ME 4710 Motion and Control Armature Controlled DC Motor Transfer Functions

(Reference: Dorf and Bishop, Modern Control Systems, 10th Ed., Pearson/Prentice-Hall, Inc. 2005)

o In a armature-current controlled DC motor, the field current i f is held constant, and the armature current is controlled through the armature voltage Va . In this case, the motor torque increases linearly with the armature current.
Tm = K ma ia

(1)

o K ma is a constant that depends on the chosen motor. The transfer function from the input armature current to the resulting motor torque is

Tm ( s ) = K ma Ia

(2)

DC Motor

o The voltage/current relationship for the armature side of the motor is

Va = VR + VL + Vb = Raia + La ( dia dt ) + Vb

(3)

o Vb represents the “back EMF” induced by the rotation of the armature windings in a magnetic field. Vb is proportional to the rotational speed ω , i.e. Vb ( s ) = K bω ( s ) . o Taking Laplace transforms of Eq. (3) gives

Va ( s) − Vb ( s) = ( Ra + La s ) I a ( s )

or

Va ( s) − Kbω ( s) = ( Ra + La s ) I a ( s)

(4)

o Applying Newton’s Law (by summing moments) for the rotational motion of the motor gives

∑M = T
or

m

− cω = J ω

(CCW positive)

J ω + cω = Tm

(5)

Free Body Diagram of the Inertial Load
1

ω Va (s) = La J ) ( s + Ra La ) ( s + c J ) + ( Kb K ma La J ) ( K ma (2nd order system) (7) o If we assume the time constant of the electrical circuit is small compared to the time constant of the load dynamics. (7) may be reduced to a first order transfer function ω Va (s) = K ma / Ra J s + (cRa + Kb K ma ) / Ra J (1st order system) (8) o The transfer function from the input armature voltage to the resulting angular position change is found by multiplying Eqs. (4) and (6) can be represented by the closed loop block diagram: Va ( s) + _ 1 La s + Ra La I a ( s) K ma Kb Tm ( s ) 1J s+c J ω ( s) o Block diagram reduction gives the transfer function from the input armature voltage to the resulting speed change. the transfer function of Eq. θ Va (s) = K ma / Ra J s ( s + (cRa + K b K ma ) / Ra J ) (2nd order system) (9) Note that this transfer function also represents a second order differential equation with inertia and damping. the transfer function from the input motor torque to rotational speed changes is ω Tm (s) = (1 J ) s + (c / J ) (1st order system) (6) o Together. (2). Eqs. but no stiffness (same form as for a hydraulic cylinder!). 2 .o Thus. (7) and (8) by 1 s .