1

THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

THE CONSTITUTION

OF INDIA

PREAMBLE

WE , TH E PE OPL E OF IN DI A, having s ole mn ly r eso lve d to c ons titu te Indi a into a SO VE RE IG N SO CI AL IST SEC UL AR D EMO CR AT IC R EPU BL IC and to se cu re to a ll its c it iz en s: JU ST IC E, soc ia l, ec onom ic and politi ca l; LI BER TY of thought, exp re ss ion , b eli ef , f ai th and wor ship ; EQ UA LI TY of st at us and of opportuni ty; a nd to prom ot e am ong th em all FR ATE RN IT Y as su ring the digni ty of th e individu al and the unity a nd int eg rity of the N at ion; IN OU R C ON ST IT UE NT A SSEM BL Y thi s t we nty- six th day of Nov em be r, 1949, do H ERE BY A DO PT , E NA CT A ND G IV E TO O UR SE LV ES TH IS CO NST IT UT IO N.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART I THE UNION AND

ITS TERRITORY
1. Na me and te rr it or y of th e Un ion. —(1 ) India , tha t i s Bha ra t, sh all be a Un ion of St at es . (2) Th e St at es and the t er rito ri es th er eo f s ha ll be as s pe ci fi ed in th e Fir st S che dule . (3) Th e t er ri tory of India s ha ll co mpr is e— (a ) the te rr ito rie s of the St at es ; (b ) the Union t er rito ri es s pe ci fi ed in th e Fir st Sch edu le ; a nd ( c) such oth er t er rito ri es a s ma y be ac qui red . 2. Ad mi ss ion or e st abl ish me nt of n ew Sta te s. — Pa rli am en t m ay by l aw a dm it into the Un ion, or e st ab lis h, new St at es on su ch te rm s and condi tion s a s it think s f it. 2A. [ Sik ki m to b e a sso cia ted w ith the Union .] R ep. by the Con sti tution ( Thir ty - si xth A mend me nt ) A ct , 1975, s. 5 ( w. e.f . 26-4- 1975). 3. Fo rmat ion of n ew S tat es and alt er at ion of a rea s, boun dar ie s or na me s of ex is ting Sta te s. —P ar lia me nt m ay by l aw — (a ) for m a new St at e by s ep ar at ion of t er ri tory fro m any Sta te or by unit ing t wo or mo re Sta te s or pa rt s of St at es or by unit ing any t er ri tory to a pa rt of a ny S ta te ; (b ) inc re as e th e ar ea of a ny St at e; ( c) dim inis h th e ar ea of a ny St at e; (d ) alt er th e bounda rie s of any Sta te ; ( e) alt er th e na me of any St at e: Provid ed th at no B ill for th e purpo se sha ll be int roduc ed in ei the r Hou se of Pa rli am en t ex ce pt on th e r ec om me nda tion of the Pre si den t and unle ss , wh er e th e propos al con ta ined in the Bi ll af fe ct s th e ar ea , bounda ri es or n am e of any of th e Sta te s, th e Bil l h as be en re fe rr ed by the Pr es ide nt to th e L egi sl atu re of th at St at e fo r exp re ss ing its vie ws the re on wi thin su ch p eriod as ma y be spe ci fi ed in the r ef er en ce or with in su ch fu rth er per iod as th e Pre si den t m ay a llo w and the pe riod so spe ci fi ed or al low ed ha s expi red . Exp lanation I. —In thi s ar ti cl e, in c la us es (a ) to (e ) , “ St at e’ ’ inc lude s a Un ion te rri tory , but in th e provi so, “S ta te ’’ doe s not in clud e a Union t er ri tory. Exp lanation II. —Th e pow er con fe rr ed on P arl ia me nt by c la us e (a ) in clud es the powe r to fo rm a new Sta te or Un ion te rr ito ry by uniting a pa rt of any St at e or U nion te rr itory to any othe r Sta te or Un ion t er ri tory. 4. La ws mad e unde r ar ti cl es 2 and 3 to p rovi de fo r the a me nd me nt of t he Fir st and th e Fou rt h S che du le s and s upp le me nt al , inc id en tal and c ons eq ue nt ial ma tt er s. —(1 ) Any l aw r ef er re d to in ar ti cl e 2 or ar ti cl e 3 sh al l cont ain su ch provi sion s fo r the a me ndm en t of th e Fir st Sch edu le and th e Fourth Sch edu le a s ma y be nec es sa ry to giv e ef fe ct to the prov is ions of th e l aw and m ay a ls o con ta in su ch supp le me nt al , inc iden ta l and 2

con sequ en tia l provi sion s (inc luding provi sion s as to r ep re se nt ation in Pa rli am en t a nd in the Leg is la tur e or Legi sl at ur es of the St at e or Sta te s a ff ec te d by su ch la w) a s Pa rli am en t ma y dee m ne ce ss ar y. (2) No su ch l aw as af or es ai d sha ll be de em ed to be an a me ndm en t of thi s Con st itut ion fo r the purpos es of ar tic le 368.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

PART II CITIZENSHIP

5. C it iz en sh ip at t he co mmen ce me nt of th e Con st itu tion .— At th e c om me nc em en t of thi s Cons ti tution , ev ery per so n who has his domi ci le in th e te rr itory of Indi a and— (a ) who w as born in th e t er ri tory of Indi a; or (b ) eith er of who se par ent s wa s born in th e te rr ito ry of Indi a; or ( c) who h as be en ordin ar ily re si den t in th e t er ri tory of India fo r not l es s tha n f ive ye ar s i mm ed ia te ly pre ce ding su ch com me nc em en t, sh al l be a ci tiz en of Indi a. 6. R igh ts of ci ti ze ns hip of ce rt ai n p er so ns who hav e mig ra te d to In dia f ro m Pak is tan. —No tw ith st anding a nything in ar ti cl e 5, a per son w ho ha s m igr at ed to the t er ri tory of Indi a f rom the t er ri tory no w inc lude d in P aki st an sha ll be de em ed to be a ci ti ze n of Indi a at th e com me nc em en t of thi s Cons ti tution if — (a ) he or e ith er of his pa re nt s or any of his gr andpa re nt s wa s born in Ind ia as de fine d in the Gove rn me nt of India Ac t, 1935 ( as orig ina lly e na ct ed ); and (b )( i) in the ca se wh er e su ch per son ha s so m ig ra ted be for e the nin et ee nth day of July, 1948, he has be en ordin ar ily re si den t in th e t er ri tory of India s inc e th e d at e of hi s mig ra tion, or ( ii) in the ca se wh er e su ch per son ha s so m ig ra ted on or a ft er th e nin et ee nth day of July, 1948, he has be en re gi st er ed as a c it iz en of Indi a by an offi ce r appo int ed in th at beh al f by the Gov ern me nt of the Do mi nion of Ind ia on an appli ca ti on m ad e by hi m the re for to suc h of fi ce r b efo re the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con sti tution in the for m and m ann er pr es cr ib ed by th at Gove rn me nt: Prov ided th at no pe rson sh al l be so r eg is te re d unl es s he ha s bee n r es id ent in th e t er ri tory of India for at l ea st s ix month s i mm ed ia te ly pr ec ed ing the da te of his app lic at ion. 7. Rig ht s of c it iz en sh ip of c er ta in mig ran ts to Paki st an. — No tw ith st anding a nything in ar ti cl es 5 and 6, a per son who has af te r th e f ir st day of Ma rch , 1947, mig ra te d fro m the te rr ito ry of Ind ia to the t er ri tory now inc luded in Pak is tan sh al l not be de em ed to be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia : Provid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll a pply to a pe rson who, a ft er h aving so mig ra te d to the te rr itory now in clud ed in P akis ta n, ha s r etu rne d to th e t er rito ry of Ind ia unde r a p er mi t for re se tt le me nt or pe rm an ent re turn i ssu ed by or unde r th e autho ri ty of any l aw and ev er y su ch pe rson sh al l fo r th e purpo se s of cl au se ( b) of a rt ic le 6 be de em ed to hav e m igr at ed to the t er ri tory of India a ft er th e nine te en th d ay of Ju ly, 1948. 4

R igh ts of ci ti ze ns hip of ce rt ai n pe rs ons of I ndian o rigin r es id ing out sid e Ind ia. cont inue to be suc h c it iz en. P er so ns volun tar ily acq ui ring c it iz en sh ip of a for eig n S tat e not to b e c iti ze ns . Pa rl iamen t to re gula te th e rig ht of ci ti ze ns hip by law. 11.— No p er son sh al l be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia by vi rtue of a rt ic le 5. 9. a nd w ho i s ordina ri ly re sid ing in any coun try outs ide Ind ia a s so def ine d sh al l be dee me d to be a cit iz en of Indi a if he has b een r egi st er ed a s a ci ti ze n of Indi a by th e dip lom at ic or con sul ar r ep re se nt at ive of India in the count ry wh er e he i s for the t im e b eing r es iding on a n a ppli ca tion ma de by hi m th er ef or to such diplom at ic or c onsu la r r ep re se nt ativ e. 1935 (a s or igina lly en ac te d) . 5 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . a ny p er son w ho or e ith er of whos e pa re nts or any of who se gr andpa re nt s w as born in Ind ia as de fin ed in th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a A ct . whe the r b efo re or af te r the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion. or be de em ed to be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia by vi rtue of a rt ic le 6 or a rt ic le 8. 10. sub je ct to the provis ions of any la w th at m ay be m ad e by P ar lia me nt .8. in th e fo rm and m ann er pre sc ri bed by th e Gov er nm en t of th e Do mi nion of Ind ia or th e G ove rnm en t of Ind ia . —No thing in th e for egoing provi sion s of th is P art sh al l d erog at e fro m the pow er of P ar lia me nt to ma ke any provis ion with r es pe ct to the a cqui si tion and t er mi na tion of c it iz en ship and al l othe r m at te rs re la ting to ci tiz en ship . — Eve ry pe rs on who i s or i s de em ed to be a ci ti ze n of Ind ia under any of th e fo rego ing provi sion s of thi s P ar t sh al l. if h e h as volunt ar ily ac qui red th e c it iz en ship of any for eign St at e. Con tin uanc e of th e r ight s of ci tiz en sh ip. — No tw iths ta nding anyth ing in ar ti cl e 5.

hote ls and pl ac es of public e nte rt ai nm ent . re st ri ct ion or c ondit ion w ith re ga rd to— (a ) a cc es s to shop s. pl ac e of bir th or any of th em . (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l. — (1) The St at e sha ll not di sc ri mi na te ag ain st a ny c it iz en on ground s only of re lig ion. s ex. road s a nd pla ce s of publi c 6 r es or t ma in ta ined wholly or pa rtly out of St at e fund s or d edic at ed to the . 13. orde r. unle ss th e cont ext oth er wi se r equi re s.— (1) All la ws in for ce in th e t er rito ry of Ind ia im me di at ely befo re th e co mm en ce me nt of this Cons titu tion. De fi ni tion. b e subj ec t to any di sab ili ty. — (a ) “ la w” in clude s any O rdin anc e. on grounds only of r elig ion. (2) Th e St at e sh al l not ma ke any la w whi ch tak es a wa y or a br idge s the r ights con fe rr ed by thi s P ar t and a ny la w m ad e in c ont rav ent ion of thi s c la us e sha ll . rule . (4 ) No thing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll apply to any a me ndm en t of thi s Con st itut ion m ad e unde r a rt ic le 368. sex . bye.la w.6 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART III FUNDAMENTAL RIGHTS G en er al 12. public re st au ran ts . noti fi ca tion . in so f ar as they ar e in cons is te nt w ith th e prov is ions of this Pa rt. Proh ibi tion of dis cr imin at ion on g round s of re lig ion. Law s in con si st en t w it h or in de rogat ion of the fun damen tal r igh ts . t anks . Righ t to Equal ity 14. (3) In this a rt ic le . li abi lity . b e void. to the e xte nt of th e cont ra ven tion. 15. s ex o r pla ce of bi rt h. r ac e. to the ext ent of suc h inc ons is ten cy. not with st and ing th at any su ch la w or a ny p art th er eo f m ay not be then in op er ation e ith er a t a ll or in p ar tic ula r ar ea s. ra ce . cas te . pla ce of birth or any of th em . or (b ) th e us e of w el ls . ca st e. ra ce . r egul at ion. sha ll. c us tom or us age h aving in th e te rr itory of Indi a the fo rc e of l aw . be void. c as te . —In this Pa rt. (b ) “l aw s in for ce ” in clude s l aw s pa ss ed o r ma de by a L egi sl atu re or oth er com pe te nt au thor ity in th e t er rito ry of Ind ia befo re the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion and not pr eviou sly re pe al ed . —Th e St at e sh al l not deny to any p er son e qua lity befo re the la w or th e equ al prot ec tio n of the la ws wi thin th e t er ri tory of India . Equa lity be for e la w. bath ing gha ts. “th e St at e’ ’ in clud es th e Gov ern me nt a nd Pa rl ia me nt of Indi a and the Gov er nm en t a nd th e Leg is la tur e of e ac h of the St at es a nd a ll lo ca l or oth er a uthor iti es w ithin th e t er ri tory of India or unde r th e con trol of the Gov er nm en t of Indi a. unl es s the c ont ext oth er wi se r equi re s.

or di sc ri mi na ted ag ain st in re sp ec t of. or any loc al or othe r autho rity w ithin . (4) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e or in c lau se (2) of ar ti cl e 29 sh all pr eve nt the St at e f rom m aking any sp ec ia l provis ion fo r the adva nc em en t of any so ci al ly and educ at ion al ly b ack wa rd cl as se s of cit iz en s or fo r the S che dule d C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Trib es . 7 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . (4A ) Noth ing in thi s a rt ic le s ha ll pre ven t th e Sta te f rom m ak ing any prov is ion fo r re se rv at ion in m at te rs of pro mot ion. a re not ad equ at ely r ep re se nt ed in th e s er vic es und er th e Sta te . on grounds only of r elig ion. (5) Nothing in this ar ti cl e sh al l a ff ec t th e op er ation of any l aw whi ch prov ide s th at th e in cum ben t of a n off ic e in c onne ct ion w ith th e a ff ai rs of a ny re lig ious or denom in at iona l ins titu tion or any m em be r of the govern ing body the reo f sha ll be a pe rson pro fe ss ing a pa rti cul ar r el igion or belonging to a pa rti cul ar d enom ina tion. pl ac e of birth . d es ce nt. wi th c ons eque nti al s en iori ty. c as te . i s not a dequ at ely r epr es en te d in th e s er vi ce s unde r the Sta te . (4) Nothing in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt th e St at e f rom ma king a ny prov is ion for the r es er va ti on of appo intm en ts or pos ts in favou r of a ny b ack wa rd cl as s of c iti ze ns wh ic h. be ine lig ible fo r.use of th e gene ra l public . (4B ) No thing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll prev ent the Sta te fro m c ons ide ring a ny unf ill ed va ca nc ie s of a yea r whi ch ar e r es er ved fo r b eing fil le d up in th at y ea r in a cc ord an ce wi th any prov is ion fo r re se rv at ion m ad e unde r c la us e (4 ) or c la us e (4A ) as a s ep ar at e c la ss of v ac an ci es to be fi lle d up in any su cc ee di ng yea r or yea rs a nd s uch c la ss of v ac an ci es sh al l not be c ons ide re d toge the r w ith th e va ca nc ie s of the yea r in whi ch th ey ar e being f ill ed up fo r d ete rm in ing th e ce il ing of f ifty pe r ce nt. — (1) Th er e sh all be equ al ity of opportuni ty fo r al l c it iz en s in m at te rs re la ting to e mp loym en t or appo int me nt to a ny of fi ce und er the St at e. (3) Nothing in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt P ar lia me nt fro m m ak ing any la w pr es cr ib ing. in r ega rd to a c la ss or c la ss es of em ploy me nt or appoin tm ent to an off ic e unde r th e Gove rn me nt of. in th e opinion of the Sta te . 16. s ex. any re quir em en t as to r es ide nc e wi thin th at St at e or U nion te rr itory prio r to su ch em ploy me nt or appoin tm en t. to a ny c la ss or c la ss es of pos ts in the se rv ic es under th e St at e in f avou r of th e S che dule d C as te s a nd th e Sch edul ed Trib es whi ch. (3 ) Nothing in this a rt ic le sha ll prev ent the Sta te fro m m ak ing any s pe ci al provi sion fo r wo me n and chi ldr en. r ac e. any e mploy me nt or off ic e unde r th e St at e. re se rv at ion on tot al nu mbe r of v ac an ci es of th at ye ar . a S ta te or Union t er rito ry. r es id enc e or any of the m. (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l. in th e opin ion of th e S ta te . Equa lity of oppor tu ni ty in mat te rs of pu bli c e mp loy me nt .

d ef am at ion or inc ite me nt to an off en ce . or in re la tion to cont em pt of c ourt . —“ Un touch abi lity ’’ is a boli she d and i ts pr ac ti ce in a ny for m is fo rbidd en. tr ade or bus ine ss .— (1 ) All c iti ze ns sh al l have th e right — (a ) to f re edo m of spe ec h and exp re ss ion. — (1) No tit le . sh all be con fe rr ed by th e Sta te . r ea son abl e r es tr ic tion s on the ex er ci se of th e righ t c onf er re d by the sa id sub -c lau se . in so fa r as su ch l aw im pos es re as on abl e r es tr ic tion s on the exe rc is e of th e righ t c onf er re d by the sa id sub -c lau se in th e in te re st s of the sov er ei gnty and int eg rity of Indi a. (2) No thing in sub -c la us e ( a) of c la us e (1) sh al l a ff ec t th e oper at ion of a ny e xis ting la w. or pre ven t the Sta te fro m ma king any la w. or to c ar ry on a ny oc cupa tion . e tc . or pr ev ent the St at e fro m m ak ing a ny l aw i mpo sing. Th e en for ce me nt of a ny di sa bil ity a ri sing out of “U ntou cha bil ity’ ’ sh al l be a n off en ce punish ab le in a cc or dan ce with l aw . (4) No pe rson holding any of fic e of prof it or trus t under th e S ta te sh al l. ac ce pt wi thout th e con se nt of th e P re sid ent any ti tle f rom any for eign Sta te . in the int er es ts of th e sove re ign ty a nd int eg rity of India or publi c ord er . (4) No thing in sub -c la us e ( c ) of the s aid c lau se sha ll af fe ct the ope ra tion of any ex is ting la w in so f ar a s it impo se s. ( e) to re si de and s et tl e in any pa rt of the t er rito ry of Ind ia . (3) No thing in sub -c la us e (b) of the s aid c lau se sha ll af fe ct the ope ra tion of any ex is ting la w in so f ar a s it impo se s. Abo lit io n of t it le s. em olum en t. a nd * * * * * (g ) to pr ac ti se any prof es si on. Right to Fr ee dom 19. publi c orde r. 18. the s ec ur ity of the St at e.17. or of fi ce of any kind fro m or under any fo re ign St at e. wh ile he hold s any of fi ce of pro fit or tru st und er th e St at e. not be ing a m il it ary or ac ad em ic di stin ct ion. A boli tion of Un touc hab ili ty. r ea son abl e r es tr ic tion s on th e ex er ci se 8 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . a cc ep t any pr es en t. (d ) to m ove f re el y th roughout the t er rito ry of Ind ia . ( c) to for m as so ci at ion s or union s. in the int er es ts of th e sove re ign ty a nd int eg rity of India or publi c ord er or mo ra li ty. de ce ncy or mo ra lity . (b ) to a ss em bl e p ea ce ab ly and wi thout ar ms . P rot ec ti on of c er ta in r ight s re gar ding f re ed om of s pe ec h. w ithout th e cons en t of th e P re sid ent . fr iend ly re la tion s w ith fo re ign St at es . or pr ev ent the St at e fro m m ak ing a ny l aw i mpo sing. (3) No pe rson who i s not a c it iz en of India sh al l. (2) No ci ti ze n of Ind ia sh al l a cc ep t any tit le f rom a ny fo re ign Sta te .

— ( i) the pro fe ss ion al or te chn ic al qual ifi ca ti ons n ec es sa ry fo r pr ac ti sing any pro fe ss ion or ca rr ying on any o ccup at ion. nothing in th e sa id sub.cl au se s ( d) and ( e ) of the sa id c lau se sh al l af fe ct th e op er ation of any e xi sting la w in so fa r a s it impo se s. or 9 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA _______________________________________________ . (2) Ev ery pe rson who is a rr es te d and det ain ed in c us tody s ha ll be produ ce d befo re th e nea re st ma gi st ra te w ithin a pe riod of tw enty -fou r hour s of su ch ar re st e xc luding the ti me nec es sa ry for th e jou rney f rom th e pla ce of ar re st to the cour t of th e m ag is tr at e and no s uch per son sh al l be det ain ed in cu stody beyond the s aid pe riod w ithout the a uthor ity of a ma gis tr at e. see eing is an directeda) s. a nd. indu st ry or s erv ic e. and to b e d ef ende d by. — (1 ) No p er son sh al l be convi ct ed of any of fen ce ex ce pt fo r viol at ion of a la w in fo rc e at th e tim e of the co mm is si on of the Ac t ch arg ed as an off enc e. (2) No pe rson sha ll b e pros ec ut ed a nd punish ed fo r th e s am e off en ce m or e than onc e. t rad e or bus ine ss . a s soon as ma y b e. 1 22. 3 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act. P rot ec ti on of l if e and p er so nal lib er ty. in pa rt icu la r. 20.cl au se . (3) No thing in c la us es (1 ) and (2) sh all app ly— 1. wh et he r to th e e xc lus ion. nor be sub je ct ed to a pena lty gr ea te r tha n th at whi ch mi ght have b een in fli ct ed und er the l aw in for ce a t the ti me of th e com mi ss io n of th e of fe nc e. (3) No pe rson a cc us ed of any off en ce sh al l be com pe ll ed to be a w itn es s a ga ins t hi ms el f. a le ga l pr ac ti tion er of his cho ic e. co mpl et e or par tia l.of the righ t c onf er re d by th e s ai d s ub. (5) Nothing in sub. (6) No thing in sub -c la us e (g) of the s aid c lau se sha ll af fe ct the ope ra tion of any ex is ting la w in so f ar a s it impo se s. or by a co rpor at ion owne d or c ontro ll ed by the St at e. 22 shall stand amended as ( in to any pe For the text s. of th e grounds fo r s uch a rr es t nor sha ll he be deni ed the r ight to c onsu lt. 3 of that Act. in th e int er es ts of th e gen er al publi c. or ( ii) th e c ar ry ing on by the St at e.On the commencement of s. — (1) No p er son w ho i s ar re st ed sh al l b e d et ain ed in cu stody w ithout be ing in for me d. or pr eve nt th e St at e f rom ma king any l aw impo sing. busin es s. of ci ti ze ns or othe rw is e. of any tr ade . 21.rs on whooffo r of thattim e bAppendix III. en em y a li en. r ea so nab le r es tr ic tion s on the ex er ci se of th e righ t con fe rr ed by th e s aid sub. P rot ec ti on again st arr es t and d et en tion i n ce rt ai n ca se s. P rot ec ti on in re sp ec t of conv ic tio n fo r off en ce s. 1978.cl au se s ha ll af fe ct the ope ra tion of any ex is ting l aw in so f ar as it r el at es to. art. re as ona ble re st ri ct ions on the e xe rc is e of a ny of th e righ ts c onf er re d by the sa id sub -c la us es ei the r in th e int er es ts of th e gene ra l publi c or fo r the prot ec tion of the int er es ts of any Sch edul ed T ribe . or prev en t the Sta te fro m m ak ing a ny l aw r el at ing to. — No per son sh all be d epriv ed of his li fe or pe rson al lib er ty exc ep t a cc or ding to pro ce dur e e st ab lis hed by l aw . 3 th e Act. or pr ev ent the St at e fro m m ak ing any l aw im pos ing.cl aus e.

Judg es of a High Cou rt h as repo rt ed b efo re th e e xpir at ion of th e sa id per iod of th re e mon ths tha t the re i s in it s opinion suf fi ci ent c au se fo r suc h d ete ntion : P rovide d th at nothing in this sub -c la us e sha ll au thor is e the de ten tion of any pe rson beyond th e m axi mu m p eriod pre sc ri bed by a ny la w m ad e by Pa rli am en t under sub -c la us e (b) of cl au se (7 ). (7) P arl ia me nt m ay by l aw pr es cr ib e— ( a) the ci rc um st an ce s unde r whi ch. Right again st Exp loita tion 23. Pro hib itio n of t raf fi c in human bei ngs and for ce d labou r.cl au se s ( a) and (b) of cl au se (7 ). .cl au se ( a) of c la us e (4) . the a utho rity m ak ing th e orde r sh al l. (2) Nothing in this ar ti cl e sh al l pr eve nt th e St at e f rom impo sing c ompu lso ry s er vic e for publ ic purpos es . —(1 ) T ra ff ic in hum an being s and b egar and oth er si mi la r for ms of fo rc ed l abour a re prohib it ed and any con tr ave ntion of this provi sion s ha ll b e an of fe nc e puni sha ble in ac co rd anc e w ith la w. a s soon as m ay b e. a nd ( c ) th e proc edu re to be fo llo we d by an Adv iso ry Boa rd in an inqui ry und er sub. c as te or cl as s or any of th em . (6) No thing in c la us e (5) sh al l r equi re th e autho rity m ak ing a ny s uch ord er as is re fe rr ed to in tha t c lau se to di sc los e f ac ts wh ich suc h autho ri ty c ons ide rs to be ag ain st the publi c int er es t to di sc los e.10 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ( b) to any p er son who is a rr es te d or det ain ed und er any la w providing fo r pr ev ent ive de ten tion. (4) No la w provid ing fo r prev ent ive d ete ntion sh al l a uthor is e the d ete ntion of a pe rson for a long er pe riod than th re e month s unle ss — ( a) an Advi sory Bo ar d con si st ing of pe rson s w ho ar e. a per son m ay be de ta ine d for a pe riod long er than thre e m onths unde r any l aw provid ing for prev ent ive det ent ion wi thout obt ain ing th e opinion of a n Adv iso ry Boa rd in a cc or dan ce with th e prov is ions of sub. and the c la ss or c la ss es of c as es in w hic h.cl au se ( a) of c la us e (4) . (5) When a ny pe rson i s de ta ine d in purs uan ce of a n orde r m ad e und er a ny la w prov iding fo r pre ven tiv e de ten tion. co mm uni ca te to s uch per son th e ground s on whi ch th e orde r has b een m ad e and sha ll af fo rd hi m the e ar li es t opportun ity of m ak ing a r ep re se nt at ion a ga ins t th e orde r. or ar e qu ali fi ed to be appoin ted as . and in impo sing suc h se rv ic e th e St at e sh al l not ma ke a ny di sc ri mi na tion on ground s only of re lig ion. ( b) th e ma xi mu m pe riod for wh ic h any p er son ma y in a ny cl as s or c la ss es of ca se s be det ain ed unde r a ny l aw prov iding for pr eve ntiv e d ete ntion . or hav e b een . ra ce . or ( b) such pe rs on i s det ain ed in a cc or dan ce with th e provis ions of any l aw m ad e by P arl ia me nt unde r sub.

e tc . P rohi bi tion of e mp loy me nt of c hil dr en in fa cto ri es . 26. Right to Fr ee dom of Re ligion 25. —In sub.— No per son sh all be co mp el led to pay any tax es . e ve ry re ligiou s denom in at ion or any s ec tion th er eof sh al l have th e right — ( a) to e st abl ish and m ai nta in ins titu tions fo r re ligiou s and ch ar ita bl e purpo se s. m or al ity and hea lth . 27. 11 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . and ( d) to ad mi nis te r su ch prope rty in a cc or dan ce wi th l aw . a ll pe rs ons ar e equ al ly ent itl ed to f re edo m of cons ci en ce and the r ight f re el y to pro fe ss . F re ed om a s to pay me nt of taxe s for p romot ion of any pa rti cu lar r el igio n.— (1 ) No r el igiou s in stru ct ion sh al l be provide d in any educ at iona l in sti tution whol ly ma in ta ined out of St at e funds . —Th e we ar ing and ca rr ying of ki rpan s sha ll be de em ed to b e in clud ed in th e prof es si on of th e Sikh r el igion. ( c ) to own and a cqui re m ovab le a nd i mm ova ble prop er ty.24.— Subj ec t to public orde r. polit ic al or oth er s ec ul ar a ct ivity wh ich m ay be a ss oc ia te d w ith re lig ious pr ac ti ce . —No ch ild belo w the ag e of four te en ye ar s sha ll be e mploy ed to work in any fa ct ory or min e or enga ged in any othe r haz ar dous e mp loym en t. the re fe re nc e to Hindu s sh al l be cons tru ed as includ ing a re fe re nc e to per son s pro fe ss ing th e S ikh. f inan ci al . 28. Fr ee do m a s to at te ndan ce at r el igiou s in st ru ct ion or r el igiou s wo rs hi p in c er ta in e du cat ional ins ti tut ions .cl au se (b) of cl au se (2) . Exp lanation II. and the re fe re nc e to H indu r el igiou s in st itut ions sh al l be cons tru ed ac co rding ly. J ai na or Buddhi st re lig ion. (2) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll a ff ec t the op er ation of any ex is ting la w or pr eve nt the St at e fro m ma king any la w— ( a) r egul at ing or r es tr ic ting a ny ec onom ic . pr ac ti se and prop ag at e re ligion . Fr ee do m of con sc ie nc e and fr ee p rof es si on. ( b) to m an age i ts own af fa ir s in ma tt er s of re lig ion. pra ct ic e and p ropaga tion of re lig ion. Fr ee do m to manag e r el igio us affai rs . mo ra lity and he al th a nd to the oth er provi sion s of this P art . the pro ce ed s of wh ic h a re spe ci fi ca ll y a pprop ria te d in pay me nt of expe ns es for the pro mot ion or m ai nt ena nc e of any pa rti cu la r r elig ion or r el igiou s d enom ina tion. ( b) provid ing for soc ia l w el fa re a nd re fo rm or the thro wing op en of H indu re ligiou s ins titu tions of a publi c cha ra ct er to al l c la ss es and s ec ti ons of Hindu s. —(1 ) Subje ct to public ord er . Exp lanation I.

e. P rot ec ti on of i nt er es ts of mi nor it ie s. hi s guard ia n h as give n hi s cons en t th er eto . (2) No ci ti ze n sh al l be d enie d ad mi ss ion into any edu ca ti ona l ins titu tion m ai nt ain ed by the Sta te or r ec ei ving a id out of S ta te funds on ground s only of r elig ion. Saving of Ce rta in Laws . 30. langu ag e or a ny of th em . the Sta te sha ll ens ur e th at th e a mount f ixed by or de te rm in ed under su ch la w for th e a cqu is ition of su ch prope rty i s such a s would not re st ri ct or ab roga te th e right gua ran te ed unde r that c la us e. b y the Cons titu tion ( For ty -fou rth Am end me nt) A ct. [Co mpul so ry acqui si tion of p rope rt y. s cr ipt or cu ltur e of its own sh al l hav e th e righ t to c ons erv e the s am e. (3) No pe rson at tend ing any e duc at iona l in sti tution re cogni se d by the St at e or re ce iv ing aid out of St at e fund s sh al l be r equ ir ed to t ake par t in a ny r el igiou s in st ruc tion tha t ma y b e i mp ar ted in suc h in st itut ion or to a tt end any re ligiou s w or ship th at m ay be c onduc ted in suc h ins titu tion or in a ny pre mi se s a tta ch ed th er et o unle ss su ch pe rs on or. (1A ) In m ak ing any la w provid ing fo r the com pul sory a cqu is ition of any prop er ty of a n e duc at iona l inst itut ion es ta bli she d a nd a dm ini st er ed by a m inor ity. 20-6. 1978. in gra nting ai d to edu ca tion al in sti tution s. c as te . ra ce . 6 ( w. re fe rr ed to in cl au se (1) . ] R ep. i f su ch pe rs on is a m inor . — (1 ) A ll mi nori ti es . w he the r bas ed on r el igion or langu age . — (1 ) Any s ec ti on of th e c it iz en s r es id ing in the t er rito ry of Ind ia or any pa rt the re of hav ing a di stin ct langu ag e.(2) No thing in c la us e (1 ) sh al l apply to an edu ca tion al in sti tution whi ch i s ad min is te re d by the Sta te but ha s be en e st ab lis hed und er any endo wm en t or tru st wh ich r equi re s tha t re ligiou s ins tru ct ion sh al l be imp ar te d in su ch inst itut ion. 12 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA * * * 31.f . R igh t of mino ri ti es to es ta bli sh and admini st er ed uca tiona l in st it utio ns . Cu ltur al and Educ ationa l Righ ts 29. di sc ri mi na te aga ins t any educ at ion al in st itut ion on the ground tha t it i s und er th e m an age me nt of a mino rity . wh eth er bas ed on r el igion or l angua ge . s. sh al l hav e th e r ight to e st ab lis h and a dm ini st er educ at iona l in sti tution s of th ei r c hoi ce . (2) Th e St at e sh al l not.1979).

or ( e ) th e ext ingui shm en t or m odif ic at ion of a ny righ ts a cc ru ing by vi rtue of an y agr ee me nt . or ( d) th e ext ingui shm en t or m odif ic at ion of a ny righ ts of ma na ging a gen ts . (2) In this a rt ic le . or ( b) the tak ing over of the m an age me nt of any prop er ty by the St at e fo r a lim it ed pe riod eith er in th e publi c int er es t or in orde r to s ec ur e the prop er m an ag em en t of th e prope rty. or the pre ma tu re te rm ina tion or c an ce ll at ion of any su ch ag re em en t. the provis ions of thi s a rt ic le sha ll not apply th er et o unle ss su ch l aw . le as e or li ce nc e. in re la tion to any loc al a re a.13 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 31A. i t sh all not be l aw ful for th e Sta te to ac qui re any por tion of s uch l and a s i s w ithin th e ce il ing li mi t a ppli ca bl e to hi m under any l aw fo r th e tim e be ing in fo rc e or any building or st ruc tur e s tand ing the re on or a ppurt en ant th er et o. or t ake s a wa y or ab ridg es a ny of th e right s conf er re d by ar ti cl e 14 or ar ti cl e 19: P rovide d tha t wh er e s uch la w i s a l aw ma de by the Legi sl at ur e of a St at e. a ny m in er al or mi ne ra l oil. m an aging dire ct or s. — (1 ) Not with st anding any thing cont ai ned in ar ti cl e 13. sh al l be dee me d to be void on the ground tha t it is in cons is te nt w ith. any jan mam r ight. di re ct or s or m an ag er s of corpo ra tion s. e tc . or of any vot ing right s of sha re hold er s th er eo f. ina m or muaf i or oth er s im il ar gra nt and in the St at es of T am il N adu and Ke ra la . h ave th e s am e me an ing a s th at expr es si on or it s lo ca l e quiva le nt h as in the e xis ting l aw re la ting to land tenu re s in fo rc e in tha t ar ea a nd sh al l al so in clud e— ( i) any jagi r. Saving of la ws prov iding for a cqui si tion of es ta te s. ha s re ce iv ed hi s as se nt : Prov ided furth er tha t wh er e any l aw ma ke s a ny provi sion fo r th e a cqu is ition by th e Sta te of any e st at e and wh er e any land co mp ri sed th er ein i s he ld by a pe rs on unde r his per sona l c ult iva tion. l ea se or lic en ce fo r the purpos e of se ar ch ing fo r. . h aving bee n r es er ve d for the con sid er at ion of the Pr es ide nt. or (c) the amalgamation of two or more corporations either in the public interest or in order to secure the proper management of any of the corporations. building or st ruc tu re . se cr et ar ie s a nd tr ea su re rs . unl es s th e l aw re la ting to the a cqu is ition of suc h l and. no l aw prov iding for — ( a) the ac qui si tion by the St at e of any es ta te or of any righ ts th er ein or th e e xtingu ish me nt or modi fi ca tion of any su ch right s. prov ide s for pay me nt of co mp ens at ion at a r at e whi ch sha ll not be le ss th an the ma rk et v alue th er eo f. or winning .— ( a) the exp re ss ion ‘‘ es ta te ’’ sha ll.

591. inc luding w ri ts in the n atu re of habea s co rpus . by fo rorthe en(c) ofce me nt of any of the Sectionts has beenrr ed byinvalid by art .rai yat or oth er in te rm ed ia ry and any r ights or priv il ege s in re spe ct of l and rev enu e. ag ric ultu ra l labou re rs a nd vi lla ge a rt is an s. ] R ep.1.14 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ( ii) any l and held und er ryot wa ri s et tl em en t.C. no la w giving ef fe ct to th e polic y of th e St at e to wa rds s ec ur ing 1 [ al l or any of the pr inc ipl es l aid down in Pa rt IV ] sha ll be de em ed to be void on the ground tha t it is in cons is te nt wi th. and others vs. land fo r pa stu re or s ite s of building s and othe r s tru ctu re s o ccup ied by c ult iva tor s of l and. manda mus .Supp. by the Con st itut ion ( For ty -th ird A mend me nt ) A ct. the Supreme Court held the provisions in italics to be invalid. proh ibitthe Constitution (Forty-secondand c er ti ora ri . for ve ma y specified in clause te 1. 1977.1977). th e prov is ions of this ar ti cl e s ha ll not a pply th er eto unle ss suc h la w. righ 4 con fe declared th is P the ____________________________________________ Minerva Mills Ltd. Subs. e. S.hold er. de cr ee or ord er of any cou rt or Tr ibuna l to th e c ont ra ry. or ev er to hav e bec om e void. on th e ground th at su ch A ct . or t ake s a wa y or ab ridg es a ny of th e right s conf er re d by a rt ic le 14 or ar ti cl e 19. ea ch of th e s ai d A ct s and R egul at ions sh al l. in r el at ion to an es ta te . sub. — Withou t pre judi ce to th e gen er al ity of the provi sion s con ta ined in ar ti cl e 31A .R. unde r. 2. 2 and no law c ontain ing a dec lar ation that it i s fo r gi ving e ff ec t to such polic y shall be ca ll ed in que st ion in any cour t on the ground that it doe s not gi ve e ff ec t to s uch poli cy : Provid ed tha t whe re s uch l aw i s m ad e by th e Legi sl at ur e of a St at e. having b een r es er ved fo r th e con sid er at ion of th e Pre si den t. In Kesavananda Bharati vs. ( b) th e exp re ss ion ‘ ‘r ights ’’ . none of the A ct s a nd Re gul ation s s pe ci fi ed in th e N inth S chedu le nor any of the prov is ions th er eof sh al l b e d ee me d to b e void. sh al l inc lude a ny r ights v es ting in a prop ri eto r. or t ake s aw ay or ab ridg es any of the r ights c onf er re d by. (2) The Sup re me Cou rt sh al l hav e po we r to i ssu e di re ct ions or orde rs or w ri ts . s. R emed ie s for e nfo rc emen t of r igh ts co nf er re d by thi s Par t . und er -prop rie tor . t enur e. 2. Righ t to Con sti tutiona l Re me die s 32. rai yat . sub je ct to the powe r of any co mp et ent Leg is la tur e to r ep ea l or a me nd i t.e. 31C.. —(1 ) Th e right to move th e Supr em e Cou rt by app ropr ia te pro ce ed ings fo r th e e nfo rc em en t of th e right s con fe rr ed by thi s Pa rt is gua ra nte ed . 3. fo re st land .2 ( w. Supreme Court in clause for article 39” (w. any provi sion s of thi s Pa rt. c ontinu e in fo rc e. Union of India and others (1980) s.f. and not with st anding any judg me nt.4-1978) . whi che“therprinciples b e a pprop ria(b) .13. s . [ Sa ving of la ws in re sp ec t of anti -nat ional ac ti vi tie s. f. ( iii ) any land held or le t for purpos es of a gr icu ltur e or for purpo se s anc il la ry th er eto . R egul at ion or prov is ion is incon si st ent w ith . 1976. Saving of law s giving ef fe ct to ce rt ain di re ct iv e pr inc ip le s.C. 4.propr ie tor . quo war ranto Amendment) Act. 31B.C. — No tw ith st anding a nything cont ain ed in a rt ic le 13. has r ec ei ve d hi s a ss en t. S. the State of Kerala (1973). . Va lida tion of ce rt ai n A ct s and Re gula tion s. 31D. ion.1. inc luding w as te l and.

33. bure au or org ani sa tion re fe rr ed to in cl aus es (a) to (c ) . by l aw . L egi sla tion to give e ff ec t to th e prov is ions of th is Pa rt. the t el ec om mun ic at ion sy st em s se t up fo r the purpos es of any Forc e. Po we r of Par lia me nt to modi fy t he r ight s con fe rr ed by t his Pa rt in the ir appl ica tion to For ce s. 32A. —No tw ith st anding any thing in th e for egoing prov is ions of this Pa rt. a nd Pa rli am en t s ha ll. in the ir a ppli ca tion to. 3 (w. — ( a) P arl ia me nt sha ll h ave . a s soon a s m ay be a ft er the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion. — No tw ith st anding any thing in thi s Cons titu tion. a rt ic le 33 and a rti cl e 34 m ay be prov ided fo r by la w ma de by P ar li am en t.(3) Without pr ejud ic e to the pow er s con fe rr ed on th e Supre me Cour t by cl au se s (1) and (2 ). b y th e Cons titu tion (Fo rt y. Pa rli am en t ma y by la w em pow er a ny othe r cou rt to exe rc is e wi thin th e lo ca l li mi ts of its jur isd ic tion a ll or a ny of th e po we rs ex er ci sa bl e by th e Supre me Cour t under c lau se (2). R es tr ic ti on on righ ts con fe rr ed by t his Par t w hil e mar tia l law is in fo rc e in any a rea . (4) Th e r ight gua ran te ed by thi s ar ti cl e sha ll not be susp end ed exc ep t as oth er wi se provide d fo r by thi s Con st itut ion. e tc . or in conne ct ion w ith. cl au se (3) of ar ti cl e 32. Pa rli am en t m ay by l aw inde mn ify a ny pe rson in the s er vi ce of th e U nion or of a St at e or any othe r p er son in r es pe ct of any ac t don e by him in conne ct ion wi th th e ma int en anc e or re st or at ion of ord er in a ny ar ea w ithin the te rri tory of Indi a wh er e ma rt ia l l aw wa s in for ce or v alid at e a ny se nt enc e pas se d. 35. pow er to m ak e la ws — ( i) w ith re sp ec t to any of the m at te rs whi ch under c la us e (3) of a rt ic le 16. 13-4. — (a) th e m em be rs of the A rm ed For ce s. and ( ii) for pr es cr ib ing punish me nt for tho se ac ts wh ich ar e d ec la re d to be off en ce s unde r this P ar t. s. m ak e l aw s fo r pr es cr ibing punish me nt fo r th e ac ts r ef er re d 15 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . or ( c) pe rson s e mp loye d in any bur ea u or oth er organ is at ion e st abl ish ed by the Sta te for purpos es of in te llig en ce or coun te r inte ll igen ce . puni shm en t inf li ct ed.thi rd A me ndm ent ) Act . fo rf ei tur e ord er ed or oth er a ct done unde r ma rt ia l la w in s uch a re a. b e r es tr ic te d or ab roga te d so a s to ens ur e the prope r dis ch arg e of the ir duti es and the ma in ten an ce of di sc iplin e am ong the m 34. or (b ) th e me mb er s of th e For ce s cha rg ed w ith th e m ai nte nan ce of publi c orde r. f.] Rep . —P ar lia me nt ma y. 1977. de te rm ine to wh at ext ent any of th e r ights con fe rr ed by thi s P ar t sha ll . [Con st itut ional val idit y of Sta te law s not to be con sid er ed in pro ce ed ing s und er ar tic le 32. e. or (d ) p er sons em ploy ed in.1978). and th e L egi sl atu re of a Sta te sha ll not h ave .

Exp lanation . —Th e prov is ions con ta ined in this P ar t s ha ll not b e e nfo rc ea bl e by any cou rt. but th e princ ipl es the re in l aid down a re n eve rth el es s fund am en ta l in th e . 16 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART IV DIRECTIVE PRINCIPLES OF STATE POLICY 36. subj ec t to th e te rm s the re of and to any ada pta tion s and modi fi ca tion s tha t ma y b e m ad e the re in unde r a rt ic le 372.— In thi s a rt ic le . A ppl ica tion of th e pr inc ipl es con tain ed in thi s Par t. —In this Pa rt. ‘‘th e St at e’ ’ ha s the sa me m ea ning a s in P ar t I II .to in s ub. cont inue in for ce until al te re d or r ep ea le d or a me nde d by Pa rli am en t. the expr es si on "l aw in for ce '' ha s th e s am e m ea ning a s in a rt ic le 372. 37. unl es s the c ont ext oth er wi se r equi re s. ( b) any la w in fo rc e i mm ed ia te ly b efo re the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion in the t er ri tory of India w ith re sp ec t to any of th e ma tt er s r ef er re d to in s ub. De fi ni tion.cl aus e ( ii) .cl aus e ( i) of cl au se ( a) or providing for puni shm en t fo r any ac t r ef er re d to in sub -c la us e ( ii ) of th at c la us e s ha ll.

a nd e nde avou r to e lim in at e inequ al iti es in s ta tus . st riv e to m ini mi se th e in equa lit ie s in in com e. so ci al . f ac il it ie s and oppor tunit ie s. 40. Ce rt ai n pr inc ip le s of po lic y to b e fol low ed by t he Stat e. sha ll info rm a ll th e in st itut ions of th e nat iona l l if e. in par ti cul ar . old age . (d ) that th er e is equ al pay fo r e qua l w ork for both me n and wom en . not only am ongs t indiv idua ls but al so a mong st group s of p eople r es iding in dif fe re nt ar ea s or eng ag ed in di ff er ent voc at ions . hav e the righ t to an a dequ at e me an s of liv elihood . to e du cat ion and to publ ic ass is tan ce in c er ta in c as es . 39. e cono mi c and polit ic al . me n and wom en e qua lly. ma ke e ff ec ti ve provi sion fo r s ec ur ing the righ t to wo rk. —(1 ) The Sta te sha ll st riv e to pro mot e the w el fa re of the peopl e by s ec ur ing and prote ct ing as e ff ec ti ve ly as i t m ay a so ci al ord er in whi ch ju sti ce . . (2) The St at e sha ll. a nd sh al l. 38. ( e) that th e hea lth and st re ngth of work er s. m en and wo me n. to e duc at ion a nd to publi c as si st an ce in c as es of une mploy me nt. dir ec t its pol icy to wa rds s ec ur ing— (a ) that th e cit iz en s. prov ide f re e leg al a id. 41. —Th e St at e sh al l s ec ur e th at th e op er ation of the leg al sys te m prom ote s just ic e. in p ar tic ula r. (b ) tha t th e owne rs hip and con trol of the m at er ia l r esou rc es of the c om mun ity ar e so dis tribu te d a s be st to subs er ve th e c om mon good. ( c) that th e oper at ion of th e ec onom ic sy st em does not re su lt in th e c onc ent ra tion of we al th and me an s of produc tion to the co mm on d etr im en t. Sta te to se cu re a so cia l or de r fo r t he pro mo tion of we lfa re of t he p eopl e. — The St at e sha ll t ake s tep s to org ani se vill age p anch ay at s and endow th em w ith su ch powe rs a nd a uthor ity a s m ay be n ec es sa ry to en abl e th em to fun ction as unit s of s el fgov ern me nt. ( f) th at chi ldr en ar e given oppor tunit ie s and fa ci li tie s to deve lop in a h ea lthy ma nne r and in c ondit ions of fr ee dom a nd dign ity and tha t c hildhood a nd youth a re prot ec te d ag ain st exploi ta tion a nd ag ain st mor al a nd m at er ia l ab andon me nt. by su ita ble l egi sl at ion or s ch em es or in any oth er wa y. to e nsu re th at opportun iti es for s ec ur ing ju sti ce ar e not deni ed to a ny ci ti ze n by re as on of e cono mi c or 17 oth er di sab ili ti es .— The Sta te sha ll . 39A. Rig ht to wor k. E qual jus ti ce and f re e lega l aid. O rga nis atio n of vil lage pan chaya ts . on a ba si s of e qua l oppor tunity .17 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA gov ern anc e of the c ountry and it sha ll b e th e duty of the St at e to apply th es e prin cip le s in m ak ing la ws . wi thin th e li mi ts of it s e cono mi c c ap ac ity and d eve lopm en t. and the t ende r ag e of c hild re n a re not abu se d and that c iti ze ns a re not fo rc ed by e cono mi c ne ce ss it y to en te r avoc at ion s un suit ed to th ei r age or s tr ength. in pa rt icu la r. — The St at e sh al l.

of co ws a nd c al ve s and oth er m il ch and draugh t c at tl e. —Th e Sta te sh al l ende avou r to pro te ct and i mprov e . P rovi sion fo r jus t and humane c ondi tio ns of wor k and mat er ni ty r el ie f. 48.18 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA s ic kne ss and di sa ble me nt . Par ti ci pat ion of wo rk er s in manage me nt of indu st ri es . wi thin a pe riod of t en ye ar s fro m the c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion.oper at ive b as is in rur al ar ea s. 42. cond ition s of w ork en sur ing a d ec ent s tand ar d of li fe a nd fu ll e njoym en t of l ei sur e a nd so ci al a nd cu ltur al opportuni ti es and. and sh al l prot ec t the m f rom soc ia l in jus tic e and a ll for ms of e xploi ta tion. 44. to se cu re th e pa rt ic ipa tion of work er s in th e m an ag em en t of und ert aking s. —Th e St at e sh al l t ake s te ps . e st ab lis hm en ts or othe r organ is at ions eng ag ed in any indu st ry. —Th e Sta te sh al l end ea vour to organ is e a gr icu ltur e a nd an im al husba ndry on mod er n a nd sc ie nti fi c lin es and sha ll. —Th e St at e sh al l r ega rd th e r ai sing of the l eve l of nut rit ion a nd th e st and ard of living of its p eople a nd th e imp rove me nt of publi c hea lth a s am ong its pri ma ry duti es and. P romot ion of e du cat ional and ec ono mi c in te re st s of S che dul ed Ca st es . 45. 43. of th e Sch edul ed Ca st es a nd the Sch edul ed T ribe s. ag ri cul tur al. 46. P rovi sion fo r fr ee and c ompu lso ry edu ca tion fo r chi ldr en . in p art icu la r. L iving wag e. —Th e St at e sh al l m ak e prov is ion for se cu ring ju st a nd hum ane c ondit ions of work and fo r m at er ni ty r el ie f. in pa rti cul ar . — The St at e sh al l e nde avou r to provid e. wo rk. a living w ag e. the St at e sha ll e nde avou r to prom ot e co tt age indus tri es on an indiv idua l or c o. — The Sta te sha ll ende avou r to s ec ur e for th e cit iz en s a unifo rm c ivil cod e throughou t th e te rr itory of Ind ia . S che dul ed T rib es and ot he r we ak er s ec ti on s. Un ifo rm c ivil cod e fo r th e c it iz en s. and . Pr ot ec tio n and i mp rove me nt of env iro nmen t and saf egua rd ing of fo re st s and wi ld lif e. by s uit abl e leg is la tion or ec onom ic org ani sa ti on or in any othe r w ay. 47. Du ty of th e S tat e to r ai se the le ve l of nu tr it ion and t he stan dar d of living and to i mp rove publ ic hea lth . 48A. — The St at e sha ll end ea vour to s ec ur e.— The St at e sha ll pro mot e wi th spe ci al c ar e th e educ at ion al and ec onom ic inte re st s of the w ea ke r se ct ion s of th e peopl e. O rga nis atio n of agr ic ul tur e and animal hu sband ry. in p art icu la r. . t ake st eps for pre se rv ing and i mprov ing the bre ed s. for f re e and co mpul sory edu ca ti on fo r a ll ch ildr en until th ey c om ple te th e ag e of fou rt ee n y ea rs . in pa rti cul ar . the St at e sha ll e nde avou r to bring about proh ibit ion of th e c onsu mpt ion ex ce pt fo r m edi ci na l purpos es of in toxic at ing dr inks and of drug s whi ch ar e inju rious to he al th. for wo rk er s. to al l wo rke rs . and in oth er c as es of und es erv ed wa nt. 43A. indust ri al or othe rw is e. by suit abl e le gis la tion or in a ny oth er w ay. and prohib iting th e s la ught er . et c.

—Th e Sta te sh al l e nde avou r to — (a ) promo te int er na tion al pe ac e and s ec ur ity. fro m spo li at ion. S epa rat ion of j udi cia ry fr om e xe cu tiv e. a s th e c as e m ay b e.19 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA th e envi ronm en t a nd to sa fe gu ard th e fo re st s and wi ld lif e of th e c ountry . 49. — The St at e sha ll t ake s tep s to s ep ar at e the jud ic ia ry f rom the exe cu tiv e in th e publi c s er vic es of the St at e. 51. — It s ha ll be the obliga tion of the S ta te to prot ec t ev er y m onum en t or pl ac e or obje ct of ar ti st ic or his tori c in te re st . dispo sa l or expor t. — I t s ha ll be the duty of e ve ry ci tiz en of Indi a — (a ) to ab ide by th e Con st itut ion and r es pe ct it s ide al s and in sti tution s. . (b ) to ch er is h and fo llo w the noble ide al s wh ich insp ir ed our n ation al s truggl e for f re edo m. (b ) ma in ta in ju st and honora bl e re la tion s b et we en na tions . PART IVA PART IVA FUNDAMENTAL DUTIES 51A. re mov al . ( c) fo st er re spe ct fo r inte rn at iona l la w a nd tr ea ty obl iga tions in the d ea lings of org ani ze d p eopl es w ith one anoth er . di sfigu re me nt . Pro te ct ion of mo numen ts and plac es and ob je ct s of natio nal i mpo rt anc e. 50. P romot ion of i nt er nat ional pea ce and s ec ur it y. de cl ar ed by or und er la w ma de by Pa rli am en t to b e of na tiona l impo rt an ce . de st ruc tion. Fun damen tal du tie s. and (d ) enc o ur age s et tl em en t of in te rna tion al di spute s by a rbi tr at ion. th e N at ion al Fla g a nd th e Na tion al An the m.

lingui sti c and r egion al or se ct ion al div er si tie s.— The re s ha ll be a Pre si den t of Ind ia . (d ) to d e fe nd the count ry and rend er nat iona l s erv ic e when ca ll ed upon to do s o. 20 PART V THE UNION C H A P T E R I. —(1 ) Th e ex ec utiv e pow er of th e Un ion sha ll be ve st ed in th e Pre si den t a nd s ha ll be exe rc is ed by him e ith er di re ct ly or th rough of fi ce rs subord ina te to him in ac co rd anc e w ith this Con st itut ion. ( j) to st rive tow ar ds exc el le nc e in al l sphe re s of indiv idua l and c oll ec tiv e a ct ivi ty so th at the n ation cons ta ntly r is es to high er lev el s of e nde avou r a nd a ch iev em en t.—T H E E X E C U T I V E Th e Pr es ide nt and Vi ce . unity a nd int eg rity of Indi a. . ( f) to valu e and pre se rv e the r ich he rit ag e of our co mpo si te cu ltu re . (g ) to prot ec t and i mprov e th e na tur al e nvi ronm ent inc luding fo re st s.Pr es ide nt 52. Exe cu tiv e po we r of th e Un ion.20 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ( c) to uphold a nd prot ec t th e sov er ei gnty. T he P re si de nt of Ind ia. 53. a nd to hav e com pa ss ion for liv ing c re at ur es . hu man is m and the sp ir it of inqui ry and re for m. to re nounc e pra ct ic es de roga tory to the digni ty of wo me n. ( e) to pro mot e ha rmony and th e s pir it of com mo n bro the rhood a mong st a ll the peop le of Indi a tr ans ce nding r el igious . (h ) to dev elop th e sc ie nti fi c te mpe r. ( i) to sa fe gua rd public prop er ty and to a bjur e viol enc e. r ive rs a nd w ild li fe . l ake s.

af te r t aking the s ai d mu ltip le s of one thou sand .—In thi s ar ti cl e and in a rt ic le 55. the expression ‘‘population’’ means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: 21 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . the sup re me co mm an d of th e De fe nc e For ce s of the Un ion sha ll be ve st ed in th e Pre si den t a nd th e exe rc is e th er eo f sha ll be r egul at ed by l aw . Man ne r of el ec tio n of P re si de nt . (2) For th e purpos e of se cu ring such unifo rm ity a mong the S ta te s int er s e as w el l as p ar ity bet we en th e S ta te s as a w hole a nd th e Union . or (b ) prev ent P arl ia me nt f rom c onf er ring by l aw fun ct ions on a uthor iti es othe r th an the Pr es id ent. 54. (3) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll — (a ) be dee me d to t ra ns fe r to th e Pre si den t a ny fun ct ions c onf er re d by a ny e xis ting la w on th e Gove rnm en t of a ny St at e or othe r autho rity . ‘‘S ta te ’’ in clud es th e N at iona l Cap it al Te rr ito ry of D elh i and the Union t er rito ry of Pondi ch er ry. — Th e Pre si den t s ha ll be el ec te d by the m em be rs of an el ec to ra l c oll eg e cons is ting of— (a ) the el ec te d me mb er s of both Hous es of P ar li am en t. 55. (3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot. Explanation. th e nu mbe r of vot es whi ch e ac h e le ct ed me mb er of P ar li am en t and of the L egi sl at ive As se mb ly of ea ch Sta te is e nti tl ed to c as t a t su ch e le ct ion s ha ll b e d ete rm in ed in th e follo wing m ann er :— (a ) eve ry el ec te d me mb er of th e Leg is la tiv e As se mb ly of a S ta te sh al l hav e a s ma ny vote s a s the re ar e m ult ipl es of one thou sa nd in th e quoti en t obta ined by div iding th e popul ation of the Sta te by the to ta l nu mbe r of th e el ec te d me mb er s of the A ss em bl y. the re sh al l be unifor mi ty in th e s ca le of r ep re se nt at ion of th e dif fe re nt St at es a t th e el ec tion of the Pr es id ent . (b ) if . the re ma ind er i s not l es s than fiv e hundre d. ( c) ea ch e le ct ed member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament. —(1 ) As f ar a s pra ct ic ab le .— In this article.(2) Without pr ejud ic e to the g ene ra li ty of th e fo re going provis ion. E le ct ion of Pr es id en t. then th e vot e of e ac h me mb er re fe rr ed to 21 in sub -c lau se (a) sh al l be furth er in cr ea se d by on e. fractions exceeding onehalf being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded. Exp lanation . and (b ) the el ec te d me mb er s of th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl ie s of the St at es .

he sha ll b e de em ed to h ave va ca te d his se at in th at Hou se on th e dat e on wh ich he en te rs upon his of fi ce a s Pr es id ent. until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published. Exp lanation .Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall. be eligible for re-election to that office. ( c) th e Pr es ide nt sh al l. (2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People. Cond it ions of P re si de nt' s of fi ce . 59.—(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office: Provided that— (a ) the Pr es ide nt ma y. and ( c) is qual if ied fo r e le ct ion as a m em be r of th e H ous e of the Peop le . 56. (b ) the Pr es ide nt ma y. Term of office of President. 58. be construed as a reference to the 1971 census. 57. Qualifications for election as President. subject to the other provisions of this Constitution. r es ign his of fic e.—Fo r th e purpos es of thi s ar ti cl e. (2 ) A pe rs on s ha ll not b e e lig ible fo r el ec tion a s Pr es ide nt if he holds a ny of fi ce of pro fit unde r the Gov ern me nt of Indi a or th e Gove rn me nt of a ny St at e or under any lo ca l or oth er au thor ity subj ec t to th e cont rol of any of th e s ai d G ove rnm en ts . for viol at ion of th e Con st itut ion. by w rit ing und er his hand add re ss ed to th e V ic e. and if a me mb er of e ith er Hou se of Pa rl ia me nt or of a Hous e of th e L egi sl atu re of any St at e be e le ct ed P re sid en t.—(1 ) Th e Pr es ide nt sh al l not be a m em be r of ei the r Hou se of Pa rl ia me nt or of a Hous e of the Le gis la tur e of a ny Sta te . office as President shall. (3) Th e P re sid ent sh al l be enti tl ed withou t paym en t of r ent to the us e of hi s offi ci al r es id enc es and sha ll be a lso en tit led to suc h e mo lum en ts . a pe rson sh al l not be d ee me d to hold a ny off ic e of profi t by re as on only th at h e is the Pre si den t or Vi ce . 22 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . c ontinu e to hold off ic e until hi s s uc ce ss or e nt er s upon his of fi ce . Eligibility for re-election. (b ) has co mp le ted th e age of thi rty -fiv e ye ar s. not with st and ing the expi ra tion of his t er m.—A person who holds.P re sid ent of the Union or the Gove rnor of any S ta te or is a Min is te r ei the r for the Un ion or fo r a ny St at e. be re mov ed f rom of fi ce by imp ea ch me nt in the m ann er prov ided in ar ti cl e 61.—(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he— (a ) is a ci ti ze n of Indi a.P re sid ent . a llo wa nc es and privi leg es a s m ay be de te rm ine d by Pa rli am en t by l aw and . (2) Th e P re sid ent sh al l not hold any othe r offi ce of pro fi t. or who has held.

(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated. (2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death. 63. Pro ce du re fo r i mp eac hmen t of th e P re si de nt . su ch em olu me nt s. 61. . resignation or removal. (2) No su ch cha rg e sha ll be pre fe rr ed unl es s— (a ) the propos al to pre fe r su ch ch arg e is con ta ine d in a re so lution wh ic h ha s be en m oved af te r a t le as t fourt ee n day s' noti ce in w ri ting s igne d by not l es s than one -fou rth of the tot al numb er of m em be rs of th e Hou se has b een giv en of th ei r int en tion to m ove th e r es olut ion. Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy. the date of occurrence of the vacancy.—There shall be a Vice-President of India. Oa th or affi rmat ion by the Pr es id en t. th at is to sa y— "I. do s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d t h a t I w ill f ai thful ly exe cu te solemnly affirm 23 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA th e of fic e of President (or discharge the functions of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve. subject to the provisions of article 56. be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office. —(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term. 60. . m ak e and sub sc rib e in th e pre se nc e of th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce of Ind ia or. such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed. th e othe r H ous e sha ll inv es tig at e the ch arg e or ca us e the ch ar ge to be inv es tig at ed a nd the Pre si den t sh al l hav e th e righ t to app ea r a nd to be r ep re se nt ed at su ch inve stig at ion. be for e ent er ing upon his of fic e. The Vice-President of India. — Eve ry Pr es id ent a nd ev ery p er son ac ti ng as Pr es id ent or dis cha rging the func tions of th e Pr es ide nt sh al l.— (1 ) Wh en a P re sid ent is to b e im pe ac he d for viola tion of the Cons titu tion. in his ab se nc e. th e ch ar ge sh al l be pre fe rr ed by e ith er Hou se of P ar li am en t. protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India.". (4) Th e e mo lum en ts and a llo wan ce s of th e P re sid en t sh al l not be di min ish ed during his t er m of offi ce . and (b ) such r es olut ion h as be en pa ss ed by a m aj ori ty of not le ss th an t wo. and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall. and in no case later than six months from. (3) When a ch arg e h as b een so pr ef er re d by ei the r Hou se of P ar li am en t.B. th e s en ior -mo st Judg e of th e Supr em e Cour t av ai lab le . a llo wa nc es and privi leg es a s a re s pe ci fi ed in th e Se cond Sch edul e. or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after. an oath or af fi rm at ion in th e fol low ing fo rm . declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained.third s o f the tot al me mb er sh ip of the Hou se .unti l provis ion in th at b eha lf is so m ad e. A . 62.

Pr es id ent . the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties. (3) No pe rson sh al l b e e lig ibl e for el ec ti on a s Vi ce . illness or any other cause. (2) Th e V ic e.— (1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of his death.P re sid ent sh al l not be a m em be r of ei the r Hous e of P ar lia me nt or of a Hou se of the L egi sl atu re of any St at e. and ( c) is qual if ied fo r e le ct ion as a m em be r of th e Coun ci l of St at es . a per son sha ll not be d ee me d to hold a ny off ic e of profi t by re as on only th at h e is the Pre si den t or Vi ce . President. (2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence. he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97.— The Vice-President shall be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65.64.— For the purpo se s of this a rt ic le . the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office. or during the absence. Election of Vice-President. resignation or removal. Exp lanation . 65. until provision in that behalf is so made. h e sh al l be dee me d to have v ac at ed his s ea t in th at Hou se on the dat e on wh ich he en te rs upon his off ic e a s Vi ce P re sid ent . 24 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . of President. 66. (b ) has co mp le ted th e age of thi rty -fiv e ye ar s.P re sid ent of the Union or the Gove rnor of any S ta te or is a Min is te r ei the r for the Un ion or fo r a ny St at e. and if a m em be r of eith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt or of a Hous e of the Legi sl at ur e of a ny Sta te b e e le ct ed V ic e.Pr es ide nt unle ss h e— (a ) is a ci ti ze n of Indi a. (4) A pe rson sha ll not be e ligib le for e le ct ion a s Vi ce . allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and. the period while he is so acting as. during. and in respect of. such emoluments. or otherwise. (3) The Vice-President shall. allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule. The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office. or discharging the functions of. have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments. The Vice-President to be ex officio Chairman of the Council of States.—(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.Pre si den t if h e hold s any offi ce of pro fi t und er the Gov er nm ent of Indi a or the Gov er nm en t of any St at e or under any lo ca l or oth er au thori ty subj ec t to th e cont rol of any of th e sa id Gove rn me nts .

67. Te rm of off ic e of Vi ce - Pr es id en t.— Th e V ic e- Pr es id ent sh al l hold of fi ce fo r a te rm of fiv e ye ar s fro m the da te on w hic h h e e nt er s upon his off ic e: Provid ed tha t— (a ) a Vi ce - Pre si den t m ay , by wr iting unde r his hand add re ss ed to the P re sid ent , r es ign his of fic e; (b ) a Vi ce - Pr es ide nt m ay b e re mo ved fro m hi s off ic e by a re solu tion of the Coun ci l of St at es pa ss ed by a ma jo ri ty of a ll th e th en me mb er s of th e Coun ci l and a gr ee d to by the H ous e of the P eopl e; but no r es olut ion fo r the purpos e of this c la us e sh all be m oved unl es s at l ea st fou rte en d ays' noti ce h as be en given of the int ent ion to mov e the r es olut ion; ( c) a Vi ce - Pr es ide nt sh al l, not with st anding the expi ra tion of his t er m, con tin u e to hold off ic e until hi s s uc ce ss or e nte rs upon his of fic e. 68. T ime of hold ing e le ct ion to fil l vacan cy i n th e of fic e of Vi ce P re si de nt and th e te rm of offi ce of p er so n e le ct ed to f ill ca sua l va canc y. — (1) An el ec ti on to fi ll a va ca ncy c au sed by th e expi ra tion of the t er m of of fi ce of V ic e- Pr es id ent sh al l b e c omp le te d b efo re th e e xpir at ion of th e t er m. (2 ) An e le ct ion to fil l a v ac an cy in th e off ic e of Vi ce - Pr es ide nt o ccu rr ing by re as on of hi s de ath , re si gna tion or re mov al, or othe rw is e sha ll b e held as soon a s po ss ible af te r th e o ccu rr en ce of th e va ca ncy , and th e p er son el ec te d to f ill the vac an cy sh al l, s ubje ct to th e provi sion s of a rt ic le 67, be ent itl ed to hold of fic e fo r th e full t er m of five y ea rs f rom th e dat e on whi ch he ent er s upon hi s of fi ce . 69. Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President.—Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say— "I, A .B. , do s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d tha t I w il l bea r tru e f ai th and
solemnly affirm

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a ll egi an ce to the Cons titu tion of India as by la w e st ab lis hed and th at I wil l f ai thfu lly dis cha rg e the duty upon whi ch I am a bout to e nte r." 70. Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies.—Parliament may make such provisions as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter. 71. Ma tt er s r el at ing to, or co nne ct ed w ith , th e e le ct ion of a P re si de nt or V ic e- P re si de nt. — (1) All doubts a nd dispu te s a ri sing out of or in conne ct ion w ith th e e le ct ion of a Pr es ide nt or Vi ce - Pre si den t sh all be inqui re d into a nd de cid ed by the Supr em e Court whos e dec is ion sh al l be f ina l. (2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the

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decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of

that declaration. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President. (4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him. 72. Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases.— (1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any person convicted of any offence— (a) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is by a Court Martial; (b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends; (c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death. (2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court Martial. (3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force. 73. Extent of executive power of the Union.— (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend— (a) to the m at te rs with r es pe ct to whi ch Pa rli am en t ha s powe r to m ak e la ws ; and (b) to th e ex er ci se of suc h righ ts, autho rity and ju ris dic tion as ar e e xe rc is ab le by th e Gov er nm en t of Indi a by vir tue of any tre at y or a gr ee me nt : P rovide d th at th e e xe cut ive pow er r ef er re d to in sub -c la us e (a) sh al l not, s av e as exp re ss ly provid ed in this Con sti tution or in any la w ma de by P ar lia me nt , ex tend in any St at e to ma tt er s w ith re spe ct to wh ich the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e ha s al so powe r to m ak e l aw s. (2 ) Unti l oth er wi se provid ed by Pa rli am en t, a St at e and any off ic er or a uthor ity of a St at e m ay , notw iths ta nding a nything in this ar ti cl e, c ontinu e to ex er ci se in m at te rs with r es pe ct to whi ch Pa rli am en t ha s powe r to m ak e l aw s fo r th at St at e such exe cu tiv e pow er or fun ction s a s the St at e or off ic er or au thori ty the reo f could ex er ci se im me di at ely be for e the c om me nc em en t of thi s Cons titu tion. Counc il of Min is te rs 74. Co unc il of Min is te rs to aid and advi se Pr es id en t. — (1 ) Th er e sh al l be a Coun ci l of Mini st er s with the P ri me Mini st er at the h ead to aid

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a nd advi se th e P re sid ent who sh al l, in th e exe rc is e of hi s

fun ct ions , a ct in a cc ord an ce w ith su ch advi ce : P rovide d th at th e P re sid ent m ay r equi re th e Coun ci l of Min is te rs to r ec ons ide r suc h a dvi ce , eith er g ene ra lly or oth e rw is e, a nd th e Pre si den t sh al l ac t in a cc or dan ce with th e a dvi ce t ende re d af te r suc h r ec ons ide ra ti on. (2 ) The qu e stion wh eth er a ny, and if so wha t, adv ic e wa s t ende re d by Min is te rs to the Pr es id ent sh al l not be inqui red into in any cour t. 75. O th er p rovis ion s as to Mini st er s. — (1) The P rim e Mini st er sha ll b e a ppoint ed by the P re sid ent and th e oth er Min is te rs sh al l be appoin ted by th e Pre si den t on the adv ic e of the Pr im e Mini st er . (1A ) The tot al numb er of Mini st er s, in clud ing th e Pri me Minis te r, in the Coun ci l of Min is te rs sh al l not e xc ee d fif te en pe r ce nt. of the tot al nu mbe r of m em be rs of th e Hous e of the P eople . (1B ) A m em be r of e ith er Hous e of Pa rli am en t be longing to a ny polit ic al p arty who i s disqu al if ied for b eing a me mb er of th at H ous e und er p ar agr aph 2 of the T enth Sch edul e sh all a lso be di squa li fie d to be a ppoint ed as a Min is te r under c la us e (1) for dur at ion of th e p er iod c om me nc ing f rom the dat e of his di squa li fi ca tion t ill the d ate on whi ch th e t er m of his of fi ce a s su ch m em be r would expi re or wh er e h e cont es ts any e le ct ion to e ith er Hous e of Pa rl ia me nt b efo re the expi ry of su ch p eriod , til l th e dat e on whi ch he is de cl ar ed e le ct ed , w hic hev er i s ea rl ie r. (2 ) Th e Minis te rs sha ll hold offi ce during the pl ea su re of the Pr es id ent. (3) Th e Coun ci l of Mini st er s sha ll b e col le ct ive ly r es pons ibl e to th e Hou se of th e Peop le . (4 ) B ef or e a Minis te r ent er s upon hi s offi ce , the P re sid ent sh al l a dm ini st er to him the o aths of of fic e and of s ec re cy a cc or ding to th e fo rm s s et out for th e purpo se in th e Third Sch edu le . (5) A Mini st er who for any pe riod of six cons ec ut ive month s i s not a m em be r of ei the r H ous e of P ar li am en t sh al l at the expi ra tion of that per iod c ea se to be a Mini st er . (6) Th e s al ar ie s and a llo wan ce s of Mini st er s sha ll b e su ch a s P ar lia me nt m ay f rom ti me to ti me by l aw de te rm in e and, until P arl ia me nt so d ete rm in es , sha ll be a s spe ci fi ed in the Se cond Sch edu le . The Attorney-General for India 76. Attorney-General for India.—(1) The President shall appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court to be Attorney- General for India. (2) It shall be the duty of the Attorney-General to give advice to the Government of India upon such legal matters, and to perform such other duties of a legal character, as may from time to time be referred or assigned to him by the President, and to discharge the functions conferred on him by or under this Constitution or any other law for the time being in force. (3) In the performance of his duties the Attorney-General shall have right of audience in all courts in the territory of India.

(4) The AttorneyGeneral shall hold office during the pleasure of the President, and shall receive such remuneration as the President may determine. Conduct of Government Business 77. Conduct of business of the Government of India.—(1) All executive action of the Government of India shall be expressed to be taken in the name of the President. (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the President shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the President, and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the President. (3) The President shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of India, and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business. * * * * * 78. Duties of Prime Minister as respects the furnishing of information to the President, etc.—It shall be the duty of the Prime Minister— (a) to co mm uni ca te to th e Pr es ide nt a ll d ec is ions of the Counc il of Min is te rs r el at ing to th e a dm ini st ra tion of the af fa ir s of the Un ion and propo sa ls fo r leg is la tion; (b) to furni sh su ch infor ma ti on r el at ing to th e adm ini st ra tion of the a ff ai rs of th e Union and propos al s fo r l egi sl at ion a s th e P re sid ent m ay c al l for ; a nd (c ) i f th e Pre si den t so r equ ir es , to sub mi t fo r the con sid er at ion of th e Counc il of Minis te rs any ma tt er on whi ch a dec is ion has b een t aken by a Minis te r but w hic h h as not bee n c ons ide re d by the Coun cil . CHAPTER II.—PARLIAMENT General 79. Constitution of Parliament.—There shall be a Parliament for the Union which shall consist of the President and two Houses to be known respectively as the Council of States and the House of the People. 80. Composition of the Council of States.—(1) The Council of States shall consist of— (a) twelve members to be nominated by the President in accordance with the provisions of clause (3); and (b) not more than two hundred and thirty-eight representatives of the States and of the Union territories. (2) The allocation of seats in the Council of States to be filled by representatives of the States and of the Union territories shall be in accordance with the provisions in that behalf contained in the Fourth Schedule. (3) The members to be nominated by the President under sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall consist of persons having special knowledge or practical experience in respect of such matters as the following, namely:— Literature, science, art and social service.

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THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA

— (i) for the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (2) and the proviso to that clause. as a reference to the 1971 census. the same throughout the State: Provided that the provisions of sub-clause (a) of this clause shall not be applicable for the purpose of allotment of seats in the House of the People to any State so long as the population of that State does not exceed six millions. the expression “population” means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published: Provided that the reference in this clause to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall. until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published.(4) The representatives of each State in the Council of States shall be elected by the elected members of the Legislative Assembly of the State in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote. and (b) each State shall be divided into territorial constituencies in such manner that the ratio between the population of each constituency and the number of seats allotted to it is. Composition of the House of the People. specify and until such readjustment takes effect. the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies shall be readjusted by such authority and in such manner as Parliament may by law determine: Provided that such readjustment shall not affect representation in the House of the People until the dissolution of the then existing House: Provided further that such readjustment shall take effect from such date as the President may. so far as practicable. the same for all States. be construed. and (b) not more than twenty members to represent the Union territories. 81.—(1) Subject to the provisions of article 331.— (a) there shall be allotted to each State a number of seats in the House of the People in such manner that the ratio between that number and the population of the State is. it shall not be necessary to readjust— 29 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . and (ii) for the purposes of sub-clause (b) of clause (2) as a reference to the 2001 census. Readjustment after each census. (5) The representatives of the Union territories in the Council of States shall be chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law prescribe. any election to the House may be held on the basis of the territorial constituencies existing before such readjustment: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published. so far as practicable. 82. chosen in such manner as Parliament may by law provide. (2) For the purposes of sub-clause (a) of clause (1). by order.—Upon the completion of each census. (3) In this article. the House of the People shall consist of— (a) not more than five hundred and thirty members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the States.

a nd for tha t purpos e requ ir e th e at te ndan ce of m em be rs . (2 ) The Hou se of the P eopl e. under this article. — (1) Th e Pre si den t m ay a ddr es s ei the r Hous e of Pa rl ia me nt or both Hou se s a ss em bl ed tog e the r. not le ss than tw enty . . b e e xte nded by P ar li am en t by la w for a pe riod not e xc ee ding one ye ar a t a t im e and not ext ending in any ca se beyond a per iod of s ix m onths a ft er th e Pro cl am at ion ha s ce as ed to ope ra te . unle ss soone r dis solv ed. not le ss than thi rty ye ar s of age a nd. but as n ea rly as poss ibl e one. (b ) is .30 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (i) the allocation of seats in the House of People to the States as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census.— (1 ) Th e P re sid ent sha ll f rom ti me to ti me su mm on e ac h Hou se of P ar lia me nt to m ee t a t such ti me and pla ce as he think s fit . sh al l c ontinu e fo r five y ea rs f rom th e dat e appoin ted fo r i ts fi rs t me et ing and no long er a nd th e expi ra tion of the sa id pe riod of five y ea rs sh al l oper at e as a di sso lution of the Hou se : P rovide d tha t th e sa id p eriod ma y.third of th e me mb er s th er eo f sh al l re ti re a s soon as m ay be on th e expi ra tion of e ve ry se cond ye ar in ac co rd anc e w ith the provi sion s ma de in tha t beha lf by P ar lia me nt by la w. wh il e a Proc la ma ti on of E me rg en cy i s in ope ra tion . 85. Se ss ion s of Pa rl iamen t. 86. (2) Th e P re sid ent m ay f rom ti me to ti me — (a ) prorogu e the Hou se s or ei the r Hous e.— (1 ) Th e Counc il of Sta te s sh al l not be sub je ct to dis solu tion. (b ) dis solv e the Hou se of th e Peopl e. in the c as e of a s ea t in th e Counc il of Sta te s. a nd ma ke s and sub sc ri be s be for e s om e p er son a utho ris ed in tha t b eha lf by th e E le ct ion Com mi ss ion an oa th or a ff ir ma ti on ac co rding to the for m s et out for the purpo se in th e Thi rd S che dule . 83. in th e ca se of a se at in the Hou se of th e Peopl e. 84. D ura tio n of Ho us es of Pa rlia me nt . and (ii) the division of each State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census.fiv e yea rs of ag e. a nd ( c) pos se ss es s uch oth er qual if ic at ions a s ma y be pre sc ri bed in tha t b eha lf by or unde r a ny l aw m ad e by P ar lia me n t . Q ual ifi ca tion for membe r sh ip of Pa rl iamen t. but s ix m onths s ha ll not int er ven e be tw ee n i ts l as t s it ting in one s es si on and the dat e appo inte d fo r it s fi rs t s it ting in th e next se ss io n. R igh t of P re si de nt to addr es s and se nd mes sa ge s to Hou se s. pro rogat ion a nd d is solu tio n. — A per son sh all not b e qu ali fi ed to be cho se n to fi ll a se at in P ar lia me nt unl es s he — (a ) i s a cit iz en of Indi a.

by w ri ting und er hi s hand addr es se d to the Ch ai rm an . and any co mm it te e of P arl ia me nt of whi ch h e m ay be na me d a me mb er . and oth er wi se to tak e p ar t in the proc ee ding s of. a nd a Hou se to wh ich any m es sa ge i s so sen t sh al l wi th al l c onven ien t de spa tc h con sid er any m at te r r equ ir ed by the me ss ag e to be t ake n in to c ons ide ra tion. Spe ci al add re ss by t he Pr es id en t. —(1 ) A t the com me nc em en t of th e f ir st s es si on a ft er ea ch gen er al el ec tion to the Hous e of the P eopl e a nd at th e co mm en ce me nt of the fir st se ss ion of ea ch yea r th e P re sid ent sha ll a ddr es s both H ous es of P ar lia me nt a ss em bl ed tog eth er and in for m P ar lia me nt of th e c au se s of it s sum mon s. (2) The Coun ci l of St at es sh al l. r es ign his of fi ce . 87.(2) Th e P re sid ent m ay se nd me ss ag es to e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt . but s ha ll not by virtu e of this a rt ic le be e nti tle d to vote . or dur ing a ny p eriod wh en the V ic e. R igh ts of Mini st er s and A tto rn ey -G en er al as re sp ec ts H ous es . ei the r Hou se .Ge ne ra l of India sh al l hav e th e righ t to sp ea k in.Pr es id ent i s a ct ing 31 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .Pr es id ent of Indi a sha ll be e x off ic io Cha ir ma n of th e Coun ci l of St at es . and ( c) ma y be re mov ed f rom his offi ce by a r es olut ion of th e Coun ci l p as se d by a ma jo rity of al l th e then m em be rs of th e Counc il: Provid ed th at no r es olut ion for the purpos e of c la us e (c ) sh al l be move d unl es s a t l ea st four te en d ays ’ noti ce ha s be en giv en of the in ten tion to m ove th e r es olu tion. — (1 ) The Vi ce . Po we r of th e De puty C hair ma n or othe r p er son to pe rf or m th e du ti es of th e off ic e of. wh eth er wi th re sp ec t to a Bi ll th en pend ing in P arl ia me nt or oth er wi se . so oft en a s the of fi ce of D epu ty Cha ir ma n be co me s vac an t. 91. —(1 )Whi le th e offi ce of Ch ai rm an i s v ac an t. t he off ic e of D ep uty C hai rman. (b ) ma y a t any t im e. —A me mb er holding offi ce a s D epu ty Cha ir ma n of th e Coun ci l of St at es — (a ) sh al l va ca te hi s off ic e if he ce as es to be a me mb er of th e Coun ci l. th e Coun ci l sha ll choos e anoth er m em be r to be De puty Cha ir ma n the re of. a ny join t sit ting of the Hou se s. 90. O ffi ce rs of Parl iam en t 89. or to act as . T he Cha ir ma n and D ep uty Cha ir ma n of th e Cou nc il of Stat es . — Ev ery Minis te r a nd the At torn ey. and re mo val f rom. C hai rman. Vac at ion and r es ig natio n of. choo se a m em be r of th e Coun ci l to be D epu ty Cha ir ma n th er eo f and. 88. a s s oon as ma y b e. (2) Provi sion s ha ll be ma de by the ru le s r egul at ing th e proc edu re of e ith er Hou se for the a llot me nt of tim e fo r dis cus sion of the m at te rs re fe rr ed to in s uch add re ss .

(2) Dur ing th e ab se nc e of the Ch ai rm an fro m a ny si tting of the Counc il of Sta te s th e D eputy Cha ir ma n. the D epu ty Cha ir ma n. whil e a ny re so lution for th e r em ova l of th e Vi ce . or dis ch arg ing the fun ct ions of. 92. or. the Cha ir ma n.a s. a nd th e provis ions of c lau se (2) of ar ti cl e 91 sh all app ly in re la tion to eve ry su ch sit ting as they apply in re la tion to a sit ting fro m wh ic h the Cha ir ma n. the Hou se sha ll choo se a nothe r me mb er to b e Sp ea ke r or D epu ty Sp ea ke r. or . — The Hou se of th e Peopl e sh all . (2) Th e Ch ai rm an sha ll h ave the r ight to s pe ak in. notw ith st anding anyth ing in a rt ic le 100. re sign hi s of fi ce . so of ten as the offi ce of Sp ea ke r or D epu ty Spe ak er bec om es va ca nt . and if suc h m em be r i s th e De puty Spe ake r. th e dutie s of the of fi ce sh al l be p er for me d by the D epu ty Cha ir ma n. and r emoval f rom. pre si de . but. Th e Sp eak er and D epu ty Sp eak er of th e H ou se of th e P eopl e. if h e is al so ab se nt. P re sid ent . though h e is pr es en t. if no su ch p er son is pre se nt. is a bs ent . if the offi ce of Depu ty Ch ai rm an i s a lso vac an t. th e off ic es of Sp eak er and D ep uty Spe ake r. to the D eputy Sp eak er . and oth er wi se to t ake p art in the pro c ee ding s of. choo se t wo m em be rs of th e Hou se to be re spe ct iv ely Sp ea ke r and De puty Sp eak er the re of and. — (1) A t a ny si tting of the Counc il of Sta te s. by su ch m em be r of the Counc il of St at es as th e Pre si den t m ay a ppoint for th e purpos e.Pre si den t f rom his off ic e is unde r cons ide ra ti on. a s soon a s ma y be. the Coun ci l of St at es wh ile any r es olu tion fo r th e r em ova l of th e V ic e. as th e ca se ma y be. and ( c) ma y be re mov ed fro m his of fic e by a r es olut ion of th e Hous e of th e Peopl e pa ss ed by a m aj or ity of a ll th e th en me mb er s of th e H ous e: 32 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . suc h pe rson as ma y b e d ete rm in ed by th e ru le s of proc edu re of the Coun ci l. sh al l ac t as Ch ai rm an . 94.Pr es id ent f rom hi s off ic e i s unde r con sid er at ion in th e Counc il. (b ) ma y a t any t im e. if su ch m em be r i s th e Spe ak er . — A me mb er holding offi ce as Sp ea ke r or D epu ty Sp ea ke r of th e Hous e of the P eople — (a ) sha ll va ca te his off ic e if he c ea se s to b e a m em be r of the Hou se of th e P eopl e. or . or. sh al l not. to the Sp eak er . suc h othe r pe rs on as m ay b e det er mi ne d by the Coun ci l. sha ll not be e nti tle d to vote a t al l on such r es olut ion or on a ny oth er m at te r during su ch pro ce ed ings . Vac at ion and r es ig natio n of . or wh il e any re solu tion fo r th e re mov al of th e De puty Ch ai rm an fro m hi s of fi ce is under cons ide ra ti on. th e De puty Ch ai rm an . by w ri ting und er hi s hand addr es se d. Th e Chai rman or th e De pu ty C hai rman not to pr es id e whi le a r es ol utio n fo r his r emova l f ro m off ic e i s un de r con si de ra tion. as the ca se m ay be. 93.

the Sp eak er . — (1) A t a ny s itt ing of th e Hous e of the P eople .— (1 ) Whil e the of fic e of Sp ea ke r i s va ca nt. 97. Pow er of t he De puty Spea ke r o r oth er pe rs on to pe rfo rm t he du ti es of th e off ic e of. not with st and ing anyth ing in a rti cl e 100. unti l provi sion in tha t beh al f is so m ad e. or. Salar ie s and allo wanc es of the C hai rman and De pu ty C hai rman and the Spe a ke r and De pu ty Spe ake r.Provid ed tha t no r es olut ion fo r the purpo se of c la us e (c ) sh al l be move d unle ss a t le as t fourt ee n day s’ notic e has be en giv en of th e int en tion to m ove th e r es olut ion: Provid ed fu rth er tha t. 33 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . i f no suc h pe rson i s pre se nt. Th e Spea ke r or th e De puty Sp eak er no t to p re si de w hil e a r es ol utio n fo r his r emova l f ro m off ic e i s un de r con si de ra tion. if he is a ls o ab se nt. s uch per son a s m ay b e det er mi ne d by the ru le s of proc edu re of the Hous e. pr es id e. th e duti es of th e of fic e sha ll be pe rfo rm ed by th e D eputy Sp ea ke r or. — The re sh all be pa id to th e Ch ai rm an and th e Depu ty Cha ir ma n of th e Cou nc il of S ta te s. though h e is pre se nt. by suc h me mb er of th e H ous e of th e Peop le a s the Pr es id ent ma y appoin t fo r the purpo se . the Depu ty Sp eak er . or. su ch othe r per son as m ay be de te rm in ed by the Hou se . and othe rw is e to t ake p art in the proc ee ding s of.— (1) E ac h Hou se of Pa rl ia me nt sha ll h ave a s epa ra te se cr et ar ia l s ta ff : Provid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l b e c ons tru ed as pr ev ent ing th e c re at ion of post s com mo n to both H ous es of P ar lia me nt . Se cr et ar ia t of Pa rlia me nt . Sp eak er . th e Sp ea ke r sh al l not va ca te hi s off ic e unt il i mm ed ia te ly be for e th e f ir st m ee ti ng of th e Hous e of the P eople a ft er th e dis solu tion. sh al l not. if th e off ic e of De puty Sp ea ke r i s al so v ac ant . and to the Sp ea ke r and th e De puty Spe ak er of the Hou se of th e Peopl e. or wh il e a ny r es olut ion fo r the r em ova l of th e Depu ty Spe ake r fro m his of fic e i s und er c ons ide ra tion. 96. s uch sa la ri es and al low anc es a s a re spe ci fi ed in th e Se cond Sch edul e. i s a bs ent . su ch sa la ri es a nd al low an ce s as ma y be re spe ct iv ely f ixe d by Pa rli am en t by la w a nd. a nd the provis ions of c lau se (2 ) of a rt ic le 95 s ha ll app ly in r el at ion to ev er y su ch s itt ing as the y apply in re la tion to a s itt ing fro m wh ic h th e Spe ake r. a s the c as e m ay be . be en tit led to vote only in the fir st in st anc e on s uch re solu tion or on any othe r m at te r dur ing su ch pro ce ed ings but not in th e c as e of a n e qua lity of vote s. sh all a ct a s Spe ak er . th e De puty Spe ake r. or to act as . 98. wh en eve r th e Hou se of th e P eople is dis solv ed. (2) Th e Sp eak er sh all have the right to spe ak in. whil e any re so lution fo r th e re mov al of th e Sp ea ke r fro m his off ic e i s und er con sid er at ion. 95. the H ous e of th e P eopl e wh ile any r es olu tion fo r hi s r em ova l fro m offi ce i s unde r con sid er at ion in th e Hou se and sh al l. (2) Du ring th e a bs en ce of th e Sp ea ke r fro m any si tting of the Hou se of th e P eople the De puty Sp ea ke r or.

or per son ac ting a s suc h. (2) Ei the r Hous e of Pa rl ia me nt sh al l h ave pow er to ac t notw ith st anding a ny v ac an cy in th e m em be rs hi p th er eo f. — Eve ry me mb er of e ith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt sh al l. e ith er to adjou rn the Hou se or to susp end the m ee ti ng until the re i s a quoru m. and th e c ondit ions of se rvi ce of p er sons a ppoint ed. (3) Un til provi sion i s m ad e by Pa rl ia me nt und er c la us e (2 ). the quoru m to cons titu te a me et ing of ei the r Hou se of P ar lia me nt sh all be one -t enth of the tota l nu mbe r of m em be rs of the Hou se . The Ch ai rm an or Spe ak er . it sh al l be the duty of th e Cha ir ma n or Sp ea ke r. and any rule s so m ad e sha ll hav e ef fe ct subj ec t to th e provis ions of any l aw m ad e under th e s ai d c la us e. Vot ing in Hou se s. 34 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . to th e se cr et ar ia l s ta ff of ei the r Hou se of P ar li am en t. D isqua lif ic ation s of Mem be rs 101. af te r c onsu lt ation wi th the Spe ake r of the H ous e of the P eopl e or th e Ch ai rm an of the Counc il of Sta te s. sh al l not vot e in th e f ir st ins tan ce . a ll qu es tions at any s itt ing of e ith er Hous e or joint s it ting of th e Hous es sha ll be de te rm ine d by a ma jo rity of vote s of the me mb er s pr es en t and voting. m ak e and sub sc rib e be for e the P re sid ent . 100. Vac at ion of s ea ts . and the c ondit ions of se rvi ce of p er sons appoin ted .— (1) S ave a s othe rw is e prov ided in this Con st itut ion. or so me pe rs on appoin ted in tha t beh al f by him . and any proc ee ding s in P ar lia me nt sh al l be val id not with st and ing th at it is di scov er ed sub se quen tly tha t som e p er son who w as not e nti tle d so to do s at or voted or othe rw is e took pa rt in th e proc ee ding s. Conduc t of Bu sin es s 99. befo re t aking hi s s ea t. th e P re sid ent m ay . pow er of H ous es to a ct no tw ith st andi ng va canc ie s and quor um. Oa th or affi rmat ion by me mb er s. othe r than the Sp eak er or pe rs on a ct ing as Ch ai rm an or Sp ea ke r. but sha ll hav e and exe rc is e a c as ti ng vot e in th e ca se of an e qua lity of vote s. an o ath or a ff ir ma ti on ac co rding to the for m s et out for the purpo se in th e Thi rd S che dule .(2) P ar lia me nt m ay by l aw regu la te the r ec ru itm en t.— (1) No per son s ha ll be a m em be r of both Hou se s of P arl ia me nt and provi sion sha ll be m ad e by Pa rl ia me nt by l aw for th e vac at ion by a pe rson who i s c hos en a me mb er of both Hou se s of his s ea t in one Hous e or the oth er. (3) Un til Pa rli am en t by l aw othe rw is e prov ide s. (4) I f at any ti me dur ing a m ee ti ng of a H ous e the re i s no quorum . as the ca se m ay be. or pe rson a ct ing as su ch. ma ke rule s r egul at ing th e re cr ui tm ent . to the se cr et ar ia l st af f of th e Hous e of the P eople or th e Coun ci l of St at es .

(3) I f a me mb er of e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt — (a ) be co m es sub je ct to any of the disqu ali fi ca tion s m en tion ed in c la us e (1) or cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 102. a nd i f a p er son is cho se n a m em be r both of Pa rli am en t and of a H ous e of the L egi sl atu re of a Sta te . a me mb er of e ith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt — (a ) i f h e hold s any offi ce of pro fi t und er the Gov er nm en t of Indi a or th e Gove rn me nt of a ny S ta te . (d ) if he is not a ci tiz en of Indi a. and hi s re si gna tion i s a cc ep te d by the Ch ai rm an or the Sp eak er . or is unde r a ny a ckno wl edg me nt of a ll egi an ce or adh er en ce to a fo re ign S ta te .(2) No pe rs on s ha ll b e a m em be r both of P ar lia me nt a nd of a Hou se of th e Leg is la tur e of a S ta te . the Cha ir ma n or the Spe ak er . Exp lanation . (4) If fo r a per iod of s ixty day s a me mb er of eith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt i s w ithout p er mi ss ion of the H ous e ab se nt f rom a ll m ee ti ngs the reo f. or ha s volun ta ri ly a cqu ir ed the c it iz en ship of a for eign Sta te . (b ) if he is of unsound mind and s tand s so de cl ar ed by a co mp et ent c ourt . Di squa li fic at ions for me mb er sh ip . th at pe rson ’s s ea t in Pa rli am en t sha ll be co me v ac an t. ( e) if he is so di squa lif ie d by or und er any la w ma de by Pa rli am en t. 102. hi s se at sh al l the reupon be co me vac an t: Provid ed tha t in th e c as e of a ny r es ign at ion r ef er re d to in sub -c lau se ( b). oth er th an an offi ce dec la re d by P ar lia me nt by la w not to disqu al ify it s holde r. he sh al l not a cc ep t su ch r es ign ation . a s th e c as e ma y b e. is sa ti sf ie d th at s uch re sign at ion i s not volunt ary or genuin e. 35 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .— (1) A per son s ha ll be di squa li fi ed fo r being chos en as . or (b ) re si gns his s ea t by w ri ting under hi s h and a ddr es se d to th e Ch ai rm an or the Spe ak er .—Fo r the purpos es of thi s c la us e a pe rson s ha ll not b e d ee me d to hold a n off ic e of profi t unde r th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov er nm en t of any St at e by r ea son only that he i s a Min is te r ei the r for the Un ion or fo r such St at e. a t the e xpir at ion of su ch p er iod as ma y b e spe ci fi ed in rul es ma de by the P re sid ent . th e Hou se ma y d ec la re his se at vac an t: Provid ed th at in com puting the s ai d pe riod of sixty days no ac coun t sh all b e tak en of any pe riod dur ing wh ich the H ous e i s prorogu ed or is a djou rned fo r mor e than fou r c ons ec ut ive day s. as th e ca se ma y be. th en. and fo r be ing. i f f rom in for ma ti on r ec ei ve d or oth er wi se a nd a ft er m ak ing suc h inqui ry as h e think s fi t. ( c) if he is an undi sch ar ged in solve nt. unle ss he h as pre viou sly re si gned hi s s ea t in the Le gis la tur e of the St at e. as the ca se m ay be.

priv ile ge s and im mun iti es of e ac h Hou se of P ar li am en t. a Hou se of P arl ia me nt or any . or th at he i s proh ibit ed fro m so doing by the provi sion s of a ny l aw m ad e by P arl ia me nt . h e s ha ll be lia bl e in r es pe ct of ea ch d ay on whi ch he so s it s or vot es to a pen alty of fiv e hundre d rup ee s to be re cov er ed a s a d ebt due to th e Union. of the H ous es of Parl iamen t and of the membe rs and c ommi tt ee s t he re of .. e tc .four th A me nd me nt ) A ct . Pr iv ile ge s and I mmun iti es of Pa rlia me nt and it s Me mb er s 105. (3) In othe r re sp ec ts . and of th e me mb er s a nd th e com mi tt ee s of e ac h Hou se . the ques tion s ha ll b e re fe rr ed for the d ec is ion of th e Pre si den t a nd hi s dec is ion sha ll be fin al . 104. (4) The prov is ions of cl au se s (1). — If a pe rson s it s or vot es a s a me mb er of eith er H ous e of Pa rli am en t b efo re he ha s co mp lie d wi th th e re quir em en ts of a rt ic le 99. (2 ) B efo re giving any dec is ion on any such ques tion . p riv ile ge s. the Pre si den t sh al l obta in th e opinion of th e Ele ct ion Com mi ss ion and sh al l a ct ac co rding to su ch opinion. s ha ll be suc h as m ay f rom ti me to ti me be def ined by P ar li am en t by l aw . (2) a nd (3) sha ll a pply in r el at ion to p er sons who by virtu e of this Cons titu tion h ave the r ight to s pe ak in.(2) A pe rson sha ll be disqu al if ied for b eing a me mb er of e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt i f h e i s so disqu al ifi ed unde r th e Ten th S che dule . — (1 ) If any que st ion ar is es a s to whe the r a me mb er of e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt h as be co me s ubje ct to any of the di squa li fic at ion s m en tion ed in c la us e (1 ) of a rt ic le 102. th er e sh al l b e f re edo m of spe ec h in P ar li am en t. P enal ty fo r s it ting and voting be for e maki ng oath o r af fi rmat ion und er ar ti cl e 99 or wh en no t quali fi ed or wh en dis qual ifi ed . and. the pow er s. 103. De ci si on on qu es ti ons as to dis qual if ica tion s of me mb er s. pap er . sha ll be tho se of tha t Hous e and of its m em be rs a nd co mm it te es i mm ed ia te ly be for e th e co mi ng into fo rc e of se ct ion 15 of th e Cons titu tion (For ty. 1978.— (1 ) Subje ct to th e provi sion s of th is Con st itut ion and to th e ru le s a nd st anding orde rs re gula ting the pro ce dur e of P arl ia me nt . Pow er s. or wh en he know s tha t he is not qu ali fi ed or th at he i s di squa li fi ed for me mb er sh ip th er eo f. and oth er wi se to t ake pa rt in the proc ee di ngs of. vot es or pro ce ed ings . until so de fin ed. 36 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Po we rs . a nd no per son sh al l be so li abl e in r es pe ct of th e publi ca ti on by or unde r the autho rity of ei the r H ous e of P ar li am en t of a ny r epo rt. (2) No me mb er of Pa rli am en t sh al l be liab le to any pro ce ed ings in any c ourt in re sp ec t of a ny thing s ai d or any vote giv en by hi m in P arl ia me nt or a ny co mm it te e th er eo f.

106. (2) In re ckon ing a ny s uch pe riod of six mon ths as is re fe rr ed to in cl aus e (1 ). a llo wan ce s at suc h ra te s and upon su ch c ondit ions as we re i mm ed ia te ly be for e th e c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion appl ic ab le in the ca se of m em be rs of the Cons titu ent A ss em bl y of th e Dom inion of Indi a. e ith er wi thout a me nd me nt or with suc h a me nd me nt s only a s ar e ag re ed to by both H ous es . L egi slat iv e P roc edu re 107.— (1 ) Subje ct to the prov is ions of ar ti cl es 109 and 117 wi th r es pe ct to Money B ill s and oth er fin an ci al Bi ll s. (3) A Bi ll pending in Pa rli am en t sha ll not lap se by re as on of th e pro roga tion of the Hou se s. (5) A Bi ll wh ich is p ending in th e Hou se of th e P eople . — Me mb er s of e ith er Hou se of P arl ia me nt sh al l b e e nti tl ed to r ec ei ve su ch sa la ri es and al low an ce s a s m ay f rom ti me to ti me be det er mi ne d by Pa rli am en t by la w and. . a Bil l ma y or igin at e in e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt . (2) Subje ct to the provis ions of a rt ic le s 108 and 109. — (1) I f af te r a Bil l h as be en pas se d by one Hou se a nd t ran sm it te d to th e oth er Hou se — ( a) the Bi ll is r ej ec te d by the oth er Hou se . a Bi ll sh al l not be d ee me d to hav e be en pas se d by th e H ous es of P arl ia me nt unl es s it ha s b een a gr ee d to by both Hous es . th e Pre si den t m ay . or ( c ) mo re th an s ix month s el ap se f rom th e dat e of the re ce pt ion of th e B ill by th e othe r H ous e wi thout the Bi ll being pa ss ed by i t. unti l prov is ion in tha t r es pe ct is s o ma de . 108. unle ss th e Bil l h as el ap se d by re as on of a di ss olut ion of th e Hou se of th e P eople . or ( b) the Hou se s hav e fin al ly di sa gr ee d a s to the am en dm en ts to be m ad e in th e Bil l.37 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA c om mi tt ee the re of as th ey app ly in r el at ion to m em be rs of P ar lia me nt . (4) A Bi ll pend ing in th e Counc il of Sta te s whi ch ha s not b een pas se d by th e Hous e of the P eople s ha ll not l aps e on a di sso lution of the Hou se of th e P eopl e. lap se on a di ss olut ion of th e Hou se of th e Peop le . s ubje ct to th e provi sion s of a rt ic le 108. Salar ie s and allo wanc es of me mb er s. Joint s it ting of both Ho us es in c er ta in ca se s. his int ention to sum mo n th em to m ee t in a joint si tting fo r th e purpos e of delib er at ing and voting on th e Bil l: Provid ed tha t nothing in thi s cl aus e sh al l a pply to a Mon ey Bil l. or w hic h hav ing b een pa ss ed by th e Hous e of the P eople i s pending in the Counc il of Sta te s. noti fy to th e Hou se s by m es sa ge i f the y ar e sit ting or by publi c n oti fic at ion if the y a re not s itt ing. sh al l. no a cc ount s ha ll be tak en of any pe riod dur ing whi ch th e Hou se r ef er re d to in sub -c lau se (c ) of tha t c la us e is p ro rogued or ad journ ed for m or e than four con se cu tiv e day s. Prov is ions as to int rodu ct ion and pas sing of Bi lls .

is pas se d by a m aj or ity of th e tota l numb er of me mb er s of both Hous es pre se nt and voting . not with st anding th at a dis solu tion of the Hou se of the P eopl e has int er ven ed s inc e the Pre si den t noti fie d his inte ntion to sum mon the H ous es to me et the re in. having bee n pa ss ed by one Hous e. (2) A ft er a Money B ill ha s bee n p as se d by the Hou se of th e P eopl e it sh al l be tra ns mi tt ed to th e Coun ci l of St at es for its re co mm en da tion s and th e Coun ci l of St at es sh all wi thin a per iod of fou rt ee n day s fro m the d ate of its re ce ip t of th e Bi ll r etu rn the Bil l to th e Hou se of th e Peop le wi th its r ec om me nd at ions and th e H ous e of th e Peop le m ay the re upon eith er a cc ep t or r ej ec t al l or any of the r ec om me nd at ions of the Coun cil of St at es .(3) Wh er e the P re sid ent has unde r c la us e (1) noti fi ed his int en tion of s um mon ing th e Hous es to m ee t in a joint si tting . a nd the dec is ion of th e p er son pre si ding a s to the a me nd me nt s wh ich ar e a dm is sib le unde r this c la us e sha ll be fin al . the Mon ey B ill sh al l b e d ee me d to h ave be en pa ss ed by both Hou se s wi th th e am en dm en ts re co mm en de d by the Counc il of Sta te s a nd a cc ep te d by the Hou se of th e Peopl e. —(1 ) A Mon ey Bi ll sh al l not be int roduc ed in the Coun cil of St at es . it s ha ll be dee me d for th e purpo se s of this Cons titu tion to h ave b een pa ss ed by both Hou se s: Provid ed tha t at a joint s itt ing— ( a) if th e B ill. 109. as ar e a gr ee d to in join t si tting . (5) A joint s itt ing m ay b e h eld under thi s ar ti cl e and a Bil l p as se d th er ea t. the Money Bi ll sh all be de em ed to hav e bee n p as se d by both Hou se s in the fo rm in whi ch it wa s pa ss ed by th e Hous e of the P eople w ithou t a ny of th e a me nd me nt s re co mm end ed by th e Counc il of Sta te s. Spe ci al p roc ed ur e i n re sp ec t of Mon ey B ill s. ( b) if the Bi ll has b een so pa ss ed and r etu rned . if h e doe s so. 38 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . (4) I f th e Hous e of the P eople do es not ac ce pt any of the r ec om me nd at ions of the Coun ci l of St at es . only su ch a me nd me nt s a s a for es ai d sha ll be propos ed to the Bi ll and suc h oth er a me nd me nt s as a re re le van t to th e ma tt er s wi th re sp ec t to whi ch th e Hou se s have not ag re ed. i f any. has not be en p as se d by the oth er Hous e with am en dm ent s a nd re turn ed to the H ous e in w hic h it or igina te d. w ith su ch a me nd me nt s. (4) If a t th e joint si tting of the two Hou se s the Bil l. (3) If th e Hou se of th e P eople ac ce pt s any of th e r ec om me nd at ions of the Coun ci l of St at es . n eith er H ous e sh al l proc ee d furth er w ith th e B ill . no a me ndm en t sh al l be propo se d to th e Bi ll oth er th an suc h a me nd me nt s ( if any ) as a re m ad e ne ce ss ar y by th e del ay in th e p as sa ge of the B ill . the H ous es sh al l me et ac co rdingly . but the P re sid ent m ay at a ny ti me af te r th e dat e of hi s notif ic at ion sum mon th e Hous es to m ee t in a joint si tting fo r th e purpo se spe ci fi ed in the notif ic at ion and.

or tha t h e w ithho lds as se nt th er ef ro m: 39 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . or for th e d em and or paym en t of f ee s fo r l ic en ce s or fe es for se rv ic es rend er ed . ( e ) th e de cl ar ing of a ny exp enditu re to be expe nditu re cha rg ed on th e Con solid at ed Fund of Indi a or th e in cr ea si ng of th e a moun t of any su ch exp endi tur e. (3) I f a ny qu es tion ar is es whe the r a Bil l is a Money Bi ll or not . abo lit ion. De fi ni tion of "Mone y Bi lls ''. the ce rt if ic at e of the Spe ake r of the Hou se of th e Peop le s igned by hi m tha t i t i s a Money Bil l. ( d) the app ropri at ion of m oney s out of th e Conso lida te d Fund of Ind ia . 111. ( b) th e re gula tion of the borro wing of mon ey or th e giving of any gu ar ant ee by the Gov ern me nt of Indi a.(5) If a Money B ill p as se d by the H ous e of th e P eopl e and t ran sm it te d to the Counc il of Sta te s for it s r ec om me nd at ions is not r et urn ed to the Hou se of th e Peopl e wi thin the s aid pe riod of four te en day s. ( f) th e r ec ei pt of mon ey on ac co unt of th e Conso lid at ed Fund of Ind ia or the public ac co unt of Ind ia or th e cu stody or is sue of su ch m oney or the aud it of the ac co unt s of th e Union or of a St at e. th e d ec is ion of th e Sp ea ke r of th e Hous e of the P eopl e the reon sh al l b e f ina l. it sha ll b e de em ed to have be en pa ss ed by both Hous es a t the expi ra tion of the sa id p eriod in the fo rm in whi ch it wa s pa ss ed by th e Hous e of the P eople . — (1 ) For the purpo se s of thi s Ch apt er . a Bil l sh all be de em ed to be a Mon ey Bil l if it con ta ins only prov is ions de al ing w ith a ll or a ny of th e follo wing ma tt er s. abo lit ion. As se nt to B ill s. nam el y: — ( a) the im pos ition. it sha ll b e pre se nt ed to th e P re sid ent . 110. ( c ) th e cu stody of the Con sol ida te d Fund or th e Cont ingen cy Fund of Ind ia . th e paym en t of m oney s into or the wi thdr aw al of m oney s fro m any su ch Fund. or the am en dm en t of th e la w with r es pe ct to any fin anc ia l oblig ation s unde rta ken or to be under tak en by th e Gove rn me nt of Ind ia . a lt er at ion or r egu la tion of a ny t ax. a nd wh en it is pr es en te d to the P re sid ent for a ss en t und er a rt ic le 111. re mi ss ion . or ( g) any ma tt er in cid ent al to any of th e ma tt er s sp ec if ie d in sub c la us es ( a) to ( f) . a lt er at ion or r egul at ion of any t ax by any loc al au thori ty or body for loc al purpo se s. and th e Pr es id ent sha ll d ec la re e ith er th at he as se nt s to the Bi ll. (2) A Bi ll sh al l not be dee me d to be a Money B ill by r ea son only tha t it prov ide s for th e i mpo sit ion of f ine s or oth er p ecun ia ry pena lt ie s. re mi ss ion . or by r ea son th at it provid es fo r the im pos ition. (4) The re sha ll b e endo rs ed on ev er y Money Bil l whe n it i s tr an sm it ted to th e Coun ci l of St at es unde r ar ti cl e 109. —Wh en a Bil l h as be en pas se d by th e H ous es of P ar lia me nt .

(d) (i) the salaries. 40 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . a nd w hen a Bi ll is so r etu rned . Ann ual f inan cia l sta te me nt . and if th e B ill i s p as se d a ga in by the Hou se s w ith or w ithout a me nd me nt and pre se nt ed to th e Pre si den t fo r as se nt . in pa rti cul ar . (c) debt charges for which the Government of India is liable including interest. (ii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Federal Court. (e) the salary. in this Pa rt r ef er re d to a s the " annua l fin an ci al s ta te me nt ''. (2) Th e e st im at es of exp enditu re e mb odie d in the a nnua l f inan ci al s ta te me nt sh al l show s ep ar at el y— ( a) the su ms r equi re d to me et exp endi tur e des cr ib ed by this Con st itut ion as exp endi tur e ch ar ged upon th e Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia . th e Pre si den t sh al l not w ithhold a ss en t the re fro m.Provid ed tha t the P re sid ent ma y. (3) The following expenditure shall be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India— (a) the emoluments and allowances of the President and other expenditure relating to his office. (iii) the pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of any High Court which exercises jurisdiction in relation to any area included in the territory of India or which at any time before the commencement of this Constitution exercised jurisdiction in relation to any area included in a Governor's Province of the Dominion of India. (b) the salaries and allowances of the Chairman and the Deputy Chairman of the Council of States and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the House of the People. allowances and pension payable to or in respect of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India.— (1 ) Th e Pr es ide nt sh al l in r es pe ct of e ve ry fin an ci al yea r c au se to be laid befo re both th e Hou se s of Pa rli am en t a st at em en t of the e st im at ed re ce ip ts and exp end itur e of the G ove rnm en t of Ind ia for th at yea r. allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of Judges of the Supreme Court. Pro ce dur e in Financ ial Ma tt er s 112. th e Hous es sha ll r ec ons ide r the B ill a cc ord ingly. a nd ( b) the su ms r equi re d to me et othe r expe nditu re propo se d to be m ad e f rom th e Conso lid at ed Fund of Indi a. a s s oon a s po ss ible af te r the pr es en ta tion to him of a Bil l fo r as se nt . r etu rn the Bi ll if it is not a Money B ill to the H ous es wi th a me ss ag e requ es ti ng tha t the y wi ll r ec ons ide r th e B ill or any spe ci fi ed provi sion s the re of and. and other expenditure relating to the raising of loans and the service and redemption of debt. wil l c ons ide r the d es ir abil ity of introdu cing any su ch am en dm en ts as he ma y r ec om me nd in hi s me ss ag e. sinking fund charges and redemption charges. a nd sha ll dist ingui sh exp endi tur e on re venu e a cc oun t fro m oth er e xpend itur e.

additional or excess grants. or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein. and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the President. to any demand. 113. Appropriation Bills. (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the House of the People. (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 115 and 116. but nothing in this clause shall be construed as preventing the discussion in either House of Parliament of any of those estimates.— (1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 113 have been made by the House of the People. no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of India except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article.—(1) So much of the estimates as relates to expenditure charged upon the Consolidated Fund of India shall not be submitted to the vote of Parliament. (g) any other expenditure declared by this Constitution or by Parliament by law to be so charged. Procedure in Parliament with respect to estimates.— (1) The President shall— (a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 114 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in either House of Parliament which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India. or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year. Supplementary. (2) The provisions of articles 112. 114. there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of India of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the House of th e Peopl e. decree or award of any court or arbitral tribunal. and the House of the People shall have power to assent. 115. a nd (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of India but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before Parliament. or to refuse to assent.41 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (f) any sums required to satisfy any judgment. as the case may be. cause to be laid before both the Houses of Parliament another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the House of the People a demand for such excess. 113 and 114 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be .

116. Votes on account. the House of the People shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in res pe ct of th e es ti ma te d e xpend itu re for a p art of any fin anc ia l ye ar pend ing th e co mpl et ion of th e pro ce dur e pr es cr ib ed in a rt ic le 113 for the voting of su ch gran t a nd th e pas si ng of th e l aw in ac co rda nc e w ith the prov is ions of ar ti cl e 114 in r el at ion to th at exp endi tur e. Spe ci al prov is ions as to fina nc ial Bi lls .cl au se s ( a) to (f ) of cl aus e (1) of ar tic le 110 sha ll not be int roduc ed or mov ed ex ce pt on th e r ec om me nd at ion of th e P re sid en t a nd a B ill m aking su ch provi sion sh al l not b e int roduc ed in the Coun ci l of St at es : Provid ed th at no r ec om me nd at ion sh all be r equi re d unde r this cl au se for th e moving of an am en dm en t m ak ing prov is ion for the r educ tion or a boli tion of a ny t ax. (2) The prov is ions of ar ti cl es 113 and 114 sh al l hav e e ff ec t in re la tion to th e m ak ing of any gran t unde r cl au se (1) and to any la w to b e ma de unde r th at c la us e a s they h ave ef fe ct in r el at ion to the ma king of a gr ant with r eg ard to any exp endi tur e m en tion ed in th e annu al fina nc ia l s ta te me nt and th e la w to be m ad e for th e a uthor is at ion of a pprop ria tion of mon eys out of th e Conso lida te d Fund of Indi a to m ee t su ch exp enditu re . r em is si on. or for the de ma nd or paym en t of f ee s fo r li ce nc es or f ee s for se rvi ce s rend er ed .—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter. (2) A Bi ll or a me nd me nt s ha ll not b e de em ed to ma ke provi sion fo r any of th e m at te rs af or es ai d by re as on only th at it provide s fo r th e impo si tion of fin es or oth er pe cuni ar y p ena lti es . 117. a nd P ar lia me nt s ha ll have po we r to au thor is e by l aw th e w ithd ra wa l of m oney s f rom the Conso lid at ed Fund of Ind ia for th e purpo se s for w hic h the s ai d gr ant s ar e m ad e. if ena ct ed and brought into ope ra tion . would involve e xpend itur e fro m th e Con sol ida te d Fund of Ind ia s ha ll not b e p as se d by e ith er Hou se of P ar lia me nt unl es s th e P re sid ent ha s re co mm en de d to tha t Hou se the con sid er at ion of th e Bil l. . or by re as on th at it provid es for th e i mpos ition .42 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India to meet such expenditure or grant. abo lit ion. ( b) to m ak e a gran t fo r me et ing an unexp ec te d de ma nd upon the r es our ce s of Indi a whe n on ac coun t of th e ma gnitud e or the inde fin ite c ha ra ct er of th e se rvi ce the de ma nd ca nnot be st at ed wi th th e det ai ls ord ina ri ly giv en in an annu al f inan ci al s ta te me nt . votes of credit and exceptional grants. ( c ) to m ak e an exc ep tion al gr an t whi ch fo rm s no p art of the cur re nt s er vi ce of any fin an ci al ye ar .— (1) A Bi ll or a me nd me nt m ak ing provi sion for a ny of th e ma tt er s spe ci fi ed in sub. (3) A Bi ll wh ich . a lt er at ion or r egul at ion of any tax by a ny lo ca l autho rity or body fo r lo ca l purpos es .

but subject to the provisions of article 348. as the case may be. may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in Hindi or in English to address the House in his mother-tongue. after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution. (3) The P re sid ent . (2) No officer or member of Parliament in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business. 120. 122. af te r consu lt at ion wi th the Cha ir ma n of th e Coun ci l of St at es and the Spe ak er of the Hou se of th e Peop le . a s the c as e m ay be . (2) Unless Parliament by law otherwise provides. and co mm uni ca ti ons be tw ee n. or for maintaining order. in . Restriction on discussion in Parliament. (4) A t a join t sit ting of the two Hou se s th e Sp ea ke r of th e Hous e of the P eopl e. each House of Parliament in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of India. 119.— Parliament may. Ru le s of p roc ed ur e. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of Parliament. and. th e two Hou se s. have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom. or person acting as such.— No discussion shall take place in Parliament with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties except upon a motion for presenting an address to the President praying for the removal of the Judge as hereinafter provided. or in his a bs en ce su ch pe rson as ma y be det er mi ned by ru le s of pro ce dur e ma de und er cl au se (3 ).— (1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII.— (1) The validity of any proceedings in Parliament shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. the rule s of proc edu re and s ta nding orde rs in for ce im me di at ely be for e the co mm en ce me nt of this Con st itut ion w ith re sp ec t to the Leg is la tur e of the Do min ion of Indi a sh al l h ave ef fe ct in re la tion to Pa rli am en t s ubje ct to su ch m odif ic at ions and a dap ta tion s as m ay b e ma de th er ein by th e Ch ai rm an of the Counc il of St at es or th e Spe ake r of the Hou se of th e P eopl e. subj ec t to th e provis ions of thi s Cons titu tion. this article shall. regulate by law the procedure of. — (1) E ach Hou se of P ar lia me nt m ay m ak e ru le s for r egul at ing. 121. sh all pr es ide . Regulation by law of procedure in Parliament in relation to financial business. m ay m ak e rul es a s to th e pro ce dur e wi th r es pe ct to joint s itt ings of. (2) Unti l rul es ar e ma de unde r cl au se (1) . it s pro ce dur e and the condu ct of it s busin es s.43 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA P roc edu re Ge ne ral ly 118. and the conduct of business in. such provision shall prevail. business in Parliament shall be transacted in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Chairman of the Council of States or Speaker of the House of the People. for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business. if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by a House of Parliament under clause (1) of article 118 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to Parliament under clause (2) of that article. Language to be used in Parliament.

of not mo re than s ev en 1 oth er Judg es .44 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Parliament shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers. if before the expiration of that period resolutions disapproving it are passed by both Houses. by wr iting unde r hi s hand addr es se d to the Pr es ide nt. the pe riod of six we ek s sh al l b e r ec kone d f rom th e la te r of tho se d ate s fo r th e purpos es of thi s cl au se . re si gn hi s offi ce . . (3) I f a nd so f ar a s an Or dina nc e unde r th is ar ti cl e ma ke s any prov is ion wh ic h P ar lia me nt w ould not unde r this Con st itut ion b e c omp et en t to en ac t. (2) Ev ery Judg e of th e Supre me Cour t sha ll be appoin te d by the P re sid ent by w ar ra nt under his h and and s ea l af te r con sul ta tion w ith such of th e J udge s of th e Supr em e Cou rt and of th e High Cou rts in the St at es as th e Pre si den t m ay d ee m ne ce ss ar y for th e purpos e and sha ll hold offi ce unti l he att ai ns the a ge of six ty. (2A ) The ag e of a Judge of the Sup re me Court sh al l be det er mi ned by su ch au thori ty a nd in su ch ma nne r as P ar li am en t ma y by la w provide . Es tab lis hmen t and con st it utio n of Sup re me C our t. but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before both Houses of Parliament and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of Parliament. it sh al l be void. the President is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action. * * * * * C H A P T E R I V. upon the passing of the second of those resolutions. unti l Pa rli am en t by l aw pre sc ri be s a la rge r nu mbe r. th e Chie f Ju sti ce of Ind ia sh al l al wa ys be con sul ted : Provid ed fur the r tha t— ( a) a Judge m ay .— T H E U N I O N J U D I C I A R Y 124. or.five y ea rs : Provid ed th at in the c as e of a ppoint me nt of a Judg e oth er than the Ch ie f Ju st ic e.— Whe re th e Hous es of P ar li am en t a re sum mo ned to r ea ss em bl e on dif fe re nt dat es . he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require. Exp lanation . (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament. and ( b) ma y b e w ithd ra wn at any ti me by the P re sid ent . Power of President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament.—(1) If at any time. except when both Houses of Parliament are in session. ( b) a Judge m ay be r em oved f rom hi s of fi ce in th e m an ne r provide d in cl au se (4 ). — (1) Th er e sh al l be a Supr em e Cour t of Ind ia cons is ting of a Ch ie f Ju st ic e of India a nd. CHAPTER III—LEGISLATIVE POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT 123.

or ( b) has be en for a t le as t ten ye ar s an advo ca te of a H igh Cou rt or of two or mo re su ch Cour ts in suc ce ss io n. of Judg es . —In co mput ing fo r the purpos e of this c la us e the pe riod dur ing w hic h a p er son has be en an advo ca te . m ak e and subs cr ib e befo re th e Pre si den t. suc h s al ar ie s a s a re sp ec if ie d in th e Se cond Sch edul e. vide Act 22 of 1986. et c. b efo re he en te rs upon his off ic e. a llo wa nc es and right s as a re spe ci fi ed in the S ec ond S che dule : Provid ed tha t neith er th e privi le ge s nor th e al low an ce s of a Judge nor hi s r ights in re sp ec t of le av e of a bs enc e or pen sion s ha ll b e va rie d to his 45 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA _______________________________________________ . Sala ri es . 2 h e b ec am e a n a dvoc at e sh al l b e in clud ed. or whi ch at any ti me befo re th e com me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion e xe rc is ed . 125. (2) Eve ry Judg e sh al l be e nti tle d to su ch pr ivil ege s and a llo wan ce s and to s uch right s in r es pe ct of le av e of abs en ce and p ens ion as m ay f rom ti me to ti me b e d ete rm in ed by or unde r l aw m ad e by P ar lia me nt a nd. any pe riod during whi ch a p er son h as he ld jud ic ia l offi ce not in fe rio r to tha t of a di st ri ct judge a ft er 1. (6) Ev ery pe rson appo inte d to be a Judg e of th e Supr em e Cou rt sha ll . a n oath or af fi rm at ion a cc or ding to th e for m se t out fo r th e purpos e in the Thi rd S che dule . (4) A Judg e of th e Supre me Cou rt sha ll not be re mov ed fro m his off ic e e xc ept by a n orde r of the P re sid en t pa ss ed a ft er an a ddr es s by e ac h Hou se of P arl ia me nt suppo rt ed by a ma jo rity of the tot al m em be rs hip of tha t Hou se and by a ma jo rity of not le ss th an two -thi rds of the m em be rs of that Hou se pr es en t and vot ing ha s be en pr es en ted to the Pre si den t in th e sa me s es si on for su ch re mov al on th e ground of prov ed mi sbe hav iour or in ca pa ci ty. s. Exp lanation I. Now “twenty-five”. (5) Pa rli am en t m ay by l aw regu la te the proc edu re for th e pr es en ta tion of a n add re ss and fo r th e inve st iga tion and proo f of th e mi sb eha viou r or in ca pa ci ty of a Judg e unde r c la us e (4) .(3) A pe rson sha ll not b e qual if ied for a ppoint me nt as a Judg e of the Supr em e Cou rt unle ss he is a ci ti ze n of Indi a and — ( a) has be en for a t le as t five y ea rs a J udge of a High Cou rt or of t wo or mor e su ch Court s in s uc ce ss ion . until so d ete rm in ed. or som e per son appo int ed in th at b eha lf by hi m.— (1 ) The re sh al l b e p aid to th e Judge s of th e Supre me Cour t such s al ar ie s a s ma y be det er mi ned by P ar li am en t by l aw a nd. to suc h pr ivil eg es . or (c ) i s. ju ri sdi ction in any pa rt of th e te rr itory of Indi a. in th e opin ion of th e P re sid en t. until provi sion in th at beh al f is so ma de . —In thi s c la us e " High Cou rt'' m ea ns a High Cou rt w hic h e xe rc is es . (7) No pe rson who ha s held of fic e a s a Judge of th e Supre me Cour t s ha ll pl ea d or a ct in any c ourt or be for e any autho rity with in th e te rr ito ry of Ind ia . a dist ingui shed ju ris t. Exp lanation I I. .

127. po we rs a nd pr ivil eg es . 128. in pr iori ty to oth er dut ie s of his of fi ce . Or ig inal j ur is dic ti on of t he Supr eme Co ur t. At te ndan ce of r et ir ed Judg es at s it ting s of t he Supr eme Co ur t. be e nti tl ed to su ch a llo wa nc es a s th e Pr es id ent m ay by ord er det er mi ne and h ave al l the juri sdi ct ion. w ith the pr eviou s con sen t of th e Pre si den t a nd a ft er consu lt at ion w ith the Ch ie f Ju st ic e of the H igh Cou rt c onc er ned . a Judg e of tha t Cou rt: Provid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll b e de em ed to re quir e a ny su ch p er son as a for es ai d to s it a nd ac t a s a Judg e of th at Court unle ss he c ons ent s so to do. of a J udge of the Supr em e Court . and ev er y s uch pe rs on so r eque st ed sh al l. f rom ti me to ti me . hav e origin al ju ris dic tion in any disput e— ( a) bet we en th e G ove rnm en t of Ind ia and one or mo re St at es . a nd wh il e so att end ing h e sh al l have a ll th e ju ri sdi ction . as th e Chi ef Ju st ic e of India m ay . the Chi ef Ju st ic e of Indi a ma y a t any tim e. but sh all not othe rw is e be de em ed to be. S eat of Sup re me Cou rt . the Ch ie f Jus ti ce of Indi a ma y. a nd s ha ll dis ch arg e the duti es . to the e xc lus ion of any oth er cou rt. the Supre me Cou rt s ha ll. to a tt end th e si tting s of the Sup re me Cou rt a t th e ti me and for th e pe riod fo r wh ich his a tt end anc e is r equi re d. w ith th e a pprov al of the Pr es ide nt. Appo in tmen t of ad hoc Judge s. 130. 129. as an ad hoc Judge . A ppoi nt me nt of ac ting C hie f Jus ti ce .— The Supr em e Cou rt sh al l s it in De lhi or in su ch othe r pl ac e or pla ce s.— When th e of fi ce of Ch ie f Ju st ic e of Indi a is va ca nt or w hen th e Ch ie f Jus ti ce is. re que st in wr iting the a tt enda nc e a t th e s itt ings of the Court . the duti es of the of fi ce sh all be pe rfo rm ed by such one of th e oth er Judge s of the Court as th e Pre si den t m ay a ppoint for th e purpos e. pow er s and priv il ege s of . 131. wh il e so sit ting a nd ac ting . —(1 ) If at a ny ti me the re should not b e a quoru m of the Judge s of the Sup re me Cou rt a va il abl e to hold or c ontinu e any se ss ion of the Cou rt. wi th the pre vious con sen t of th e Pr es id ent. — The Supr em e Cou rt sh al l b e a c ourt of re co rd and sha ll h ave al l the powe rs of su ch a cou rt in clud ing th e powe r to puni sh for cont em pt of it se lf . for suc h pe riod a s ma y be ne ce ss ar y. by r ea son of ab se nc e or oth er wi se . requ es t a ny pe rson who ha s held th e offi ce of a J udge of the Supr em e Cou rt or of the Fed er al Cou rt or who ha s he ld th e off ic e of a Judg e of a H igh Cour t and i s duly qu ali fi ed for appoin tm en t a s a Judg e of th e Supr em e Cou rt to s it and ac t as a Judg e of the Supr em e Cou rt. unabl e to pe rfo rm the duti es of his of fi ce . or 46 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . 126. appo int. (2) It sh al l be th e duty of the J udge who ha s be en s o de sign at ed.di sa dvan tag e a ft er his a ppoint me nt. of a Judg e of a H igh Court duly qual ifi ed for a ppoint me nt as a Judge of the Sup re me Court to be de sign at ed by the Ch ie f Ju st ic e of Indi a. — Not wi ths tand ing a nything in this Ch apt er . — Subj ec t to the prov is ions of this Cons ti tution. Su pr eme Cour t to be a co ur t of r ec or d.

and ( b) that in the opinion of the H igh Cou rt the s ai d qu es tion nee ds to b e d ec ided by th e Supre me Cou rt. cov ena nt.— For th e purpo se s of this ar ti cl e.f. de cr ee or fina l orde r of a High Cour t in the t er ri tory of Ind ia . cont inue s in op er at ion af te r s uch c om me nc em en t. 13. or ( c ) bet we en t wo or mo re St at es . if the H igh Cou rt c er ti fi es unde r ar ti cl e 134 A tha t th e ca se involve s a sub st anti al que stion of l aw a s to the int erp re ta tion of this Con st itut ion. ] Rep .( b) bet we en th e Gov er nm en t of Ind ia and any St at e or St at es on one sid e and one or m or e othe r Sta te s on th e oth er . any p arty in the ca se m ay appe al to th e Supre me Cour t on the ground tha t any such que st ion as a for es ai d has b een w rongly de cid ed. c ri mi na l or oth er pro ce ed ing. [ Ex clu si ve jur isd ic tion of th e Supre me Cour t in r egar d to qu es tions as to con sti tutiona l v alid it y of C ent ral law s. the e xpr es si on “f ina l ord er ” includ es an orde r de cid ing an is sue whi ch. eng ag em en t. 131A. s. sanad or othe r si mi la r in st rum en t wh ic h. 4 ( w. i f a nd in so fa r as the dispu te involv es any ques tion (w he the r of l aw or f ac t) on whi ch the ex is ten ce or e xte nt of a l eg al righ t d epend s: Prov ided th at the s aid jur isd ic tion sh al l not ext end to a disput e ar is ing out of any tre at y.4-1978) . a ny p ar ty a ppe al ing to th e Sup re me Court unde r cl au se (1 ) m ay urg e as on e of th e grounds in such a ppe al th at a subs ta nti al que st ion of l aw a s to the int erp re ta tion of this Con st itut ion h as be en wrong ly dec ide d. * * * * * (3) Whe re such a c er ti fi ca te i s given . unl es s P ar lia me nt by la w othe rw is e provid es . (2) No tw iths ta nding anyth ing in ar ti cl e 132. dec re e or fin al orde r in a civ il pro ce ed ing of a H igh Court in the t er rito ry of Ind ia i f th e High Cour t c er ti fi es und er ar ti cl e 134A — ( a) th at th e c as e involve s a sub st ant ia l que st ion of l aw of gen er al i mpor ta nc e. ag re em en t. App el lat e ju ri sdi ct ion of Sup re me Cou rt i n app eal s fr om H igh Co ur ts in c er ta in ca se s. lie to the Supr em e Court f rom th e 47 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . 1977. Exp lanation . App el lat e ju ri sdi ct ion of Sup re me Cou rt i n app eal s fr om H igh Co ur ts in r ega rd to civ il ma tt er s. i f de cid ed in f avou r of th e appe ll ant . — (1) An app ea l sha ll li e to th e Supre me Cou rt f rom a ny judg me nt.e . 132. having be en ent er ed into or exe cu ted be for e the c om me nc em en t of thi s Cons ti tution . w he the r in a c ivil . (3) No tw iths ta nding anyth ing in thi s ar tic le . 133. — (1 ) An a ppe al sh al l lie to the Sup re me Cou rt f rom any judg me nt. no app ea l sh all . b y th e Con st itut ion ( For ty -th ird A mend me nt ) A ct. or wh ich provide s tha t the sa id jur isd ic tion s ha ll not e xte nd to su ch a disput e. w ould be suf fi ci ent fo r th e fina l dispo sa l of the ca se .

the Sup re me Cou rt m ay .— (1 ) An a ppe al sha ll lie to the Supre me Court fro m any judgm ent . as soon a s m ay be a ft er suc h pa ss ing or m ak ing. d ete rm in e. se nte nc e or orde r in a ny c au se or m at te r pa ss ed or ma de by 48 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . or se nte nc e.— Eve ry H igh Cou rt. App el lat e j ur is dic ti on of Su pr eme Cou rt in r ega rd to cr imin al mat te rs .judg me nt. ma y be given in re spe ct of th at ca se . 134. f ina l orde r. gr an t sp ec ia l l eav e to appe al f rom a ny judg me nt. and ( b) sh al l. 134A. on its own mo tion. or c lau se (1) of ar tic le 133 or. or ( b) ha s w ithd ra wn fo r tr ia l be for e it se lf any c as e f rom any cou rt subo rdin at e to i ts au thori ty and has in suc h t ri al conv ic ted th e a cc us ed p er son a nd s en ten ce d him to dea th. — Un til P ar lia me nt by la w oth er wi se provide s. by or on beha lf of th e pa rty a ggri ev ed. sub -c la us e ( c ) of cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le 134. im me di at el y a ft er th e pa ss ing or m ak ing of su ch judgm en t. f ina l ord er or s ent en ce . d ete rm in at ion. or c la us e (1) of ar ti cl e 134. Jur is dic tio n and po we rs of t he Fed er al C our t un de r e xis ti ng law to b e e xe rc is abl e by t he Sup re me C our t. de cr ee . or ( c ) ce rt if ie s under a rt ic le 134A th at the c as e i s a fit one for app ea l to the Supr em e Court : Provid ed tha t an appe al und er sub -c lau se ( c ) sh al l l ie sub je ct to suc h prov is ions as ma y be ma de in tha t beh al f unde r cl au se (1) of ar ti cl e 145 a nd to su ch condit ions a s the H igh Cou rt m ay es ta bl ish or requ ir e. Spe ci al l eave to app eal by t he Supr eme C our t. if it dee ms fi t so to do. d ec re e. — (1 ) No tw ith st anding a nything in this Cha pte r. (2) Pa rli am en t m ay by l aw conf er on the Supre me Cou rt a ny fur the r pow er s to ent er ta in and hea r a ppe al s f rom any judgm ent . dec re e or f ina l orde r of one Judg e of a High Cour t. 136. if an or al appli ca ti on is ma de . as th e ca se ma y b e. r ef er re d to in cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le 132 or c la us e (1) of ar ti cl e 133. th e Supre me Cour t sha ll al so hav e juri sdi ct ion a nd pow er s w ith re sp ec t to a ny m at te r to whi ch the provi sion s of a rt ic le 133 or a rt ic le 134 do not a pply i f juri sdi ct ion and powe rs in r el at ion to tha t m at te r w er e exe rc is ab le by the Fed er al Cour t im me di at el y be for e th e c om me nc em en t of thi s Con st itut ion under any ex is ting la w. fin al ord er or s en ten ce in a c ri min al pro ce ed ing of a H igh Court in the t er rito ry of Ind ia sub je ct to su ch condi tions a nd li mi ta tion s as m ay b e sp ec if ie d in su ch la w. d ec re e. f ina l orde r or se nte nc e in a c ri min al proc ee ding of a H igh Cour t in th e t er ri tory of India i f th e High Cou rt— (a) ha s on app ea l re ve rs ed an orde r of ac quit ta l of a n a cc us ed p er son a nd s en ten ce d him to dea th. — ( a) ma y. in it s di sc re tion . pa ss ing or ma king a judgm ent . C er ti fi ca te fo r app eal to the Sup re me Cou rt . 135. th e que st ion wh et he r a ce rt if ic at e of the na tur e re fe rr ed to in c la us e (1) of ar ti cl e 132.

(2) The Sup re me Cou rt m ay . for any purpos es othe r than thos e me nt ioned in cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 32. the Supr em e Cou rt sh al l h ave pow er to re vie w any judg me nt pronoun ce d or ord er m ad e by it .Ge ne ra l of Indi a or by a par ty to any s uch ca se th at s uch qu es tions a re subs tan ti al que st ions of gene ra l i mpor tan ce . E nlar ge me nt of t he ju ri sd ic tio n of th e Sup re me Cou rt . and th e H igh Court sh al l on re ce ip t th er eo f. proc ee d to di spos e of th e c as e in con for mi ty with su ch judgm en t. (2) The Sup re me Cou rt sh al l hav e s uch furth er jur isd ic tion and powe rs w ith re sp ec t to a ny m at te r a s the Gov er nm en t of Indi a and the Gov er nm en t of any St at e m ay by sp ec ia l agr ee me nt con fe r. An ci llar y pow er s of Sup re me Cou rt . the Supr em e Cou rt m ay wi thdr aw the ca se or c as es pending befo re the High Cou rt or the H igh Court s an d dispo se of a ll the c as es it se lf : Provid ed th at the Sup re me Cou rt m ay af te r de te rm in ing the sa id qu es tions of l aw r etu rn a ny c as e so w ithd ra wn toge the r wi th a c opy of it s judg me nt on su ch ques tion s to th e High Cour t f rom whi ch the ca se ha s bee n w ithd ra wn. T ran sf er of ce rt ain cas es . quo wa rran to a nd c er ti ora ri . 139A. if P arl ia me nt by l aw prov ide s fo r th e ex er ci se of s uch juri sdi ct ion and po we rs by th e Sup re me Cou rt. manda mus . if i t de em s it exp edi ent so to do for the e nds of jus tic e. t ran sf er any ca se . 139. 140. in cluding wr its in the natu re of habea s c orpu s.— P ar lia me nt m ay by l aw c onf er on th e Supr em e Cou rt powe r to i ssu e di re ct ions . Re vi ew of judg me nt s or o rde rs by t he Supr eme Co ur t. proh ibit ion.— (1) Whe re ca se s involving the s am e or sub st ant ia lly the s am e qu es tions of l aw a re p ending befo re th e Supr em e Cou rt and one or mor e High Cou rt s or be for e two or mo re H igh Court s and th e Supre me Cour t is sa ti sf ie d on its own mo tion or on an appl ic at ion ma de by th e At torn ey.— (1) Th e Sup re me Court sh al l have su ch fur the r juri sdi ct ion and powe rs w ith r esp ec t to any of the ma tt er s in the Un ion Lis t a s P arl ia me nt m ay by l aw c onf er . Co nf er me nt on t he Sup re me C our t of pow er s to is su e ce rt ain w ri ts . — Subj ec t to the prov is ions of any la w ma de by Pa rli am en t or a ny ru le s ma de und er a rt ic le 145. 138. ord er s or wr its . s en ten ce or ord er p as se d or m ad e by any cou rt or tribun al con st itut ed by or und er any la w re la ting to the Ar me d For ce s. de te rm ina tion .— P ar lia me nt ma y by la w m ak e provi sion for con fe rr ing upon th e Sup re me Cour t su ch suppl em en ta l pow er s not incon si st ent with any of th e prov is ions of this Cons ti tution a s m ay app ea r to be nec es sa ry or des ir abl e for th e purpo se of e nab ling the Cou rt mo re e ff ec ti ve ly to ex er ci se the jur isd ic tion con fe rr ed upon it by or 49 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . 137. (2) No thing in c la us e (1) sh al l a pply to any judg me nt.a ny cou rt or t ribun al in th e t er rito ry of Ind ia . app ea l or othe r pro ce ed ing s p ending b efo re any H igh Cou rt to a ny oth er H igh Court . or any of th em .

r epo rt to th e Pre si den t i ts opinion the re on. 50 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . (2) Subj ec t to th e provis ions of any l aw m ad e in thi s beh al f by P ar lia me nt . 5 ( w. Po we r of Pr es id en t to c ons ul t Su pr eme Cou rt . 145. R ul es of Cou rt .— (1) If a t a ny t im e it appe ar s to the Pr es ide nt th at a que stion of la w or fa ct has ar is en . hav e a ll and ev er y powe r to ma ke any ord er for th e purpo se of s ec ur ing th e at te ndan ce of a ny pe rson. civ il a nd judi ci al. af te r su ch he ar ing as it think s fit . — (1 ) The Supr em e Cou rt in th e exe rc is e of it s ju ris dic tion ma y pa ss suc h de cr ee or m ak e such orde r a s i s ne ce ss ar y for doing co mpl et e jus ti ce in any ca us e or ma tt er pending be for e it. — Al l autho ri tie s. et c. the Supr em e Cou rt sh all . 143. and any d ec re e so pa ss ed or orde r so ma de sha ll be en for ce ab le throughou t the t er ri tory of India in su ch m ann er as ma y be pre sc ri bed by or under any l aw m ad e by P arl ia me nt and. whi ch i s of s uch a na tur e and of su ch publi c i mpor tan ce th at it is e xped ie nt to obt ain th e opinion of the Supre me Court upon i t. ] R ep. 142. in suc h m ann er a s th e P re sid ent m ay by ord er pr es cr ib e. ( b) rule s a s to th e proc edu re fo r h ea ring app ea ls a nd oth er m at te rs p ert ain ing to app ea ls in cluding the t im e w ith in whi ch a ppe al s to th e Cou rt ar e to be ent er ed . wi th th e a pprov al of the P re sid en t. e. the Supr em e Court ma y f rom tim e to tim e. — Th e la w dec la re d by the Sup re me Court sh al l be binding on al l c ourt s w ithin th e te rri tory of Indi a.1978). [Sp ec ia l pro vi sion s as to dispo sal of qu es tions re lat ing to c ons titu tional v alid it y of law s. af te r su ch h ea ring a s it think s f it. r epor t to th e P re sid ent it s opinion the re on. E nfo rc emen t of d ec re es and ord er s of Sup re me C our t and ord er s as to di scov er y.und er thi s Con st itut ion. 144A. 13-4. (2) Th e P re sid ent m ay . m ak e rul es fo r re gula ting gene ra ll y the pra ct ic e a nd pro ce dur e of the Cour t in clud ing— ( a) rule s a s to th e per son s pr ac ti si ng b efo re th e Cou rt . not with st and ing a nything in the provi so to a rt ic le 131. b y the Cons titu tion ( For ty -th ird A me ndm ent ) Act . Law de cla re d by Su pr eme Cou rt to b e bin ding on al l cou rt s.f . Civ il and j udi cia l autho ri ti es to a ct in aid of th e Su pr eme Co ur t. 1977. ( c ) rul es a s to th e pro ce ed ings in the Court for th e en for ce me nt of a ny of th e r ight s c onf er re d by Pa rt II I. or i s lik el y to ar is e. a s r es pe ct s the who le of the t er rito ry of India . et c. re fe r a di spute of th e kind m ent ione d in the s aid prov iso to the Sup re me Cou rt fo r opinion a nd the Supre me Court sha ll. unt il prov is ion in tha t beh al f i s so m ad e. 141. he ma y r ef er the que stion to tha t Cou rt fo r c ons ide ra tion and the Cou rt ma y. the dis cove ry or produc tion of a ny do cum ent s. in the te rr itory of Indi a sh al l a ct in aid of th e Sup re me Cour t. 144. s. or the inv es tig at ion or puni shm ent of any con te mpt of it se lf . — (1 ) Subje ct to the provi sion s of any la w m ad e by P arl ia me nt .

( d) rule s a s to th e ent er ta inm en t of a ppe al s unde r sub -c la us e ( c ) of c la us e (1) of ar ti cl e 134. rul es m ad e unde r thi s a rt ic le m ay fix th e min imu m numb er of Judg es w ho a re to s it for any purpos e. (2) Subje ct to the provis ions of c lau se (3 ). (3) Th e m in i mu m numb er of Judg es who a re to si t for the purpo se of d ec iding any ca se involving a sub st ant ia l ques tion of la w as to the int er pr et at ion of thi s Cons titu tion or for the purpo se of he ar ing any r ef er en ce unde r a rt ic le 143 sha ll be fiv e: Prov ided th at. ( i) rule s providing fo r th e su mm ar y d ete rm in at ion of a ny app ea l wh ic h a ppe ar s to the Cour t to be f rivolou s or v exa tiou s or brough t fo r th e purpos e of del ay. (4) No judgm en t sh al l be d eliv er ed by th e Supr em e Cour t sa ve in open Cou rt. ( e ) rul es a s to th e cond ition s sub je ct to whi ch a ny judgm en t pronoun ce d or ord er ma de by the Cou rt ma y be r evi ew ed and th e pro ce dur e fo r su ch r evi ew inc luding th e ti me w ithin whi ch app li ca tion s to the Cou rt for su ch rev ie w ar e to be ent er ed . and no re port sha ll be m ad e unde r a rt ic le 143 s av e in a cc or dan ce w ith an opinion al so del ive re d in open Cou rt. su ch Cou rt sh al l r ef er the ques tion for opinion to a Cour t c ons titu ted a s re quir ed by thi s cl au se fo r th e purpos e of d ec iding any ca se invo lving su ch a que stion and sh al l on re ce ip t of th e opinion di spos e of the app ea l in c onfo rm ity wi th s uch opinion . wh er e the Cou rt he ar ing a n a ppe al und er any of the prov is ions of this Cha pte r oth er than ar ti cl e 132 con si st s of l es s th an f ive Judg es and in th e cour se of th e hea ring of the app ea l th e Cou rt is s at is fi ed th at the a ppe al involv es a s ubs tan ti al que stion of la w as to th e int er pr et at ion of thi s Cons titu tion the de te rm in at ion of wh ich i s n ec es sa ry fo r th e dispo sa l of the a ppe al . ( j) rul es as to the pro ce dur e for inqui rie s r ef er re d to in cl au se (1 ) of a rt ic le 317. ( g) rule s a s to th e gran ting of bail .51 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA ( cc ) rul es as to th e pro ce ed ings in th e Court unde r a rt ic le 139A . ( h) rule s a s to s ta y of pro ce ed ings . . (5) No judgm en t a nd no suc h opin ion sh al l be del ive re d by the Supr em e Cou rt s av e w ith th e con cu rr enc e of a m aj or ity of the J udge s pr es en t at the h ea ring of the c as e. but noth ing in thi s c lau se sh al l be d ee me d to pr ev ent a Judg e who doe s not con cu r f rom d eliv er ing a dis se nting judg men t or opinion . a nd m ay provid e for th e powe rs of s ingle J udge s and Div is ion Cou rt s. ( f) rule s as to the cos ts of and incid en ta l to any pro ce ed ing s in th e Cou rt and as to th e f ee s to be ch arg ed in re spe ct of pro ce ed ings th er ein .

or of the Ind ia n Ind ep ende nc e Ac t. or of any ord er m ad e the reund er . th e c ondit ions of se rvi ce of of fi ce rs and se rv ant s of th e Supr em e Cou rt sh al l be su ch a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed by rul es ma de by the Chie f J us tic e of Indi a or by som e oth er Judg e or of fi ce r of the Cour t autho ris ed by th e Chi ef Ju st ic e of Indi a to m ak e rul es for the purpo se : Provid ed th at the ru le s m ad e und er th is cl aus e sha ll. (3) Th e s al ar y and othe r c ondit ions of se rv ic e of the Com pt roll er a nd Aud ito r. In te rp re ta tio n. (2) Eve ry pe rson appoint ed to be th e Com pt roll er and Aud ito r. le ave or pen sion s. Co mp tr ol le r and Aud ito r. ma ke and sub sc ri be befo re the P re sid ent . befo re he e nt er s upon his off ic e. (3) Th e a dm ini st ra tiv e expe ns es of th e Sup re me Cour t. or so me pe rs on appoin ted in tha t beh al f by him . 52 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA C H A P T E R V. allo wa nc es and pen sion s p ayab le to or in r es pe ct of the of fi ce rs a nd s er van ts of the Cou rt. sa ve a ft er c onsu lta tion w ith the Union Publ ic S ervi ce Com mi ss ion . an o ath or a ff ir ma ti on ac co rding to the for m s et out for the purpo se in th e Thi rd S che dule . no pe rson not al re ady a tt ac he d to the Cour t sh all b e a ppoint ed to a ny of fi ce c onne ct ed wi th the Cour t. r ef er en ce s to any subs tan ti al qu es tion of la w a s to th e int er pr et at ion of thi s Con st itut ion sh all be con st rue d as in cluding re fe re nc es to a ny sub st anti al qu es tion of l aw a s to the int erp re ta tion of the Gov er nm en t of Indi a Ac t.— In thi s Ch apt er and in Ch apt er V of Pa rt V I.Ge ne ra l of Ind ia. r equi re th e approv al of the P re sid ent . a llo wan ce s. —(1 ) Appoint me nt s of of fi ce rs and se rv ant s of th e Sup re me Cou rt sh al l be ma de by th e Ch ie f Ju st ic e of India or su ch oth er Judg e or off ic er of th e Cou rt as he ma y di re ct : Provid ed th at the P re sid ent ma y by rul e r equi re tha t in su ch c as es a s ma y b e spe ci fi ed in the rule .—C O M P T R O L L E R AND A U D I T O R -G E N E R A L OF INDIA 148. a nd a ny f ee s or oth er mon eys t ake n by the Cou rt sha ll for m pa rt of th at Fund. (2) Subj ec t to th e provis ions of any l aw m ad e by Pa rl ia me nt .146.Gen er al of Ind ia sha ll.G en er al sh all be su ch a s ma y be d ete rm in ed by P arl ia me nt by l aw . so f ar as they re la te to sa la ri es . or of a ny Ord er in Coun cil or orde r m ad e the reund er . O ff ic er s and s er van ts and th e e xpe ns es of t he Su pr eme Cour t. 1947. 147. sh al l b e c ha rge d upon the Con solid at ed Fund of Ind ia . —(1 ) The re sh al l b e a Co mpt rol le r and Audito r.Ge ne ra l of Indi a who s ha ll be appoin ted by th e P re sid ent by w ar ra nt unde r his hand and se al and sha ll only be re mov ed f rom of fi ce in lik e ma nne r and on th e l ike ground s a s a Judg e of the Sup re me Court . 1935 (in clud ing any ena ct me nt am en ding or s upple me nt ing th at A ct ). inc luding al l s al ar ie s.

(4) Th e Co mp trol le r and Audi tor -G ene ra l sh al l not be el igib le fo r fu rth er of fi ce e ith er und er the Gov er nm ent of Indi a or under th e G ove rnm en t of a ny St at e af te r he ha s ce as ed to hold his of fic e. on the a dvi ce of th e Com pt roll er and Aud ito r. until provision in that behalf is so made. 150.Gen er al of Ind ia . . allo wa nc es a nd pen sion s pay abl e to or in re sp ec t of p er sons se rv ing in tha t of fic e. —Th e a cc ount s of the U nion and of the Sta te s sha ll b e kept in suc h for m as the Pre si den t m ay . who sh al l ca us e the m to b e l aid be for e the L egi sl atu re of the St at e. Duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor-General.G en er al . 149. in cluding al l sa la ri es . (6) The a dm ini st ra tiv e exp en se s of the of fi ce of th e Co mpt roll er and Aud ito r.Ge ne ra l. the cond ition s of s er vi ce of pe rs ons se rv ing in th e Ind ian Aud it a nd Ac coun ts De pa rt me nt a nd the adm ini st ra tiv e po we rs of the Com ptro ll er a nd Audi tor -G en er al sha ll b e su ch a s m ay be pr es cr ib ed by rul es ma de by th e Pre si den t a ft er consu lt at ion w ith the Co mpt ro l le r and Audito r.53 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA a nd. (2) Th e r epo rts of th e Co mp trol le r and Audi tor -G en er al of Indi a re la ting to the a cc ount s of a S ta te sh al l b e s ubm itt ed to the Gov erno r of th e Sta te .— (1) The r epo rts of th e Com pt roll er and Aud ito rG en er al of Indi a r el at ing to th e a cc ount s of th e Un ion sh all be sub mi tt ed to th e Pr es id ent. For m of ac coun ts of th e U nion and of th e S tat es . Aud it re por ts . 151. p ens ion or ag e of re ti re me nt sh al l be var ied to his di sadv ant ag e af te r his appo intm en t. until they a re s o d ete rm in ed.—The Comptroller and Auditor-General shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States and of any other authority or body as may be prescribed by or under any law made by Parliament and. shall perform such duties and exercise such powers in relation to the accounts of the Union and of the States as were conferred on or exercisable by the Auditor-General of India immediately before the commencement of this Constitution in relation to the accounts of the Dominion of India and of the Provinces respectively. (5) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s Con st itut ion and of any l aw ma de by P ar lia me nt . sh all be ch ar ged upon th e Con sol ida ted Fund of Ind ia . who sh al l ca us e the m to b e la id be for e e ac h Hou se of P ar lia me nt . sha ll b e a s s pe ci fi ed in th e S ec ond S che dule : Provid ed tha t neith er th e sa la ry of a Com ptro ll er and Aud itor -G en er al nor hi s r ights in re sp ec t of le av e of a bs enc e. pr es cr ib e.

— (1) Th e G ove rnor sh al l not be a m em be r of ei the r Hou se of Pa rl ia me nt or of a Hous e of the Le gis la tur e of a ny St at e sp ec if ie d in the Fi rs t Sch edul e. C H A P T E R II. Te rm of off ic e of Gove rn or . th e e xpr es sion “ St at e” do es not inc lude th e St at e of Ja mm u and K as hm ir . 157. 156. 155. r es ign his of fic e. —(1 ) Th e ex ec utiv e pow er of th e St at e sh al l be ves te d in the Gove rno r and s ha ll b e ex er ci se d by him ei the r di re ct ly or th rough of fi ce rs subord ina te to him in ac co rd anc e w ith this Con st itut ion.—G E N E R A L 152.— No per son s ha ll be e lig ible for appoin tm ent as Gov erno r unl es s he is a ci ti ze n of Ind ia and ha s c omp le te d th e age of thi rty -fiv e ye ar s. con tinu e to hold off ic e until hi s s uc ce ss or e nte rs upon his of fic e. Co ndi tion s of Gove rn or 's of fic e. (2) No thing in thi s ar ti cl e sha ll — ( a) be dee me d to t ra ns fe r to th e Gove rno r a ny fun ct ions con fe rr ed by a ny e xis ting la w on any oth er au thori ty. Qua li fic atio ns for appoin tmen t a s Gov er nor . (2) Th e G ove rnor m ay.— In this P art . D ef in itio n. Exe cu tiv e po we r of Sta te . by w ri ting unde r hi s hand addr es se d to th e P re sid ent . (3) Subje ct to the for egoing prov is ions of thi s a rti cl e. —T H E E X E C U T I V E The Go ve rno r 153. and if a me mb er of ei the r Hous e of Pa rli am en t or of a Hou se of th e L egis la tu re of any su ch S ta te be a ppoint ed Gove rno r. a Gov er nor s ha ll hold off ic e for a t er m of five y ea rs f rom th e dat e on wh ich he en te rs upon hi s offi ce : Provid ed tha t a Gove rnor sh al l. 158.— (1 ) Th e Gov erno r sh al l hold off ic e dur ing th e ple as ur e of th e Pr es ide nt. or ( b) prev ent P arl ia me nt or the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e f rom c onf er ring by l aw fun ct ions on any au th or ity subord ina te to the Gov er nor. —Th e Gov er nor of a St at e sh al l be a ppoint ed by the P re sid ent by w ar ra nt unde r his hand and se al . Appo in tmen t of Gove rn or . notw iths ta nding the exp ir at ion of hi s t er m. unl es s th e c ont ext othe rw is e r equi re s. he sha ll be de em ed to hav e vac at ed hi s s ea t in tha t 55 . G ove rno rs of S tat es .— The re s ha ll be a Gove rno r fo r ea ch St at e: Provid ed th at nothing in thi s a rt ic le sha ll pr ev ent the a ppoint me nt of the s am e per son as G ove rnor fo r t wo or m or e Sta te s.54 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART VI THE STATES C H A P T E R I. 154.

(nam e of the Stat e) a nd wil l to the be st of m y abi lity pre se rv e. . — The Pr es id ent ma y ma ke s uch provi sion a s he thinks f it for th e di sch ar ge of the func tion s of th e Gov er nor of a St at e in a ny c onting enc y no t provid ed for in this Ch apt er . befo re ent er ing upon hi s off ic e.. the ex ec ut ive pow er e xpr es sly .. — Subj ec t to the prov is ions of thi s Cons ti tution. …… …(na me of th e Sta te ) . in his a bs enc e. .. a llo wan ce s a nd pr ivil eg es a s ar e sp ec if ie d in th e S ec ond S che dule . Oa th or affi rmat ion by the Gov er nor . re spi te s or re mi ss ion s of puni shm en t or to su sp end. (3) Th e G ove rnor sh al l b e e nti tle d w ithou t p aym en t of r ent to th e use of hi s offi ci al r es id enc es and sha ll be a lso en tit led to suc h e mo lum en ts . Ext en t of e xe cu tiv e po we r of Stat e. (3A ) Wh er e th e s am e pe rson i s appo int ed a s Gov er nor of two or mo re St at es .. th e se nio r m os t J udge of tha t Cou rt av ai lab le . ma ke and sub sc ri be in the pre se nc e of the Chie f J us tic e of th e H igh Cour t ex er ci si ng juri sdi ct ion in r el at ion to th e Sta te . do s w e a r i n t h e n a m e o f G o d that I wi ll solemnly affirm f ai thfu lly exe cu te th e offi ce of G ove rnor (o r di sc ha rge th e func tion s of th e Gov er nor ) of . (4) Th e e mo lum en ts and a llo wan ce s of th e G ove rnor sh al l not be di min ish ed during his t er m of offi ce . 159.being of the p eople of . r em it or co mm ut e th e s ent en ce of any per son c onvic te d of any off enc e aga in st a ny la w r el at ing to a ma tt er to whi ch th e e xe cut ive pow er of th e S ta te ex tend s. et c. th e e mo lum en ts a nd al low an ce s paya bl e to th e Gov erno r sh al l be a llo ca te d a mong th e St at es in su ch propo rtion as the Pre si den t m ay by ord er d ete rm in e. a llo wa nc es and privi leg es a s m ay be de te rm ine d by Pa rli am en t by l aw and . s uch e mo lum ent s.. B. (2) Th e G ove rnor sh al l not hold any othe r of fi ce of pro fit . or . r emit o r co mmut e se nt en ce s in c er ta in c as es . Po we r of Gov er nor to gra nt par dons ..— The Gove rno r of a Sta te sha ll h ave the po we r to gr ant p ardon s. r ep rie ve s.” 160.. an oath or a ff ir ma ti on in the fo llow ing for m. th e exe cu tive po we r of a St at e sh al l e xte nd to th e m at te rs w ith re sp ec t to w hic h th e Leg is la tur e of the Sta te has pow er to ma ke la ws : P rovide d th at in any ma tt er w ith re sp ec t to whi ch the Leg is la tur e of a St at e and Pa rl ia me nt hav e powe r to ma ke l aw s.. th at is to say — “ I. . prote ct and def end th e Con sti tution and th e l aw a nd th at I wi ll devot e my se lf to the se rv ic e and we ll . 162.— Eve ry Gov er nor a nd ev ery p er son dis ch arg ing th e func tion s of th e Gov er nor s ha ll.. . and li mi te d by. 161.55 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA Hou se on the dat e on wh ic h he e nte rs upon hi s of fic e as Gov er nor. and to su sp end . Di sc har ge of th e fu nc tio ns of the Gov er no r in c er ta in c ont inge nc ie s. A.. . th e e xe cut ive pow er of th e St at e sh al l b e sub je ct to. unti l provis ion in th at beh al f i s so ma de .

(3) The qu es tion wh eth er any.— (1) The Ch ie f Min is te r sh al l be a ppoint ed by the Gove rno r and th e oth er Minis te rs sh al l be a ppoint ed by th e Gov er nor on th e advi ce of th e Ch ie f Mini st er . th er e sh al l be a Mini st er in ch ar ge of trib al we lf ar e who m ay in addi tion be in c ha rge of th e we lf ar e of th e Sch edu led Ca st es and b ack wa rd cl as se s or any oth er wo rk. th e dec is ion of th e Gove rno r in hi s di sc re tion sh al l be f ina l. then the tot al nu mbe r of Min is te rs in tha t Sta te sh al l be brought in c onfo rm ity w ith th e prov is ions of this cl au se wi thin s ix m onths fro m s uch dat e * a s th e Pr es id ent m ay by publ ic notif ic at ion a ppoint. adv ic e w as t ende re d by Min is te rs to the Gov er nor sh all not be inquir ed into in a ny c our t. in th e Coun ci l of Min is te rs in a St at e sh al l not ex ce ed fi ft ee n pe r ce nt. Counc il of Min is te rs 163.56 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA c onf er re d by this Con st itut ion or by any l aw m ad e by P ar lia me nt upon the Union or au thori ti es th er eo f. (1A ) Th e tot al numbe r of Minis te rs . of the tot al nu mbe r of m em be rs of the L egis la tiv e As se mb ly of tha t S ta te : Prov ided th at the numb er of Min is te rs . — (1 ) Th er e sh al l be a Coun ci l of Mini st er s with the Ch ie f Min is te r a t the he ad to a id a nd advi se th e Gov erno r in th e ex er ci se of hi s fun ct ions . and the va lidi ty of any thing done by th e G ove rnor sh al l not be ca ll ed in qu es tion on the ground th at he ought or ought not to h ave ac te d in his di sc re tion . (2) I f a ny q u es tion ar is es whe the r any ma tt er is or is not a m at te r a s r es pe ct s w hic h the Gove rno r is by or under this Cons titu tion r equi re d to a ct in his di sc re tion . Ot he r provi sio ns as to Mi nis te rs . 2003 e xc ee ds the sa id fi ft ee n pe r ce nt . 164. Coun ci l of Min is te rs to aid and advi se Gov er no r. M adhya Pr ad esh and O ri ss a. 21(E). ex ce pt in so fa r a s h e i s by or und er thi s Cons titu tion requ ir ed to e x e rc is e hi s fun ct ions or any of th em in his di sc re tion.1.2004: vide Notification No. (1B ) A m em be r of the Leg is la tiv e A ss em bly of a S ta te or ei the r Hou se of the L egi sl atu re of a Sta te having Leg is la tive Counc il belong ing to any poli ti ca l pa rty who is disqu al ifi ed fo r be ing a me mb er of th at H ous e unde r p ar agr aph 2 of th e T enth S chedu le sh al l a ls o b e di squa li fi ed to b e a ppoint ed as a Min is te r under c la us e (1) for dur at ion of th e p er iod ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ *7.O. dated 7. and i f so wh at . in clud ing th e Chi ef Mini st er in a St at e sh al l not be le ss than tw elv e: Provid ed fu rthe r th at whe re th e tot al nu mbe r of Min is te rs inc luding th e Ch ie f Minis te r in the Counc il of Mini st er s in a ny St at e a t th e c om me nc em en t of the Con st itut ion ( Nin ety -f ir st Am en dm en t) Ac t. S. and the Minis te rs sh al l hold off ic e during th e pl ea su re of th e G ove rnor : Provid ed tha t in th e S ta te s of Biha r.2004. . or the numbe r s pe ci fi ed in th e f ir st prov iso . in clud ing the Chi ef Min is te r. a s the c as e m ay b e.1.

— (1 ) A ll e xe cut ive ac tion of the Gove rn me nt of a St at e sh al l b e expressed to be taken in the name of the Governor.Ge ne ra l for th e Sta te . a s th e ca se ma y be. and to per for m such othe r duti es of a leg al ch ar ac te r. Conduc t of Go ve rn me nt Bu sine ss 166. Cond uc t of bu si ne ss of t he Gove rn me nt of a S tat e. A dvoca te . the Gove rnor sha ll a dm ini st er to him the o aths of of fic e and of s ec re cy a cc or ding to th e fo rm s s et out for th e purpo se in th e Third Sch edu le . (2) The Coun ci l of Min is te rs sha ll be co ll ec tiv ely re spons ibl e to th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y of th e St at e. unti l th e Leg is la tur e of th e Sta te s o d ete rm in es . (4) A Mini st er who fo r a ny p er iod of s ix c ons ec utiv e mon ths is not a m em be r of the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e sh al l a t the exp ir at ion of th at per iod c ea se to be a Mini st er . and for the allocation among Ministers of the said business in so 57 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .— (1 ) The Gov erno r of e ac h Sta te sh al l appoin t a p er son w ho i s qual ifi ed to b e a ppoint ed a Judg e of a H igh Cou rt to b e A dvoc at e. and the validity of an order or instrument which is so authenticated shall not be called in question on the ground that it is not an order or instrument made or executed by the Governor. ti ll the da te on whi ch he i s dec la re d el ec te d. (3) Th e A dvoc at e. and sh al l re ce iv e suc h r em une ra ti on a s the Gov er nor ma y d ete rm in e. whi ch eve r is e ar li er . (3) Be for e a Mini st er ent er s upon hi s off ic e. The Ad voca te -G en er al for th e Sta te 165.c om me nc ing f rom the d ate of hi s di squa li fi ca tion t ill th e dat e on whi ch the t er m of his off ic e a s suc h m em be r wou ld expi re or wh er e he con te st s a ny el ec ti on to th e Leg is la tiv e A ss em bl y of a St at e or e ith er Hous e of the Leg is la tur e of a Sta te hav ing Leg is la tiv e Coun ci l.G en er al to give advi ce to th e Gov er nm en t of th e St at e upon su ch l ega l ma tt er s. (5) Th e s al ar ie s a nd a llo wa nc es of Min is te rs s ha ll be suc h a s th e L egi sl atu re of th e Sta te m ay f rom ti me to ti me by la w d ete rm in e a nd.G en er al fo r th e Sta te . (2) Orders and other instruments made and executed in the name of the Governor shall be authenticated in such manner as may be specified in rules to be made by the Governor. and to dis ch arg e the fun ct ions con fe rr ed on hi m by or unde r thi s Con sti tution or any oth er la w fo r the tim e being in fo rc e. be for e the exp iry of such pe riod . as m ay f rom ti me to ti me be re fe rr ed or a ss ign ed to hi m by the Gov er nor.G en er al sh al l hold of fic e during th e ple as ur e of th e Gov er nor. (3) The Governor shall make rules for the more convenient transaction of the business of the Government of the State. (2) It sh al l be th e duty of the A dvoc at e. sha ll be a s spe ci fi ed in the S ec ond S che dule .

Compo si tion of th e L egi sla tive As se mb li es . (b) in other States. (2) Where there are two Houses of the Legislature of a State. and— (a) in the States of Bihar. th e L egi sl ativ e A ss em bl y of e ac h St at e sha ll c ons is t of not mo re tha n fiv e hundr ed. (b) to furnish such information relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation as the Governor may call for.—It shall be the duty of the Chief Minister of each State— (a) to communicate to the Governor of the State all decisions of the Council of Ministers relating to the administration of the affairs of the State and proposals for legislation. one House.58 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA far as it is not business with respect to which the Governor is by or under this Constitution required to act in his discretion. Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh. Constitution of Legislatures in States. if the Legislative Assembly of the State passes a resolution to that effect by a majority of th e tot al m em be rs hip of the A ss em bl y a nd by a ma jo rity of not le ss th an two -thi rds of the m em be rs of the As se mb ly pr es en t a nd voting . one shall be known as the Legislative Council and the other as the Legislative Assembly. (2) Any la w re fe rr ed to in cl aus e (1 ) s ha ll cont ain su ch provi sion s for th e a me ndm en t of th is Con st itut ion a s m ay be ne ce ss ar y to give ef fe ct to th e provis ions of th e l aw a nd m ay a ls o c onta in suc h s upple me nt al . 170. CHAPTER III. in cid ent al and con se que nti al provi sion s as P ar li am en t ma y d ee m ne ce ss ar y. etc. two Houses.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 168. and where there is only one House.— (1 ) Subj ec t to th e prov is ions of ar ti cl e 333. (3) No su ch l aw as af or es ai d sha ll be de em ed to be an a me ndm en t of thi s Con st itut ion fo r the purpos es of ar tic le 368. a nd not le ss th an six ty. to submit for the consideration of the Council of Ministers any matter on which a decision has been taken by a Minister but which has not been considered by the Council. * * * * * 167. Parliament may by law provide for the abolition of the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council or for the creation of such a Council in a State having no such Council. Abolition or creation of Legislative Councils in States. Maharashtra. 169. m em be rs c hos en by dir ec t el ec ti on f rom t er ri tor ia l c ons titu en ci es in the St at e. it shall be known as the Legislative Assembly.—THE STATE LEGISLATURE General 168. and (c) if the Governor so requires. Duties of Chief Minister as respects the furnishing of information to Governor. .—(1) For every State there shall be a Legislature which shall consist of the Governor.

171. —In this cl aus e. (2) Unti l Pa rl ia me nt by l aw othe rw is e provide s.third sha ll be e le ct ed by e le ct or at es c ons is ting of m em be rs of muni cip al it ie s. (3) Upon the co mpl et ion of e ac h c en sus . under this clause. and (ii) the division of such State into territorial constituencies as may be readjusted on the basis of the 2001 census. until the r el ev ant f igur es for the fir st ce nsu s t ake n af te r th e ye ar 2026 have be en publi sh ed. 59 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . be con st rued a s a re fe re nc e to the 2001 c en su s. by ord er . be the sa me th roughout the St at e. so f ar a s pra ct ic ab le . any e le ct ion to th e L egi sl at ive As se mb ly m ay be he ld on the bas is of th e t er ri tori al c ons titu enc ie s ex is ting be for e suc h r ea dju st me nt: Provided also that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2026 have been published. e ac h St at e sh al l b e divid ed into t er rito ri al con st itu enc ie s in suc h m ann er th at th e r at io bet we en th e popul at ion of e ac h cons titu en cy and the numb er of s ea ts allo tt ed to it sh al l. spe ci fy and until su ch re ad jus tm en t t ake s e ff ec t. dis tr ic t bo ard s and suc h oth er lo ca l autho rit ie s in the Sta te as P ar lia me nt m ay by l aw s pe ci fy. the expr es si on “popu la tion ” m ea ns the popul at ion as as ce rt ai ne d a t th e la st pre ce ding ce nsu s of w hic h the re le van t f igur es h ave be en publis hed : Prov ided th at the r ef er en ce in thi s Exp lanation to the l as t pre ce ding c en sus of wh ich th e r el ev ant figu re s hav e be en publish ed sh al l. Composition of the Legislative Councils. Explana tion.—(1) The total number of members in the Legislative Council of a State having such a Council shall not exceed one third of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly of that State: Provid ed th at th e tot al numbe r of me mb er s in the Leg is la tiv e Coun cil of a St at e sh al l in no c as e b e l es s tha n fo rty. it shall not be necessary to readjust— (i) the total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly of each State as readjusted on the basis of the 1971 census. one. (3) O f th e tota l numb er of me mb er s of th e Legi sl at ive Coun ci l of a St at e — ( a) a s ne ar ly a s m ay be. the tota l nu mbe r of s ea ts in th e L egi sl at ive As se mb ly of ea ch Sta te and th e divi sion of ea ch Sta te into t er ri tori al con st itu enc ie s sh al l b e r ea dju st ed by su ch autho rity and in suc h m ann er a s P arl ia me nt m ay by l aw de te rm in e: Prov ided th at suc h r ea dju st me nt sh al l not af fe ct rep re se nt at ion in th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y unti l the dis solu tion of the then ex is ting As se mb ly : Prov ided fu rthe r tha t suc h r ea dju st me nt sha ll t ake e ff ec t f rom su ch dat e a s the P re sid ent m ay. the com pos ition of the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l of a St at e sha ll be a s provid ed in c lau se (3).(2) For th e purpos es of c lau se (1).

tw el fth sh al l be el ec te d by e le ct or at es con si st ing of pe rson s r es iding in the Sta te who hav e b een for a t l ea st thr ee ye ar s gr adua te s of any univ er si ty in th e t er rito ry of Ind ia or hav e be en for at l ea st th re e ye ar s in pos se ss io n of qua lif ic at ions pr es cr ib ed by or unde r a ny l aw m ad e by P arl ia me nt a s equiv al en t to tha t of a gr adua te of any su ch unive rs ity . ar t. b e e xte nded by P ar li am en t by la w for a pe riod not e xc ee ding one ye ar a t a t im e and not ext ending in any ca se beyond a per iod of s ix m onths a ft er th e Pro cl am at ion ha s ce as ed to ope ra te .—(1) Every Legislative Assembly of every State.cl aus e ( d) of the s aid c lau se sha ll be h eld in a cc ord an ce w ith th e s ys te m of proport iona l rep re se nt at ion by me an s of th e s ingl e tr ans fe ra bl e vote . s ci en ce . co -ope ra tiv e mov em en t and soc ia l se rvi ce . (2) The L egi sl at ive Counc il of a St at e sh al l not be subj ec t to di ss olut ion. a s ma y be pre sc ri bed by or und er any la w ma de by Pa rli am en t. Duration of State Legislatures. na me ly :— Li te ra tu re .— A pe rs on sh al l not be qua li fie d to be cho se n to fi ll a se at in th e L egi sl atu re of a St at e unle ss he— 60 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .cl au se s and unde r s ub. ( e ) th e re ma in de r sh al l be no min at ed by the Gove rno r in ac co rd anc e w ith the prov is ions of cl au se (5 ). unless sooner dissolved. a nd th e el ec ti ons unde r th e sa id sub. not low er in s ta nda rd than tha t of a s ec onda ry sc hool. 172. wh ile a P roc la ma ti on of E me rg enc y i s in ope ra tion . (b) and ( c ) of c la us e (3 ) sh al l be c hos en in s uch te rri tor ia l con st itue nc ie s a s ma y be pr es cr ib ed by or unde r a ny l aw m ad e by P arl ia me nt .( b) a s ne ar ly a s m ay be. one. (4) Th e m em be rs to be el ec te d und er sub -c lau se s ( a). 173. one. shall continue for five years from the date appointed for its first meeting and no longer and the expiration of the said period of five years shall operate as a dissolution of the Assembly: Prov ided th at the s aid pe riod ma y. (5) Th e m em be rs to be nomin at ed by th e G ove rnor unde r sub. on e.tw el fth sh al l b e e le ct ed by e le ct or at es c ons is ting of p er sons who hav e b een for a t l ea st thr ee ye ar s e ngag ed in t ea ch ing in su ch edu ca ti ona l ins titu tion s w ithin th e St at e.third sh al l be el ec te d by the m em be rs of th e Leg is la tive A ss em bl y of th e Sta te f rom a mo ngs t p er sons who a re not m em be rs of the As se mb ly . but as nea rly a s poss ibl e one -thi rd of th e me mb er s th er eof sh al l re tir e as soon as ma y be on th e e xpir at ion of e ve ry s ec ond ye ar in ac co rd anc e with th e provis ions m ad e in that beh al f by P arl ia me nt by l aw .cl au se ( e ) of cl aus e (3) sh al l con si st of pe rson s hav ing sp ec ia l kno wle dge or pra ct ic al e xpe ri enc e in re sp ec t of s uch m at te rs as th e follo wing. ( d) as ne ar ly as m ay b e. ( c ) as ne ar ly as m ay b e. Q ual ifi ca tion for membe r sh ip of t he Sta te L eg is latu re .

and ( c ) poss es se s suc h oth er qua li fic at ion s a s m ay be pre sc ri be d in th at b eha lf by or unde r a ny l aw m ad e by P ar lia me n t . in the ca se of a St at e hav ing a L egi sl at ive Counc il. S es sio ns of th e Stat e Le gis lat ur e. (2) Th e G ove rnor m ay fro m ti me to ti me — ( a) prorogu e the Hou se or ei the r Hou se . ( b) dis solv e the Leg is la tiv e As se mb ly. in th e ca se of a St at e having a L egi sl at ive Coun ci l. wh et he r with r es pe ct to a Bil l th en pending in the L egi sl atu re or oth er wi se . and a Hous e to w hic h a ny m es sa ge i s s o s en t sh al l w ith a ll conve nie nt de sp at ch con sid er any m at te r requ ir ed by th e me ss ag e to be tak en into con sid er at ion. 174.( a) i s a c it iz en of Indi a.— (1) At th e co mm en ce me nt of th e fir st s es si on af te r ea ch gen er al e le ct ion to the Leg is la tiv e As se mb ly and a t the co mm en ce me nt of the fi rs t s es si on of ea ch ye ar . e ith er Hous e of the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e. or both Hous es as se mb le d toge the r. Spe ci al add re ss by t he Gove rn or . both Hou se s. (2) Th e G ove rnor m ay se nd me ss ag es to th e Hous e or Hou se s of the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e.— (1 ) The Gov erno r ma y a ddr es s the L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y or . (2) Provi sion s ha ll be ma de by the ru le s r egul at ing th e proc edu re of th e Hou se or e ith er Hou se for the a llot me nt of ti me fo r dis cus si on of th e m at te rs re fe rr ed to in s uch add re ss . and m ak es a nd sub sc ri be s b efo re som e per son au thor is ed in th at beha lf by th e El ec ti on Co mm is si on an oath or af fi rm at ion a cc or ding to th e fo rm se t out fo r th e purpo se in th e Th ird Sch edul e. a nd othe rw is e to tak e p art in the proc ee ding s of. a nd to sp ea k in. both Hous es a ss em bl ed toge the r and infor m th e L egi sl atu re of th e c au se s of it s sum mon s. in the ca se of a se at in th e Legi sl at ive A ss em bl y. and oth er wi se to t ake p art in the proc ee ding s of. not l es s tha n thi rty ye ar s of age . in th e ca se of a se at in the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l. the L egi sl at ive As se mb ly of the St at e or.— Ev ery Mini st er a nd th e Advoc at e. not l es s th an tw enty -f ive ye ar s of age a nd. any co mm it te e of the Leg is la tur e of whi ch he 61 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . Rig ht of Gove rn or to addr es s and s en d me ss ag es to t he Hou se or H ous es . ( b) is. in th e c as e of a Sta te having a L egis la tiv e Coun ci l. Rig ht s of Mi nis te rs and Advo cat e. but six m onths sh all not inte rv ene be tw ee n it s l as t si tting in one s es si on and the da te appo inte d fo r its f ir st si tting in the nex t s es si on.Gen er al for a Sta te s ha ll hav e th e righ t to sp ea k in. — (1 ) Th e Gov erno r sh al l fro m t im e to tim e sum mon the H ous e or ea ch Hous e of the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e to m ee t at s uch tim e and pl ac e a s he think s f it. 176. 177. p roroga tio n and di sso lu tion. and ma y for th at purpos e r equi re th e att end anc e of me mb er s. the Gov erno r sha ll a ddr es s th e L egi sl at ive As se mb ly or. 175.G en er al as re sp ec ts th e H ous es .

— Ev ery L egi sl ativ e As se mb ly of a Sta te sha ll. ( b) m ay a t any tim e by w ri ting und er hi s hand addr es se d. O ffi ce rs of the Stat e Legi sla tur e 178. sh all not. 180. if th e off ic e of De puty Sp ea ke r i s al so v ac ant . but sh al l not. a s soon as m ay be . whi le any r es olut ion for the r em ova l of th e Spe ak er f rom hi s of fi ce i s under con sid er at ion. re sign hi s of fi ce . T he Sp eak er o r t he D epu ty Spea ke r not to pr es id e whi le a r es ol utio n for his re mo val f ro m of fi ce i s und er con si de ra tion. by virtu e of th is a rt ic le . c hoos e two m em be rs of the As se mb ly to be re sp ec tiv ely Sp eak er a nd D epu ty Sp ea ke r th er eo f and. Pow er of t he De puty Spea ke r o r oth er pe rs on to pe rfo rm t he du ti es of th e of fi ce of. Vac at ion and r es ig natio n of. Spe ake r. t he off ic es of Sp eak er and D ep uty Spe ake r. and if suc h m em be r i s th e De puty Spe ake r. — (1 ) A t a ny si tting of the Leg is la tive As se mb ly . shall act as Speaker. such person as may be determined by the rules of procedure of the Assembly. th e duti es of th e of fic e sha ll be pe rfo rm ed by th e D eputy Sp ea ke r or. as th e ca se ma y be. (2) During the absence of the Speaker from any sitting of the Assembly the Deputy Speaker or. th e Sp ea ke r. so oft en a s the of fi ce of Sp eak er or D eputy Spe ake r b eco me s v ac ant . or whil e a ny re so lution for th e r em ova l of th e D eputy Spe ake r f rom his of fi ce i s under con sid er at ion. whe nev er th e As se mb ly is di sso lved . pr es id e. if he is also absent. be enti tl ed to vot e. th e As se mb ly sh all choo se anoth er m em be r to be Spe ake r or De puty Sp ea ke r. though he is pr es en t. th e D epu ty Sp ea ke r. th e Spe ake r sh al l not va ca te hi s of fic e until i mm ed ia te ly b efo re the f ir st me et ing of the A ss em bl y a ft er the dis solu tion. by suc h me mb er of th e A ss em bl y as th e Gove rnor m ay appo int for the purpo se . Th e Sp eak er and D epu ty Sp eak er of th e L eg is lativ e A ss embl y. and re mo val f rom. to the Sp eak er . — (1) While the off ic e of Sp ea ke r i s va ca nt. such other person as may be determined by the Assembly. or. to the D eputy Sp eak er . — A m em be r holding of fic e a s Spe ak er or D epu ty Sp ea ke r of a n A ss em bl y— ( a) sh al l va ca te his off ic e i f he c ea se s to be a me mb er of th e A ss em bl y. if no such person is present. 181.62 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA m ay be na me d a m em be r. 179. if su ch m em be r i s th e Spe ak er . a nd the provis ions of c lau se (2 ) of a rt ic le 180 s ha ll app ly in re la tion to eve ry su ch sit ting as they apply in re la tion to a sit ting fro m . o r to ac t as . and ( c ) ma y b e r em ove d f rom his off ic e by a r es olut ion of th e A ss em bl y p as se d by a ma jo rity of al l th e then m em be rs of th e As se mb ly: Provid ed th at no r es olut ion for the purpos e of c la us e ( c ) sha ll b e mov ed unl es s a t l ea st four te en d ays' notic e has bee n give n of th e int ention to m ove th e r es olu tion: Provid ed fur the r tha t.

the Coun ci l s ha ll choo se a nothe r me mb er to b e Ch ai rm an or D eputy Ch ai rm an. though he is present. a s th e c as e ma y b e. th e duti es of the off ic e s ha ll be per for me d by th e D epu ty Cha ir ma n or. re si gn hi s offi ce . Vac at ion and r es ig natio n of. 183. — The L egi sl ativ e Counc il of ev ery St at e having su ch Counc il sh al l. t he off ic es of C hai rman and De puty Chai rman . su ch per son as m ay be d ete rm in ed by th e rul es of pro ce dur e of th e Coun ci l. 185. to th e Cha ir ma n. shall not. and if su ch me mb er is th e De puty Cha ir ma n.63 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA wh ic h th e Spe ake r or. notw ith st anding anyth ing in a rt ic le 189. as soon as ma y be . Po we r of th e De puty C hair ma n or othe r p er son to pe rf or m th e du ti es of th e off ic e of. s o of ten a s the of fi ce of Ch ai rm an or De puty Cha ir ma n be com es va ca nt. if no su ch pe rs on i s pre se nt. — (1) Whil e the of fi ce of Ch ai rm an is v ac an t. 182. by su ch me mb er of the Counc il a s the Gov er nor ma y appoin t fo r the purpos e. (2) Dur ing the abs en ce of th e Ch ai rm an fro m any sit ting of the Coun ci l th e De puty Cha ir ma n or. the Chairman. C hai rman. is a bs ent . while any resolution for the removal of the Chairman from his office is under consideration. choo se two me mb er s of the Counc il to be r esp ec ti ve ly Ch ai rm an and D eputy Ch ai rm an th er eof and . a nd oth er wi se to t ake p art in the pro ce ed ings of. the Deputy Chairman. and re mo val f rom. if he is al so ab se nt.— A m em be r holding of fic e as Cha ir ma n or D eputy Ch ai rm an of a Leg is la tiv e Counc il— ( a) sh al l va ca te his off ic e i f he c ea se s to be a me mb er of th e Coun ci l. ( b) m ay a t any tim e by w ri ting und er hi s hand addr es se d. and the provisions of clause (2) of article 184 shall apply in relation to every such sitting as they . if th e of fic e of De puty Ch ai rm an is al so va ca nt. th e D eputy Spe ake r. Th e Cha ir ma n and D ep uty C hai rman of the Le gi sla tive Cou nc il. The Chairman or the Deputy Chairman not to preside while a resolution for his removal from office is under consideration. a s the c as e m ay be . or to act as . and ( c ) m ay b e re mov ed f rom hi s off ic e by a re solu tion of the Coun ci l p as se d by a ma jo rity of al l th e then m em be rs of th e Counc il: Provid ed th at no r es olut ion for the purpos e of c la us e ( c ) sha ll b e mov ed unl es s a t l ea st four te en d ays' notic e has bee n give n of th e int ention to m ove th e r es olu tion. sha ll a ct a s Ch ai rm an. or. (2) Th e Sp ea ke r sha ll hav e the righ t to sp ea k in . su ch othe r per son as m ay be de te rm in ed by the Coun ci l. if su ch m em be r i s th e Cha ir ma n. preside. be ent itl ed to vot e only in th e fi rs t in st anc e on su ch r es olu tion or on any othe r ma tt er dur ing suc h pro ce ed ings but not in th e c as e of a n e qua lity of vote s. 184. or while any resolution for the removal of the Deputy Chairman from his office is under consideration. th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y w hil e any re solu tion fo r hi s re mov al fro m of fi ce is under cons ide ra ti on in the As se mb ly a nd sh al l. to the De puty Cha ir ma n.—(1) At any sitting of the Legislative Council.

a s th e c as e ma y b e. in th e c as e of th e Leg is la tur e of a St at e hav ing a L egis la tiv e Counc il . or pe rson a ct ing a s su ch. S ec re ta ri at of Stat e Le gis lat ur e. or s om e pe rson a ppoint ed in th at b eha lf by hi m. O ath or af fir ma ti on by membe rs . the Deputy Chairman is absent. a n oa th or a ff ir ma tion ac co rding to the fo rm s et out for th e purpos e in th e Third S chedu le . to th e s ec re ta ri al s ta ff of the A ss em bl y or th e Coun ci l. b efo re t aking his s ea t.— The re sh all be pa id to th e Spe ak er a nd th e De puty Spe ake r of the Le gis la tiv e As se mb ly. Conduc t of Bu sin es s 188. — (1 ) The Hou se or ea ch H ous e of th e Leg is la tur e of a St at e sh al l h ave a s ep ar at e se cr et ar ia l st af f: Provid ed th at nothing in thi s c lau se sh al l. not with st and ing anyth ing in a rti cl e 189. b e c ons tru ed as pr eve nting th e c re at ion of post s com mo n to both H ous es of su ch Leg is la tur e. Salar ie s and allo wanc es of the Spe ake r and De pu ty Sp eak er and t he Chai rman and De pu ty Cha ir ma n. and any ru le s so ma de sha ll have ef fe ct sub je ct to the provis ions of any l aw m ad e under th e s ai d c la us e. and th e cond ition s of s er vi ce of pe rson s appoin te d. (3) Un til provi sion i s m ad e by th e L egi sl atu re of th e Sta te unde r cl au se (2 ). until provi sion in th at beh al f is so ma de . Vo ti ng in Ho us es .64 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA apply in relation to a sitting from which the Chairman or. m ak e and subs cr ib e befo re th e Gove rno r. af te r c onsu lt ation wi th the Spe ake r of the L egi sl at ive As se mb ly or the Ch ai rm an of th e Leg is la tiv e Coun ci l. oth er th an the Spe ak er or Cha ir ma n. (2) Th e Ch ai rm an sh al l have th e right to spe ak in. 186.— (1) Sav e a s oth er wi se provid ed in th is Con st itut ion. m ak e rul es r egul at ing the re cr uit me nt . to the se cr et ar ia l st af f of th e Hous e or Hous es of th e Leg is la tur e of the Sta te . and othe rw is e to tak e p art in the pro ce ed ings of. (2) The L egi sl atu re of a Sta te ma y by la w r egul at e the r ec ru it me nt.— Eve ry me mb er of th e L egi sl at ive As se mb ly or the L egi sl at ive Counc il of a St at e sh al l. a nd th e cond ition s of se rvi ce of p er sons appoin ted . su ch sa la ri es and a llo wa nc es as m ay be r esp ec ti ve ly f ixe d by the Leg is la tur e of the St at e by l aw a nd. as the case may be. th e L egi sl at ive Coun ci l w hil e any re solu tion for hi s re mov al fro m of fic e i s und er con sid er at ion in th e Coun ci l and sha ll. 187. be en tit led to vote only in the fir st in st anc e on s uch re solu tion or on any othe r m at te r dur ing su ch pro ce ed ings but not in th e c as e of a n e qua lity of vote s. pow er of H ous es to a ct not wi ths tan ding va canc ie s and quor um. al l qu es tions a t any sit ting of a Hous e of the L egis la tu re of a St at e s ha ll b e det er mi ne d by a m ajo ri ty of vot es of the me mb er s pre se nt a nd voting . . 189. suc h s al ar ie s a nd a llo wa nc es as a re s pe ci fi ed in th e Se cond Sch edul e. and to the Ch ai rm an a nd th e De puty Cha ir ma n of th e Leg is la tive Coun ci l. th e Gov er nor m ay .

or pe rs on a ct ing a s s uch . tha t pe rson' s s ea t in the Le gis la tur es of a ll su ch Sta te s sh al l b eco me vac an t. as th e ca se ma y be. (2) No pe rson sh al l b e a m em be r of th e L egi sl atu re s of two or mo re St at es spe ci fi ed in the Fir st S chedu le a nd i f a p er son is cho sen a m em be r of th e Leg is la tur es of t wo or mo re s uch St at es . th e quoru m to c on s titu te a m ee ti ng of a Hous e of the Leg is la tur e of a Sta te sh al l be ten m em be rs or one -t enth of th e tot al numb er of me mb er s of th e Hou se . D isqua lif ic ation s of Mem be rs 190.The Spe ake r or Ch ai rm an . is sa ti sf ie d th at s uch re sign at ion i s not volunt ary or genuin e. ei the r to ad journ th e Hou se or to su spe nd th e me et ing until th er e is a quorum . or per son ac ting a s suc h. and hi s r es igna tion is a cc ep te d by the Sp eak er or th e Cha ir ma n. then. hi s se at sh al l the reupon be co me vac an t: Provid ed tha t in th e c as e of a ny r es ign at ion r ef er re d to in sub -c lau se ( b).— (1) No pe rson sha ll b e a m em be r of both Hou se s of th e L egi sl atu re of a St at e and provi sion sh all be m ad e by th e L egi sl atu re of th e Sta te by la w fo r th e va ca tion by a pe rson w ho is chos en a m em be r of both Hous es of hi s se at in one hous e or th e othe r. unle ss h e h as pr ev ious ly re si gned his s ea t in the L egi sl atu re s of al l but one of the St at es . sha ll not vote in the fi rs t ins tan ce . (2) A Hou se of th e L egi sl atu re of a St at e sha ll hav e pow er to ac t not with st and ing a ny v ac an cy in th e m em be rs hi p th er eo f. and any pro ce ed ings in the L egi sl atu re of a St at e sha ll be va lid notwi ths ta nding tha t it is di sc ove re d sub se quen tly th at s om e p er son who w as not e nti tle d so to do sa t or vot ed or oth er wi se took pa rt in the proc ee di ngs. (4) If fo r a per iod of s ixty day s a me mb er of a Hou se of th e Le gis la tur e of a St at e is wi thout pe rm is sion of the Hou se abs en t f rom a ll m ee ti ngs 65 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . whi ch eve r is gr ea te r. but s ha ll have a nd e xe rc is e a c as ti ng vot e in th e ca se of an equa li ty of vot es . i f f rom in for ma ti on r ec ei ve d or oth er wi se a nd a ft er m ak ing suc h inqui ry as h e think s fi t. (3) Un til the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e by l aw oth er wi se provide s. a s th e c as e ma y be . Vac at ion of s ea ts . it sha ll b e the duty of th e Spe ake r or Cha ir ma n. (4) I f a t any tim e during a m ee ti ng of th e Legi sl at ive A ss em bl y or th e L egi sl at ive Counc il of a St at e th er e i s no quorum . a s th e c as e ma y b e. he sh al l not a cc ep t su ch r es ign ation . the Spe ak er or the Ch ai rm an . a t the expi ra tion of su ch p eriod as ma y be spe ci fi ed in rule s ma de by th e Pr es id ent . or ( b) r es igns his s ea t by w ri ting und er hi s hand addr es se d to the sp ea ke r or the Cha ir ma n. (3) I f a m em be r of a Hou se of th e L egi sl atu re of a St at e— ( a) be co me s subj ec t to any of the disqu al if ic at ions me ntion ed in c la us e (1) or cl au se (2 ) of a rt ic le 191.

Pena lty for s it ti ng and voti ng b efo re mak ing oath or af fi rmat ion unde r ar ti cl e 188 or w he n no t qua lif ie d or whe n di sq uali fi ed. a me mb er of th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y or L egis la tiv e Counc il of a Sta te — ( a) if he holds any off ic e of prof it under th e G ove rnm en t of Ind ia or th e Gove rn me nt of a ny S ta te sp ec if ie d in th e Fi rs t Sch edul e.— For the purpo se s of this c la us e. — (1) A pe rson sh al l b e di squa li fi ed fo r being chos en as . D is qual ifi ca tion s for membe rs hi p. 193. De ci si on on qu es tio ns a s to di squa li fic atio ns of me mb er s . the Hou se m ay de cl ar e hi s s ea t v ac ant : Provid ed th at in com puting the s ai d pe riod of sixty days no ac coun t sh all b e tak en of any pe riod dur ing wh ich the H ous e i s prorogu ed or is a djou rned fo r mor e than fou r c ons ec ut ive day s. or ha s volunta ri ly ac quir ed the c it iz en ship of a for eign Sta te . the ques tion s ha ll b e re fe rr ed for the d ec is ion of th e Gove rno r a nd hi s dec is ion sha ll be fin al . or wh en h e know s th at he is not quali fi ed or that he i s disqu al if ied for m em be rs hi p the re o f. —I f a per son s it s or vot es as a m em be r of th e Leg is la tiv e A ss em bl y or th e Legi sl at ive Coun ci l of a St at e be for e he has c omp li ed with th e r equi re me nt s of ar tic le 188. (2) A per son s ha ll be disqu al ifi ed fo r be ing a me mb er of th e L egis la tiv e A ss em bl y or L egi sl at ive Counc il of a St at e if he i s so di squa li fi ed unde r th e Ten th S che dule . ( b) if he i s of unsound mind a nd st and s so dec la re d by a c omp et en t c ourt . h e sh al l be lia ble in re sp ec t of ea ch day on w hic h 66 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . th e Gov erno r sh al l obt ain th e opinion of the Ele ct ion Co mm is si on a nd sha ll ac t a cc ord ing to su ch opinion. (2) B ef or e giving a ny de ci sion on a ny suc h que st ion. a pe rson sh al l not be d ee me d to hold a n off ic e of profi t unde r th e Gov ern me nt of Indi a or th e Gov er nm en t of any St at e spe ci fi ed in the Fi rs t S che dule by re as on only th at h e i s a Minis te r ei the r for th e U nion or fo r suc h St at e. 192. and fo r be ing. (c ) if he i s a n undi sc ha rge d in solv ent . oth er than a n off ic e d ec la re d by the Legi sl at ur e of th e St at e by l aw not to di squa li fy i ts hold er. (e ) if he i s s o di squa li fi ed by or under any l aw m ad e by Pa rl ia me nt. 191.— (1 ) I f a ny que stion ar is es a s to wh et he r a me mb er of a Hous e of the Leg is la tur e of a St at e has b eco me subj ec t to a ny of th e di sq ua li fi ca tion s me nt ioned in c la us e (1 ) of a rt ic le 191. E xplanat ion. or is unde r a ny a ckno wl edg me nt of a ll egi an ce or adh er en ce to a fo re ign S ta te . (d) if he i s not a ci ti ze n of Ind ia . or tha t he is proh ibit ed f rom s o doing by th e prov is ions of any la w ma de by Pa rli am en t or the L egi sl atu re of th e St at e.th er eo f.

and otherwise to take part in the proceedings of. the powers. Po we rs . of th e Hou se s of L egi sla tur es and of t he membe rs and c ommi tt ee s t he re of . pr ivil eg es . Provisions as to introduction and passing of Bills. Pr iv ile ge s and I mmun iti es of Stat e Leg is latu re s and thei r Me mb er s 194. (2) and (3) shall apply in relation to persons who by virtue of this Constitution have the right to speak in. Legislative Procedure 196. until so defined. either without amendment or with such amendments only as are agreed to by both Houses. p ape r. and.—(1) Subject to the provisions of articles 198 and 207 with respect to Money Bills and other financial Bills. et c. 1978. until provision in that respect is so made. (4) The provisions of clauses (1). Salaries and allowances of members. (4) A Bill pending in the Legislative Council of a State which has not been passed by the Legislative Assembly shall not lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. a Bill shall not be deemed to have been passed by the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council unless it has been agreed to by both Houses. 195.67 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA h e so s it s or vot es to a p ena lty of f ive hundr ed rup ee s to be r ec ove re d as a deb t due to th e S ta te . a Bill may originate in either House of the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council. (2) Subject to the provisions of articles 197 and 198. . and of the members and the committees of a House of such Legislature. and no pe rs on sh al l be so li ab le in re sp ec t of th e public at ion by or unde r th e autho rity of a Hou se of su ch a Le gis la tur e of any repo rt . th er e sh al l be fr ee dom of sp ee ch in the L egi sl atu re of e ve ry Sta te . shall be such as may from time to time be defined by the Legislature by law. Po we rs .— (1) Subje ct to the provis ions of thi s Con st itut ion and to th e ru le s a nd st anding orde rs re gula ting the pro ce dur e of the L egi sl atu re .—Members of the Legislative Assembly and the Legislative Council of a State shall be entitled to receive such salaries and allowances as may from time to time be determined. (3) In other respects. shall be those of that House and of its members and committees immediately before the coming into force of section 26 of the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act. a House of the Legislature of a State or any committee thereof as they apply in relation to members of that Legislature. by the Legislature of the State by law and. . privileges and immunities of a House of the Legislature of a State. vote s or proc ee ding s. (3) A Bill pending in the Legislature of a State shall not lapse by reason of the prorogation of the House or Houses thereof. (2 ) No m em be r of the L egi sl atu re of a St at e sha ll be li abl e to a ny pro ce ed ings in any cou rt in r es pe ct of any thing sa id or a ny vot e given by hi m in th e Leg is la tur e or a ny c om mi tt ee the reo f. salaries and allowances at such rates and upon such conditions as were immediately before the commencement of this Constitution applicable in the case of members of the Legislative Assembly of the corresponding Province.

or (b) more than three months elapse from the date on which the Bill is laid before the Council without the Bill being passed by it. or which having been passed by the Legislative Assembly is pending in the Legislative Council. i f a ny. th e Mon ey Bi ll sh al l be d ee me d to h ave bee n p as se d by both Hous es w ith th e a me ndm en ts re co mm en ded by th e L egi sl at ive Coun ci l a nd a cc ep te d by the L egi sl at ive A ss em bly . subj ec t to th e ru le s r egul at ing it s pro ce dur e. (2 ) A ft er a Mon ey B ill ha s be en pas se d by the L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y of a St at e h aving a Leg is la tiv e Coun ci l. or (b) mo re th an one month e lap se s f rom th e dat e on wh ich th e B ill i s laid be for e the Coun ci l w ithou t th e Bil l b eing pa ss ed by it . as h ave be en ma de . — (1) A Money Bi ll sh al l not be int roduc ed in a Leg is la tiv e Counc il. 68 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . sugge st ed or ag re ed to by the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l a nd th en tra ns mi t the Bi ll as s o p as se d to the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l.(5) A Bill which is pending in the Legislative Assembly of a State. p as s the Bi ll aga in in th e sa me or in a ny sub se que nt se ss ion w ith or w ithou t su ch am en dm en ts . —(1) If after a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State having a Legislative Council and transmitted to the Legislative Council— (a) the Bill is rejected by the Council. th e L egi sl ativ e A ss em bl y m ay. and th e L egi sl at ive Coun ci l sh al l with in a per iod of fou rte en day s fro m the d ate of it s re ce ip t of th e B ill r etu rn th e Bil l to th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y w ith it s re co mm end at ions . Spe ci al pro ce du re i n r es pe ct of Money B ill s. (3) I f th e Leg is la tiv e A ss em bl y ac ce pt s any of th e r ec om me nd at ions of th e L egi sl ativ e Coun ci l. i f any. (3 ) No thing in th is a rti cl e sh al l a pply to a Mon ey B ill . 198. (2 ) I f af te r a Bil l h as be en so pas se d for th e s ec ond tim e by the L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y a nd t ran sm it te d to the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l— (a) th e B ill i s r ej ec te d by th e Coun ci l. shall lapse on a dissolution of the Assembly. 197. th e Bi ll s ha ll be dee me d to have be en pa ss ed by th e Hou se s of th e L egi sl atu re of th e St at e in the for m in whi ch it wa s pa ss ed by th e L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y fo r the se co nd ti me wi th s uch a me ndm en ts . Restriction on powers of Legislative Council as to Bills other than Money Bills. it s ha ll b e tr ans mi tt ed to th e L egi sl at ive Coun ci l fo r its r ec om me nd ation s. as h ave be en ma de or sugg es te d by the L egi sl ativ e Counc il and ag re ed to by th e Leg is la tive A ss em bl y. a nd the Leg is la tive As se mb ly ma y the re upon e ithe r a cc ep t or re je ct al l or a ny of th e r ec om me nd at ions of the L egi sl at ive Coun cil . or (c) the Bill is passed by the Council with amendments to which the Legislative Assembly does not agree. or (c ) the B ill is p as se d by the Counc il w ith a me nd me nt s to wh ich th e Leg is la tive A ss em bl y does not ag re e.

or by reason that it provides for the imposition. (c) the custody of the Consolidated Fund or the Contingency Fund of the State. in the case of a State having a Legislative Council. remission. and when it is presented to the Governor for assent under article 200. a Bill shall be deemed to be a Money Bill if it contains only provisions dealing with all or any of the following matters. remission. the decision of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly of such State thereon shall be final.—(1) For the purposes of this Chapter. (4) There shall be endorsed on every Money Bill when it is transmitted to the Legislative Council under article 198. the Money B ill sh al l b e d ee me d to hav e be en pas se d by both Hous es in th e for m in wh ich it w as p as se d by the Le gis la tiv e As se mb ly wi thout any of the am en dm en ts r ec om me nd ed by the L egi sl at ive Coun ci l. it sh al l b e d ee me d to hav e be en pas se d by both Hous es at the e xpir at ion of th e sa id p eriod in the fo rm in whi ch it wa s pa ss ed by th e Leg is la tive A ss em bl y. (2) A Bill shall not be deemed to be a Money Bill by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties. alteration or regulation of any tax. abolition. or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the State. has been passed by both Houses of the Legislature of the State. Assent to Bills. 200. (f) the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of the State or the public account of the State or the custody or issue of such money.(4 ) If the L egi sl at ive As se mb ly do es not ac ce pt any of th e re co mm en da tions of th e L egi sl at ive Coun ci l. or (g) any matter incidental to any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f). (5) I f a Money B ill p as se d by the Leg is la tive As se mb ly and tr an sm it ted to th e L egi sl at ive Counc il fo r it s r ec om me nda tion s i s not r etu rned to the L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y w ithin th e sa id per iod of fou rte en day s. (3) If any question arises whether a Bill introduced in the Legislature of a State which has a Legislative Council is a Money Bill or not. Definition of “Money Bills”. the payment of moneys into or the withdrawal of moneys from any such Fund. (d) the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State.—When a Bill has been passed by the Legislative Assembly of a State or. it shall be presented to the Governor and the Governor shall declare either that he assents to the Bill or that he withholds assent therefrom or that he reserves the Bill for the consideration of the President: 69 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . 199. abolition. namely:— (a) the imposition. alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. the certificate of the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly signed by him that it is a Money Bill. or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered. (e) the declaring of any expenditure to be expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State. (b) the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the State. or the increasing of the amount of any such expenditure.

a s th e c as e ma y b e. th e Hous es of th e Leg is la tur e of th e Sta te tog eth er w ith su ch a me ss ag e a s i s me ntion ed in th e fi rs t prov iso to ar ti cl e 200 and. in particular. in this P ar t r ef er re d to a s th e “ annu al f inan ci al s ta te me nt ". Bil ls re se rv ed fo r co ns ide ra tion . it sh al l b e pr es en te d a ga in to the P re sid ent fo r hi s cons ide ra ti on. (2) Th e e st im at es of exp enditu re e mb odie d in the a nnua l f inan ci al s ta te me nt sh al l show s ep ar at el y— ( a) th e su ms re quir ed to m ee t exp endi tur e de sc ri bed by thi s Con st itut ion a s exp endi tur e cha rg ed upon the Con sol ida ted Fund of th e St at e.Provided that the Governor may. return the Bill if it is not a Money Bill together with a message requesting that the House or Houses will reconsider the Bill or any specified provisions thereof and. the Pre si den t sh al l de cl ar e e ith er th at he as se nt s to the Bi ll or th at he w ithhold s as se nt th er ef rom : Provid ed tha t. whe re the Bi ll is not a Money Bil l. any B ill w hic h in th e opinion of the Gov er nor would . A nnua l f inan cia l s tat emen t. the Hou se or H ous es sh all re con sid er the Bil l ac co rding ly. but sh all re se rv e fo r th e con sid er at ion of th e Pr es id ent. a nd (b ) th e su ms r equi red to me et oth er e xpend itu re propos ed to b e m ad e fro m the Con sol ida ted Fund of the St at e. wh en a Bil l is so r etu rne d. 201. (3) The fo llo wing e xpend itur e s ha ll b e exp enditu re ch arg ed on th e Con sol ida ted Fund of e ac h St at e— 70 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . will consider the desirability of introducing any such amendments as he may recommend in his message and. — (1) Th e G ove rnor sh al l in re sp ec t of e ve ry fina nc ia l yea r ca us e to be laid be for e the Hou se or H ous es of th e L egi sl atu re of th e St at e a s ta te me nt of the e st im at ed r ec ei pt s a nd e xpend itur e of the St at e for tha t yea r. as soon as possible after the presentation to him of the Bill for assent. the Gove rno r sha ll not wi thhold a ss en t the re fr om : Provid ed fu rthe r th at the G ove rnor sha ll not as se nt to . a nd sha ll dist ingui sh exp endi tur e on re venu e a cc oun t fro m oth er e xpend itur e. i f it b ec am e la w. Pro ce dur e in Financ ial Ma tt er s 202. so derog at e f rom th e po we rs of th e H igh Cou rt as to end ang er th e po sit ion w hic h th at Cou rt is by thi s Cons titu tion d es igned to fil l. if it is a ga in p as se d by the Hou se or Hou se s w ith or w ithou t a me nd me nt. whe n a B ill i s s o r etu rne d.— Wh en a Bil l is re se rv ed by a Gov er nor fo r th e con sid er at ion of th e P re sid ent . the Pr es id ent ma y di re ct th e Gove rnor to re turn th e B ill to the Hou se or . and if th e Bi ll i s p as se d a ga in by the Hou se or Hou se s w ith or w ithou t a me nd me nt and pr es en te d to the Gove rno r for as se nt . th e Hou se or Hou se s sha ll r ec ons ide r i t ac co rding ly wi thin a p eriod of six month s f rom the dat e of r ec ei pt of su ch m es sa ge and .

(e ) a ny su ms requ ir ed to s at is fy any judgm en t. or to assent to any demand subject to a reduction of the amount specified therein.—(1) As soon as may be after the grants under article 203 have been made by the Assembly.(a) th e e mo lum en ts and a llo wa nc es of th e Gov er nor and othe r exp enditu re r el at ing to hi s offi ce . (3) Subject to the provisions of articles 205 and 206. or to refuse to assent. (2) No amendment shall be proposed to any such Bill in the House or either House of the Legislature of the State which will have the effect of varying the amount or altering the destination of any grant so made or of varying the amount of any expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State. and oth er exp enditu re r el at ing to th e r ai si ng of lo ans and th e s er vi ce a nd r ed em ption of debt . but nothing in this cl au se sh all be con st rue d as pr eve nting the di sc us sion in the Leg is la tur e of any of tho se e st im at es . and the Legislative Assembly shall have power to assent. P roc ed ur e in Le gi sla tur e w ith r es pe ct to e st imat es . Supplementary. (3) No demand for a grant shall be made except on the recommendation of the Governor. 203.—(1) The Governor shall— 71 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . no money shall be withdrawn from the Consolidated Fund of the State except under appropriation made by law passed in accordance with the provisions of this article. dec re e or a wa rd of a ny c ourt or ar bit ra l tribun al . al so of th e Cha ir ma n and the De puty Cha ir ma n of th e Leg is la tive Coun ci l. in th e ca se of a Sta te h aving a L egi sl at ive Coun ci l. Appropriation Bills. 205. 204. (d) e xpend itur e in re spe ct of th e sa la ri es and al low anc es of Judge s of any H igh Cou rt. and (b) the expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund of the State but not exceeding in any case the amount shown in the statement previously laid before the House or Houses. s inking fund cha rg es and r ed em ption cha rg es . ( b) th e s al ar ie s and a llo wan ce s of th e Spe ak er and th e D eputy Sp ea ke r of th e Leg is la tive A ss em bl y and. to be so ch ar ged . (2) So much of the said estimates as relates to other expenditure shall be submitted in the form of demands for grants to the Legislative Assembly. there shall be introduced a Bill to provide for the appropriation out of the Consolidated Fund of the State of all moneys required to meet— (a) the grants so made by the Assembly. additional or excess grants.— (1) So muc h of th e e st im at es a s re la te s to expe nditu re c ha rge d upon the Cons olid at ed Fund of a St at e sh al l not be subm it ted to the vote of the L egi sl at ive A ss em bl y. ( c ) d ebt ch ar ge s fo r wh ich the St at e is li ab le includ ing int er es t. or by th e L egi sl atu re of th e St at e by l aw . to any demand. (f) a ny oth er exp endi tur e de cl ar ed by thi s Cons titu tion. and the decision of the person presiding as to whether an amendment is inadmissible under this clause shall be final.

—(1) A Bill or amendment making provision for any of the matters specified in sub-clauses (a) to (f) of clause (1) of article 199 shall not be introduced or moved except on the recommendation of the Governor. (b) to make a grant for meeting an unexpected demand upon the resources of the State when on account of the magnitude or the indefinite character of the service the demand cannot be stated with the details ordinarily given in an annual financial statement.(a) if the amount authorised by any law made in accordance with the provisions of article 204 to be expended for a particular service for the current financial year is found to be insufficient for the purposes of that year or when a need has arisen during the current financial year for supplementary or additional expenditure upon some new service not contemplated in the annual financial statement for that year. (2) The provisions of articles 202. (2) The provisions of articles 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to the making of any grant under clause (1) and to any law to be made under that clause as they have effect in relation to the making of a grant with regard to any expenditure mentioned in the annual financial statement and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in the foregoing provisions of this Chapter. cause to be laid before the House or the Houses of the Legislature of the State another statement showing the estimated amount of that expenditure or cause to be presented to the Legislative Assembly of the State a demand for such excess. the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have power— (a) to make any grant in advance in respect of the estimated expenditure for a part of any financial year pending the completion of the procedure prescribed in article 203 for the voting of such grant and the passing of the law in accordance with the provisions of article 204 in relation to that expenditure. (c) to make an exceptional grant which forms no part of the current service of any financial year. Special provisions as to financial Bills. as the case may be. 207. 72 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . votes of credit and exceptional grants. and the Legislature of the State shall have power to authorise by law the withdrawal of moneys from the Consolidated Fund of the State for the purposes for which the said grants are made. or (b) if any money has been spent on any service during a financial year in excess of the amount granted for that service and for that year. 203 and 204 shall have effect in relation to any such statement and expenditure or demand and also to any law to be made authorising the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or the grant in respect of such demand as they have effect in relation to the annual financial statement and the expenditure mentioned therein or to a demand for a grant and the law to be made for the authorisation of appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State to meet such expenditure or grant. Votes on account. 206. and a Bill making such provision shall not be introduced in a Legislative Council: Provided that no recommendation shall be required under this clause for the moving of an amendment making provision for the reduction or abolition of any tax.

Procedure Generally 208. or for the demand or payment of fees for licences or fees for services rendered.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in Part XVII. for the purpose of the timely completion of financial business. (2) Until rules are made under clause (1). remission. or person acting as such. subject to the provisions of this Constitution. and. Rules of procedure. may permit any member who cannot adequately express himself in any of the languages aforesaid to address the House in his mother-tongue. or by reason that it provides for the imposition. regulate by law the procedure of. as the case may be. after consultation with the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly and the Chairman of the Legislative Council. if and so far as any provision of any law so made is inconsistent with any rule made by the House or either House of the Legislature of the State under clause (1) of article 208 or with any rule or standing order having effect in relation to the Legislature of the State under clause (2) of that article. the House or Houses of the Legislature of the State in relation to any financial matter or to any Bill for the appropriation of moneys out of the Consolidated Fund of the State.—(1) A House of the Legislature of a State may make rules for regulating. —The Legislature of a State may. after the expiration of a period of fifteen years from the commencement of this Constitution. its procedure and the conduct of its business. have effect as if the words “or in English” were omitted therefrom: Provided that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Himachal Pradesh. may make rules as to the procedure with respect to communications between the two Houses. 210.(2) A Bill or amendment shall not be deemed to make provision for any of the matters aforesaid by reason only that it provides for the imposition of fines or other pecuniary penalties. (2) Unless the Legislature of the State by law otherwise provides. alteration or regulation of any tax by any local authority or body for local purposes. the rules of procedure and standing orders in force immediately before the commencement of this Constitution with respect to the Legislature for the corresponding Province shall have effect in relation to the Legislature of the State subject to such modifications and adaptations as may be made therein by the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly. business in the Legislature of a State shall be transacted in the official language or languages of the State or in Hindi or in English: Provided that the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly or Chairman of the Legislative Council. Language to be used in the Legislature. (3) In a State having a Legislative Council the Governor. Regulation by law of procedure in the Legislature of the State in relation to financial business. Meghalaya and Tripura this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen" years 73 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . Manipur. such provision shall prevail. or the Chairman of the Legislative Council. but subject to the provisions of article 348. as the case may be. abolition. (3) A Bill which. 209. this article shall. and the conduct of business in. if enacted and brought into operation. would involve expenditure from the Consolidated Fund of a State shall not be passed by a House of the Legislature of the State unless the Governor has recommended to that House the consideration of the Bill.

except when both Houses of the Legislature are in session. and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the Governor. and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature. the period of six weeks shall be reckoned .—(1) If at any time. this clause shall have effect as if for the words "fifteen years" occurring therein.—Where the Houses of the Legislature of a State having a Legislative Council are summoned to reassemble on different dates. except when the Legislative Assembly of a State is in session. 211. 212. Courts not to inquire into proceedings of the Legislature. 74 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA CHAPTER IV. he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that the Governor shall not. without instructions from the President. upon the passing of the resolution or.—(1) The validity of any proceedings in the Legislature of a State shall not be called in question on the ground of any alleged irregularity of procedure. the Governor is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action.occurring therein. having been reserved for the consideration of the President. or where there is a Legislative Council in a State. if any. in the Legislature shall be subject to the jurisdiction of any court in respect of the exercise by him of those powers. or if before the expiration of that period a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislative Assembly and agreed to by the Legislative Council. or where there is a Legislative Council in the State. it had received the assent of the President. promulgate any such Ordinance if— (a) a Bill containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have required the previous sanction of the President for the introduction thereof into the Legislature. or (c) an Act of the Legislature of the State containing the same provisions would under this Constitution have been invalid unless. the words "twenty-five years" were substituted: Provided further that in relation to the Legislatures of the States of Arunachal Pradesh. as the case may be. on the resolution being agreed to by the Council. Power of Governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. the words "forty years" were substituted. (2) No officer or member of the Legislature of a State in whom powers are vested by or under this Constitution for regulating procedure or the conduct of business. before both the Houses. or (b) he would have deemed it necessary to reserve a Bill containing the same provisions for the consideration of the President. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article shall have the same force and effect as an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor. —No discussion shall take place in the Legislature of a State with respect to the conduct of any Judge of the Supreme Court or of a High Court in the discharge of his duties. but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislative Assembly of the State. or for maintaining order. Goa and Mizoram. Restriction on discussion in the Legislature.—LEGISLATIVE POWER OF THE GOVERNOR 213. Explanation.

in the case of appointment of a Judge other than the Chief Justice.—Every High Court shall be a court of record and shall have all the powers of such a court including the power to punish for contempt of itself. 75 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . High Courts for States. (b) a Judge may be removed from his office by the President in the manner provided in clause (4) of article 124 for the removal of a Judge of the Supreme Court. for the purposes of the provisions of this Constitution relating to the effect of an Act of the Legislature of a State which is repugnant to an Act of Parliament or an existing law with respect to a matter enumerated in the Concurrent List. High Courts to be courts of record. the Governor of the State. until he attains the age of sixty-two years: Provided that— (a) a Judge may. it shall be void: Provided that. * * * * * 217. in the case of an additional or acting Judge. Constitution of High Courts.—There shall be a High Court for each State. 216. the Chief Justice of the High Court. * * * * * 215.—(1) Every Judge of a High Court shall be appointed by the President by warrant under his hand and seal after consultation with the Chief Justice of India.—THE HIGH COURTS IN THE STATES 214. or (b) has for at least ten years been an advocate of a High Court or of two or more such Courts in succession. and. an Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the State which has been reserved for the consideration of the President and assented to by him.from the later of those dates for the purposes of this clause. Appointment and conditions of the office of a Judge of a High Court. resign his office. and in any other case. and shall hold office. by writing under his hand addressed to the President. (c) the office of a Judge shall be vacated by his being appointed by the President to be a Judge of the Supreme Court or by his being transferred by the President to any other High Court within the territory of India.—Every High Court shall consist of a Chief Justice and such other Judges as the President may from time to time deem it necessary to appoint. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the State assented to by the Governor. * * * * * CHAPTER V. (2) A person shall not be qualified for appointment as a Judge of a High Court unless he is a citizen of India and— (a) has for at least ten years held a judicial office in the territory of India. as provided in article 224.

—In this article. or has been an advocate of any High Court in any such area. until so determined. etc. make and subscribe before the Governor of the State. 220. to such allowances and rights as are specified in the Second Schedule: . within India as defined by the Government of India Act. under the Union or a State.. after he has held any judicial office. 1947. (aa) in computing the period during which a person has been an advocate of a High Court. Salaries. Application of certain provisions relating to Supreme Court to High Courts. (3) If any question arises as to the age of a Judge of a High Court.—For the purposes of this clause— (a) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India. there shall be included any period during which the person has held judicial office or the office of a member of a tribunal or any post. or some person appointed in that behalf by him. Explanation. (2) Every Judge shall be entitled to such allowances and to such rights in respect of leave of absence and pension as may from time to time be determined by or under law made by Parliament and.—No person who. the question shall be decided by the President after consultation with the Chief Justice of India and the decision of the President shall be final. Restriction on practice after being a permanent Judge.—Every person appointed to be a Judge of a High Court shall. such salaries as are specified in the Second Schedule. under the Union or a State. requiring special knowledge of law after he became an advocate.76 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA * * * * * Explanation. 1956. there shall be included any period. 221. until provision in that behalf is so made. the expression “High Court” does not include a High Court for a State specified in Part B of the First Schedule as it existed before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. there shall be included any period before the commencement of this Constitution during which he has held judicial office in any area which was comprised before the fifteenth day of August.—(1) There shall be paid to the Judges of each High Court such salaries as may be determined by Parliament by law and. after the commencement of this Constitution. before he enters upon his office. (b) in computing the period during which a person has held judicial office in the territory of India or been an advocate of a High Court. an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule.— The provisions of clauses (4) and (5) of article 124 shall apply in relation to a High Court as they apply in relation to the Supreme Court with the substitution of references to the High Court for references to the Supreme Court. 218. requiring special knowledge of law. during which the person has been an advocate of a High Court or has held the office of a member of a tribunal or any post. Oath or affirmation by Judges of High Courts. of Judges. has held office as a permanent Judge of a High Court shall plead or act in any court or before any authority in India except the Supreme Court and the other High Courts. as the case may be. 219. 1935.

powers and privileges of. and the respective powers of the Judges thereof in relation to the administration of justice in the Court. he shall. after consultation with the Chief Justice of India. but shall not otherwise be deemed to be. 224A. it appears to the President that the number of the Judges of that Court should be for the time being increased. 1963. while so sitting and acting. until so determined. (3) No person appointed as an additional or acting Judge of a High Court shall hold office after attaining the age of sixty-two years. the jurisdiction of. and the law administered in. after the commencement of the Constitution (Fifteenth Amendment) Act. (2) When a Judge has been or is so transferred. a Judge of that High Court: Provided that nothing in this article shall be deemed to require any such person as aforesaid to sit and act as a Judge of that High Court unless he consents so to do. request any person who has held the office of a Judge of that Court or of any other High Court to sit and act as a Judge of the High Court for that State. including any power to make rules of Court and to regulate the sittings of the Court and of members thereof sitting alone or in Division Courts. the President may appoint duly qualified persons to be additional Judges of the Court for such period not exceeding two years as he may specify. the Chief Justice of a High Court for any State may at any time.—(1) The President may. Appointment of additional and acting Judges. Jurisdiction of existing High Courts. with the previous consent of the President. Appointment of retired Judges at sittings of High Courts. Appointment of acting Chief Justice.—Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by this Constitution. shall be the same as immediately before the commencement of this Constitution: 77 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . such compensatory allowance as the President may by order fix. by reason of absence or otherwise. any existing High Court. unable to perform the duties of his office. Transfer of a Judge from one High Court to another.Provided that neither the allowances of a Judge nor his rights in respect of leave of absence or pension shall be varied to his disadvantage after his appointment.—Notwithstanding anything in this Chapter. 222. be entitled to such allowances as the President may by order determine and have all the jurisdiction. the duties of the office shall be performed by such one of the other Judges of the Court as the President may appoint for the purpose. as a Judge of the other High Court. the President may appoint a duly qualified person to act as a Judge of that Court until the permanent Judge has resumed his duties. 224.—(1) If by reason of any temporary increase in the business of a High Court or by reason of arrears of work therein. be entitled to receive in addition to his salary such compensatory allowance as may be determined by Parliament by law and. (2) When any Judge of a High Court other than the Chief Justice is by reason of absence or for any other reason unable to perform the duties of his office or is appointed to act temporarily as Chief Justice. during the period he serves. transfer a Judge from one High Court to any other High Court.—When the office of Chief Justice of a High Court is vacant or when any such Chief Justice is. 223. and every such person so requested shall. 225.

the High Court may— (a) call for returns from such courts. without— (a) furnishing to such party copies of such petition and all documents in support of the plea for such interim order.f. orders or writs to any Government. (2) The power conferred by clause (1) to issue directions. or. on the expiry of that period. prohibition. a petition under clause (1). s. throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. (3) Where any party against whom an interim order. as the case may be.Provided that any restriction to which the exercise of original jurisdiction by any of the High Courts with respect to any matter concerning the revenue or concerning any act ordered or done in the collection thereof was subject immediately before the commencement of this Constitution shall no longer apply to the exercise of such jurisdiction. whether by way of injunction or stay or in any other manner. or in any proceedings relating to. (2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision. before the expiry of the next day afterwards on which the High Court is open. authority or person may also be exercised by any High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to the territories within which the cause of action. quo warranto and certiorari. stand vacated. the High Court shall dispose of the application within a period of two weeks from the date on which it is received or from the date on which the copy of such application is so furnished. is made on. makes an application to the High Court for the vacation of such order and furnishes a copy of such application to the party in whose favour such order has been made or the counsel of such party. to issue to any person or authority. orders or writs. 1977. 8 (w. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act. 226. [Constitutional validity of Central laws not to be considered in proceedings under article 226. 13-41978). the expiry of the said next day. notwithstanding that the seat of such Government or authority or the residence of such person is not within those territories. Power of High Courts to issue certain writs. (b) make and issue general rules and prescribe forms for regulating the practice and proceedings of such courts. whichever is later. wholly or in part. and if the application is not so disposed of. within those territories directions. for the enforcement of any of the rights conferred by Part III and for any other purpose. (4) The power conferred on a High Court by this article shall not be in derogation of the power conferred on the Supreme Court by clause (2) of article 32. any Government. and (b) giving such party an opportunity of being heard.—(1) Every High Court shall have superintendence over all courts and tribunals throughout the territories in relation to which it exercises jurisdiction. or where the High Court is closed on the last day of that period.—(1) Notwithstanding anything in article 32 every High Court shall have power. the interim order shall. and 78 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .] Rep. or any of them. 226A. including writs in the nature of habeas corpus. Power of superintendence over all courts by the High Court. including in appropriate cases. 227. mandamus.e. arises for the exercise of such power.

79 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA (c) prescribe forms in which books. or exclude the jurisdiction of a High .—(1) Appointments of officers and servants of a High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such other Judge or officer of the Court as he may direct: Provided that the Governor of the State may by rule require that in such cases as may be specified in the rule no person not already attached to the Court shall be appointed to any office connected with the Court save after consultation with the State Public Service Commission.e. by the Constitution (Forty-third Amendment) Act. including all salaries. advocates and pleaders practising therein: Provided that any rules made. require the approval of the Governor of the State. (4) Nothing in this article shall be deemed to confer on a High Court powers of superintendence over any court or tribunal constituted by or under any law relating to the Armed Forces. and the said court shall on receipt thereof proceed to dispose of the case in conformity with such judgment. shall be charged upon the Consolidated Fund of the State. Extension of jurisdiction of High Courts to Union territories. entries and accounts shall be kept by the officers of any such courts. (2) Subject to the provisions of any law made by the Legislature of the State. forms prescribed or tables settled under clause (2) or clause (3) shall not be inconsistent with the provision of any law for the time being in force. allowances. * * * * * 228. and any fees or other moneys taken by the Court shall form part of that Fund. (3) The High Court may also settle tables of fees to be allowed to the sheriff and all clerks and officers of such courts and to attorneys. Officers and servants and the expenses of High Courts. 10 (w. s. it shall withdraw the case and may— (a) either dispose of the case itself.] Rep. 1977. allowances and pensions payable to or in respect of the officers and servants of the Court.—(1) Parliament may by law extend the jurisdiction of a High Court to. leave or pensions. 230. or (b) determine the said question of law and return the case to the court from which the case has been so withdrawn together with a copy of its judgment on such question. 228A. [Special provisions as to disposal of questions relating to constitutional validity of State laws.—If the High Court is satisfied that a case pending in a court subordinate to it involves a substantial question of law as to the interpretation of this Constitution the determination of which is necessary for the disposal of the case. 229. (3) The administrative expenses of a High Court. so far as they relate to salaries.f. the conditions of service of officers and servants of a High Court shall be such as may be prescribed by rules made by the Chief Justice of the Court or by some other Judge or officer of the Court authorised by the Chief Justice to make rules for the purpose: Provided that the rules made under this clause shall. and shall require the previous approval of the Governor. 13-41978). Transfer of certain cases to High Court.

and (ii) no posting. Validation of appointments of. in relation to any rules. Parliament and Consolidated Fund of India.—(1) Appointments of persons to be. and (c) the references in articles 219 and 229 to the State shall be construed as a reference to the State in which the High Court has its principal seat: Provided that if such principal seat is in a Union territory. to be a district judge in that State.. (2) Where the High Court of a State exercises jurisdiction in relation to a Union territory. be c ons tru ed as a r ef er en ce to th e Pre si den t. etc. —Notwithstanding any judgment. the references in articles 219 and 229 to the Governor. CHAPTER VI. forms or tables for subordinate courts. Public Service Commission. and the posting and promotion of.—(1) Notwithstanding anything contained in the preceding provisions of this Chapter. (2) In relation to any such High Court. decree or order of any court. Parliament may by law establish a common High Court for two or more States or for two or more States and a Union territory.— (a) the reference in article 217 to the Governor of the State shall be construed as a reference to the Governors of all the States in relation to which the High Court exercises jurisdiction.— (a) (i) no appointment of any person already in the judicial service of a State or of any person who has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader. in re la tion to a ny ru le s. any Union territory. Legislature and Consolidated Fund of the State shall be construed respectively as references to the President. be construed as a reference to the Governor of the State in which the subordinate courts are situate. 233A. Union Public Service Commission. (2) A person not already in the service of the Union or of the State shall only be eligible to be appointed a district judge if he has been for not less than seven years an advocate or a pleader and is recommended by the High Court for appointment. . promotion or transfer of any such person as a district judge. Appointment of district judges. fo rm s or tabl es for subo rdina te c our ts in that t er rito ry. (b) the reference in article 227 to the Governor shall. THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA — ( a) nothing in this Cons titu tion sh al l be cons tru ed a s e mp ow er ing th e Leg is la tur e of th e Sta te to inc re as e. certain district judges. and judgments.—SUBORDINATE COURTS 233. re st ri ct or abo li sh th at ju ris dic tion .80 Court from. a nd ( b) the re fe re nc e in ar ti cl e 227 to the Gov er nor sha ll . Establishment of a common High Court for two or more States. 231. district judges in any State shall be made by the Governor of the State in consultation with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. delivered by.

237.— In this Chapter— (a) the expression “district judge” includes judge of a city civil court. no judgment. 236. or before. additional sessions judge and assistant sessions Judge. promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions. chief presidency magistrate. Application of the provisions of this Chapter to certain class or classes of magistrates. chief judge of a small cause court. but nothing in this article shall be construed as taking away from any such person any right of appeal which he may have under the law regulating the conditions of his service or as authorising the High Court to deal with him otherwise than in accordance with the conditions of his service prescribed under such law. Control over subordinate courts. posting. decree.—The Governor may by public notification direct that the foregoing provisions of this Chapter and any rules made thereunder shall with effect from such date as may be fixed by him in that behalf apply in relation to any class or classes of magistrates in the State as they apply in relation to persons appointed to the judicial service of the State subject to such exceptions and modifications as may be specified in the notification. otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or void or ever to have become illegal or void by reason only of the fact that such appointment.— Appointments of persons other than district judges to the judicial service of a State shall be made by the Governor of the State in accordance with rules made by him in that behalf after consultation with the State Public Service Commission and with the High Court exercising jurisdiction in relation to such State. 1966 by. Recruitment of persons other than district judges to the judicial service.made at any time before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act. posting. 234. and the grant of leave to. 81 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . 1966. any person appointed.— The control over district courts and courts subordinate thereto including the posting and promotion of. sessions judge. before the commencement of the Constitution (Twentieth Amendment) Act. additional district judge. persons belonging to the judicial service of a State and holding any post inferior to the post of district judge shall be vested in the High Court. assistant district judge. sentence or order passed or made. promoted or transferred as a district judge in any State otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of article 233 or article 235 shall be deemed to be illegal or invalid or ever to have become illegal or invalid by reason only of the fact that such appointment. additional chief presidency magistrate. and no other act or proceedings done or taken. (b) the expression “judicial service” means a service consisting exclusively of persons intended to fill the post of district judge and other civil judicial posts inferior to the post of district judge. 235. promotion or transfer was not made in accordance with the said provisions. joint district judge. (b) no jurisdiction exercised. posted. Interpretation.

82 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA 84 .—[The States in Part B of the First Schedule]. s. 29 and Sch. 1956. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act.PART VII. Rep.

239AA. the Legislative Assembly of the National Capital Territory and the members thereof as they apply.83 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA PART VIII THE UNION TERRITORIES 239. the Union territory of Delhi shall be called the National Capital Territory of Delhi (hereafter in this Part referred to as the National Capital Territory) and the administrator thereof appointed under article 239 shall be designated as the Lieutenant Governor.—(1) Save as otherwise provided by Parliament by law.—(1) Parliament may by law create for the Union territory of Pondicherry — (a) a body. (2)(a) There shall be a Legislative Assembly for the National Capital Territory and the seats in such Assembly shall be filled by members chosen by direct election from territorial constituencies in the National Capital Territory. 239A. in relation to a State. the Legislative Assembly of a State and the members thereof respectively. the Legislative Assembly shall have power to make laws for the whole or any part of the National Capital Territory with respect to any of the matters enumerated in the State List or in the Concurrent List in so far as any such matter is applicable to Union territories except85 matters with respect to Entries 1. to function as a Legislature for the Union territory. (2) Any such law as is referred to in clause (1) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending this Constitution.—(1) As from the date of commencement of the Constitution (Sixty-ninth Amendment) Act. 2 and 18 of . the President my appoint the Governor of a State as the administrator of an adjoining Union territory. he shall exercise his functions as such administrator independently of his Council of Ministers. (2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Part VI. or (b) a Council of Ministers. and where a Governor is so appointed. the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes. Creation of local Legislatures or Council of Ministers or both for certain Union territories. as may be specified in the law. every Union territory shall be administered by the President acting. and any reference in articles 326 and 329 to “appropriate Legislature” shall be deemed to be a reference to Parliament. 1991. or both with such constitution. to such extent as he thinks fit. the division of the National Capital Territory into territorial constituencies (including the basis for such division) and all other matters relating to the functioning of the Legislative Assembly shall be regulated by law made by Parliament. (c) The provisions of articles 324 to 327 and 329 shall apply in relation to the National Capital Territory. whether elected or partly nominated and partly elected. (3) (a) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution. Special provisions with respect to Delhi. in each case. (b) The total number of seats in the Legislative Assembly. through an administrator to be appointed by him with such designation as he may specify. powers and functions. Administration of Union territories.

respectively. 2 and 18. to the extent of the repugnancy. (b) Any such law as is referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368 notwithstanding that it contains any provision which amends or has the effect of amending. of the total number of members in the Legislative Assembly. and any reference in that article to “clause (1) of article 239A” shall be deemed to be a reference to this article or article 239AB. this Constitution. with the Chief Minister at the head to aid and advise the Lieutenant Governor in the exercise of his functions in relation to matters with respect to which the Legislative Assembly has power to make laws. as they apply in relation to the Union territory of Pondicherry. the administrator and its Legislature. (b) Nothing in sub-clause (a) shall derogate from the powers of Parliament under this Constitution to make laws with respect to any matter for a Union territory or any part thereof. (5) The Chief Minister shall be appointed by the President and other Ministers shall be appointed by the President on the advice of the Chief Minister and the Ministers shall hold office during the pleasure of the President. or of an earlier law. (c) If any provision of a law made by the Legislative Assembly with respect to any matter is repugnant to any provision of a law made by Parliament with respect to that matter. such earlier law. except in so far as he is. whether passed before or after the law made by the Legislative Assembly. apply in relation to the National Capital Territory. the Lieutenant Governor shall refer it to the President for decision and act according to the decision given thereon by the President and pending such decision it shall be competent for the Lieutenant Governor in any case where the matter. so far as may be. . the Lieutenant Governor and the Legislative Assembly. amending. then. make provisions for giving effect to. (7) (a) Parliament may. as the case may be. (4) There shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of not more than ten per cent. is so urgent that it is necessary for him to take immediate action. shall prevail and the law made by the Legislative Assembly shall. be void: Provided that if any such law made by the Legislative Assembly has been reserved for the consideration of the President and has received his assent. by law. other than a law made by the Legislative Assembly. the law made by Parliament. required to act in his discretion: Provided that in the case of difference of opinion between the Lieutenant Governor and his Ministers on any matter. to take such action or to give such direction in the matter as he deems necessary. by or under any law. or supplementing the provisions contained in the foregoing clauses and for all matters incidental or consequential thereto. as the case may be. varying or repealing the law so made by the Legislative Assembly. such law shall prevail in the National Capital Territory: Provided further that nothing in this sub-clause shall prevent Parliament from enacting at any time any law with respect to the same matter including a law adding to.84 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA the State List and Entries 64. in either case. (6) The Council of Ministers shall be collectively responsible to the Legislative Assembly. (8) The provisions of article 239B shall. 65 and 66 of that List in so far as they relate to the said Entries 1. or. in his opinion.

239AB. on receipt of a report from the Lieutenant Governor or otherwise. and (b) may be withdrawn at any time by the administrator after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf. a resolution disapproving it is passed by the Legislature. but every such Ordinance— (a) shall be laid before the Legislature of the Union territory and shall cease to operate at the expiration of six weeks from the reassembly of the Legislature or if. upon the passing of the resolution. 239B. Power of administrator to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Legislature. (3) If and so far as an Ordinance under this article makes any provision which would not be valid if enacted in an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory made after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A. —If the President. except when the Legislature of the Union territory of Pondicherry is in session. (2) An Ordinance promulgated under this article in pursuance of instructions from the President shall be deemed to be an Act of the Legislature of the Union territory which has been duly enacted after complying with the provisions in that behalf contained in any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A.—(1) If at any time. before the expiration of that period. he may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require: Provided that no such Ordinance shall be promulgated by the administrator except after obtaining instructions from the President in that behalf: Provided further that whenever the said Legislature is dissolved. it shall be void. the administrator thereof is satisfied that circumstances exist which render it necessary for him to take immediate action. or (b) that for the proper administration of the National Capital Territory it is necessary or expedient so to do. * * * * * 85 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA . or its functioning remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A. Provision in case of failure of constitutional machinery. is satisfied— (a) that a situation has arisen in which the administration of the National Capital Territory cannot be carried on in accordance with the provisions of article 239AA or of any law made in pursuance of that article. the administrator shall not promulgate any Ordinance during the period of such dissolution or suspension. the President may by order suspend the operation of any provision of article 239AA or of all or any of the provisions of any law made in pursuance of that article for such period and subject to such conditions as may be specified in such law and make such incidental and consequential provisions as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for administering the National Capital Territory in accordance with the provisions of article 239 and article 239AA.

(4) Nothing in this article derogates from the power of Parliament to extend or exclude the jurisdiction of a High Court for a State to. in relation to any Union territory shall continue to exercise such jurisdiction in relation to that territory after such commencement. ( d) Da ma n and Diu . Power of President to make regulations for certain Union territories. 1956. (2) The provisions of Chapter V of Part VI shall apply in relation to every High Court referred to in clause (1) as they apply in relation to a High Court referred to in article 214 subject to such modifications or exceptions as Parliament may by law provide. shall have the same force and effect as an Act of Parliament which applies to that territory. ( b) Lak sha dw ee p. ( e ) Pondich er ry: Provided that when any body is created under article 239A to function as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry. High Courts for Union territories—(1) Parliament may by law constitute a High Court for a Union territory or declare any court in any such territory to be a High Court for all or any of the purposes of this Constitution. (2) Any regulation so made may repeal or amend any Act made by Parliament or any other law which is for the time being applicable to the Union territory and. every High Court exercising jurisdiction immediately before the commencement of the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. 29 and Sch.240. ( c ) Dad ra a nd N ag ar H av el i. by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. when promulgated by the President. progress and good government of that Union territory. or the functioning of that body as such Legislature remains suspended on account of any action taken under any such law as is referred to in clause (1) of article 239A.] Rep. [Coorg. or from. 86 THE CONSTITUTION OF INDIA .— (1) The President may make regulations for the peace. progress and good government of the Union territory of— ( a) the And am an and N icob ar I sl and s. the President shall not make any regulation for the peace. any Union territory or part thereof. 241. during the period of such dissolution or suspension. progress and good government of that Union territory with effect from the date appointed for the first meeting of the Legislature: Provided further that whenever the body functioning as a Legislature for the Union territory of Pondicherry is dissolved. the President may. s. 1956. (3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution and to the provisions of any law of the appropriate Legislature made by virtue of powers conferred on that Legislature by or under this Constitution. make regulations for the peace. 242.

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