Do African countries need to utilise TRIPS flexibilities?

Country of manufacture Generic volume (patient years) % of total generics volume India 288 439 85% South Africa 51 947 15%

% of total volume
• Source: Colleen Chien

53%

10%

• Indian generics form bulk of African ARV supply • New patent Act raises questions as to the supply of 2nd line ARVs • Countries will have to either pay more for 2nd line ARVs or utilise TRIPS flexibilities more actively

Who has an interest in a strong IP enforcement system? Source WIPO • Country Patent applications per million (’05) 2 876 1 479 135 8. developed countries exporters Most patent applications in developing countries are from foreigners Participation in patent system does not automatically result in innovation or for developing countries and LDCs Few developing country patent offices conduct patent examinations Often second use patents granted for same product Does one patent system really fit all? .1 1.5 5.67 • • • Japan USA Holland South Africa Brazil Mexico • • Graph shows that developing countries are still IP importers.

Origin of Patent Applications filed from 1984-2005 at ARIPO (Top Eleven) 1400 1200 1000 Number of Applications 800 1353 600 400 511 200 120 0 89 317 124 75 151 126 121 76 AU BE CA CH DE DK FR Country of Origin GB IN US ZA .

673 3. 083 6.Costs of TRIPS to Developing Countries (1) Country Changes of Net Annual Patent Rent Obligations Resulting from Full Application of TRIPS ($ million at 2000 prices) US Germany Japan France U. 090 . 968 2. 768 5. 000 1.3.K. Switzerland Australia 19.26 2.

World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) estd 1970 became specialized agency of the UN in 1974 Prior to TRIPS.which realized that it had to share its expertise with the WTO . the principal organization dealing with IP The TRIPS Agreement created dilemma for WIPO…..

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