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SERVQUAL (Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry)
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Comparing service quality performance with customer service quality needs. Explanation of SERVQUAL Methodology of Zeithaml, Parasuraman, and Berry. ('88) Contributed by: Paul Fedoroff WHAT IS SERVQUAL? DESCRIPTION The SERVQUAL method from Valarie A. Zeithaml, A. Parasuraman, and Leonard L. Berry is a technique that can be used for performing a gap analysis of an organization's service quality performance against customer service quality needs. SERVQUAL is an empirically derived method that may be used by a services organization to improve service quality. The method involves the development of an understanding of the perceived service needs of target customers. These measured perceptions of service quality for the organization in question, are then compared against an organization that is "excellent". The resulting gap analysis may then be used as a driver for service quality improvement. SERVQUAL takes into account the perceptions of customers of the relative importance of service attributes. This allows an organization to prioritize. And to use its resources to improve the most critical service attributes. The data are collected via surveys of a sample of customers. In these surveys, these customers respond to a series of questions based around a number of key service dimensions. The methodology was originally based around 5 key dimensions: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Tangibles. Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. Reliability. Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Responsiveness. Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Assurance. Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to convey trust and confidence. Empathy. The firm provides care and individualized attention to its customers.
This has been adapted later by some to cover: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Tangibles. Appearance of physical facilities, equipment, personnel, and communication materials. Reliability. Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Responsiveness. Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Competence. Possession of required skill and knowledge to perform service. Courtesy. Politeness, respect, consideration and friendliness of contact personnel. Credibility. Trustworthiness, believability, honesty of the service provider. Feel secure. Freedom from danger, risk, or doubt. Access. Approachable and easy of contact. Communication. Listens to its customers and acknowledges their comments. Keeps customers informed. In a language which they can u Understanding the customer. Making the effort to know customers and their needs.
ORIGIN OF SERVQUAL. HISTORY The authors conducted a qualitative study, from which they concluded that customers ranked the importance of two SERVQUAL dimensions co Regardless of service industry. Reliability is the most important contributing factor to service quality and tangibles is the least important. USAGE OF SERVQUAL. APPLICATIONS
SERVQUAL is widely used within service industries to understand the perceptions of target customers regarding their service needs. An measurement of the service quality of the organization. SERVQUAL may also be applied internally to understand employees' perceptions of service quality. With the objective of achieving servic
STEPS IN SERVQUAL. PROCESS The method essentially involves conducting a sample survey of customers so that their perceived service needs are understood. And for measu perceptions of service quality for the organization in question. Customers are asked to answer numerous questions within each dimension that determines:
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and predictive validity of the measurement. STRENGTHS OF SERVQUAL..Delivering Quality Service: Balancing Customer Perceptions and Expectations. organization to focus its resources. Customer needs can be documented and captured.Journal of retailing 67 (4) Winter. convergent validity. and Zeithaml (1988) . Where can I find more information on how to calculate the results from the surveys?" Marketing Models "I believe the dimensions relating to service quality are culture specific. Victor R. discriminant validity. Berry.UK Recent User Comments Calculating SERVQUAL "I am working on my thesis and I am using the SERVQUAL method to calculate the variations in expectations among hotel personnel.com/h/0000174153. A measurement of performance expectations that would relate to an "excellent" company. This provides an assessment of the gap between desired and actual performance. And of the uniform applicability of the method for all service se an analysis by Thomas P. and Zeithaml (1991) . Prybutok.Journal of marketing 70 (3) Fall.Journal of m Fall. the reason being that India is highly heterogeneous in respect of its culture.India M. Zeithaml. 12-40 Journal: Parasuraman.UK Theresa .12manage.S-Africa Dave . DISADVANTAGES There have been a number of studies that doubt the validity of the 5 dimensions. These findings s caution should be exercised in the use of SERVQUAL scores and that further work is needed in the development of measures for assessing the information services. As a result. same set of dimensions ma not hold good even for all regions in India. Van Dyke. The relative importance of each attribute.India Younes Mazlumi . The validity of the model is based around the results of empirical studies. Book: Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry . The Gaps model is better to include product quality as well." Product Quality Gap 5 in servqual model "It is relevant to note that the difference between the expected service by the customer and the perceived service by the customer (= gap 5) in the SERVQUAL model equals t sum of the gaps 1 + 2 + 3 + 4. A measurement of performance for the company in question. CONDITIONS The results of market surveys are accurate.Yaseen Khan . To maximize service quality whilst costs are controlled. Journal: Parasuraman.com/methods_zeithaml_. SERVQUAL provides detailed information about: Customer perceptions of service (a benchmark established by your own customers) Performance levels as perceived by customers Customer comments and suggestions Impressions from employees with respect to customers expectations and satisfaction LIMITATIONS OF SERVQUAL. In fact.Alternative scales for measuring service quality: A comparative assessment based on psyc diagnostic criteria . Therefore.A conceptual model of service quality and its implications for future research .Iran Paul MBA . together with a ranking of the importance of service criteria. it appears that the use of difference scores in calculating SER contributes to problems with the reliability.Refinement and reassessment of the SERVQUAL scale ." Comment on this Page SERVQUAL SPECIAL INTEREST GROUP Visit the Special Interest Group 2 of 3 4/19/2008 10:03 PM ..SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring customer perceptions of service quality 64 (1) Spring. and Berry (1994) . and Leon A. Zeithaml.kapanlagi. Berry. gap 5 can only be influenced indirectly by management." Best User Comments "Service quality perceptions and expectations may change over time. 41-50 Journal: Parasuraman.USA Ads by Google Customer Satisfaction Customer Service DVD Customer Quality Performance Indicators A. How can Servqua Change in perceptions deal with the dynamics of changing customer expectations?" "The original attributes (key dimensions) are sometimes rearranged to form the acronym Acronym RATER.html http://www. ASSUMPTIONS OF SERVQUAL. Bhattacharya . and they remain stable during the whole process. by changing the gaps 1 to 4. Journal: Parasuraman. A number of academ performed further empirical studies that appear to contradict some of the original findings. 201-230 SERVQUAL FORUM Tess ." "How SERVQUAL could be authentic in Retail specially in indian market?" Validity in Retail "There is no pure service. th dimensions considered for the Western society may not be relevant for India which is remarkably different from West in respect of culture. Kappelman. BENEFITS Most users would agree that a comprehensive and thorough examination of service needs and service quality provides an invaluable approach service quality.SERVQUAL (Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry) http://www. and Berry (1985) .
12manage.com/h/0000174153..12manage.0 .Expert Tips and Management Papers . 3 of 3 4/19/2008 10:03 PM .More info Compare with SERVQUAL: Relationship Marketing | Customer Relationship Management | Operational CRM | Extended Marketing Mix (7-P Satisfaction Model | Two Factor Theory | Total Quality Management | Quality Function Deployment | 3rd Party Logistics (3PL) | Service Pr Return to Management Hub: Knowledge & Intangibles | Marketing | Supply Chain & Quality More Management Methods.E-learning community on management. Models and Theory Ads by Google Search About 12manage | Advertising / Sponsoring | Link to us | Support us | Terms of Service Copyright 2008 12manage .com/methods_zeithaml_.News and Videos on this method ..SERVQUAL (Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry) http://www. All names tm by their owners. V10.More info . forum interest group</p> MORE INFORMATION? 12manage Premium may contain the following additional information about (the) SERVQUAL: .kapanlagi. Seminars and Events ADD A LINK TO THIS PAGE Copy and paste this code to your web page: <p><a href="http://www.Last updated: 2008-03-25.Description.com/methods_zeithaml_servqual. SERVQUAL EDUCATION & EVENTS Find Trainings.html http://www.html">SERVQUAL (Zeithaml Parasuraman Berry)</a> .