# WELL PROBLEMS

WELL PROBLEMS
Well kicks. II. Stuck pipe III. Lost circulation. IV. Restriction in the drilling string. V. Washout of the drilling string.
I.

I.Well Kicks
It is the entering of the formation fluid to the wellbore. • this occur when the formation pressure exceeds the hydrostatic pressure. • A blowout is uncontrolled kick.

Well Kicks
• Overbalance. • Underbalance. • Factors controlling the kicks sevirity:1. permeability. 2. underbalance.

. 5. Failure to keep the hole full. 4. Gas cut mud. 2. Lost circulation.Reasons for Kicks 1. Swabbing. Insufficient Mud Weight. 3.

1.Insufficient Mud Weight. The formation pressure is higher than the hydrostatic pressure. .

yp. Mud flow properties. gel.Swabbing A negative hydrostatic pressure causing reducing bottom hole pressure     The speed of the drill pipe pulling.2. Balled up string. . Hole geometry.

Gas cut mud .3.

Lost circulation .4.Failure to keep the hole full. 5.

Pit Volume Increase.Indications of Kicks         Changes in mud gas. . Well flowing with pumps off. Drilling breaks. String weight change. Pump pressure decrease and pump strokes increase Flow out rate increase. Improper hole fillups in trips.

.WELL CONTROL Early kick recognition & prompt execution of correct shut-in procedures is the key to successful kick control.

2. Minimize borehole stresses. Kell safely.Objectives 1. .

Shut-in Procedures  Hard Shut-in: the adjustable choke is closed before taking a kick.  Soft Shut-in: the adjustable choke is opened before taking a kick. .A.

In order to kill a well the bottom hole pressure must be maintained constant at a level greater than or equal to the formation pressure. .

No influx. no Imposed pressure. U – tube Theory 1. BHP = HP + IP + PL BHP=5200+0+0=5200psi . 2.B.

with imposed pressure FP=HP+IP+PL =5200+800+0=6000psi . No Influx.2.

FP=HP+IP+PL FPdp=5200+0+0=5200psi FPan=4680+520+0=5200psi . No influx. Unbalanced tube sides.3.

The drill pipe side is always used for calculation due to its homogeneity rather than the contaminated casing side . Unbalanced tube sides.4. Influx.

0ppg Influx length=3000’ Hole depth = 10000’. MW = 10. • What should be the imposed pressure on both sides while circulation? .5. • Fm pressure=6000psi.Balancing while circulation • • • • • System PL = 2500psi Annulus PL = 100psi.

Answer A. BHPdp=HP+IP 6000=5200+IP IP=800psi Cir.=2500+800=3300psi .P. FP=BHPan=BHPdp BHPan=HP+APL+IP 6000=3640+100+IP IPan=2260psi B.

 Slow pump rate.  Slow pump pressure.  Kill rate.The pump rate at which the system pressure loss is recorded for purpose of well control is called: Reduced circulating pressure.  Reduced pump rate. .

Shut-in Pressure The shut-in drill pipe pressure is the amount by which the formation pressures exceeds the hydrostatic head of the mud in drill pipe .

water or mix.Gas 1-3 ppg .Influx Gradient Influx grad.Mix gas & water 3 -5 ppg . 5 -7 ppg . = mud grad – (sicp-sidpp) length of influx .Oil.

052xTVD OMW: Original mud weight.Kill Weight Mud KWM = SIDPP + OMW 0. .

Wait and Weight Method. . Driller’s Method. 2. Killing Procedures 1. 3.C. Concurrent Method.

the surface mud is weighted and the kill weight mud is pumped in one cycle. • Initial circulating pressure=SIDPP+SPR • Final circ. The well is shut-in.1. Pressure= SPRx (KWM/OMW) .Wait and Weight Method.

2. 3. .The influx is pumped out first.The well is shut-in until the mud is weighted.2. The Driller Method.The kill weight mud is then pumped. 1.

The Concurrent Method. Pumping is begun immediately and the mud weight is raised while circulating the kick out. It needs several cycles of circulation. 2. 1.3. .

Kill Sheet The kill sheet includes all the necessary data for killing the well including the drop down pressure against pumped strokes. .

• No influx in the wellbore. • Kick toleance= [Shoe depth * (FR – MW)]/Depth.Kick Tolerance ((Is the maximum allowable pressure or its equivalent ppg that the weakest point in a wellbore can withstand)) • The weakest point is the casing shoe. .

. Stuck pipe Drilling string cannot be raised.II. lowered or rotate.

Hole packing off. C. .Mechanisms of stuck pipe A. Differential Stuck. Wellbore Geometry. B.

. Differential Stuck Sticking of pipe against a permeable formation as the result of the pressure of the mud in the hole exceeding the bore fluid pressure.A.

Differential sticking  Stuck breadth = 4”  Stuck length = 25’  Fm pressure = 4000 psi  H pressure = 5000 psi  D. F=4*25*12*(5000-4000)  1.200.000lbs .

• Increasing overpull. • Spot a pipe releasing pill if the string does not jar free. • First action: • Apply torque and jar down with maximum trip load. slack off weight or torque to start string movement. • Warning: • Prognosed low pressure sands • Long / unstabilized BHA. • Developing of static filter cake. • High differential force. .Differential sticking • Cause: • Drill string contacts a permeable zone.

Keep string moving when BHA is opposite suspected zones. Maintain minimum required mud weight. 3.Preventing Action 1. 5. Control drill suspected zones . Minimize unstabilized BHA & use spiral DC. 4. Minimize seepage loss in low pressure zones. 2.

4. Wellbore Geometry Hole diameter and / or angle relative to BHA geometry and / or stiffness will not allow passage of the drill string Key seat Microdoglegs Ledges Stiff assembly Mobile formation Under gauge hole 1.B. 2. 3. . 5. 6.

While POOH the drill collars jam into the slot. High string tension and pipe rotation wears a slot into the formation. Abrupt change in angle or direction in soft formations. 2.Key Seat Causes: 1. . 3.

High angle doge leg in upper hole section. Cyclic over pull at tool joint intervals on trips. indications. 2.Warning. 2. Long drilling hours with no wiper trips through the dogleged section 3. Unrestricted circulation. first action Warning: 1. Occurs only while POOH. . Indications: 1. Free string movement below key seat depth. Sudden over pull as BHA reaches dogleg depth. 4. 3.

Preventive Action:    .First Action. Run string reamer or key seat wiper if suspected. Attempt to rotate with low over pull to work through dogleg. Limit over pull through suspected intervals. Preventive Action First action:   Applay torque and jar down. Minimize dog leg severity to 3deg/100’ or less.

Settled cuttings Shale instability + Unconsolidated formations Fractured formations Cement related. 6. Packing Off & Bridging Formation cuttings cavings or medium to large pieces of hard formation. 3. 2. Junk. 1. . 5. cement or junk settle around the drill string and pack off/bridging the annulus.C. 4.

Settled Cutting Straight Hole Causes: • Low annular velocity and/or poor mud properties. • When circulation is stopped. the cuttings fall back down the hole and pack off the drill string. .

Circulation restricted or impossible. High ROP. drag and pump pressure increase. pump surge to break circulation 4. Over pull off slips. 3. Fill on bottom.Warning. Likely to occure on connections. 2. first action Warning: 1. indications. 3. Possible during trips. Torque. low pump rate. Indications: 1. 2. little to no circulation time at connections. .

Circulate clean to avoid recurrence.First Action. Circulation clean before POOH. Circulate 5.10 min before connections. Apply torque and jar down. Preventive Action First action:      Applay low pump pressure (200-400psi). maximize annular velocity. Control ROP. Maintain sufficient gel strength and YP. Preventive Action:   .

• The cutting bed builds and slide down hole. • While POOH the cuttings is dragged upward by the BHA .Settled Cutting Deviated Hole Causes: • Drill cuttings settle on the low side forming a cutting bed.

3. low GPM. 2. increase torque. indications. possible while drilling.. first action Warning: Hole angle > 35deg. Indications: Likely to occure while POOH. Increase overpull on trips. High ROP. 1. increase pump pressure. Drilling with a down hole motor. 3. 2. Circulating pressure restricted or impossible 1. .Warning.

maximize string rotation. Circulate clean to avoid recurrence. Use low vis/high vis density sweps. maintain mud properties.First Action. Preventive Action First action:    Apply low pump pressure (100-400psi). maximize annular velocity.    Control ROP. Preventive Action:  Record trend indicators for inadequate hole cleaning. . Jar down & Apply torque with caution . Circulation clean before POOH.

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