that Anglo-Saxons (Angels, Saxons and Jutes) came to England and Celts went to Ireland, Scotland, Wales and Cornwall.
Angles Saxons Jutes
Celts went to Ireland, Scotland, Cornwall, and
1. They were two tribes of Gaels and Britons 2. They entered England in 6th century BC 3. Their religion was Druidism 4. They had Mediterranean culture. 5. They Believed in Hierarchy of Gods and made human sacrifices 6. They believed in trans-migration of souls. 7. They had different classes of society 8. They came from Austria and Switzerland 9. They were converted into Christianity by Romans 10. They had oral literature.
Main features of Old English
Oral Pessimistic and dark, mainly elegies. Anonymous Themes of war, warriors, complaint, love, courage, struggling, together with pensive mood. Fate is very important. In 54 and 55 BC, Caesar started occupying England. From 53-54 AD England became the colony of Rome. In 401 to 410 AD the Roman withdrew from England in order to protect Rome from Barbarian attacks (approx for 500 years). They converted British into Christians They built London They made Canterbury the seat of Roman church. One day Pope Gregory saw a group of boys playing. He asked who are they and they said they are Angels. He said no, they are Angles. So he sent St Augustine to convert them in 597 BC. In 447 AD (1550 years ago), Angles came to England and then Jutes and then Saxons. England = Angel land. Their culture was Tutanic (Germanic). They were farmers, seaman and sea pirates. Their religion was polytheism. Their Gods= Woden, Thore, Tiu, Saturn The most important God was Fate, Wird Anglo-Saxons started 7 empires called heptarchy: Sussex Wessex Essex Kent Mercia East Anglia Northumbria Anglo-Saxons were cold, reserved and pessimistic and believed in Fate. They had oral literature. Their language was inflectional (conjugated). Their language had only 30000 words. Their language relied on kennings (condensed metaphors). For example they referred to sun as world candle and referred to sea as monster’s home. They called prince a ring giver. Their language was harsh which is due to climate. 3
They had poets called scops who worked for kings in order to immortalize their lord. Their work was panegyric Their poetry was alliterative (head rhymed). Example: Grendel came creeping, accursed of God In a summer season when soft was the sun In a fair field full of folk.
A sad poem for death of a person. In old English literature it means a lyric poem of complaint and lamentation. Deor’s lament (First elegy) It was from a poet who was ignored by his lord because another poet had showed up and won his heart. Wulf and Eadwacer A woman who is lamenting absence of her vanished lover. The wife’s lament About a woman who is complaining because her husband is on a journey. The Husband’s Message The husband writes on a piece of wood that he will go back to her arms. The Ruin The Seafearer The Wanderer
Bede 673 – 735
The first English historian, the father of English learning/history. When he was 7, he was sent to an abbey and became a deacon at 19. Bede means priest. After death he was called deacon of church. He translated some parts of the Bible. His important work is Ecclesiastical History of English People.
Caedmon, late 7th century – early 8th century
The first English poet. He worked in a monastery. One night he had a dream in which a boy said “Caedmon, Sing me”. He said he knew nothing and the boy said “sing the creation”. Next day he woke up a poet and started writing hymns. His works are:
2. So the first English epic says nothing about England. Christ II 2. Beowulf is wounded.)ﮐﺘﺎب ﻣﻨﺼﻮب( . His most important work is called the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (the most important history of old English Literature). he is the greatest Old English poet. and it’s composer is anonymous. Beowulf (an epic). There are Christian passages which are interpolated into the text. Genesis ()ﺳﻔﺮ ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻨﺶ Christ and Satan Daniel Exodus ()ﺳﻔﺮ ﺧﺮوج So he wrote religious narrative poems from the bible. Then Beowulf has to kill the mother of dragon so he goes to bottom of the sea to do so. the hero. He is the first known English poet. It is written in 2 books. He kills the dragon and dies. Beowulf fights with the help of only one of his thanes. Beowulf is in Geatland and he is the King. Elene (the mother of Constantine) 3. There are some other works that maybe his such as The Dream of the Rood(. 4. Book two is in Geatland 50 years later. Cynewulf (late 8th or 9th century) According to critics.899. There’s a fire dragon which attacks the city because one of the Geats has stolen a golden cup from him. goes and kills the dragon. His other important work are: 5 . Tutanic (Germanic) epic. The name of his palace is Heorat. He was the king of Wessex and made it the cultural capital of England. 3. It was in west Saxon dialect written down in 1000 AD.1. Some poets borrowed parts of his book (Shakespeare). He translated Ecclesiastical History of English into English. He defeated Vikings and singed a contract with them. became king in 871) He was the best writer of old English prose. The setting is not in England. composed 675 – 725 It is an oral . after the anonymous writer of Beowulf. Herothgar. Beowulf. 848.)ﺻﻠﻴﺐ Old English Prose King Alfred (Alfred the Great. He defeated the Danes and in 878 recaptured London. Book one is in Denmark and about King of Danes. Juliana (a virgin who was martyred for Christ These four works are definitely his because they carry his signature. The fate of the Apostles 4. His works are: 1. There’s a dragon which attacks his castle called Grendel.
1. Then he explains different class of people in his dream. There are many Romance verses about king Arthur. A great religious and satirical poem. A dream vision of Jesus In a summer season when soft was the sun In a fair field full of folk Found there I between The narrator falls sleep and sees the Dungeon of Wrong. Then he sees a lady called the Holly Church. There are Romances and narrative poems about King Arthur. King Arthur: A legendary king. The man hesitated twice but at last did so. Layamon William Langland: Was a poet born in 1332 to 1400. they put his body on a boat full of wood and then set fire to it and sent it to the lake. He gave his sword to someone and asked him to give it back to the Lady of the Lake. an allegory in alliterative verse. He sees the Tower of Truth on a mountain (because it is an allegory). The Battle of Molden – (Danish Attack). 2. His work is Piers Plowman. He asks what he should do and the lady tells him to go after Saint Truth. He went to a war. Not much is know about Langland. but his nephew Mordred took over the kingdom and he was killed in a war with him. Medieval Literature was didactic. The lady criticizes him for sleeping. Historia Universalias 3. He lived in 6th century. 6 . Then he says how and the lady says he needs a guide (Piers Plowman). Translating “Concerning the Consolation of Philosophy” by Boethias. Medieval English Literature Started in 1066 when Normans (French tribe from Normandy) attacked England in the Battle of Hastings. He was a saint and fought with Anglo-Saxons. His soul went to Celtic Paradise Avalon. Some stories form other cultures such as French or German has been added to this legend. When King Arthur died.
One of the best medieval poems. G. comedian. T. The theme is quest. Strindberg. The western drama began in Greece. Oscar Wild. and The Castle of Perseverance. In between acts there were some comic interludes. Euripides. They acted on a wagon called a pageant (portable stage). Shakespeare. Ben Johnson and Marlow are leading poets of this time. The examples are Everyman. Morality Play: An allegory which deals with abstractions. Chekhov. From 1660 to 1700 (Restoration period) they were opened again and sentimental and neo-classical plays were acted. Elizabethan Drama (Renaissance) Seneca Tragedy or Tragedy of Blood.S Elliot. Pope ordered them to stop it. The types of dramas in Elizabethan period are tragedy. Sir Gawain and the Greene Knight (Anonymous writer): It is an Arthurian legend. Sophocles. Samuel Beckett (theatre of the absurd. This kind of Tragedy had a major effect on Renaissance drama.B Shaw. However. Modern Drama: Henrik Ibsen (problem plays). history/chronicle play and masques. Seneca Comedians Tragedians Medieval Period: Miracle and mystery plays: Priests started to act stories of bible and lives of saints and martyrs were played. They acted in market places. In 18th century. Aeschylus. Aristophanes Tragedians Rome: Palautus and Terence . written in the second half of the fourteenth century. It is about 2500 lines. tragic-comedy. Chivalry and law. The theatres were closed down from 1649 to 1660 by Cromwell who was a puritan.Romance An early novel. An adventurous story in prose or verse with the theme of quest (for the Holy Grail which is a cup from which Christ drunk in the last supper) and love. It is an alliterative poem and is written in four fitts. sentimental comedy changed into melodrama. Berecht (epic theatre). 7 . comedy of manners (immoral) changed into sentimental comedy and in 19th century.
the best medieval writer He is called the father of English poetry. A Streetcar Named Desire. 2.Italian influenced period. He was forgotten until 19th century.French influenced period. Beauty. Story of Mr. It has been taken from a Buddhist parable and translated from a Danish work. in the story.English influenced period). He wrote in couplets. he will get a free meal (The General Prologue). It has several soliloquy (thinking aloud monologues). He asks some abstract entities such as Truth. John Osborn (Angry young man. His master piece is The Canterbury Tales. This life being preparation for after life is the theme of it. The father of American drama is Eugene O’Neill Arthur Miller: Death of a Salesman Tennessee Williams= The Glass Menagerie.Waiting for Godot). etc…. and it is not didactic. His works fall into three periods (1. abstractions and alliterations are characteristics of his time but didn’t write that way. unlike other works in his period which are dark and depressive. The only person which accompanies him is Good Deeds. 3. The theme of everyman is quest for salvation. Everyman A morality play = An allegory with the theme of quest for salvation in which the characters are abstractions. He and 29 others wanted to go on a pilgrimage to the tomb of Saint Thomas Becket. Allegories. The work is colourful. Tom Stoppard (Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead) Arneld Wesker (Kitchen Sink Drama). Clearly. gives a clear picture of English people at that time (14th century). Everyman who is summoned by death. _____________________________________________________________________ 8 . Look Back in Anger). Edward Albee= Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Geoffrey Chaucer 1340-1400. Everyman is didactic and teaches morality. The season is spring. The Canterbury Tales is a narrative. martyred in Canterbury church. His poetry is colourful. The Narrator says he went to an inn called Tabard. to accompany him. the weather is good. Harold Pinter (Birthday Perly). The inn keeper says if a person who comes back can tell 4 stories.
Rome remained the ideological centre up to 15th century and even now.Some of the important figures of the Renaissance are: Dantes Petrarch Marcle Anglio In Renaissance an outburst happened in art. 50 BC. The first printer in England was called William.Virgil 4. sculpturing. Bible which marked the start of Translation Movement. Some of the works of western culture was translated by Arabs. The writers from Constantinople went to Italy. This movement was strengthened by religious reforms and the invention of printing machine in 1450s by Gutenberg (Germany). They started translating works of Aristotle. So the golden days were revived (Renaissance: Revival of classical thinking).5th Century is the advent of Christianity.Sophocles 4. Pope’s decisions are still important. painting.Terence 5.Arsen 2.Eccles 5. Greek (gold period) 1-Aristotle 2.Seneca 3.1660) The word means rebirth. 9 . They took books from Muslims. Rome became the military and ideological centre of the world. it was eradicated by Ottomans (Muslims).Euripides Rome (silver period) 1.Plato 3. It is based on a reaction or amendment in dark period. In 1453.Blautus 5th cent Roman Church 1066 15th cent Medieval literature Western Rome Empire Rome Easter Roman Empire 5th 1453 Rome Constantinople (Istanbul) Constantinpole before Constantine was called Byzantium. etc.Renaissance (1450/1485/1500.
In other parts of Europe people like Copernic. 2. where private property does not exist and almost complete religious toleration is practiced. So this was one branch of religious reform. In this book people who praise the church are criticised. He broke with him church of Rome and set up Anglican Church and became head of English church. governed by humanistic principles. because she didn’t bring him a son. He is against organized war. • Book 2: Explains in detail the ideal society. war. The government is the representative of people. • 10 .In Germany a man called Martin Luther started a new version of religion called Protestantism = protest against authority of Pope. It is a satire.Another religious reformer of Renaissance is Sir Thomas More (1478-1538). Another important featuer of Renaissance is humanism = Human is precious. His refusal of act of supremacy lead to his beheading by King Henry VIII. So Henry VIII wrote a book against Luther and Pope was pleased with him. His church was independent. the writer of Utopia. Gold is hated and only slaves and prisoners carry gold. But his same defender revolted against Pope. and the first English humanist. He was a friend of Erasmus. It is a communistic democracy. It means you don’t need intervention of priests and church to communicate with God. Utopia is a rational world. There is religious toleration. The Praise of Folly is the work of Erasmus. He is considered a Martyr. Europe changed its ideology from this life for after life to life precious per say (this life is worth living). It happened through translation of Bible. Book 1: Portrays an ideal world which is contrasted with the corruption. His masterpiece is Utopia which is a political essay romance in two books which describes an image of a communistic society. the life in this world is also precious. made religious reforms. poverty and immorality of Europe.Religious Reformation: 1. Pope was angry and excommunicated with him but it was useless. and this is related to changes in cosmology because it was discussed that the sun was stationery and this was the violation of Bible. Streets are 20 feet wide. etc. 4. Men and women are educated. House have gardens. 3.Another branch happened in England under the ruling of Henry VIII. Catherine. Protestantism is a form of religious individualism because it means you can interpret religion on your own. The then king wanted to divorce his wife. So the cosmology of Ptolemus and Bible were weakened.
Sonnet was imported from Italy. Spain had the biggest navy in the world and they wanted to convert British into Christians. Copernican Revolution. poet. Henry VIII Anglican Church. and the outburst of lyric poetry specially sonnet. there was peach and order and England became the supreme power by defeating the Spanish Armada (Spanish armed ships) in 1558. Lust for life. He was a writer. Shakespeare. EUROPE Goods Sugar AFRICA Slaves CARRIBEAN COUNTRIES (New World) (Worked free of charge on plantations) Europe acquired abundance of wealth which resulted in banking systems. Howard. So another feature of Renaissance is Colonisation. Books were translated into vernacular. The first sonneteers are Wyatt and H. The first English Humanist is Sir Thomas Moor. English Language was elevated and strengthened to a higher position. ambassador and courtier. 11 . and weakening of priests which reduced the authority of Pope. Humanism. So in Renaissance all the following changes occurred: Individualism. He introduced terza rima into English literature. Ben Johnson and Webster wrote in that period. Theatres were built. They were defeated. Another Important event was the growth of commerce which was related to slavery. Vernaculars (native languages) were strengthened and Latin was weakened. In Renaissance. Marlow. Renaissance was the period of outburst of drama. So Renaissance is synonymous with Elizabethan period. Wyatt’s major works are Farewell Love (a debate between reason and love) and the Flee from Me. Lust for Knowledge and Lust for power = Themes of Marlow’s works.The starter of it was Erasmus in Holland. Materialism. Renaissance is the golden age of British drama. Martin Luther’s Protestantism. Sir Tomas Wyatt (1503-1542) translated the works of Petrarch who was in love with Laura and wrote fourteen line poems in iambic pentameter for her. In England much of Renaissance coincided with Monarch of Queen Elizabeth. because in the Elizabethan period.
He is influenced by Platonism. It is about conflict of reason and passion. It’s a courtesy book (teaching how to be gentleman). After Aristotle and Hores. They say the greatest poet of Renaissance is Milton and the greatest dramatist is Shakespeare. He was not happy with the love poems of his time. According to Sidney. He improves the nature. An Apology of Poetry is argumentative and persusasive. In part two he aswers the criticism that poets are liers because poet affirms nothing (Plato said poets are liars). Sidney is the first English critic. A poet not only imitates nature but also makes a better nature. Part three is about the present English literature. Astrophel and Stella. gentleman and Queen’s favourite. critic. poetry is virtue breeding. poetry meant literature. He was a soldier. and An Apology of Poetry are three important works by him. At his time. It moves man to virtuous action. poet.Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586) In Defence of Poetry is his work of criticism. So his love was frustrated. Arcadia was prose romance (pastoral). He died at the battle of Zulphen. But she does not respond to him because of her honour. he was influenced by ?????. 12 . courtier. In the Renaissance literature was secularized. He believed that literature is an imitation of nature (and this is Aristotle’s view too). It is about the love of the Astrophel and Stella. It is the beginning of secularization. It is a criticism of Petrachan convention: turning the beloved into and angle or ideal. In ‘An Apology of Poetry’ he summarized what he had been said before him. Astrophel and Stella is a sonnet sequence of 108 sonnets and 11 songs. In Renaissance an early kind of novel was written an example of which is John Lyly’s Euphues. Arcadia (Paradise of Shepherds). It is about a group of shepherds who are discussing love and philosophy. diplomat. In part one he says poetry is dignified and is superior to philosophy and history. influenced by Aristotle. Stella is a married woman and Astrophel is in love with her. It is in three parts.
He died for lack of breath and buried in Westminster Abbey. He introduced Spencerian stanza into English literature. He was greatly admired in the Romantic period. Marlow. Dante. Martin Luther. financial improvement. Bucaccio.1500 – 1642/1660 = Renaissance in England. In 1543 the polish astronomer Copernicus proved that earth went around the sun. discovery. order. It was a cultural outburst. religious liberty. 1531= Henry VIII broke with Pope 1570= Martin Luther broke with Pope 1588= Spanish Armada Renaissance was an age of peace. Milton. Spencer wanted to write 12 books but only could finish 6 of them. Bacon and Ben Johnson. Sir Thomas More. 1456= Invention of printing machine. Plato accorded to Christianity). He was a Cambridge sizer (a poor student). Lyly. dragon. In tragedy Seneca and in comedy Terence and Plautus influenced English. thought and art. Petrarch. These knights at a stage of the work have a great trouble and King Arthur come to help them. He or she might have a problem with a tyrant. sculpture and architecture. The first English drama written in blank verse is Gorboduc. 12 refers to 12 virtues of Aristotle. He was influenced by new-Platonism (Plato made Christian. Book one is about Holiness 13 . Erasmus. Shakespeare. Renaissance was the rebirth of classical arts. outburst of creativity in literature. There is a 12 day feast in her palace . the poem is about the Queen Gloriana (Faerie Queen). Webster. Spencer used archaic language. intellectual energy and desire to enlarge bounds of learning. She is the Queen of fairy land. Angelo. religion. painting. etc. The word means the beautiful Queen and refers to Queen Elizabeth I. exploration. Each day a stranger comes to her palace and asks for help. The Queen would send a knight to help them. Faerie Queen is a long allegorical epic poem of about 700 pages and is his most important work. It was the age of da Vinci. Age of new ideas. America was discovered in 1492 by Columbus. Third Session Edmund Spencer – 1552-1599 One of the greatest English poets of the Renaissance period. individualism.
historical allegory (allusions to execution of Queen Mary.) In book one. false Christianity. Of Revenge. This book is very aphoristic. It is epigrammatic. She is looking for her future husband. witty and concise with ……… structure. a poem with archaic language. A religious allegory: church versus atheism and paganism. who should destroy Grantorto and rescue Arina. the Knight of Justice. cure the disease and kill the patient. Book two is about Guyon who is the Knight of Temperance (golden mean). It is a justification of married life. His next work is Shepherd’s Calendar. A pastoral poem with political allegory dedicated to Sidney. Book six is about Sir Calidor. It is about Queen Elizabeth. The famous ones are Of Death. It is written in 12 books and it is about unsatisfied love of Colin Clout for Roselyn. and Of Friendship. It is a moral allegory: virtues versus vices 2. Francis Bacon 1561-1626 He is the first English essayist who has a book called The Essays. 3. Book five is about Sir Artegal. dedicated to Raleigh. (many quotations from this book: knowledge is power. children sweeten labours but they make misfortunes more bitter. It is individual Christianity vs. the Knight of Curtsey. It is pastoral and praises simple country life. which has 58 essays. Of Beauty. if a man be gracious 14 . etc. Each part is called an eclogue and named after one month in the year. clamour of mob). Of Goodness. Book three is about Britomart. Epithalamion. He should capture the Blatant Beast (the ignorant slanderous.Book two is about Temperance Book three is about Chastity Book four is about Friendship Book five is about Justice Book six is about Curtsey This work is an allegory on 3 levels. It is about Spencer’s courtship of an Elizabeth (maybe Queen Elizabeth. all colors will agree in dark. It is a political. It has 89 sonnets and a wedding song. He also wrote Amoretti (little love). Book four is about Friendship (very important in Renaissance period). Elizabeth Boyle). revenge is a kind of wild justice. a female Knight of Chastity. 1. But he falls in trouble and King Arthur frees him. the Knight of Holiness (the Red Cross knight) is assigned a mission of protecting Una and free her parents from a dragon. The other work is Colin Clouts Come Home Again. It is a sonnet sequence (a poem made up of sonnets). or his mother or his beloved.
shut up in their cells of a few authors like Aristotle”. Idol of the theater referring to philosophy and literature. The History of Henry 3. Doctor Faustus = Lust for knowledge 15 . He was arrested because of atheism (stabbed to death. Marlow is the greatest writer of tragedy before Shakespeare (After Shakespeare is Webster). his death is mysterious). He died too young. Tamburlane the Great ( = )ﺗﻴﻤﻮر ﻟﻨﮓLust for power. In Novum Organum ( )ارﻏﻨﻮنnamed after one of the works of Aristotle called (Organum). A famous quotation from him is “I have taken all knowledge to be my province”. Idol of the tribe referring to misunderstanding from nationality. he says our understanding is limited by four idols. a utopian work. He predicted refrigerator. 4. Idol of the cave referring to mistakes and misunderstandings of within. Novum Organum. 2. These are bad habits of mind that cause people to fall into error. brightest and meanest of man”. because Aristotle introduced deductive method but Bacon introduced inductive method. telephone. This shows he was against Aristotle. The Jew of Malta = Lust for Money 3. Marlow is considered father of English tragedy. submarine. “Hope is a good breakfast but not a good supper” = a famous quotation. His next work is the New Atlantis. travel is part of education. 1. His works fall in three groups: 1. 2. Literary works: Essays such as New Atlantis.). 3. About university professors he said “men of sharp wits. etc. Idol of the market place referring to misunderstandings from communication with other people.)ﻓﻴﻠﺴﻮف ﺗﺠﺮﺑﯽ He is the first martyr of science (caught cold while experimenting in snow). Christopher Marlow 1564-1593 He is a good representative of Renaissance thought. In this work he proposed a College of Solomon’s House (6 Days Work College). and unfinished philosophical semi-romance. 2. Philosophical: the advancement of learning. It is said that some works of Shakespeare is written by Marlow. He rebelled against Aristotle. He became Lord Chancellor.to strangers it shows he is a citizen of the world. His major works are: 1. Professional: Maxims of the Law He went to Trinity College. Alexander Pope describes him as “the wisest. aeroplane in this work. He was the first empirical philosopher (.
contrives revenge. This play shows the spirit of military power. and his vision is dark and pessimistic. mysterious and frightening). So Satan sent his top minister. But falls in a trap that he had prepared himself for an evil purpose. so Barabus gets angry and starts taking revenge from Muslims and Christians. 16 . Mephistopheles. He enhanced blank verse (unrhymed iambic pentameter).4. epic tragedy in blank verse: it has two parts. It is about the famous conqueror. He does many things in those 24 years. and Hero in despair throws herself into the sea. lust for wealth. virgins were put in the city gate as symbols of innocence but he killed them all. The Jew of Malta: Barabus. murder. Brachiano kills his wife in order to be with Vittoria and Vittoria’s brother. For example he imprisoned King of Turkey and his wife in a cage. The wife of Mr. He writes about violence. He is the greatest writer of tragedy after Shakespeare. “Give me a map and see how much is left for me to conquer”. and wrong-doing. both married. and the king butted his head against the wall and killed himself. Francisco. So it is a Senecan tragedy and his tragedies are Senecan. John Webster (late 16th cent – early 17th cent). When he wanted to conquer the city of Babel. The governor of Malta takes his money and gives it to Turks. revenge. Doctor Faustus: A tragedy of blank verse with the theme of lust for knowledge. He sums up the Renaissance. His works manifest new learning. Edward II = First chronicle play of English literature His works are nihilistic and express spiritual doubt. worship of man. His works are Gothic (predecessor of Gothic. He is the greatest dramatist of his time. His famous works are The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi. Brachiano is called Isabella and the husband of Vittoria is Camllo. The White Devil (1612) is about a love between Brachiano and Vittoria. Leander is being sunk while swimming to her. Tamburlane the Great: A heroic epic. In one part of the play he attaches the king of the countries to his carriage. His characters are Faustian. It is a spiritual tragedy. to him and he tells Faustus that he will teach him all the knowledge for 24 years and in exchange for his soul. Hero and Leander: An unfinished poem which was finished by Chapman. It is about love of Leander for Hero. It is about a man from Germany who learned a lot. (Marlow-ShakespeareWebster). but dies after that.
When the brother sees the face of her dead sister he say: ‘Cover her face: Mine eyes dazzle: she di’d yong’. The Alchemist. He wrote comedy of humours. his accomplice. He was one f the first English critics and the first to write masques. He wrote thirty masques. He had followers who were called The Sons of Ben. who is called the Duchess of Malfi. and he kills her and the two children. and was against mixing of genres (He was a Decorum. It goes back to ancient medicine (four fluids in the body: blood.The Duchess of Malfi is about a widow. play-write and critic. phlegm. is his other comedy. They marry secretly and they have two children. Two charlatans pretend that they have discovered the formula of changing base metals into gold. He was the first person to write epigrams (a short poem containing an idea). who thinks his wife has an affair with someone else. epigrams and comedy of humours. He wasn’t afraid of expressing his opinion. Ben Jonson (1572/3-1637) He was contemporary of Shakespeare and more famous than him. 17 . Imbalance in these fluids in the body will result in abnormal behaviour). and the Cardinal hire someone called Bosola. Kitely. One of them even attempts to sacrifice his wife to Volpone in hope of the inheritance. He had a dwell with a fellow actor and killed him. His next comedy is Volpone (or The Fox). the inventor of which is Horres). Another comedy by him is Everyman Out of His Humour which has many humorous characters and by means of every episode. He was a Renaissance writer but he was classicist. Unity of time. They abuse people. melancholy and choler. each character is eventually driven out of his humour. persuades them each of them to do so in turn that he is to be the heir. He was translator as well. He translated Ars Poetica (art of poetry) by Horres. He was a poet. He was the first English classicist. Her brothers Duke Ferdinand. seven plays (two tragedies and five comedies). He wrote Everyman in His Humour (the first comedy of humour in English literature in which Shakespeare acted). He was virtually (not officially) a poet laureate (chosen by the King to write poems on important national occasions). She falls in love wither servant. Classicism was a type of Literature written in 17th and 18th century. It is about a business master. This is an immoral line in English literature showing indifference and cruelty. Mr. He believed in the unities. Volpone a rich man without children pretends that he is dying in order to draw gifts from his would-be heirs. He has an allegorical comedy called The Devil is an Ass. He wrote Cynthia’s Revels (another comedy of humour). The Elizabethan drama was in blank verse. place and action. Antonio. Mosca.
In order to remove the curse. He wrote a play called Gallathea. “Thou art a monument without a tomb” John Lyly 1553/4-1606 He was a play-write and prose writer. two virgins must be sacrificed and their parents put on boy clothes on them (a normal theme of those days). Robert Burton 1577-1640 He was a writer of prose. Euphues is considered a predecessor of novel. which both are Roman tragedies.He wrote two tragedies. The theme of his works is love. In the Renaissance period. He wrote thirty masques (an entertainment play with dance. He has a sonnet called ‘To the Memory of My Beloved Master. weakness of woman and folly of youth. He wrote comedies as well like Endimion which is an allegorical comedy about love between moon and human. Catiline and Sejanus His Fall. The audience are rich and they take part in the play and wear masks). In the Renaissance period there were two kinds of artificial prose: Ciceronian and Euphuism (introduced by Lyly in two books: Euphues and His Anatomy of Wits and Euphues and His England). which is about a city cursed by Neptune. He had 133 epigrams. and this happened through borrowing words and communicating with Europe. Campaspe is a prose comedy about Alexander the Great who yields a beautiful girl (Campaspe) to her artist lover. music. Poetaster ( )ﺷﺎﻋﺮﻧﻤﺎis his next comedy. William Shakespeare’. Important prose writers of Renaissance: Holinshed Sir Thomas Brown 18 . Themes of Greek plays: Curse and Interference of Gods. Mother Bombie and Campbaspe are among his comedies. lavish costume and expensive scenery. maturity of English language is important. simple plot. Euphues was a prose romance and about the illusion of love.
In fact. The brother of her beloved. Holinshed’s chronicle is important because it provides the plot of Macbeth. This tragedy was the most important. Scotland and Ireland known as Holinshed’s Chronicle (1577). “A world of literature in itself” Machen. This book is erudite (challenging. popular and influential tragedy of Shakespeare’s time. 19 . Before she is taken. Hamlet is indebted to this play. He translated Homer. Cymbeline. Odyssey and Iliad. The other one is King Alfred’s Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. full of ideas). He tells us about the cases ad symptoms of different kinds of melancholy. Latin. Petrarch and Hesiod. George Chapman 1559-1634 He was a writer of tragedy and comedy. kills him. she writes a letter to the father of Horatio. Lorenzo. One is Chronicle of England. French. Chronicle is the day to day account of events and are early versions of history. The reason was that he was in love with Belimperia. Thomas Kyd 1558-1594. it is an Anatomy of Man. The story is about Horatio’s murder. biblical and Greek words. This play was performed in Germany and Holland. so it influenced Dutch Literature. His next work is Philosophaster. There are two important chronicles. It is full of allusions.Robert Burton Francis Bacon John Bunyan (The Pilgrim’s Progress) Anatomy of Melancholy: A very lengthy book of half a million words. Dr Johnson said about it “The only book that took me out of bed two hours sooner”. The Tragedy of Richard III and King Lear. He and Marlow are the starters of English tragedy. He is another Renaissance prose writer. The Spanish Tragedy is a Senecan tragedy and the first good English Tragedy. Raphael Holinshed 1529-1580. which is a Latin drama and a criticism of charlatanism. It is a book in three parts with many subdivisions.
Alexander Pope said ‘his characters are so much nature herself that it is a sort of injure to call them by so distant a name as copies of nature’. He moved to London with his family from Stratford. His plays are comedies. Another play by him is Eastward ho in which he collaborated with Ben Jonson and John Marston. Shakespeare 1564-1616 His father was a wool merchant. He could do well in tragedy as well as in comedy. He is famous for “my first looking into Chapman’s Homer” written by Kyd about Champman’s translation of Homer. Samuel Johnson said “Shakespeare is above all writers. Shakespeare describes things as they would be. He was never in the court. An educated person uses 2000. The latter is influenced by Hamlet. Shakespeare was uplifted to his present status in the Romantic period. He is the poet of nature. He wrote 36 plays and 154 sonnets. At the age of 18. They say that Bacon and Marlow wrote some of his works. He wrote comedies like All Fools.He wrote Bussy d’Ambois. He holds up to his readers a faithful mirror of manners and of his life. He believes that “the truest wisdom is the pursuit of beauty”. Chronicles etc. heart and passion. which is on the bank of a river called Avon. tragic comedies and history plays. Shakespeare’s works represent contradictions in human nature. He was a master of blank verse. married a woman of 26 and had three children. 20 . He borrowed many of his plots from history books. This means Shakespeare is above rules. He was a part-owner of the Globe theatre. Shakespeare was a dramatist sonneteer and an actor. Haslitt calls Shakespeare the poet of nature in the largest use of the term. Above all Shakespeare had an excellent knowledge of nature: knowledge of human nature. tragedies. and The Revenge of Bussy d’Ambois which are Senecan tragedies. He wrote for all classes of society. He finished Marlow’s Hero and Leander. It is a round theatre which is wooden and imitated from the style of inns. Jonson: “He was not of an age but for all time” It is said that Shakespeare never omitted any lines and Ben Jonson said “I wish he had blotted out a thousand lines”. An ordinary English person uses 450 words and expressions from Shakespeare. A French critic said “next to God. Shakespeare acted in Jonson’s ‘Everyman in His Humour’. Shakespeare has created most”.
17 urges the man to have a child so that there will be proof for Shakespeare’s verses about him. which says the Dark Lady is the bay where all men ride. Julius Caesar is a fall of prince tragedy. His works are meta-narrative (a language which is above human language). From sonnet 1 to 17 are about immortality through getting married and having children. So Dark Lady is the symbol of sexual desire rather than love. Angelic love to a young man. It is about Henry V and his funny friend Falstaff. Henry IV (4th). marriages. and no. From 127 to 152 is about the Dark Lady. He is a man of justice. histories and romances. All’s Well That Ends Well. tragic comedies. 73.Thomas Carlyle says Shakespeare is great in painting men and things. Is a romantic tragedy and about love at first sight. etc. Another one is 1st. immortality. change and immortality. death. love. Important sonnets: 18. and a diabolical love to a dark lady. The other theme of Shakespeare is beauty. A history play about Henry’s victory over the French. 2nd. 3rd and 4th period. He wrote The Merry Wives of Windsor (a continuation of Henry IV) in 14 days. It has been used in many movies. nature. It is said that the young man was a friend (friendship was a very important theme of Renaissance). They live a very wild life. He wrote The Taming of the Shrew. It is in two parts. It has the theme of disguise. which is a farce. death. It is about Helena. 130 (anti-Petrarchan). plays. 144. One classification of his works is comedy. It was popular and even the Queen loved it. tragedy. An important Shakespeare’s or Elizabethan theme is order. Sonnets He wrote 154 sonnets with the themes of love. It is about Brutus and Castille. change. and have been translated many times in many culture. Romeo and Juliet. 21 . A Mid-Summers Night Dream is a masque fantasy. The balcony scene is important. People love this very much. The most important about her is no. Henry V (5th). From sonnet 18 to 126 is about friendship. Its and education of prince play. wisdom and fortitude.
Othello: it is about a moor. The plot has been taken from Holinshed’s Chronicle. Chapman and Homer wrote it as well. The Merchant of Venice. Portia appears in disguise and solves the problem. It is a tragic comedy and about Shylock and Antonio. Regan. The two daughters mistreat the King. Edgar and Edmund. It is a revenge tragedy. It is also about the duty of children. The other theme is suffering restores greatness Another theme is order. So he brings and army of Volsicans Troilus and Cressida. It is about a disguised girl in search of her lover. Timon of Athens is his next work. Coriolanus who is proud. who becomes and enemy of Rome people. It starts with the witches. It is About mistaken identity. and Cordilia. There is a villain called Iago (‘motive hunting of motiveless malignity’). He goes mad and dies with Cordilia at the end. Macbeth: Tragedy of evil. The subplot from Sidnie’s Arcadia. It is a tragedy. It is a problem play about the war of sexes. “Chaos is come again” is a famous sentence from it. Anthony and Cleopatra. King Duncan comes to his palace 22 . He wrote Coriolanus which is about Mr. King Lear: It has two plots. Troilus is the son of knight of the Troy. Othello kills him.Much Ado About Nothing. vision and self-knowledge. Regan and Goneril get accepted in his love test. his wife and himself. King Lear and his three daughter Goneril. He wants to divide the country among his daughters. It is about revenge. Cymbeline is about Imogen who is the daughter of the King of England. Macbeth is a very successful General. The play is about anguish and jealousy. The tragic flaw of Macbeth is over-ambition. Theme: Moral blindness and false visions vs. Comedy of Errors. The Two Gentleman of Verona. He tells Othello that your wife has affair with Cassio. The love test and hot temper are the King’s flaws. It is a fall of prince tragedy. The Tragedy of Titus Andronicus. It is unfinished and is about the danger of excess and false friends. At the same time it is a story of Gloucester and his two sons.
So in the end Macbeth dies as well. The sleepwalking scene is important. It is taken from Holinshed’s Chronicle. The brother kills his brother.Metaphysical (Donne). Prospero. *** In the 17th century there were three important poetry schools. Hamlet is an intellectual. Prospero dwells on a deserted island and makes servants out of the ethereal spirit Ariel and the subhuman Caliban. It is a revenge tragedy. Hamlet procrastinates because he is torn between Anglo-Saxon (revenge) and Christian (forgiveness) tradition. It is said that he is our contemporary. When Miranda sees Ferdinand for the first time. moralist and wise. Hamlet is mad 2. the sole resident of the island. she says “Brave new world” because she hadn’t seen anybody but her father. 1. Prospero forgives Sebastian Cheerfulness in misfortune. The most famous soliloquy is from Hamlet (To be or not to be. 2. The world is mad 3. The uncle killed the father (what hamlet unconsciously desired).Cavelier (Ben Jonson). It is about degeneration of his moral nature. love and revenge tragedy. Themes: Nature and Nurture ()ﺗﺮﺑﻴﺖ Forgiveness. It is a fall of prince. He is a scapegoat. because in doing so he will kill himself.woman hater). Antonio’s son. Magic Some interpret it with a post-colonial approach. that’s the question). the Duke of Milan. He is Shakespeare. because he is not sure. moral intellect. It is a tragic hero and shows human corruptibility and lust for power.Spencerian (Milton). Hamlet: the most famous play in the world. He continues to isolate Ferdinand.and he kills the king because his wife tempts him. It shows how evil enters society. Prospero is a philosopher. He doesn’t take revenge. when the play opens. not action. who is absorbed in books and magic. He suffers from an Oedipus complex (misogynist. It is the story of Cane and Abel. It is about moral wills vs. 1. Hamlet is philosophical. Prospero causes tempests and shipwrecks. But later the wife feels guilty and kills herself. Hamlet procrastinates and he is misfit to live in world because this world is and “unwedded garden”. 3. His age is 23-30. 23 . He pretends to be mad The Tempest: It is Shakespeare’s last play. Prospero goes to an Island to make its inhabitants civilized. who falls in love with Miranda. It is a dramatic romance. He is also the symbol of Christ. and sails for Italy and leaves Caliban. With the tempest. He is a man of thought. Twelve years later. He does not kill his uncle. is expelled by his brother Antonio and cast adrift with his baby daughter Miranda in a leaky boat. Shakespeare said goodbye to writing. He frees Ariel.
It is argumentative. Oliver Cromwell became the Lord Protector (like a president). Oliver Cromwell died so his son who was a weak and inefficient became the Lord Protector. priest and writer of passionate love. The Prince. It violates decorum. But the parliament voted 24 . “Romantic by reason of an intense individuality”. Works: Valediction Forbidding Mourning. He writes erotic poetry.S. Oliver Cromwell. The comparisons are far-fetched. etc were forbidden. meta-physical conceit are used in it. In 1658. It is erotic (physical love). both religious and secular. Eliot wrote two essays about it. Charles I vs.Metaphysical poetry is the poetry of reason which mixes mind. It is very witty. He was the opposite of Spencer. In metaphysical poetry inventiveness. It is a reaction to smooth and sweet tone of 16th century poetry. His tone is colloquial. the most famous paradox of English literature. John Haywood is his grand-father. So they entered a war. They are usually humorous. Oliver Cromwell was a puritan (a strict version of Christianity). In 1648 Charles I was defeated and in 1649 he was beheaded. religious and secular. lawyer. John Donne (1572-1631) He is the best representative of metaphysical poetry. So people in reality weren’t very happy. body and soul. None of his works are faultless. Any form of entertainment such as too much laughing. The Flee Canonization Commonwealth Period = Civil War = Puritan Period 1500 1649 1660 The King. Metaphysical poetry was not famous until Girearson and compiled and anthology and T. It is harsh. The parliament wanted a hand in the government. Shock tactics. He was a lover. There are two groups of metaphysical poems. drinker. stylistic manoeuvres and fusion of thoughts and feelings play important roles. It is called energy poetry as well. theaters. colloquial language and above all. His holly sonnet is his number 10 “Death thou shal’t die”. It is called the poetry of long lines. rough language. poet. Charles I was challenged by the parliament for charging too much tax. direct address. Spencer’s poetry of gently and smooth. and intense. The meter is rough. Charles II escaped to Holland.
Charles I).for the return of Charles II (the same parliament which beheaded his father. Badman His works are allegorical. A man falls sleep and has a dream vision. John Milton (poetry) and John Bunyan. He caught pneumonia and died in 1688. Bunyan was a puritan preacher. Elizabeth made England a super power. It is a prose dream vision which is allegorical. which is a literature itself). In it. He was imprisoned for preaching. It is return of the Merry King (Charles II). It expresses the Puritan spirit and is very close to Everyman. The full name is Pilgrim’s Progress from this World to that which is to come. moral and humorous. John Bunyan (1628-188) wrote Pilgrim’s Progress. 1649 – 1660 is called Interregnum (no king). The story of the second book is the same. Christian travels from the city of destruction to the celestial city. He used a harsh language. translated under the monarchy of King James by 40 translators. In 1660 he became the king. Theaters were opened again. Pilgrim’s Progress is didactic. 1660 marks the end of the Renaissance. He was released in 1672 and was put in prison again in 1677. Mr. He travels in search of salvation. Mr. Christiana (the wife of Mr. Christian) and her children and a neighbor go on the same journey. His work is an important predecessor of the novel. Renaissance Augustan Romanticism 1550 1660 1700 1745 1798 1832 Victorian 1901 Restoration Age of sensibility In the Puritan Period there are two important names. 25 . He expresses the puritan spirit that this life is a preparation for the after life. He looked to the Bible (King James’s version. His next books are The Holy war Grace Abounding The life and death of Mr. She colonized many countries. He was great preacher and speaker of puritan period. John Donne revolted against the Elizabethans sonnets which were soft and smooth. He wrote 9 books in prison. It is translated to more than 100 languages and dialects. This book became popular and he was asked to write a second book. From 1660 to 1700 is Restoration Period. Literature was strengthened.
Some of them are Robert Herrick. pre-commonwealth England. His poetry is erotic as well. It is very sensual and physical and sexual. He discovered the gravity (falling of the apple). The first stanza starts with if. His world view is mechanistic and deterministic. he says there are rule in the world and you must discover them.Andrew Marvel (1621-1678). They opposed to metaphysical poets. They 26 . He discovered universal laws (what neoclassicists were after). They were associated with Charles I and Charles II. He was an ambassador thus knowing several languages. Sir John Suckling and Thomas Carew. He was satirist. It is ideal human. like that of John Donne. The cavalier poets were royalists. He was an opportunist. the second with but and the third with therefore. They wrote from 1637 to 1660. He also wrote on the death of Oliver Cromwell. The second half of the 17th century and 18th century are called the Age of Reason because of philosophy and Newton’s ideas. Their poetry was about upper class. His important themes are gender.S. “Universe is a gigantic machine governed by rules”. In simple language. Isaac Newton (1642-1727). He was the president of the Royal Society (a scientific center in England). He was the secretary of John Milton in Oliver Cromwell’s government. Richard Lovelace. death and sex. This poem in reality is about life is short and beauty of life. as well as love. He was in love with beauty. _____________________________________ Another important school was the Cavalier poetry. Their poetry was erotic and with Carpe Diem (seize the day) theme. His most famous work is To His Coy Mistress. T. Jonson. He wrote A Horation Ode upon Cromwell’s Return from Ireland. garden. It is the symbol of innocence and it symbolizes the Garden of Eden. He served Charles I. He wrote occasional poems (marriages and birthdays). “Universe is a clock work governed by rules”. Eliot: “He combines levity and seriousness” When asked about the civil war he said “I think the cause is was too good to have been fought for”. pamphleteer and puritan. He went to Cambridge. So he thought in terms of the universal laws. They favored short lyric poems. The other important poem is The Garden. It is a parody of courtly love and satirical love. Charles II and Oliver Cromwell. The structure is interesting. friendship and wine. They imitated B.
sonneteer. He wrote prose as well. He looked to the Bible because he was a puritan. It is about her beloved. are not about love. Il Penseroso= to think. He has a mock epic called grasshopper. It is an ode about the victory of baby Christ over pagan gods. His poetry weds the puritan spirit with that of the Renaissance. His works are divided into three periods. His next work is l’Allegro Il Penseroso. An important theme for them is Carpe Diem. they found eighty different quotations from writers of different languages such as Latin. cheerfulness. John Milton (608-1674) He is famous because of his Paradise Lost. He was imprisoned in 1660. To Lucosta is the famous book of Richard Lovelace (1618-1657). He was a lover of freedom and moral poetry. The end of Renaissance is called the age of Milton. His works fall into three periods 1. he wrote propaganda prose 3. His style is artificial. He is the greatest Renaissance poet. He was rich so he never worked. Lucosta means pure light.from 1640 to 1660. who when he went to war and didn’t return. Wordsworth said ‘Milton turned sonnet into a trumpet”. He said “a poet teaches … of liberty and purified religion”. He was very knowledgeable. On His Blindness is one of his sonnets.represented 17th century gentleman values. He wrote 23 sonnets. he lost his eyesight. He is called the master of grand style.he wrote short poems in Horton. courtier. He was very handsome and was called the lady of the Christ. He played the organ. He is the only English poet who wrote in grand style (difficult and complicated). the greatest epic in English literature.and from 1660 to 1674 he wrote his great long poems. He was a late Renaissance epic poet. a cavalier poet. For him sonnet was for propaganda. pamphleteer (or tracts on political. 27 . Their poems are simple and direct. In one of his notebooks. social and religious subjects). married someone else and didn’t wait for him. up to 1640 2. which except one or two. (l’Allegro= Happiness. Like Joyce and Homer. First period: he wrote On the Morning of Christ’s Nativity. the melancholic man). He is the last great Renaissance poet. He was the Latin secretary of Oliver Cromwell.
but he is very strong and the strength is in his long hair. an elegy. It is about the confrontation of virtue and evil. So this is the theme according to the epic itself. He wrote Comus (a masque). Third Period In this period he wrote Paradise Lost. He invented eye-witness. He wrote another pamphlet called Of Education. He favors humanistic education. Parallel’s Lost The theme is to justify the ways of God man. and Il Penseroso is about the pleasant of solitude.l’Allegro is about the joy of country life. It is about the story of Adam and Eve and expulsion of Satan from heaven. Samson Agonites is a …. drama (a play written to be read. It is a morality play with pastoral entertainment. Both the style and subject are grand. Book one is about Hell Book two is about Chaos Book three is about Heaven and Sun Book four is about Paradise Book five is about Paradise and War in Heaven 28 . It is a religious one.ﮐﺸﺘﯽ ﮔﻴﺮThe latter is about a blind biblical figure. written in blank verse in long complex sentences. He wanted to divorce his wife so he wrote it. Second Period: In this period he wrote the Doctrine and Principles of Divorce. about a friend who was drowned. He said he acted evilly under the name of religion. He wrote Arcadias which is a pastoral masque. It is an occasional poem. It is written in 13 thousand lines. The most famous pamphlet by him is Aeropagitica in which he says no to cloistered virtue. It is a pamphlet. He favors sophisticated innocence. He wrote Lycides. He created a new kind of English. He wrote Aeropagitica (about the freedom of expression and press). The setting is universe. Milton’s style is highly artificial. His wife betrays him and reveals the secret to the enemy. It is the greatest epic in English literature. Samson Agonistes )ﺷﻤﻌﻮن ( . That is because Milton was a puritan and for them theater was immoral. allusive and archaic and Latinate. He wrote Image Breaker (Iconoclastic) in which he broke the image of Charles I. He looks to the bible. who is imprisoned by the philistines of Gaza. Paradise Regained. It is an epic in 12 books. The language is strong. no performed).
The epic starts in Mediasres. 29 . Of the Tenure of Magistrate and Kings is a pamphlet which justifies tyrancide. He said Milton built a china wall against the blank verse and he said that Milton with his artificial style corrupted poetry. then by wealth and finally by glory. T. Charles II opened the theatres and brought actresses from France.Book six is about War in Heaven Book seven is about Creation Book eight is about Science. It is about Christ’s triple temptation. Blake said “Milton was of the devil’s party without knowing it”. but it was later revived by Oscar Wild. Commonwealth or puritan period Augustan Romantic 1649 1900-1901 1660 1945 Modern 1700 Restoration 1745 1798 1832 Victorian Age of sensibility Restoration is when the parliament restored the monarchy. His language is lofty and grandiloquent. Friction between Parliament and the King was ended. Eliot criticized Milton. The them is man’s disobedience lost paradise but Christ’s obedience will regain it.S. Milton and Bunyan are speakers of Puritan period in poetry and prose. respectively. Book nine is about The Fall Book ten is about Aftermath of the Fall Book eleven is about The Future Book twelve is about The future and the Expulsion. This comedy was accused of immorality and was replaced by comedy of sensibility in the 18th century. Themes of Restoration drama or comedy of manners are the behaviour of couples and sexual reactions. Neo-classical Period 1660-1798 End of civil war when Cromwell defeated Charles I and beheaded him. Stantey Fish in his “Surprised by Sin” says ambiguity of Milton’s syntax compels to recognize our fallen state. He will regain paradise because he resisted temptation. love and epics. Firstly by bread. He did “things” un-attempted yet in prose or rhyme. Then he wrote Paradise Regained which is in four books.
John Dryden (1631-1700). It is about religious toleration and reconciliation. In the Restoration. “Nature is the same in all places and reasons too. Yet the climate. He wrote Of Dramatick Poesy. Shadwell. He was the most representative of the Restoration. He became a poet laureate in 1668. Absalom of the bible is Monmouth. He wrote Aureng-Zebe. He was accused of opportunism. which is a play in blank verse with the theme of love vs. It is allegorical. There were two parties of Whig (labour) and Tory (conservatives) in his time. It is a reworking of Anthony and Cleopatra. honor. He praised Shakespeare. Dryden was neo-classicist. Satire was another important sub-genre in the neoclassical period. in which four critics are discussing the literature of time. who is Dryden himself. Virgil and parts of Horace and Ovid. the bastard son of King (Charles II). He is the best writer of the Restoration period. the age and the disposition of the people to which a poet writes is different” is a quotation from the book. He wrote in rhymed couplet. He excels his contemporaries in every field. It is about a struggle for empire in India. except that of comedy. He is the king of realm of stupidity. In this story Achitophel (of the bible) in Shaftsbury. He wrote Mac Flecknoe. His comedies satisfy the corrupt taste of the merry monarch’s court. dramatist. a verse allegory which uses the biblical story of Absalem’s rebellion against his father King David. King David of the bible is Charles II. He was the first modern critic. the third is Lisideius and the fourth one is Neander. He translated Juvenile. because that year fire of London and war with Holland 30 . It is a satire. Mr Gosse called him the strongest poet of the age of prose. It is the age of couplet. He defended the use of rhythm in drama. reason and satire. The wonderful of the title is 1666. a tragic comedy in blank verse about the king of Portugal. satirist. It is his best play. He wrote Annus Mirabilis. The Hind represents other sects of Christianity. He wrote it in 1667. He wrote Absalem and Achitophel. 1665 and 1666 was when the great fire of London and the great plague happened. He wrote All for Love. prose. One of them is Eugenius. The blank verse of the Renaissance was replaced by the couplet especially heroic couplet. He was a poet. It is an allegorical beast fable He wrote Don Sebastian. He was accused of opportunism. he was the greatest man. He wrote The Hind and The Panther. He is called the father English criticism. he attacks a rival and bad poet. They are comparing British and French drama. critic translator and founder of modern prose. the second is Crites. meaning the wonderful year. his last tragedy in rhymed couplets.
He is buried in Poet’s Corner of the Westminster Abbey. It is a comedy in blank verse. The Whigs gave a medal to Shaftsbury. Alexander’s feast. T. He was the best writer of comedy in Restoration. Jeremy Collier wrote ‘A short view of the immorality and profaneness of the English stage’ in which he attacked Congreve. The theme of it is: why should a foolish marriage vow. His other work is The Medal. He was a formalist. imitated and revived comedy of manners. Bacchus. Dryden satires this giving of medal. His comedies are witty as well. Congreve was a master of repartte (verbal fighting). meaning the “the faith of a layman”. It is about Alexander the Macedonian who set Persepolis on fire. but in this work he says that he did it because he was captivated by music of Thimothias and the God of wine. technician. His comedies deal with the world of passion. and seduction. In early modern comedy Oscar Wild. 3. They love other people’s husbands and wives. and he answered back by writing ‘Amendments of Mr. Another book is Fables Ancient and Modern. He is against deism (natural religion. and he unmasked the follies of the age. The Conquest of Granada is his other work. The masterpiece of Restoration comedy is the Way of the World written in 1700. He wrote Religio Laici. He has several famous odes 1. religion through reason). Saint Cecelia is the patron of music. The real story is that he did it because his wife tempted him. He attacks the Catholics (pope’s followers). They are about manners and their priority over morals. which is witty. 31 . William Congreve (1670-1729) Restoration was famous for immorality and it was about the life and immoralities of the upper class. He received his education in Trinity College. Marriage A-la-Mode is about a wife who does not love her husband and vice-versa.happened. by comedy. influenced by Molier (the French writer who had the most influence on British comedy). He says that the fire and the war were God’s test. not punishment. It is again about Saint Cecelia. courtship. He defended the Church of England against the Catholics. Eliot called it his best work. He wanted to inspire his fellow countryman.S. Collier’s False and Imperfect Citations’. Congreve was in fact England’s Mollier. A Song for Saint Cecelia’s Day. It consists of beaux and bells (fashionable gentleman and ladies). To Anne Killigrew 2.
She was a thief and prostitute. It is about a convicted pick pocket. journalist. cutting one of his ears. He wrote Double Dealer. She is on the edge of the society. It is a middle-class man of perseverance. It is again a kind of autobiography and it lacks a coherent plot. direct and colloquial. novelist. an individual who has stamina. a marriage which is not based on the ways of the world. He was the first writer to give a voice to the spirit of individualism and the sense of personal confrontation with the world that was to be typical of the emerging middle-class. Moll Flanders is about an old woman who has become old and repented. and in general of the shifting mobile society. etc. but falls in love with Silvia. ‘Grief walks upon the heels of pleasure’. Robinson Crusoe is about a man who is cast away in an island. He discovered the novel of incident. Moll Flanders was a picaresque (a novel of adventure on the road). It has a complex plot. an outsider. He was pilloried for 3 days for writing this pamphlet. in which characters such as Moll has to learn to survive. Another autobiography by him is Colonel Jack. once her own brother. In ‘Shortest Way with the Dissenters’ he proposed that the ‘dissenters’ be hanged. His first writings are autobiographical. 32 . His masterpiece is the Way of the World. They want to build a true marriage because marriages of those times were built around property and were called marriage of convenience. He wrote novels about an individual’s situation which was tangible to read. social historian and a secret agent (spy). He wrote Love for Love which is about Valentine and Vangelica. and narrowly escaped. His style was simple. She married 5 times. Heartwell who hates woman. which is falsehood and pretense. It is about colonising other countries and civilizing and converting them. which is about Mirabell who is in love with Millamant.The Old Bachelor is about Mr. the fictional ones turned into novels. It is about social optimism. the need to master and taming the nature and the importance of social living. Daniel Defoe (1660-1731) He was a pamphleteer. He was a traits man in outlook and morality. It is a praise of middle-class virtues and values. His Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain is a guide book. He was a dissenter. Defoe was not a member of Church of England. integrity. Defoe was very prolific and wrote more than 200 works. Virginia Woolf called it the best novel (it is liked by feminists). He is the first English novelist who wrote fictional lives.
He was not original. Four other wives come with their children claiming that he is their husband. ‘To copy nature is to copy ancients’. Alexander Pope (1688-1744) He is the best speaker of Neo-classicism period and is called Boileau (French neoclassicist) of England. He was socially pre-occupied and translated Horace and Homer. It drove the Italian opera from the English stage. He believed in imitation of the ancients. He was a satirist as well and his style was didactic. Lucy helps him escape. gambler. He believed in the poetry of common sense. Beggar. he wrote a sequel on it called ‘The Polly’. but he is arrested again. who is the leader of a gang of robbers and popular with woman. the warder of the prison. Peachum reports him and he is arrested. It is the story of lowlife in prison. drinker and inventor of ballad opera. There is a famous definition of wit by him: ‘True Wit is Nature to advantage dressed What oft was thought. He believed in nature as the pure standard of taste and judgement that should control all man’s artistic endeavours. In prison he finds Lucy. normalized and improved. dramatist. physically deformed. It became very popular. He is going to be hanged but the people tell Mr. Since it was popular. John Gay He is famous for writing the best 18th century drama called Beggar’s Opera (1728). He wrote ‘Moral Essays’ which is book of four essays about men and women characters. He was against extremes and originality. 33 . He was a poet. He was the best example of Augustan (height of neo-classicism) poetry.Novel started in 18th century. buyer of stolen goods. the narrator. why the poors are always hanged. The play satires the corruption of the governing class. He believed in nature methodized which means controlled. ‘Three Penny Opera’ by Brecht is an imitation of this opera. Macheath. It is about Newgate prison and Capt. Lockit. but ne'er so well expressed’ He was stoic. Pope was catholic. He secretly marries Polly who is the daughter of Peachum. ‘Dunciad’ is an attack on bad poets and his enemies. There are many ironies and humours in it and it is musical. daughter of Mr. So he changes the ending and Macheath goes and lives with Poly. self-educated and wrote in heroic couplets.
biographer and the greatest literary figure of the end of neo-classical period. dramatist. rational idea (deism). He is the poet of nature.‘Essay on Man’ is a didactic poem in heroic couplet. It is about beaux and bells. However the families became his enemy. critic. to put an end on enmity and quarrel of two families. but it seems that she is going on a war of Troy. Pope composed this poem in order to correct things and put an end to the quarrel. He wrote ‘Rosselas Prince of Abyssinia’. He imitated classical poetry. It was written in 5 parts with topical allusions. Hazlitt called it ‘the triumph of insignificance’. Second. It was written in four epistles. There are two purposes for this poem. It is didactic. ‘Vanity of Human Wishes’ is a satirical poem about vanity. It is 34 . he was influenced by Shaftsbury’s philosophy that God is a pure. ‘London’ is another satirical poem about the vanities and sins of London life. ‘Essay on Criticism’ is about the cannons of literary taste and style according to classical works of Aristotle and Quintilian (Italian Renaissance figure). The theme is: the disillusioning search after happiness. Pope in the middle and Johnson at the end. Dr. Man is fundamentally good and desires other’s happiness. The lady is preparing to go on a party near the river Thames. It is didactic. to make fun of fashionable society of the day. It is a simple work. ‘The Rape of the Lock’ is a mock epic (which has style of epic but has a low subject) in which there is a lady called Arabella and a man called Lord Petre. He says ‘Shakespeare is above all modern writers. 1. in heroic couplet. It is not an original work but sums up the philosophy of neo-classicism. It lacks a coherent plot. The Lives of the English Poet: It's a biography of 52 poems. He wrote a Dictionary of English language in two volumes. In this book. Johnson and Swift. He wants to justify the ways of God to man. English new classical criticism has Dryden at the beginning. essayist. He edited plays of Shakespeare and wrote a preface to it. He wrote in heroic couplets and followed Pope. It is a philosophical romance. Pope. First. In this game Lord Petre takes a string of her hair. who took a lock of Arabella’s hair which gave rise to a quarrel between the families. Dr. _____________________ There are four great names in neo-classical period: Dryden. the poet that holds up to its readers a faithful mirror of manner and life’. lexicographer. He was a Tory. 2. Samuel Johnson (1709-1784) He was a poet. She plays a card game which is described as a war.
be brought up until they are one year old and then sold out to be eaten. Gulliver who is a surgeon and on a merchant ship. ‘Now and then beasts may generate into man’. They try to poison him but he doesn’t die.based on a Persian story. In fact it is a book of essays on various subjects. The last chapter is called ‘A conclusion in which nothing is concluded’. He was a radical critic of the Augustan’s faith in human nature and man’s capacity for improvement. he was pessimist and misanthrope (man hater). Jonathan Swift (1667-1745) He is the greatest prose writer of the 18th century. The spider symbolizes the modern who make webs and the bee symbolizes the ancient who make honey out of nature. where he is arrested by the Lilliputians. and returns to his palace unsatisfied. Book one is in Lilliput Book two is in Brobdingnag Book three is in Laputa Book four is in Houyhnhnms In book one. It is an attack on human physique. In book two inhabitants of Brobdingnag are shocked by his shrewdness. takes his shipwreck to Island of Lilliput. He was a neo-classicist but had opposite idea. There is a fire in palace of the king and he urinates on the palace to put out the fire. ‘A Modest Proposal’ an ironic essay in which he proposes that the children of Ireland who are poor and have no future ahead of them and expensive to look after. There are a lot of descriptions of human body in it. technology and industrial revolution. Anglican Church and Roman Catholic Church. He was a cynic and attacked human nature and reversed the great chain of being by putting human beings lower than animals and called them ‘an animal capable of reason’. ‘A Tail of a Tub’ is about three brothers who inherit three pairs of suits and a will (the bible) from their father. Unlike other new classicists. Some famous questions from him: ‘all governments without consent of the governed are the very definition of slavery’. He goes in search of happiness and lives different kind of lives. but is not happy. Laputa in Spanish means 35 . Book three is set in Laputa. ‘The Battle of the Books’ is about St James’s Library were the ancients and moderns fight. It symbolizes conflict between British and French and different sects of Christianity. He was a bitter and savage satirist. a flying island made of science and technology. The plot is about a prince who has everything and lives in a valley. His master-piece is ‘Gulliver’s Travels’ in four books. They are in war with Blefuscu over how to break an egg. The pairs of suits symbolize different sects of Christianity: Calvinism. He was an original writer. He was Irish but believed that Ireland a place good enough to die in. It is a criticism of science.
They have servants called ‘Yahoos’. It is a satire on vices of human and human institutions. scientists are so mentally preoccupied with science that they forget to answer back in conversations. In this island. There is a lot of description of excretion and toilet in it. 36 . There are some people called ‘flappers’ who remind them about this. Then he goes back to his own country. The book is very pessimistic and nihilistic. and finds that he even hates his wife. He shows the evil human pride and is disillusioned about human mankind. Swift suffered from anal fixation.prostitute. who eat human beings. Book four is in country of clean and rational horses. It's a disillusionment of human being.
Augustine was set up but it was later burnt. From 1945 to the present is called post modernism. 37 . Boston Massacre Declaration of Independence (4th of July) British surrender and end of Revolutionary war. Minuit buys Manhattan Island for the Dutch and names it NewAmsterdam Slavery was made legal French and Indian (who fought for British) between England and France. American Literature Colonial or puritan period is 17th and 18th centuries. Transcendental or Romantic is first half of the 19th century. Who worked free of charge on plantations 1565: 1607: 1600-1776: 1619: 1626: 1650: 1754-1763: 1764-1766: 1770: 1773 1776: 1781: a town called St. 1787: 1789: 1800: In Philadelphia people like Washington and Adams wrote America’s constitution. Modernism is from 1900 or 1945 (between the two World Wars). EUROPE Wool Sugar How Europe Developed AFRICA CARRIBEAN COUNTRIES (New World) Slaves 10 millions slaves went to America in 340 years. George Washington was elected.American Literature 1492. Stamp act. Jamestown in Virginia was set up by English Colonial period First African slaves arrived in Jamestown Mr. First American president.Discovery of America. Tax was imposed on sugar and tea. Realism and Naturalism is second half of the 19th century.
Austria and Hungry.Follow the rules: It is the theory of Horace.1803: 1812: 1844: 1846-48: 1852: 1861: 1863: 1865: 1869: 1898: 1903-1914: 1908: 1919-1933: 1917-1919: 1929: 1941: 1945: 1950-53: 1953-1955: 1954: 1964: 1965-73: 1969: Louisiana was purchased by the French American war with British.Imitate the ancients 3. 38 . For example Arthur Miller was interrogated for writing The Crucible. There are several important key words in neoclassicism. saying studying the works of ancient will make you a poet. Laughter must be used to as a weapon to improve the society. The Panama Canal was built connecting Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Armstrong landed on the moon. Racial Segregation (separation of blacks and whites) in public schools was forbidden. Telegraph line was established between Washington and Baltimore. which triggered civil war between industrial north and slave The Civil war began. Anyone who was related to communism was imprisoned or killed. forbidding discrimination in voting and jobs. Civil Rights act was passed in congress. Henry Ford introduced the Model T car. Puerto Rico and Guam and America emerged as a super-power. The Americans defeated the Spanish and took control of the Philippines. Russia and America against Germany. War with Mexico Uncle Tom’s Cabin was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe. France. Great depression. 2. to attack McCarthy. Spanish-American war started. America bombarded Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Wall Street crashed leading to unemployment. Neo-classicism (1660-1798) The first neo-classicist in English literature is B.Literature for the sake of the society to improve it (writing satire). America joined World War I. Allies were Britain. It is end of World War I and America is a super-power. Korean War. Japan attacked Pearl Harbour in Hawaii. Senator McCarthy started McCarthyism. The Whitehouse was burnt by the British. in mass production (cost around $850). So it means one should follow the past to become a poet. President Lincoln freed most of the slaves The civil war ended with southerners defeated. It is a very important feature. Lincoln was assassinated. The Vietnam War. 1. The Prohibition act (of alcohol) was passed which lead to mafias and godfathers. The railroad connecting east and west coast was completed. Orientals was written by Edward Saeed. Jonson.
Dryden is the greatest restoration writer. a person must be trained to become a poet. Literature of the head. Another feature of it was decorum: the fitness of subject and style. The second half of the 18th century is called age of reason. Boileau. They believe in conventions and forms. He added nothing. 39 . Blank verse was replaced by heroic couplet which was simple. He is the writer who summed up rules and doctrines of neoclassical period. The neo-classicists interested in nature as rules and standards for judgement. Novel was born in the neo-classical period. He is the first great critic of English literature. formed. “Nature methodised”. especially by the French writer. Literature should instruct and correct the society. a deformed man. The other feature is that literature must give pleasure and delight. There was a drama called sentimental drama called sentimental drama appealing emotions which replaced comedy of manners. Alexander Pope. not heart. Dr. direct and brief. shaped and regulated. in contrast with Romantic literature which is subjective. Shakespeare and Horace’s works are important for them. “Whatever is is right” said Alexander Pope. Johnson and Jonathan Swift. Periodicals. One of the most important features is reason: literature. The other name for this period is Age of Prose. life and even religion which is rational. Enlightenment: Reason is enough to guide you through your life. novels and satires emerged. but summed up what was said before him.The greatest writers of this period are Dryden. Neo-classical literature is objective. Simplicity and clarity are among other features. According to neo-classical period. It was age of optimism. You must prune your readers and teach morality. It means a nature which is cut. which was also important in Renaissance.
He wrote the first trilogy in American Literature. The setting is the war between British and French. He also wrote ‘The Last of the Mohicans’ which is the second book of The Leather Stocking Tales. He was the first true American novelist. about a man who fell asleep in the woods for 20 years. His works are usually about English lives and customs. 40 . The third book is called The Freri. It is about a legendary headless horseman. His famous works is ‘A Legend of Sleepy Hollow’. He wrote ‘The Alhambra’. He has a trilogy which consists of Bravo. based on the style of Addison and Goldsmith. poet. He has a book called The Sketch Book. It is a romance between Uncas (an Indian man) and Corae (a white girl). when he was in Spain. and Uncas is the last of the Mohicans. Washington so he was named after him. Heindermauer and the Headsman. His style is popular and elegant. and ‘The Conquest of Granada’. He wrote ‘A History of New York’ which is comic. He was a short story writer. He is the first American short story writer.Washington Irving (1783-1859) He was a knickerbockers writer (writers in New York from 1810-1840). His parents loved G. frontier and sea. biographer and columnist. He was born in New York City and had 10 brothers and sisters. He wrote ‘A History of Christopher Columbus’. the fourth one is The Path Finder and the fifth one is The Deer Slayer. He was a US Minister in Madrid. He wrote the first sea novel of American culture ‘The Pirate’. which has 35 short stories. travel-book writer. It is an action novel. The setting is Spanish. He wrote the five volume epic called ‘The Leather Stocking Tales’. It is based on a Greek folk tale. James Fennimore Cooper (1789-1851) He is called the American Walter Scott (British romantic novelist). He is the ideal man of democracy. The other famous short story by him is Rip Van Winkle. His themes are American society and history. He lived in England. France and Spain. He has a book called Gleanings in Europe about his travels to Europe. The first volume of it is The Pioneers. essayist. the protagonist of which is Natty Bumppo.first American to be recognized abroad.
41 . There is always a constant internal conflict. His characters are in conflict with guilt (guilt complex). poet. American Scholar. ‘To be great is to be misunderstood’. Friendship. according to Oedipus complex. sinful and corrupt. Man can transcend it only by accepting its reality and in Hawthorne this often means a withdrawal into isolation as a way to both tenants and self discovery’. My Kinsman Major Molineaux is about Robin who goes to a town to see a relative who is high ranking man. He is the first American psychological novelist. The theme of Young Goodman Brown: Man is by nature evil. ‘Whose soul would be a man must be a non-conformist’ (famous quotations). An important concept for transcendentalists is oversoul. Man is a stream whose source is hidden. Art. ‘We must free ourselves from the grip of tradition’. He believed that human relations to nature should transcend the idea of usefulness. “The past is inescapable and sin is omnipresent. It is romanticism. There are two groups of transcendentalists. Emerson and Thoreau believe in social reform and people like Whitman believe in individualism. His works are gothic. Prudence. and a religion by revelation to us. philosopher. not tradition. It is influenced by eastern mysticism. He becomes happy because his relative is degraded. but optimistic and influenced by eastern mysticism (like Sepehri). Emerson believes in poetry and the philosophy of insight. The Over Soul. Emerson was a spiritual teacher. essayist and lecturer. It means the unity within which every man’s particular being is contained and made one with all things.Ralph Waldo Emerson (1803-1882) He was a transcendentalist. The boy wanted to get rid of authority of his father and his uncle. Intellect. He sees tat he is feathered and bursts into a belly laughter. Heroism. so transcendentalism is optimist. Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) He wan an American novelist and short story writer. ‘Never read any book that is not but a year old’. He was born in Salem village which was the centre of Puritanism and witchcraft. symbolic and allegorical. Some of his essays are Self Reliance. The major theme of Hawthorne is guilt.
‘Leaves of Grass’ is a transcendental work. Famous poems from Leave of Grass are ‘O Captain My Captain’. are his important works. and his autobiographical work. ‘When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom’d’. He was an abolitionist and against slavery. He was put into prison for not paying tax. two months. and ‘Song of Myself’. The Minister’s Black Veil and The Great Stone Face. Henry David Thoreau (1817-186) He was a transcendentalist and is famous for his Civil Disobedience. He lived a mystic life. It details Thoreau's life for two years. Walden Walden is neither a novel nor a true autobiography. ‘Leaves of Grass’ is the most influential book of poetry in American literature with long sentences and unconventional style. he gives an account of his everyday life and criticizes American society. Waldo. which triggered Civil Disobedience. He is the American national poet. The former affected Ghandi and Luther King. Walt Whitman (1819-1892) He is the most famous and greatest American poet who is very American (democratic. Poe referred to it when he introduced his sing effect theory. Thoreau examines other issues afflicting man in society raging from economy and reading to solitude and higher laws. His most important work is Scarlet Letter. two days in Walden. Rappaccini’s Daughter. The book is about virtue and against materialism. Hawthorne is one of the first short story writers together with Poe.) The poem which summarizes him is Leaves of Grass. In the latter he says people must resist to governments that are more harmful than helpful and therefore not justified.‘Twice Told Tales’ is one of his short stories which is important in literature. He was an anarchist. so we can say it's against materialism. They put an A letter on Hester’s chest. 2 months and 2 days. His works are explorations of moral and spiritual conflicts. but a social critique of the Western World. which 42 . He went to Waldo pond in the forest for 2 year. individualistic etc. The House of Seven Gables. In it. who has committed adultery.
In short story he introduced the idea of single effect. His most famous poem is ‘The Raven’. He was alcoholic as well. critic. In fact. He was a poet. In his works. Some famous quotations: ‘the ultimate purpose of art is aesthetics’. This extremely long poem announces all of the major themes of Whitman's work. 43 . Song of Myself is his masterpiece. Self is a key word in his works. surrealism and psychological fiction. He was the forerunner of ‘art for art’s sake’.ends with the transcendental idea of self. He influenced French symbolism. Edgar Allan Poe (1809-1849) He is one of the first short story writers. it's a development of the theory of "Over-soul". He was a gothic writer as well. who with Hawthorne are the fathers of short story which is an American genre. you can see preoccupation with death (death fixation). His themes are terror. Raven is the symbol of melancholy which is the philosophy of composition. novelist and essayist. guilt and death. short story writer. symbolism. ‘Poetry is the rhythmic creation of beauty’. He is the father of detective story. So we can call Poe a romantic figure as well.
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