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The leitmotif of southern culture is its tapestry of magnificent temple architecture going back to the 6th century. Tamil. and of course the grandeur of classical dance and music.ee oceans.d of temples and the de.vout. handicrafts..loofu (Bangalore). South India has seen the rise of a number of dynasties and. bian Sea and Eastern Ghats on the east and th e Bay of Bengal and . The dynasties of Satavahana. Benga.'. arch itecture and subtle cultural variations to offer. heritage of sandalwood. silk.~~~:~:~~ features T <.{J As the southern culture evolved millennia before .~ ? J( :::~. cultural and linguistic homogeneity here that makes visitors refer to the four major southern States together simply as 'south Ind ia'. the south Indian peninsula IS doubly Insulated by the Ara. there is a racial.~'''' i1 j:. each State in its own right a fascinating tourist destination. is a region of overwhelming grandeur ( and pristine beauty.ly_ In spite of th e seeming similarity. Pallava. this triangular \~ ~. As a result. festivals and Fact File Area Population Density Languages States. festivals. Telugu.r}:. km 233. ~ the modern State borders did. north In?ia by the Vindhya >("~~ m?untain range.. Thiruvanathapuram & KochL History Covering a span of over two thousand years.he lan. ~.. th 0 ugh mistake n.. surrounded by thr.000.>- "J '. The dominant ~?!. empires..7 of south India are the "~'v"'-' "\-.. Kannada.r»: J~/'.000 337 Isq. Andhra Pradesh. and fall with the subconPandya. Karnataka and Kerala. evolving an aura of poised tranquillity. This is a land of temples.2~"4r- 1(" . each State has different see nery.780 sq. Mahe & (2001 Census) Chennai. Chatukya. which the great king Asoka ruled over most of the Indian tinent. culture. South India. Rashtrakuta. a land of the devout and the land of never-ending traditions .b J r. +~~~~:~~_ \. ~ ahen influences. Karnataka & Tamil Nadu Lakshadweep Karaikal) & Pondicherry (including Yanam..~:I. rosewood and brass. Ian at the core m spite of repeated exposures to 4. Union Territories Major Cities 635. from. Puducherry (Pondicherry) and Lakshadweep are again utterly different from the four traditional States of Tamil Nadu. krn.~ land remained culturally undisturbed for millen. Se~arated. religion and lifestyle.:» We s t ~ r n Ghats on the west. Malayalam &TuIUl Andhra Pradesh.~~~~:h~. languages \ ~ and lifestyle which had remamed essentially Dravld-.r'. 3 . Chela. I \l_. nia. Recorded history of the region begins ancient period during.:S: \ Q{J r r:::t~t!j al areas and the architecture.Kerala. Hyderabad..~~~~~':~.. the unaltered traditions of food.

Kerala and Tamil Nadu. covering the major portion of the states of Maharashtra. Geography Geographically speaking. and divided the rest into a number of dependent princely states. mark another boundary of the plateau. No major elevations border the plateau to the east.Kakatiya and Hoysala were at their peak during various periods of history. encompassing two mountain ranges . South India consists of almost the entire Indian Peninsula in the shape of an inverted triangle. The Narmada flows westwards in the depression between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges. The Deccan plateau. -------------------------<4 . and it slopes gently from the Westem Ghats to the eastem coast. is Kanniyakumari. The narrow strip of verdant land between the Westem Ghats and the Arabian Sea is the Konkan region. while the Arabian Sea. After Indian independence South India was linguistically divided into the states of Andhra Pradesh. The Westem Ghats. The Satpura ranges define the northern spur of the Deccan plateau. The other major rivers of the Deccan plateau are the Pennar and the Tungabhadra. the term encompasses the area south of the Narmada as far as Goa. and extending on to the relatively low-lying hills of the Eastem Ghats. Vijayanagara empire rose in response to the Muslim intervention and cov. Kaveri. The southemmost point of the region (and of mainland India). south and east respectively. along the westem coast. one of the main geographic features of South India. the southem kingdoms were not powerful enough to resist the new threat and eventually succumbed to British occupation. Krishna and Godavari rivers are important non-perennial sources of water in South India. and terminate at the Nilgiri mountains. on the westem portion of the Tamil Nadu-Andhra Pradesh border.~ Mughal expansion into the l south. The Westem Ghats continue south. encompassing the Palakkad and Wayanad hills. forming the Malnad (Canara) region along the Karnataka coast. and the Satyamangalam ranges. :!< r: 0 When the European powers arrived during the 16th century CE. The British created the Madras Presidency which covered most of south India directly administered by the British Raj. Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal surround the peninsula in the west. south of the Vindhya Range. The Nilgiris run in a crescent approximately along the borders of Tamil Nadu with northern Kerala and Kamataka. The Tungabhadra. The Narmada and Mahanadi rivers form the traditional boundary between northern and southem India.ered the most of south India and acted as a bulwark against . These kingdoms constantly fought amongst each other and against extemal forces when Muslim armies inG vaded south India. The geography of South India is diverse.the Westem Ghats and Eastem Ghats and a plateau heartland.~. a major tributary of the Krishna. The plateau is watered by the east flowing Godavari and Krishna rivers. an inward (easterly) extension of the Westem Ghats. The Tirupati and Annamalai hills form part of this range. is the vast elevated region bound by the C-shape defined by all these mountain ranges. Kamataka. Kamataka and Tamil Nadu.

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