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Published by: Alex Guevarra on Oct 09, 2011
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Weil’sto edit Master subtitle style Click Disease/ Canicola Fever/ Hemorrhagic Jaudice/ Mud Fever/ Swine


It is a zoonotic infectious bacteria disease carried by animals, both domestic and wild. Infected urine contaminates water or food, which causes disease when ingested or inoculated through the skin It is an occupational disease affecting 4/22/12 veterinarians, miners, farmers, sewer

sewage. 4/22/12    .ETIOLOGIC AGENT  A spirochete of the genus Leptospira (Leptospira interrogans) These are chiefly saprophytic aquatic organism which are found in the river and lake waters. There are 150 serotypes divided among 18 serogroups. some species are pathogenic to man and animals Weil’s disease is specifically caused by the serovar icterohaemorrhagiae. and in the sea.

RESERVOIR HOSTS       Rats – main host of leptospirosis Pigs Cattles Rabbits Hare Skunk 4/22/12 .

INCUBATION PERIOD The incubation period varies from six to fifteen days. PERIOD OF COMMUNICABILITY Leptospira is found in the urine between 10-20 days after disease onset. 4/22/12 .

icterohaemorrhagiae) are the source of weil’s disease frequently observed among mine.  Dogs (L. Rats (L. bataviae) are also the source of infection that attacks ricefield workers. sewer and abattoir workers.SOURCE OF INFECTION   Contaminated food and water Infected wildlife and domestic animals. breeders and 4/22/12 owners of dogs. . Canicola) can also be the source of infection among veterinarians. especially rodents  Rats (L.

nose and mouth.MODE OF TRANSMISSION  Leptospirosis is transmitted through ingestion or contact with the skin or mucous membranes of infected urine or carcasses of either wild or domestic animals The disease can be transmitted through the mucous membranes of the eyes.  4/22/12 . and though breaks in the skin.

MODE OF TRANSMISSION  Leptospirosis can also be transmitted by the semen of infected animals. Occupations at risk include 4/22/12   . Leptospirosis is common among watersport enthusiast in certain areas such as prolonged immersion in water is known to promote entry of bacteria.

Immune or toxic stage c.CLINICAL MANIFESTATION  The symptoms range in severity from asymptomatic to fatal. Septic stage b. Clinical course is generally biphasic and the majority of cases are inicteric. convalescence 4/22/12 . Three septic stages can be recognized   a.

Septic stage This stage is marked by febrile lasting from 4-7 days. headache.a. anorexia. Fever subsides with lysis. 4/22/12 . There is an abrupt onset of remittent fever. There is also respiratory distress. abdominal pain and severe prostration. chills.

headache. and anuria with progressive renal failure. and convulsion. 4/22/12 . and congetive heart failure are also seen in severe cases. Death may occur between the 9th and 16th days.b. and lasts for 4 – 30 days.  Oliguria  Shock. meningeal manifestations like disorientation.  Iritis. with CSF findings of aseptic meningitis. Immune or toxic stage This stage can be with or without jaundice. coma.

c. Convalescence stage At this stage. 4/22/12 . relapse may occur during the 4th and 5th weeks.

Pathogenesi s Cattle. Entry through the eyes. mouth and broken skin MAN 4/22/12 . and and wild other animals livestock Contact with contaminated water and soil. Dogs Rodents swine.

or broken skin Multiplies in the bloodstream Invades the eyes Enters the kidney Invades the liver Affect the muscle Jaundice Presence of organism conjuctivit is causes inflammati Renal on of the failure 4/22/12 nephrons Pain and sometim es edema .Pathophysiology Leptospir a Enters the mouths. eyes.

LABORATORY DIAGNOSIS   BUN and creatinine Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) Liver function test  AST  ALT  GGT    Leptospira antigen-antibody test (LAAT) 4/22/12 Lesptospira antibody test (LAT) .

COMPLICATIONS    Meningitis Respiratory distress Renal interstistial tubular necrosis that results in renal failure (Weil’s disease) Cardiovascular problem  4/22/12 .

MANAGEMENT 4/22/12 .

every 12 hours for 1 week  Peritoneal dialysis of fluid and electrolytes 4/22/12  Administration .o. amoxicillin For prophylaxis. doxycycline. ampicillin.MEDICAL MANAGEMENT Treatment of leptospirosis is geared toward:   Suppressing the causative agent Fighting possible complications  Aetiotropic drugs – penicillin. doxycycline 100mg p.

Keep clients under close surveillance. urine must be properly disposed of. Darken the patient’s room because light is irritating to the patient’s eyes.NURSING MANAGEMENT  Isolate the patient. 4/22/12    . Observe meticulous skin care to ease pruritis.

   . to prevent stagnation. Eradicate rats and rodents Provide health education on the modes of transmission of the disease. etc. Encourage oral fluid 4/22/12 intake. Regularly replace water in pools. aquaria.NURSING MANAGEMENT  Keep homes clean.

There is a need for proper drainage system and control of rodents ( 4060% infected) Animals (cattle. dogs.PREVENTION AND CONTROL  Sanitation in homes. workplaces and farms is a must. cats and pigs) must be vaccinated. Infected humans and pets 4/22/12    .

. 4/22/12 day od G s le b s! .S.THE END Tha n k you ! Hav eA nic by: Prepared e SN4 A.G.

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