ISO SAP022811M6 Rev.

0 Version 15
Berkeley, California, USA February 2010

Automated
Lateral Loads Manual
For SAP2000










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Copyright  Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2011
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TM
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DISCLAIMER
CONSIDERABLE TIME, EFFORT AND EXPENSE HAVE GONE INTO THE
DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF THIS SOFTWARE. HOWEVER, THE USER
ACCEPTS AND UNDERSTANDS THAT NO WARRANTY IS EXPRESSED OR
IMPLIED BY THE DEVELOPERS OR THE DISTRIBUTORS ON THE ACCURACY
OR THE RELIABILITY OF THIS PRODUCT.

THIS PRODUCT IS A PRACTICAL AND POWERFUL TOOL FOR STRUCTURAL
DESIGN. HOWEVER, THE USER MUST EXPLICITLY UNDERSTAND THE BASIC
ASSUMPTIONS OF THE SOFTWARE MODELING, ANALYSIS, AND DESIGN
ALGORITHMS AND COMPENSATE FOR THE ASPECTS THAT ARE NOT
ADDRESSED.

THE INFORMATION PRODUCED BY THE SOFTWARE MUST BE CHECKED BY
A QUALIFIED AND EXPERIENCED ENGINEER. THE ENGINEER MUST
INDEPENDENTLY VERIFY THE RESULTS AND TAKE PROFESSIONAL
RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE INFORMATION THAT IS USED.


i
Contents
Automated Lateral Loads
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 About the Manual 1-1
1.2 Technical Support 1-2
1.3 Help Us Help You 1-2
1.4 Telephone Support 1-3
1.5 Online Support 1-3
Chapter 2 Automatic Seismic Loads
2.1 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns 2-2
2.2 Automatic Seismic Load Patterns 2-3
2.2.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads
at a Story Level 2-3
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
ii
2.2.2 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity 2-3
2.2.3 Story/Elevation Range Data 2-4
2.3 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-5
2.3.1 Options for 1997 UBC Building Period 2-5
2.3.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-6
2.3.3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-7
2.4 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 2-10
2.4.1 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-10
2.4.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building
Seismic Loads 2-12
2.5 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2-13
2.5.1 Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period 2-13
2.5.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-15
2.5.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2-15
2.6 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-17
2.6.1 Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period 2-17
2.6.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-18
2.6.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-19
2.7 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-21
2.7.1 Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period 2-21
2.7.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-22
2.7.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-23
2.8 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-26
2.8.1 Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period 2-26
2.8.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-27
2.8.3 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2-28
2.9 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2-31
2.9.1 Options for 2003 IBC Building Period 2-31
2.9.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-32
2.9.3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2-33
2.10 2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2-36
2.10.1 Options for 2006 IBC Building Period 2-36
2.10.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-37
2.10.3 Algorithm for 2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2-38
2.11 2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2-41
2.11.1 Options for 2009 IBC Building Period 2-41
2.11.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-42
2.11.3 Algorithm for IBC2009/ASCE 7-05 Seismic
Loads 2-44
2.12 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2-47
2.12.1 Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period 2-47
2.12.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-48
2.12.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2-49
Contents
iii
2.13 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2-52
2.13.1 Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period 2-52
2.13.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-53
2.13.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2-53
2.14 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads 2-56
2.14.1 Options for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Building Period 2-56
2.14.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-56
2.14.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic
Loads 2-57
2.15 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2-59
2.15.1 Options for 2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period 2-59
2.15.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-60
2.15.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2-61
2.16 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads 2-63
2.16.1 Options for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period 2-63
2.16.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2-64
2.16.3 Algorithm for EN 1998-1:2004 Seismic Loads 2-64
2.17 User Defined Seismic Loads 2-65
2.17.1 Input Factors and Coefficients 2-65
2.17.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads 2-65
2.18 Response Spectrum Functions 2-66
2.18.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File 2-67
2.18.2 User-Defined Response Spectrum Functions 2-69
2.18.3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions 2-69
Chapter 3 Automatic Wind Loads
3.1 Defining Automatic Wind Load Patterns 3-2
3.2 Automatic Wind Load Patterns 3-3
3.2.1 Exposure 3-3
3.2.2 Wind Exposure Parameters 3-4
3.2.3 Wind Exposure Height 3-5
3.3 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3-7
3.3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-7
3.3.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3-7
3.4 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3-10
3.4.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-10
3.4.2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3-11
3.5 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3-14
3.5.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-14
3.5.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3-14
3.6 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3-17
3.6.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-17
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
iv
3.6.2 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3-17
3.7 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3-20
3.7.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-20
3.7.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3-20
3.8 2010 NBCC Wind Loads 3-23
3.8.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-23
3.8.2 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Wind Loads 3-23
3.9 ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3-26
3.9.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-26
3.9.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3-27
3.10 ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3-30
3.10.1 Input Exposure 3-30
3.10.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3-32
3.11 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3-38
3.11.1 Input Exposure 3-38
3.11.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3-40
3.12 ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3-45
3.12.1 Input Exposure 3-45
3.12.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3-47
3.13 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3-52
3.13.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-52
3.13.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3-53
3.14 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3-54
3.14.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3-54
3.14.2 Input Wind Coefficients 3-55
3.14.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3-55
3.15 2008 API 4F Wind Loads 3-57
3.15.1 Input Exposure 3-57
3.15.2 Algorithm for API 4F-2008 Wind Loads 3-58
3.16 2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-14) Wind Loads 3-61
3.16.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-61
3.16.2 Algorithm for EN 1991-1-1:2005 Wind Loads 3-62
3.17 2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads 3-67
3.17.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-67
3.17.2 Algorithm for AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads 3-68
3.18 User-Defined Wind Loads 3-73
References

Introduction 1 - 1
Chapter 1
Introduction
SAP2000, ETABS, and CSiBridge are extremely powerful and productive
structural analysis and design programs, partially due to the high level of intel-
ligence embedded within the software. What this means is that many of the ca-
pabilities are highly automated, allowing the user to create and analyze the
models in such a way that is both natural and efficient for a structural engineer.
This manual seeks to explain the logic behind the automated lateral load gen-
eration so that users can gain greater insight into the behavior of the programs,
and hence, greater confidence in their models and analyses.
1.1 About the Manual
The next chapter will show how seismic loads are generated for various codes,
including a detailed discussion of the algorithms used. Chapter 3 does the same
for automatic wind loads, again describing both the forms used and the accom-
panying algorithms.
It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applica-
ble “Watch & Learn” Series tutorials before attempting to use the automated
features of the software. Additional information can be found in the on-line
Help facility available from within the program’s main menu.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
1 - 2 Technical Support
1.2 Technical Support
Free technical support is available from Computers and Structures, Inc. (CSI)
or your dealer via telephone and e-mail for 90 days after the software has been
purchased. After 90 days, priority technical support is available only to those
with a yearly Support, Upgrade and Maintenance plan (SUM). Customers who
do not have a current SUM subscription can obtain technical support, but via e-
mail only and at the non-priority level. Please contact CSI or your dealer to in-
quire about purchasing a yearly SUM subscription.
If you have questions regarding use of the software, please:
 Consult this documentation and other printed information included with
your product.
 Check the on-line Help facility in the program.
If you cannot find an answer, then contact us as described in the sections that
follow.
1.3 Help Us to Help You
Whenever you contact us with a technical support question, please provide us
with the following information to help us help you:
 The version number that you are using. This can be obtained from inside
the program using the Help menu > About command in SAP2000 and
ETABS or the Orb > Resources > Help command in CSiBridge.
 A description of your model, including a picture, if possible.
 A description of what happened and what you were doing when the prob-
lem occurred.
 The exact wording of any error messages that appeared on your screen.
 A description of how you tried to solve the problem.
 The computer configuration (make and model, processor, operating sys-
tem, hard disk size, and RAM size).
Chapter 1 - Introduction
Telephone Support 1 - 3
 Your name, your company’s name, and how we may contact you.
1.4 Telephone Support
Priority phone support is available to those with a current SUM subscription
from CSI or your dealer. For users in North America, you may contact CSI via
a toll call between 8:30 A.M. and 5:00 P.M., Pacific Time, Monday through
Friday, excluding U.S. holidays, at (510) 649-2200.
When you call, please be at your computer and have the program manuals at
hand.
1.5 Online Support
Online support is available by:
 Sending an e-mail and your model file to support@csiberkeley.com.
 Visiting CSI’s web site at http://www.csiberkeley.com and using the
Support link to submit a request for technical support.
If you send us e-mail, be sure to include all of the information requested in the
previous “Help Us to Help You” section.

Automatic Seismic Loads 2 - 1
Chapter 2
Automatic Seismic Loads
This chapter documents the automatic seismic lateral static load patterns that
can be generated. Automatic seismic loads can be generated in the global X
or global Y directions for the following codes:
 1997 UBC
 1997 UBC Isolated Building
 1996 BOCA
 1995 NBCC
 2005 NBCC
 2010 NBCC
 2003 IBC
 2006 IBC
 2009 IBC
 1997 NEHRP
 2002 Chinese
 2004 NZS 1170.4
 2007 AS 1170.4
 2004 Eurocode 8
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 2 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns
2.1 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns
The automatic seismic static load patterns are defined using the Define menu
> Load Patterns command in SAP2000 and ETABS or the Loads > Load
Patterns > Load Patterns command in CSiBridge. Those commands dis-
play the Define Load Patterns form. Use that form to specify a name for the
load pattern, the type of load, a self-weight multiplier, and in some instances,
specify that the load is an Auto Lateral Load Pattern.
When the load type is specified as Quake, the Auto Lateral Load drop-down
list becomes active; use the list to choose any of the codes identified in the
preceding section. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the
Quake load will not be an automatic lateral load.
If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list, when you click the Add
New Load Pattern or Modify Load Pattern button, the load pattern is add-
ed to the model using default settings that are based on the selected code. To
review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load, highlight the
load in the Load list and click the Modify Lateral Load Pattern button.
Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load pattern. That is,
two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same
load pattern. However, additional user defined loads can be added to a load
pattern that includes an automatic static lateral load.
A separate automatic static load pattern must be defined for each direction,
and, in the case of seismic loading, for each eccentricity that is to be consid-
ered. For example, to define automatic seismic lateral loads based on the
1997 UBC for X-direction load with no eccentricity, X-direction load with
+5% eccentricity, and X-direction load with –5% eccentricity, three separate
load patterns must be defined.
Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are
not calculated until an analysis has been run. Thus, you cannot view the re-
sultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Automatic Seismic Load Patterns 2 - 3
2.2 Automatic Seismic Load Patterns
The forms defining the automatic seismic loads consist of various data sec-
tions, some of which are dependent upon the direction of the loading.
Some of the direction-dependent data is common to all of the codes. This in-
cludes the direction and eccentricity data and the story/elevation range data.
These data are described in the subsections that follow because they are ap-
plicable to all codes. Other direction-dependent data, including building pe-
riod information and other factors, and coefficients and the non-direction-
dependent factors and coefficients are described separately for each code lat-
er in this chapter.
The weight of the structure used in the calculation of automatic seismic loads
is based on the specified mass of the structure.
2.2.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads at a Story
Level
The method that the program uses to calculate the seismic base shear and the
associated story lateral forces is documented separately for each code later in
this chapter. After the program has calculated a force for each level based on
the automatic seismic load pattern, that force is apportioned to each point at
the level elevation in proportion to its mass.
2.2.2 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity
Use the direction and eccentricity data to choose the Global X or Global Y
direction of load and the eccentricity associated with the load pattern for all
diaphragms.
To apply an eccentricity, specify a ratio eccentricity that is applicable to all
diaphragms. The default ratio is 0.05. The eccentricity options have meaning
only if the model has diaphragms—the programs ignore eccentricities where
diaphragms are not present.
Where diaphragms are present, the programs calculate a maximum width of
the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading. This
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 4 Automatic Seismic Load Patterns
width is calculated by finding the maximum and minimum X or Y coordi-
nates (depending on direction of load considered) of the points that are part
of the diaphragm constraint and determining the distance between these max-
imum and minimum values.
After the appropriate diaphragm width has been determined, a moment is ap-
plied that is equal to the specified ratio eccentricity times the maximum
width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading
times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. This moment is applied
about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the eccentricity.
When defining eccentricities, click the Override button to override the ec-
centricity for any diaphragm at any level. Thus, it is possible to have differ-
ent eccentricity ratios at different levels. Note that when the eccentricities are
overridden, an actual distance from the center of mass of the rigid dia-
phragm, not a ratio, must be input.
When the eccentricities have been overridden, the eccentric moment is calcu-
lated as the specified eccentricity distance times the total lateral force applied
to the diaphragm. This moment is again applied about the diaphragm center
of mass to account for the eccentricity.
2.2.3 Story/Elevation Range Data
In the Story/Elevation range data, specify a top story/maximum elevation and
a bottom story/minimum elevation. This specifies the elevation range over
which the automatic static lateral loads are calculated.
In most instances, the top elevation would be specified as the uppermost lev-
el in the structure, typically the roof in a building. However, in some cases, it
may be advantageous to specify a lower elevation as the top level for auto-
matic seismic loads. For example, if a penthouse is included in a building
model, the automatic lateral load calculation likely should be based on the
building roof level, not the penthouse roof level, as the top elevation, with
additional user-defined load added to the load pattern to account for the
penthouse.
The bottom elevation typically would be the base level, but this may not al-
ways be the case. For example, if a building has several below-grade levels
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2 - 5
and it is assumed that the seismic loads are transferred to the ground at
ground level, it would be necessary to specify the bottom elevation to be
above the base level.
Note that no seismic loads are calculated for the bottom story/minimum ele-
vation.
2.3 1997 UBC Seismic Loads
2.3.1 Options for 1997 UBC Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
1997 UBC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Method A: Calculate the period based on the Method A period discussed
in Section 1630.2.2 of the 1997 UBC. The period is calculated using
1997 UBC Eqn. 30-8. The value used for C
t
is user input, and h
n
is de-
termined from the level heights.
( )
3 4
A t n
T C h = (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-8)
Note that the item C
t
is always input in English units as specified in the
code. A typical range of values for C
t
is 0.020 to 0.035. The height h
n
is
measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum
elevation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation
level.
 Program Calculated: The program starts with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. The program
also calculates a period based on the Method A period discussed in Sec-
tion 1630.2.2 of the 1997 UBC. The period is calculated using 1997
UBC Eqn. 30-8. The value used for C
t
is user input, and h
n
is determined
from the level heights. Call this period T
A
. The building period, T, that
the program chooses depends on the seismic zone factor, Z.
- If Z > 0.35 (Zone 4) then:
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 6 1997 UBC Seismic Loads
– If T
mode
s 1.30T
A
, then T = T
mode
.
– If T
mode
> 1.30T
A
, then T = T
A
.
- If Z < 0.35 (Zone 1, 2 or 3) then:
– If T
mode
s 1.40T
A
, then T = T
mode.

– If T
mode
> 1.40T
A
, then T = T
A
.
 User Defined: With this option, the user inputs a structure period, which
the program uses in the calculations. The program does not compare the
period to the Method A period. It is assumed that this comparison has
been completed before the period is specified.
2.3.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The overstrength factor, R, and the force factor, O, are direction dependent.
Both are specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-N. A typical range of values for R
is 2.8 to 8.5. A typical range of values for O is 2.2 to 2.8.
The seismic coefficients C
a
and C
v
can be determined in accordance with the
code or they can be user-defined. If C
a
and C
v
are user-defined, specify val-
ues for them. A typical range of values for C
a
is 0.06 to 0.40 and larger if the
near source factor N
a
exceeds 1.0. A typical range of values for C
v
is 0.06 to
0.96 and larger if the near source factor N
v
exceeds 1.0.
If C
a
and C
v
are determined in accordance with code, specify a soil profile
type and a seismic zone factor. The programs then use these parameters to
determine C
a
from 1997 UBC Table 16-Q and C
v
from 1997 UBC Table 16-
R.
The soil profile type can be S
A
, S
B
, S
C
, S
D
or S
E
. These correspond to soil types
S
A
, S
B
, S
C
, S
D
and S
E
in Table 16-J of the 1997 UBC. No other values can be
input. Note that soil profile type S
F
is not allowed for the automatic 1997
UBC seismic loads.
The seismic zone factor, Z, is restricted to one of the following values, as
specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-I: 0.075, 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, or 0.4.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2 - 7
Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-Q the C
a
value for Z = 0.4 has an additional
factor, N
a
. Similarly, in 1997 UBC Table 16-R, the C
v
value for Z = 0.4 has
an additional factor, N
v
. The values for the near source factors, N
a
and N
v
, can
be determined in accordance with the code or they can be user-defined. If N
a

and N
v
are user-defined, specify values for them. If they are determined in
accordance with code, specify a seismic source type and a distance to the
closest known seismic source. On the basis of the input for seismic source
type and distance to the source, the programs determine N
a
from 1997 UBC
Table 16-S and N
v
from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. The programs use linear
interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC
Tables 16-S and 16-T.
The seismic source type can be A, B, or C. These correspond to seismic
source types A, B, and C in Table 16-U of the 1997 UBC. No other values
can be input.
The distance to the closest known seismic source should be input in kilome-
ters (km).
The seismic importance factor, I, can be input as any value. See 1997 UBC
Table 16-K. Note that the value from Table 16-K to be input for automatic
seismic loads is I, not I
p
or I
w
. A typical range of values for I is 1.00 to 1.25.
2.3.3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads is based on Chapter
16, Section 1630.2 of the 1997 UBC. A period is calculated as described in
the previous section entitled "Options for 1997 UBC Building Period."
Initially the total design base shear, V, is calculated using (1997 UBC Eqn.
30-4). This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in
(1997 UBC Eqns. 30-5, 30-6 and 30-7) and modified as necessary to obtain
the final base shear.
v
C I
V W
RT
= (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4)
where,
C
v
= 1997 UBC seismic coefficient, C
v
.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 8 1997 UBC Seismic Loads
I = Importance factor.
R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N.
T = Building period.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The total design base shear, V, need not exceed that specified in (1997 UBC
Eqn. 30-5). If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.
30-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-5), the
base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.
30-5).
2 5
a
. C I
V W
R
= (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-5)
where,
C
a
= 1997 UBC seismic coefficient, C
a
.
and all other terms are as described for (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4).
The total design base shear, V, cannot be less than that specified in (1997
UBC Eqn. 30-6). If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC
Eqn. 30-6) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-
4), the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997
UBC Eqn. 30-5).
V = 0.11C
a
I W (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-6)
where all terms are as previously described for (1997 UBC Eqns. 30-4 and
30-5).
Finally, if the building is in seismic Zone 4, the total design base shear, V,
cannot be less than that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7). If the building is
in seismic Zone 4 and the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997
UBC Eqn. 30-7) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC
Eqns. 30-5 and 30-6), the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accor-
dance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7).
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2 - 9
0.8
v
ZN I
V W
R
= (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7)
where,
Z = Seismic zone factor (0.40).
N
v
= Near source factor, N
v
.
I = Importance factor.
R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
Note that the programs check (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) only if the seismic co-
efficients, C
a
and C
v
, are determined in accordance with the code and the
seismic zone factor Z is specified as 0.40. If the C
a
and C
v
coefficients are
user specified, (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) is never checked.
Note that the weight, W, that is used in (1997 UBC Eqns. 30-4 through 30-7)
is derived from the building mass.
The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top
elevation/story and forces applied at each level/story in accordance with
(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13):
n
t story
story 1
V F F
=
= +
¿
(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13)
where,
V = Building base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the building.
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
n = Number of story levels in the building.
The concentrated force at the top of the building, F
t
, is calculated as shown in
(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14):
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 10 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads
T . F
T . F . TV . V
s =
> = s
t
t
If 0 7 sec, then 0
If 0 7 sec, then 0 07 0 25
(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14)
where,
T = Building period.
V = Building base shear.
The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − F
t
), is distributed over the
height of the structure in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn 30-15):
( )
story story
story n
story story
story 1
t
V F w h
F
w h
=
÷
=
¿
(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-15)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the structure.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.4 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads
2.4.1 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
For 1997 UBC isolated building seismic loads, the bottom story or minimum
elevation should be input as the story at the top of the isolators.
The overstrength factor, R
i
, is direction dependent. It relates to the structure
above the isolation interface. It is specified in 1997 UBC Table A-16-E,
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 2 - 11
which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for
R
i
is 1.4 to 2.0.
The coefficient for damping, B
D
, is direction dependent. It should be speci-
fied based on an assumed effective damping using 1997 UBC Table A-16-C,
which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for
B
D
is 0.8 to 2.0.
The maximum effective stiffness and minimum effective stiffness items refer
to the maximum and minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system (not
individual isolators) at the design displacement level (not the maximum dis-
placement level). They correspond to the terms K
Dmax
and K
Dmin
, respectively,
in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV.
The seismic coefficient C
vD
can be determined in accordance with the code or
it can be user defined. If C
vD
is user defined, simply specify a value for it. A
typical range of values for C
vD
is 0.06 to 0.96 and larger if the near source
factor N
v
exceeds 1.0.
If C
vD
is determined in accordance with the code, specify a soil profile type
and a seismic zone factor. On the basis of the input soil profile type and a
seismic zone factor, the programs determine C
vD
from 1997 UBC Table 16-R,
which is in Chapter 16, not Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV.
Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-R, the C
v
value for Z = 0.4 has an additional
factor, N
v
. The value for this near source factor, N
v
, can be determined in ac-
cordance with the code or it can be user defined. If N
v
is user defined, simply
specify a value for it. If it is determined in accordance with the code, specify
a seismic source type and a distance to the closest known seismic source. On
the basis of the input seismic source type and distance to the source, the pro-
grams determine N
v
from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. The programs use linear
interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC
Table 16-T.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 12 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads
2.4.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic
Loads
The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads for isolated build-
ings is based on Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV, Sections 1658.3 and
1658.4 of the 1997 UBC.
The effective period at the design displacement, T
D
, is determined from
(1997 UBC Eqn. 58-2).
min
D
D
W
T 2
k g
= t (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-2)
where,
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
k
Dmin
= Minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system at the design
displacement.
g = Gravity constant, (e.g., 386.4 in/sec
2
, 9.81 m/sec
2
, etc.).
The design displacement at the center of rigidity of the isolation system, D
D
,
is determined from (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-1).
vD D
2
D
D
g
C T
4
D
B
| |
|
\ .
=
t
(1997 UBC Eqn. 58-1)
where,
g = Gravity constant, (e.g., 386.4 in/sec
2
, 9.81 m/sec
2
, etc.).
C
vD
= Seismic coefficient, C
vD
.
T
D
= Effective period at the design displacement.
B
D
= Coefficient for damping.
The base shear, V
s
, is calculated from (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-8).
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 - 13
D D
s
I
k D
V
R
=
max
(1997 UBC Eqn. 58-8)
Note that (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-8) gives a force level that is applicable for the
structure above the isolation system. To use a force level that is applicable to
the isolation system in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-7), create a dif-
ferent load combination with a scale factor of R
I
for the seismic load.
Also note that the limits on V
s
specified in 1997 UBC section 1658.4.3 are
not considered by the programs.
The total base shear, V
s
, is distributed over the height of the structure in
accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-9):

s
n
i
V w h
F
w h
=
=
¿
story story
story
story story
story
(1997 UBC Eqn. 58-9)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V
s
= Base shear in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 58-8).
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.5 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads
2.5.1 Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
1996 BOCA automatic seismic loads. They are:
 Approximate: Calculate the approximate period, T
a
, based on the ap-
proximate formula discussed in Section 1610.4.1.2.1 of the 1996 BOCA.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 14 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads
The period is calculated using BOCA 1610.4.1.2.1. The value used for C
T

is user input and h
n
is determined from the input level heights.
( )
a T n
T C h =
3 4
(BOCA 1610.4.1.2.1)
Note that the item C
T
is always input in English units as specified in the
code. A typical range of values for C
T
is 0.020 to 0.035. The height h
n
is
measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum ele-
vation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation
level.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. The programs
also calculate a period based on the approximate formula discussed in
Section 1610.4.1.2.1 of 1996 BOCA. The value used for C
T
is user input
and h
n
is determined from the level heights. Call this period T
a
.
The programs also determine a value for the coefficient for the upper
limit on the calculated period, C
a
, using Table 1610.4.1.2 in the 1996
BOCA. Note that the value used for C
a
depends on the specified value
for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient, A
v
. C
a
is determined
using linear interpolation if the specified value of A
v
is not in Table
1610.4.1.2. If A
v
exceeds 0.40, C
a
is taken as 1.2. If A
v
is less than 0.05,
C
a
is taken as 1.7.
The building period, T, that the programs choose is determined as fol-
lows:
– If T
mode
> C
a
T
a
, then T = C
a
T
a
.
– If T
mode
s C
a
T
a
, then T = T
mode
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against the coefficient for
the upper limit on the calculated period times the approximate period
(C
a
T
a
). It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison
before specifying the period.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 - 15
2.5.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The response modification factor, R, is direction dependent. It is specified in
1996 BOCA Table 1610.3.3. A typical range of values for R is 3 to 8.
Any value can be input for the effective peak acceleration coefficient, A
a
. Re-
fer to BOCA section 1610.1.3. A typical range of values for A
a
is 0.05 to
0.40.
Any value can be input for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient, A
v
.
Refer to BOCA section 1610.1.3. A typical range of values for A
v
is 0.05 to
0.40.
The soil profile type can be S
1
, S
2
, S
3
or S
4
. These correspond to soil types S
1
,
S
2
, S
3
and S
4
in Table 1610.3.1 of the 1996 BOCA. No other values can be
input.
2.5.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 1996 BOCA seismic loads is based on Section
1610.4.1 of 1996 BOCA. A period is calculated as described in the previous
section entitled "Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period."
Initially the seismic coefficient, C
s
, is calculated from section 1610.4.1.1.
The value of this coefficient is then checked against the limit specified in
(1996 BOCA Eqn. 1610.4.1.1) and modified as necessary to obtain the seis-
mic coefficient.
2 3
1.2
v
s
A S
C
RT
= (BOCA 1610.4.1.1(a))
where,
A
v
= The effective peak velocity-related coefficient.
S = The site coefficient based on the input soil profile type.
R = Response modification factor.
T = Building period.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 16 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads
The seismic coefficient, C
s
, need not exceed that specified in section 1610.4.1.1(b). If
the seismic coefficient calculated in accordance with section 1610.4.1.1(a)
exceeds that calculated in accordance with (BOCA Eqn. 1610.4.1.1(b)), the
seismic coefficient is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (BOCA
Eqn. 1610.4.1.1(b)).
2 5
a
s
. A
C
R
= (BOCA 1610.4.1.1(b))
where,
A
a
= The effective peak acceleration coefficient.
R = Response modification factor.
The base shear is calculated using (BOCA 1610.4.1.1).
V = C
s
W (BOCA 1610.4.1.1)
where,
C
s
= Seismic coefficient calculated from (BOCA Eqn. 1610.4.1.1(a))
or (BOCA Eqn. 1610.4.1.1(b)) as appropriate.
W = Weight of the structure (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance
with (BOCA Eqn. 1610.4.2):
story story
story
story story
= story
k
n
k
i
V w h
F
w h
=
¿
(BOCA 1610.4.2)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 17
k = Exponent applied to structure height. The value of k depends
on the value of the period, T, used for determining the base
shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds, k = 2. If
0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated be-
tween 1 and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.6 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads
2.6.1 Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period
Five options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1995
NBCC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Code - Moment Frame: Calculate the period as 0.1N, where N is the
number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom
story levels.
 Code - Other: Calculate the period, T, using section 4.1.9.1(7b):
0 09
n
s
. h
T
D
= (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.19(7b))
where,
h
n
= Height of the structure measured from the elevation of the spe-
cified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified
top story/maximum level measured in meters.
D
s
= Length of wall or braced frame, which constitutes the main lat-
eral-force-resisting system measured in meters.
 Program Calculated - Moment Frame: The programs use the period of
the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direc-
tion that loads are being calculated (X or Y). In addition, the programs
run a parallel calculation using a period equal to 0.1N, where N is the
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 18 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads
number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom
story levels.
The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure, V
e
, is calculated
using both periods. Call these values V
e-mode
and V
e-0.1N
. The value of V
e
to
use is determined as follows:
– If V
e-mode
> 0.8 V
e-0.1N
, then V
e
= V
e-mode
.
– If V
e-mode
< 0.8 V
e-0.1N
, then V
e
= 0.8 V
e-0.1N
.
 Program Calculated - Other: The programs use the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). In addition, the programs run a par-
allel calculation using a period calculated using (1995 NBCC Section
4.1.9.19(7b)).
The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure, V
e
, is calculated
using both periods. Call these values V
e-mode
and V
e-Eqn (7b)
. The value of V
e

to use is determined as follows:
– If V
e-mode
> 0.8 V
e-Eqn. (7b)
, then V
e
= V
e-mode
.
– If V
e-mode
< 0.8 V
e-Eqn. (7b)
, then V
e
= 0.8 V
e-Eqn. (7b)
.
 User Defined: In this case you input a building period, which the pro-
grams use in the calculations. They do not calculate other values of V
e
us-
ing this method for comparison against the V
e
calculated using your
specified period. It is assumed that you have already performed this
comparison before specifying the period.
2.6.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The force modification factor, R, is direction dependent. It is specified in
1995 NBCC Table 4.1.9.1.B. A typical range of values for R is 1.5 to 4.0.
The acceleration-related seismic zone, Z
a
, can be input as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6.
No other input values are allowed.
The velocity-related seismic zone, Z
v
, can be input as 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. No
other input values are allowed.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 19
The zonal velocity ratio, v, can either be based on Z
v
, or a user-specified val-
ue can be input. If it is based on Z
v
, v is assumed equal to 0.00, 0.05, 0.10,
0.15, 0.20, 0.30, or 0.40 for Z
v
equal to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6, respectively.
The importance factor, I, can be input as any value. It is specified in 1995
NBCC Sentence 4.1.9.1(10). A typical range of values for I is 1.0 to 1.5.
The foundation factor, F, can be input as any value. It is specified in 1995
NBCC Table 4.1.9.1.C. A typical range of values for F is 1.0 to 2.0.
2.6.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 1995 NBCC seismic loads is based on Sub-
section 4.1.9 of the 1995 NBCC. The period is calculated as described in the
previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period."
First the programs check if Z
v
= 0 and Z
a
> 0. If so, then Z
v
= 1 and v = 0.05
is set for the calculation of the base shear.
The seismic response factor, S, is calculated based on 1995 NBCC Table
4.1.9.1.A.
The programs determine the product of the foundation factor, F, and the
seismic response factor, S. Call this product FS. If necessary, this product is
modified as follows:
– If FS > 3 and Z
a
s Z
v
, then FS = 3.
– If FS > 4.2 and Z
a
> Z
v
, then FS = 4.2.
The equivalent lateral force representing elastic response is determined in ac-
cordance with section 4.1.9.1(5):
V
e
= v FS I (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1 (5))
Note that in cases where the structure period is program calculated, the value
of V
e
is calculated twice and then one of the calculated values is chosen. See
the previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period" for
more information.
The minimum lateral seismic force, V, is calculated using section 4.1.9.1(4).
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 20 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads
e
0.6V
V
R
= (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(4))
The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top
of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with sec-
tion 4.1.9.1(13):
n
t
1
V F F
=
= +
¿ story
story
(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))
where,
V = Building base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the building.
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
n = Number of story levels in the building.
The concentrated force at the top of the structure, F
t
, is calculated as shown
in section 4.1.9.1(13):
t
- If 0.7 sec, then 0
- If 0.7 sec, then 0.07 0.25
t
T F
T F TV V
s =
> = s
(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))
where,
T = Building period.
V = Building base shear.
The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − F
t
), is distributed over the
height of the structure in accordance with (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13)):
( )
t
n
V F w h
F
w h
÷
=
¿
story story
story
story story
story = 1
(1995 NBCC Section 4.1.9.1(13))
where,
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 21
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the structure.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
Note that the torsional moments discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence
4.1.9.1(28) are included automatically when a diaphragm is present and ec-
centricity is specified in an auto lateral load pattern. You also can override
the eccentricities at each diaphragm to specify these torsional moments.
2.7 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads
2.7.1 Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period
Four options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2005 NBCC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Code – Steel & Concrete Moment Frames, Braced Frames, Shear
Wall & Other Structures: Calculate the approximate period based on
section 4.1.8.11(3). The values used for C
T
and x are user input and h
n
is
determined by the programs from the input story level heights.
( )
3
4
A T n
T C h = (2005 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))
A typical range of values for C
T
is 0.025 to 0.085. The height h
n
is meas-
ured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to
the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters.
 Code – Moment Frames other than Steel & Concrete: Calculate the
approximate period, T
A
, using section 4.1.8.11(3):
0.1
A
T N = (2005 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 22 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads
where,
N = The number of stories in the structure based on the specified
top and bottom story levels.
 Program Calculated: The programs use the period of the mode calcu-
lated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are
being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period is also calcu-
lated based on (NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(3)), as appropriate. Call this period
T
A
.
The building period, T, that the programs choose is determined from sec-
tion 4.1.8.11(d). The values used for C
u
are user input, and typically vary
from 1.5 to 2.0 as specified in NBCC 2005 clause 4.1.8.11(3).
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
. (NBCC 2005 Section 4.1.8.11(d))
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
. (NBCC 2005 Section 4.1.8.11(d))
 User Defined: In this case you input a building period, which the pro-
grams use in the calculations. They do not compare it against C
u
T
A
. It is
assumed that you have already performed this comparison before speci-
fying the period.
2.7.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The ductility-related force modification factor, R
d
, is direction dependent. It
is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for R
d
is
1.5 to 5.0.
The overstrength-related force modification factor, R
o
, is direction dependent.
It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for R
o

is 1.3 to 1.7.
The 5% damped spectral response acceleration, S
a
(T), shall be input for peri-
ods T of 0.2 s, 0.5 s, 1.0 s, and 2.0 s as described in subsection 4.1.8.4 of the
2005 NBCC. The input in the programs is in g.
The higher mode factor, M
v
, is direction dependent. It is specified in 2005
NBCC Table 4.1.8.11. A typical range of values for M
v
is 1 to 2.5.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 23
The site coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be
user defined. If the site coefficients are in accordance with code, specify a
site class. If site coefficients are user defined, specify F
a
and F
v
.
The site class can be A, B, C, D, or E. Note that site class F is not allowed
for automatic 2005 NBCC lateral seismic loads. See 2005 NBCC Table
4.1.8.4.A for site class definitions.
F
a
is the acceleration-based site coefficient. If the site coefficients are deter-
mined in accordance with code, the software automatically determines F
a

from the site class and S
a
(0.2) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.4.B. If site
coefficients are user defined, the value for F
a
is input directly by the user. A
typical range of values for F
a
is 0.7 to 2.1.
F
v
is the velocity-based site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined
in accordance with code, the software automatically determines F
v
from the
site class and S
a
(1.0) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.8.4.C. If site coeffi-
cients are user defined, the value for F
v
is input directly by the user. A typi-
cal range of values for F
v
is 0.5 to 2.1.
The importance factor, I
E
, can be input as any value. It is specified in 2005
NBCC Sentence 4.1.8.5. A typical range of values for I
E
is 0.8 to 1.5.
2.7.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2005 NBCC seismic loads is based on Sub-
section 4.1.8.11 of the 2005 NBCC. The period T is calculated as described
in the previous section entitled "Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral acceleration S(T) us-
ing (2005 NBCC Eqns. 4.1.8.4(6)-1 to 4.1.8.4(6)-5). Linear interpolation is
used for intermediate values of T. Eqns. 4.1.8.4(6)-1 to 4.1.8.4(6)-5 are de-
scribed in Section 4.1.8.4 of the 2005 NBCC.
( ) (0.2) for 0.2
a a
S T F S T s = s (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-1)
( ) (0.5) or (0.2),
whichever is smaller for 0.5
v a a a
S T F S F S
T s
=
=
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-2)
( ) (1.0) for 1.0
v a
S T F S T s = = (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-3)
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 24 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads
( ) (2.0) for 2.0
v a
S T F S T s = = (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-4)
( ) (2.0) 2 for 4.0
v a
S T F S T s = > (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-5)
The minimum lateral earthquake force, V, is determined in accordance with
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2):
( ) ( )
v E d o
V S T M I W R R = (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1)
where,
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The total design base shear, V, shall not be less than that specified in (2005
NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2). If the base shear calculated in accordance with
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1) is less than that calculated in accordance
with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2), the base shear is set equal to that cal-
culated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2).
(2.0) ( )
v E d o
V S M I W R R = (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2)
where,
S(2.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 2 s.
The total design base shear, V, for a structure with an R
d
> 1.5 need not ex-
ceed that specified in (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-3). If the base shear cal-
culated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1) exceeds that
calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 24.1.8.11(2)-3), the base
shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.8.11(2)-3).
2
(0.2) ( )
3
=
E d o
V S I W R R (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-3)
where,
S(0.2) = Design spectral acceleration for 0.2 s.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 25
The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top
of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-1).
n
1
V F F
=
= +
¿ t story
story
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-1)
where,
V = Building base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the building.
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
n = Number of story levels in the building.
The concentrated force at the top of the structure, F
t
, is calculated as shown
in (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-2):
t
- If 0.7 sec, then 0
- If 0.7 sec, then 0.07 0.25
t
T F
T F TV V
s =
> = s
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-2)
where,
T = Building period.
V = Building base shear.
The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − F
t
), is distributed over the
height of the structure in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-3):
( )
t
n
V F w h
F
w h
÷
=
¿
story story
story
story story
story =1
(2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-3)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Base shear.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 26 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the structure.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.8 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads
2.8.1 Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period
Four options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2010 NBCC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Code – Steel & Concrete Moment Frames, Braced Frames, Shear
Wall & Other Structures: Calculate the approximate period based on
section 4.1.8.11(3). The values used for C
T
and x are user input, and h
n
is
determined by the programs from the input story level heights.
( )
3
4
A T n
T C h = (2010 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))
A typical range of values for C
T
is 0.025 to 0.085. The height h
n
is meas-
ured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to
the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters.
 Code – Moment Frames other than Steel & Concrete: Calculate the
approximate period, T
A
, using section 4.1.8.11(3):
0.1
A
T N = (2010 NBCC Section 4.1.8.11(3))
where,
N = The number of stories in the structure based on the specified
top and bottom story levels.
 Program Calculated: The programs use the period of the mode calcu-
lated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are
being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period is also calcu-
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 27
lated based on (NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(3)), as appropriate. Call this period
T
A
.
The building period, T, that the programs choose is determined from sec-
tion 4.1.8.11(d). The values used for C
u
are user input, and typically vary
from 1.5 to 2.0 as specified in NBCC 2010 clause 4.1.8.11(3).
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
. (NBCC 2010 Section 4.1.8.11(d))
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
. (NBCC 2010 Section 4.1.8.11(d))
 User Defined: In this case the user can input a building period, which
the programs use in the calculations. The programs do not compare it
against C
u
T
A
. It is assumed that this comparison has been performed be-
fore specifying the period.
2.8.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The ductility-related force modification factor, R
d
, is direction dependent. It
is specified in 2010 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for R
d
is
1.5 to 5.0.
The overstrength-related force modification factor, R
o
, is direction dependent.
It is specified in 2010 NBCC Table 4.1.8.9. A typical range of values for R
o

is 1.3 to 1.7.
The 5% damped spectral response acceleration, S
a
(T), shall be input for peri-
ods T of 0.2 s, 0.5 s, 1.0 s, and 2.0 s as described in subsection 4.1.8.4 of the
2010 NBCC. The input in the programs is in g.
The higher mode factor, M
v
, is direction dependent. It is specified in 2010
NBCC Table 4.1.8.11. A typical range of values for M
v
is 1 to 2.5.
The site coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be
user defined. If the site coefficients are in accordance with code, specify a
site class. If site coefficients are user defined, specify F
a
and F
v
.
The site class can be A, B, C, D, or E. Note that site class F requires site spe-
cific evaluation for automatic 2010 NBCC lateral seismic loads. See 2010
NBCC Table 4.1.8.4.A for site class definitions.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 28 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads
F
a
is the acceleration-based site coefficient. If the site coefficients are deter-
mined in accordance with code, the software automatically determines F
a

from the site class and S
a
(0.2) based on 2010 NBCC Table 4.1.8.4.B. If site
coefficients are user defined, the value for F
a
is input directly by the user. A
typical range of values for F
a
is 0.7 to 2.1.
F
v
is the velocity-based site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined
in accordance with code, the software automatically determines F
v
from the
site class and S
a
(1.0) based on 2010 NBCC Table 4.1.8.4.C. If site coeffi-
cients are user defined, the value for F
v
is input directly by the user. A typi-
cal range of values for F
v
is 0.5 to 2.1.
The importance factor, I
E
, can be input as any value. It is specified in 2010
NBCC Sentence 4.1.8.5. A typical range of values for I
E
is 0.8 to 1.5.
2.8.3 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2010 NBCC seismic loads is based on Sub-
section 4.1.8.11 of the 2010 NBCC. The period T is calculated as described
in the previous section entitled "Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral acceleration S(T) us-
ing (2010 NBCC Eqns. 4.1.8.4(6)-1 to 4.1.8.4(6)-5). Linear interpolation is
used for intermediate values of T. Eqns. 4.1.8.4(6)-1 to 4.1.8.4(6)-5 are de-
scribed in Section 4.1.8.4 of the 2010 NBCC.
( ) (0.2) for 0.2
a a
S T F S T s = s (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-1)
( ) (0.5) or (0.2),
whichever is smaller for 0.5
v a a a
S T F S F S
T s
=
=
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-2)
( ) (1.0) for 1.0
v a
S T F S T s = = (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-3)
( ) (2.0) for 2.0
v a
S T F S T s = = (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-4)
( ) (2.0) / 2 for 4.0
v a
S T F S T s = > (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.4(6)-5)
The minimum lateral earthquake force, V, is determined in accordance with
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2):
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 - 29
( ) ( )
v E d o
V S T M I W R R = (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1)
where,
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The total design base shear, V, shall not be less than that specified in (2010
NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2). If the base shear calculated in accordance with
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1) is less than that calculated in accordance
with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2), the base shear is set equal to that cal-
culated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-2).
For walls, coupled walls and wall-frame system:
(4.0) ( ) =
v E d o
V S M I W R R (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-a)
For moment resisting frame, braced frame and other systems:
(2.0) ( )
v E d o
V S M I W R R = (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-b)
where,
S(2.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 2 s.
S(4.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 4 s.
The total design base shear, V, for a structure with Site Class F and R
d
> 1.5
need not exceed that specified in (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-3). If the
base shear calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-1)
exceeds that calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 24.1.8.11(2)-
3), the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2010
NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-3).
2
(0.2) ( )
3
E d o
V S I W R R = (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(2)-3)
where,
S(0.2) = Design spectral acceleration for 0.2 s.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 30 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads
The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top
of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-1).
n
1
V F F
=
= +
¿ t story
story
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-1)
where,
V = Building base shear.
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the building.
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
n = Number of story levels in the building.
The concentrated force at the top of the structure, F
t
, is calculated as shown
in (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-2):
– If T s 0.7 sec, then F
t
= 0
– If T > 0.7 sec, then F
t
= 0.7TV s 0.25V
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-2)
where,
T = Building period.
V = Building base shear.
The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − F
t
), is distributed over the
height of the structure in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-3):
( )
t
n
V F w h
F
w h
÷
=
¿
story story
story
story story
story =1
(2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.11(6)-3)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Base shear.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 31
F
t
= Concentrated force at the top of the structure.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.9 2003 IBC Seismic Loads
2.9.1 Options for 2003 IBC Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2003 IBC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-02, Eqn.
9.5.5.3.2-1). The value used for C
T
is user input and h
n
is determined by
the programs from the input story level heights.
( )
x
A T n
T C h = (ASCE 7-02, Eqn. 9.5.5.3.2-1)
Note that the item C
T
is always input in English units as specified in the
code. A typical range of values for C
T
is 0.020 to 0.030. The height h
n
is
measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum lev-
el to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level. x is determined
using table 9.5.5.3.2 of ASCE 7-02.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period is also
calculated based on (ASCE Eqn. 9.5.5.3.2-1). The value used for C
T
is
user input, and h
n
is determined from the input story level heights. Call
this period T
A
.
The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calcu-
lated period, C
u
. The building period, T, that the programs choose is de-
termined as follows:
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 32 2003 IBC Seismic Loads
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against C
u
T
A
. It is as-
sumed that you have already performed this comparison before specify-
ing the period.
2.9.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The response modification factor, R, and the system overstrength factor, O,
are direction dependent. Both are specified in 2003 IBC Table 1617.6.2. A
typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. A typical range of values for O is 2 to
3.
The seismic group can be input as I, II or III. No other values are allowed.
See 2003 IBC Section 1616.2 for information about the seismic group. The
programs determine the occupancy importance factor, I, from the input seis-
mic group and 2003 IBC Table 1604.5.
The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can
be user defined. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code, spec-
ify a site class, S
s
and S
1
. If seismic coefficients are user defined, specify S
s
,
S
1
, F
a
and F
v
.
The site class can be A, B, C, D, or E. Note that site class F is not allowed for
automatic 2003 IBC lateral seismic loads. See 2003 IBC Table 1615.1.1 for
site class definitions.
S
s
is the mapped spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in 2003
IBC Section 1615.1. A typical range of values for S
s
is 0 to 3. Note that the
seismic maps show S
s
in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. The input
in the programs is in g. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when
they are input. For example, if the map value is 125%g, it should be input as
1.25g.
S
1
is the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined
in 2003 IBC Section 1615.1. A typical range of values for S
1
is 0 to 2. Note
that the seismic maps show S
1
in % g with a typical range of 0% to 200%.
The input in the programs is in g. Thus the map values should be divided by
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 33
100 when they are input. For example, if the map value is 125%g it should be
input as 1.25g.
F
a
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
a
from the site class and S
s

based on 2003 IBC Table 1615.1.2(1). If site coefficients are user defined, F
a

is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
a
is 0.8 to 2.5.
F
v
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
v
from the site class and S
1

based on 2003 IBC Table 1615.1.2(2). If site coefficients are user defined, F
v

is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
v
is 0.8 to 3.5.
2.9.3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2003 IBC seismic loads is based on 2003 IBC
Section 1617.4. A period is calculated as described in the previous section
entitled "Options for 2003 IBC Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration
at short periods, S
DS
, using IBC Eqns. 16-38 and 16-40.
2
3
DS a s
S F S = (IBC Eqns. 16-38 and 16-40)
Next, the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second
period, S
D1
, using IBC Eqns. 16-39 and 16-41.
1 1
2
3
D v
S F S = (IBC Eqns. 16-39 and 16-41)
The programs determine a seismic design category (A, B, C, D, E, or F with
A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on 2003 IBC
Section 1616.3. A seismic design category is determined based on S
DS
using
2003 IBC Table 1616.3(1). A seismic design category also is determined
based on S
D1
using 2003 IBC Table 1616.3(2). The more severe of the two
seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.
Initially a seismic response coefficient, C
s
, is calculated using (ASCE 7-02
Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-1). This base shear value is then checked against the limits
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 34 2003 IBC Seismic Loads
specified in (ASCE Eqns. 9.5.5.2.1-2, 9.5.5.2.1-3, and 9.5.5.2.1-4) and modi-
fied as necessary to obtain the final base shear.
DS
s
S
C
R
I
= (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-1)
where,
S
DS
= The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.
R = Response modification factor specified in 2003 IBC Table
1617.6.2.
I = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with
2003 IBC Table 1604.5.
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, need not exceed that specified in
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-2). If the seismic response coefficient calculated
in accordance with (ASCE Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1.1-1) exceeds that calculated in ac-
cordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-2) , the programs set the seismic
response coefficient, C
s
, equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE
7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-2).
D1
s
S
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-2)
where,
S
D1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period
T = the building period used for calculating the base shear
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-1)
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, can not be less than that specified in
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-3). If the seismic response coefficient calculated
in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-3) exceeds that calculated in
accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-1), the programs set the seismic
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 35
response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02
Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-3).
C
s
= 0.044 S
DS
I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-3)
where all terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-1)
Finally, if the building is in seismic design category E or F, the seismic re-
sponse coefficient, C
s
, shall not be less than that specified in (ASCE 7-02
Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-4). If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the
seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.
9.5.5.2.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.
9.5.5.2.1-1) and (ASCE Eqn. 7-02 9.5.5.2.1-3), the programs set the seismic
response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02
Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-4).
1
0.5
s
S
C
R
I
= (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.1-4)
where,
S
1
= the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.
9.5.5.2.1-1) .
The base shear, V, is calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.-1)
V = C
s
W (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5.5.2.-1)
C
s
= Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 7-
02 Eqns. 9.5.5.2.1-1 through 9.5.5.2.1-4) as appropriate.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance
with (ASCE 7-02 Eqns. 9.5.5.4-1 and 9.5.5.4-2).
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 36 2006 IBC Seismic Loads
story story
story
story story
story =
k
n
k
1
V w h
F
w h
=
¿
(Eqns. 9.5.5.4.-1 and 9.5.5.4-2)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends on
the value of the building period, T, used for determining the
base shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, then k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds,
then k = 2. If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, then k is linearly
interpolated between 1 and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.10 2006 IBC Seismic Loads
2.10.1 Options for 2006 IBC Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2006 IBC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.
12.8-7) The values used for C
T
and x are user input and h
n
is determined
by the programs from the input story level heights.
( )
x
A T n
T C h = (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-7)
Note that C
T
is always input in English units, as specified in the code. A
typical range of values for C
T
is 0.016 to 0.03, while x varies from 0.75 to
0.9. The height h
n
is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 37
story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum
level.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period is
also calculated based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-7). The values used for
C
T
and x are user input, and h
n
is determined from the input story level
heights. Call this period T
A
.
The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calcu-
lated period, C
u
. The building period, T, that the programs choose is de-
termined as follows:
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
.
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against C
u
T
A
. It is as-
sumed that you have already performed this comparison before specify-
ing the period.
2.10.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The response modification factor, R, and the system overstrength factor, O,
are direction dependent. Both are specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1. A
typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. A typical range of values for O is 2 to
3.
The occupancy category can be input as I, II, III or IV. No other values are
allowed. See ASCE 7-05 Section 11.5 for information about the occupancy
category. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor, I, from
the input occupancy category and ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1.
The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can
be user defined. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code, spec-
ify a site class, S
s
and S
1
, as well as a long-period transition period, T
L
. If
seismic coefficients are user defined, specify S
s
, S
1
, T
L
, F
a
and F
v
.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 38 2006 IBC Seismic Loads
The site class can be A, B, C, D, or E. Note that site class F is not allowed
for automatic ASCE 7-05 lateral seismic loads. See ASCE 7-05 Table 20.3-1
for site class definitions.
S
s
is the mapped maximum considered earthquake (MCE) spectral accelera-
tion for short periods as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.1. A typical
range of values for S
s
is 0 to 3. Note that the seismic maps show S
s
in % g
with a typical range of 0% to 300%. The input in the programs is in g. Thus
the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. For example,
if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1.25g.
S
1
is the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period as de-
termined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.1. A typical range of values for S
1
is 0
to 1. Note that the seismic maps show S
1
in %g with a typical range of 0% to
100%. The input in the programs is in g. Thus the map values should be di-
vided by 100 when they are input. For example, if the map value is 100%g it
should be input as 1.0g.
F
a
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
a
from the site class and S
s

based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-1. If site coefficients are user defined, the F
a

is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
a
is 0.8 to 2.5.
F
v
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
v
from the site class and S
1

based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-2. If site coefficients are user defined, F
v
is
input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
v
is 0.8 to 3.5.
T
L
is the long-period transition period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section
11.4.5.
2.10.3 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining ASCE 7-05 seismic loads is based on ASCE
7-05 Section 12.8. A period is calculated as described in the previous section
entitled "Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration
at short period, S
DS
, using (ASCE 7-05 Eqs. 11.4-1 and 11.4-3).
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 39
2
3
DS a s
S F S = (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-1 and 11.4-3)
Next, the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second
period, S
D1
, using (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3).
1 1
2
3
D v
S F S = (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3)
The programs determine a seismic design category (A, B, C, D, E, or F with
A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on ASCE 7-05
Section 11.6. A seismic design category is determined based on S
DS
using
ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-1. A seismic design category also is determined based
on S
D1
using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-2. The more severe of the two seismic
categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.
Initially a seismic response coefficient, C
s
, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05
Eqn. 12.8-2). This base shear value is then checked against the limits speci-
fied in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3, 12.8-4, 2.8-5, and 12.8-6) and modified as
necessary to obtain the final base shear.
DS
s
S
C
R
I
= (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2)
where,
S
DS
= The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.
R = Response modification factor specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-
1.
I = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with
ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1.
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, need not exceed that specified in
(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 ). If the seismic response coefficient calculated in
accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-2) exceeds that calculated in accor-
dance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), the programs set the seis-
mic response coefficient, C
s
, equal to that calculated in accordance with
(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), as appropriate.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 40 2006 IBC Seismic Loads
1 D
s
S
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
for T s T
L
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-3)
1
2
D L
s
S T
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
for T > T
L
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-4)
where,
S
D1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period
T = the building period used for calculating the base shear
T
L
= the long-period transition period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).
C
s
shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5).
C
s
= 0.044S
DS
I ≥ 0.01 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5)
Finally, for structures located where S
1
is equal to or greater than 0.6g, C
s

shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6).
1
0.5
s
S
C
R
I
=
| |
|
\ .
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6)
where,
S
1
= the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).
The base shear, V, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1):
V = C
s
W (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1)
C
s
= Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 7-
05 Eqns. 12.8-2 through 12.8-6) as appropriate.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 41
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance
with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)
story story
story
story story
story =1
k
n
k
V w h
F
w h
=
¿
(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends
on the value of the building period, T, used for determining the
base shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds, k = 2.
If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated be-
tween 1 and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.11 2009 IBC Seismic Loads
2.11.1 Options for 2009 IBC Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2009 IBC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.
12.8-7) The values used for C
t
and x are user input, and h
n
is determined
by the programs from the input story level heights.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 42 2009 IBC Seismic Loads
( )
x
A t n
T C h = (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-7)
Note that C
t
is always input in English units, as specified in the code. A
typical range of values for C
t
is 0.016 to 0.03, while x varies from 0.75 to
0.9. The height h
n
is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom
story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum
level.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period is
also calculated based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-7). The values used for
C
t
and x are user input, and h
n
is determined from the input story level
heights. Call this period T
A
.
The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calcu-
lated period, C
u
. The building period, T, that the programs choose is de-
termined as follows:
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
.
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against C
u
T
A
. It is as-
sumed that you have already performed this comparison before specify-
ing the period.
2.11.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The response modification factor, R, and the system overstrength factor, O,
are direction dependent. Both are specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-1. A
typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. A typical range of values for O

is 2 to
3.
The occupancy category can be input as I, II, III or IV. No other values are
allowed. See ASCE 7-05 Section 11.5 for information about the occupancy
category. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor, I, from
the input occupancy category and ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 43
The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can
be user defined. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code, spec-
ify a site class, S
s
and S
1
, as well as a long-period transition period, T
L
. If
seismic coefficients are user defined, specify S
s
, S
1
, T
L
, F
a
and F
v
.
The site class can be A, B, C, D, or E. Note that site class F is not allowed for
automatic ASCE 7-05 lateral seismic loads. See ASCE 7-05 Table 20.3-1 for
site class definitions.
S
s
is the mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE
R
)
spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section
11.4.1. A typical range of values for S
s
is 0 to 3. Note that the seismic maps
show S
s
in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. The input in the pro-
grams is in g. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are
input. For example, if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1.25g.
S
1
is the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period as de-
termined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.4.1. A typical range of values for S
1
is 0
to 1. Note that the seismic maps show S
1
in %g with a typical range of 0% to
100%. The input in the programs is in g. Thus the map values should be di-
vided by 100 when they are input. For example, if the map value is 100%g, it
should be input as 1.0g.
F
a
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
a
from the site class and S
s

based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-1. If site coefficients are user defined, the F
a

is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
a
is 0.8 to 2.5.
F
v
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the software automatically determines F
v
from the site class and S
1

based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-2. If site coefficients are user defined, F
v
is
input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
v
is 0.8 to 3.5.
T
L
is the long-period transition period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section
11.4.5.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 44 2009 IBC Seismic Loads
2.11.3 Algorithm for IBC2009/ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining ASCE 7-05 seismic loads is based on ASCE
7-05 Section 12.8. A period is calculated as described in the previous section
entitled "Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration
at short period, S
DS
, using (ASCE 7-05 Eqs. 11.4-1 and 11.4-3).
2
3
DS a s
S F S = (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-1 and 11.4-3)
Next, the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second
period, S
D1
, using (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3).
1 1
2
3
D v
S F S = (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3)
The programs determine a seismic design category (A, B, C, D, E, or F with
A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on ASCE 7-05
Section 11.6. A seismic design category is determined based on S
DS
using
ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-1. A seismic design category also is determined based
on S
D1
using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-2. The more severe of the two seismic
categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.
Initially a seismic response coefficient, C
s
, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05
Eqn. 12.8-2). This base shear value is then checked against the limits speci-
fied in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3, 12.8-4, 2.8-5, and 12.8-6) and modified as
necessary to obtain the final base shear.
DS
s
e
S
C
R
I
= (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2)
where,
S
DS
= The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.
R = Response modification factor specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.2-
1.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2 - 45
I
e
= The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with
ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1.
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, need not exceed that specified in
(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4). If the seismic response coefficient
calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-2) exceeds that calcu-
lated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), the programs
set the seismic response coefficient, C
s
, equal to that calculated in accordance
with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), as appropriate.
1 D
s
e
S
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
for T s T
L
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-3)
1
2
D L
s
e
S T
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
for T > T
L
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-4)
where,
S
D1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period
T = the building period used for calculating the base shear
T
L
= the long-period transition period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).
C
s
shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5).
C
s
= 0.044S
DS
I
e
≥ 0.01 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5)
Finally, for structures located where S
1
is equal to or greater than 0.6g, C
s

shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6).
1
0.5
s
e
S
C
R
I
=
| |
|
\ .
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6)
where,
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 46 2009 IBC Seismic Loads
S
1
= the mapped MCE
R
spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).
The base shear, V, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1):
V = C
s
W (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1)
C
s
= Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 7-
05 Eqns. 12.8-2 through 12.8-6) as appropriate.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance
with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)
story story
story
story story
story =1
k
n
k
V w h
F
w h
=
¿
(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends on
the value of the building period, T, used for determining the base
shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds, k = 2. If 0.5
seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated between 1
and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 - 47
2.12 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads
2.12.1 Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
1997 NEHRP automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (1997 NEHRP Eqn.
5.3.3.1-1). The value used for C
T
is user input and h
n
is determined by the
programs from the input story level heights.
( )
3 4
A T n
T C h = (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.3.1-1)
Note that C
T
is always input in English units as specified in the code. A
typical range of values for C
T
is 0.020 to 0.035. The height h
n
is meas-
ured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to
the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
. A period also is
calculated based on the (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.3.1-1). The value used
for C
T
is user input and h
n
is determined from the input story level
heights. Call this period T
A
.
The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calcu-
lated period, C
u
, based on 1997 NEHRP Table 5.3.3. Note that linear in-
terpolation is used to calculate values of C
u
where the value of S
D1
is not
specifically specified in Table 5.3.3.
The building period, T, that the programs choose is determined as fol-
lows:
– If T
mode
s C
u
T
A
, then T = T
mode
.
– If T
mode
> C
u
T
A
, then T = C
u
T
A
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it to C
u
T
A
. It is assumed
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 48 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads
that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the
period.
2.12.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The response modification coefficient, R, and the system overstrength factor,
O, are direction dependent. Both are specified in 1997 NEHRP Table 5.2.2.
A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. A typical range of values for O is 2
to 3.
The seismic group can be input as I, II or III. No other values are allowed.
See 1997 NEHRP Table 1.4 for information about the seismic group. An oc-
cupancy importance factor, I, is determined from the input seismic group and
1997 NEHRP Table 1.4.
The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can
be user defined. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code, spec-
ify a site class, S
s
and S
1
. If seismic coefficients are user defined, specify S
s
,
S
1
, F
a
and F
v
.
The site class can be A, B, C, D or E. Note that site class F is not allowed
for the automatic 1997 NEHRP lateral seismic loads. See 1997 NEHRP Sec-
tion 4.1.2.1 for site class definitions.
S
s
is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for short periods
as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.1.2. A typical range of values for S
s

is 0 to 3. Note that the seismic maps show S
s
in %g with a typical range of
0% to 300%. The input is in g. Thus the map values should be divided by
100 when they are input. For example, if the map value is 125%g, it should
be input as 1.25g.
S
1
is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for a one second
period as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.1.2. A typical range of val-
ues for S
1
is 0 to 2. Note that the seismic maps show S
1
in %g with a typical
range of 0% to 200%. The input is in g. Thus the map values should be di-
vided by 100 when they are input. For example, if the map value is 125%g,
it should be input as 1.25g.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 - 49
F
a
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the programs automatically determine F
a
from the site class and S
s

based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4.1.2.4a. If site coefficients are user defined, F
a

is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
a
is 0.8 to 2.5.
F
v
is a site coefficient. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance
with code, the programs automatically determine F
v
from the site class and S
1

based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4.1.2.4b. If site coefficients are user defined,
the F
v
is input directly by the user. A typical range of values for F
v
is 0.8 to
3.5.
2.12.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 1997 NEHRP seismic loads is based on 1997
NEHRP Section 5.3. A period is calculated as described in the previous sec-
tion entitled "Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration
at short periods, S
DS
, using 1997 NEHRP Eqns. 4.1.2.4-1 and 4.1.2.5-1.
2
3
DS a s
S F S = (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 4.1.2.4-1 and 4.1.2.5-1.)
Next the programs calculate the design spectral response acceleration at a
one second period, S
D1
, using 1997 NEHRP Eqns. 4.1.2.4-2 and 4.1.2.5-2.
1 1
2
3
D v
S F S = (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 4.1.2.4-2 and 4.1.2.5-2.)
A seismic design category (A, B, C, D, E, or F with A being the least severe
and F being the most severe) is determined based on 1997 NEHRP Section
4.2.1. A seismic design category is determined based on S
DS
using 1997
NEHRP Table 4.2.1a. A seismic design category also is determined based on
S
D1
using 1997 NEHRP Table 4.2.1b. The more severe of the two seismic
categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.
Initially a seismic response coefficient, C
s
, is calculated using (1997 NEHRP
Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1). This base shear value is then checked against the limits spe-
cified in (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.1-2,5.3.2..1-2 and 5.3.2.1-3) and modi-
fied as necessary to obtain the final base shear.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 50 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads
DS
s
S
C
R
I
= (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1).
where,
S
DS
= The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.
R = Response modification factor specified in 1997 NEHRP Table
5.2.2.
I = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with
1997 NEHRP Table 1.4.
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, need not exceed that specified in (1997
NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-2). If the seismic response coefficient calculated in ac-
cordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1) exceeds that calculated in ac-
cordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-2), the programs set the seismic
response coefficient, C
s
, equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997
NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-2).
D1
s
S
C
R
T
I
=
| |
|
\ .
(1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-2)
where,
S
D1
= the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period
T = the building period used for calculating the base shear
and all other terms are as described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1).
The seismic response coefficient, C
s
, shall not be less than that specified in
(1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-3). If the seismic response coefficient calculated
in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-3) exceeds that calculated in
accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1), the programs set the seismic
response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997
NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-3).
C
s
= 0.1 S
D1
I (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-3)
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 - 51
where all terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.1-
1 and 5.3.2.1-2).
Finally, if the building is in seismic design category E or F, the seismic re-
sponse coefficient, C
s
, shall not be less than that specified in (1997 NEHRP
Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4). If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the
seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP
Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP
Eqns. 5.3.2.1-1 and 5.3.2.1-3), the programs set the seismic response coeffi-
cient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 2-
58.5.3.2.1-4).
1
0.5
s
S
C
R
I
= (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4)
where,
S
1
= the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn.
5.3.2.1-1).
The base shear, V, is calculated using (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2):
V = C
s
W (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2)
C
s
= Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (1997
NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.1-1 through 5.3.2.1-4) as appropriate.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building by combining
(1997 NEHRP Eqs. 5.3.4-1 and 5.3.4-2).

story story
story
story story
story =
k
n
k
1
V w h
F
w h
=
¿

where,
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 52 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends
on the value of the building period, T, used for determining the
base shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds, k = 2.
If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated be-
tween 1 and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.13 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
2.13.1 Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period
Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2002
Chinese automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode (fun-
damental) for the calculated time period. This period is T
1
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations.
2.13.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The maximum value for seismic lateral influence factor, o
max
, is used to cal-
culate the factor of seismic lateral influence, o
1
, obtained from the 2002 Chi-
nese Design Code response spectrum for the fundamental period.
The seismic intensity, SI, has six possible values: 6(0.05g), 7(0.10g),
7(0.15g), 8(0.20g), 8(0.30g) and 9(0.40g).
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2 - 53
The damping ratio, ,, is used to adjust the shape of the response spectrum
curve.
The characteristic ground period, T
g
, is entered in units of seconds. The fun-
damental period, T
1
, is multiplied by the period time discount factor, PTDF,
prior to looking up the value of o
1
from the 2002 Chinese Design Code re-
sponse spectrum curve. PTDF typically ranges from 0.5 to 1.0.
The enhancement factor is a multiplier to amplify the value or response spec-
trum curve.
2.13.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2002 Chinese seismic loads is based on calcu-
lating a factor of seismic lateral influence, o
1
, from the response spectrum
curve. The period used for determining this factor, T
1
, is the fundamental
period as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2002 Chi-
nese Building Period."
The programs calculate the seismic lateral influence factor using (Eqns. 2-1).
– If T s 0.1s, then o
1
= [0.45 + T(q
2
– 4.5)] o
max
, (Eqn. 2-1a)
or
– if 0.1s < T s Tg, then o
1
= q
2
o
max
, (Eqn. 2-1b)
or
– if Tg < T s 5Tg, then
1 2 max
,
g
T
T
¸
| |
o = q o
|
\ .
(Eqn. 2-1c)
or
– if 5Tg < T s 6.0s, then
( )
1 2 1 max
0.2 5
g
T T
¸
(
o = q ÷ q ÷ o
¸ ¸
(Eqn. 2-1d)
where,
o
1
= Seismic lateral influence factor.
o
max
= Maximum value for the seismic lateral influence factor.
T

=

PTDF (T
1
)
T
1
= Fundamental period of the structure.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 54 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
T
g
= Characteristic ground period.
PTDF = Period time discount factor.
¸ =
0.05
0.9
0.5 5
÷ ,
+
+ ,

q
1
= ( ) 0.02 0.05 8 + ÷ , ( )
1
0 q >
q
2
=
0.05
1
0.06 1.7
÷ ,
+
+ ,

( )
2
0.55 q >
, = Damping ratio.
The total specified load for lateral seismic action, F
Ek
, is calculated using
(Eqn. 2-2):
1
0.85
Ek E
F G = o (Eqn. 2-2)
where,
o
1
= Seismic lateral influence factor calculated in (Eqns. 2-1a through
2-1d).
G
E
= Total specified gravity load of building (based on specified
mass).
The total specified load for lateral seismic action, F
Ek
, is broken into a con-
centrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each
story level in accordance with (Eqn. 2-3):
1
n
Ek n i
i
F F F
=
= A +
¿
(Eqn. 2-3)
where,
F
Ek
= Total specified load for lateral seismic action.
AF
n
= Concentrated force at the top of the building.
F
i
= Portion of total specified load applied to a story level.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2 - 55
n = Number of story levels in the building.
The concentrated force at the top of the structure, AF
n
, is calculated as shown
in (Eqn. 2-4):
n n Ek
F F A = o (Eqn. 2-4)
where,
F
Ek
= Total specified load for lateral seismic action.
o
n
= 0.08T
1
+ 0.07 if T
g
s 0.35 and T
1
> 1.4 T
g
,
or
o
n
= 0.08T
1
+ 0.01 if 0.35 < T
g
s 0.55 and T
1
> 1.4 T
g
,
or
o
n
= 0.08T
1
+ 0.02 if T
g
> 0.55 and T
1
> 1.4 T
g
,
or
o
n
= 0 if T
1
> 1.4 T
g
.
The remaining portion of the lateral seismic load, (F
Ek
- AF
n
), is distributed
over the height of the structure in accordance with (Eqn. 2-5):
( )
i
1
i i
Ek n
n
j j
j
G H
F F F
G H
=
= ÷ A
¿
(Eqn. 2-5)
where,
F
i
= Portion of lateral seismic load applied to story level i.
F
Ek
= Total specified load for lateral seismic action.
AF
n
= Concentrated force at the top of the structure.
G
i,
G
j
= Equivalent gravity load of lumped mass for story levels i and j,
respectively.
H
i,
H
j
= Story heights of lumped masses i and j, respectively, measured
from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 56 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads
2.14 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads
2.14.1 Options for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Building Period
Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2004
NZS automatic seismic loads. They are:
 Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode calcu-
lated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are
being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
1
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against the program cal-
culated period.
2.14.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The structural performance factor, S
p
, is based on Section 4.4 of the 2004
NZS 1170.5. A typical range of values for S
p
is 0.7 to 1.0.
The structural ductility factor, µ, is based on Section 4.3 of the 2004 NZS
1170.5.
The site subsoil class can be A, B, C, D, or E. See 2004 NZS 1170.5 Subsec-
tion 3.1.3 for site subsoil class definitions. The site subsoil class in combina-
tion with the period, T
1
, are used to look up the seismic hazard coefficient,
C
h
(T
1
), as described in Subsection 3.1.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5.
Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3.3 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5.
A typical range of values for Z is 0.13 to 0.55.
R is the return period factor as determined from Table 3.5 of the 2004 NZS
1170.5. A typical range of values for R is 0.2 to 1.8, but should be limited
such that ZR does not exceed 0.7.
D is the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to the nearest fault
listed in Table 3.6. The distance, D, is used to compute the near-fault factor,
N(D,T), as given in Subsection 3.1.6.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5. A typical
range of values for N(D,T) is 1 to 1.72.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads 2 - 57
2.14.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2004 NZS 1170.5 seismic loads is based on
Section 6.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5 entitled “Equivalent Static Method.” A
period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for
2004 NZS 1170.5 Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for hori-
zontal loading, C(T), using (NZS Eqn. 1170.5 3.1(1))
1 1
( ) ( ) ( , )
h u
C T C T ZR N T D = (NZS Eqn. 1170.5 3.1(1))
where,
C
h
(T
1
) = Seismic hazard coefficient for period T

as determined by the
program from Table 3.1 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5 Commen-
tary.
Z = The hazard factor determined from Clause 3.1.4 taking ac-
count of the limitation on the value of ZR
u
given by Clause
3.1.1
R
u
= Return period factor.
N (T,D) = Near-fault factor determined from clause 3.1.6.2.
max
( , ) ( ) N T D N T = for s km D 2

( )
20
1 1
18
max
D
N (T)
÷
= + ÷ for 2 20 km D < s
1 0 . = for 20 km D >
where,
D = the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to the
nearest fault listed in Table 3.6.
max
( ) N T = the maximum near-fault factor and is linearly interpolated
for period T from Table 3.7.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 58 2004 NZS 1170.5 Seismic Loads
Next, the horizontal design action coefficient is calculated at the T period,
C
d
(T
1
), using the following equation.
( )
1
1
( ) 0.02 but not less than 0.03
20
p
d u u
C T S
Z
C T R R
k
µ
| |
= > +
|
\ .
(NZS Eqn. 5.2(1))
where,
C(T
1
) = elastic site hazard spectrum calculated in (NZS Eqn. 1170.5
3.1(1))
S
p
= structural performance factor
For soil Classes A, B, C and D
k
µ
= µ for T
1
> 0.7s
=
( )
1
1
1
0 7
T
.
µ ÷
+ for T
1
< 0.7s
For soil class E
k
µ
= µ for T
1
> 1 s or µ < 1.5
=
( )
1
1 1 5 T . µ ÷ + for T
1
< 1 s and µ > 1.5
provide that for the purposes of calculating k
µ
, T
1
shall not be taken less
than 0.4s.
µ = structural ductility factor
and for the purposes of calculating k
µ
, T
1
shall not be taken less than 0.4 sec-
ond for site subsoil classes A, B, and C; 0.6 second for site subsoil class D;
or 1.0 second for site subsoil class E.
The horizontal base shear, V, is calculated using (NZS Eqn. 1170.5 6.2(1)):
V = C
d
(T
1
)W (NZS Eqn. 1170.5 6.2(1))
where,
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2 - 59
C
d
(T
1
) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (NZS Eqn.
5.2(1))
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The horizontal base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in
accordance with (NZS Eqn. 1170.5 6.2(2))
story story
story
story story
story =1
+0.92
t
n
w h
F F V
w h
=
¿
(NZS Eqn. 1170.5 6.2(2))
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
F
t
= 0.08V if story = top level
or
F
t
= 0 if story = top level.
V = Horizontal base shear calculated in (NZS Eqn. 6.2(1)).
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.15 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads
2.15.1 Options for 2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the
2007 AS 1170.4 automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the fundamental period based on (AS
1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(7)). The value used for h
n
is determined by the pro-
grams from the input story level heights.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 60 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads
0.75
1.25
A t n
T k h = (AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(7))
where k
t
is defined as follows (AS 1170.4 section 6.2.3):
k
t
= 0.11 for moment-resisting steel frames
= 0.075 for moment-resisting concrete frames
= 0.06 for eccentrically braced steel frames
= 0.05 for all other structures
The height h
n
is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom sto-
ry/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level
and is input in meters.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
.
The base shear obtained using a Program Calculated period cannot be
less than 80% of the base shear obtained using the approximate period
(AS 6.2.3).
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against T
A
or T
mode
. It is
assumed that you have already performed this comparison before speci-
fying the period.
2.15.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The structural performance factor, S
p
, is based on Section 6.5 of the 2007 AS
1170.4 and Table 6.5(A) and 6.5(B). A typical range of values for S
p
is 0.67
to 1.0.
The structural ductility factor, µ, is based on Section 6.5 of the 2007 AS
1170.4 and Table 6.5(A) and 6.5(B). A typical range of values for µ is 2.0 to
3.0 (AS 2.2).
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2 - 61
The site subsoil class can be A
e
, B
e
, C
e
, D
e
or E
e
. See 2007 AS 1170.4 Sub-
section 4.1.1 for site subsoil class definitions. The site subsoil class in com-
bination with the period, T
1
, are used to look up the spectral shape factor,
C
h
(T
1
), as described in Subsection 6.4 of the 2007 AS 1170.4.
Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3.2 of the 2007 AS 1170.4.
A typical range of values for Z is 0.03 to 0. 29 (AS 2.2).
k
p
is the return period factor as determined from Table 3.1 of the 2007 AS
1170.4. A typical range of values for k
p
is 0.2 to 1.8.
2.15.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2007 AS 1170.4 seismic loads is based on
Section 6.2 of the 2007 AS 1170.4 entitled “Equivalent Static Analysis.” A
period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for
2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for hori-
zontal loading, C(T), using (AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(5))
1 1
( ) ( )
p h
C T k ZC T = (AS Eqn. 1170.4 6.2(5))
where,
C
h
(T
1
) = Spectral shape factor for period T

as determined by the pro-
gram from Table 6.4 of the 2007 AS 1170.4.
k
p
= Return period factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 3.1.
Z = Hazard factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 3.2.
S
p
= Structural performance factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause
6.5.
µ = Structural ductility factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 6.5.
The horizontal base shear, V, is calculated using (AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(1)):
V = C
d
(T
1
)W (AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(1))
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 62 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads
where,
C
d
(T
1
) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (AS
1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(4))

( )
1
1
( )
p
d
C T S
C T =
µ
(AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.2(4))
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance
with (AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.3(1)).
story story
story
story story
story 1
k
n
k
w h
F V
w h
=
=
¿
(AS 1170.4 Eqn. 6.3(1))
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends
on the value of the building period, T, used for determining the
base shear. If T s 0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T > 2.5 seconds, k = 2.
If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated be-
tween 1 and 2.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads 2 - 63
2.16 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads
2.16.1 Options for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the EN
1998-1:2004 automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the fundamental period based on (EN
1998-1 Eqn. 4.6). The value used for H is determined by the programs
from the input story level heights.
4 / 3
1
H C T
t
= (EN 1998-1 Eqn. 4.6)
where C
t
is defined as follows (EN 1998-1 section 4.3.3.2.2(3)):
C
t
= 0.085 for moment-resisting steel frames
= 0.075 for moment-resisting concrete frames
= 0.075 for eccentrically braced steel frames
= 0.05 for all other structures
The height H is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom sto-
ry/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level
and is input in meters.
 Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode
calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that
loads are being calculated (X or Y). Call this period T
mode
.
 User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs
use in the calculations. They do not compare it against T
A
or T
mode
. It is
assumed that you have already performed this comparison before speci-
fying the period.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 64 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads
2.16.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The spectral design spectrum, S
d
(T
1
), is based on Section 3.2.2.5(4) of the
EN 1998-1:2004 and Table 3.2 or Table 3.3.
The recommended choice of spectra is defined in EN 1998-1:2004 Section
3.2.2.2(2)P Table 3.2 and Table 3.3.
The behavior factor, q, is based on Section 3.2.2.5 of the EN 1998-1:2004
which is an approximation of the ratio of the seismic forces that the structure
would experience if its response was completely elastic with 5% viscous
damping, to the seismic forces that may be used in design, with a conven-
tional elastic analysis model. A value for q is generally greater than 1.5.
The lower bound factor for horizontal design spectrum, β, is given in Na-
tional annex. The default value of β is 0.2.
The ground type can be A, B, C, D or E. See EN 1998-1:2004 Section 3.1.2
for site subsoil class definitions. The ground type in combination with the pe-
riod, T
1
, are used to look up the spectral design spectrum, S
d
(T
1
), as described
in Subsection 3.2.2.5 of the EN 1998-1:2004.
λ is the correction factor, the value of as λ is equal to 0.85 if T
1
≤ 2T
c
and the
building has more than two stories, or λ = 1.0, otherwise.
2.16.3 Algorithm for EN 1998-1:2004 Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining EN 1998-1:2004 seismic load is based on Sec-
tion 4.3.3.2 of the EN 1998-1:2004 entitled “Lateral Force Method of Analy-
sis.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Op-
tions for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period."
The programs begin by calculating the spectral design spectrum, S
d
(T
1
) for
horizontal loading based on Section 3.2.2.5(4) of the EN 1998-1:2004 and
Table 3.2 or Table 3.3.
The horizontal base shear, F
b
, is calculated using (EN 1998-1 Eqn. 4.5):
F
b
= S
d
(T
1
) W λ (EN 1998-1 Eqn. 4.5)
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
User Defined Seismic Loads 2 - 65
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass)
λ = Correction factor.
The base shear, F
b
, is distributed over the height of the building in accor-
dance with (EN 1998-1 Eqn. 4.11).
b n
story
story story
story story
story
F
h w
h w
F
¿
=
=
1
(EN 1998-1 Eqn. 4.11)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.17 User Defined Seismic Loads
2.17.1 Input Factors and Coefficients
The base shear coefficient, C, is direction dependent. This coefficient multi-
plied times the building weight gives the lateral seismic base shear in the
direction specified.
The building height exponent, k, is used as an exponent on the building
height when determining the distribution of the base shear over the height of
the building.
2.17.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads
The base shear, V, is calculated using (Eqn. 2-6):
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 66 Response Spectrum Functions
V = C W (Eqn. 2-6)
where,
C = User-defined base shear coefficient.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance
with (Eqn. 2-7):
story story
story
story story
story
k
n
k
1
V w h
F
w h
=
=
¿
(Eqn. 2-7)
where,
F
story
= Portion of base shear applied to a story level.
V = Building base shear.
w
story
= Weight of story level (based on specified mass).
h
story
= Story height, distance from base of structure to story level.
k = A user-defined exponent.
n = Number of story levels in the structure.
2.18 Response Spectrum Functions
A response spectrum function is simply a list of period versus spectral accel-
eration values. In the program the acceleration values in the function are
assumed to be normalized, that is, the functions themselves are not assumed
to have units. Instead the units are associated with a scale factor that multi-
plies the function and is specified when you define the response spectrum
case.
Click the Define menu > Response Spectrum Functions command in
SAP2000 and ETABS and the Loads > Functions Type > Response Spec-
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 67
trum > Expand arrow command in CSiBridge to define response spectrum
functions. When this command is used, the Define Response Spectrum Func-
tions form appears. The Response Spectra area of this form lists the names of
all the currently defined response spectrum functions. The Click To area of
the form can be used to add a new spectrum from a text file, add a new user
defined response spectrum function, add a new response spectrum function
based on one of several built-in code response spectra, modify an existing re-
sponse spectrum function definitions, and delete existing response spectrum
function definitions.
2.18.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File
A response spectrum definition can be added from a text file. The text file
should have period and spectral acceleration values. One set of values (pe-
riod and spectral acceleration) should be provided on each line. Any line that
has a $ symbol in the first character space is treated as a comment line and
ignored. Any number of header lines at the beginning of the file can be speci-
fied to be ignored by the program. Those header lines do not need $ symbols
at the beginning of them. The program quits reading the file when it reaches
the end of the file or when it reaches a blank line. Note that the program con-
siders a line with the first character space blank, the second character space a
$ symbol and anything beyond the $ symbol as a blank line.
Click the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define
Response Spectrum Functions form to add a new response spectrum function
definition from an existing text file. This brings up the Response Spectrum
Function Definition form. The following areas exist in this form:
 Function name: Use this edit box to specify or modify the name of the
response spectrum function.
 Function file: Click on the Specify File button in this area to bring up a
form that can be used to indicate the name of the text file that includes
your response spectrum data.
Typically the program does not import the file into its database. It simply
maintains a link to the file location. Thus if the response spectrum file is
moved, or if the .model file is moved to another location, the program
may suddenly be unable to locate the response spectrum file. If the Con-
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 68 Response Spectrum Functions
vert to User Defined button is clicked, the program imports the response
spectrum into its database file and the data will always be available to
your model. Do not click the Convert to User Defined button until a file
name has been specified and the number of header lines to skip has been
indicated.
Note that when reading the function file, the program skips the number
of lines at the top of the file indicated in the Header Lines to Skip item.
 Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration
values for the function. These values are available for viewing only and
can not be edited unless the function is converted to a user defined func-
tion. No values appear in this area until the graph of the function is dis-
played.
 Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. First specify
the text file name and the number of header lines to skip in the Function
File area of the form. Then click the Display Graph button in the Func-
tion Graph area to display the graph of the function. This also fills in the
values in the Define Function area of the graph.
Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the
line representing the response spectrum. The coordinates of the dot are
reported in the box just below the graph.
The program reads the response spectrum function file as follows:
 First it skips the specified number of header lines.
 Next it checks to see if a line has a $ symbol as the first character. If it
does, then it skips to the next line.
 If there is not a $ symbol as the first character on the line, the program
reads the information on the line.
 If the line is blank or if the end of the file is reached, the program stops
reading and closes the file.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 69
2.18.2 User Defined Response Spectrum Functions
Click the drop-down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in
the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click
Add User Spectrum to add a new user defined response spectrum. This
brings up the Response Spectrum Function Definition form. The following
areas exist in that form:
 Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum
function.
 Define Function: Input the period and spectral acceleration values for
the function in this area. Type the first set of period and spectral accel-
eration values into the edit boxes at the top of this area. Then click the
Add button. Type in the next set of period and spectral acceleration val-
ues and again click the Add button. Continue this process until all sets of
values are entered.
To modify an existing set of values, first highlight the appropriate values
in the list box. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes
at the top of the area. Modify the values in the edit boxes and then click
the Modify button.
To delete an existing set of values, first highlight the appropriate values
in the list box. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes
at the top of the area. Then click the Delete button.
 Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. It updates
automatically as additional points are defined for the function. If
the graph does not update automatically, click the Refresh Graph button
located just below the graph.
Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the
line representing the response spectrum. The coordinates of the dot are
reported in the box just below the graph.
2.18.3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions
The program allows you to easily define code specific response spectrum
functions for a variety of building codes.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 70 Response Spectrum Functions
Click the drop down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in
the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click
one of the code-specific items. For example, click Add UBC97 Spectrum to
add a new response spectrum based on the 1997 UBC.
Clicking on one of these code specific items brings up a code-specific Re-
sponse Spectrum Function Definition form. The following areas exist in the
forms:
 Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum
function.
 Parameters: Specify the parameters that define the code specific re-
sponse spectrum. These parameters vary from code to code. The parame-
ters specified for each of the codes included in the program are identified
in separate subsections that follow.
 Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration
values for the function. The values are available for viewing only unless
the function is converted to a user defined function. The values shown
update every time the spectrum parameters are redefined.
Note that the Convert to User-Defined button can be clicked at any time
to convert the function to a user defined function. Then the values in the
Define Function area can be edited.
Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. It updates
automatically as the spectrum parameters are redefined. If the graph does
not update automatically, click the Refresh Graph button located just
below the graph.
Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the
line representing the response spectrum. The coordinates of the dot are
reported in the box just below the graph.
2.18.3.1 1994 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The 1994 UBC response spectrum function is based on Figure 16-3 in Chap-
ter 16 of the 1994 UBC. The digitization of these response spectra is based
on Section C106.2.1 in the 1996 SEAOC Recommended Lateral Force Re-
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 71
quirements and Commentary (more commonly called the SEAOC Blue
Book).
The parameters required are a seismic zone factor, Z and a soil type. Any
positive, nonzero value can be specified for the seismic zone factor; see Ta-
ble 16-I in the 1994 UBC for typical values. The soil type can be input as 1, 2
or 3; see Table 16-J in the 1994 UBC for typical values.
2.18.3.2 1997 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The 1997 UBC response spectrum function is constructed as shown in Figure
16-3 in Chapter 16 of the 1997 UBC. The parameters required are seismic
coefficients C
a
and C
v
. Any positive, nonzero value can be specified for the
seismic coefficients. See Tables 16-Q and 16-R in the 1997 UBC for typical
values of these coefficients.
2.18.3.3 1996 BOCA Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the 1996 BOCA response spectrum
function. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
A
a
= Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak acceleration
as determined in 1996 BOCA Section 1610.1.3.
A
v
= Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak velocity-
related acceleration as determined in 1996 BOCA Section
1610.1.3.
R = The response modification factor determined from 1996 BOCA
Table 1610.3.3.
S = The coefficient for the soil profile characteristics of the site as
determined by 1996 BOCA Table 1610.3.1.
The 1996 BOCA response spectrum function is based on 1996 BOCA Sec-
tion 1610.5.5. The response spectrum is constructed by plotting the modal
seismic design coefficient, C
sm
, versus the modal period of vibration, T
m
. For
a given period, T
m
, the value of C
sm
is determined using (Eqn. 11-3).
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 72 Response Spectrum Functions
2 3
1.2 2.5
v a
sm
m
A S A
C
R RT
= s (Eqn. 11-3)
2.18.3.4 1995 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the 1995 NBCC (Canadian) response
spectrum function.
v = Zonal velocity ratio.
Z
a
= Acceleration-related seismic zone.
Z
v
= Velocity-related seismic zone.
Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 1995 NBCC.
Any positive, nonzero value can be input for the zonal velocity ratio, v. Any
positive integer, or zero, can be input for the acceleration and velocity-related
seismic zones.
The 1995 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 44(a) in
Commentary J of the 1995 NBCC.
2.18.3.5 2005 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the 2005 NBCC (Canadian) response
spectrum function.
Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)
S
a
(0.20) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.2 Sec.
S
a
(0.50) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.5 Sec.
S
a
(1.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 1.0 Sec.
S
a
(2.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 2.0 Secs.
Site Class = A to F.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 73
Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 2005 NBCC.
Any positive, nonzero value can be input for the peak ground acceleration,
PGA. Any positive integer, or zero, can be input for the spectral acceleration.
The 2005 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 72 in Com-
mentary J of the 2005 NBCC.
2.18.3.6 2010 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the 2010 NBCC (Canadian) response
spectrum function.
Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA)
S
a
(0.20) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.2 Sec.
S
a
(0.50) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.5 Sec.
S
a
(1.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 1.0 Sec.
S
a
(2.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 2.0 Secs.
Site Class = A to F.
Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 2010 NBCC.
Any positive, nonzero value can be input for the peak ground acceleration,
PGA. Any positive integer, or zero, can be input for the spectral acceleration.
The 2010 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 4.1.8.4(7) Part
4 of Division B of the 2010 NBCC.
2.18.3.7 IBC2003 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the IBC2003 response spectrum func-
tion. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
S
DS
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short
periods as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615.1.3.
S
D1
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one
second period as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615.1.3.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 74 Response Spectrum Functions
The IBC2003 response spectrum function is based on the procedure de-
scribed in IBC2003 Section 1615.1.4.
2.18.3.8 IBC2006 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the IBC2006 response spectrum func-
tion. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
S
S
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at
short periods as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.5.1
(ASCE 7-05 11.4.1).
S
1
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a
one second period as specified in IBC2006 Section
1613.5.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.4.1).
T
L
= Long-Period transition period(s) as specified in ASCE 7-
05 11.4.5.
Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.5.2
(ASCE 7-05 11.4.2).
The IBC2006 response spectrum function is based on the procedure
described in IBC2006 Section 1613.2.1.4 (ASCE 7-05 11.4).
2.18.3.9 IBC2009 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the IBC2009 response spectrum func-
tion. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
S
S
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at
short periods as specified in IBC2009 Section 1613.5.1
(ASCE 7-05 11.4.1).
S
1
= The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a
one second period as specified in IBC2009 Section
1613.5.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.4.1).
T
L
= Long-Period transition period(s) as specified in ASCE 7-
05 11.4.5.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 75
Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in IBC2009 Section 1613.5.2
(ASCE 7-05 11.4.2).
The IBC2009 response spectrum function is based on the procedure
described in IBC2009 Section 1613.2.1.4 (ASCE 7-05 11.4).
2.18.3.10 1997 NEHRP Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The following parameters are input for the 1997 NEHRP response spectrum
function. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
S
DS
= The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at short
periods as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 4.1.2.5-1).
S
D1
= The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at a one
second period as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 4.1.2.5-2).
The 1997 NEHRP response spectrum function is based on the procedure
described in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.1.2.6.
2.18.3.11 1998 Eurocode 8 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Func-
tion
The 1998 Eurocode 8 response spectrum function is constructed as described
in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.2.2. The parameters you en-
ter are the design ground acceleration, a
g
, the subsoil class and the damping
correction factor, q. Any positive, nonzero value can be specified for the de-
sign ground acceleration. The damping correction factor must satisfy q > 0.7.
The subsoil class can be input as A, B, or C.
The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using Eqns. 4.1
through 4.4 in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.2.2. The values
of |
o
, T
B
, T
C
, T
D
, k
1
, k
2
, and S are taken from Table 4.1 in 1998 Eurocode ENV
1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.2.2. Note that the value of these items depends on
the specified subsoil class.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 76 Response Spectrum Functions
2.18.3.12 2004 Eurocode 8 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Func-
tion
The 2004 Eurocode 8 response spectrum function is constructed as described
in EN 1998-1-1:2004 Section 3.2.2.5. The parameters you enter are the de-
sign spectrum type, the ground type, the lower bound factor for the horizon-
tal design spectrum, β and the behavior correction factor, q. Any positive,
nonzero value can be specified for the design ground acceleration. The be-
havior factor must satisfy q > 1.5 (the program will accept any nonzero
value). The subsoil class can be input as A, B, C, D or E.
The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using Eqns. 3.13
through 3.16 in EN 1998-1-1:2004 Section 3.2.2.5. The values of T
B
, T
C
, T
D
,
and S are taken from Table 3.2 or 3.3 in 1998 Eurocode EN 1998-1-1:2004
Section 3.2.2.5. Note that the value of these items depends on the specified
ground type and spectrum type.
2.18.3.13 1992 NZS 4203 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
For the 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function, input a
scaling factor and a site subsoil category. Any positive, nonzero value can be
specified for the scaling factor. The site subsoil category can be input as A,
B, or C.
The 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function is con-
structed as specified in 1992 NZS4203 Section 4.6.
The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using (1992 NZS4203
Eqns. 4.6.3 and 4.6.4). If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn. 4.6.3) is used, input the scal-
ing factor as (S
p
)(R)(Z)(L
s
). If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn. 4.6.4) is used, input the
scaling factor as (S
m
)(S
p
)(R)(Z)(L
u
).
The program calculates the C
h
(T, 1) term in (1992 NZS4203 Eqns. 4.6.3 and
4.6.4) based on the input site subsoil category and the values for µ = 1.0 in
Figures 4.6.1a, b, and c and in Tables 4.6.1a, b, and c. In Table 4.6.1a the co-
efficient values for periods of 0, 0.09, and 0.20 second are taken as 0.40,
0.68, and 0.68, respectively. In Table 4.6.1b the coefficient values for periods
of 0, 0.13, and 0.20 second are taken as 0.42, 0.80 and 0.80, respectively. In
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 77
Table 4.6.1c the coefficient values for periods of 0 and 0.10 second are taken
as 0.42 and 0.72, respectively.
2.18.3.14 2004 NZS 1170.4 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Func-
tion
For the 2004 NZS 1170.4 (New Zealand) response spectrum function, the
following parameters are input. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for
these parameters.
Site Class = Site class A to E as specified in NZS 1170.5 clause 3.1.3.
Z = The hazard factor determined from NZS 1170.5 clause
3.1.4.
R = The return period factor R
s
or R
u
for the appropriate limit
state determined from NZS 1170.5 clause 3.1.5 but limited
such that ZR
u
does not exceed 0.7.
D = D is the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to
the nearest fault listed in Table 3.6. The distance, D, is
used to compute the near-fault factor, N(D,T), as given in
Subsection 3.1.6.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5. A typical
range of values for N(D,T) is 1 to 1.72.
C
h
(T) = The spectral shape factor determined from NZS 1170.5
clause 3.1.2 and Table 3.1 (computed by the program
computed based on time period).
The NZS 1170.5:2004 response spectrum function is constructed as specified
in NZS 1170.5:2004 Section 3.1.1.
2.18.3.15 2007 AS 1170.4 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
For the 2007 AS 1170.4 (Australia) response spectrum function, the follow-
ing parameters are input. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these
parameters.
C
h
(T) = Spectral shape factor for period T

as determined by the
program from Table 6.4 of the AS 1170.4.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 78 Response Spectrum Functions
k
p
= Return period factor as determined for AS 1170.4 clause
3.1.
Z = Hazard factor as determined for AS 1170.4 clause 3.2.
Site Class = Site class A
e
to E
e
as specified in AS 1170.4 clause 4.1.
S
p
= Structural performance factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 6.5.
µ = Structural ductility factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 6.5.
The AS 1170.4:2007 response spectrum function is constructed as specified
in AS 1170.4:2007 clause 7.2(a).
2.18.3.16 2007 AASHTO Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function
The AASHTO 2007 ground motion design spectra in CSiBridge is developed
in accordance with the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic
Bridge Design. The design spectra uses the digitized USGS maps developed
for AASHTO. Those maps were developed for a hazard of 7% probability of
exceedance in 75 years (1000 return period).
The following parameters are input for the AASHTO 2007 response spec-
trum function. Any positive, nonzero value can be input for these parameters.
S
S
= 0.2-Sec period spectral acceleration coefficient on Class B
rock.
S
1
= 1.0-Sec period spectral acceleration coefficient on Class B
rock.
Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in Section 3.4.2.1 and Table 1.
The AASHTO 2007 response spectrum function is based on the procedure
described in AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge De-
sign, Section 3.4.1.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 79
2.18.3.17 2008 Italian NTC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Func-
tion
The 2008 Italian NTC response spectrum function is constructed as described
in Technical Rules for Construction (NTC 2008). The parameters you enter
are Fundamental Parameters, a
g
, F
0
and T
c
*
, the spectrum type, the limit state,
the soil type, the topography, the ratio for site altitude at base of hill to height
of hill (h/H), the damping ( ) for elastic spectrum and the behavior correction
factor (q) for design spectrum. Any positive, nonzero value can be specified
for the Fundamental Parameters. The behavior factor must satisfy q > 1.0
(the program will accept any nonzero value). The subsoil type can be input as
A, B, C, D or E. The topography type can be T1, T2, T3 or T4.
The Fundamental Parameters a
g
(peak ground acceleration), F
0
(magnifica-
tion factor) and T
c
*
(reference period), can be entered based on a given set of
Latitude and Longitude, by Island name or user specified. For Latitude and
Longitude and Island Name options, user also need to input the Limit State,
the Usage Class and the Nominal Life of the structure. These parameters are
used for computing Return period, T
R
.

( ) ln 1
R
R
VR
V
T
P
÷
=
÷
and,


R U N
V C V =
where,
V
N
= nominal life of the structure
C
U
= usage coefficient

Usage Class I II III IV
Coefficient, C
U
0.7 1.0 1.5 2.0
The Limit State option can be SLO, SLD for elastic spectrum and SLV and
SLC for design spectrum. The P
VR
parameters are determined from the fol-
lowing table:

Spectrum Type Limit State P
VR %
Description
SLO 81 Immediate Occupancy Elastic
SLD 63 Damage Control
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 80 Response Spectrum Functions
SLV 10 Life safety Design
SLC 5 Collapse Prevention

For a given return period, T
R
the parameters a
g
(T
R
), F
0
(T
R
) and T
c
*(T
R
), here
called p, can be calculated as follows:
( ) ( )
1
1
2
1 1
2
1
log log log log log
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
R
R
R
R
T
T
T
T
p
p
p p
The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using the equations
given below. The values of T
B
, T
C
, T
D
, and S depend on the specified soil type
and spectrum type.
Horizontal Elastic Response Spectrum

e 0
0
1
0 S ( ) 1
g
B
B B
a
T T
T T T S F
g T F T
q
q
( | |
s < = + ÷
( |
\ . ¸ ¸


e 0
S ( )
g
B C
a
T T T T S F
g
q s < =

e 0
S ( )
g
C
C D
a
T
T T T T S F
g T
q
(
s < =
(
¸ ¸


e 0 2
S ( )
g
C D
D
a
T T
T T T S F
g T
q
(
s =
(
¸ ¸

( ) 10 5 0.55 q ç = + > , where ç is damping in percent

The S and spectra ordinate are based on the following equations:


s T
S S S =


*
C C C
T C T = ;
3
C
B
T
T = ; 4 1.6
g
D
a
T
g
= +

The parameter C
c
, S
s
and S
T
are obtained using Soil Type and Topography.
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 81

Soil Type S
s
C
c

A 1.00 1.00
B
0
1.00 1.40 0.40 1.20
g
a
F
g
s ÷ s
( )
0.20
*
1.10
c
T
÷

C
0
1.00 1.70 0.6 1.50
g
a
F
g
s ÷ s
( )
0.33
*
1.05
c
T
÷

D
0
0.90 2.40 1.5 1.80
g
a
F
g
s ÷ s
( )
0.50
*
1.25
c
T
÷

E
0
1.00 2.00 1.10 1.60
g
a
F
g
s ÷ s
( )
0.40
*
1.15
c
T
÷


Topography S
T

T1 1.0
T2
1.0 1 0.2 1.2
h
H
s + s
T3
1.0 1 0.2 1.2
h
H
s + s
T4
1.0 1 0.4 1.4
h
H
s + s

Vertical Elastic Response Spectrum

ve
0
1
0 S ( ) 1
g
B v
B B
a
T T
T T T S F
g T F T
q
q
( | |
s < = + ÷
( |
\ . ¸ ¸


ve
S ( )
g
B C v
a
T T T T S F
g
q s < =

ve
S ( )
g
C
C D v
a
T
T T T T S F
g T
q
(
s < =
(
¸ ¸


2
S ( )
g
C D
D ve v
a
T T
T T T S F
g T
q
(
s =
(
¸ ¸

( ) 10 5 0.55 q ç = + > , where ç is damping in percent
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
2 - 82 Response Spectrum Functions

s T
S S S =
0.5
0
1.35
g
v
a
F F
g
| |
=
|
\ .


Soil Type S
s
T
B
T
C
T
D

A, B, C, D, E 1.00 0.05 s 0.15 s 1.0 s

Topography S
T

T1 1.0
T2 1.2
T3 1.2
T4 1.4

Design Horizontal Response Spectrum
The Design Horizontal Spectrum is same as Elastic Horizontal spectrum ex-
cept the following:

The parameter for Design spectrum is defined as
h
q / 1 = q
where, q
h
is the structure behavior factor for horizontal component

Design Vertical Response Spectrum
The Design Vertical Spectrum is same as Elastic Vertical spectrum except
the followings:

The parameter for Design spectrum is defined as
v
q / 1 = q
where, q
v
is the structure behavior factor for vertical component (1.5 for
buildings, 1.0 for bridges).
2.18.3.18 Modifying and Deleting Response Spectrum Functions
In the Define Response Spectrum Functions form, highlight an existing re-
sponse spectrum name and then click on the Modify/Show Spectrum button
to modify the spectrum. The same form that displayed when you defined the
Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads
Response Spectrum Functions 2 - 83
function displays; use the form to make any required changes or modifica-
tions.
To delete an existing response spectrum function, highlight its name in the
Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click the Delete Spectrum
button.

Automatic Wind Loads 3 - 1
Chapter 3
Automatic Wind Loads
This chapter documents the automatic wind lateral static load patterns that can
be generated. Automatic wind loads can be generated in any arbitrary horizon-
tal direction for the following codes:
 1997 UBC
 1996 BOCA
 BS 6399-95
 1995 NBCC
 2005 NBCC
 2010 NBCC
 ASCE 7-88
 ASCE 7-95
 ASCE 7-02
 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05
 ASCE 7-10
 1987 RCDF (Mexico)
 2002 Chinese
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 2 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
 API 4F 2008
 2005 Eurocode 1, Part 1-4
 2002 AS/NZS 1170.2
3.1 Defining Automatic Wind Load Patterns
The automatic seismic static load patterns are defined using the Define menu >
Load Patterns command in SAP2000 and ETABS or the Loads > Load Pat-
terns > Load Patterns command in CSiBridge. Those commands display the
Define Load Patterns form. Use this form to specify a name for a load pattern,
a type, a self-weight multiplier, and in some cases, an Auto Lateral Load.
When the load type is specified as Wind, the Auto Lateral Load drop-down list
becomes active and you can choose from any of the codes identified in the pre-
vious section. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the Wind
load will not be an automatic lateral load.
If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list, when you click the Add New
Load Pattern or Modify Load Pattern buttons, that load pattern is added to
the model using default settings based on the selected code. To review or mod-
ify the parameters for an automatic lateral load, highlight the load in the list
and click the Modify Lateral Load Pattern button.
Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load pattern. That is,
two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same load
pattern. However, additional user-defined loads can be added to a load pattern
that includes an automatic static lateral load. A separate automatic static load
pattern must be defined for each direction of wind load.
Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are
not calculated until an analysis has been run. Thus, you cannot view the resul-
tant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis.
Automatic Wind Load Patterns - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 3
3.2 Automatic Wind Load Patterns
The forms defining the automatic wind loads consist of four data sets; some of
the data sets are dependent on the exposure selected.
One data set defines the exposure by selecting loading based on diaphragms or
area objects. Another data sets defines the wind exposure parameters, and a
third set defines the exposure height. The fourth set is for specifying the wind
coefficients. The data in the first three sets is common to all of the codes and is
described in the subsections that follow. The wind coefficient data set is code-
dependent and is described separately for each code later in this chapter.
Wind loads also can be user defined, which is described at the end of this chap-
ter.
3.2.1 Exposure
The automatically calculated wind loads may be determined by exposure to di-
aphragms or to area objects (i.e., exterior cladding, walls, and roofs).
If exposure from the extents of diaphragms is selected, a separate lateral load is
created for each diaphragm present at a story level. The wind loads calculated
at any story level are based on the story level elevation, the story height above
and below that level, the assumed exposure width for the diaphragm(s) at the
story level, and various code-dependent wind coefficients.
If area objects are used to model the actual in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm
and automatic wind loads are to be created using the diaphragm option, one or
more dummy diaphragms must be defined at each story level. Assign a dummy
diaphragm to just one point object at a story level; that point object becomes
the location where the wind load is applied. However, a diaphragm consisting
of a single point object will have a zero exposure width, so input a user-defined
exposure width for the dummy diaphragm to generate a non-zero wind load
(use the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button on the Wind Loading form).
If exposure from area objects is selected, wind loads will be generated on each
area object that has been assigned a C
p
using the Assign menu > Area Loads >
Wind Pressure Coefficients command in SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced >
Assign Loads > Areas > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in CSi-
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 4 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Bridge. The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning the C
p
values
to the area objects. The wind loads calculated at an area object are based on the
elevation of the object, the dimensions of the object, and various code-
dependent wind coefficients.
Unlike the diaphragm exposure option that generates only lateral wind loads,
the exposure from area objects option will generate wind loads normal to any
area object, regardless of its orientation. Thus, this option may be used to gen-
erate vertical as well as lateral loads.
3.2.2 Wind Exposure Parameters
The wind exposure parameters are available only when calculating lateral wind
loads using the exposure from extents of diaphragms option. These input
values are not available when using the exposure from area objects method
because the wind coefficients are assigned directly to the area objects using the
Assign menu > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in
SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced > Assign Loads > Areas > Wind Pressure
Coefficients command in CSiBridge.
When specifying the wind direction, indicate the direction of the wind by an
angle measured in degrees. An angle of 0 degrees means the wind is blowing in
the positive global X-direction, that is, it is blowing from the negative global X-
direction to the positive global X-direction. An angle of 90 degrees means the
wind is blowing in the positive global Y-direction. An angle of 180 degrees
means the wind is blowing in the negative global X-direction. An angle of 270
degrees means the wind is blowing in the negative global Y-direction.
Any angle for the wind direction can be input. The angle is always measured
counterclockwise from the positive global X-axis. A positive angle appears
counterclockwise as you look down on the model in the negative global Z-
direction.
The windward coefficient, Cp, and the leeward coefficient, Cp, are used in
calculating the wind pressures on the windward and leeward sides of the
diaphragms, respectively. The windward side of a diaphragm is the side
exposed to the wind, while the opposite side is the leeward side.
Automatic Wind Load Patterns - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 5
Click the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button to review and modify the
exposure widths calculated by the programs for each diaphragm. By default,
the wind exposure width for a diaphragm is equal to the calculated width of the
diaphragm in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the wind load.
The maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the
wind loading is calculated using the following three-step process.
 Transform the coordinates of all of the point objects that are part of the
diaphragm constraint into a system of coordinates that is parallel and per-
pendicular to the specified direction of wind loading.
 Find the point objects that have the maximum and minimum coordinates
perpendicular to the direction of the wind load. For example, if the wind
load is in the global X-direction, find the point objects with the maximum
and minimum global Y-coordinates.
 Subtract the minimum perpendicular coordinate from the maximum per-
pendicular coordinate to obtain the diaphragm width perpendicular to the
wind load.
By default, the point where the wind load is applied to a diaphragm is the cal-
culated geometric center of the diaphragm. Modify the assumed wind load ap-
plication point and the default exposure width on the Wind Exposure Width
Data form, which displays when the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button is
clicked.
3.2.3 Wind Exposure Height
The top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation input
values specify the elevation range over which the structure is exposed to wind.
The top story/maximum global Z indicates the highest story level to be
assumed exposed to wind loading for the purposes of calculating the automatic
wind load. In most instances the top story should be the uppermost story
level/elevation in the building and this is the default value.
In some instances, for example where penthouses are included in the model, it
may be more convenient to indicate that the top story level for automatic wind
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 6 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
loading is the main roof level. User-defined loads can then be added to the load
pattern to account for the wind loads acting on the penthouse.
The bottom story/minimum global Z indicates the lowest story level that is ex-
posed to wind loading. It is assumed that all stories above the bottom story are
loaded by the wind.
By default the bottom story is assumed to be the base level of the structure. In
some cases, it may be advantageous to specify a higher level as the bottom sto-
ry for wind loading. One example of this might be if a building has several be-
low-grade levels that should not receive any wind loading.
Figure 3-1 gives a representation of how loads are distributed to the dia-
phragms when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method.
X
Z
Roof
2nd
Base
h
1
h
2
Exposure
width for
Roof level
diaphragm
Exposure width for
2nd level diaphragm
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
p
a
r
a
p
e
t

h
e
i
g
h
t
X
Z
Roof
2nd
Base
h
1
h
2
Exposure
width for
Roof level
diaphragm
Exposure width for
2nd level diaphragm
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
p
a
r
a
p
e
t

h
e
i
g
h
t
X
Z
Roof
2nd
Base
h
1
h
2
Exposure
width for
Roof level
diaphragm
Exposure width for
2nd level diaphragm
S
p
e
c
i
f
i
e
d
p
a
r
a
p
e
t

h
e
i
g
h
t
h
2
/2
h
2
/2
h
1
/2
a) Building Elevation b) Wind Loading at Roof Level c) Wind Loading at 2nd Level

Figure 3-1: Example extent of wind loading
Figure 3-1a shows an elevation of a two-story building with diaphragms at
each story level. Assume the wind load is to be automatically calculated for the
Y-direction. Thus, the wind load is acting on the face of the building shown in
Figure 3-1a.
The shaded area in Figure 3-1b illustrates the extent of the wind load that is
applied to the roof level diaphragm. The shaded area in Figure 3-1c illustrates
the extent of the wind load that is applied to the 2
nd
level diaphragm.
1997 UBC Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 7
When using the exposure from area objects method, the exposure heights al-
lows the programs to determine how much of each area object is exposed to
wind.
3.3 1997 UBC Wind Loads
3.3.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Three wind coefficients are input for 1997 UBC wind loads. They are the basic
wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure type, and the wind impor-
tance factor, I
w
.
The basic wind speed is described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1618. A
typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.
The exposure types are described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1619. The
exposure type can be B, C, or D. No other values are allowed.
The wind importance factor can be found in 1997 UBC Table 16-K. The wind
importance factor, I
w
—not one of the seismic importance factors, I or I
p

should be input. A typical range of values for I
w
is 1.00 to 1.15.
3.3.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads
3.3.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through
1621 of the 1997 UBC.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms
method are based on a modified version of Method 2 (Projected Area Method)
as described in Section 1621.3 of the 1997 UBC. Horizontal wind loads are ap-
plied on the vertical projected area as described in Section 1621.3. The pro-
grams have two modifications to the requirements of Section 1621.3. The first
modification is that the programs do not automatically apply vertical wind
loads over the projected horizontal area. To include those vertical wind loads in
the same load pattern, you must manually include them. The other modification
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 8 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
is that the programs apply the method to structures of any height. The modifi-
cation does not limit structures to less than 200 feet high, as discussed in 1997
UBC Section 1621.3.
The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story
heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. (UBC Eqn. 20-1) is
used to determine the wind pressure, P, at any point on the surface of the verti-
cal projected area.
P = q
s
I
w
(C
q-windward
C
e-windward
+ C
q-leeward
C
e-leeward
) (UBC Eqn. 20-1)
where,
q
s
= Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as
given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F.
I
w
= Importance factor as input by the user.
C
q-windward
= Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
C
e-windward
= Windward combined height, exposure and gust factor coeffi-
cient at the height of interest as given in 1997 UBC Table
16-G.
C
q-leeward
= Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
C
e-leeward
= Leeward combined height, exposure and gust factor coeffi-
cient, evaluated at the specified top story level, as given in
1997 UBC Table 16-G.
The C
e
coefficient is determined from 1997 UBC Table 16-G using the input
exposure type and the elevation from the input bottom story. Linear interpola-
tion is used to determine the value of the C
e
coefficient at heights above 15 feet
that are not listed in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.
q
s
is determined from the following equation:
q
s
= 0.00256 V
2
> 10 psf (UBC Table 16-F)
where,
q
s
= Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet, psf.
V = Basic wind speed as input by the user, mph.
1997 UBC Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 9
Note the units that are specified for q
s
and V. Also note that the preceding eq-
uation is consistent with 1997 UBC Table 16-F.
The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of the vertical pro-
jected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.3.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through
1621 of the 1997 UBC.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
based on Method 1 (Normal Force Method) as described in Section 1621.2 of
the 1997 UBC. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces
of the user selected area objects as described in Section 1621.2.
(UBC Eqn. 20-1) is used to determine the wind pressure, P, at any point on the
surface of the area objects.
P = C
e
C
p
q
s
I
w
(UBC Eqn. 20-1)
where,
C
e
= Combined height, exposure, and gust factor coefficient as given in
1997 UBC Table 16-G. This value is evaluated at the height of
interest for windward exposures, and at the top story level for lee-
ward objects.
C
p
= Windward or leeward pressure coefficient assigned to the area
object by the user.
q
s
= Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as given
in 1997 UBC Table 16-F.
I
w
= Importance factor as input by the user.
The value for q
s
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 10 Exposure from Area Objects
3.4 1996 BOCA Wind Loads
3.4.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Four wind coefficients are input for 1996 BOCA wind loads. They are the
basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category, and the wind
importance factor, I, and the gust response factor, G
h
.
The basic wind speed is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.3. A typical
range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.
The exposure categories are described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.4. The ex-
posure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are allowed.
The wind importance factor, I, is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.5. A
typical range of values for I is 0.90 to 1.23.
The gust response factor, G
h
, is discussed in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7 and in
Table 1609.7(5). Specify that the gust response factor is (a) calculated based on
the height (distance) of the specified top story above the specified bottom story
and the exposure category in accordance with the code using Table 1609.7(5)
or (b) a value you input. Note that in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7, the follow-
ing statement is made about G
h
.
The gust response factor for buildings which have a height to
least horizontal dimension ratio greater than 5 or a fundamental
frequency less than one cycle per second (period greater than 1
second) shall be calculated by an approved rational analysis that
incorporates the dynamic properties of the main wind force-
resisting system.
When you select the Per Code option for the gust response factor, the programs
do not check the height-to-least-horizontal-dimension ratio or the building
period and it does not determine the gust factor using an approved rational
analysis incorporating the dynamic properties of the main wind force-resisting
system. It is assumed that you will do this yourself, if necessary, and provide a
user defined value for G
h
. A typical range of values for G
h
is 1.00 to 2.36.
1996 BOCA Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 11
3.4.2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads
3.4.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the
1996 BOCA.
The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in 1996 BO-
CA Section 1609.7. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied
on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story
heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply
vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof sur-
faces. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, you must
manually include them.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, P, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
P = P
v
I [K
z
G
h
C
p-windward
+ K
h
G
h
C
p-leeward
] (Table 1609.7)
where,
P
v
= Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(3).
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
K
z
= Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of
interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).
G
h
= Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(5) or as user specified.
C
p-windward
= Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
K
h
= Velocity pressure exposure coefficient, evaluated at the
specified top story level, as given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(4).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The P
v
coefficient is determined from the following equation.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 12 Exposure from Area Objects
P
v
= 0.00256 V
2
> 10 psf (Table 1609.7(3))
where,
P
v
= Basic velocity pressure, psf.
V = Basic wind speed as input by the user, mph.
Note the units specified for P
v
and V.
The K
z
coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4) using the
input exposure category and the input bottom story. For use in 1996 BOCA
Table 1609.7(4), the input bottom story/minimum elevation is assumed to be
ground level. The programs use linear interpolation to determine the value of
the K
z
coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Ta-
ble 1609.7(4).
For discussion of the gust response factor, G
h
, refer to the previous section enti-
tled "Input Wind Coefficients for 1996 BOCA."
The K
h
coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4) using the
input exposure category and the height of the input top story above the input
bottom story. Linear interpolation is used to determine the value of the K
h

coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(4).
The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of the vertical pro-
jected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.4.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the
1996 BOCA.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
as described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.7. Wind loads are applied on the ver-
tical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in
Section 1609.7.
The following equations are used to determine either the windward or leeward
wind pressure, P, at any point on the surface of the area objects.
1996 BOCA Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 13
P
windward
= P
v
I K
z
G
h
C
p-windward
(Table 1609.7)
or
P
leeward
= P
v
I K
h
G
h
C
p-leeward
(Table 1609.7)
where,
P
v
= Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(3).
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
K
z
= Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of inter-
est as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4).
G
h
= Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(5) or as user specified.
C
p-windward
= Windward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object
by the user.
K
h
= Velocity pressure exposure coefficient, evaluated at the spe-
cified top story level, as given in 1996 BOCA Table
1609.7(4).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object
by the user.
The values for P
v
, K
z
,

and

K
h
are the same as described in the previous section
entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The programs distribute the pressures, P, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 14 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
3.5 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads
3.5.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Three wind coefficients are input for 1995 BS 6399 wind loads. They are the
effective wind speed in meters per second (m/s), the size effect factor, and the
dynamic augmentation factor.
The effective wind speed, V
e
, is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 2.2.3.
The size effect factor for external pressures, C
a
, is described in 1995 BS 6399
Section 2.1.3.4. A typical range of values for C
a
is 0.52 to 1.00.
The dynamic augmentation factor, C
r
, is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section
1.6.1. A typical range of values for C
r
is 0 to 0.25.
Note that in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1.6.2 the following statement is made about
C
r
:
This part of BS 6399 does not apply when the value of dynamic
augmentation factor exceeds the limits shown in figure 3. Buildings
falling outside these limits should be assessed using established dy-
namic methods.
This typically means that when C
r
> 0.25, the structure is assumed to be
dynamic and the methodology for establishing wind loads described herein is
not applicable. However, the program allows the user to input any value, and
performs no check to ensure that C
r
is less than 0.25.
3.5.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads
3.5.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 1995 BS 6399 are based on 1995 BS 6399 Sec-
tion 2.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms
method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in
1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 15
Section 2.1 of the 1995 BS 6399. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the ver-
tical projected area as described in Section 2. The programs have two modifica-
tions to the requirements of Section 2. The first modification is that the pro-
grams do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected hori-
zontal area. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, you
must include them manually. The other modification is that the programs apply
the method to structures of any height. The modification does not limit struc-
tures to less than 100 meters high, as discussed in 1995 BS Section 1.8.1.
The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story
heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. Eqn. 2.3.1.6(7) is
used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on the surface of the verti-
cal projected area.
p = 0.85 q
s
C
a
(C
p-front
+ C
p-rear
)

(1 + C
r
) (Eqn. 2.3.1.6(7))
where,
q
s
= Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2.
C
a
= Size effect factor as input by the user.
C
p-front
= External pressure coefficient on the windward side as input by
the user.
C
p-rear
= External pressure coefficient on the leeward side as input by
the user.
C
r
= Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user.
Note that the factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the
front and rear faces.
q
s
is determined from (Eqn. 2.2.2.1(1)).
q
s
= 0.613
2
e
V (Eqn. 2.2.2.1(1))
where,
q
s
= Dynamic pressure, Pa.
V
e
= Effective wind speed as input by the user, m/s.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 16 Exposure from Area Objects
Note the units that are specified for q
s
and V
e
. Also note that (Eqn. 2.2.2.1(1))
is consistent with 1995 BS 6399 Table 2.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of the vertical pro-
jected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.5.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for 1995 BS 6399 are based on Section 2.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in Section 2.1
of 1995 BS 6399. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal sur-
faces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 2.
Eqn. (2.1.3.6(7)) is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on the
surface of the area objects.
p = 0.85 q
s
C
p
C
a
(1 + C
r
) (Eqn. 2.1.3.6(7))
where,
q
s
= Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2.
C
p
= Windward (front) or leeward (rear) external pressure coefficient as-
signed to the area object by the user.
C
a
= Size effect factor as input by the user.
C
r
= Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user.
Note that the factor 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the
front and rear faces.
The value for q
s
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
1995 NBCC Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 17
3.6 1995 NBCC Wind Loads
3.6.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Two wind coefficients are input for 1995 NBCC wind loads. They are the
velocity pressure, q, in kPa and the gust effect factor, C
g
.
The velocity pressure, q, can be obtained from 1995 NBCC Appendix C. A
typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.20 to 0.90 kPa. Any posi-
tive value or zero is allowed.
The gust effect factor, C
g
, is discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4.1.8.1(6). The
default value is 2.0. Any positive value is allowed.
3.6.2 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Wind Loads
3.6.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.8.1 of the 1995
NBCC.
Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical pro-
jected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input
diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads au-
tomatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those
vertical wind loads in the load pattern, you must include them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
p = q C
g
[C
p-winward
C
e-windward
+ C
p-leeward
C
e-leeward
] (1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(1))
where,
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 18 Exposure from Area Objects
C
p-windward
= External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input
by the user.
C
e-windward
= Exposure factor for the windward wall.
C
p-leeward
= External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by
the user.
C
e-leeward
= Exposure factor for the leeward wall.
C
e-windward
is determined from (Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5)).
1 5
windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
÷
| |
= >
|
\ .
(1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e-leeward
is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5)).
1 5
middle
leeward
0.9
10
e
h
C
÷
| |
= >
|
\ .
(1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5))
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis, as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.6.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.8.1 of the 1995
NBCC.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in 1995 NBCC Section 4.1.8.1.
1995 NBCC Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 19
The following equations is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = q C
e
C
g
C
p
(1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(1))
where,
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
e
= Exposure factor.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
C
e
for a windward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.
Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5)).
1 5
-windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e
for a leeward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.8.1(5)).
middle
-leeward
1 5
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.8.1(5))
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 20 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
3.7 2005 NBCC Wind Loads
3.7.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Three wind coefficients are input for 2005 NBCC wind loads. They are the
velocity pressure, q, in kPa, the gust effect factor, C
g
, and the importance fac-
tor, I.
The velocity pressure, q, can be obtained from 2005 NBCC Appendix C. A
typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.27 to 1.23 kPa. Any posi-
tive value or zero is allowed.
The gust effect factor, C
g
, is discussed in 2005 NBCC Sentence 4.1.7.1(6). The
default value is 2.0. Any positive value is allowed.
The importance factor, I, is described in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.7.1. A typical
range of values for I is 0.8 to 1.25.
3.7.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads
3.7.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1 of the
2005 NBCC.
Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical pro-
jected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input
diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads au-
tomatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those
vertical wind loads in the load pattern, you must include them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
p = I q C
g
[C
p-winward
C
e-windward
+ C
p-leeward
C
e-leeward
] (2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(1))
where,
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
2005 NBCC Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 21
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input
by the user.
C
e-windward
= Exposure factor for the windward wall.
C
p-leeward
= External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by
the user.
C
e-leeward
= Exposure factor for the leeward wall.
C
e-windward
is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.7.1(5).
0.2
-windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e-leeward
is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.7.1(5).
0.2
middle
-leeward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.7.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1 of the 2005
NBCC.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 22 Exposure from Area Objects
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in 2005 NBCC Section 4.1.7.1.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = I q C
e
C
g
C
p
(2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(1))
where,
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
e
= Exposure factor.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
C
e
for a windward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.7.1(5)).
0.2
-windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e
for a leeward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.7.1(5)).
0.2
middle
-leeward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
(2005 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
2010 NBCC Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 23
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.8 2010 NBCC Wind Loads
3.8.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Three wind coefficients are input for 2010 NBCC wind loads. They are the
velocity pressure, q, in kPa, the gust effect factor, C
g
, and the importance fac-
tor, I.
The velocity pressure, q, can be obtained from 2010 NBCC Appendix C. A
typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.27 to 1.23 kPa. Any posi-
tive value or zero is allowed.
The gust effect factor, C
g
, is discussed in 2010 NBCC Sentence 4.1.7.1(6). The
default value is 2.0. Any positive value is allowed.
The importance factor, I, is described in 2010 NBCC Table 4.1.7.1. A typical
range of values for I is 0.8 to 1.25.
3.8.2 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Wind Loads
3.8.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 2010 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1 of the
2010 NBCC.
Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical pro-
jected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input
diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads au-
tomatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those
vertical wind loads in the load pattern, the user must include them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 24 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
p = I q C
g
[C
p-winward
C
e-windward
+ C
p-leeward
C
e-leeward
] (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(1))
where,
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input
by the user.
C
e-windward
= Exposure factor for the windward wall.
C
p-leeward
= External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by
the user.
C
e-leeward
= Exposure factor for the leeward wall.
C
e-windward
is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.7.1(5) or may be specified
by the user:
0.2
-windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
0.3
-windward
0.7
12
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e-leeward
is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1.7.1(5) or may be specified by
user:
0.2
middle
-leeward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
0.3
middle
-leeward
0.7
12
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
2010 NBCC Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 25
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.8.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for 2010 NBCC are based on Section 4.1.7.1 of the 2010
NBCC.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in 2010 NBCC Section 4.1.7.1.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = I q C
e
C
g
C
p
(2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(1))
where,
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
q = Velocity pressure as input by the user.
C
e
= Exposure factor.
C
g
= Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
C
e
for a windward facing area object is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.7.1(5)) or may be specified by the user:
0.2
-windward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 26 Exposure from Area Objects
0.3
-windward
0.7
12
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the eleva-
tion considered, meters.
C
e
for a leeward facing area object is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn.
4.1.7.1(5)) or may be specified by the user:
0.2
middle
-leeward
0.9
10
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
0.3
middle
-leeward
0.7
12
e
h
C
| |
= >
|
\ .
for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.1(5))
where,
h
middle
= One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum
level to the input top story/maximum level, meters.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.9 ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads
3.9.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Five wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-95 wind loads. They are the basic
wind speed in miles per hour (mph), the exposure category, the wind impor-
tance factor, I, the topographic factor, K
zt
, and the gust factor G.
The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.2. A typical range
of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.
ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 27
The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.3. The expo-
sure category can be A, B, C, or D. No other values are allowed.
The wind importance factor, I, is described in ASCE 7-95 Table 6-2. Note that
the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-95
Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.87 to 1.15.
The topographic factor K
zt
is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.5.5. The de-
fault value for K
zt
is 1.0. K
zt
can not be less than 1.0.
The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.6. A typical
range of values for G is 0.80 to 0.85.
3.9.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads
3.9.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6.4 through 6.6 of
ASCE 7-95.
The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 7-
95 Sections 6.4 through 6.6. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are
applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the
story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not
apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of
roof surfaces. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern,
you must include them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area in pounds per square foot
(psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
V
2
I (ASCE 7-95 Eqn 6-1)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns.
C3a and C3b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 28 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
, is obtained using (Eqns. C3a
and C3b in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.5.1).
2
2.01
z
g
z
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for 15 feet s z s z
g

2
15
2.01
z
g
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. C3a, C3b)
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
z
g
= As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95
Commentary Section 6.5.1).
o = As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95
Commentary Section 6.5.1).
Table 3-1: o and z
g
factors for use in ASCE 7-95 Equations C3a and C3b
Exposure Category o z
g
(feet)
A 5.0 1500
B 7.0 1200
C 9.5 900
D 11.5 700

The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area, which is based on ASCE 7-95 Ta-
ble 6-1. In particular, it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting
systems" under the heading "Buildings of all heights."
p = q G C
p-windward
+ q
h
G C
p-leeward
(ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1)
ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 29
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the
horizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn.
6-1).
G = Gust response factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
q
h
= Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the
vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn. 6-
1).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.9.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6.4 through 6.6 of
ASCE 7-95.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.4.2.
(ASCE 7-95 Eqn. 6-1) is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the user selected area objects in pounds per square
feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
V
2
I (ASCE 7-95 Eqn. 6-1)
where,
K
z
= Velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. C3a
and C3b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 30 Exposure from Area Objects
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1 is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on
the surface of the area objects, which is based on ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1. In
particular it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting systems"
under the heading titled "Buildings of all heights."
p = q G C
p
(ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the area ob-
ject calculated using (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1). For leeward facing
area objects, q = q
h
, the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum
height.
G = Gust response factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.10 ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads
3.10.1 Input Exposure
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in
this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 also offers the capability
to generate wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice struc-
tures. If the option to include frame objects is checked, wind loads will be
generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the
Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters com-
mand in SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open
Structure Wind Parameters in CSiBridge. The wind load pattern must be
defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.
ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads - Input Wind Exposure Parameters
Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 - 31
Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Pa-
rameters or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind
Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line
Objects form. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is
(Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes); the ice thickness; and
the net force coefficient, C
f
.
The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded,
and has a default value of “Program Determined.” The net force coefficient for
wind, C
f
, also has a default value of “Program Determined.” The wind loads
calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object, the dimen-
sions of the object, and various code-dependent wind coefficients.
3.10.1.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Pa-
rameters” earlier in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 al-
lows specification of three additional coefficients when the exposure from ex-
tents of diaphragms is selected: the case type; and the eccentricity factors, e
1

and e
2
.
The case types are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. The case type can be 1,
2, 3, or 4.
The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. A typical val-
ue for e
1
and e
2
is 0.15.
3.10.1.2 Input Wind Coefficients
Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-02 wind loads depend-
ing upon the type of exposure. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour
(mph), the exposure category, the wind importance factor, I, the topographic
factor, K
zt
, the gust factor, G, the directionality factor, k
d
, the roughness length
parameter, z
0
, and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to
wind loads
The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.4. A typical range
of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 32 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.6.3. The ex-
posure category can be A, B, C or D. No other values are allowed.
The wind importance factor, I, is described in ASCE 7-02 Table 6-1. Note that
the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-02
Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.77 to 1.15.
The topographic factor K
zt
is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.7.2. The de-
fault value for K
zt
is 1.0. K
zt
cannot be less than 1.0.
The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.8. A typical
value for G is 0.85.
The directionality factor, K
d
, is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.4.4. A typ-
ical range of values for K
d
is 0.85 to 0.95.
The roughness length parameter, z
0
, is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Commentary
C6.5.6. A typical range of values for z
0
is 0.016 to 6.6.
The ratio of solid area to gross area, e, is used in the determination of the net
force coefficient, C
f
, as discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.13. This ratio ap-
plies only to open structures, and thus is available for user input only when ex-
posure to frame objects has been selected.
3.10.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads
3.10.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
02.
The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 7-
02 Section 6.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). Windward and leeward ho-
rizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as
determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.
The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected
horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those vertical wind loads in the
same load pattern, you must include them manually.
ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 33
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in pounds per square foot
(psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-15)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.
C6-3a and C6-3b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
, is obtained using (Eqns. C6-3a
and C6-3b in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.5.6.4).
2
2.01
z
g
z
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for 15 feet s z s z
g

2
15
2.01
z
g
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-02 C6-3a,C6-3b)
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
z
g
= Gradient height. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. C6-5).
o = Empirical exponent. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. C6-4).
The gradient height, z
g
, is obtained using (Eqn. C6-5 in ASCE 7-02 Commen-
tary Section 6.5.6.4).
0.125
0
1273
g
z z = (ASCE 7-02 C6-5)
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 34 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
The empirical exponent o is obtained using (Eqn. C6-4 in ASCE 7-02 Com-
mentary Section 6.5.6.4).
0.157
0
6.19 z
÷
o = (ASCE 7-02 C6-4)
where,
z
0
= Roughness length parameter as input by the user.
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
p = q G C
p-windward
+ q
h
G C
p-leeward
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-17)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the ho-
rizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-
15).
G = Gust response factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
q
h
= Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the
vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-
15).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis, as shown in Figure 3-1. The applica-
tion of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and y-
directions of the building, P
x
and P
y
, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or
the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned
with the x- or y-axis. The program then combines the loads for each of the four
wind load pattern described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9, resulting in the permuta-
tions shown in Table 3-2.

ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 35
Table 3-2: Wind Load Patterns
CASE Lateral Force Torsional Moment
1 P
x
---
1 P
y
---
2 0.75 P
x
±0.75 e
1
B
x
P
x

2 0.75 P
y
±0.75 e
1
B
y
P
y

3 0.75(P
x
+ P
y
) ---
4 0.563(P
x
+ P
y
) ±0.563(e
1
B
x
P
x
± e
2
B
y
P
y
)
where,
P
x
= Resultant wind force in the x-direction.
P
y
= Resultant wind force in the y-direction.
e
1
= Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied Wind load as input
by the user.
B
x
= Diaphragm width in the y-direction.
e
2
= Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as
input by the user.
B
y
= Diaphragm width in the x-direction.
3.10.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
02.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.12.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the user selected area objects, in pounds per square
feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I ( ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-15)
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 36 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.
C6-3a and C6-3b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = q G C
p
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-17)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the area ob-
ject calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-15). For leeward facing
area objects, q = q
h
, the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum
height.
G = Gust response factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.10.2.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
02.
ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads - Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 - 37
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method
are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as de-
scribed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5.13.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects, in pounds per
square feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-15)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.
C6-3a and C6-3b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the design wind force, F, on the
surface of the frame objects.
F = q
z
G C
f
A
f
(ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-25)
where,
q
z
= Velocity pressure, q
z
, evaluated at height z of the centroid of area A
f
using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-15).
G = Gust response factor as input by the user.
C
f
= Net force coefficient, as specified in Table 3-3 (ASCE 7-02 Figure
6-21).
A
f
= Projected solid area normal to the wind.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 38 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Table 3-3: C
f
factor for use in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 6-25)
Solid/Gross Area Ratio
e
C
f

< 0.1 2.0
0.1 to 0.29 1.8
0.3 to 0.7 1.6
3.11 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads
Section 1609.1.1 of the 2006 IBC states that wind loads shall be determined in
accordance with ASCE Standard 7-05. For the sake of clarity, in the remainder
of this section all references will be made only to the ASCE 7-05 document,
with the understanding that this information is directly applicable to those us-
ing the 2006 IBC as well.
3.11.1 Input Exposure
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in
this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 allows specification of
the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice
structures. If the option to include frame objects is checked, wind loads will be
generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the
Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters com-
mand in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open
Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge. The wind load pattern
must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.
Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Pa-
rameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Struc-
ture Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Over-
writes for Line Objects form. The form allows specification of three items: the
frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes); the ice
thickness; and the net force coefficient, C
f
.
The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded,
and has a default value of “Program Determined.” The net force coefficient for
2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads - Input Wind Exposure Parameters
Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 - 39
wind, C
f
, also has a default value of “Program Determined.” The wind loads
calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object, the dimen-
sions of the object, and various code-dependent wind coefficients.
3.11.1.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Pa-
rameters” earlier in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 also
offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure from extents of
diaphragms is selected: the case type; and the eccentricity factors, e
1
and e
2
.
The case types are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. The case type can be 1,
2, 3, or 4.
The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. A typical val-
ue for e
1
and e
2
is 0.15.
3.11.1.2 Input Wind Coefficients
Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-05 wind loads, depend-
ing on the type of exposure. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour
(mph), the exposure category, the wind importance factor, I, the topographic
factor, K
zt
, the gust factor, G, the directionality factor, k
d
, the roughness length
parameter, z
0
, and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to
wind loads
The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.4. A typical range
of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.
The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.6.3. The ex-
posure category can be B, C, or D. No other values, including exposure A, are
allowed.
The wind importance factor, I, is described in ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1. Note that
the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-05
Table 1-1. A typical range of values for I is 0.77 to 1.15.
The topographic factor K
zt
is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.7.2. The de-
fault value for K
zt
is 1.0. K
zt
cannot be less than 1.0.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 40 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
The gust effect factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.8. A typical
value for G is 0.85.
The directionality factor, K
d
, is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.4.4. A typ-
ical range of values for K
d
is 0.85 to 0.95.
The roughness length parameter, z
0
, is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Commentary
C6.5.6. A typical range of values for z
0
is 0.016 to 1.0.
The ratio of solid area to gross area, e, is used in the determination of the net
force coefficient, C
f
, as discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.15. This ratio ap-
plies only to open structures, and thus is available for user input only when ex-
posure to frame objects has been selected.
3.11.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads
3.11.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
05.
The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 7-
05 Section 6.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). Windward and leeward ho-
rizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as
determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.
The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected
horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those vertical wind loads in the
same load pattern, you must include them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in pounds per square foot
(psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.
C6-4a and C6-4b).
2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 41
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
, is obtained using (Eqns. C6-4a
and C6-4b in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6.5.6.6).
2
2.01
z
g
z
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for 15 feet s z s z
g

2
15
2.01
z
g
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-4a, C6-4b )
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
z
g
= Gradient height. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-6).
o = Empirical exponent. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-5).
The gradient height, z
g
, and the empirical exponent o are obtained ASCE 7-05
Table 6-2.
ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-17 is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on
the surface of the vertical projected area.
p = q G C
p-windward
+ q
h
G C
p-leeward
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-17)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the ver-
tical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15).
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 42 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
q
h
= Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the
vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-
15).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. The applica-
tion of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and y-
directions of the building, P
x
and P
y
, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or
the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned
with the x- or y-axis. The program then combines the loads for each of the four
wind load patterns described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9, resulting in the permu-
tations shown in Table 3-4.
Table 3-4: Wind Load Patterns
Case Lateral Force Torsional Moment
1 P
x
---
1 P
y
---
2 0.75 P
x
±0.75 e
1
B
x
P
x

2 0.75 P
y
±0.75 e
1
B
y
P
y

3 0.75(P
x
+ P
y
) ---
4 0.563(P
x
+ P
y
) ±0.563(e
1
B
x
P
x
± e
2
B
y
P
y
)
where,
P
x
= Resultant wind force in the x-direction.
P
y
= Resultant wind force in the y-direction.
e
1
= Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied load as input by the
user.
B
x
= Diaphragm width in the y-direction.
e
2
= Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as
input by the user.
B
y
= Diaphragm width in the x-direction.
2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 43
3.11.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
05.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.12.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the user selected area objects, in pounds per square
feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.
C6-4a and C6-4b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = q G C
p
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-17)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the area ob-
ject calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15). For leeward facing
area objects, q = q
h
, the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum
height.
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 44 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.11.2.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.5 of ASCE 7-
05.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method
are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as de-
scribed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6.5.15.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects, in pounds per
square feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
I (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15 )
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.
C6-4a and C6-4b).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
I = Importance factor as input by the user.
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the design wind force, F, on the
surface of the frame objects.
F = q
z
G C
f
A
f
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-28)
ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads - Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 - 45
where,
q
z
= Velocity pressure, q
z
, evaluated at height z of the centroid of area A
f
using ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15.
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
f
= Net force coefficient, as specified in Table 3-5 (ASCE 7-05 Figure
6-22).
A
f
= Projected solid area normal to the wind.
Table 3-5: C
f
factor for use in ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-28
Solid/Gross Area Ratio
e
C
f

< 0.1 2.0
0.1 to 0.29 1.8
0.3 to 0.7 1.6
3.12 ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads
3.12.1 Input Exposure
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in
this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-10 allows specification of
the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice
structures. If the option to include frame objects is checked, wind loads will be
generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the
Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters com-
mand in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open
Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge. The wind load pattern
must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.
Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Pa-
rameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Struc-
ture Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Over-
writes for Line Objects form. The form allows specification of three items: the
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 46 Input Wind Exposure Parameters
frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes); the ice
thickness; and the net force coefficient, C
f
.
The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded,
and has a default value of “Program Determined.” The net force coefficient for
wind, C
f
, also has a default value of “Program Determined.” The wind loads
calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object, the dimen-
sions of the object, and various code-dependent wind coefficients.
3.12.1.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Pa-
rameters” earlier in this chapter, the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-10 also
offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure from extents of
diaphragms is selected: the case type; and the eccentricity factors, e
1
and e
2
.
The case types are described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27.4-8. The case type can be
1, 2, 3, or 4.
The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27.4-8. A typical
value for e
1
and e
2
is 0.15.
3.12.1.2 Input Wind Coefficients
Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-10 wind loads, depend-
ing on the type of exposure. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour
(mph), the exposure category, the topographic factor, K
zt
, the gust factor, G, the
directionality factor, k
d
, and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are ex-
posed to wind loads
The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.5.4. A typical range
of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.
The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.5.6.3. The ex-
posure category can be B, C, or D. No other values, including exposure A, are
allowed.
The topographic factor K
zt
is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.5.7.2. The de-
fault value for K
zt
is 1.0. K
zt
cannot be less than 1.0.
ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 47
The gust effect factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.5.8. A typical
value for G is 0.85.
The directionality factor, K
d
, is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.5.4.4. A typ-
ical range of values for K
d
is 0.85 to 0.95.
The ratio of solid area to gross area, e, is used in the determination of the net
force coefficient, C
f
, as discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 29.5. This ratio ap-
plies to open structures only and thus is available for user input only when ex-
posure to frame objects has been selected.
3.12.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads
3.12.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 27.2 of ASCE
7-10.
The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 7-
10 Section 27.2, Part 1 for Enclosed, Partially Enclosed, and Open Building of
all heights. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the
vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and
the input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind
loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To in-
clude those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, the user must include
them manually.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in pounds per square foot
(psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.3-1)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-10 Eqns.
27.3.1).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 48 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
The velocity pressure exposure coefficient, K
z
, is obtained using Table 27.3-1,
Eqns. C27.3-1 and C27.3-2 in ASCE 7-10 Commentary.
2
2.01
z
g
z
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for 15 feet s z s z
g

2
15
2.01
z
g
K
z
o
| |
= |
|
\ .
for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.3.1 )
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
z
g
= Gradient height.
o = Empirical exponent.
The gradient height, z
g
, and the empirical exponent o are obtained using ASCE
7-10 Table 26.9-1.
ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.4-2 is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the vertical projected area.
p = q G C
p-windward
+ q
h
G C
p-leeward
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.4-2)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the ver-
tical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Section
27.4.1).
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 49
q
h
= Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the
vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Section
27.4.1).
C
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. The applica-
tion of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and y-
directions of the building, P
x
and P
y
, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or
the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned
with the x- or y-axis. The program then combines the loads for each of the four
wind load patterns described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27.4-8, resulting in the per-
mutations shown in Table 3-6.
Table 3-6: Wind Load Patterns
Case Lateral Force Torsional Moment
1 P
x
---
1 P
y
---
2 0.75 P
x
±0.75 e
1
B
x
P
x

2 0.75 P
y
±0.75 e
1
B
y
P
y

3 0.75(P
x
+ P
y
) ---
4 0.563(P
x
+ P
y
) ±0.563(e
1
B
x
P
x
± e
2
B
y
P
y
)
where,
P
x
= Resultant wind force in the x-direction.
P
y
= Resultant wind force in the y-direction.
e
1
= Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied load as input by the
user.
B
x
= Diaphragm width in the y-direction.
e
2
= Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as
input by the user.
B
y
= Diaphragm width in the x-direction.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 50 Exposure from Area Objects
The design pressure for the parapet is determined by the following equation:
p
p
= q
p
G C
pm
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.4-4)
where,
p
p
= Combined net pressure on the parapet due to the combination of
net pressure from the front and back parapet surfaces.
q
p
= Velocity pressure evaluated at the top of parapet
GC
pm
= Combined pressure coefficients
= +1.5 psf for Windward parapet
= ÷1.0 psf for Leeward parapet
3.12.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 27.2 of ASCE
7-10.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in ASCE 7-10 Section 27.2.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the surface of the user selected area objects, in pounds per square
feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.3-1)
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-10 Eqns.
Section 27.3-1).
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads - Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 - 51
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point
on the surface of the area objects.
p = q G C
p
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.4-2)
where,
q = Velocity pressure, q
z
, at any height z on the surface of the area ob-
ject calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.4-2). For leeward facing
area objects, q = q
h
, the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum
height.
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.12.2.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 29.5 of ASCE
7-10.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method
are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as de-
scribed in ASCE 7-10 Section 27.3-1.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
z
, at any
height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects, in pounds per
square feet (psf).
q
z
= 0.00256 K
z
K
zt
K
d
V
2
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 29.3-1 )
where,
K
z
= The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 52 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
K
zt
= Topographic factor as input by the user.
K
d
= Directionality factor as input by the user.
V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.
The value for K
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The following equation is used to determine the design wind force, F, on the
surface of the frame objects.
F = q
z
G C
f
A
f
(ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 29.5-1)
where,
q
z
= Velocity pressure, q
z
, evaluated at height z of the centroid of area A
f
using ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 29.3-1.
G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.
C
f
= Net force coefficient, as specified in Table 3-7 (ASCE 7-10 Figure
29.5-2).
A
f
= Projected solid area normal to the wind.
Table 3-7: C
f
factor for use in ASCE 7-10 Equation 29.5-1
Solid/Gross Area Ratio
e
C
f

< 0.1 2.0
0.1 to 0.29 1.8
0.3 to 0.7 1.6
3.13 1987 RCDF Wind Loads
3.13.1 Input Wind Coefficients
A single wind coefficient, the wind velocity, V
D
, is input for 1987 Reglamento
de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal (RCDF) wind loads.
1987 RCDF Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 53
The wind velocity is described in 1987 RCDF Section 3.1.
3.13.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads
3.13.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Nor-
mas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms
method are based on a modified version of the Metodos Simplificado (Simpli-
fied Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. Windward and lee-
ward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the
building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm expo-
sure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over
the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those vertical wind
loads in the same load pattern, you must include them manually.
(Eqn. 3-1) is used to determine the wind pressure, p
z
, at any point on the sur-
face of the vertical projected area in pascals (Pa). (Eqn. 3-1) is based on (1987
RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn. 3.3).

( ) windward leeward
2
z D p p
p 0.47 V C C
÷ ÷
= +

(Eqn. 3-1)
where,
V
D
= Wind velocity as input by the user.
C
p-windward
= Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
C
p-leeward
= Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p
z
, on the surface of the vertical pro-
jected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis, as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.13.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Nor-
mas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 54 Exposure from Area Objects
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
based on Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3
of the 1987 RCDF. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal sur-
faces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 3.
(Eqn. 3-2) is used to determine the wind pressure, p
z
, at any point on the sur-
face of the area objects in pascals (Pa). (Eqn. 3-2) is based on (1987 RCDF
Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn. 3.3).

2
0 47
z p D
p . C V =

(Eqn. 3-2)
where,
V
D
= Wind velocity as input by the user.
C
p
= Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the
area object by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p
z
, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.14 2002 Chinese Wind Loads
3.14.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters
In addition to the wind direction angle discussed in the section entitled “Wind
Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter, two additional coefficients are in-
put for the automatic wind loads for 2002 Chinese when the exposure from ex-
tents of diaphragms is selected: the building width, B, and the shape coeffi-
cient, µ
s
. The building width, B, is also input when the exposure from area ob-
jects is selected.
The building windward width, B, is used in determining the pulsation influenc-
ing coefficient, v, from the Table 3.3.6-2 of JGJ 3-2002.
The shape coefficient for wind load, µ
s
, replaces the windward and leeward co-
efficients previously discussed in this chapter. This coefficient is described in
section 3.2 of JGJ 3-2002.
2002 Chinese Wind Loads - Input Phi Z Source
Input Phi Z Source 3 - 55
3.14.2 Input Wind Coefficients
Two wind coefficients are input for 2002 Chinese wind loads: the basic wind
pressure, w
0
, in kN per meter
2
(kN/m
2
); and the ground roughness type, RT.
The basic wind pressure is described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3.2.
The ground roughness types are described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3.2. The
roughness type can be A, B, C, or D. No other values are allowed.
3.14.2.1 Input Phi Z Source
Two choices are offered for determining how the mode coefficient, ¢
z
, shall be
calculated by the program. The first mode of vibration coefficient can be ob-
tained from a modal analysis or by using the Z/H ratio.
3.14.2.2 Input T1 Source
The fundamental period, T
1
, may be determined by the program from a modal
analysis, or input directly by the user.
3.14.2.3 Input Other Parameters
The damping ratio, ,, is input for the 2002 Chinese wind loads for use in calcu-
lating the pulsation increasing coefficient, ç.
3.14.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads
3.14.3.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3.2 of the JGJ
3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.
Horizontal wind loads, when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms
method, are applied on the vertical projected area as determined based on the
story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. (Eqn. 3-3) is
used to determine the wind vibration coefficient, |
z
, at height z.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 56 Exposure from Area Objects

z
z
z
1
¢ çv
| = +
µ

(Eqn. 3-3)
where,
¢
z
= First mode of vibration coefficient at height z.
ç = Pulsation increasing coefficient. (Eqn. 7.4.2-2 GB 50009-2001)
v = Pulsation influencing coefficient. (Table 3.3.6-2 JGJ 3-2002)
µ
z
= Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z.
(Eqn. 7.2.1 GB 50009-2001)
(Eqn. 3-4) is used to determine the wind pressure, w
k
, at any point on the sur-
face of the vertical projected area in kN/m
2
.
w
k
= |
z
µ
s
µ
z
w
0
(Eqn. 3-4)
where,
|
z
= Wind vibration coefficient at height z. See (Eqn. 3-3).
µ
s
= Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user.
µ
z
= Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn. 7.2.1 GB
50009-2001).
w
0
= Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, w
k
, on the surface of the vertical pro-
jected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis, as shown in Figure 3-1.
3.14.3.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3.2 of the JGJ
3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
as described in Section 3.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.
Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user se-
lected area objects.
2008 API 4F Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 57
(Eqn. 3-5) is used to determine the wind pressure, w
k
, at any point on the sur-
face of the area objects.
w
k
= |
z
µ
s
µ
z
w
0
(Eqn. 3-5)
where,
|
z
= Wind vibration coefficient at height z. See (Eqn. 3-3).
µ
s
= Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user.
µ
z
= Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn. 7.2.1 GB
50009-2001).
w
0
= Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user.
The value for |
z
is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Ex-
posure from Extents of Diaphragms.”
The programs distribute the pressures, w
k
, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. As a
general rule, only area objects exposed on the windward side of the building
should be loaded using the exposure from area objects method when using the
2002 Chinese automatic wind load option.
3.15 2008 API 4F Wind Loads
Two wind coefficients are input for 2008 API 4F wind loads. They are the ref-
erence wind speed in knots and the Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier.
3.15.1 Input Exposure
In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in
this chapter, the automatic wind loads for API 4F-2008 allows specification of
the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice
structures. If the option to include frame objects is checked, wind loads will be
generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the
Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters com-
mand in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 58 Exposure from Area Objects
Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge. The wind load pattern
must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.
Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Pa-
rameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Struc-
ture Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Over-
writes for Line Objects form. The form allows specification of three items: the
frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes); the ice
thickness; and the net force coefficient, C
s
.
The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded,
and has a default value of “Program Determined.” The net force coefficient for
wind, C
s
, also has a default value of “Program Determined.” The wind loads
calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object, the dimen-
sions of the object, and various code-dependent wind coefficients.
3.15.2 Algorithm for API 4F-2008 Wind Loads
3.15.2.1 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the API 4F-2008 are based on Section 8.3 of API
Specification 4F.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
m
, at any
height z on the surface of the user selected area objects, in pounds per square
feet (psf).
q
m
= 0.00338 K
i
C
p
V
z
2
(API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3)
where,
K
i
= This factor is taken as 1.0,
C
p
= Wind pressure coefficient,
V
z
= Wind speed in knots at height z as computed by API 4F-2008 sec-
tion 8.3.1.3.
2008 API 4F Wind Loads - Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 - 59
The following equation is used to determine the wind speed, V
z
, at any point on
the surface of the area objects.
V
z
= V
des
|

(API 4-2008 Section 8.3.1.3)
where
0.85 | = for heights s 4.6 m (15 ft)

( )
0.211
2.01
900
z
| = for heights > 4.6 m (15 ft)
and
V
des
= V
ref
o
ref
(API 4-2008 Section 8.3.1.1 and 8.3.1.2)
where,
V
des
= Maximum design Wind velocity.
| = Elevation factor as determine from API 4F-2008 Table 8.4.
o
ref
= Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier as input by user.
The programs distribute the pressures, q
m
, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.15.2.2 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Automatic wind loads for the API 4F-2008 are based on Section 8.3 of API
Specification 4F.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method
are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as de-
scribed in API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3.
The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure, q
m
, at any
height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects, in pounds per
square feet (psf).
q
m
= 0.00338 K
i
C
s
V
z
2
(API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3)
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 60 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
where,
K
i
= A factor to account for angle of inclination | between the longitudi-
nal axis of an individual area and the wind.
C
s
= Shape coefficient as per clause API 4F-2008 8.3.3.4 and Table 8.6.
V
z
= Wind speed in knots at height z as computed by API 4F-2008 sec-
tion 8.3.1.3.
The following equation is used to determine the wind speed, V
z
, at any point on
the surface of the area objects.
V
z
= V
des
|

(API 4-2008 Section 8.3.1.3)
where
0.85 | = for heights s 4.6 m (15 ft)

( )
0.211
2.01
900
z
| = for heights > 4.6 m (15 ft)
and
V
des
= V
ref
o
ref
(API 4-2008 Section 8.3.1.1 and 8.3.1.2)
where,
V
des
= Maximum design Wind velocity.
| = Elevation factor as determine from API 4F-2008 Table 8.4.
o
ref
= Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier as input by user.
The following equation is used to determine the member design wind force, F
m
,
on the surface of the frame objects.
F
m
= q
m
C
s
A (API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3)
A correction factor K
sh
is used to account for global shielding effects and for
changes in airflow around member or appurtenances ends. The K
sh
factor ap-
plies to the overall wind load on the building, but does not apply to the load on
the member itself.
F
t
= G
f
K
sh
¿F
m
(API 4F-2008 Section 8.3.3)
2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads - Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects
Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 - 61
where,
G
f
= Gust effect factor to account for spatial coherence as per API 4F
section 8.3.3.3.
K
sh
= A reduction factor to account for global shielding by members or
appurtenances, and for changes in airflow around member or appur-
tenance as per API 4F section 8.3.3.3
q
m
= Velocity pressure, q
m
, evaluated at height z of the centroid of area
A
f
.
C
s
= Shape coefficient, as specified in Table 3-8 (API 4F-2008, Table
8.6).
A = Projected solid area normal to the wind.
Table 3-8: C
s
Shape Coefficients for use in (API 4F-2008)
Shape C
s

Angles, Channels, Beams, Tees 1.8
Square/Rectangular box 1.5
Round pipes 0.8
Others 2.0
3.16 2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads
3.16.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Seven wind coefficients are input for EN 1991-1-4:2005 wind loads. They are
the basic wind speed,
b
v , in meter per second (m/sec), the terrain category, the
terrain orography, ( )
o
c z , turbulence intensity, ( ) z I
v
, and the structural factor,
s d
c c .
The basic wind velocity,
b
v , is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.2
(2)P.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 62 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
The terrain roughness, ( ) z C
r
, is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.3.2.
The terrain categories can be 0, I, II, III and IV. The roughness factor, ( ) z C
r
,
accounts for the variability of the mean wind velocity at the site of the structure
due to:
 the height of ground level
 the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind di-
rection considered
The terrain orography, ( )
o
c z , is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.3.3.
The orography factor is taken as 1.0 unless otherwise specified in EN 1991-1-
4:2005 Section 4.3.3.
The wind turbulence ( ) z I
v
is discussed in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.4.
The roughness length parameter, z
0
, is discussed in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section
4.3.2, Table 4.1. A typical range of values for z
0
is 0.003 to 1.0.
3.16.2 Algorithm for EN 1991-1-4:2005 Wind Loads
3.16.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5.3 of
EN 1991-1-4:2005.
Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical pro-
jected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input
diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads
automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include
those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, you must include them ma-
nually.
The following equation is used to determine the peak velocity pressure, q
p
(z),
at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per
square meter (N/m
2
).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
1 7
p v r o b
q z I z c z c z v µ ( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.8)
2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 63
where,
v
b
= Basic wind speed in m/sec as input by the user
µ = The air density. The values for µ may be given in the National
Annex. Program uses 1.25 kg/m
3
for this item.
I
v
(z) = The turbulent intensity at height z
c
r
(z) = The roughness factor
c
o
(z) = The orography factor as input by user
The terrain roughness factor, c
r
(z), is obtained using (Eqns. 4.4 and 4.5 in EN
1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.3.2).
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
r r
z
z
k z c ln for z
min
s z s z
max
where,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
II
r
z
z
k
, 0
0
19 . 0
( ) ( )
min
z c z c
r r
= s z
min
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.4 and 4.5)
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered
z
0
= Roughness length as given in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1
z
0,II
= 0.05 m (terrain category II, EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1)
z
min
= Minimum height as defined in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1
z
max
= is to be taken as 200 m
The turbulence intensity factor, I
v
(z), is obtained using (Eqns. 4.7 in EN 1991-
1-4:2005 Section 4.4).
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 64 Exposure from Area Objects
( )
( ) ( )
o o
I
v
z z z c
k
z I
ln
= for z
min
s z s z
max
( ) ( )
min
z I z I
v v
= for z s z
min
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.7)

where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
k
I
= Turbulence factor. The value of k
I
may be given in National Annex.
The default value of k
I
is 1.0
EN 1991-1-4:2005 Eqn. 5.1 and 5.5 are used to determine the wind pressure, w,
at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.
w =
p-windward
( )
s d p
c c q z c +
p-leeward
( )
s d p
c c q z c

(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 5.1 and 5.5)
where,
( )
p
q z = Velocity pressure, q
p
, at any height z on the surface of the ver-
tical projected area calculated using (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.8).
s d
c c = Structural factor as input by the user.
c
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
c
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The pressures, w, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. The applica-
tion of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and y-
directions of the building, F
x
and F
y
, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or
the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned
with the x- or y-axis.
3.16.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5.3 of
EN 1991-1-4:2005.
2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 65
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5.3 of EN 1991-1-
4:2005.
The following equation is used to determine the peak velocity pressure, q
p
(z),
at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in newton per
square meter (N/m
2
).
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1
2
1 7
p v r o b
q z I z c z c z v µ ( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.8)
where,
v
b
= Basic wind speed in m/sec as input by the user
µ = The air density. The values for µ may be given in the National
Annex. Program uses 1.25 kg/m
3
for this item.
I
v
(z) = The turbulent intensity at height z
c
r
(z) = The roughness factor
c
o
(z) = The orography factor as input by user
The terrain roughness factor, c
r
(z), is obtained using (Eqns. 4.4 and 4.5 in EN
1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.3.2).
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
o
r r
z
z
k z c ln for z
min
s z s z
max
where,
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
II
r
z
z
k
, 0
0
19 . 0
( ) ( )
min
z c z c
r r
= s z
min
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.4 and 4.5)
where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 66 Exposure from Area Objects
z
0
= Roughness length as given in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1
z
0,II
= 0.05 m (terrain category II, EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1)
z
min
= Minimum height as defined in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.1
z
max
= is to be taken as 200 m.
The turbulence intensity factor, I
v
(z), is obtained using (Eqns. 4.7 in EN 1991-
1-4:2005 Section 4.4).
( )
( ) ( )
o o
I
v
z z z c
k
z I
ln
= for z
min
s z s z
max
( ) ( )
min
z I z I
v v
= for z s z
min
(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.7)

where,
z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point
considered.
k
I
= Turbulence factor. The value of k
I
may be given in National Annex.
The default value of k
I
is 1.0.
EN 1991-1-4:2005 Eqn. 5.1 and 5.5 are used to determine the wind pressure, w,
at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.
w =
-windward
( )
s d p p
c c q z c +
-leeward
( )
s d p p
c c q z c


(EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 5.1 and 5.5)
where,
( )
p
q z = Velocity pressure, q
p
, at any height z on the surface of the ver-
tical projected area calculated using (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.8)
s d
c c = Structural factor as input by the user
c
p-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
c
p-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, w, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 67
3.17 2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads
3.17.1 Input Wind Coefficients
Eleven wind coefficients are input for AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 wind loads. They
are the regional wind speed,
R
V , in meter per second (m/sec), the wind direc-
tion multiplier,
d
M , the terrain category,
, Z cat
M , the shielding multiplier,
s
M ,
the topographic multiplier,
t
M , the identification of region (cyclonic/non-
cyclonic), the dynamic response factor,
dyn
C and four parameters
( )
,
, ,
a c l p
K K K K which are used to compute aerodynamic shape factor,
fig
C .
The regional wind speed,
R
V , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 3.2.
For regions C and D, regional wind speed,
R
V , include additional factor
1.05
c
F = and 1.1
D
F = respectively.
The wind direction multiplier,
d
M , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Sec-
tion 3.3. Program is using 1.0
d
M = for all wind directions as default.
The terrain category,
, z cat
M ,is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 4.2.
The terrain categories can be 1, 2, 3 and 4. The terrain category,
, Z cat
M , ac-
counts for the variability of the wind velocity at the site of the structure due to:
 the height of ground level
 the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind di-
rection considered
The shielding multiplier,
s
M , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section
4.3.
The topographic multiplier,
t
M , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section
4.4.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 68 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
The aerodynamic shape factor,
fig
C , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Sec-
tion 5.2.
The dynamic response factor,
dyn
C , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Sec-
tion 6.1. Structures with first mode fundamental frequency greater than 1Hz,
1.0
dyn
C = . First mode fundamental frequency between 0.2 Hz and 1Hz should
be computed in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 6. Structure less
than 0.2 Hz is not covered by this Standard.
3.17.2 Algorithm for AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Wind Loads
3.17.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 are based on Section 2.4 of
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002.
Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical pro-
jected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input
diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads
automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include
those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, you must include them ma-
nually.
The following equation is used to determine the design wind pressure, p, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per square me-
ter (N/m
2
).
2
1
air des, fig dyn 2 u
µ ( =
¸ ¸
p V C C (AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.4(1))
where,
des,u
V

= Building Orthogonal design wind speed in m/sec .
air
µ = Air density. The values for
air
µ is taken as 1.2 kg/m
3
.
fig
C = Aerodynamic shape factor.
2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 - 69
dyn
C = Dynamic response factor as input by user.
To simplify design, building orthogonal design wind speed is computed for the
worst direction. Therefore,
des, sit , u |
= V V in the program.
The site wind speed,
sit ,|
V , at the reference height ( ) z , above ground is com-
puted as follows:
( )
sit , ,cat
30
|
= >
R d z s t
V V M M M M m/sec (AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.2)
where,
sit ,|
V

= Site wind speed in m/sec at the reference height ( ) z above
ground
R
V = Regional 3 seconds gust wind speed in m/sec, for annual prob-
ability of exceedance of 1/R, as input by user.
d
M = Wind directional multiplier taken as 1.0 for all directions.
,cat z
M = Terrain/height multiplier.
s
M = Shielding multiplier as input by user.
t
M = Topographic multiplier as input by user.
The terrain roughness on wind speed factor,
,cat z
M , is obtained using AS/NZS
1170.2 Table 4.1(A) or Table 4.1(B).
The aerodynamic shape factor,
fig
C , is obtained using Eqns. 5.2(1) in AS/NZS
1170.2:2002 Section 5.2.
fig ,
=
p e a c l p
C C K K K K

(AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 5.2(1))

where,
, p e
C = external pressure coefficient as input by user.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 70 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
a
K = Area reduction factor. The value of
a
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.4. The default value of
a
K is 1.0.
c
K = Combination factor. The value of
c
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.5 and fro all surfaces,
c
K should not be less than 0.8/
a
K .
The default value of
c
K is 1.0.
l
K = Local pressure factor. The value of
l
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.6. The local pressure factor
l
K is 1.0 in al cases.
p
K = Porous cladding reduction factor. The value of
p
K is given in
AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.8. The default value of
p
K is 1.0.
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Eqn. 2.2, 2.4(1) and 5.2(1) are used to determine the
wind pressure, p, at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.
( )
2 2
1
air dyn des, ( ) , -windward des, ( ) , -leeward 2 u u
µ
(
( ( = +
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
a c l p z p e h p e
p C K K K K V C V C
where,
c
p,e-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
c
p,e-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
For leeward sides, wind speed is taken as the value at z h = . The

( )
( ) des,
,
z
p z V
u
varies with height whereas
( ) des, h
V
u
remains constant.
The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to
each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. The applica-
tion of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and y-
directions of the building, F
x
and F
y
, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or
the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned
with the x- or y-axis.
2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 71
3.17.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects
Automatic wind loads for the AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 are based on Section 2.4 of
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002.
The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are
applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects
as described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 are based on Section 2.4 of AS/NZS
1170.2:2002.
The following equation is used to determine the design wind pressure, p, at any
height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per square me-
ter (N/m
2
).
2
1
air des, fig dyn 2 u
µ ( =
¸ ¸
p V C C (AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.4(1))
where,
des,u
V

= Building Orthogonal design wind speed in m/sec .
air
µ = Air density. The values for
air
µ is taken as 1.2 kg/m
3
.
fig
C = Aerodynamic shape factor.
dyn
C = Dynamic response factor as input by user.
To simplify design, building orthogonal design wind speed is computed for the
worst direction. Therefore,
des, sit , u |
= V V in the program.
The site wind speed,
sit ,|
V , at the reference height ( ) z , above ground is com-
puted as follows:
( )
sit , ,cat
30 m/sec
|
= >
R d z s t
V V M M M M (AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.2)
where,
sit ,|
V

= Site wind speed in m/sec at the reference height ( ) z above
ground
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
3 - 72 Exposure from Area Objects
R
V = Regional 3 seconds gust wind speed in m/sec, for annual prob-
ability of exceedance of 1/R, as input by user.
d
M = Wind directional multiplier taken as 1.0 for all directions.
,cat z
M = Terrain/height multiplier.
s
M = Shielding multiplier as input by user.
t
M = Topographic multiplier as input by user.
The terrain roughness on wind speed factor,
,cat z
M , is obtained using AS/NZS
1170.2 Table 4.1(A) or Table 4.1(B).
The aerodynamic shape factor,
fig
C , is obtained using Eqns. 5.2(1) in AS/NZS
1170.2:2002 Section 5.2.
fig ,
=
p e a c l p
C C K K K K

(AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 5.2(1))

where,
, p e
C = external pressure coefficient as input by user.
a
K = Area reduction factor. The value of
a
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.4. The default value of
a
K is 1.0.
c
K = Combination factor. The value of
c
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.5 and fro all surfaces,
c
K should not be less than 0.8/
a
K .
The default value of
c
K is 1.0.
l
K = Local pressure factor. The value of
l
K is given in AS/NZS 1170.2,
Table 5.6. The local pressure factor
l
K is 1.0 in al cases.
p
K = Porous cladding reduction factor. The value of
p
K is given in
AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.8. The default value of
p
K is 1.0.
User-Defined Wind Loads - Exposure from Area Objects
Exposure from Area Objects 3 - 73
AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Eqn. 2.2, 2.4(1) and 5.2(1) are used to determine the
wind pressure, p, at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.
( )
2
1
air des, dyn , -windward , -leeward 2 u
µ
(
( = +
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
p e p e a c l p
p V C C C K K K K
where,
c
p,e-windward
= Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
c
p,e-leeward
= Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.
The programs distribute the pressures, p, on the surface of each area object,
which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.
3.18 User-Defined Wind Loads
For user defined loads, define the magnitude of the wind load force in the X-
and Y-directions, the torsional moment, and the location of the wind load force
to each diaphragm at each story level. On this basis of these data, a point object
is automatically created at the location of the applied load.

i
References
AS 1170.4-2007. Australian Standard – Part 4: Earthquake action in
Australia, Standards Australia, GPO Box 476, Sydney, NSW 2001,
Australia.
ASCE, 7-02. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, Reston,
Virginia.
ASCE, 7-95. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings
and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers, New
York, New York.
ASCE/SEI, 7-05. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Build-
ings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Reston, Virginia.
ASCE/SEI, 7-10. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Build-
ings and Other Structures, American Society of Civil Engineers,
Reston, Virginia.
BOCA, 1996. The BOCA National Building Code – 13
th
Edition, Build-
ing Officials & Code Administrators International, Inc., Country
Club Hills, Illinois.
BS 6399, 1995. British Standard – Loading for Buildings, Part 2, British
Standards Institution, London, England.
Automated Lateral Loads Manual
ii
Chinese, 2002. GB 50009-2001, Load Code for the Design of Building
Structures.
IBC, 2003. International Building Code, International Code Council,
Inc., Falls Church, Virginia.
IBC, 2006. International Building Code, International Code Council,
Inc., 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC
20001.
IBC, 2009. International Building Code, International Code Council,
Inc., 500 New Jersey Avenue, NW, 6th Floor, Washington, DC
20001.
NBCC 2010. National Building Code of Canada, National Research
Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
NBCC 2005. National Building Code of Canada, National Research
Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
NBCC, 1995. National Building Code of Canada, National Research
Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario.
NEHRP, 1997. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regula-
tions for New Buildings and Other Structures, Building Seismic
Safety Council, Washington, D.C
NTC 2008, Technical Rules for Construction, D.M. January 2008,
NZS 1170.5:2004. New Zealand Standard – Part5: Earthquake Actions –
New Zealand, Standards New Zealand , Wellington, New Zealand.
RCDF, 1987. Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal –
Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento, RCDF,
Mexico, D.F.
UBC, 1997. Uniform Building Code – Structural Engineering Design
Provisions, International Conference of Building Officials, Whittier,
California.

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Copyright  Computers and Structures, Inc., 1978-2011 All rights reserved. The CSI Logo® and SAP2000® are registered trademarks of Computers and Structures, TM Inc. Watch & Learn is a trademark of Computers and Structures, Inc. The computer program SAP2000® and all associated documentation are proprietary and copyrighted products. Worldwide rights of ownership rest with Computers and Structures, Inc. Unlicensed use of these programs or reproduction of documentation in any form, without prior written authorization from Computers and Structures, Inc., is explicitly prohibited. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior explicit written permission of the publisher. Further information and copies of this documentation may be obtained from: Computers and Structures, Inc. 1995 University Avenue Berkeley, California 94704 USA Phone: (510) 649-2200 FAX: (510) 649-2299 e-mail: info@csiberkeley.com (for general questions) e-mail: support@csiberkeley.com (for technical support questions) web: www.csiberkeley.com

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5 About the Manual Technical Support Help Us Help You Telephone Support Online Support 1-1 1-2 1-2 1-3 1-3 Chapter 2 Automatic Seismic Loads 2.3 1.Contents Automated Lateral Loads Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 1.2 1.2 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns Automatic Seismic Load Patterns 2.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads at a Story Level 2-2 2-3 2-3 i .4 1.1 2.2.

11 2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2.8.1 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2.3.3 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2.3 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity Story/Elevation Range Data 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-10 2-10 2-12 2-13 2-13 2-15 2-15 2-17 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-21 2-21 2-22 2-23 2-26 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-31 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-36 2-36 2-37 2-38 2-41 2-41 2-42 2-44 2-47 2-47 2-48 2-49 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period 2.9.10.12 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2.4.10 2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period 2.12.2 2.11.6 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.6.2.4 2.3 Algorithm for 2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period 2.12.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.12.10.3 2.3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2.5.10.3 Algorithm for IBC2009/ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads 2.5 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.2.1 Options for 2003 IBC Building Period 2.1 Options for 2009 IBC Building Period 2.3.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.7.1 Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period 2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.5.6.3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period 2.1 Options for 2006 IBC Building Period 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.9 2.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads ii .2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.7.4.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2.3.7.9.9.11.8.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.8.11.8 2.7 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.6.1 Options for 1997 UBC Building Period 2.5.

2 Wind Exposure Parameters 3.Contents 2.5.18.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.4.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2.15.14 2004 NZS 1170.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.3 Algorithm for EN 1998-1:2004 Seismic Loads 2.17.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2.5.1 Options for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period 2.1 Options for 2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period 2.4.16.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.1 Exposure 3.5 3.16.15.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.15.13.3 3.1 Input Factors and Coefficients 2.1 3.15 2007 AS 1170.4 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.3.3 Wind Exposure Height 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3.13.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3.3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions 2-52 2-52 2-53 2-53 2-56 2-56 2-56 2-57 2-59 2-59 2-60 2-61 2-63 2-63 2-64 2-64 2-65 2-65 2-65 2-66 2-67 2-69 2-69 Chapter 3 Automatic Wind Loads 3.6.18.1 Options for 2004 NZS 1170.16.3.2.5 Seismic Loads 2.2.2 Defining Automatic Wind Load Patterns Automatic Wind Load Patterns 3.2 User-Defined Response Spectrum Functions 2.4 Seismic Loads 2.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170.18.17 User Defined Seismic Loads 2.5 Seismic Loads 2.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3-2 3-3 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-7 3-7 3-10 3-10 3-11 3-14 3-14 3-14 3-17 3-17 3.16 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads 2.5 Building Period 2.13.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients 2.6 iii .2.13 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2.1 Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period 2.14.14.18 Response Spectrum Functions 2.14.17.

Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3.2 Algorithm for EN 1991-1-1:2005 Wind Loads 3.9.1 Input Exposure 3.9.12.7 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3-17 3-20 3-20 3-20 3-23 3-23 3-23 3-26 3-26 3-27 3-30 3-30 3-32 3-38 3-38 3-40 3-45 3-45 3-47 3-52 3-52 3-53 3-54 3-54 3-55 3-55 3-57 3-57 3-58 3-61 3-61 3-62 3-67 3-67 3-68 3-73 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3.11.11.8 3.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3.8.2 Wind Loads 3.1 Input Exposure 3.2 Wind Loads 3.10.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.14.7.16.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3.13.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3.17.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.15 2008 API 4F Wind Loads 3.16.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.10.14 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3.2 Input Wind Coefficients 3.11 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3.12.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.6.2 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Wind Loads ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3.15.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3.1 Input Exposure 3.9 3.1 Input Exposure 3.13 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.16 2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-14) Wind Loads 3.17 2002 AS/NZS 1170.7.2 Algorithm for API 4F-2008 Wind Loads 3.15.12 ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3.10 ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3.2 Algorithm for AS/NZS 1170.1 Input Wind Coefficients 3.18 User-Defined Wind Loads References iv .2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3.8.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 2010 NBCC Wind Loads 3.2 3.14.13.17.14.

Chapter 3 does the same for automatic wind loads. and hence. What this means is that many of the capabilities are highly automated. It is strongly recommended that you read this manual and review any applicable “Watch & Learn” Series tutorials before attempting to use the automated features of the software.1 About the Manual The next chapter will show how seismic loads are generated for various codes. Introduction 1-1 . and CSiBridge are extremely powerful and productive structural analysis and design programs.Chapter 1 Introduction SAP2000. including a detailed discussion of the algorithms used. Additional information can be found in the on-line Help facility available from within the program’s main menu. ETABS. greater confidence in their models and analyses. again describing both the forms used and the accompanying algorithms. partially due to the high level of intelligence embedded within the software. 1. allowing the user to create and analyze the models in such a way that is both natural and efficient for a structural engineer. This manual seeks to explain the logic behind the automated lateral load generation so that users can gain greater insight into the behavior of the programs.

including a picture. If you have questions regarding use of the software. Inc. please:   Consult this documentation and other printed information included with your product. priority technical support is available only to those with a yearly Support. Upgrade and Maintenance plan (SUM). but via email only and at the non-priority level. A description of how you tried to solve the problem. operating system. hard disk size. and RAM size). The exact wording of any error messages that appeared on your screen. The computer configuration (make and model.      1-2 Technical Support . then contact us as described in the sections that follow. This can be obtained from inside the program using the Help menu > About command in SAP2000 and ETABS or the Orb > Resources > Help command in CSiBridge. A description of your model. Check the on-line Help facility in the program. please provide us with the following information to help us help you:  The version number that you are using. 1. (CSI) or your dealer via telephone and e-mail for 90 days after the software has been purchased.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 1. Customers who do not have a current SUM subscription can obtain technical support. processor. If you cannot find an answer.3 Help Us to Help You Whenever you contact us with a technical support question. Please contact CSI or your dealer to inquire about purchasing a yearly SUM subscription. After 90 days. A description of what happened and what you were doing when the problem occurred. if possible.2 Technical Support Free technical support is available from Computers and Structures.

5 Online Support Online support is available by:   Sending an e-mail and your model file to support@csiberkeley. please be at your computer and have the program manuals at hand. at (510) 649-2200.com. When you call. For users in North America. and 5:00 P. you may contact CSI via a toll call between 8:30 A.M. be sure to include all of the information requested in the previous “Help Us to Help You” section.S.csiberkeley. and how we may contact you. Visiting CSI’s web site at http://www. your company’s name.M. holidays.Chapter 1 .4 Telephone Support Priority phone support is available to those with a current SUM subscription from CSI or your dealer.. Monday through Friday. excluding U.Introduction  Your name. Pacific Time. Telephone Support 1-3 . 1.com and using the Support link to submit a request for technical support. 1. If you send us e-mail.

4  2007 AS 1170.4  2004 Eurocode 8 Automatic Seismic Loads 2-1 .Chapter 2 Automatic Seismic Loads This chapter documents the automatic seismic lateral static load patterns that can be generated. Automatic seismic loads can be generated in the global X or global Y directions for the following codes:  1997 UBC  1997 UBC Isolated Building  1996 BOCA  1995 NBCC  2005 NBCC  2010 NBCC  2003 IBC  2006 IBC  2009 IBC  1997 NEHRP  2002 Chinese  2004 NZS 1170.

For example. If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list.1 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns The automatic seismic static load patterns are defined using the Define menu > Load Patterns command in SAP2000 and ETABS or the Loads > Load Patterns > Load Patterns command in CSiBridge. and in some instances. A separate automatic static load pattern must be defined for each direction. two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same load pattern. the Auto Lateral Load drop-down list becomes active. Those commands display the Define Load Patterns form. a self-weight multiplier. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the Quake load will not be an automatic lateral load. When the load type is specified as Quake. Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load pattern. you cannot view the resultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis. To review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load. Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are not calculated until an analysis has been run. Thus. specify that the load is an Auto Lateral Load Pattern. Use that form to specify a name for the load pattern. three separate load patterns must be defined. and. That is. However. for each eccentricity that is to be considered. when you click the Add New Load Pattern or Modify Load Pattern button. the type of load. the load pattern is added to the model using default settings that are based on the selected code. and X-direction load with –5% eccentricity. highlight the load in the Load list and click the Modify Lateral Load Pattern button. additional user defined loads can be added to a load pattern that includes an automatic static lateral load.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. to define automatic seismic lateral loads based on the 1997 UBC for X-direction load with no eccentricity. 2-2 Defining Automatic Seismic Load Patterns . use the list to choose any of the codes identified in the preceding section. in the case of seismic loading. X-direction load with +5% eccentricity.

Automatic Seismic Loads 2. Some of the direction-dependent data is common to all of the codes. 2. These data are described in the subsections that follow because they are applicable to all codes. To apply an eccentricity.2 Load Direction and Diaphragm Eccentricity Use the direction and eccentricity data to choose the Global X or Global Y direction of load and the eccentricity associated with the load pattern for all diaphragms. This Automatic Seismic Load Patterns 2-3 . and coefficients and the non-directiondependent factors and coefficients are described separately for each code later in this chapter. some of which are dependent upon the direction of the loading. Where diaphragms are present.Chapter 2 . The default ratio is 0. Other direction-dependent data. This includes the direction and eccentricity data and the story/elevation range data.2. 2. that force is apportioned to each point at the level elevation in proportion to its mass. The weight of the structure used in the calculation of automatic seismic loads is based on the specified mass of the structure.1 Distribution of Automatic Seismic Loads at a Story Level The method that the program uses to calculate the seismic base shear and the associated story lateral forces is documented separately for each code later in this chapter. After the program has calculated a force for each level based on the automatic seismic load pattern. The eccentricity options have meaning only if the model has diaphragms—the programs ignore eccentricities where diaphragms are not present.2. specify a ratio eccentricity that is applicable to all diaphragms. including building period information and other factors.05.2 Automatic Seismic Load Patterns The forms defining the automatic seismic loads consist of various data sections. the programs calculate a maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading.

must be input. This moment is applied about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the eccentricity. When the eccentricities have been overridden. it may be advantageous to specify a lower elevation as the top level for automatic seismic loads. For example. typically the roof in a building. if a penthouse is included in a building model. This moment is again applied about the diaphragm center of mass to account for the eccentricity. For example. as the top elevation. specify a top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation.Automated Lateral Loads Manual width is calculated by finding the maximum and minimum X or Y coordinates (depending on direction of load considered) of the points that are part of the diaphragm constraint and determining the distance between these maximum and minimum values. This specifies the elevation range over which the automatic static lateral loads are calculated. 2. click the Override button to override the eccentricity for any diaphragm at any level. not a ratio. but this may not always be the case. in some cases. it is possible to have different eccentricity ratios at different levels. not the penthouse roof level. Note that when the eccentricities are overridden. the eccentric moment is calculated as the specified eccentricity distance times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. with additional user-defined load added to the load pattern to account for the penthouse. if a building has several below-grade levels 2-4 Automatic Seismic Load Patterns .3 Story/Elevation Range Data In the Story/Elevation range data. Thus. the top elevation would be specified as the uppermost level in the structure.2. a moment is applied that is equal to the specified ratio eccentricity times the maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the seismic loading times the total lateral force applied to the diaphragm. When defining eccentricities. After the appropriate diaphragm width has been determined. In most instances. the automatic lateral load calculation likely should be based on the building roof level. an actual distance from the center of mass of the rigid diaphragm. However. The bottom elevation typically would be the base level.

30-8) Note that the item Ct is always input in English units as specified in the code.  If Z  0. A typical range of values for Ct is 0. Call this period TA.35 (Zone 4) then: 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-5 .2 of the 1997 UBC.Automatic Seismic Loads and it is assumed that the seismic loads are transferred to the ground at ground level. They are as follows:  Method A: Calculate the period based on the Method A period discussed in Section 1630. Call this period Tmode.2. it would be necessary to specify the bottom elevation to be above the base level.3 2. The building period. The period is calculated using 1997 UBC Eqn. 2. TA  Ct  hn  3 4 (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-8. The value used for Ct is user input. Note that no seismic loads are calculated for the bottom story/minimum elevation.020 to 0.  Program Calculated: The program starts with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum elevation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation level. The value used for Ct is user input. and hn is determined from the level heights. and hn is determined from the level heights. that the program chooses depends on the seismic zone factor. The period is calculated using 1997 UBC Eqn.1 1997 UBC Seismic Loads Options for 1997 UBC Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1997 UBC automatic seismic loads. T.3.Chapter 2 . The program also calculates a period based on the Method A period discussed in Section 1630.2.035. Z.2 of the 1997 UBC. 30-8.

2. A typical range of values for  is 2.8 to 8. A typical range of values for Cv is 0.4.30TA.8. then T = TA. It is assumed that this comparison has been completed before the period is specified. A typical range of values for Ca is 0. Both are specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-N. then T = Tmode. SC. The program does not compare the period to the Method A period.40 and larger if the near source factor Na exceeds 1. then T = TA. 2-6 1997 UBC Seismic Loads . specify values for them.0. 0. Note that soil profile type SF is not allowed for the automatic 1997 UBC seismic loads.15. is restricted to one of the following values.2 to 2.  User Defined: With this option. No other values can be input. specify a soil profile type and a seismic zone factor. R. SB. as specified in 1997 UBC Table 16-I: 0.96 and larger if the near source factor Nv exceeds 1. 2 or 3) then: – – If Tmode  1.3. SC. If Z < 0. If Tmode > 1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual – –  If Tmode  1.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The overstrength factor.40TA. These correspond to soil types SA. 0. SD and SE in Table 16-J of the 1997 UBC.5. 0.35 (Zone 1.06 to 0. If Ca and Cv are user-defined. The soil profile type can be SA. .06 to 0.3. SD or SE. If Ca and Cv are determined in accordance with code.075.30TA. If Tmode > 1.40TA. The programs then use these parameters to determine Ca from 1997 UBC Table 16-Q and Cv from 1997 UBC Table 16R. The seismic zone factor. are direction dependent. The seismic coefficients Ca and Cv can be determined in accordance with the code or they can be user-defined. then T = Tmode. or 0. which the program uses in the calculations. 2. A typical range of values for R is 2.0. and the force factor. SB. the user inputs a structure period. Z.

The seismic source type can be A. not Ip or Iw. V Cv I W RT (1997 UBC Eqn. Section 1630. specify values for them. Cv = 1997 UBC seismic coefficient. The programs use linear interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC Tables 16-S and 16-T. I. Cv. 30-6 and 30-7) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. in 1997 UBC Table 16-R. or C. If they are determined in accordance with code. Na and Nv. B. A typical range of values for I is 1. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (1997 UBC Eqns.4 has an additional factor." Initially the total design base shear. 30-4) where. and C in Table 16-U of the 1997 UBC. 30-5.4 has an additional factor. the Cv value for Z = 0. V.Automatic Seismic Loads Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-Q the Ca value for Z = 0.2 of the 1997 UBC. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1997 UBC Building Period. Similarly. can be determined in accordance with the code or they can be user-defined. No other values can be input. If Na and Nv are user-defined.3 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads is based on Chapter 16. the programs determine Na from 1997 UBC Table 16-S and Nv from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. On the basis of the input for seismic source type and distance to the source. 2. 30-4). The seismic importance factor. Nv. The values for the near source factors. See 1997 UBC Table 16-K. The distance to the closest known seismic source should be input in kilometers (km). These correspond to seismic source types A. B. is calculated using (1997 UBC Eqn. 1997 UBC Seismic Loads 2-7 . Note that the value from Table 16-K to be input for automatic seismic loads is I.Chapter 2 .00 to 1. Na.25.3. can be input as any value. specify a seismic source type and a distance to the closest known seismic source.

V = 0. 30-7) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqns.5Ca I W R (1997 UBC Eqn. T = Building period. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. V. need not exceed that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. and all other terms are as described for (1997 UBC Eqn. Ca = 1997 UBC seismic coefficient. 30-7). R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N. If the building is in seismic Zone 4 and the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. cannot be less than that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. V 2. Finally. cannot be less than that specified in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-5). if the building is in seismic Zone 4. 30-5). 304). 30-5) where. The total design base shear. 30-5). the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. V. 30-6) where all terms are as previously described for (1997 UBC Eqns. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-6). Ca. 30-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4). The total design base shear. 2-8 1997 UBC Seismic Loads . If the base shear calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-5 and 30-6).11Ca I W (1997 UBC Eqn.Automated Lateral Loads Manual I = Importance factor. 30-6) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-4 and 30-5). 30-7). the total design base shear. V. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). 30-5).

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

V where,

0.8ZN v I W R

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7)

Z = Seismic zone factor (0.40). Nv = Near source factor, Nv. I = Importance factor. R = Overstrength factor specified in UBC Table 16-N. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). Note that the programs check (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) only if the seismic coefficients, Ca and Cv, are determined in accordance with the code and the seismic zone factor Z is specified as 0.40. If the Ca and Cv coefficients are user specified, (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-7) is never checked. Note that the weight, W, that is used in (1997 UBC Eqns. 30-4 through 30-7) is derived from the building mass. The total base shear, V, is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top elevation/story and forces applied at each level/story in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13):

V  Ft 
where,

story  1

n

Fstory

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-13)

V Ft

= =

Building base shear. Concentrated force at the top of the building. Portion of base shear applied to a story level. Number of story levels in the building.

Fstory = n
=

The concentrated force at the top of the building, Ft , is calculated as shown in (1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14):

1997 UBC Seismic Loads

2-9

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

If T  0.7 sec, then Ft  0 If T  0.7 sec, then Ft  0.07TV  0.25V where, T = Building period. V = Building base shear.

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-14)

The remaining portion of the base shear, (V − Ft ), is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn 30-15):

Fstory 

V  Ft  wstory hstory
story  1

n

(1997 UBC Eqn. 30-15)

wstory hstory

where, Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. V Ft = Base shear. = Concentrated force at the top of the structure.

wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). hstory = Story height, distance from base of structure to story level. n = Number of story levels in the structure.

2.4
2.4.1

1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads
Other Input Factors and Coefficients
For 1997 UBC isolated building seismic loads, the bottom story or minimum elevation should be input as the story at the top of the isolators. The overstrength factor, Ri , is direction dependent. It relates to the structure above the isolation interface. It is specified in 1997 UBC Table A-16-E,

2 - 10

1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for Ri is 1.4 to 2.0. The coefficient for damping, BD , is direction dependent. It should be specified based on an assumed effective damping using 1997 UBC Table A-16-C, which is in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. A typical range of values for BD is 0.8 to 2.0. The maximum effective stiffness and minimum effective stiffness items refer to the maximum and minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system (not individual isolators) at the design displacement level (not the maximum displacement level). They correspond to the terms KDmax and KDmin, respectively, in Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. The seismic coefficient CvD can be determined in accordance with the code or it can be user defined. If CvD is user defined, simply specify a value for it. A typical range of values for CvD is 0.06 to 0.96 and larger if the near source factor Nv exceeds 1.0. If CvD is determined in accordance with the code, specify a soil profile type and a seismic zone factor. On the basis of the input soil profile type and a seismic zone factor, the programs determine CvD from 1997 UBC Table 16-R, which is in Chapter 16, not Appendix Chapter 16, Division IV. Note that in 1997 UBC Table 16-R, the Cv value for Z = 0.4 has an additional factor, Nv. The value for this near source factor, Nv, can be determined in accordance with the code or it can be user defined. If Nv is user defined, simply specify a value for it. If it is determined in accordance with the code, specify a seismic source type and a distance to the closest known seismic source. On the basis of the input seismic source type and distance to the source, the programs determine Nv from 1997 UBC Table 16-T. The programs use linear interpolation for specified distances between those included in 1997 UBC Table 16-T.

1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads

2 - 11

. = Coefficient for damping. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).. Sections 1658. 58-2) where. kDmin = Minimum effective stiffness of the isolation system at the design displacement. Vs . 58-1) where.81 m/sec . 58-2). g = Gravity constant. Division IV. The base shear. 58-1).). is calculated from (1997 UBC Eqn. TD  2 W kDmin g (1997 UBC Eqn. DD. g = Gravity constant.3 and 1658. 386.4 in/sec . The effective period at the design displacement. is determined from (1997 UBC Eqn. 2 .  g  2 4 DD     CvDTD  BD (1997 UBC Eqn.12 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads . etc. TD . CvD. 9.4 of the 1997 UBC. 2 2 The design displacement at the center of rigidity of the isolation system. 9. 386.). (e. TD BD = Effective period at the design displacement. 58-8).4.g.81 m/sec . 2 2 CvD = Seismic coefficient. (e. is determined from (1997 UBC Eqn.4 in/sec .2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Isolated Building Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 UBC seismic loads for isolated buildings is based on Appendix Chapter 16.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.g. etc.

is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. Also note that the limits on Vs specified in 1997 UBC section 1658.Automatic Seismic Loads Vs  kDmax DD RI (1997 UBC Eqn.2. 58-8) Note that (1997 UBC Eqn. 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 . based on the approximate formula discussed in Section 1610. 58-8) gives a force level that is applicable for the structure above the isolation system. 58-7).5. distance from base of structure to story level. n = Number of story levels in the structure. Vs = Base shear in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn.13 . 58-8). Vs.Chapter 2 .1 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1996 BOCA automatic seismic loads. 2. To use a force level that is applicable to the isolation system in accordance with (1997 UBC Eqn. Ta.5 2. 58-9) wstory hstory where. hstory = Story height.4. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 58-9): Fstory  Vs wstory hstory i  story  n (1997 UBC Eqn.1.1 of the 1996 BOCA. The total base shear.3 are not considered by the programs. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.4. They are:  Approximate: Calculate the approximate period. create a different load combination with a scale factor of RI for the seismic load.

that the programs choose is determined as follows: – –  If Tmode > CaTa .05. Av.7.4. then T = Tmode. Call this period Ta.4. A typical range of values for CT is 0. The building period.035.2.2. input a building period. Call this period Tmode. Ca is determined using linear interpolation if the specified value of Av is not in Table 1610.4.2 in the 1996 BOCA.1 of 1996 BOCA.2. T.1. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. Ca . If Av is less than 0. Note that the value used for Ca depends on the specified value for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient. If Av exceeds 0. which the programs use in the calculations.2. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum elevation level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum elevation level. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the input level heights. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the level heights.4. Ca is taken as 1.2. If Tmode  CaTa .1. using Table 1610. 2 . Ca is taken as 1. The programs also calculate a period based on the approximate formula discussed in Section 1610.1. They do not compare it against the coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period times the approximate period (CaTa). then T = CaTa.1) Note that the item CT is always input in English units as specified in the code.4.14 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads .40. User Defined: In this case.020 to 0.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). The programs also determine a value for the coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The period is calculated using BOCA 1610.1.1. Ta  CT  hn  34 (BOCA 1610.1.

15 . S2. A typical range of values for R is 3 to 8. Any value can be input for the effective peak acceleration coefficient.1(a)) Av = The effective peak velocity-related coefficient. Av. S2.1. Cs  where. The value of this coefficient is then checked against the limit specified in (1996 BOCA Eqn.40. S3 and S4 in Table 1610. These correspond to soil types S1.1.4.1. 2. It is specified in 1996 BOCA Table 1610. R = Response modification factor. S = The site coefficient based on the input soil profile type. Aa.1 of the 1996 BOCA. A typical range of values for Av is 0.5. T = Building period.40. S3 or S4. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1996 BOCA Building Period.05 to 0.Chapter 2 . The soil profile type can be S1.4. is direction dependent.05 to 0." Initially the seismic coefficient. Refer to BOCA section 1610.3. R. 1.1. Refer to BOCA section 1610.1) and modified as necessary to obtain the seismic coefficient.3. 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads 2 . Cs. Any value can be input for the effective peak velocity-related coefficient.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor.3.1 of 1996 BOCA.1.2 Av S RT 2 3 (BOCA 1610. A typical range of values for Aa is 0.1.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. No other values can be input. is calculated from section 1610.4.3 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1996 BOCA seismic loads is based on Section 1610.5.4.3. 1610.3.

Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. Base shear. 1610. 1610. The base shear. Weight of story level (based on specified mass).1.1(b)) as appropriate.4. distance from base of structure to story level.5 Aa R (BOCA 1610. If the seismic coefficient calculated in accordance with section 1610. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (BOCA Eqn.2): Fstory  k V wstory hstory i = story  n (BOCA 1610. Aa = R = The effective peak acceleration coefficient. = Cs W (BOCA 1610. 1610.4.4.1(a) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (BOCA Eqn.1.1.4. Response modification factor.4.1(b)) where.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The seismic coefficient.1.4. Story height.1.4.1(a)) or (BOCA Eqn. the seismic coefficient is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (BOCA Eqn.1(b)).16 1996 BOCA Seismic Loads .1(b). V where. Cs  2.4. Cs. The base shear is calculated using (BOCA 1610. 1610.1.4.1. Weight of the structure (based on specified mass).4.1.1) Cs = W = Seismic coefficient calculated from (BOCA Eqn. 1610. wstory = hstory = 2 .1).2) k wstory hstory where.1(b)). V.4. need not exceed that specified in section 1610.

9. where N is the number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels.1(7b):  T where. Ds = Length of wall or braced frame.Chapter 2 .Moment Frame: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). If T  2.Automatic Seismic Loads k = Exponent applied to structure height.5 seconds. k = 1.5 seconds. the programs run a parallel calculation using a period equal to 0. n = 2. 0.Other: Calculate the period.  Program Calculated . In addition. They are as follows:  Code . T. Number of story levels in the structure. k = 2.5 seconds.1N.Moment Frame: Calculate the period as 0.9. used for determining the base shear.1 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period Five options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1995 NBCC automatic seismic loads.09hn Ds (1995 NBCC Section 4.1.1. using section 4. If 0. If T  0.5 seconds < T < 2. The value of k depends on the value of the period.1N. Code . which constitutes the main lateral-force-resisting system measured in meters.17 .6.6 2.19(7b)) hn = Height of the structure measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters. where N is the 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . T. k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2.

The value of Ve to use is determined as follows: – –  If Ve-mode  0.8 Ve-Eqn.B. is calculated using both periods. 2. then Ve = Ve-mode.8 Ve-0. Za . The value of Ve to use is determined as follows: – –  If Ve-mode  0.Other: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). or 6. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Table 4. or 6.9. then Ve = 0. No other input values are allowed. 2. (7b).8 Ve-0.8 Ve-0. then Ve = Ve-mode. A typical range of values for R is 1. 2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels.8 Ve-Eqn. 1.1. is direction dependent. Ve.1N. They do not calculate other values of Ve using this method for comparison against the Ve calculated using your specified period. 5.5 to 4.1. which the programs use in the calculations.1. Call these values Ve-mode and Ve-Eqn (7b). 5. Ve . The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure. The equivalent lateral force at the base of the structure.1N. If Ve-mode < 0. the programs run a parallel calculation using a period calculated using (1995 NBCC Section 4. 2 . No other input values are allowed.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The force modification factor. 3. The velocity-related seismic zone. 4. The acceleration-related seismic zone. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. can be input as 0. Zv .1N.0.6. If Ve-mode < 0.9. Program Calculated . (7b). can be input as 0. is calculated using both periods. 4. (7b). Call these values Ve-mode and Ve-0. 3. 1.18 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads . In addition. User Defined: In this case you input a building period.19(7b)). then Ve = 0. R.1N.8 Ve-Eqn.

5.19 ." First the programs check if Zv = 0 and Za > 0.1(4). or 0. v.05 is set for the calculation of the base shear.1.9 of the 1995 NBCC. S.20. 0.Chapter 2 .2. is calculated based on 1995 NBCC Table 4.1. S.0. 0. A typical range of values for F is 1.9. 2.1(10). The foundation factor. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4. 0.9.9. If it is based on Zv . The programs determine the product of the foundation factor.A.9.0 to 1. A typical range of values for I is 1.10. and the seismic response factor. 0. the value of Ve is calculated twice and then one of the calculated values is chosen. I. 5. 2.9. this product is modified as follows: – – If FS > 3 and Za  Zv .40 for Zv equal to 0.00. See the previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period" for more information. can be input as any value. 0. It is specified in 1995 NBCC Table 4.6. The seismic response factor. V.1. If FS > 4.1.1. is calculated using section 4. If so. respectively.1(5): Ve = v FS I (1995 NBCC Section 4. The minimum lateral seismic force.1. 4.15. The importance factor. can be input as any value.9. The equivalent lateral force representing elastic response is determined in accordance with section 4.1 (5)) Note that in cases where the structure period is program calculated. can either be based on Zv.C.1. v is assumed equal to 0. 3. F.30.3 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1995 NBCC seismic loads is based on Subsection 4. then Zv = 1 and v = 0. The period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1995 NBCC Building Period. 1.05.2 and Za > Zv . 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . or 6.Automatic Seismic Loads The zonal velocity ratio.0 to 2.1. If necessary. or a user-specified value can be input. then FS = 4.1. F. Call this product FS. then FS = 3.

9.1. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (1995 NBCC Section 4.9.1. V = Building base shear.1(13)): Fstory  (1995 NBCC Section 4. Ft . The concentrated force at the top of the structure.1. then Ft  0 . is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with section 4.1(13)) V  Ft  wstory hstory story = 1  n (1995 NBCC Section 4. n = Number of story levels in the building. 2 .9.1. = Concentrated force at the top of the building. (V − Ft ).07TV  0.25V where.Automated Lateral Loads Manual V 0. then Ft  0.If T  0.1(13): . V.9.1(13)) Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.1.1(13): V  Ft  where.1.7 sec.1. story  1  n Fstory (1995 NBCC Section 4.1(4)) The total base shear.20 1995 NBCC Seismic Loads .7 sec.1(13)) wstory hstory where. T = Building period.6Ve R (1995 NBCC Section 4. V Ft = Building base shear.9. The remaining portion of the base shear.If T  0. is calculated as shown in section 4.9.9.

11(3)) A typical range of values for CT is 0.Chapter 2 .  Code – Moment Frames other than Steel & Concrete: Calculate the approximate period.7.9. TA  CT  hn  4 3 (2005 NBCC Section 4.1.8.1.1(28) are included automatically when a diaphragm is present and eccentricity is specified in an auto lateral load pattern. using section 4.1. You also can override the eccentricities at each diaphragm to specify these torsional moments.8. V Ft = Base shear.1.1N (2005 NBCC Section 4.025 to 0. n = Number of story levels in the structure.11(3).7 2.Automatic Seismic Loads Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.085.21 . The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters. The values used for CT and x are user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.11(3): TA  0. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass).1 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period Four options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2005 NBCC automatic seismic loads.8. distance from base of structure to story level. hstory = Story height. TA. Shear Wall & Other Structures: Calculate the approximate period based on section 4. Note that the torsional moments discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4. = Concentrated force at the top of the structure.11(3)) 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . 2.8. They are as follows:  Code – Steel & Concrete Moment Frames.1. Braced Frames.

5.8.Automated Lateral Loads Manual where.1.8. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.5 to 5.8. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4. (NBCC 2005 Section 4.0 as specified in NBCC 2005 clause 4.0 s. which the programs use in the calculations. that the programs choose is determined from section 4.22 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads .8. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.1.1. The building period. Call this period TA. is direction dependent. Mv . The values used for Cu are user input. and 2. 4.1.11(d)) User Defined: In this case you input a building period.1.1.0. 0. The overstrength-related force modification factor.5 to 2.8.1.3 to 1. T. then T = CuTA. 2 . It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.11(3). – –  If Tmode  CuTA . then T = Tmode.8. A typical range of values for Mv is 1 to 2.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The ductility-related force modification factor.1. The 5% damped spectral response acceleration. Call this period Tmode. (NBCC 2005 Section 4. is direction dependent. Sa(T). is direction dependent.  Program Calculated: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).11(d)) If Tmode > CuTA . Ro.8.9.0 s as described in subsection 4. 1. A typical range of values for Ro is 1.8. A period is also calculated based on (NBCC Eqn.7. N = The number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels. The input in the programs is in g. shall be input for periods T of 0.8.4 of the 2005 NBCC.2 s.5 s. 2.9. A typical range of values for Rd is 1. and typically vary from 1. They do not compare it against CuTA. The higher mode factor.11. as appropriate.7.11(3)).11(d). Rd .

1.1.Chapter 2 .5.8.2) for T  0. 4.23 .0) for T  1.8.1.1. specify Fa and Fv.8.2). If site coefficients are user defined. Eqns. If site coefficients are user defined. 4.B.8." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral acceleration S(T) using (2005 NBCC Eqns.0 s 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . IE. B.8.8. A typical range of values for IE is 0.8.4(6)-1) (2005 NBCC Eqn.2) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4. 4. specify a site class.5 to 2.4(6)-5). Fa is the acceleration-based site coefficient.7.4.1.4(6)-5 are described in Section 4. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. The importance factor. If the site coefficients are in accordance with code.1. the value for Fv is input directly by the user.8. It is specified in 2005 NBCC Sentence 4.3 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2005 NBCC seismic loads is based on Subsection 4.4(6)-3) whichever is smaller for T  0. or E. See 2005 NBCC Table 4.4 of the 2005 NBCC. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic 2005 NBCC lateral seismic loads.8. A typical range of values for Fv is 0. Fv is the velocity-based site coefficient.4. (2005 NBCC Eqn. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.1. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and Sa(1.4(6)-2) (2005 NBCC Eqn. Linear interpolation is used for intermediate values of T.5.8 to 1. D. S (T )  Fa Sa (0.4(6)-1 to 4.1. can be input as any value.2 s S (T )  Fv Sa (0.1.8.1.5 s S (T )  Fv Sa (1.11 of the 2005 NBCC. 4.5) or Fa Sa (0. The site class can be A. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Sa(0.7 to 2.1. C.1.8.1.8. If site coefficients are user defined.0) based on 2005 NBCC Table 4.1.4.A for site class definitions.4(6)-1 to 4.1. 2. the value for Fa is input directly by the user. The period T is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2005 NBCC Building Period. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. 4.C.8.Automatic Seismic Loads The site coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined.

11(2)-3) where.1.1. The total design base shear.1.11(2)-3).0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 2 s.8.0 s The minimum lateral earthquake force.11(2)-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. V. 4.8. is determined in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.24 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads . (2005 NBCC Eqn.4(6)-4) (2005 NBCC Eqn. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.Automated Lateral Loads Manual S (T )  Fv Sa (2.11(2)-2).11(2)-3). 4. V 2 S (0.1.11(2)-2). 4. 2 .8. for a structure with an Rd  1. 24. 4. 4.8.8. 4.5 need not exceed that specified in (2005 NBCC Eqn.1.8.0) M v I E W ( Rd Ro ) where.1. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).8.1. (2005 NBCC Eqn. 4.0) for T  2.0 s (2005 NBCC Eqn. The total design base shear.11(2)-2): V  S (T ) M v I E W ( Rd Ro ) where.11(2)-2).11(2)-2) S(2.4(6)-5) S (T )  Fv Sa (2.8.1.2 s. shall not be less than that specified in (2005 NBCC Eqn.8. 4.1. 4.2) I EW ( Rd Ro ) 3 (2005 NBCC Eqn.8.2) = Design spectral acceleration for 0. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.1.8.11(2)-1) V  S (2.11(2)-3).11(2)-1) is less than that calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn. V.0) 2 for T  4. 4.8. S(0.1. 4. 4.1. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.1. V.8.8. 4.1.

1. 4.11(6)-2) V  Ft  wstory hstory story = 1  n (2005 NBCC Eqn. then Ft  0. n = Number of story levels in the building. (V − Ft ).8. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.11(6)-1). is calculated as shown in (2005 NBCC Eqn. then Ft  0 .8.1. Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with (2005 NBCC Eqn.11(6)-2): . 4. T = Building period.8.1. 4.Automatic Seismic Loads The total base shear.25V where.1.8.1.8. 4.11(6)-3) wstory hstory where.7 sec.If T  0. V = Building base shear. 4.8.11(6)-3): Fstory  (2005 NBCC Eqn. = Concentrated force at the top of the building. 4. The concentrated force at the top of the structure. The remaining portion of the base shear. V Ft = Building base shear. Base shear. Ft . 2005 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 .Chapter 2 .11(6)-1) Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.25 .1. story  1  n Fstory (2005 NBCC Eqn.If T  0. V.07TV  0. V  Ft  where.7 sec.

8.025 to 0. Story height.8.1.1.1 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period Four options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2010 NBCC automatic seismic loads. Shear Wall & Other Structures: Calculate the approximate period based on section 4.8.11(3)) N = The number of stories in the structure based on the specified top and bottom story levels.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Ft = Concentrated force at the top of the structure. wstory = hstory = n = 2. and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.1.8. distance from base of structure to story level. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Call this period Tmode.  Code – Moment Frames other than Steel & Concrete: Calculate the approximate period. Number of story levels in the structure. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level measured in meters. The values used for CT and x are user input.  Program Calculated: The programs use the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).1. They are as follows:  Code – Steel & Concrete Moment Frames.26 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads .085.8 2. TA  CT  hn  4 3 (2010 NBCC Section 4.8.1N where.11(3). A period is also calcu- 2 . (2010 NBCC Section 4. using section 4.11(3)) A typical range of values for CT is 0.11(3): TA  0. Braced Frames. TA.

The site class can be A. Rd . A typical range of values for Rd is 1.0 s as described in subsection 4.A for site class definitions. The input in the programs is in g.11(d).11(d)) If Tmode > CuTA .11(3). The overstrength-related force modification factor.8.1. as appropriate. The building period.11(3)).1.1. A typical range of values for Ro is 1.8. specify Fa and Fv.8. It is specified in 2010 NBCC Table 4. (NBCC 2010 Section 4. shall be input for periods T of 0.11. and 2. or E. The 5% damped spectral response acceleration.5 to 2.1. The values used for Cu are user input. 1.8. Call this period TA. B.2 s.0 s.9.9. 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 .5 s.8. Mv . C.Automatic Seismic Loads lated based on (NBCC Eqn.8. – –  If Tmode  CuTA .1. The higher mode factor.4.1. T. If site coefficients are user defined.0.8. (NBCC 2010 Section 4. Ro. 2.8. The site coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined.1. A typical range of values for Mv is 1 to 2.0 as specified in NBCC 2010 clause 4. 4. that the programs choose is determined from section 4.1.5 to 5.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The ductility-related force modification factor.7.1.8. The programs do not compare it against CuTA.Chapter 2 .4 of the 2010 NBCC. specify a site class. If the site coefficients are in accordance with code. is direction dependent. Note that site class F requires site specific evaluation for automatic 2010 NBCC lateral seismic loads.1. 0. Sa(T). which the programs use in the calculations.8. and typically vary from 1. It is specified in 2010 NBCC Table 4. is direction dependent.27 .3 to 1. See 2010 NBCC Table 4. It is specified in 2010 NBCC Table 4. then T = CuTA. D. is direction dependent.5.8. then T = Tmode. It is assumed that this comparison has been performed before specifying the period.11(d)) User Defined: In this case the user can input a building period.

1.8. It is specified in 2010 NBCC Sentence 4. the value for Fv is input directly by the user.1. can be input as any value.2) for T  0. IE.0) for T  2.1.8. The importance factor. 4.8.4(6)-3) (2010 NBCC Eqn. V.8.4(6)-5 are described in Section 4. 2.1.8.1.8.4(6)-4) (2010 NBCC Eqn. A typical range of values for IE is 0. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and Sa(1. 4. If site coefficients are user defined.28 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads .1.8.8.4 of the 2010 NBCC.4(6)-2) (2010 NBCC Eqn.0) based on 2010 NBCC Table 4.8. is determined in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. The period T is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2010 NBCC Building Period.1. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.0 s S (T )  Fv Sa (2. S (T )  Fa Sa (0.4(6)-1) (2010 NBCC Eqn.8 to 1.5 to 2.1. Fv is the velocity-based site coefficient.1.0 s The minimum lateral earthquake force.7 to 2." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral acceleration S(T) using (2010 NBCC Eqns.5 s S (T )  Fv Sa (1.8. 4.1.8.8.1.4(6)-1 to 4.8. whichever is smaller for T  0.1.1. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Sa(0.5.1. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. A typical range of values for Fa is 0.4.8. Eqns.3 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2010 NBCC seismic loads is based on Subsection 4. 4.0) / 2 for T  4.2 s S (T )  Fv Sa (0.C. Linear interpolation is used for intermediate values of T.4(6)-5) S (T )  Fv Sa (2.8.0) for T  1. 4.2). 4.11 of the 2010 NBCC.4(6)-1 to 4. 4.1. the value for Fa is input directly by the user.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Fa is the acceleration-based site coefficient. 4.B.5) or Fa Sa (0.4(6)-5).4.5. A typical range of values for Fv is 0.8.2) based on 2010 NBCC Table 4.0 s (2010 NBCC Eqn. If site coefficients are user defined.1.11(2)-2): 2 .

2 s.11(2)-3) (2010 NBCC Eqn. (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.11(2)-2).1.8.11(2)-1) is less than that calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn.11(2)3).8.1. The total design base shear.1.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 4 s.8.8. V. V. If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. The total design base shear. 4.11(2)-2).1. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. 24.11(2)-a) For moment resisting frame.Automatic Seismic Loads V  S (T )M v I E W (Rd Ro ) where. 4. S(0. shall not be less than that specified in (2010 NBCC Eqn.8. the base shear is set equal to that calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn. braced frame and other systems: V  S (2.2) = Design spectral acceleration for 0.1.8.Chapter 2 .11(2)-1) W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). S(2. 2 S (0.11(2)-b) 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads 2 . V where.29 .1. 4.5 need not exceed that specified in (2010 NBCC Eqn.8.1.8. 4. for a structure with Site Class F and Rd  1.2)I E W ( Rd Ro ) 3 (2010 NBCC Eqn.0)M v I E W (Rd Ro ) where.8.0)M v I EW (Rd Ro ) (2010 NBCC Eqn. coupled walls and wall-frame system: V  S (4.8. 4.11(2)-3). 4.1.1. 4. S(4. 4.1.8.8.11(2)-3).11(2)-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn.0) = Design spectral acceleration for a period of 2 s.1. For walls.1. 4. 4.11(2)-2). If the base shear calculated in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn.

4.1. then Ft = 0. Base shear.11(6)-2) where. 4.1. 4. Ft .1.8.8. Fstory = V = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. T V = Building period. V  Ft  where. then Ft = 0 – If T > 0. V Ft = Building base shear. (V − Ft ).Automated Lateral Loads Manual The total base shear.7TV  0.1.7 sec. = Building base shear.11(6)-3) wstory hstory where.8. n = Number of story levels in the building. is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn.7 sec. 4. The remaining portion of the base shear.8.11(6)-1) Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.11(6)-1). is calculated as shown in (2010 NBCC Eqn.8.11(6)-2): – If T  0. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (2010 NBCC Eqn.8.11(6)-3): Fstory  V  Ft  wstory hstory story = 1  n (2010 NBCC Eqn. 2 . = Concentrated force at the top of the building. V.30 2010 NBCC Seismic Loads . story  1  n Fstory (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.25V (2010 NBCC Eqn. 4.1. The concentrated force at the top of the structure.1.

5.9. then T = Tmode.5.3.3. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – If Tmode  CuTA . Story height.2-1) Note that the item CT is always input in English units as specified in the code.030.5.5. T.Automatic Seismic Loads Ft = Concentrated force at the top of the structure. The value used for CT is user input. Call this period Tmode. Cu.2-1). 9. A period is also calculated based on (ASCE Eqn.5. TA  CT  hn  x (ASCE 7-02. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.9 2. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level. Eqn.1 2003 IBC Seismic Loads Options for 2003 IBC Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2003 IBC automatic seismic loads. The building period. Eqn. 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 .2 of ASCE 7-02. distance from base of structure to story level.31 . Call this period TA. Number of story levels in the structure.020 to 0. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). They are as follows:  Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-02. A typical range of values for CT is 0. and hn is determined from the input story level heights.Chapter 2 . wstory = hstory = n = 2.2-1).  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).5.5.3. The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. 9. x is determined using table 9.3.5. 9.

25g. which the programs use in the calculations. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in % g with a typical range of 0% to 200%. Ss is the mapped spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in 2003 IBC Section 1615.1. The input in the programs is in g.5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual –  If Tmode > CuTA.6. specify Ss. 2. The site class can be A. See 2003 IBC Section 1616.1 for site class definitions. . R. input a building period. See 2003 IBC Table 1615. If seismic coefficients are user defined. Ss and S1. or E. from the input seismic group and 2003 IBC Table 1604. I. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic 2003 IBC lateral seismic loads.32 2003 IBC Seismic Loads . specify a site class. then T = CuTA. User Defined: In this case. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. B.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor.9. are direction dependent. it should be input as 1.2 for information about the seismic group.1.1. The seismic group can be input as I. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%. C. II or III. D. No other values are allowed. S1. For example. S1 is the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in 2003 IBC Section 1615. Thus the map values should be divided by 2 . Both are specified in 2003 IBC Table 1617. The input in the programs is in g. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 2. if the map value is 125%g. A typical range of values for  is 2 to 3. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.2. Fa and Fv. The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. and the system overstrength factor. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. They do not compare it against CuTA. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input.

2.33 . A typical range of values for Fv is 0." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short periods. is calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Ss based on 2003 IBC Table 1615. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and S1 based on 2003 IBC Table 1615.5.Automatic Seismic Loads 100 when they are input. SDS  2 Fa Ss 3 (IBC Eqns. 16-39 and 16-41) The programs determine a seismic design category (A.1.5. This base shear value is then checked against the limits 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 . If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. using IBC Eqns.5. using IBC Eqns.3(2).4. S D1  2 Fv S1 3 (IBC Eqns. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using 2003 IBC Table 1616. For example. C. Fa is input directly by the user. SDS . D. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2003 IBC Building Period.1-1).3 Algorithm for 2003 IBC Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2003 IBC seismic loads is based on 2003 IBC Section 1617. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.Chapter 2 . Fv is input directly by the user. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on 2003 IBC Section 1616. 9. If site coefficients are user defined.2.2(1).8 to 2. Fv is a site coefficient. E.5.3(1). Fa is a site coefficient. 16-39 and 16-41. If site coefficients are user defined. Cs. if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1.8 to 3.25g. 16-38 and 16-40. the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second period. A typical range of values for Fa is 0.3. B. 16-38 and 16-40) Next. SD1.2(2). Initially a seismic response coefficient.1.9. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using 2003 IBC Table 1616.

If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.5.5. 9.5.2.5.5. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE Eqn. 9. can not be less than that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. and 9. 9.1-3).1-3. 9.5.2.5. 9.6.5. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. Cs  SDS R I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1-2) .5.2. Cs . 9.5.5.1-1) The seismic response coefficient. 9.5.5. R = Response modification factor specified in 2003 IBC Table 1617.1-4) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear.1-2).2.2.1-1).5. 9.2.1-2) where. 9.5. Cs .5.1. Cs  S D1 R  I T   (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.34 2003 IBC Seismic Loads . SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.5.5. the programs set the seismic 2 .1-3) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5. = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with 2003 IBC Table 1604.5.2. 9.1-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.2.2.5.5.2. Cs.2.2. equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual specified in (ASCE Eqns.5.5.5.2. I The seismic response coefficient.1-2).1-2.1-1) where. 9. need not exceed that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. the programs set the seismic response coefficient.5.

5.5.5. 2003 IBC Seismic Loads 2 . V.1-1 through 9. If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. the seismic response coefficient.-1) V = Cs W (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9.5. shall not be less than that specified in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. The base shear.2. Cs . 9.5.044 SDS I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.1-3).5.5.5. 9. V.1-1) and (ASCE Eqn.1-3). 9. is calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.Automatic Seismic Loads response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1-4) where.2.5. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).5.2. the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 9. 9.5.5.5.2.Chapter 2 .5.5.2.35 .2.2.5. 9.5.5. Cs = 0.5.5. The base shear.5.5.2.1-1) Finally. 9.-1) Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 702 Eqns.5.1-4) as appropriate.5S1 R I (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. 7-02 9.5.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.5.1-1) . 9. 9.4-1 and 9.5. Cs  0.2. 9.2.1-4).2.5. 9.5. if the building is in seismic design category E or F.5.2.5. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.2.5.4-2).2. S1 = the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period and all other terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1-4). 9.1-3) where all terms are as previously described for (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.

A typical range of values for CT is 0.9.5 seconds.5.5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Fstory  k V wstory hstory story = 1  n (Eqns. distance from base of structure to story level. then k = 2.4-2) wstory h k story where.-1 and 9. then k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 12.36 2006 IBC Seismic Loads .03.5. T. = Number of story levels in the structure. If 0. n 2. If T  0.5.10 2.5 seconds. If T  2. 9. The value of k depends on the value of the building period.8-7) Note that CT is always input in English units. hstory = Story height. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom 2 . while x varies from 0.4. then k = 1. k = Exponent applied to building height.10. as specified in the code. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.8-7) The values used for CT and x are user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights. TA  CT  hn  x (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.1 2006 IBC Seismic Loads Options for 2006 IBC Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2006 IBC automatic seismic loads.75 to 0.5 seconds. They are as follows:  Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.5 seconds < T < 2. used for determining the base shear. 12.016 to 0. V = Building base shear.

5 for information about the occupancy category.37 . TL. Both are specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12. Call this period TA.2-1. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – –  If Tmode  CuTA. which the programs use in the calculations.Chapter 2 .Automatic Seismic Loads story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. Call this period Tmode. The occupancy category can be input as I. S1. Fa and Fv. R. A period is also calculated based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. The building period. then T = Tmode.10. II. No other values are allowed. T.5-1. TL. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. I. as well as a long-period transition period. specify a site class. 12. and hn is determined from the input story level heights. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. III or IV. If Tmode > CuTA. .8-7). They do not compare it against CuTA. 2006 IBC Seismic Loads 2 . Ss and S1. specify Ss. Cu. and the system overstrength factor. are direction dependent. If seismic coefficients are user defined.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). The values used for CT and x are user input. then T = CuTA. 2. A typical range of values for  is 2 to 3. from the input occupancy category and ASCE 7-05 Table 11. input a building period.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor. User Defined: In this case. See ASCE 7-05 Section 11.

For example. Fv is input directly by the user. Ss is the mapped maximum considered earthquake (MCE) spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11.1.1. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic ASCE 7-05 lateral seismic loads. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 1.5. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Ss based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4. C. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%.5.4-2. if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1.3-1 for site class definitions. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.3 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining ASCE 7-05 seismic loads is based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12. SDS. See ASCE 7-05 Table 20.4-1 and 11.4-1. If site coefficients are user defined.0g.8. Fv is a site coefficient. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. For example. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The site class can be A. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in %g with a typical range of 0% to 100%.4.5.25g. 11.8 to 3. using (ASCE 7-05 Eqs. The input in the programs is in g. 2. A typical range of values for Fv is 0.4-3). Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. D. 2 . if the map value is 100%g it should be input as 1. or E. the Fa is input directly by the user.8 to 2. TL is the long-period transition period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and S1 based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11. B. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.4.10.38 2006 IBC Seismic Loads . The input in the programs is in g." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short period. S1 is the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. Fa is a site coefficient. If site coefficients are user defined. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period.

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

SDS 

2 Fa Ss 3

(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-1 and 11.4-3)

Next, the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second period, SD1, using (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3).
S D1 

2 Fv S1 3

(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 11.4-2 and 11.4-3)

The programs determine a seismic design category (A, B, C, D, E, or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on ASCE 7-05 Section 11.6. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-1. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.6-2. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building. Initially a seismic response coefficient, Cs, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2). This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3, 12.8-4, 2.8-5, and 12.8-6) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. Cs  SDS R I (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2)

where, SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods. R = Response modification factor specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.21. = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Table 11.5-1.

I

The seismic response coefficient, Cs , need not exceed that specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 ). If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-2) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), the programs set the seismic response coefficient, Cs, equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-3 and 12.8-4), as appropriate.

2006 IBC Seismic Loads

2 - 39

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

Cs 

SD1 for T  TL R  I T  

(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-3)

Cs 

SD1 TL for T > TL R 2  I T  

(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-4)

where,

SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T
= the building period used for calculating the base shear

TL = the long-period transition period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2).

Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5). Cs = 0.044SDSI ≥ 0.01
(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-5)

Finally, for structures located where S1 is equal to or greater than 0.6g, Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6).

Cs 

0.5S1 R I  

(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6)

where,

S1 = the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-2). The base shear, V, is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1):

V

= Cs W

(ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-1)

Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 705 Eqns. 12.8-2 through 12.8-6) as appropriate.

2 - 40

2006 IBC Seismic Loads

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).
The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)

Fstory 

k V wstory hstory

story = 1

n

(ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-11 and 12.8-12)

wstory h

k story

where,

Fstory = V
=

Portion of base shear applied to a story level. Building base shear. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Story height, distance from base of structure to story level. Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends on the value of the building period, T, used for determining the base shear. If T  0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T  2.5 seconds, k = 2. If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. Number of story levels in the structure.

wstory = hstory = k
=

n

=

2.11
2.11.1

2009 IBC Seismic Loads
Options for 2009 IBC Building Period
Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2009 IBC automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
 Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-7) The values used for Ct and x are user input, and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.

2009 IBC Seismic Loads

2 - 41

It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. input a building period.5 for information about the occupancy category. Call this period Tmode. III or IV. See ASCE 7-05 Section 11.016 to 0. The programs determine the occupancy importance factor. They do not compare it against CuTA. while x varies from 0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual TA  Ct  hn  x (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. T. No other values are allowed.11. and hn is determined from the input story level heights. then T = Tmode. from the input occupancy category and ASCE 7-05 Table 11. 2 . II.5-1. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – –  If Tmode  CuTA. R.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level.8-7). A typical range of values for  is 2 to 3. The values used for Ct and x are user input. The building period. If Tmode > CuTA. 12.42 2009 IBC Seismic Loads . User Defined: In this case. A period is also calculated based on (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. and the system overstrength factor. 2. Both are specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12.75 to 0. 12. Cu. The occupancy category can be input as I. as specified in the code. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification factor.  . A typical range of values for Ct is 0.9. Call this period TA.8-7) Note that Ct is always input in English units. I. are direction dependent.2-1.03. which the programs use in the calculations. then T = CuTA.

8 to 3.25g. if the map value is 125%g it should be input as 1. TL is the long-period transition period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. The input in the programs is in g. Fa is a site coefficient. Ss and S1.1. TL.4. B.4. Fv is a site coefficient. D.Chapter 2 . Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 1.43 .0g.5.3-1 for site class definitions. it should be input as 1. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input.4-2. Fv is input directly by the user. S1 is the mapped MCE spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. See ASCE 7-05 Table 20. the software automatically determines Fv from the site class and S1 based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code. Fa and Fv.4. Ss is the mapped Risk-Targeted Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCER) spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in ASCE 7-05 Section 11. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. For example. Note that site class F is not allowed for automatic ASCE 7-05 lateral seismic loads. For example. The site class can be A.Automatic Seismic Loads The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in % g with a typical range of 0% to 300%.5. A typical range of values for Fa is 0. as well as a long-period transition period. specify a site class. specify Ss. TL. 2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2 .1.8 to 2. S1. The input in the programs is in g. the software automatically determines Fa from the site class and Ss based on ASCE 7-05 Table 11. A typical range of values for Fv is 0. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in %g with a typical range of 0% to 100%. If site coefficients are user defined. if the map value is 100%g.4-1. C. the Fa is input directly by the user.5. If site coefficients are user defined. or E. If seismic coefficients are user defined.

12. SDS  2 Fa Ss 3 (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.8-5. B.8-3. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.4-1 and 11.6-2. 2 . is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 11.4-1 and 11. C. the design spectral response acceleration is calculated at a one second period.4-3) The programs determine a seismic design category (A. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.8. 12. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) based on ASCE 7-05 Section 11. 2. and 12. Cs  S DS R Ie (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.4-3) Next.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2. R = Response modification factor specified in ASCE 7-05 Table 12." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short period. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. SD1.21. 12. E.8-6) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. 11.4-2 and 11. 11. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using ASCE 7-05 Table 11.8-2) where. Cs.4-3).4-3). A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for ASCE 7-05 Building Period.44 2009 IBC Seismic Loads .3 Algorithm for IBC2009/ASCE 7-05 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining ASCE 7-05 seismic loads is based on ASCE 7-05 Section 12. D. SD1  2 Fv S1 3 (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. using (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.4-2 and 11.6-1. 11. Initially a seismic response coefficient.6.11. SDS.8-4. 12.8-2). using (ASCE 7-05 Eqs.

8-3 and 12. Cs  0. 12. for structures located where S1 is equal to or greater than 0. The seismic response coefficient. Cs  S D1 for T  TL R  T  Ie  S D1 TL for T > TL R 2  T  Ie  (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.5-1. equal to that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.5S1 R    Ie  (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12. 12.8-4). Cs = 0.8-6). 12.Chapter 2 . 12.8-2).8-5).044SDSIe ≥ 0.8-3 and 12.8-3) Cs  (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.01 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.45 . SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear TL = the long-period transition period and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12. Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12.8-6) where.8-3 and 12.Automatic Seismic Loads Ie = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with ASCE 7-05 Table 11. Cs. 12. Cs shall not be less than that shown in (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.6g.8-4). 12. 12. the programs set the seismic response coefficient. as appropriate.8-4) where. 2009 IBC Seismic Loads 2 . If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.8-5) Finally. Cs . need not exceed that specified in (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.8-2) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 12.8-4).

12. is calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. n 2 .8-2).5 seconds.5 seconds < T < 2.8-6) as appropriate. If T  2. 12.Automated Lateral Loads Manual S1 = the mapped MCER spectral acceleration for a one second period and all other terms are as described for (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. k = 1. 12.8-12) Fstory  k V wstory hstory story = 1  n (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. k = 2. If T  0.5 seconds. The base shear. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.8-11 and 12. The base shear. V. T. k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2.8-2 through 12. k = Exponent applied to building height. V.5 seconds. = Number of story levels in the structure. The value of k depends on the value of the building period. used for determining the base shear. 12. hstory = Story height. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass).8-1) Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (ASCE 705 Eqns.46 2009 IBC Seismic Loads . is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. V = Building base shear. If 0.8-1): V = CsW (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 12. distance from base of structure to story level.8-11 and 12. 12. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).8-12) wstory h k story where.

1-1) Note that CT is always input in English units as specified in the code. 5.3. They do not compare it to CuTA.3. The building period. input a building period. The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level.3.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).12. User Defined: In this case. based on 1997 NEHRP Table 5. that the programs choose is determined as follows: – –  If Tmode  CuTA. If Tmode > CuTA. They are as follows:  Approximate Period: Calculate the period based on (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.020 to 0. Note that linear interpolation is used to calculate values of Cu where the value of SD1 is not specifically specified in Table 5. then T = CuTA. then T = Tmode. Call this period Tmode.035.1-1). It is assumed 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 . The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights. The value used for CT is user input and hn is determined from the input story level heights.12 2.3.1-1).3. which the programs use in the calculations.Chapter 2 . A period also is calculated based on the (1997 NEHRP Eqn. A typical range of values for CT is 0.3.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. Cu. T.3.1 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 1997 NEHRP automatic seismic loads.47 . The programs also calculate a coefficient for the upper limit on the calculated period. TA  CT  hn  34 (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.3. Call this period TA.3.

For example. specify a site class.2.2.1. is determined from the input seismic group and 1997 NEHRP Table 1. if the map value is 125%g. R. The input is in g. The seismic group can be input as I. A typical range of values for  is 2 to 3. D or E. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. For example.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The response modification coefficient.12. 2. S1.1.25g. Note that the seismic maps show S1 in %g with a typical range of 0% to 200%. 2 . and the system overstrength factor. Ss and S1. Note that site class F is not allowed for the automatic 1997 NEHRP lateral seismic loads.2. An occupancy importance factor. I.4 for information about the seismic group.2. If seismic coefficients are user defined. The seismic coefficients can be input in accordance with the code or they can be user defined.Automated Lateral Loads Manual that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.4. C. II or III. .2. A typical range of values for R is 2 to 8. Both are specified in 1997 NEHRP Table 5. A typical range of values for S1 is 0 to 2. The site class can be A. if the map value is 125%g. specify Ss. See 1997 NEHRP Section 4. If the seismic coefficients are in accordance with code. S1 is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for a one second period as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4. it should be input as 1. Fa and Fv.1 for site class definitions. B. are direction dependent. it should be input as 1. The input is in g. A typical range of values for Ss is 0 to 3. No other values are allowed.25g. See 1997 NEHRP Table 1.1.48 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads . Ss is the mapped maximum considered spectral acceleration for short periods as determined in 1997 NEHRP Section 4. Thus the map values should be divided by 100 when they are input. Note that the seismic maps show Ss in %g with a typical range of 0% to 300%.

the programs automatically determine Fv from the site class and S1 based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4.1-2 and 5.4-2 and 4. S D1  2 Fv S1 3 (1997 NEHRP Eqns. SDS.Automatic Seismic Loads Fa is a site coefficient.1a. 4.8 to 3.5. SDS  2 Fa Ss 3 (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 2.2.2.3.2.1. or F with A being the least severe and F being the most severe) is determined based on 1997 NEHRP Section 4.3 Algorithm for 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 1997 NEHRP seismic loads is based on 1997 NEHRP Section 5.1-3) and modified as necessary to obtain the final base shear. D.4-2 and 4.2.49 .2. is calculated using (1997 NEHRP Eqn.3. A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 1997 NEHRP Building Period. A typical range of values for Fa is 0.1. 4. C.1.4b.) Next the programs calculate the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period. Fa is input directly by the user. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.1.2.2. A typical range of values for Fv is 0.4a.2. 4.2.1-1)..2. the programs automatically determine Fa from the site class and Ss based on 1997 NEHRP Table 4.5-1. using 1997 NEHRP Eqns.1.5-2.1. SD1. If site coefficients are user defined. Initially a seismic response coefficient.8 to 2." The programs begin by calculating the design spectral response acceleration at short periods.1. Cs.4-1 and 4. The more severe of the two seismic categories is chosen as the seismic design category for the building.3.3.1.2. the Fv is input directly by the user.2.) A seismic design category (A. using 1997 NEHRP Eqns. 4.12.5. B. 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads 2 . If site coefficients are user defined. If the site coefficients are determined in accordance with code.2.3.1-2.Chapter 2 .1.5-2. This base shear value is then checked against the limits specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5. 5.1b.2.2.5. A seismic design category also is determined based on SD1 using 1997 NEHRP Table 4.2.1. E. Fv is a site coefficient.5-1.4-1 and 4.1.2. A seismic design category is determined based on SDS using 1997 NEHRP Table 4.

Cs .Automated Lateral Loads Manual Cs  SDS R I (1997 NEHRP Eqn.3.3. 5.1-1).2.2.1 SD1 I (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-3) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-1).2.3.3. equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. the programs set the seismic response coefficient. Cs .1-1) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. need not exceed that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn.2.2.2. 5.2. R = Response modification factor specified in 1997 NEHRP Table 5.3.2. 5.2.3.3.3.2. Cs  S D1 R  I T   (1997 NEHRP Eqn. The seismic response coefficient. SD1 = the design spectral response acceleration at a one second period T = the building period used for calculating the base shear and all other terms are as described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn.1-2).1-2). 5. I The seismic response coefficient.2. 5. Cs .1-1). the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.3. 5. 5.3.50 1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads . where. 5. 5. SDS = The design spectral response acceleration at short periods.3.2.1-2) where.2. Cs = 0. 5.1-3) 2 .2.4.3.1-2).1-3). = The occupancy importance factor determined in accordance with 1997 NEHRP Table 1.1-3). 5. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. shall not be less than that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5. If the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn.

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

where all terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.11 and 5.3.2.1-2). Finally, if the building is in seismic design category E or F, the seismic response coefficient, Cs , shall not be less than that specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4). If the building is in seismic design category E or F and the seismic response coefficient calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4) exceeds that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.1-1 and 5.3.2.1-3), the programs set the seismic response coefficient equal to that calculated in accordance with (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 258.5.3.2.1-4).

Cs 

0.5S1 R I

(1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-4)

where,

S1 = the mapped spectral acceleration for a one second period
and all other terms are as previously described for (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2.1-1). The base shear, V, is calculated using (1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2):

V

= Cs W

(1997 NEHRP Eqn. 5.3.2)

Cs = Seismic response coefficient as determined from one of (1997 NEHRP Eqns. 5.3.2.1-1 through 5.3.2.1-4) as appropriate.
W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). The base shear, V, is distributed over the height of the building by combining (1997 NEHRP Eqs. 5.3.4-1 and 5.3.4-2).

Fstory 

k V wstory hstory

story = 1

n

k wstory hstory

where,

1997 NEHRP Seismic Loads

2 - 51

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

Fstory = V
=

Portion of base shear applied to a story level. Building base shear. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Story height, distance from base of structure to story level. Exponent applied to building height. The value of k depends on the value of the building period, T, used for determining the base shear. If T  0.5 seconds, k = 1. If T  2.5 seconds, k = 2. If 0.5 seconds < T < 2.5 seconds, k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2. Number of story levels in the structure.

wstory = hstory = k
=

n

=

2.13
2.13.1

2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period
Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2002 Chinese automatic seismic loads. They are as follows:
  Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode (fundamental) for the calculated time period. This period is T1. User Defined: In this case, input a building period, which the programs use in the calculations.

2.13.2

Other Input Factors and Coefficients
The maximum value for seismic lateral influence factor, max, is used to calculate the factor of seismic lateral influence, 1, obtained from the 2002 Chinese Design Code response spectrum for the fundamental period. The seismic intensity, SI, has six possible values: 6(0.05g), 7(0.10g), 7(0.15g), 8(0.20g), 8(0.30g) and 9(0.40g).

2 - 52

2002 Chinese Seismic Loads

Chapter 2 - Automatic Seismic Loads

The damping ratio, , is used to adjust the shape of the response spectrum curve. The characteristic ground period, Tg, is entered in units of seconds. The fundamental period, T1, is multiplied by the period time discount factor, PTDF, prior to looking up the value of 1 from the 2002 Chinese Design Code response spectrum curve. PTDF typically ranges from 0.5 to 1.0. The enhancement factor is a multiplier to amplify the value or response spectrum curve.

2.13.3

Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads
The algorithm for determining 2002 Chinese seismic loads is based on calculating a factor of seismic lateral influence, 1, from the response spectrum curve. The period used for determining this factor, T1, is the fundamental period as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2002 Chinese Building Period." The programs calculate the seismic lateral influence factor using (Eqns. 2-1).
– If T  0.1s, then 1 = [0.45 + T( 2 – 4.5)] max, or – if 0.1s < T  Tg, then 1 =  2 max, or
 Tg  – if Tg < T  5Tg, then 1    2  max , T  or   – if 5Tg < T  6.0s, then 1  2 0.2   1  T  5Tg    max

(Eqn. 2-1a) (Eqn. 2-1b)

(Eqn. 2-1c)

(Eqn. 2-1d)

where,
1 max

= Seismic lateral influence factor. = Maximum value for the seismic lateral influence factor. = PTDF (T1) = Fundamental period of the structure.

T T1

2002 Chinese Seismic Loads

2 - 53

Fn = Concentrated force at the top of the building.02   0. is calculated using (Eqn. 2-3): FEk  Fn  F i 1 n i (Eqn. is broken into a concentrated force applied to the top of the structure and forces applied at each story level in accordance with (Eqn.7  = Damping ratio. FEk = Total specified load for lateral seismic action.05    8 = 1  1  0   2  0. 2-1a through 2-1d). The total specified load for lateral seismic action. PTDF = Period time discount factor. 1 GE (Eqn. Fi = Portion of total specified load applied to a story level. FEk.55 0. = Total specified gravity load of building (based on specified mass). 2-3) where.9  0.54 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads .851GE where. 2-2): FEk  0. 2 . 2-2) = Seismic lateral influence factor calculated in (Eqns. FEk.5  5 1 2 = 0.05   0.06  1.05   0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Tg = Characteristic ground period. The total specified load for lateral seismic action.  = 0.

Hj = Story heights of lumped masses i and j.35 and T1 > 1.4 Tg.55 .4 Tg.35 < Tg  0. Hi. 0. Fi FEk Fn = Portion of lateral seismic load applied to story level i.Fn).01 if 0. is calculated as shown in (Eqn.55 and T1 > 1.4 Tg. Gi. respectively. is distributed over the height of the structure in accordance with (Eqn. 2-5) j Hj where. 2002 Chinese Seismic Loads 2 . The concentrated force at the top of the structure. 0.Automatic Seismic Loads n = Number of story levels in the building.55 and T1 > 1. = Total specified load for lateral seismic action.08T1 + 0.07 if Tg  0. = Concentrated force at the top of the structure. measured from base of structure to story level.Chapter 2 . 0 if T1 > 1. 2-5): Fi  Gi Hi n G j 1  FEk  Fn  (Eqn. Gj = Equivalent gravity load of lumped mass for story levels i and j.02 if Tg  0.4 Tg. n = Number of story levels in the structure. n = or n = or n = or n = The remaining portion of the lateral seismic load.08T1 + 0. respectively. FEk = (Eqn. 2-4): Fn  n FEk where. 2-4) Total specified load for lateral seismic action.08T1 + 0. (FEk . 0. Fn.

R is the return period factor as determined from Table 3. is used to compute the near-fault factor.72.5. is based on Section 4. Ch(T1). A typical range of values for R is 0.14. They are:  Program Calculated: The programs use the longest period mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).5. are used to look up the seismic hazard coefficient. The distance. as given in Subsection 3.T) is 1 to 1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.5 of the 2004 NZS 1170.5. A typical range of values for Sp is 0.3 of the 2004 NZS 1170.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170. C.T).2 of the 2004 NZS 1170. The site subsoil class can be A.5.2 to 1. Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3.1.13 to 0. The site subsoil class in combination with the period. User Defined: In this case.1 2004 NZS 1170.14.1.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The structural performance factor.5 Subsection 3. but should be limited such that ZR does not exceed 0. Call this period T1. A typical range of values for N(D.8. µ.55.56 2004 NZS 1170. The structural ductility factor.7 to 1. D.14 2. T1.5 Seismic Loads . input a building period.6.3 of the 2004 NZS 1170. which the programs use in the calculations. B. They do not compare it against the program calculated period. or E.3 for site subsoil class definitions.5 Seismic Loads Options for 2004 NZS 1170.7.5.1. D. N(D. A typical range of values for Z is 0.  2. as described in Subsection 3.6.5.0.4 of the 2004 NZS 1170. 2 . D is the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to the nearest fault listed in Table 3. See 2004 NZS 1170. Sp.5 Building Period Two options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2004 NZS automatic seismic loads. is based on Section 4.

N max (T ) = the maximum near-fault factor and is linearly interpolated for period T from Table 3.5 3.D) = Near-fault factor determined from clause 3.57 .1.5 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2004 NZS 1170.2 of the 2004 NZS 1170. = The hazard factor determined from Clause 3.1(1)) = Seismic hazard coefficient for period T as determined by the program from Table 3.7. D)  N max (T ) for D  2 km  1   N max (T )  1  1. using (NZS Eqn. 2004 NZS 1170. D) where.3 Algorithm for 2004 NZS 1170. Z Ru N (T.1(1)) C (T1 )  Ch (T1 )ZRu N (T .5 seismic loads is based on Section 6.5 Building Period. Ch(T1) (NZS Eqn.0 where.4 taking account of the limitation on the value of ZRu given by Clause 3.5 Seismic Loads 2 . 1170.1.14.Chapter 2 . C(T).5 3.1 = Return period factor. N (T .1.5 entitled “Equivalent Static Method.6. D 20  D 18 for 2  D  20 km for D  20 km = the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to the nearest fault listed in Table 3.Automatic Seismic Loads 2.1 of the 2004 NZS 1170.2. 1170.6.5 Commentary.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2004 NZS 1170." The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for horizontal loading.

T1 shall not be taken less than 0.2(1)) 2 .2(1)): V = Cd (T1)W where.02  Ru but not less than 0. Cd (T1 )  C  T1  S p k  Z    0.5 6.5 1    1 T1  1.5 provide that for the purposes of calculating kµ. is calculated using (NZS Eqn. C and D kµ = µ = for T1  0. B.7 For soil class E kµ = µ = for T1  1 s or µ < 1.1(1)) Sp = structural performance factor For soil Classes A.5 3. T1 shall not be taken less than 0.5 Seismic Loads . (NZS Eqn. and C.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Next. 1170. 5. B. the horizontal design action coefficient is calculated at the T period.5 for T < 1 s and µ  1. V. 1170. C(T1) = elastic site hazard spectrum calculated in (NZS Eqn. µ = structural ductility factor and for the purposes of calculating kµ.4 second for site subsoil classes A.2(1))  20  where.7s for T1 < 0. or 1. 0.4s.03 Ru (NZS Eqn.58 2004 NZS 1170. 1170.0 second for site subsoil class E. The horizontal base shear.5 6. Cd(T1).7s    1 T1  1 0. using the following equation.6 second for site subsoil class D.

2(7)).5 6. The value used for hn is determined by the programs from the input story level heights. 6. 1170.92V wstory hstory story = 1  n (NZS Eqn.4 Eqn.4 Seismic Loads Options for 2007 AS 1170. 0.2(2)) wstory hstory where. Weight of story level (based on specified mass). Story height. 1170. 6. 2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the 2007 AS 1170.15. Number of story levels in the structure.2(1)) W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass).59 . wstory = hstory = n = 2. The horizontal base shear.4 automatic seismic loads. 5. V.1 2007 AS 1170.5 6.4 Seismic Loads 2 .Automatic Seismic Loads Cd(T1) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (NZS Eqn.Chapter 2 . Horizontal base shear calculated in (NZS Eqn.15 2. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (NZS Eqn.2(1)). Fstory = Ft or Ft V = = = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.2(2)) Fstory  Ft +0. distance from base of structure to story level.08V if story = top level 0 if story  top level. They are as follows:  Approximate Period: Calculate the fundamental period based on (AS 1170.

The structural ductility factor.5(A) and 6.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y). A typical range of values for Sp is 0. which the programs use in the calculations.15.2.0 to 3. 2.25kt hn (AS 1170. 2 .60 2007 AS 1170. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period.5 of the 2007 AS 1170.2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 0.  User Defined: In this case.4 Seismic Loads .4 Eqn.4 and Table 6. Sp. is based on Section 6.2(7)) where kt is defined as follows (AS 1170.3).5 of the 2007 AS 1170.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The structural performance factor.5(A) and 6. µ.75 TA  1.06 for eccentrically braced steel frames = 0.05 for all other structures The height hn is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level and is input in meters.11 for moment-resisting steel frames = 0.4 section 6.0 (AS 2.075 for moment-resisting concrete frames = 0.5(B).0. is based on Section 6. input a building period.4 and Table 6. A typical range of values for µ is 2. They do not compare it against TA or Tmode.5(B). The base shear obtained using a Program Calculated period cannot be less than 80% of the base shear obtained using the approximate period (AS 6. 6.3): kt = 0.67 to 1.2). Call this period Tmode.

The site subsoil class in combination with the period. 1170.2(5)) Ch(T1) = Spectral shape factor for period T as determined by the program from Table 6.4 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining 2007 AS 1170.2 to 1.4 clause 6.4 seismic loads is based on Section 6. 2. using (AS 1170. 29 (AS 2. The horizontal base shear.61 .5.Automatic Seismic Loads The site subsoil class can be Ae. is calculated using (AS 1170.2).2(1)): V = Cd (T1)W (AS 1170. 6. = Structural ductility factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 6.1 for site subsoil class definitions.03 to 0.2(1)) 2007 AS 1170.4 Eqn.8.4 of the 2007 AS 1170.4 Building Period.2 of the 2007 AS 1170. T1.4 Subsection 4. A typical range of values for Z is 0.2(5)) C (T1 )  k p ZCh (T1 ) where.4 of the 2007 AS 1170. C(T). Be. Z is the hazard factor as determined from Table 3.4. See 2007 AS 1170.4 6.4 clause 3.2. as described in Subsection 6. V.4. Ce.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for 2007 AS 1170.4. are used to look up the spectral shape factor.2 of the 2007 AS 1170. 6." The programs begin by calculating the elastic site hazard spectrum for horizontal loading.3 Algorithm for 2007 AS 1170. (AS Eqn. kp Z Sp µ = Return period factor as given in AS 1170.4 Seismic Loads 2 .4 entitled “Equivalent Static Analysis. kp is the return period factor as determined from Table 3.1.Chapter 2 .4 Eqn.4 clause 3. = Structural performance factor as given in AS 1170.1. De or Ee.4 Eqn.4. 6. = Hazard factor as given in AS 1170. Ch(T1).5. A typical range of values for kp is 0.1 of the 2007 AS 1170.15.

4 Eqn. If 0. If T  2. = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). = Exponent applied to building height. T.5 seconds. used for determining the base shear. V. Fstory  k wstory hstory story  1  n V (AS 1170. n 2 .2(4)) Cd (T1 )  W = C  T1  S p  (AS 1170. Cd(T1) = Horizontal design action coefficient calculated in (AS 1170.62 2007 AS 1170. If T  0. k = 1.4 Seismic Loads .3(1)). k = 2. The value of k depends on the value of the building period. The base shear.Automated Lateral Loads Manual where.5 seconds < T < 2. distance from base of structure to story level.5 seconds. 6.4 Eqn. = Building base shear.2(4)) Weight of the building (based on specified mass).5 seconds. 6. Fstory V wstory hstory k = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. = Number of story levels in the structure. k is linearly interpolated between 1 and 2.3(1)) k wstory hstory where.4 Eqn. 6. = Story height. 6.4 Eqn. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (AS 1170.

They do not compare it against TA or Tmode.  2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads 2 .Chapter 2 . Call this period Tmode. User Defined: In this case.  Program Calculated: The programs start with the period of the mode calculated to have the largest participation factor in the direction that loads are being calculated (X or Y).63 .16 2. It is assumed that you have already performed this comparison before specifying the period. 4.2. They are as follows:  Approximate Period: Calculate the fundamental period based on (EN 1998-1 Eqn.16.Automatic Seismic Loads 2.6).6) where Ct is defined as follows (EN 1998-1 section 4. The value used for H is determined by the programs from the input story level heights.3.2(3)): Ct = = = = 0.3. input a building period. 4.075 for moment-resisting concrete frames 0.075 for eccentrically braced steel frames 0.085 for moment-resisting steel frames 0. T1  Ct H 3 / 4 (EN 1998-1 Eqn.05 for all other structures The height H is measured from the elevation of the specified bottom story/minimum level to the (top of the) specified top story/maximum level and is input in meters.1 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads Options for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period Three options are provided for the building period used in calculating the EN 1998-1:2004 automatic seismic loads. which the programs use in the calculations.

The behavior factor.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.2. The default value of β is 0.5 of the EN 1998-1:2004 which is an approximation of the ratio of the seismic forces that the structure would experience if its response was completely elastic with 5% viscous damping.2. the value of as λ is equal to 0. The horizontal base shear. λ is the correction factor.5(4) of the EN 1998-1:2004 and Table 3. The lower bound factor for horizontal design spectrum. Sd (T1).3 Algorithm for EN 1998-1:2004 Seismic Loads The algorithm for determining EN 1998-1:2004 seismic load is based on Section 4.5(4) of the EN 1998-1:2004 and Table 3.5.2. Sd(T1).5 of the EN 1998-1:2004. D or E.85 if T1 ≤ 2Tc and the building has more than two stories.2. C. is given in National annex. is based on Section 3. The recommended choice of spectra is defined in EN 1998-1:2004 Section 3.5) 2 .2 or Table 3.2.” A period is calculated as described in the previous section entitled "Options for EN 1998-1:2004 Building Period.2 for site subsoil class definitions.2 Other Input Factors and Coefficients The spectral design spectrum.2.1. Fb.2. Sd (T1) for horizontal loading based on Section 3. The ground type in combination with the period.2. with a conventional elastic analysis model. See EN 1998-1:2004 Section 3. A value for q is generally greater than 1.2 of the EN 1998-1:2004 entitled “Lateral Force Method of Analysis. is based on Section 3. 4. B. 4.64 2004 Eurocode 8 (EN 1998-1) Seismic Loads .3." The programs begin by calculating the spectral design spectrum. q. are used to look up the spectral design spectrum.3. otherwise. is calculated using (EN 1998-1 Eqn.2(2)P Table 3.2 or Table 3.2.2 and Table 3. The ground type can be A. 2. to the seismic forces that may be used in design.3.16.2. as described in Subsection 3.5): Fb = Sd (T1) W λ (EN 1998-1 Eqn. β. or λ = 1.16.2.0.3.3. T1.

65 . 4. 4. = Building base shear. 2.11) story story h where. Fstory  wstory hstory story 1 w n Fb (EN 1998-1 Eqn. 2-6): User Defined Seismic Loads 2 . V. is used as an exponent on the building height when determining the distribution of the base shear over the height of the building.2 Algorithm for User Defined Seismic Loads The base shear. is direction dependent. This coefficient multiplied times the building weight gives the lateral seismic base shear in the direction specified.17. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (EN 1998-1 Eqn. The base shear.17 2. distance from base of structure to story level. = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). 2.1 User Defined Seismic Loads Input Factors and Coefficients The base shear coefficient. = Story height.Automatic Seismic Loads W = λ = Weight of the building (based on specified mass) Correction factor. = Number of story levels in the structure. Fb. Fstory V wstory hstory n = Portion of base shear applied to a story level.17. C.11). k. The building height exponent.Chapter 2 . is calculated using (Eqn.

2-6) where. 2-7): Fstory  k V wstory hstory story  1  n (Eqn. W = Weight of the building (based on specified mass). C = User-defined base shear coefficient. distance from base of structure to story level. hstory = Story height. Click the Define menu > Response Spectrum Functions command in SAP2000 and ETABS and the Loads > Functions Type > Response Spec- 2 . the functions themselves are not assumed to have units. V = Building base shear. 2. The base shear.66 Response Spectrum Functions . 2-7) wstory h k story where. Instead the units are associated with a scale factor that multiplies the function and is specified when you define the response spectrum case. wstory = Weight of story level (based on specified mass). k n = A user-defined exponent.Automated Lateral Loads Manual V = C W (Eqn. Fstory = Portion of base shear applied to a story level. In the program the acceleration values in the function are assumed to be normalized. = Number of story levels in the structure. that is. V. is distributed over the height of the building in accordance with (Eqn.18 Response Spectrum Functions A response spectrum function is simply a list of period versus spectral acceleration values.

the second character space a $ symbol and anything beyond the $ symbol as a blank line. Thus if the response spectrum file is moved. The text file should have period and spectral acceleration values. the Define Response Spectrum Functions form appears. This brings up the Response Spectrum Function Definition form. and delete existing response spectrum function definitions. When this command is used. or if the . It simply maintains a link to the file location. If the Con- Response Spectrum Functions 2 . One set of values (period and spectral acceleration) should be provided on each line. Any number of header lines at the beginning of the file can be specified to be ignored by the program.Automatic Seismic Loads trum > Expand arrow command in CSiBridge to define response spectrum functions.model file is moved to another location. Typically the program does not import the file into its database.67 . modify an existing response spectrum function definitions. Click the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form to add a new response spectrum function definition from an existing text file.1 Response Spectrum Functions from a File A response spectrum definition can be added from a text file. Function file: Click on the Specify File button in this area to bring up a form that can be used to indicate the name of the text file that includes your response spectrum data. The program quits reading the file when it reaches the end of the file or when it reaches a blank line. The Click To area of the form can be used to add a new spectrum from a text file. Note that the program considers a line with the first character space blank.18. add a new user defined response spectrum function. The following areas exist in this form:   Function name: Use this edit box to specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function. 2. Those header lines do not need $ symbols at the beginning of them.Chapter 2 . The Response Spectra area of this form lists the names of all the currently defined response spectrum functions. the program may suddenly be unable to locate the response spectrum file. Any line that has a $ symbol in the first character space is treated as a comment line and ignored. add a new response spectrum function based on one of several built-in code response spectra.

Next it checks to see if a line has a $ symbol as the first character. No values appear in this area until the graph of the function is displayed. This also fills in the values in the Define Function area of the graph. If the line is blank or if the end of the file is reached. The program reads the response spectrum function file as follows:     First it skips the specified number of header lines.Automated Lateral Loads Manual vert to User Defined button is clicked. the program imports the response spectrum into its database file and the data will always be available to your model. The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph. These values are available for viewing only and can not be edited unless the function is converted to a user defined function. Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. the program skips the number of lines at the top of the file indicated in the Header Lines to Skip item.  Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration values for the function. 2 . then it skips to the next line. Then click the Display Graph button in the Function Graph area to display the graph of the function. First specify the text file name and the number of header lines to skip in the Function File area of the form. If there is not a $ symbol as the first character on the line.68 Response Spectrum Functions . the program stops reading and closes the file. If it does.  Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. the program reads the information on the line. Do not click the Convert to User Defined button until a file name has been specified and the number of header lines to skip has been indicated. Note that when reading the function file.

69 . click the Refresh Graph button located just below the graph. It updates automatically as additional points are defined for the function. The following areas exist in that form:   Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function. Type in the next set of period and spectral acceleration values and again click the Add button. Define Function: Input the period and spectral acceleration values for the function in this area. Then click the Add button. Type the first set of period and spectral acceleration values into the edit boxes at the top of this area.18. Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. first highlight the appropriate values in the list box. Continue this process until all sets of values are entered.18. first highlight the appropriate values in the list box. Then click the Delete button. Response Spectrum Functions 2 .3 Code Specific Response Spectrum Functions The program allows you to easily define code specific response spectrum functions for a variety of building codes. Modify the values in the edit boxes and then click the Modify button. To delete an existing set of values. The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph.Chapter 2 . This brings up the Response Spectrum Function Definition form. 2. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area.2 User Defined Response Spectrum Functions Click the drop-down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click Add User Spectrum to add a new user defined response spectrum.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. To modify an existing set of values. Note that the highlighted values appear in the edit boxes at the top of the area. If the graph does not update automatically.  Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function.

The values shown update every time the spectrum parameters are redefined. The parameters specified for each of the codes included in the program are identified in separate subsections that follow.18. Then the values in the Define Function area can be edited.1 in the 1996 SEAOC Recommended Lateral Force Re- 2 .  Note that the Convert to User-Defined button can be clicked at any time to convert the function to a user defined function. Run the mouse pointer over the function graph to display a dot along the line representing the response spectrum. 2. The coordinates of the dot are reported in the box just below the graph. The following areas exist in the forms:   Function name: Specify or modify the name of the response spectrum function. Parameters: Specify the parameters that define the code specific response spectrum. click Add UBC97 Spectrum to add a new response spectrum based on the 1997 UBC. Clicking on one of these code specific items brings up a code-specific Response Spectrum Function Definition form.3.70 Response Spectrum Functions . The values are available for viewing only unless the function is converted to a user defined function. It updates automatically as the spectrum parameters are redefined.1 1994 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1994 UBC response spectrum function is based on Figure 16-3 in Chapter 16 of the 1994 UBC. Function graph: This area displays a graph of the function. The digitization of these response spectra is based on Section C106. For example.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Click the drop down list just below the Add Spectrum from File button in the Click To area of the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click one of the code-specific items. click the Refresh Graph button located just below the graph. These parameters vary from code to code. If the graph does not update automatically.2. Define Function: This area displays the period and spectral acceleration values for the function.

Csm. Z and a soil type.3.71 . nonzero value can be input for these parameters. 2. Any positive.1. 11-3). Any positive. Response Spectrum Functions 2 .3. Tm.Chapter 2 . The response spectrum is constructed by plotting the modal seismic design coefficient.2 1997 UBC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1997 UBC response spectrum function is constructed as shown in Figure 16-3 in Chapter 16 of the 1997 UBC. The parameters required are a seismic zone factor. The coefficient for the soil profile characteristics of the site as determined by 1996 BOCA Table 1610. The soil type can be input as 1. Tm. Aa = Av = Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak acceleration as determined in 1996 BOCA Section 1610.3 1996 BOCA Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1996 BOCA response spectrum function. The parameters required are seismic coefficients Ca and Cv. see Table 16-J in the 1994 UBC for typical values.1. 2 or 3.3. the value of Csm is determined using (Eqn.18. nonzero value can be specified for the seismic zone factor. 2. For a given period. The response modification factor determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1610.3. Seismic coefficient representing the effective peak velocityrelated acceleration as determined in 1996 BOCA Section 1610.5. Any positive. versus the modal period of vibration. nonzero value can be specified for the seismic coefficients. See Tables 16-Q and 16-R in the 1997 UBC for typical values of these coefficients.1.5. see Table 16-I in the 1994 UBC for typical values.3.3.3.Automatic Seismic Loads quirements and Commentary (more commonly called the SEAOC Blue Book). R = S = The 1996 BOCA response spectrum function is based on 1996 BOCA Section 1610.18.

Any positive integer. Acceleration-related seismic zone.5 Aa  2 R RTm 3 (Eqn. The 1995 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 44(a) in Commentary J of the 1995 NBCC.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 2.0 Sec. or zero. Site Class = A to F. Sa(0. 11-3) 2.72 Response Spectrum Functions . nonzero value can be input for the zonal velocity ratio. can be input for the acceleration and velocity-related seismic zones.18. v. 2 . Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) Sa(0. Za = Zv = Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 1995 NBCC. Sa(2. Sa(1.5 Sec. Velocity-related seismic zone.2 Sec.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Csm  1.0 Secs.18.2 Av S 2. Any positive.3.20) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.4 1995 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1995 NBCC (Canadian) response spectrum function. v = Zonal velocity ratio.50) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 1.3.5 2005 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 2005 NBCC (Canadian) response spectrum function. 2.

Chapter 2 . Any positive.0 Secs.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 2.3. Any positive.6 2010 NBCC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 2010 NBCC (Canadian) response spectrum function.73 .8. Any positive integer.50) = Spectral Acceleration at 0. or zero. Any positive. Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) Sa(0. can be input for the spectral acceleration. can be input for the spectral acceleration. Sa(1. nonzero value can be input for the peak ground acceleration. nonzero value can be input for the peak ground acceleration. = Response Spectrum Functions 2 . SDS SD1 = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615. The 2005 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 72 in Commentary J of the 2005 NBCC. PGA.7 IBC2003 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the IBC2003 response spectrum function.1.20) = Spectral Acceleration at 0.0 Sec. The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in IBC2003 Section 1615. Sa(2.18. nonzero value can be input for these parameters. The 2010 NBCC response spectrum function is based on item 4.0) = Spectral Acceleration at 1. Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 2010 NBCC. Sa(0.5 Sec. 2.3.1.Automatic Seismic Loads Values for these parameters can be found in Appendix C of the 2005 NBCC.4(7) Part 4 of Division B of the 2010 NBCC. or zero. 2.2 Sec.3.3.18.1. Site Class = A to F. PGA. Any positive integer.

5.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The IBC2003 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in IBC2003 Section 1615.4 (ASCE 7-05 11.4.5. SS = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.1 (ASCE 7-05 11. 2.74 Response Spectrum Functions .4.4. The IBC2006 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in IBC2006 Section 1613.5.9 IBC2009 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the IBC2009 response spectrum function. S1 TL Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.8 IBC2006 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the IBC2006 response spectrum function.2 (ASCE 7-05 11. S1 TL 2 .2).1).3. = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in IBC2006 Section 1613.4. = Long-Period transition period(s) as specified in ASCE 705 11. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.5.1.1 (ASCE 7-05 11. 2.2.1). = Long-Period transition period(s) as specified in ASCE 705 11. Any positive.5.4.18. Any positive.4.1 (ASCE 7-05 11.1).4).5.1).4. = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in IBC2009 Section 1613.4.5. nonzero value can be input for these parameters. SS = The 5% damped design spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in IBC2009 Section 1613.18.3.

3.2.2.2.2.18. the subsoil class and the damping correction factor.11 1998 Eurocode 8 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 1998 Eurocode 8 response spectrum function is constructed as described in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.4. 4.2 (ASCE 7-05 11. The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using Eqns. The IBC2009 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in IBC2009 Section 1613.75 . B. Note that the value of these items depends on the specified subsoil class. Any positive.5-1).10 1997 NEHRP Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The following parameters are input for the 1997 NEHRP response spectrum function. The parameters you enter are the design ground acceleration. SDS = The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at short periods as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. TB. k1. 4. The subsoil class can be input as A. k2.5-2). nonzero value can be specified for the design ground acceleration.Chapter 2 . ag. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.2.5. and S are taken from Table 4.2.Automatic Seismic Loads Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in IBC2009 Section 1613.2). 2. 2. The 1997 NEHRP response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in 1997 NEHRP Section 4.3.2.18.1. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . .6. The values of o. TC.4).7.2. SD1 = The design earthquake spectral response acceleration at a one second period as specified in (1997 NEHRP Eqn. TD.4 (ASCE 7-05 11.4 in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.1.2.1. or C. Any positive. The damping correction factor must satisfy   0. 4.1 through 4.1.1 in 1998 Eurocode ENV 1998-1-1:1994 Section 4.2.

2. 0. or C.80.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 2.20 second are taken as 0. input a scaling factor and a site subsoil category. The parameters you enter are the design spectrum type. The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using Eqns.2. In Table 4. and 0. 0.0 in Figures 4. If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn.40. Note that the value of these items depends on the specified ground type and spectrum type.6.6. input the scaling factor as (Sp)(R)(Z)(Ls). The values of TB.13. b.6. β and the behavior correction factor.1a the coefficient values for periods of 0.12 2004 Eurocode 8 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 2004 Eurocode 8 response spectrum function is constructed as described in EN 1998-1-1:2004 Section 3. and 0. respectively.6. nonzero value can be specified for the design ground acceleration. and S are taken from Table 3. and c.2. 4.4) based on the input site subsoil category and the values for  = 1.3 and 4. Any positive.18. 3.2. q.5 (the program will accept any nonzero value).4) is used. respectively.3 in 1998 Eurocode EN 1998-1-1:2004 Section 3.3) is used. The subsoil class can be input as A.76 Response Spectrum Functions . TD. B. The 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function is constructed as specified in 1992 NZS4203 Section 4. Any positive. B. and 0.13 through 3. the ground type.5.68. C.3 and 4. 4. The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using (1992 NZS4203 Eqns.2. 1) term in (1992 NZS4203 Eqns.09.4).42.1a. The behavior factor must satisfy q  1.1a. TC. The program calculates the Ch(T.80 and 0. input the scaling factor as (Sm)(Sp)(R)(Z)(Lu). The site subsoil category can be input as A.1b the coefficient values for periods of 0. In 2 . nonzero value can be specified for the scaling factor.13 1992 NZS 4203 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function For the 1992 NZS4203 (New Zealand) response spectrum function. 4. In Table 4. 2.6. 0. 4.6.2.3.6. If (1992 NZS4203 Eqn. D or E.3.5.18.6. 0. b.6.6.16 in EN 1998-1-1:2004 Section 3.20 second are taken as 0. and c and in Tables 4.5. the lower bound factor for the horizontal design spectrum.68.2 or 3.6.

1. Site Class = Site class A to E as specified in NZS 1170.3.5 clause 3.T).2 of the 2004 NZS 1170. as given in Subsection 3.Chapter 2 .77 . N(D.5 but limited such that ZRu does not exceed 0.Automatic Seismic Loads Table 4. 2.5:2004 response spectrum function is constructed as specified in NZS 1170.4 (New Zealand) response spectrum function. the following parameters are input.72.15 2007 AS 1170.4.1 (computed by the program computed based on time period).6. Response Spectrum Functions 2 . The distance. 2.14 2004 NZS 1170.4 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function For the 2007 AS 1170. = The spectral shape factor determined from NZS 1170.1.7.18. = D is the shortest distance (in kilometers) from the site to the nearest fault listed in Table 3.10 second are taken as 0. Z = The hazard factor determined from NZS 1170.5 clause 3. = The return period factor Rs or Ru for the appropriate limit state determined from NZS 1170. Any positive.T) is 1 to 1.1c the coefficient values for periods of 0 and 0. the following parameters are input.3. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.5 clause 3.1.4 Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function For the 2004 NZS 1170.18.1.1.5 clause 3.1. Any positive.4.1.4 (Australia) response spectrum function. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.5.3.6. is used to compute the near-fault factor. D.2 and Table 3.72. A typical range of values for N(D. respectively.6.42 and 0.5:2004 Section 3. Ch(T) = Spectral shape factor for period T as determined by the program from Table 6. R D Ch(T) The NZS 1170.4 of the AS 1170.

1. Any positive. Structural performance factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 6.5. nonzero value can be input for these parameters.1 and Table 1.4.3. 2. The following parameters are input for the AASHTO 2007 response spectrum function.4 clause 6. Section 3. 2 . Site class Ae to Ee as specified in AS 1170.1.2-Sec period spectral acceleration coefficient on Class B rock.4. = Site Class = Sp µ = = The AS 1170.5. Structural ductility factor as given in AS 1170.4 clause 3.4 clause 4. Site Class = Site class A to F as specified in Section 3.Automated Lateral Loads Manual kp Z = Return period factor as determined for AS 1170. SS S1 = 0.2. Hazard factor as determined for AS 1170.4 clause 3.2.18.4:2007 response spectrum function is constructed as specified in AS 1170. The AASHTO 2007 response spectrum function is based on the procedure described in AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design. Those maps were developed for a hazard of 7% probability of exceedance in 75 years (1000 return period).2(a). The design spectra uses the digitized USGS maps developed for AASHTO.0-Sec period spectral acceleration coefficient on Class B rock.4:2007 clause 7. = 1.1.78 Response Spectrum Functions .16 2007 AASHTO Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The AASHTO 2007 ground motion design spectra in CSiBridge is developed in accordance with the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic Bridge Design.

F0 (magnifica* tion factor) and Tc (reference period). the ratio for site altitude at base of hill to height of hill (h/H). by Island name or user specified.0 The Limit State option can be SLO. the limit state.7 II 1. TR.Automatic Seismic Loads 2. SLD for elastic spectrum and SLV and SLC for design spectrum.0 III 1. T2.18. CU I 0. VR  CU VN where.17 2008 Italian NTC Parameters for a Response Spectrum Function The 2008 Italian NTC response spectrum function is constructed as described in Technical Rules for Construction (NTC 2008). the damping ( ) for elastic spectrum and the behavior correction factor (q) for design spectrum.0 (the program will accept any nonzero value). ag.3. B. Any positive. the soil type. For Latitude and Longitude and Island Name options. the Usage Class and the Nominal Life of the structure. The subsoil type can be input as A.5 IV 2. TR  VR ln 1  P  VR and. user also need to input the Limit State. T3 or T4. The behavior factor must satisfy q  1.Chapter 2 . the topography. The PVR parameters are determined from the following table: Spectrum Type Limit State Elastic SLO SLD PVR % 81 63 Description Immediate Occupancy Damage Control Response Spectrum Functions 2 . D or E. F0 and Tc . can be entered based on a given set of Latitude and Longitude. The Fundamental Parameters ag (peak ground acceleration). nonzero value can be specified for the Fundamental Parameters. C. These parameters are used for computing Return period.79 . VN = nominal life of the structure CU = usage coefficient Usage Class Coefficient. The topography type can be T1. the spectrum type. The parameters you enter * are Fundamental Parameters.

80 Response Spectrum Functions .55 . can be calculated as follows:  T    T  p  log p   log p1   log 2   log R   log R 2  p    T   1  R1    TR1  1 The ordinates of the response spectrum are calculated using the equations given below. F0(TR) and Tc*(TR).Automated Lateral Loads Manual Design SLV SLC 10 5 Life safety Collapse Prevention For a given return period. Horizontal Elastic Response Spectrum T 1  T S F0   1  g  TB  F0  TB ag TB  T  TC Se (T )  S F0 g a T  TC  T  TD Se (T )  g S F0  C  g T  a T T  TD  T Se (T )  g S F0  C 2D  g  T  0  T  TB Se (T )  ag      10  5     0. TD. TC.6 . where  is damping in percent The S and spectra ordinate are based on the following equations: S  S s ST TC  CCTC * . 2 . The values of TB. Ss and ST are obtained using Soil Type and Topography. and S depend on the specified soil type and spectrum type. here called p. TD  4 g 3 The parameter Cc. TB  ag TC  1. TR the parameters ag(TR).

40 Topography T1 T2 T3 T4 h  1.0  1  0.10 F0 ST 1.20 1.4  1.40  0.2  1.15 Tc*  0.5 F0 ag g  1.50 1.81 .Chapter 2 .33  1.55 .0  1  0.2 H h 1.0  1  0.00  2.90  2.25 Tc*  1. where  is damping in percent Response Spectrum Functions 2 .80  1.Automatic Seismic Loads Soil Type A B Ss Cc 1.40 F0 1.00  1.2 Vertical Elastic Response Spectrum T 1  T  S Fv   1    g  TB  F0  TB   a TB  T  TC Sve (T )  g S Fv g a T  TC  T  TD Sve (T )  g S Fv  C  g T  a T T  TD  T Sve (T )  g S Fv  C 2D  g  T  0  T  TB Sve (T )  ag   10  5     0.20 C D E ag g ag 0.6 F0 0.00  1.60 0.2 H h 1.00 1.40  1.0 g ag g 0.10 Tc*  1.00 1.4 H 1.00  1.70  0.05 Tc*  1.50  1.

00 ST 1. qh is the structure behavior factor for horizontal component Design Vertical Response Spectrum The Design Vertical Spectrum is same as Elastic Vertical spectrum except the followings: The parameter for Design spectrum is defined as   1 / qv where.0 1. The same form that displayed when you defined the 2 .18 Modifying and Deleting Response Spectrum Functions In the Define Response Spectrum Functions form. E Topography T1 T2 T3 T4 0. C.0 s Design Horizontal Response Spectrum The Design Horizontal Spectrum is same as Elastic Horizontal spectrum except the following: The parameter for Design spectrum is defined as   1 / q h where.18.15 s TD 1.05 s TC 0.82 Response Spectrum Functions . 1. B. 2.0 for bridges).5 for buildings.4 TB 0. qv is the structure behavior factor for vertical component (1.35 F0    g  Soil Type A.2 1.3. highlight an existing response spectrum name and then click on the Modify/Show Spectrum button to modify the spectrum. D.Automated Lateral Loads Manual S  S s ST  ag  Fv  1.2 1.5 Ss 1.

83 . Response Spectrum Functions 2 . highlight its name in the Define Response Spectrum Functions form and click the Delete Spectrum button.Automatic Seismic Loads function displays.Chapter 2 . use the form to make any required changes or modifications. To delete an existing response spectrum function.

Automatic wind loads can be generated in any arbitrary horizontal direction for the following codes:              1997 UBC 1996 BOCA BS 6399-95 1995 NBCC 2005 NBCC 2010 NBCC ASCE 7-88 ASCE 7-95 ASCE 7-02 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 ASCE 7-10 1987 RCDF (Mexico) 2002 Chinese Automatic Wind Loads 3-1 .Chapter 3 Automatic Wind Loads This chapter documents the automatic wind lateral static load patterns that can be generated.

the Auto Lateral Load drop-down list becomes active and you can choose from any of the codes identified in the previous section. Part 1-4 2002 AS/NZS 1170.Automated Lateral Loads Manual    API 4F 2008 2005 Eurocode 1. a self-weight multiplier. when you click the Add New Load Pattern or Modify Load Pattern buttons.1 Defining Automatic Wind Load Patterns The automatic seismic static load patterns are defined using the Define menu > Load Patterns command in SAP2000 and ETABS or the Loads > Load Patterns > Load Patterns command in CSiBridge. additional user-defined loads can be added to a load pattern that includes an automatic static lateral load. a type. Those commands display the Define Load Patterns form. that load pattern is added to the model using default settings based on the selected code. If a code is selected in the Auto Lateral Load list. Note that the actual forces associated with an automatic static lateral load are not calculated until an analysis has been run. an Auto Lateral Load. That is. and in some cases. A separate automatic static load pattern must be defined for each direction of wind load.2 3. Each automatic static lateral load must be in a separate load pattern. Thus. To review or modify the parameters for an automatic lateral load. two or more automatic static lateral loads cannot be specified in the same load pattern. 3-2 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . Use this form to specify a name for a load pattern. Select None for the Auto Lateral Load to specify that the Wind load will not be an automatic lateral load. When the load type is specified as Wind. you cannot view the resultant automatic lateral loads until after you have run an analysis. However. highlight the load in the list and click the Modify Lateral Load Pattern button.

and roofs). wind loads will be generated on each area object that has been assigned a Cp using the Assign menu > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced > Assign Loads > Areas > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in CSi- Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-3 . However. The fourth set is for specifying the wind coefficients. a diaphragm consisting of a single point object will have a zero exposure width. walls. If exposure from area objects is selected.1 Exposure The automatically calculated wind loads may be determined by exposure to diaphragms or to area objects (i. that point object becomes the location where the wind load is applied.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3. the story height above and below that level. 3. one or more dummy diaphragms must be defined at each story level. The wind coefficient data set is codedependent and is described separately for each code later in this chapter. a separate lateral load is created for each diaphragm present at a story level. Assign a dummy diaphragm to just one point object at a story level. the assumed exposure width for the diaphragm(s) at the story level. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. exterior cladding. so input a user-defined exposure width for the dummy diaphragm to generate a non-zero wind load (use the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button on the Wind Loading form). some of the data sets are dependent on the exposure selected. Wind loads also can be user defined. If area objects are used to model the actual in-plane stiffness of the diaphragm and automatic wind loads are to be created using the diaphragm option. The data in the first three sets is common to all of the codes and is described in the subsections that follow.Automatic Wind Load Patterns . One data set defines the exposure by selecting loading based on diaphragms or area objects. and a third set defines the exposure height. If exposure from the extents of diaphragms is selected.2 Automatic Wind Load Patterns The forms defining the automatic wind loads consist of four data sets.e. Another data sets defines the wind exposure parameters. The wind loads calculated at any story level are based on the story level elevation. which is described at the end of this chapter.2..

Any angle for the wind direction can be input. An angle of 180 degrees means the wind is blowing in the negative global X-direction. and the leeward coefficient. 3. 3-4 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .2 Wind Exposure Parameters The wind exposure parameters are available only when calculating lateral wind loads using the exposure from extents of diaphragms option. it is blowing from the negative global Xdirection to the positive global X-direction. The wind loads calculated at an area object are based on the elevation of the object.2. while the opposite side is the leeward side. The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning the Cp values to the area objects. are used in calculating the wind pressures on the windward and leeward sides of the diaphragms. Thus. and various codedependent wind coefficients. that is. Cp. These input values are not available when using the exposure from area objects method because the wind coefficients are assigned directly to the area objects using the Assign menu > Area Loads > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced > Assign Loads > Areas > Wind Pressure Coefficients command in CSiBridge. this option may be used to generate vertical as well as lateral loads. When specifying the wind direction. The windward coefficient. the exposure from area objects option will generate wind loads normal to any area object. The windward side of a diaphragm is the side exposed to the wind. The angle is always measured counterclockwise from the positive global X-axis. An angle of 90 degrees means the wind is blowing in the positive global Y-direction. Cp. A positive angle appears counterclockwise as you look down on the model in the negative global Zdirection. An angle of 270 degrees means the wind is blowing in the negative global Y-direction. respectively. Unlike the diaphragm exposure option that generates only lateral wind loads. An angle of 0 degrees means the wind is blowing in the positive global X-direction.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Bridge. regardless of its orientation. indicate the direction of the wind by an angle measured in degrees. the dimensions of the object.

In some instances.3 Wind Exposure Height The top story/maximum elevation and a bottom story/minimum elevation input values specify the elevation range over which the structure is exposed to wind. In most instances the top story should be the uppermost story level/elevation in the building and this is the default value. find the point objects with the maximum and minimum global Y-coordinates. for example where penthouses are included in the model. The top story/maximum global Z indicates the highest story level to be assumed exposed to wind loading for the purposes of calculating the automatic wind load. the point where the wind load is applied to a diaphragm is the calculated geometric center of the diaphragm. For example.2. Find the point objects that have the maximum and minimum coordinates perpendicular to the direction of the wind load. By default. Subtract the minimum perpendicular coordinate from the maximum perpendicular coordinate to obtain the diaphragm width perpendicular to the wind load.   By default. it may be more convenient to indicate that the top story level for automatic wind Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-5 .  Transform the coordinates of all of the point objects that are part of the diaphragm constraint into a system of coordinates that is parallel and perpendicular to the specified direction of wind loading. the wind exposure width for a diaphragm is equal to the calculated width of the diaphragm in a direction perpendicular to the direction of the wind load. 3. if the wind load is in the global X-direction. Modify the assumed wind load application point and the default exposure width on the Wind Exposure Width Data form. The maximum width of the diaphragm perpendicular to the direction of the wind loading is calculated using the following three-step process.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Click the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button to review and modify the exposure widths calculated by the programs for each diaphragm. which displays when the Modify/Show Exposure Widths button is clicked.Automatic Wind Load Patterns .

3-6 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . The shaded area in Figure 3-1b illustrates the extent of the wind load that is applied to the roof level diaphragm. By default the bottom story is assumed to be the base level of the structure. Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Specified parapet height Specified parapet height Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd Z X a) Building Elevation h1 Base Z X b) Wind Loading at Roof Level h2/2 Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Specified parapet height Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd h1 Base h2/2 h1/2 Z X c) Wind Loading at 2nd Level Exposure width for 2nd level diaphragm Exposure width for Roof level diaphragm Roof h2 2nd h1 Base Figure 3-1: Example extent of wind loading Figure 3-1a shows an elevation of a two-story building with diaphragms at each story level. Assume the wind load is to be automatically calculated for the Y-direction. The shaded area in Figure 3-1c illustrates nd the extent of the wind load that is applied to the 2 level diaphragm. It is assumed that all stories above the bottom story are loaded by the wind. it may be advantageous to specify a higher level as the bottom story for wind loading. In some cases. Thus. The bottom story/minimum global Z indicates the lowest story level that is exposed to wind loading.Automated Lateral Loads Manual loading is the main roof level. Figure 3-1 gives a representation of how loads are distributed to the diaphragms when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method. One example of this might be if a building has several below-grade levels that should not receive any wind loading. the wind load is acting on the face of the building shown in Figure 3-1a. User-defined loads can then be added to the load pattern to account for the wind loads acting on the penthouse.

The exposure types are described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1619.3.3. The wind importance factor can be found in 1997 UBC Table 16-K.15.3 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3. The other modification Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3-7 . Iw—not one of the seismic importance factors. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph. 3.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms When using the exposure from area objects method. Iw.3 of the 1997 UBC.1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 1997 UBC wind loads. The wind importance factor.00 to 1. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of Method 2 (Projected Area Method) as described in Section 1621. and the wind importance factor.3. C. The basic wind speed is described in 1997 UBC Sections 1616 and 1618. the exposure type. the exposure heights allows the programs to determine how much of each area object is exposed to wind. A typical range of values for Iw is 1. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as described in Section 1621. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern.3. 3.3.2 Algorithm for 1997 UBC Wind Loads 3. No other values are allowed.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through 1621 of the 1997 UBC. you must manually include them. The first modification is that the programs do not automatically apply vertical wind loads over the projected horizontal area. I or Ip— should be input. The programs have two modifications to the requirements of Section 1621. or D.2. The exposure type can be B.1997 UBC Wind Loads .

qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet. 20-1) is used to determine the wind pressure. P. Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user. exposure and gust factor coefficient. Leeward combined height.Automated Lateral Loads Manual is that the programs apply the method to structures of any height. Importance factor as input by the user. Windward combined height. 20-1) Cq-leeward Ce-leeward = = The Ce coefficient is determined from 1997 UBC Table 16-G using the input exposure type and the elevation from the input bottom story. mph. Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.3. V = Basic wind speed as input by the user.00256 V  10 psf 2 (UBC Table 16-F) where. 3-8 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . evaluated at the specified top story level. qs Iw Cq-windward Ce-windward = = = = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F. as discussed in 1997 UBC Section 1621. Linear interpolation is used to determine the value of the Ce coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. exposure and gust factor coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. The modification does not limit structures to less than 200 feet high. The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. qs is determined from the following equation: qs = 0. (UBC Eqn. P = qs Iw (Cq-windward Ce-windward + Cq-leeward Ce-leeward) where. psf. (UBC Eqn. as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G.

2. qs = Wind stagnation pressure at the standard height of 33 feet as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-F. and at the top story level for leeward objects. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on Method 1 (Normal Force Method) as described in Section 1621.2.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 1997 UBC are based on Sections 1616 through 1621 of the 1997 UBC.” The programs distribute the pressures. The programs distribute the pressures.Exposure from Area Objects Note the units that are specified for qs and V. P. P. 3. (UBC Eqn.3. exposure. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.1997 UBC Wind Loads . on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. Cp = Windward or leeward pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. and gust factor coefficient as given in 1997 UBC Table 16-G. This value is evaluated at the height of interest for windward exposures. on the surface of each area object. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 1621. P = Ce Cp qs Iw where. at any point on the surface of the area objects.2 of the 1997 UBC. 20-1) is used to determine the wind pressure. 20-1) Exposure from Area Objects 3-9 . Iw = Importance factor as input by the user. (UBC Eqn. Also note that the preceding equation is consistent with 1997 UBC Table 16-F. Ce = Combined height. P.

1 Input Wind Coefficients Four wind coefficients are input for 1996 BOCA wind loads. the programs do not check the height-to-least-horizontal-dimension ratio or the building period and it does not determine the gust factor using an approved rational analysis incorporating the dynamic properties of the main wind force-resisting system. I. and provide a user defined value for Gh. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph).7. Specify that the gust response factor is (a) calculated based on the height (distance) of the specified top story above the specified bottom story and the exposure category in accordance with the code using Table 1609. The gust response factor. When you select the Per Code option for the gust response factor.4. It is assumed that you will do this yourself.7 and in Table 1609. The wind importance factor. A typical range of values for Gh is 1. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 70 to 130 mph.7(5). the exposure category.90 to 1. B.36.4 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3.4.10 Exposure from Area Objects .7(5) or (b) a value you input. and the wind importance factor. A typical range of values for I is 0. is discussed in 1996 BOCA Section 1609. and the gust response factor. The basic wind speed is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3. 3 . is described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609. Gh. The exposure category can be A.5. the following statement is made about Gh. if necessary. The gust response factor for buildings which have a height to least horizontal dimension ratio greater than 5 or a fundamental frequency less than one cycle per second (period greater than 1 second) shall be calculated by an approved rational analysis that incorporates the dynamic properties of the main wind forceresisting system. The exposure categories are described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.00 to 2. Gh.23. I. C or D.3. Note that in 1996 BOCA Section 1609. No other values are allowed.

1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the 1996 BOCA. as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.11 .1996 BOCA Wind Loads .2 Algorithm for 1996 BOCA Wind Loads 3. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(3).4. Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user.7(4). P = Pv I [Kz Gh Cp-windward + Kh Gh Cp-leeward] where. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.7. P.7) Cp-leeward = The Pv coefficient is determined from the following equation.2. Pv I Kz Gh Cp-windward Kh = = = = = = Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4). Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user. Importance factor as input by the user. you must manually include them.4. (Table 1609. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . Velocity pressure exposure coefficient.7(5) or as user specified. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. evaluated at the specified top story level. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3.

For use in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7(4). V = Basic wind speed as input by the user. 3. at any point on the surface of the area objects. P. 3 . The programs use linear interpolation to determine the value of the Kz coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. The Kz coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609.7.7(4) using the input exposure category and the input bottom story. the input bottom story/minimum elevation is assumed to be ground level." The Kh coefficient is determined from 1996 BOCA Table 1609. refer to the previous section entitled "Input Wind Coefficients for 1996 BOCA.2.7. For discussion of the gust response factor. The following equations are used to determine either the windward or leeward wind pressure.12 Exposure from Area Objects . Note the units specified for Pv and V. Linear interpolation is used to determine the value of the Kh coefficient at heights above 15 feet that are not listed in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. The programs distribute the pressures.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 1996 BOCA are based on Section 1609 of the 1996 BOCA.4.00256 V  10 psf 2 (Table 1609. P. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.7(4).7(4) using the input exposure category and the height of the input top story above the input bottom story.7(3)) where. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 1609. Gh. psf. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are as described in 1996 BOCA Section 1609.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Pv = 0.7(4). Pv = Basic velocity pressure. mph.

on the surface of each area object. = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient.7(5) or as user specified. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects Exposure from Area Objects 3 .7) (Table 1609.” The programs distribute the pressures. = Importance factor as input by the user. = Windward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object by the user. P.7(3).7(4). = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient at the height of interest as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. Pv I Kz Gh Cp-windward Kh (Table 1609. Kz. evaluated at the specified top story level. = Gust response factor as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609.Exposure from Area Objects Pwindward = Pv I Kz Gh Cp-windward or Pleeward = Pv I Kh Gh Cp-leeward where. = Leeward pressure coefficient as assigned to the area object by the user. as given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. Cp-leeward The values for Pv.7) = Basic velocity pressure given in 1996 BOCA Table 1609. and Kh are the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.7(4).13 .1996 BOCA Wind Loads .

They are the effective wind speed in meters per second (m/s). is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1.5.2 the following statement is made about Cr : This part of BS 6399 does not apply when the value of dynamic augmentation factor exceeds the limits shown in figure 3.2.25. Ve. The size effect factor for external pressures.25.3.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1995 BS 6399 are based on 1995 BS 6399 Section 2.4. and performs no check to ensure that Cr is less than 0. This typically means that when Cr  0.6. A typical range of values for Cr is 0 to 0.6.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3.5.00. the structure is assumed to be dynamic and the methodology for establishing wind loads described herein is not applicable. the program allows the user to input any value. and the dynamic augmentation factor. Note that in 1995 BS 6399 Section 1. Ca.1. However. Buildings falling outside these limits should be assessed using established dynamic methods.25. Cr. is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 2. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in 3 .1. The dynamic augmentation factor. is described in 1995 BS 6399 Section 2.2 Algorithm for 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3.14 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 1995 BS 6399 wind loads. 3.5 1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads 3.52 to 1. A typical range of values for Ca is 0.5. The effective wind speed.2. the size effect factor.3.

1(1)). 2.6(7) is used to determine the wind pressure. Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user.1.1.3.613 Ve2 where. (Eqn.1. The first modification is that the programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area.1 of the 1995 BS 6399.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Section 2.2. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . qs = 0. as discussed in 1995 BS Section 1. (Eqn. 2. Eqn. 2.8. The other modification is that the programs apply the method to structures of any height. The modification does not limit structures to less than 100 meters high. m/s. The programs have two modifications to the requirements of Section 2.3. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. The shape of the vertical projected area is determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. Pa. you must include them manually. External pressure coefficient on the windward side as input by the user. p. External pressure coefficient on the leeward side as input by the user.85 qs Ca (Cp-front + Cp-rear) (1 + Cr) where.6(7)) Note that the factor 0.15 .2.2. 2. Horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area as described in Section 2. Size effect factor as input by the user. p = 0.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the front and rear faces. qs is determined from (Eqn.2.1(1)) qs = Ve = Dynamic pressure. qs Ca Cp-front Cp-rear Cr = = = = = Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2. Effective wind speed as input by the user.1995 BS 6399 Wind Loads .

2. p.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 1995 BS 6399 are based on Section 2. on the surface of each area object. (2. 3.2. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on a modified version of the Standard method as described in Section 2. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. Cp = Windward (front) or leeward (rear) external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.1(1)) is consistent with 1995 BS 6399 Table 2. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.3.6(7)) qs = Dynamic pressure as given in 1995 BS 6399 Table 2. The programs distribute the pressures. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 2. p = 0.85 qs Cp Ca (1 + Cr) where. at any point on the surface of the area objects. (Eqn.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Note the units that are specified for qs and Ve. Also note that (Eqn.85 accounts for the non-simultaneous action between the front and rear faces. p. Cr = Dynamic augmentation factor as input by the user. Eqn.3. p. The value for qs is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.16 Exposure from Area Objects . Note that the factor 0.1 of 1995 BS 6399.” The programs distribute the pressures.2.5. 3 . 2.1.6(7)) is used to determine the wind pressure.1. Ca = Size effect factor as input by the user. 2.

(1995 NBCC Eqn. Any positive value is allowed. Cg.17 . q.1 Input Wind Coefficients Two wind coefficients are input for 1995 NBCC wind loads. Cg. q. can be obtained from 1995 NBCC Appendix C. is discussed in 1995 NBCC Sentence 4.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3.1. Gust effect factor as input by the user.8. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.1.1 of the 1995 NBCC.2 Algorithm for 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3. To include those vertical wind loads in the load pattern.2. p. The default value is 2. The gust effect factor. A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0.0.1(1)) q Cg = = Velocity pressure as input by the user. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .6. you must include them manually.8. They are the velocity pressure.8. 3.6 1995 NBCC Wind Loads 3.1(6). The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.20 to 0. p = q Cg [Cp-winward Ce-windward + Cp-leeward Ce-leeward] where.90 kPa. 4.1995 NBCC Wind Loads . in kPa and the gust effect factor. Any positive value or zero is allowed.6.6.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.1. The velocity pressure. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.

Ce leeward where. meters.1. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in 1995 NBCC Section 4.1 of the 1995 NBCC. Exposure factor for the windward wall. Ce-windward is determined from (Eqn.1.1.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn. 4.8.8.6. 4.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn.1(5)). p. The pressures. 4.2. External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by the user. Ce-leeward is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.8.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Cp-windward Ce-windward Cp-leeward Ce-leeward = = = = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input by the user.18 Exposure from Area Objects . as shown in Figure 3-1.1(5)) One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.8. 4. meters.  h  Ce windward     10  where.1(5)).1.1.1. hmiddle = h    middle   10  15  0. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. Exposure factor for the leeward wall.8.1(5)) = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. 3.8.1. h 15  0. 3 .2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 1995 NBCC are based on Section 4.

Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. on the surface of each area object. p. q = Velocity pressure as input by the user. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . 4. 15 h  Ce-leeward   middle   0. Eqn.1995 NBCC Wind Loads . 4. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.8.1(1)) Ce = Exposure factor.1(5)) The programs distribute the pressures. (1995 NBCC Eqn.8.1. 4. at any point on the surface of the area objects.8.19 .1.1(5)) Ce for a leeward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn.1.9 (1995 NBCC Eqn.8. p.8.9  10  where.1(5)).Exposure from Area Objects The following equations is used to determine the wind pressure. meters.  h     10  15  0. 4. p = q Ce Cg Cp where. Ce for a windward facing area object is determined from (1995 NBCC Eqn. Ce-windward where. h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. Cg = Gust effect factor as input by the user.1(5)). 4. meters.1. (1995 NBCC Eqn.1.

7.7.1. I. the gust effect factor. is discussed in 2005 NBCC Sentence 4.0.7. A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. q. 3. They are the velocity pressure.1.1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 2005 NBCC wind loads.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4. To include those vertical wind loads in the load pattern. I = Importance factor as input by the user.2.23 kPa. Any positive value or zero is allowed. and the importance factor.25. q.8 to 1. The default value is 2. The velocity pressure.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual 3.7. you must include them manually.1(1)) 3 . Cg. Any positive value is allowed.7. The importance factor.2 Algorithm for 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3. p.7 2005 NBCC Wind Loads 3. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.7. I.27 to 1. is described in 2005 NBCC Table 4. Cg.20 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .1(6).1. The gust effect factor.1 of the 2005 NBCC. can be obtained from 2005 NBCC Appendix C. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. (2005 NBCC 4. in kPa. A typical range of values for I is 0.7. p = I q Cg [Cp-winward Ce-windward + Cp-leeward Ce-leeward] where. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.1.

= Gust effect factor as input by the user.2  0.1 of the 2005 NBCC. Ce-windward is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn. Ce-leeward where. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .1.1. = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by the user. The pressures.7.7.2005 NBCC Wind Loads .1(5).1.1. meters. 4.9 (2005 NBCC 4.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 2005 NBCC are based on Section 4.7. hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.9 (2005 NBCC 4. p. h    middle   10  0.21 .1. = Exposure factor for the leeward wall.2.Exposure from Area Objects q Cg Cp-windward Ce-windward Cp-leeward Ce-leeward = Velocity pressure as input by the user. = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input by the user. = Exposure factor for the windward wall.1(5). h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered.  h  Ce-windward     10  where.1(5)) 3. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.7.2  0. 0.1(5)) Ce-leeward is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.7. meters. 4.7.

1(5)).1(5)). h  Ce-leeward   middle   10  where. 4.2  0.7. 0.2  0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in 2005 NBCC Section 4. hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level.7. 0. = Velocity pressure as input by the user.7.  h  Ce-windward     10  where.1.9 (2005 NBCC 4.22 Exposure from Area Objects .1(1)) Ce = Exposure factor.1(5)) Ce for a leeward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.1. 4.1. I q = Importance factor as input by the user. Cg = Gust effect factor as input by the user. Ce for a windward facing area object is determined from (2005 NBCC Eqn.7. p. meters.9 (2005 NBCC 4.1.7.7. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. meters. p = I q Ce Cg Cp where.1. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. (2005 NBCC 4. at any point on the surface of the area objects. h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered.1(5)) 3 .1.1.

3.25. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. the user must include them manually. Cg. Cg.23 .1. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. is discussed in 2010 NBCC Sentence 4. 3. on the surface of each area object. can be obtained from 2010 NBCC Appendix C. I. The default value is 2.8 2010 NBCC Wind Loads 3. in kPa.2.0.27 to 1.23 kPa. A typical range of values for I is 0.1(6). The importance factor. p. q. They are the velocity pressure.7. p. Any positive value or zero is allowed.7. A typical range of values for the velocity pressure is 0. and the importance factor.1 of the 2010 NBCC. is described in 2010 NBCC Table 4.8 to 1.2010 NBCC Wind Loads . The velocity pressure. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The programs distribute the pressures.1 Input Wind Coefficients Three wind coefficients are input for 2010 NBCC wind loads. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.2 Algorithm for 2010 NBCC Wind Loads 3.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 2010 NBCC are based on Section 4.8. I. Any positive value is allowed.7.8.1. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.1.8. To include those vertical wind loads in the load pattern. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. the gust effect factor. q. The gust effect factor.1.

1(5) or may be specified by user: Ce-leeward h    middle   10  0.7.1(5) or may be specified by the user:  h  Ce-windward     10  Ce-windward where. = Exposure factor for the leeward wall. I q Cg Cp-windward Ce-windward Cp-leeward Ce-leeward (2010 NBCC 4.2  0.7 for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4. = Velocity pressure as input by the user.7.1(5)) Ce-leeward is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn. = External pressure coefficient for the windward wall as input by the user.2  0.3 (2010 NBCC 4.3 h  Ce-leeward   middle  12    0.24 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .1.1(5)) 3 .7 for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1. h = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered.9 for Open Terrain 0. = Exposure factor for the windward wall.Automated Lateral Loads Manual p = I q Cg [Cp-winward Ce-windward + Cp-leeward Ce-leeward] where.1(5))  0. = External pressure coefficient for the leeward wall as input by the user.7.7.1. = Gust effect factor as input by the user. 4.1.1(1)) = Importance factor as input by the user.1.7.  h     12  0. 4.9 for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4. Ce-windward is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn.1.7.1(5)) 0.1.7. meters.

7.1(1)) Ce = Exposure factor. I q = Importance factor as input by the user. at any point on the surface of the area objects. p.2010 NBCC Wind Loads .2. The pressures. Ce for a windward facing area object is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for 2010 NBCC are based on Section 4.7. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in 2010 NBCC Section 4.8.7.1.1 of the 2010 NBCC. hmiddle = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level. 3.1. p.2  0. (2010 NBCC 4.1(5)) Exposure from Area Objects 3 .1. p = I q Ce Cg Cp where. The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. 4.7. Cg = Gust effect factor as input by the user.25 .9 for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. meters.1. = Velocity pressure as input by the user. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.1.7.1.Exposure from Area Objects where.1(5)) or may be specified by the user: Ce-windward  h     10  0.

and the gust factor G.7 for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4. hmiddle  0. on the surface of each area object.9. Kzt.1 Input Wind Coefficients Five wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-95 wind loads.26 Exposure from Area Objects . They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). meters. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.3  0.5.2  0.2.7 for Rough Terrain (2010 NBCC 4.1.7.9 for Open Terrain (2010 NBCC 4. 4.1(5)) or may be specified by the user: Ce-leeward h    middle   10  0. 3 . meters. The programs distribute the pressures. the topographic factor.1. 3.1. the wind importance factor.1(5)) = Distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the elevation considered. p.7.1.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Ce-windward where. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.1(5)) = One-half of the distance from the input bottom story/minimum level to the input top story/maximum level. I.9 ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3. h  h     12  0. The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.1(5)) 0.7. Ce for a leeward facing area object is determined from (2010 NBCC Eqn.3 h  Ce-leeward   middle   12  where. the exposure category.7.

Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. C. qz.9.5. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area in pounds per square foot (psf).0.87 to 1.0. 2 (ASCE 7-95 Eqn 6-1) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 795 Sections 6.15.4 through 6. The default value for Kzt is 1. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6. or D.85. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.27 .2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads 3.00256 Kz Kzt V I where. The exposure category can be A. 3. qz = 0. C3a and C3b). The wind importance factor. See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. A typical range of values for I is 0.2. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. No other values are allowed.ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads . The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces.5.3. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-95 Table 1-1.6.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6.5. you must include them manually.6. B. A typical range of values for G is 0. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.9. I.4 through 6.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6.80 to 0. Kzt can not be less than 1. is described in ASCE 7-95 Table 6-2.6 of ASCE 7-95.

5. C3b) = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. = Importance factor as input by the user. is obtained using (Eqns.28 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . z for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-95 Eqns.5 zg (feet) 1500 1200 900 700 The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. In particular. which is based on ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1.5 11. zg = As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.01   zg      2 for 15 feet  z  zg 2  15  K z  2.1). p. it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting systems" under the heading "Buildings of all heights. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.  = As specified in Table 3-1 (ASCE 7-95 Table C6-2 in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.1). C3a.Automated Lateral Loads Manual V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.01    zg    where.1). Kz." p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1) 3 .5. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.  z K z  2.5. Table 3-1:  and zg factors for use in ASCE 7-95 Equations C3a and C3b Exposure Category A B C D  5.0 7.0 9. C3a and C3b in ASCE 7-95 Commentary Section 6.

6-1). = Gust response factor as input by the user. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. q = Velocity pressure.00256 Kz Kzt V I 2 (ASCE 7-95 Eqn. p.ASCE 7-95 Wind Loads .Exposure from Area Objects where. qz = 0.6 of ASCE 7-95. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .4 through 6. See (ASCE 7-95 Eqns. qz. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. at any height z on the surface of the horizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn. = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. qz. (ASCE 7-95 Eqn.2. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.29 . Kz = Velocity pressure exposure coefficient. = Importance factor as input by the user.4. G Cp-windward qh Cp-leeward The pressures. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. 6-1) is used to determine the velocity pressure.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-95 are based on Sections 6. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects in pounds per square feet (psf). 3.9.2. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-95 Section 6. 61). C3a and C3b). 6-1) where. = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-965 Eqn.

which is based on ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.30 Exposure from Area Objects . wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in SAP2000/ETABS and Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters in CSiBridge. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.10. For leeward facing area objects. 3 . The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects. q = Velocity pressure. qz. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 also offers the capability to generate wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures." p = q G Cp (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1) where. at any point on the surface of the area objects. p. 3. In particular it is based on the row entitled "Main wind force-resisting systems" under the heading titled "Buildings of all heights. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.” ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1 is used to determine the wind pressure. If the option to include frame objects is checked. G = Gust response factor as input by the user. q = qh. at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-95 Table 6-1).1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter.10 ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3. p. The programs distribute the pressures. on the surface of each area object.

Kzt. 3.Input Wind Exposure Parameters Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form.1.4. kd. e1 and e2.1. z0. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-02 allows specification of three additional coefficients when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the case type. The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 . and has a default value of “Program Determined.31 . The case types are described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. I. the dimensions of the object.10. the exposure category. the wind importance factor. G. The case type can be 1.2 Input Wind Coefficients Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-02 wind loads depending upon the type of exposure. the directionality factor. also has a default value of “Program Determined.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads .1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. and the net force coefficient. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph. The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded. A typical value for e1 and e2 is 0. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes). 3.” The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object. the topographic factor. 3. and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph).5. and the eccentricity factors.15. the ice thickness. 2.” The net force coefficient for wind. the roughness length parameter. Cf.10. Cf. the gust factor. or 4.

I.77 to 1. B. The gust response factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. . as discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6. z0.85.95. you must include them manually. A typical range of values for I is 0.85 to 0. A typical value for G is 0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 702 Section 6.5 of ASCE 702.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads 3.13. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.8.4.7.016 to 6. Kzt cannot be less than 1.10. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern.3. The exposure category can be A. The default value for Kzt is 1.32 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .2. Cf. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. The wind importance factor. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.5.6. The directionality factor.5.0.6.2. is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Commentary C6. 3.10. 3 . is used in the determination of the net force coefficient.0. The ratio of solid area to gross area. is discussed in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.5. The roughness length parameter.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure).5. This ratio applies only to open structures. and thus is available for user input only when exposure to frame objects has been selected. C or D. A typical range of values for Kd is 0. Kd.5. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-02 Table 1-1.15. is described in ASCE 7-02 Table 6-1. No other values are allowed.4.6.

5. is obtained using (Eqn. C6-5 in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6.5.  = Empirical exponent.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. zg = Gradient height. C6-3a and C6-3b).4). The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. qz.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I 2 (ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-15) where.4).33 . See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. z for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-02 C6-3a. C6-5). in pounds per square foot (psf). See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.125 0 (ASCE 7-02 C6-5) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .C6-3b) = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. The gradient height. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. C6-4).6. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads .01    zg    where. zg. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. qz = 0.01   zg      2 for 15 feet  z  zg 2  15  K z  2. = Importance factor as input by the user.  z K z  2.6. zg  1273 z 0. Kz. is obtained using (Eqns. C6-3a and C6-3b in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user.

6. at any height z on the surface of the horizontal projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. as shown in Figure 3-1. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. Px and Py.   6. = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. 615). The program then combines the loads for each of the four wind load pattern described in ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-9. 615). 3 . resulting in the permutations shown in Table 3-2.157 0 (ASCE 7-02 C6-4) where. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x. = Gust response factor as input by the user. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The empirical exponent  is obtained using (Eqn. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. at each diaphragm level.and ydirections of the building.or y-axis.34 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. qz. p. C6-4 in ASCE 7-02 Commentary Section 6. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.19 z 0. p. q = Velocity pressure. = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward (ASCE 7-02 Eqn 6-17) G Cp-windward qh Cp-leeward The pressures.5.4). z0 = Roughness length parameter as input by the user. p where.

10.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6.563(Px + Py) Torsional Moment ----0. in pounds per square feet (psf).ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads .Exposure from Area Objects Table 3-2: Wind Load Patterns CASE 1 1 2 2 3 4 Lateral Force Px Py 0.2. qz = 0.75 Px 0. e1 = Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied Wind load as input by the user.5. e2 = Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as input by the user.12. Bx = Diaphragm width in the y-direction.35 . 3.75(Px + Py) 0. 6-15) Exposure from Area Objects 3 .5 of ASCE 702. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects. qz.75 Py 0.563(e1BxPx  e2ByPy) where.75 e1 Bx Px 0.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I 2 ( ASCE 7-02 Eqn. By = Diaphragm width in the x-direction. Py = Resultant wind force in the y-direction.75 e1 By Py --0. Px = Resultant wind force in the x-direction. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6.

Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. C6-3a and C6-3b).3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-02 are based on Section 6. q = Velocity pressure. at any point on the surface of the area objects.2. I = Importance factor as input by the user.5 of ASCE 702. The programs distribute the pressures. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. on the surface of each area object. 3 . 6-15). See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns. q = qh.36 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects . 3. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height. p. V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. For leeward facing area objects. p. qz. at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. = q G Cp (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.10. p where. 6-17) G = Gust response factor as input by the user.Automated Lateral Loads Manual where.” The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.

Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-02 Eqns.” The following equation is used to determine the design wind force. Cf = Net force coefficient. 2 (ASCE 7-02 Eqn. at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects. = Importance factor as input by the user.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. 6-25) Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 . F where. as specified in Table 3-3 (ASCE 7-02 Figure 6-21). qz = Velocity pressure. qz. F. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. 6-15) The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af using (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.ASCE 7-02 Wind Loads .13. G = Gust response factor as input by the user. 6-15).Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in ASCE 7-02 Section 6. in pounds per square feet (psf). on the surface of the frame objects.5. qz = 0. Af = Projected solid area normal to the wind. qz. C6-3a and C6-3b). Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. = qz G Cf Af (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.37 . V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.

1 of the 2006 IBC states that wind loads shall be determined in accordance with ASCE Standard 7-05.11.29 0. Cf. Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Table 3-3: Cf factor for use in (ASCE 7-02 Eqn.1 to 0. 6-25) Solid/Gross Area Ratio  < 0. with the understanding that this information is directly applicable to those using the 2006 IBC as well. The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 allows specification of the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures. the ice thickness. wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge. in the remainder of this section all references will be made only to the ASCE 7-05 document.1 0. If the option to include frame objects is checked. and the net force coefficient.3 to 0.8 1. 3. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes). and has a default value of “Program Determined.7 Cf 2. For the sake of clarity.38 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects .6 3.0 1.11 2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads Section 1609.1. The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded.” The net force coefficient for 3 .1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter.

5. the directionality factor. is described in ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1. Kzt cannot be less than 1.Input Wind Exposure Parameters wind. The exposure category can be B. No other values. I.15. the exposure category. are allowed.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. Cf. also has a default value of “Program Determined.11.11. the topographic factor. 2.0. The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. and various code-dependent wind coefficients.6. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.0.1. A typical value for e1 and e2 is 0. Kzt. 3. the wind importance factor. C.5. and the eccentricity factors. Note that the building and structure classification categories are defined in ASCE 7-05 Table 1-1.4. or 4.77 to 1.3.” The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object. 3.2 Input Wind Coefficients Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-05 wind loads.39 .2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . Input Wind Exposure Parameters 3 . the roughness length parameter. e1 and e2. G.5.1. including exposure A. kd. and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. The case types are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. depending on the type of exposure.7. the gust factor. the dimensions of the object. A typical range of values for I is 0. They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). 3. The default value for Kzt is 1. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-05 also offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the case type. The case type can be 1.2. z0.15. The wind importance factor. or D. I.

2.95.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. as discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. The ratio of solid area to gross area.85 to 0.0. The directionality factor. 2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. is used in the determination of the net force coefficient.11. Kd.40 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . and thus is available for user input only when exposure to frame objects has been selected. A typical value for G is 0.4. in pounds per square foot (psf). Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. A typical range of values for z0 is 0.4. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. qz.6.5.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. qz = 0.5. C6-4a and C6-4b).11.5.5. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. Cf. is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Commentary C6. This ratio applies only to open structures. .8. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. A typical range of values for Kd is 0.85. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area.016 to 1.15.5 (Method 2 – Analytical Procedure). 3. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 705 Section 6.5 of ASCE 705.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The gust effect factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. 6-15) 3 . you must include them manually.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads 3. z0. The roughness length parameter.

2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . = Importance factor as input by the user. and the empirical exponent  are obtained ASCE 7-05 Table 6-2. = Gust effect factor as input by the user. Kz. The gradient height. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.01    zg    where. qz. 6-15). C6-5). p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward where. C6-4a. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.6. p. q = Velocity pressure. 6-17 is used to determine the wind pressure. is obtained using (Eqns.6). z for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-4b ) = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.01   zg      2 for 15 feet  z  zg 2  15  K z  2. zg. zg = Gradient height. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.5. C6-4a and C6-4b in ASCE 7-05 Commentary Section 6. 6-17) G Cp-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.  z K z  2. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.  = Empirical exponent. ASCE 7-05 Eqn. C6-6).41 . Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .

The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x. p. Py = Resultant wind force in the y-direction.563(e1BxPx  e2ByPy) where.563(Px + Py) Torsional Moment ----0. at each diaphragm level. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1.or y-axis. Cp-leeward The pressures. Table 3-4: Wind Load Patterns Case 1 1 2 2 3 4 Lateral Force Px Py 0. 615).75(Px + Py) 0. 3 . By = Diaphragm width in the x-direction. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. resulting in the permutations shown in Table 3-4. Px = Resultant wind force in the x-direction. Bx = Diaphragm width in the y-direction. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x. Px and Py.75 Py 0. e1 = Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied load as input by the user.and ydirections of the building.75 e1 By Py --0.42 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . e2 = Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as input by the user.75 Px 0. The program then combines the loads for each of the four wind load patterns described in ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-9.75 e1 Bx Px 0.Automated Lateral Loads Manual qh = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.

43 .” The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure.5.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.11. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . qz. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. 6-15) The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. V I = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. p. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. in pounds per square feet (psf). 6-15). qz = 0. 6-17) G = Gust effect factor as input by the user. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. C6-4a and C6-4b). q = qh. 2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn.12.2006 IBC / ASCE 7-05 Wind Loads . = Importance factor as input by the user. qz. For leeward facing area objects. q = Velocity pressure. p = q G Cp where. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns.Exposure from Area Objects 3.5 of ASCE 705. at any point on the surface of the area objects. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.2. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height.

at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects. qz. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user.5. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. C6-4a and C6-4b). F.3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-05 are based on Section 6.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V I where. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure.15. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. F = qz G Cf Af (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. 6-15 ) The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. I = Importance factor as input by the user.11. V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. 6-28) 3 .5 of ASCE 705.2. in pounds per square feet (psf). The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in ASCE 7-05 Section 6. qz = 0. p. See (ASCE 7-05 Eqns. 3. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. on the surface of the frame objects.” The following equation is used to determine the design wind force. 2 (ASCE 7-05 Eqn. The programs distribute the pressures.44 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects . on the surface of each area object.

The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.45 .29 0.8 1.7 Cf 2. If the option to include frame objects is checked. as specified in Table 3-5 (ASCE 7-05 Figure 6-22). Table 3-5: Cf factor for use in ASCE 7-05 Equation 6-28 Solid/Gross Area Ratio  < 0.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects where. The form allows specification of three items: the Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 . Af = Projected solid area normal to the wind.1 to 0.0 1. Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form. qz = Velocity pressure.1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-10 allows specification of the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af using ASCE 7-05 Eqn. qz.6 3. wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge. Cf = Net force coefficient.12.1 0. 6-15.12 ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3.ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads . G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.3 to 0.

1. The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded. and the solid/gross area ratio if frame objects are exposed to wind loads The basic wind speed is described in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. Kzt. and the net force coefficient. and has a default value of “Program Determined. The topographic factor Kzt is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.2.4-8.3. Cf. kd.7. 2. also has a default value of “Program Determined.12. A typical value for e1 and e2 is 0. the topographic factor.4-8. The exposure categories are described in ASCE 7-10 Section 6.0. the exposure category. The exposure category can be B.0.12.6.46 Input Wind Exposure Parameters . They are the basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph). are allowed. The case type can be 1.5. the dimensions of the object.4. the ice thickness.1.5. e1 and e2. 3.” The net force coefficient for wind. G. including exposure A. and the eccentricity factors. A typical range of values for the basic wind speed is 85 to 150 mph.5.Automated Lateral Loads Manual frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes). C. or D. 3. the gust factor. Cf. Kzt cannot be less than 1.2 Input Wind Coefficients Seven or eight wind coefficients are input for ASCE 7-10 wind loads. 3 . The default value for Kzt is 1.15.” The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object. and various code-dependent wind coefficients. the directionality factor. or 4. the automatic wind loads for ASCE 7-10 also offers three additional coefficients to input when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the case type. No other values. The eccentricity factors are described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27. depending on the type of exposure. 3. The case types are described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27.

1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 27.2 Algorithm for ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads 3. as discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 29. 27. A typical range of values for Kd is 0. 2 (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. The directionality factor.5. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces.85.12. qz.95.4. .3.2. and Open Building of all heights. Part 1 for Enclosed. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user.ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads . To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern.8.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The gust effect factor G is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6. Partially Enclosed. The ratio of solid area to gross area.5.2. Kd. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area.5.1). qz = 0. Cf. The wind loads applied are a modified version of those described in ASCE 710 Section 27. 3. This ratio applies to open structures only and thus is available for user input only when exposure to frame objects has been selected. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. See (ASCE 7-10 Eqns. is used in the determination of the net force coefficient. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure.4.3-1) Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .12. the user must include them manually. A typical value for G is 0. in pounds per square foot (psf). is discussed in ASCE 7-10 Section 6. 27. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.00256 Kz Kzt Kd V where.85 to 0.2 of ASCE 7-10.47 .

p. Eqns. 27. 3 .  z K z  2.  = Empirical exponent.01    zg    where. The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 27.48 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms . C27.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Section 27. z for z < 15 feet (ASCE 7-10 Eqn.3-1. zg = Gradient height.01   zg      2 for 15 feet  z  zg 2  15  K z  2. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.1).4-2 is used to determine the wind pressure. = Gust effect factor as input by the user. V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. qz. ASCE 7-10 Eqn. Kz.1 ) = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. is obtained using Table 27.4-2) G Cp-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. and the empirical exponent  are obtained using ASCE 7-10 Table 26.4. zg.9-1. p = q G Cp-windward + qh G Cp-leeward where. The gradient height.3-2 in ASCE 7-10 Commentary. q = Velocity pressure. 27.3-1 and C27.3.

p. The program then combines the loads for each of the four wind load patterns described in ASCE 7-10 Figure 27. resulting in the permutations shown in Table 3-6.or y-axis.4-8.75 e1 By Py --0. e2 = Eccentricity for load in the transverse direction of applied load as input by the user. By = Diaphragm width in the x-direction. Px and Py. Cp-leeward The pressures.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms qh = Velocity pressure at the top story height on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Section 27. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x. = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.563(Px + Py) Torsional Moment ----0.75 Py 0. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x. Px = Resultant wind force in the x-direction.49 . at each diaphragm level. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .563(e1BxPx  e2ByPy) where. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. Py = Resultant wind force in the y-direction. Table 3-6: Wind Load Patterns Case 1 1 2 2 3 4 Lateral Force Px Py 0.1).75 e1 Bx Px 0. Bx = Diaphragm width in the y-direction.75(Px + Py) 0.4.75 Px 0.and ydirections of the building.ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads . e1 = Eccentricity for load in the direction of applied load as input by the user.

2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 27.2. pp qp = Combined net pressure on the parapet due to the combination of net pressure from the front and back parapet surfaces.2 of ASCE 7-10. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. 27. qz = where. in pounds per square feet (psf).5 psf for Windward parapet = 1. Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient.3-1). V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user.12.3-1) 3 . qz.0 psf for Leeward parapet 3. See (ASCE 7-10 Eqns.50 Exposure from Area Objects .00256 Kz Kzt Kd V 2 (ASCE 7-10 Eqn.4-4) GCpm = Combined pressure coefficients = +1. at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in ASCE 7-10 Section 27.2. 27.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The design pressure for the parapet is determined by the following equation: pp where. Section 27. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user. 0. Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. = Velocity pressure evaluated at the top of parapet = qp G Cpm (ASCE 7-10 Eqn.

27. p. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. = q G Cp (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. 2 (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. p where. For leeward facing area objects.4-2) G = Gust effect factor as input by the user. 27. the velocity pressure at the top story/maximum height. The programs distribute the pressures.4-2). q = qh. qz.5 of ASCE 7-10. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. q = Velocity pressure. at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects.3-1 ) Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 .3 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the ASCE 7-10 are based on Section 29. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. at any point on the surface of the area objects.3-1. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in ASCE 7-10 Section 27.” The following equation is used to determine the wind pressure. qz. on the surface of each area object.51 . Kz = The velocity pressure exposure coefficient. 29.2. 3. at any height z on the surface of the area object calculated using (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. qz = 0.12.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms.ASCE 7-10 Wind Loads . p. in pounds per square feet (psf).00256 Kz Kzt Kd V where.

8 1.52 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects .13 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3.1 to 0. F where. qz.5-1) 3. Af = Projected solid area normal to the wind. the wind velocity.5-1 Solid/Gross Area Ratio  < 0. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af using ASCE 7-10 Eqn.29 0. is input for 1987 Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal (RCDF) wind loads. Cf = Net force coefficient.3 to 0. V = Basic wind speed in miles per hour (mph) as input by the user. F. Kd = Directionality factor as input by the user.0 1. VD. 29. Table 3-7: Cf factor for use in ASCE 7-10 Equation 29.1 0.7 Cf 2.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Kzt = Topographic factor as input by the user. 3 .1 Input Wind Coefficients A single wind coefficient.6 = qz G Cf Af (ASCE 7-10 Eqn. G = Gust effect factor as input by the user.” The following equation is used to determine the design wind force.3-1. on the surface of the frame objects. The value for Kz is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. 29. as specified in Table 3-7 (ASCE 7-10 Figure 29.13.5-2). qz = Velocity pressure.

2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.3). = Leeward pressure coefficient as input by the user. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method are based on a modified version of the Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. 3.2 Algorithm for 1987 RCDF Wind Loads 3. pz. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. as shown in Figure 3-1. 3.2. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area in pascals (Pa). The programs distribute the pressures. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. pz.13. VD Cp-windward Cp-leeward = Wind velocity as input by the user.2.47 VD C pwindward  C p leeward   (Eqn. you must include them manually.Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms The wind velocity is described in 1987 RCDF Section 3.1.1987 RCDF Wind Loads . 3. 3-1) where. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. 3-1) is used to determine the wind pressure. = Windward pressure coefficient as input by the user. 3-1) is based on (1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 1987 RCDF are based on Section 3 of the Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento.13. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. (Eqn. (Eqn. 2 pz  0. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 .53 .13.

on the surface of each area object. (Eqn. s. from the Table 3. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.47 C p VD (Eqn. 3. The shape coefficient for wind load. 2 pz  0. B. s. is used in determining the pulsation influencing coefficient. The programs distribute the pressures. 3-2) where. . two additional coefficients are input for the automatic wind loads for 2002 Chinese when the exposure from extents of diaphragms is selected: the building width.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are based on Metodos Simplificado (Simplified Method) as described in Section 3 of the 1987 RCDF. at any point on the surface of the area objects in pascals (Pa).14 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3. pz.3). The building width. The building windward width.54 Exposure from Area Objects . is also input when the exposure from area objects is selected. Cp = Windward or leeward external pressure coefficient assigned to the area object by the user. 3-2) is used to determine the wind pressure. B. This coefficient is described in section 3. 3 . 3.3. pz.6-2 of JGJ 3-2002. 3-2) is based on (1987 RCDF Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento Eqn. (Eqn.2 of JGJ 3-2002. B. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in Section 3. and the shape coefficient. replaces the windward and leeward coefficients previously discussed in this chapter.14.1 Input Wind Exposure Parameters In addition to the wind direction angle discussed in the section entitled “Wind Exposure Parameters” earlier in this chapter. VD = Wind velocity as input by the user.

2. at height z.55 . or input directly by the user. 3.14.14. RT.14.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3.2 Input T1 Source The fundamental period. Horizontal wind loads. may be determined by the program from a modal analysis. is input for the 2002 Chinese wind loads for use in calculating the pulsation increasing coefficient.14. z.14. (Eqn. The first mode of vibration coefficient can be obtained from a modal analysis or by using the Z/H ratio. 3-3) is used to determine the wind vibration coefficient. B. The basic wind pressure is described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3. The roughness type can be A. w0.3 Algorithm for 2002 Chinese Wind Loads 3. The ground roughness types are described in JGJ 3-2002 Section 3.Input Phi Z Source 3.2. C. Input Phi Z Source 3 . No other values are allowed. when using the exposure from extents of diaphragms method. z.2 Input Wind Coefficients Two wind coefficients are input for 2002 Chinese wind loads: the basic wind 2 2 pressure.3. are applied on the vertical projected area as determined based on the story heights and the input exposure widths for each diaphragm. .2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001. in kN per meter (kN/m ).2.2002 Chinese Wind Loads . and the ground roughness type. 3.14. 3. 3. shall be calculated by the program. .3 Input Other Parameters The damping ratio.2.1 Input Phi Z Source Two choices are offered for determining how the mode coefficient. T1. or D.2.

3.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the 2002 Chinese are based on Section 3. z = First mode of vibration coefficient at height z. on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis. wk. wk. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are as described in Section 3.Automated Lateral Loads Manual z  1  z  z (Eqn. 3. Wind loads are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects. (Eqn. 7.4.2. 7. at any point on the sur2 face of the vertical projected area in kN/m . 7.1 GB 50009-2001) (Eqn.3. The programs distribute the pressures. z = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn. w0 = Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user. 3-4) z = Wind vibration coefficient at height z. wk = z s z w0 where.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001. 3-3) where. 3-4) is used to determine the wind pressure. (Eqn.56 Exposure from Area Objects .1 GB 50009-2001). 3 .2-2 GB 50009-2001) (Table 3.14.6-2 JGJ 3-2002) z = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z. (Eqn. See (Eqn.  = Pulsation increasing coefficient. as shown in Figure 3-1. 3-3). s = Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user.2.  = Pulsation influencing coefficient.2 of the JGJ 3-2002 and Section 7 of GB 50009-2001.

See (Eqn.2008 API 4F Wind Loads . wk = z s z w0 where.1 Input Exposure In addition to the items discussed in the section entitled “Exposure” earlier in this chapter. 7.15 2008 API 4F Wind Loads Two wind coefficients are input for 2008 API 4F wind loads. As a general rule. the automatic wind loads for API 4F-2008 allows specification of the generation of wind loads on line (frame) objects for use on open or lattice structures.Exposure from Area Objects (Eqn. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. w0 = Basic value for wind pressure as input by the user.15. z = Wind pressure distribution coefficient at height z (Eqn. 3. The value for z is the same as described in the previous section entitled “Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms. s = Shape coefficient for wind load as input by the user. only area objects exposed on the windward side of the building should be loaded using the exposure from area objects method when using the 2002 Chinese automatic wind load option. If the option to include frame objects is checked. (Eqn. wk. wind loads will be generated on each line object that has been assigned wind parameters using the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command in SAP2000/ETABS or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Exposure from Area Objects 3 . 3-3). 3-5) is used to determine the wind pressure. on the surface of each area object.” The programs distribute the pressures.2. They are the reference wind speed in knots and the Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier. 3-5) z = Wind vibration coefficient at height z. at any point on the surface of the area objects.57 . 3. wk.1 GB 50009-2001).

and various code-dependent wind coefficients.15.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Structure Wind Parameters command in CSiBridge.1. Cp = Wind pressure coefficient.2 Algorithm for API 4F-2008 Wind Loads 3.3.1 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the API 4F-2008 are based on Section 8.58 Exposure from Area Objects . Cs. in pounds per square feet (psf). The ice thickness for wind load affects the area of the line object to be loaded.00338 Ki Cp Vz where.2.3. Selecting the Assign menu > Frame Loads > Open Structure Wind Parameters command or Advanced > Assign Loads > Frames > Open Structure Wind Parameters command will display the Auto Wind Load Overwrites for Line Objects form. qm.3) 3 . at any height z on the surface of the user selected area objects.15. and has a default value of “Program Determined.” The net force coefficient for wind. The wind load pattern must be defined before assigning wind parameters to frame objects.3.3. qm = 0.3. The form allows specification of three items: the frame object is (Yes) or is not (No) loaded by wind (the default is Yes). also has a default value of “Program Determined. Cs. and the net force coefficient.” The wind loads calculated at a line object are based on the elevation of the object. 3. Ki = This factor is taken as 1. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. Vz = Wind speed in knots at height z as computed by API 4F-2008 section 8. 2 (API 4F-2008 Section 8.3 of API Specification 4F. the dimensions of the object. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in API 4F-2008 Section 8.0. the ice thickness.

qm = 0.2008 API 4F Wind Loads .6 m (15 ft) Vdes = Vref  ref(API 4-2008 Section 8. at any point on the surface of the area objects.3) Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 .6 m (15 ft)   0.85   2.01 z 900 and for heights  4. The following equation is used to determine the velocity pressure. The programs distribute the pressures. The wind loads applied when using the exposure from frame objects method are applied on the exposed surfaces of the user selected frame objects as described in API 4F-2008 Section 8. qm.3.3. qm. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects.  ref = Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier as input by user.2.3.59 .3. Vz = Vdes  where (API 4-2008 Section 8.  = Elevation factor as determine from API 4F-2008 Table 8.1 and 8.1. at any height z on the projected area of the user selected frame objects.2) where.00338 Ki Cs Vz 2 (API 4F-2008 Section 8.2 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects Automatic wind loads for the API 4F-2008 are based on Section 8. Vz.3.3)   0.1.211 for heights > 4.4. Vdes = Maximum design Wind velocity. 3.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects The following equation is used to determine the wind speed.3 of API Specification 4F.3. on the surface of each area object.1.15. in pounds per square feet (psf).

Vz = Vdes  where (API 4-2008 Section 8. on the surface of the frame objects.1. The following equation is used to determine the wind speed.3.1. Vz. but does not apply to the load on the member itself.3)   0. The Ksh factor applies to the overall wind load on the building.3.4 and Table 8.6. at any point on the surface of the area objects.3.3. Cs = Shape coefficient as per clause API 4F-2008 8. Ft = Gf Ksh Fm (API 4F-2008 Section 8.Automated Lateral Loads Manual where.3.211 for heights > 4.3) 3 .2) where.3.3. Vz = Wind speed in knots at height z as computed by API 4F-2008 section 8.1 and 8.  ref = Structural Safety Level (SSL) Multiplier as input by user. The following equation is used to determine the member design wind force. Vdes = Maximum design Wind velocity.01 z 900 and for heights  4. Ki = A factor to account for angle of inclination  between the longitudinal axis of an individual area and the wind.6 m (15 ft) Vdes = Vref  ref(API 4-2008 Section 8.3.  = Elevation factor as determine from API 4F-2008 Table 8.6 m (15 ft)   0. Fm.1.3.4.3) A correction factor Ksh is used to account for global shielding effects and for changes in airflow around member or appurtenances ends. Fm = qm Cs A (API 4F-2008 Section 8.60 Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects .1.85   2.

16 2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads 3. I v  z  . Table 3-8: Cs Shape Coefficients for use in (API 4F-2008) Shape Angles. They are the basic wind speed.3. Table 8. Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects 3 .2 (2)P.3.8 2. The basic wind velocity. Cs = Shape coefficient. vb . and for changes in airflow around member or appurtenance as per API 4F section 8. evaluated at height z of the centroid of area Af . vb .1 Input Wind Coefficients terrain orography.Exposure from Line (Frame) Objects where. as specified in Table 3-8 (API 4F-2008. A = Projected solid area normal to the wind. Tees Square/Rectangular box Round pipes Others Cs 1.8 1. Beams. and the structural factor. is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.5 0.16.6).3 qm = Velocity pressure. the terrain category.3.2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads .0 3. Gf = Gust effect factor to account for spatial coherence as per API 4F section 8.3. turbulence intensity. Channels. qm. co  z  .61 .3. Ksh = A reduction factor to account for global shielding by members or appurtenances. the cs cd . in meter per second (m/sec). Seven wind coefficients are input for EN 1991-1-4:2005 wind loads.

3.62 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms .1. z0. q p  z   1  1  7 I v  z   cr  z  co  z  vb  2 2    (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn.Automated Lateral Loads Manual The terrain categories can be 0.0. in Newton per 2 square meter (N/m ). Cr  z  .3. The following equation is used to determine the peak velocity pressure. Table 4.003 to 1. the height of ground level the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind direction considered The terrain orography.8) 3 .3.3.2. The wind turbulence I v  z  is discussed in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4.3 of EN 1991-1-4:2005. The orography factor is taken as 1. 3.0 unless otherwise specified in EN 1991-14:2005 Section 4.2 Algorithm for EN 1991-1-4:2005 Wind Loads 3.16. Cr  z  . I. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths.3.2.4. II. III and IV.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms Automatic wind loads for the EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5. 4. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces.3. The roughness factor. is discussed in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area.2. accounts for the variability of the mean wind velocity at the site of the structure due to:   The terrain roughness.16. qp(z). A typical range of values for z0 is 0. is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4. co  z  . The roughness length parameter. is described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4. you must include them manually.

II = 0. The turbulent intensity at height z The roughness factor The orography factor as input by user  Iv(z) = cr(z) = co(z) = The terrain roughness factor.19 0 z  0. EN 1991-1-4 Table 4. The values for  may be given in the National 3 Annex. is obtained using (Eqns.05 m (terrain category II.5 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4. II cr  z   cr  z min  zmin where.63 .Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms where. cr(z).3.4 and 4. Program uses 1. 4.1) zmin = Minimum height as defined in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.7 in EN 19911-4:2005 Section 4.1 zmax = is to be taken as 200 m The turbulence intensity factor.  z cr  z   kr ln  for zmin  z  zmax z   o where.5) = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered z0 = Roughness length as given in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4.2).25 kg/m for this item. 4. Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms 3 . Iv(z).2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads .1 z0.4).  z kr  0. is obtained using (Eqns. vb = = Basic wind speed in m/sec as input by the user The air density.4 and 4. 4. z     (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn.

The default value of kI is 1.1 and 5. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.2. qp. kI = Turbulence factor.3 of EN 1991-1-4:2005. 3 . The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x. Fx and Fy.Automated Lateral Loads Manual I v z   kI for zmin  z  zmax co  z ln  z zo  (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. The pressures. 5. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. q p ( z) cs cd = Velocity pressure.or y-axis. 3. The value of kI may be given in National Annex.0 EN 1991-1-4:2005 Eqn. z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered.16.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5. 5. w.8).and ydirections of the building.5) where. w = cs cd q p ( z )cp-windward + cs cd q p ( z )cp-leeward (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4.5 are used to determine the wind pressure. at each diaphragm level. are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. cp-leeward = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.64 Exposure from Area Objects .1 and 5. w. cp-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. 4. = Structural factor as input by the user.7) I v  z   I v  zmin  for z  zmin where.

4 and 4. Program uses 1. is obtained using (Eqns. 4. The values for  may be given in the National 3 Annex.3 of EN 1991-14:2005.5 in EN 1991-1-4:2005 Section 4. z = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area.4 and 4.8) Basic wind speed in m/sec as input by the user The air density. cr(z).  z cr  z   kr ln  for zmin  z  zmax z   o where. 4. 4. Exposure from Area Objects 3 .2005 Eurocode 1 (EN 1991-1-4) Wind Loads .2). vb = = (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn.  z kr  0.5) cr  z   cr  z min  zmin where.25 kg/m for this item. II     (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. The following equation is used to determine the peak velocity pressure.3. in newton per 2 square meter (N/m ). q p  z   1  1  7 I v  z   cr  z  co  z  vb  2 2    where. qp(z).65 . The turbulent intensity at height z The roughness factor The orography factor as input by user  Iv(z) = cr(z) = co(z) = The terrain roughness factor.Exposure from Area Objects The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in EN 1991-1-4:2005 are based on Section 5.19 0 z  0.

= Turbulence factor.7) I v  z   I v  zmin  for z  zmin where. 4.05 m (terrain category II.Automated Lateral Loads Manual z0 = Roughness length as given in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.0. The programs distribute the pressures.II = 0. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area calculated using (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. 4. 4. cp-leeward = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. z kI = Distance (height) from input bottom story/minimum height to point considered. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. is obtained using (Eqns. The default value of kI is 1.7 in EN 19911-4:2005 Section 4. EN 1991-1-4:2005 Eqn.4).5) where. qp.8) = Structural factor as input by the user cp-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. EN 1991-1-4 Table 4. w = cs cd q p ( z )c p -windward + cs cd q p ( z )c p -leeward (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn. w. I v z   kI for zmin  z  zmax co  z ln  z zo  (EN 1991-1-4 Eqn.1 and 5.1 and 5.5 are used to determine the wind pressure. on the surface of each area object.66 Exposure from Area Objects .1) zmin = Minimum height as defined in EN 1991-1-4 Table 4. 5. 5.1 zmax = is to be taken as 200 m. The turbulence intensity factor. Iv(z). w. q p ( z) cs cd = Velocity pressure. The value of kI may be given in National Annex.1 z0. 3 .

2. The topographic multiplier.2:2002 Section 3.cat . K p  which are used to compute aerodynamic shape factor. 3 and 4. VR . The terrain categories can be 1.0 for all wind directions as default. is described in AS/NZS 1170. the identification of region (cyclonic/noncyclonic). regional wind speed. For regions C and D.05 and FD  1. M t . M Z .2.2 Wind Loads . M s . the dynamic response factor. is described in AS/NZS 1170. is described in AS/NZS 1170.cat . 2.Exposure from Area Objects 3. Program is using M d  1. the topographic multiplier.4. Cdyn and four parameters The regional wind speed.2002 AS/NZS 1170. K l .is described in AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads 3. in meter per second (m/sec). M z . include additional factor Fc  1. M d . K c . They are the regional wind speed. M Z . VR . the shielding multiplier. VR . M s . The wind direction multiplier. is described in AS/NZS 1170.17 2002 AS/NZS 1170.cat .1 respectively.2:2002 Section 4.2:2002 wind loads. C fig .3. M d . the wind direction multiplier.2:2002 Section 3.1 Input Wind Coefficients Eleven wind coefficients are input for AS/NZS 1170. The terrain category.17.3.67 . K a.2:2002 Section 4. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . the terrain category. M t .2:2002 Section 4. The terrain category. accounts for the variability of the wind velocity at the site of the structure due to:   the height of ground level the ground roughness of the terrain upwind of the structure in the wind direction considered The shielding multiplier.

Automated Lateral Loads Manual

The aerodynamic shape factor, C fig , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 5.2. The dynamic response factor, Cdyn , is described in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 6.1. Structures with first mode fundamental frequency greater than 1Hz, Cdyn  1.0 . First mode fundamental frequency between 0.2 Hz and 1Hz should be computed in accordance with AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 6. Structure less than 0.2 Hz is not covered by this Standard.

3.17.2 Algorithm for AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Wind Loads
3.17.2.1 Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms
Automatic wind loads for the AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 are based on Section 2.4 of AS/NZS 1170.2:2002. Windward and leeward horizontal wind loads are applied on the vertical projected area of the building as determined from the story heights and the input diaphragm exposure widths. The programs do not apply vertical wind loads automatically over the projected horizontal area of roof surfaces. To include those vertical wind loads in the same load pattern, you must include them manually. The following equation is used to determine the design wind pressure, p, at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area, in Newton per square me2 ter (N/m ).

p  1 air  Vdes,  2Cfig Cdyn 2  
where,

(AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.4(1))

Vdes, = Building Orthogonal design wind speed in m/sec .

air = Air density. The values for air is taken as 1.2 kg/m3.
Cfig = Aerodynamic shape factor.

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Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

2002 AS/NZS 1170.2 Wind Loads - Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

Cdyn = Dynamic response factor as input by user.
To simplify design, building orthogonal design wind speed is computed for the worst direction. Therefore, Vdes,  Vsit,  in the program. The site wind speed, Vsit,  , at the reference height  z  , above ground is computed as follows:

Vsit,   VR M d  M z ,cat M s M t   30 m/sec
where,

(AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 2.2)

Vsit,  = Site wind speed in m/sec at the reference height
ground

z

above

VR Md

= Regional 3 seconds gust wind speed in m/sec, for annual probability of exceedance of 1/R, as input by user. = Wind directional multiplier taken as 1.0 for all directions.

M z ,cat = Terrain/height multiplier. Ms Mt
= Shielding multiplier as input by user. = Topographic multiplier as input by user.

The terrain roughness on wind speed factor, M z ,cat , is obtained using AS/NZS 1170.2 Table 4.1(A) or Table 4.1(B). The aerodynamic shape factor, Cfig , is obtained using Eqns. 5.2(1) in AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Section 5.2.

Cfig  C p ,e K a K c K l K p
where,

(AS/NZS 1170.2 Eqn. 5.2(1))

C p ,e = external pressure coefficient as input by user.

Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

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Automated Lateral Loads Manual

K a = Area reduction factor. The value of K a is given in AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.4. The default value of K a is 1.0. K c = Combination factor. The value of K c is given in AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.5 and fro all surfaces, K c should not be less than 0.8/ K a . The default value of K c is 1.0. K l = Local pressure factor. The value of K l is given in AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.6. The local pressure factor K l is 1.0 in al cases. K p = Porous cladding reduction factor. The value of K p is given in
AS/NZS 1170.2, Table 5.8. The default value of K p is 1.0. AS/NZS 1170.2:2002 Eqn. 2.2, 2.4(1) and 5.2(1) are used to determine the wind pressure, p, at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area.

 p  1 air Cdyn K a K c K l K p   Vdes, ( z )  2C p ,e -windward   Vdes, ( h )  2C p ,e -leeward  2     
where, cp,e-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. cp,e-leeward = Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.

For leeward sides, wind speed is taken as the value at z  h . The p  z  ,Vdes, z  varies with height whereas Vdes, h  remains constant.

The pressures, p, are distributed on the surface of the vertical projected area to each diaphragm on a tributary area basis as shown in Figure 3-1. The application of these pressures determines a resultant lateral force in both the x- and ydirections of the building, Fx and Fy, at each diaphragm level. Note that one or the other of these forces may be zero if the wind direction is perfectly aligned with the x- or y-axis.

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Exposure from Extents of Diaphragms

above ground is computed as follows: Vsit.  2Cfig Cdyn 2   where. building orthogonal design wind speed is computed for the worst direction.  in the program. at the reference height  z  . p. Vsit. (AS/NZS 1170. 2.4 of AS/NZS 1170. air Cfig = Air density.2 Wind Loads .2 Eqn. The site wind speed.2 Eqn. To simplify design.  Vsit.2:2002 are based on Section 2.   VR M d  M z .4 of AS/NZS 1170.2 Exposure from Area Objects Automatic wind loads for the AS/NZS 1170.2.17.Exposure from Area Objects 3.2:2002.cat M s M t   30 m/sec where. The following equation is used to determine the design wind pressure.2002 AS/NZS 1170. (AS/NZS 1170. at any height z on the surface of the vertical projected area. Therefore.2:2002 are based on Section 2.  .  = Site wind speed in m/sec at the reference height ground z above Exposure from Area Objects 3 . 2. The values for air is taken as 1.2) Vsit.71 .4(1)) Vdes. 3 = Aerodynamic shape factor. Cdyn = Dynamic response factor as input by user.2 kg/m . The wind loads applied when using the exposure from area objects method are applied on the vertical and horizontal surfaces of the user selected area objects as described in AS/NZS 1170. = Building Orthogonal design wind speed in m/sec . p  1 air  Vdes.2:2002. in Newton per square me2 ter (N/m ). Vdes.

as input by user. Cfig .2. The local pressure factor K l is 1.8/ K a . 5.0.6.1(A) or Table 4. = Wind directional multiplier taken as 1. M z . Table 5. Table 5.cat .0 in al cases.2:2002 Section 5.0. 3 .e = external pressure coefficient as input by user.0 for all directions. The terrain roughness on wind speed factor.e K a K c K l K p where.2. The default value of K a is 1. M z .0.2 Table 4.Automated Lateral Loads Manual VR Md = Regional 3 seconds gust wind speed in m/sec. Table 5.2(1) in AS/NZS 1170.cat = Terrain/height multiplier. The value of K l is given in AS/NZS 1170. Cfig  C p . K c = Combination factor.72 Exposure from Area Objects .8. The value of K c is given in AS/NZS 1170. K l = Local pressure factor. The aerodynamic shape factor. K c should not be less than 0.1(B).2 Eqn. K p = Porous cladding reduction factor.2. Table 5.4. for annual probability of exceedance of 1/R. K a = Area reduction factor. = Topographic multiplier as input by user.2(1)) C p . The default value of K p is 1. The value of K a is given in AS/NZS 1170. is obtained using AS/NZS 1170.2. The default value of K c is 1.2. The value of K p is given in AS/NZS 1170. (AS/NZS 1170. is obtained using Eqns.5 and fro all surfaces. Ms Mt = Shielding multiplier as input by user. 5.

e -windward  C p . and the location of the wind load force to each diaphragm at each story level. Exposure from Area Objects 3 . p. at any point on the surface of the vertical projected area. 3.18 User-Defined Wind Loads For user defined loads.2(1) are used to determine the wind pressure. define the magnitude of the wind load force in the Xand Y-directions.e-leeward = The programs distribute the pressures.  2Cdyn  C p .2:2002 Eqn.e -leeward  K a K c K l K p  2     where. p.2. p  1 air  Vdes. a point object is automatically created at the location of the applied load. Leeward external pressure coefficient as input by the user. cp. 2.73 . 2. which in turn creates loads on the joints connected to the area objects. On this basis of these data. on the surface of each area object. the torsional moment.User-Defined Wind Loads .Exposure from Area Objects AS/NZS 1170.e-windward = Windward external pressure coefficient as input by the user.4(1) and 5. cp.

British Standards Institution. GPO Box 476. 7-05. Australian Standard – Part 4: Earthquake action in Australia. ASCE/SEI. American Society of Civil Engineers. 1995.References AS 1170. Virginia. Part 2. Inc. BS 6399. Reston. England. Building Officials & Code Administrators International.4-2007. London. Australia. 7-10. Sydney. ASCE. American Society of Civil Engineers. British Standard – Loading for Buildings. ASCE/SEI. American Society of Civil Engineers. Virginia. Country Club Hills. 7-95. American Society of Civil Engineers. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. BOCA. ASCE. Illinois. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. Reston. 1996. New York. The BOCA National Building Code – 13 Edition. Standards Australia. NSW 2001.. Virginia. th i . New York. Reston. 7-02. ASCE Standard – Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.

NEHRP. New Zealand. D. Load Code for the Design of Building Structures. International Building Code. International Code Council. RCDF. Inc. NW. 1997. NBCC 2005. 1997. NBCC. Ontario. Virginia. 2003. 2009. International Code Council. International Code Council. 1995. Falls Church. Inc. D. Mexico. GB 50009-2001.Automated Lateral Loads Manual Chinese.. National Research Council of Canada. Ontario. DC 20001. National Building Code of Canada. IBC. 6th Floor. 2002. Wellington. 2006. UBC. 500 New Jersey Avenue. 6th Floor. National Research Council of Canada. International Building Code. Reglamento de Construcciones para el Distrito Federal – Normas Tecnicas Complementarias para Diseno por Viento. NBCC 2010. Washington. 1987. RCDF. Whittier.5:2004. IBC. NZS 1170. Washington.C NTC 2008. NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures. New Zealand Standard – Part5: Earthquake Actions – New Zealand.. National Building Code of Canada.. Standards New Zealand . DC 20001. Ottawa. National Research Council of Canada.M. Building Seismic Safety Council. January 2008. Technical Rules for Construction. D. International Building Code. Ontario. California. NW.F. National Building Code of Canada. Ottawa. International Conference of Building Officials. 500 New Jersey Avenue. ii . Washington. Inc. Ottawa. IBC. Uniform Building Code – Structural Engineering Design Provisions.

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