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The discovery of a new class of inorganic materials, geopolymer resins, binders, cements and concretes, resulted in wide scientiﬁc interest and kaleidoscopic development of applications. From the ﬁrst industrial research eﬀorts in 1972 at the Cordi-Géopolymère private research laboratory, Saint-Quentin, France, until the end of 2006, hundreds of papers and patents were published dealing with geopolymer science and technology. On August 31. 2005, the Geopolymer Institute (a non-proﬁt scientiﬁc organization founded in 1979) was proud to announce in its News on line (www.geopolymer.org): "Since 1997, 80000 papers have been downloaded by 15000 scientists around the world at the geopolymer.org website". The extent of international scientiﬁc and commercial interest in geopolymers was evidenced by several large conferences. In France, the First European Conference on Soft Mineralurgy, organized by the Geopolymer Institute and sponsored by the European Economic Commission, was held at the University of Technology of Compiègne in June 1988 (Geopolymer ’88 ). Eleven years later in June-July 1999, the Geopolymer Institute organized the Second International Conference Geopolymere ’99, held in Saint-Quentin; the published proceedings included 32 papers presented to the 100 scientists from over 12 countries. The Third International Conference, Geopolymer 2002 was held in Australia in October 2002. Organized by the University of Melbourne and chaired by J.S.J. van Deventer, it focused on the ways needed to "Turn Potential into Proﬁt". Since 2003, several national and international scientiﬁc institutions have organized "geopolymer sessions", "geopolymer seminars" 3
The wide variety of potential applications includes: ﬁre resistant materials. decorative stone artifacts. chaired by V. The properties and uses of geopolymers are being explored in many scientiﬁc and industrial disciplines: modern inorganic chemistry. thermal insulation. The main topic of the world congress was Geopolymer-chemistry and sustainable Development. France. The Geopolymer 2005 World Congress was a tribute to the 26th anniversary of the creation of the Geopolymer Institute by J. June-July. and applications in archaeology. composites for infrastructures repair and strengthening. Davidovits. the University of Alabama. They cover a wide scope of topics ranging from geopolymer chemistry. More than 200 scientists attended the congress and 85 international public and private research institutions presented a total of 75 papers.1 Geopolymer technology How should we consider geopolymers? Are they a new material. It gathered two major events in two diﬀerent locations: the Fourth International Conference in Saint-Quentin. physical chemistry. September 2005. Australia. low-tech building materials. geology. 1. matrix for ﬁre/heat resistant composites. mineralogy. industrial wastes and raw materials. cements and concretes. geopolymer concretes (including ﬂy ash-based geopolymers). USA. 2005. The conference and workshop covered the science and application of geopolymers. Rangan. colloid chemistry. the International Workshop on Geopolymer Cements and Concrete in Perth. The published proceedings (Geopolymer 2005 ) includes 60 selected papers and is titled: Geopolymer. They are new materials for coatings and adhesives. applications in construction materials. Perth.1. applications in high-tech materials. and sponsored by the National Science Foundation. high-tech resin systems. a new binder or a new cement for concrete? Geopolymers are all of these. foundry applications. radioactive 4 . and in all types of engineering process technologies. waste encapsulation and new cement for concrete. refractory items. new binders for ﬁber composites. Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development Solutions. USA. organized by the Geopolymer Institute.J. Introduction and "geopolymer conferences". thermal shock refractories. geopolymer cements. low energy ceramic tiles. high-tech composites for aircraft interior and automobile. organized by Curtin University of Technology.
Thus. My chemistry background had focused on organic polymer chemistry and in the aftermath of various catastrophic ﬁres in France between 1970–72.1).1: Phenoplast polycondensation between phenol and formaldehyde. arts and decoration. From the study of the scientiﬁc and patent literature covering the synthesis of zeolites and molecular sieves — essentially in the form of powders — it became clear that this geochemistry had so far not been investigated for producing mineral binders and mineral polymers. Figure 1. as well as mineral feldspathoids and zeolites. geopolymers (mineral polymers resulting from geo5 . I proceeded therefore to develop amorphous to semi-crystalline three-dimensional silico-aluminate materials. I was struck by the fact that the same simple hydrothermal conditions governed the synthesis of some organic plastics in alkali medium. one of the oldest man-made plastic (Figure 1. cultural heritage. which I call in French "géopolymères". phenol and formaldehyde polycondense into the famous Bakelite invented by Bakeland at the beginning of the 20th Century. a feldspathoid). In 1972. On the other hand. the aluminosilicate kaolinite reacts with NaOH at 100–150°C and polycondenses into hydrated sodalite (a tectoaluminosilicate. in alkali medium. archaeology and history of sciences. In my pursuit to develop new inorganic polymer materials. later called Cordi-Géopolymère. or hydroxysodalite (Figure 1. I founded the private research company Cordi SA.Geopolymer technology and toxic waste containment. which involved common organic plastic. research on nonﬂammable and noncombustible plastic materials became my objective.2).
The commercial product. the Chairman of Lone Star Industries Inc.1. The title of the patent. and engineering applications.2: Polycondensation of kaolinite Si2 O5 . 6 . we developed at the CORDI laboratory a metakaolin-based geopolymeric liquid binder comprising soluble alkali silicate. Mineral polymer. was a good ﬁre resistant alternative to organic resin. such as ﬁre-resistant chip-board panels. 1979). was self evident (Davidovits. Then. and market a new class of materials that were expected to have a wide-ranging impact on construction.Al2 (OH)4 in alkali medium. in 1978–1980. was traveling in Europe and learned about our new geopolymeric binders. In early 1983. coined Geopolymite™. comprised of a wooden core faced with two geopolymer nanocomposite coatings. at this time the leading cement manufacturer on the American continent. 1973). However. when applying the same thermosetting parameters as for organic resin: 150–180°C temperature (Davidovits. the real breakthrough took place when.. Neuschäﬀer (1983) at the licensed German Company Dynamit Nobel (later Hüls Troisdorf AG) discovered the high reactivity of silica and alumina fumes. An unusual feature was observed to characterize the manufacturing process: for the ﬁrst time. It was the ﬁrst mineral resin ever manufactured. architectural. in which the entire panel was manufactured in a one-step process (Davidovits. the hardening of organic material (wood chips and organic resin based on urea-formaldehyde aminoplast) occurred simultaneously with the setting of the mineral silicoaluminate (Na–poly(sialate)/quartz nanocomposite). Introduction Figure 1. 1976). chemistry or geosynthesis). Lone Star Industries and Shell Oil Company had just announced the formation of a corporation to develop. produce. The ﬁrst applications were building products developed in 1973– 1976. by-products of the manufacture of high-tech ceramics.
Their purpose was to take advantage of the good properties of geopolymeric cement along with the low manufacturing cost of Portland cement. 1985). By enlisting our new inorganic geopolymers. Shell Oil supplied the chemical expertise in organic polymers. industrial pavements.Geopolymer technology These materials were made from mineral aggregates combined with organic polymers and monomers. The resulting PYRAMENT®Blended Cement (PBC) was very close to alkali. As of fall 1993. 1989). In other words. PYRAMENT PBC was recognized in the construction industry for its ability to gain very high early strength quite rapidly (US Army Corps of Engineers. and highway roads. accelerates the setting time and signiﬁcantly improves compressive and ﬂexural strength. 1984. A few months later. which is a latent hydraulic cementitious product. and titled "Early HighStrength Mineral Polymer" (US Patent).. Texas. The corresponding European Patent. it was an "organic polymer concrete". The ﬁrst Davidovits and Sawyer (1985) patent was ﬁled in Feb. At Lone Star. Lone Star took the opportunity to challenge Shell Oil’s chemical expertise.activated pozzolanic cement. In the case of a runway. which was exclusively dedicated to the implementation of this new class of cement. Lone Star separated from the Shell Oil deal. PYRAMENT. It comprised 80 % ordinary Portland cement and 20 % of geopolymeric raw materials (Heitzmann et al. It was the ideal material for repairing runways made of concrete. It was discovered that the addition of ground blast furnace slag. In August 1983. 22. formed the development company. Richard Heitzmann and James Sawyer likewise blended Portland cement with geopolymer. with James Sawyer as Head of Lone Star’s research laboratory in Houston. in 1984. The geopolymeric cement reaches a compression strength of 20 MPa after 4 hours. 7 . Within one month. to the poly(sialate) type of geopolymer. I started to develop early high-strength geopolymeric binders and cements based on both geopolymeric and hydraulic cement chemistries. a 4–6 hours hardening is enough to allow the landing of an Airbus or a Boeing. ﬁled in 1985. Geopolymer cements are acid-resistant cementitious materials with zeolitic properties that can be applied to the long-term containment of hazardous and toxic wastes. is titled "Early High-Strength Concrete Composition" and these patents disclose our preliminary ﬁnding from the research carried out in August-September of 1983. while Lone Star supplied the mineral aggregates. Lone Star Industries Inc. whereas plain concrete gets to this strength after several days.
and 7 in other countries. Germany. 1990) has used geopolymer molds and tooling in the development of French Airforce ﬁghters (Davidovits et al.Ca)– poly(sialate-siloxo) is a prime candidate to cost-eﬃciently ﬁll the gap between conventional concrete technology and vitriﬁcation methods (Hermann et al. ﬁre resistant matrix materials for aircraft composites and cabin interior applications. the applications relate to sustainable development. and Comrie Consulting (Davidovits and Comrie. Lyon. The safe containment of uranium mine tailings and radioactive sludge started in 1994 within the European research project GEOCISTEM. and for nonmilitary airports. former East Germany. Both ﬁelds of application are strongly dependent on politically driven decisions. Environmentally-driven geopolymer applications are based on the implementation of (K. Toronto. in emerging countries. 1997). In the ﬁeld of so-called high-tech applications.Ca)–poly(sialate-siloxo) / (K. 1999). In industrialized countries (Western countries) emphasis is put on toxic waste (heavy metals) and radioactive waste safe containment. The GEOCISTEM project was aimed at manufacturing cost-eﬀectively new geopolymeric cements (Geocistem. initiated a cooperative research program to develop environmentally friendly. In 1994 the US Army Corps of Engineers released a well-documented study on the properties of PYRAMENT Blended Cements based concretes. It was experimented on two important uranium-mining locations of WISMUT. the French aeronautic company Dassault Aviation (Vautey.1.Ca)–poly(sialatedisiloxo) cements. Heavy metal waste encapsulation with geopolymer started in 1987. in Canada. with the ﬁnancial support of CANMET Ottawa. Major eﬀorts were dedicated to greenhouse CO2 mitigation with 8 . Introduction PYRAMENT concrete was listed for over 50 industrial facilities and 57 military installations in the USA. The Geopolymer composites were selected by FAA as the best candidate for this program (Lyon. with the collaboration of BPS Engineering. 1988). essentially geopolymeric cements with very low CO2 emission. Our results clearly show that solidiﬁcation with geopolymeric cement (K. which are performing better than had ever been expected for high-quality concretes. More than a hundred tooling and other items have been delivered for aeronautic applications and SPF Aluminum processing.. funded by the European Union. Ontario Research Foundation. On the other hand. In 1994 the American Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) with R. 1991). since 1982. 1997).
from combustion carbon-fuel.180 tonnes of CO2 . The production of 1 tonne of kaolin based-geopolymeric cement generates 0. 1. Background details on structure. up to nine times less than Portland cement. 1. alkalis. Belgian scientist Purdon (1940) discovered that the alkali addition produced a new. There are two main purposes in preparing this book: it is an introduction to the subject of geopolymers for the newcomer to the ﬁeld. The industrial applications of geopolymers with engineering procedures and design of processes is also covered in this book. six times less. Materials Research Laboratory.e. My research on this very important geopolymer application started in 1990 at PennState University. Fly ash basedgeopolymeric cement emits even less CO2 . It is this void that we hope to ﬁll with this book. six to nine times more cement for infrastructure and building applications might be manufactured.The scope of the book the development of low CO2 geopolymer cements. rapid-hardening 9 .2 The scope of the book Although review articles and conference proceedings cover various aspects of the science and application of geopolymers. This simply means that. in newly industrializing countries. such as sodium and potassium hydroxide. compared with 1 tonne of CO2 for Portland cement. synthesis. and a reference for additional information.3 Early observations In the 1930s. 1993). Each chapter is followed by a bibliography of the relevant published literature including patents. Excerpts from the more important patents are included in some chapters. USA. for the same emission of green house gas CO2 (Davidovits. characterization. chemistry applications are included. properties. i. a researcher or engineer is still at a loss to readily obtain speciﬁc information about geopolymers and their use. There are many examples in geopolymer science where an issued patent is either a primary reference or the only source of essential technical information. In the course of studying the testing systems for slag. for students. were originally used to test iron blast furnace ground slag to determine if the slag would set when added to Portland cement.
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.e. reacted with caustic soda at 150°C. Victor Glukhovsky. Besson. Howell (1963) obtained a Zeolite A type. To a natural kaolinite/quartz 10 .. (Besson et al. In 1972. One intermediary step of the extraction process involved the precipitation of a sodalite-like compound. 1974). carried out the synthesis of hydrosodalite from various phyllosilicates (kaolinite. In 1969. kaolinite.1). 1953). In fact.5 % NaOH to 97 % ground slag mix (U. we developed a technology based on this geosynthesis. Earlier. 1969). using calcined kaolin (metakaolin) instead of kaolinite. He also noted that rocks and clay minerals react during alkali treatment to form sodium alumino-silicate hydrates (zeolites). Flint & al (1946). The usual activation called for adding 1. In 1972.5 % NaCl and 1. at CORDI laboratory in Saint-Quentin. and calcium and sodium alumino-silicate hydrates (zeolites) as solidiﬁcation products. at the National Bureau of Standards were developing various processes for the extraction of alumina starting from clays and high-silica bauxites. without ﬁring. montmorillonite. a Russian team. i. One component of clay. In 1957. conﬁrming earlier work carried out on clay reactivity (see below). Introduction binder (see Table 1. (1970). the industrial application of this kaolinite reaction with alkali began in the ceramic industry with Niels Olsen (1934) and was later on reinvented in 1964 by Berg & al. halloysite) at 100°C in concentrated NaOH solution. which has been disclosed in various patents issued on the applications of the so-called "SILIFACEProcess" (Davidovits and Legrand.S. at 100°C. Borchert and Keidel (1949) prepared hydrosodalite (Na–PS) by reacting kaolinite in a concentrated NaOH solution. a scientist working in the Ukraine at the KICE (Kiev Institute of Civil Engineering in the USSR) investigated the problem of alkali-activated slag binders and in the 1960s and 1970s made major contribution in identifying both calcium silicate hydrates. Paris. Glukhovsky called the concretes produced with this technology "soil silicate concretes" (1959) and the binders "soil cements" (1967). Caillère and Hénin at the French Museum of Natural History. Alkali-activated slag cements (called Trief cements) were used in large-scale construction as early as the 1950s. the ceramicist team Jean Paul Latapie and Michel Davidovics conﬁrmed that water-resistant ceramic tiles could be fabricated at temperatures lower than 450°C. preventing the formation of hydrosodalite.1. but without any successful industrial implementation.
e. Yet. Virtually any divalent or trivalent oxide that is sparingly soluble may be used to form these phosphate geopolymers. In the absence of any pervious device. 1. is their syntheses. The setting time is relatively short. The thermosetting parameters were: – Temperature: 130°C to 180°C. at 180°C and 40 kg/cm2 hydraulic pressure. Otherwise. Poly(sialate) geopolymers and their derivates are synthesized in alkaline environment. but phosphate geopolymers are fabricated by acid-base reactions. They are formed by an acid-base reaction between a metal oxide and an acid phosphate. which was then hot-pressed (thermosetting process) in a mold equipped with a porous layer for water evaporation. – Applied hydraulic pressure: higher than the saturated vapor pressure of water. the polycondensation into hydrosodalite occurs very rapidly in a time as short as 15–20 seconds per millimeter thickness. 11 . They contain naturally occurring mineral phases. i. construction materials. and hazardous and radioactive waste stabilization. however. oil well cements. it is recommended to wait until the item has cooled down to room temperature before opening the press. due to the high internal pressure of water and the danger of explosion. notably apatite.4 Phosphate-based geopolymer Phosphate ceramics are synthesized at room temperature and they set rapidly like conventional polymers.e. 65 to 75 % of the total time is devoted to degassing water. – Time: one minute per millimeter thickness at 150°C or 10 minutes for a 10 millimeters thick plate.Phosphate-based geopolymer blend (50/50 weight ratio) was added and mixed solid NaOH in the proportion of 2 moles or less of NaOH for 1 mole Al2 O3 of the contained kaolinite. i. when degassing is not working. where Si is totally or partially replaced by P.5 g water for 1 g NaOH). the press must be equipped with safety devices (see for more details in Chapter 7). The resulting granules were cold-pressed at 15 MPa into a green body. for the selected temperature. They represent another variety of mineral geopolymer. They have found a wide range of applications such as dental cements. The main diﬀerence between the silicate based geopolymers and phosphate geopolymers. and water (1–1. 10 to 30 bars.
Introduction Table 1.1 Phosphate geopolymers A very wide range of phosphate geopolymers may be synthesized by acid-base reaction between an inorganic oxide (preferably that of divalent and trivalent metals) and an acid phosphate. The following are the most common examples (Wagh and Yeong.4. sim12 . 2004) 2CaO + Ca(H2 PO4 )2 + H2 O ⇒ CaO + 2CaHPO4 ·H2 O ⇒ Ca3 (PO4 )2 + 2H2 O MgO + KH2 PO4 + 5 H2 O ⇒ MgKPO4 ·6H2 O (Ceramicrete™). Wagh. ceramics can be formed. 2003.1: Milestones in alumino-silicate chemistry. (1) (2) These reactions occur at room temperature. The reaction product is generally a poly(hydrophosphate) or an anhydrous poly(phosphate) that consolidates into a ceramic. (USSR) 1969 : Besson & al. With trivalent oxides. Keidel (Germany) Geopolymer 1950 1960 1970 1963 : Howell (USA) 1964 : Berg & al.1. White (UK) 1956 : Milton (USA) 1940 : Purdon (Belgium) 1953: Trief Cement (USA) 1957: Glukovsky (Ukraine) soil-silicate concrete Alkali-activation (slag) Hydrosodalite (kaolin) 1934 : Olsen (Netherland) 1945 : US Bureau of Standard (USA) 1949 : Borchert. By controlling the rate of reaction. Zeolite molecular sieve 1930 1940 1945 : Barrer (UK) 1953 : Barrer. (France) 1972 : Davidovits (France) Siliface Process 1976 : Davidovits (IUPAC terminology) 1979 : Davidovits (France) Geopolymer 1.
rings. has been pointed out many times.1 Organic-mineral geopolymers Silicone The similarity of the siloxane (Si-O-Si) structure in organo-silicones to the chains. (4) 1. trimers. for example in quartz. chains. Information about this technology is scarce and restricted to the patent literature (see in Chapter 13). and networks of silicon and oxygen found in silica and the silicate minerals. When the organic radical is methylene the structures of the oligomeric 13 . dimers. 1.4. which is formed by the reaction between alumina and phosphoric acid: Al2 O3 + 2H3 PO4 ⇒ 2AlPO4 + 3H2 O (3) It was also demonstrated that phosphate geopolymers of trivalent oxides such as Fe2 O3 and Mn2 O3 might be produced by reduction of the oxide and then acid-base reaction of the reduced oxide with phosphoric acid.. rings.5. sheets and frameworks of corner-sharing silicate [SiO4 ] groups.Organic-mineral geopolymers ilar ceramics can be formed at a slightly elevated temperature. The reaction may be described by the following equation: X2 O3 + X + 3H3 PO4 + nH2 O ⇒ 3XHPO4 ·(n+3)H2 O where X is Fe or Mn. A good example is berlinite (AlPO4 ).2 Silico-phosphate geopolymers Another system involves the reaction between phosphoric acid and wollastonite. etc. (1963) reported the correspondence in a study of disiloxane H6 Si2 O. As observed by Noll (1968) it is possible to pass from the polymeric silicate to the polymeric covalent molecules of an organosiloxane by replacing the bridging oxide ions of the silicate anions with methyl groups.5 1. The structures that result from this replacement closely resemble the silicate and aluminosilicate molecules: monomers. Almennigen et al. Chapter 2 and Chapter 14 focus on silicone poly(organo-siloxane).
. Geopolymers can be classiﬁed into two major groups: pure inorganic geopolymers and organic containing geopolymers..3: Evolution of organic matter to kerogen-geopolymer 14 . 1. Some geopolymeric materials can last for a long time due to their unique geopolymeric structure.1. 2004. synthetic analogue of naturally occurring macromolecules (Kim et al.2 Humic-acid based: kerogen geopolymer T.5. The small content of organics is a key parameter governing the strength and durability of material in a large volume of inorganics.K. (Kim et al. Humic materials represent an inorganic-organic structure. 2004. 2006) have drawn attention to the concept of geopolymer in association with kerogen and petroleum. Figure 1. so-called three-dimensional crosslink. Yen and his team. Kerogen-geopolymer is the most stable material and the ﬁnal alternating product in the Earth. 2006). working on the transformation of geomolecules through geochemical processes during diagenesis. Introduction poly-methyl-siloxanes are identical with those of poly(siloxonate) (SiO-Si-O) and poly(sialate) (Si-O-Al-O-Si) geopolymers. Organic compounds can be incorporated into refractory macromolecules such as lignin and melanodin or humic materials (Henrichs 1992).
. (1979). V. Heidelb.. and Legrand J. Rend.454 (1977).246.950. US Patent 3. Hedberg. Caillère S. which forms primarily from terrigenous remains of higher plants. (1972).470.. Scand. 1974. Acad.3). 9. It is.. 2455–2460. United Kingdom Patent UK 1. Kerogen is considered to be the major starting material for most oil and gas generation as sediments are subjected to geothermal heating in the subsurface.A.. Conditions de préparation de l’hydrosodalite à basse température. ﬁled Jan.. French Patent Application FR 72. and Keidel J. a geopolymer. 31. Demidenko B.. (1949). about 1000 times more abundant than coal. 17. Borchert W.. This geopolymeric structure exhibits a similar organization to human bone and teeth. Min. Davidovits J. z. C. 1974 . Bastiansen. Kerogen geopolymers generally occur in numerous forms: some have more organics and less inorganics. Topic III.38746 (FR 2.. 1976.C.. Process for the fabrication of sintered panels and panels resulting from the application of this process. 22. Beitr.35979 (FR 2. see also US Patent 4..I. Acta Chem. and Henin S. It is the most abundant form of organic carbon on Earth.204. however. Berg L.J. 3. (1974) French Patent FR 2. 11.. Stroitel’nye Materialy (USSR). Davidovits J.427 ﬁled Jan. 1975. ﬁled Jan. O. Sci. 1975. 1367. K.. and Traetteberg. u. Ewing. Besson H. and Nisamov N. Solid phase synthesis of a mineral blockpolymer by low temperature polycondensation of aluminosilicate polymers. French Patent Application FR 15 .382).. Polymère Minéral. Davidovits J. Davidovits J. Procédé de fabrication de panneaux agglomérés et panneaux resultant de l’application de ce procédé. 1. (1969).Organic-mineral geopolymers Diagenesis of organic matter leads from biopolymers synthesized by organisms through "humin" to Kerogen. Sept. IUPAC International Symposium on Macromolecules Stockholm. which will result in a geopolymeric structure. Kerogen is a geopolymer that contains a high content of organics. References Almennigen. by partial destruction and rearrangement of the main organic building blocks (Figure 1. typical inorganic-organic composites that show extreme durability and mechanical strength. German Patent DE 25 00 151 (1979). M.999) and FR 73. New Polymers of high stability.479 (1977). while others have the opposite. Petr. 2. ﬁled Dec. (1963). (1976). D269.028. (1970). A. Reminikova V..481.324. 10. evident that both inorganics and organics are required in a mix at a certain ratio. The mechanism of geomacromolecule formation involves the crosslink reaction between the inorganic and organic materials.S.
Early high-strength mineral polymer.L. Italy. Geopolymer ’88 Proceedings.D. The primary objective of the Geocistem research project was the fabrication of alkalimelilitic glass (Ca. Solidiﬁcation of various radioactive residues by Geopolymere with special emphasis on long-term stability. (1963).. (1991). J. BRGM Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et minières. Illinois.114. July 1997. (1988).S.. Gabelica at that time in Namur University. 63.L.985. Clarke W. Gravitt. Chicago. Howell P. Toronto. USA.. GEOCISTEM.1. Tocco. Bishop D. US Patent 4. Carbon-Dioxide Greenhouse-Warming: What Future for Portland Cement. 119–149.. Geocistem (1997). California. Proceedings.. Orléans. Rocher. 21p. (1965)... The selection of European geological materials was carried out by – P. Emerging Technologies Symposium on Cement and Concrees in the Global Environment. 39.509. Division of Environmental Chemistry. France. Kunze C. pp. 36.489. US Patent 3. and Davidovics M. Gatzweiler R. Davidovits in the laboratory of Cordi-Géopolymère SA. Mar. Geopolymer ’99 Proceedings. Heitzmann R. Introduction 79. MAS-NMR spectroscopy was performed by Z. Bur. Kiev. (1992).36. and Davidovits J. Extended Abstracts.F. Early diagenesis of organic matter in marine sediments: progress and perplexity. (1946).. Portland Cement Association. See also: Long Term Durability of Hazardous Toxic and Nuclear Waste Disposals. Ukraine (former USSR).290). Davidovits J. Shartsis L. Davidovits J. 1988.. J. Covina. SAMPE Symposium. Archaeological long-term durability of hazardous waste disposal: preliminary results with geopolymer technologies.. Res. Belgium. Technology and Manufacturing and Fields of Application.842. Glukhovsky V. and Comrie D. US Patent 4. 1984. Marini and S. Davidovits J. France. Vol.. (1985).. Soil silicates.227) and FR 80. Civil Engineering Institute. Stand. Mineral polymer. 125–134.649. Al. Geology Dept. University of Cagliari.M. B. 211–228.B. Flint E. Degree thesis. Hermann E.386. – D. 1989. – C. March 1993. University of Barcelona. GEOCISTEM is the acronym for "cost eﬀective GEOpolymeric Cements fo Innocuous Stabilisation of Toxic EleMents".349. 1985. Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering. (1993).K)2 [(Mg. Nat. Kiessig G.. and Sawyer J. Henrichs S.464.... (1999).Fe2+ . Newman E. American Chemical Society. BRITE-EURAM European research project BE-735593. ﬁled February 22.Si)3 O7 ]. Chem.P. 16 . Geopolymer: Ultra-High Temperature Tooling Material for the Manufacture of Advanced Composites". Doct Tech Sc. Gimeno. Cement Composition Curable at Low Temperature.18970 (FR 2. 1939–1949. Synthesis Report and Final Technical Report.22041 (FR 2. Vitriﬁcation at temperatures ranging from 1200°C to 1350°C and mineral binder formulations were performed by J. Davidovits J. 237–240. US Patent 4. Spain. Saint-Quentin. 2. Their Properties..Na.603.A.F. and Wells L.S. and Sawyer.
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July 2005. Proceedings of the Second International Conference Géopolymère ’99. edited by Joseph Davidovits. Geopolymer 2005.1. Geopolymer Workshop. Introduction Geopolymere ’99. France. Ralph Davidovits and Claude James. Proceedings of the World Congress Geopolymer 2005. edited by Joseph Davidovits. June 30-July 2. 1999. 2005. France. Geopolymer. Sept. Saint-Quentin. Australia. Perth. 4th International Geopolymer Conference. 18 . Green Chemistry and Sustainable Development Solutions. Saint-Quentin.