ANATOMICAL
TERMS
AND THEIR DERIVATION

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OXNARD University of Western Australia. CHENNAI . Austrlia World Scientific NEW JERSEY . SINGAPORE . LONDON . PETER LISOWSKI University of Tasmania. HONGKONG . TAIPEI . BEIJING .ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION F. SHANGHAI . Australia CHARLES E.

or parts thereof. This book. electronic or mechanical. may not be reproduced in any form or by any means. Pte. 5 Toh Tuck Link. For photocopying of material in this volume. Danvers. Singapore 596224 USA office: 27 Warren Street. recording or any information storage and retrieval system now known or to be invented. Covent Garden. Hackensack. ISBN 981-270-387-X (pbk) Typeset by Stallion Press Email: enquiries@stallionpress. . In this case permission to photocopy is not required from the publisher. All rights reserved. NJ 07601 UK office: 57 Shelton Street. Ltd. MA 01923. without written permission from the Publisher. Suite 401-402. Inc.. USA. 222 Rosewood Drive. including photocopying.Published by World Scientific Publishing Co. Ltd.com Printed in Singapore. ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION Copyright © 2007 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. please pay a copying fee through the Copyright Clearance Center. London WC2H 9HE British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

it is certainly far wider than just surgery. the use of anatomy is widely misunderstood. Do we understand: the opposite side test. the least of the reasons for doctors to know anatomy. Anatomy helps understand signs and symptoms. Even the finger (touching — palpation) or the eye (looking — observation) mislead if what is under the skin has been forgotten (or was never known).”The knife for a sebaceous cyst in the neck easily leads to paralysis of the trapezius if anatomical knowledge has gone (or never existed). Thus. paradoxically. It is also because medical education assumes that anatomy’s main value is for surgery and will be learnt later by beginning surgeons. Yet anatomy for surgery is. swelling of the genitalia (especially alarming to the patient in a cardiac bed) in the sitting patient? Anatomy is important in clinical tests. The needle at the elbow or buttock readily causes problems if the simple anatomy is absent (or has disappeared).ANATOMICAL TERMS AND THEIR DERIVATION Anatomy is gradually disappearing from the medical curriculum. Do we know how the local anatomy of special skin regions relates to oedema: swelling of the back of hand and foot in the upright patient. There is. flexing and medially rotating the right thigh causes pain from a pelvic appendix lying on the obturator muscle? Anatomy is important in everything we do in medicine. thus. a minor “surgery” of general practice that requires anatomy in situations where it cannot be “looked up. swelling around the eyes in the lying patient. Do we know that accuracy in observation and v . This is partly because the curriculum is overcrowded and something has to go. pressing in left iliac fossa giving pain in right iliac fossa in appendicitis. the obturator test.

they had biological and classical backgrounds. application: when it goes wrong. fellow students. models. questioning. This is powerful first hand learning: listening. the information in texts. notes. Anatomy is only truly known through understanding the underlying science. they already “knew” what the words meant. and above all. memorization is an important aid to learning in all disciplines. Eastern Europe. discussing. it seems that it does not need to be learnt. it is certainly far wider than just memorization of facts. they usually had English as their first language. students were often relatives of doctors or other professionals already possessing a medical flavour. many lack the classics and biology that utilize the words (in Australia.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation description stem first from observation and description in anatomy? Do we realize that anatomical terms are the vocabulary of medicine. and of one’s own body as well as the patient’s. health care colleagues. function: how it works. All this leads to a new problem for today’s students. many students are from language groups (Asia. It can also be learnt from many bodies. using. In today’s world. the Middle East) far removed from English.” However. mnemonics and memory (rote-learning) though all useful initially. Africa. All this communication requires an interface between the language of medicine and the language of life. biological sciences are not vi . lists. In prior times. patients. it can be “looked up. prosections and computers. Questioning is the final basis of learning. speaking. atlases. development: how it came to be during a life time. in contrast. Anatomy can be learnt from text-books. This is second hand learning. pictures. experience: how it is used. of teachers. disappear in short order. and with the patient? Learning anatomy is also widely misunderstood. of the living as well as the dead. not just anatomy: how doctors communicate with one another. Of course. Paradoxically. this is one of the reasons for eliminating anatomy. evolution: how it came to be in myriads of life times.

the roots are also presented from which many of these descriptive terms and compounds are derived. The student response has been most gratifying. the book is organised into abbreviations. general terms common to all body regions. For practical convenience. It has been tested on medical students in the Universities of Tasmania and Western Australia. Secretary of the Anatomy and Physiology Department who did the original word processing. Here. or (2) commonly. scientific names have been invented (1) by using certain classical words which appear to be descriptive of the part concerned. Such students ask: “Why do things have such complex names?” “If only we knew the meaning it would be easier to understand!” The teacher of the old days who could have enlightened them is almost extinct. Our thanks go to Ms Jill Aschman.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation even required at entry). by combining Greek or Latin roots to form a new compound term. and early anatomists described the structures they saw in that language. common Latin or Greek words are used as such for any part of the body for which the ancients had a name. The following text provides some of the information that those teachers might have given. Most vii . or borrowing terms from the Greek and Arabic masters before them. many are baffled by the language of medicine.The small pocket word book is truly a vade mecum that goes with the student into all parts of medicine. Memorization of such terms without understanding their meaning can lead to mental indigestion. For a wider vocabulary. short lists for each major body part. Phua and Ms Lim Sook Cheng of World Scientific. prefixes and suffixes. and an alphabetical list covering the entire body. the use of a standard biological or medical dictionary is recommended. K. and to Dr K. Anatomy began as descriptive science in the days when Latin was the universal scientific language. comparing them to common and familiar objects. as an aid to comprehension. For many other structures. In anatomic terminology.

Their questions about meanings have stimulated our answers and this pocket book. Hobart and Perth FPL CEO 2006 viii .Anatomical Terms and their Derivation important thanks of all go to generations of medical students in all the medical schools in which we have worked.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 7 21 28 35 44 58 74 85 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Upper Limb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Prefixes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions . . . . . . . . . Commonly Used Suffixes . . . . Alphabetical List of Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Lower Limb . . . . . . .CONTENTS Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Head and Neck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis . Terms Specific to the Nervous System . Terms Important in the Thorax . . .

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Greek L. French Ger. diminutive F. Arabic dim. plural 1 . “New” Latin OF. Latin NL. Old French pl. German G. Anglo-Saxon A.ABBREVIATIONS AS.

away from L. reverse. on both sides. short G. to. twice. toward G. male producing antebrachium. from G. about G. lead around chondrocyte. self L. head L. two joints androgen. lead away adduction. bring towards amphiarthrosis. chondras. toward L. to.COMMONLY USED PREFIXES Prefix a-. secreting from autonomic. without sex abduction. forearm antihelix. autos. reverse coil apocrine. double G. pertaining to the base L. double G. cartilage cell . cartilage 2 Example asexual. around. without L. head measure circumduction. forward. against. lacking. opposed to G. a male L. occipital base bicipital. before G. self governing basiocciput. anabadafamphiandroanteantiapoautobasibibrachycephalocircumchondro- Meaning G. two heads brachycephaly. short head cephalometry. lead towards afferent.

draw together deglutition. com-. swallow down diaplegia. joint apart ectoderm. ininfraL. outside the cell gastrocolic reflex. belly G.Commonly Used Prefixes co-. under. on G. within heart epicardium. upon. stomach. half a sphere holocrine. wedge inside endocardium. excessive G. not L. extra. on outer side L. twisted G. over. gaster. within G. both sides diaphragm. condedidi-. outside the dura embolism. away G. together. twice G. above. with L. ecto-. bulging eye extracellular. below L. the better of alternates G. whole G. whole secretion homologous hypertrophy. in. outside G. better generation exophthalmos. away from. outside L. diadise-. through. wall between disarticulate. exextraem-. twisted hole hemisphere. over heart eugenics. over growth hypothalamus. one and the same G. below the thalamus immature. half G. enen-. apart. not mature infraorbital. below orbit 3 . over G. endoepieuexoextragastrohelicohemiholohomohyperhypoim-. below constrictor. outer layer extradural. down G. between L. outside G. deficient. stomach-colon reflex helicotrema. double.

for 4 . mesomicromyoneuroL. behind the axis prenatal. muscle G. mys. between the vertebrae intramuscular. between L. stretched around postaxial. around L. after. before kidney omniomphaloooorthoosteoparaperipostprae-. omnis. oon. direct G. within. before G. egg cell orthograde. all powerful signifying the navel oocyte. looking small combining form of muscle combining form of nerve (tendon. osteon. before birth pronephros. prepro- L. small G. straight walking osteocyte. equal G. all G. neuron. large cell metacarpal. combining form (omphalos) G. look inside isometric. equal measure macrocyte. orthos. beside the vertebrae peritoneum. by the side of G. great G. change. bone cell paravertebral. behind L. bone G. inside. see aponeurosis) omnipotent. egg G. large cell megalocyte. nerve intervertebral. middle G. after G. large G. into G. big. within muscle introspection. before. straight.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation interintraintroisomacromegametames-. within L. after the carpus (wrist) mesogastrium microscope.

syntransultraL. half membranous subclavius. in excess. across pylorus ultrasonic. above G. half L. turn back retroperitoneal. again. behind the peritoneum semimembranosus. above spine symphysis.Commonly Used Prefixes reretrosemisubsuprasym-. beyond (audible) sounds 5 . synostosis transpyloric. back L. behind L. with L. under clavicle supraspinatous. together. across L. backward. under L. beyond reflect.

ek-tome. to write G.COMMONLY USED SUFFIXES Suffix -algia -coele -ectomy -form -graph -itis -logy -oid -opia -pathy -rhoea -scopy -tomy -uria Meaning G. forma. to view G. resemblance G. treatise. skopein. temnein. opsis. pain G. urine Example neuralgia. form. algos. pathos. sight G. koilia. logos. suffix indicating inflammation G. spindle shaped radiograph conjunctivitis pathology mastoid. double vision sympathy diarrhoea endoscopy hysterectomy haematuria. hollow G. rhein. nerve pain blastocoele. word. shape G. hollow cell ball appendicectomy fusiform. ouron. study of G. to flow G. cutting out L. breast shaped diplopia. to cut G. suffering G. eidos. blood in urine 6 . graphein.

L. Anlage. L. agonistes. before. to. cause to communicate. L. Aberrant. apart. treatise. Apertura. opening. + ferre. + legen. L. to lead. Agonist. an. law. away. Anteversion. Anterior. without. Annulus. G. apertura. Adductor. a ring. Anastomosis. + flexere. ad. to stick together. G. turning. to. to separate. L. + nomos. to lay (a laying on — primordium. Adipose. L. L. L. Ger. Adhesion. ab. accessorius. ante. adhaereo. + ducere. aditus. Aditus. before. fat. to. to cut. + krinein. according to. ad. + nexus. ante. rival. Antagonist. Adnexa. L. + venire. Anomaly. to. before. G. L. + tennein. Adventia. precursor). rival. anti. 7 . on. Analogy. bound. L. to bend. to stray. away. to bring to a mouth. ante. ana. supplementary. an.TERMS COMMON TO ALL ANATOMICAL REGIONS Abductor. Anteflexion. opening. G. Afferent. + logos. L. ana. G. ad. to lead. G. to carry. + versio. anulus (annulus). to come. against. Apocrine. L. from. G. agonistes. L. apo. ad. Anatomy. adeps. anastomoein. L. Accessory. + errare. ab. + ducere.

footing. strength. self. grandfather. a purse. articulationes. L. arte. bulb. Artefact. joint. Atelectasis. + venter. L. a. Axon. Bilateral. arteria. + ectasis. + furca. G. bursa. aer. bulla. Aspera. two. 8 . thus arrectores pilorum. Bursa. + latus. made. hence purse-shaped object. arrigere. + sthenos. a. two. L. G. two. base. Asthenic. to keep (L. L. nourishment. L. the line about which any body turns. hole. Brevis. bi.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Aqueous. a. atavus. incomplete. + nomos. L. short. G. Bifid. autos. a. by art. G. a bubble. Biventer. Arrector. Atrophy. fork. brevis. L. little joint. L. L. Axial. asper. L. expansion. Artery. rough. to raise. without. order. L. + tresis. windpipe). joints. Autonomic. Ataxia. L. + factus. small muscles in skin that erect the hairs. artus. swollen root. G. Bifurcate. hence spherical in shape. bis. + taxis. Bulbus. bulbus. axle of a wheel. pl. side. Axis. without. bis. law. Atavistic. bis. + findere. Basal. belly. L. L. axis. L. without. aqua. + trophe. ateles. L. to cleave. articulatus. without. axon. two. axle of a wheel. Bulla. axis. G. axis. G. basis. Articulation. air. ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. water. L. Atresia. + terein. G.

L. Commissure. cancelli. cord. canalis. Colloid. L. a hollow or cave. on which something important or fundamental hinges. L. comitari. L. as above. to roll. dim. L. to make. cardinalis. L. -um. to accompany. of caro. L. L. cartilage. Circumflex. kolla. Calcification. box. Cancellous. cartilago. commissura (cum + mittere). G. L. L. L. pertaining to the hair. together. skin. Collateral. a hollow or cave. L. lime. Comitans (pl. Communicans. latticework. hollow or cave. shape. + latus. Comes. Chorda. any fleshy eminence. skin. G. L. together. capillaris. + flexere. calcar. begetter of. newly formed bone at fracture site. cavus. L. circum. Callous. chorion. Caruncle.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Calcar. 9 . L. -a. dim. Convolution. flesh. little hill. of capsa. around. likeness. + eidos. + volvo. kolla. gen. comitantes). Collagen. watepipe. tail. glue. caverna. + eidos. Choroid. to bend. G. L. cauda. L. shape. likeness. + facere. corpora). Canaliculus. G. chorde. chorion. glue. comes. spur. Capsule. calx. Chorion. Cavernosus. caudal Cava. Cavum. Cardinal. L. connection. con. communicating. pertaining to a door hinge. communicans. companion. body. Cartilage. colliculus. G. Capillary. L. cavum. string of gut. Colliculus. L. Corpus (pl. L. + L. L. L. Cauda. con. side. gristle.

Ectoderm. ex. + ferens. 10 . L. Cutaneous. Diverticulum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Corpuscle. to jut. L. G. outside. Distal. Crista. cross. Detritus. skin. twice. endon. dendros. L. L. G. Depressor. detrudere. efficere. Dermis. Cyst (adj. to cut. derma. Cutis. Dorsal. ducere. out. out. away. + premere. deterere. Dermatome. bag. to push down. ducere. cutis. skin. L. derma. Crus (pl. dis. skin. de. Endoderm. to bear. G. e. Cuticle. skin. Effector. crista. L. pouch. Efferent. crus. to send. kystis. dim. to turn aside. dorsum. Emissary. G. little body. leg. L. carrying. L. derma. tree. endon. distare. Detrusor. to bring to pass. Duct. down. crest. corpusculum. decussatio. G. ektos. to lead or draw. as in Roman X. L. skin. Cruciate. + minere. L. Dendrite. Dermal. divertere. out. skin. crux. cystic). join together. de. skin. intersection of two lines. + temnein. back. L. L. G. to rub away. cutis. + derma. L. Deferens. + mittere. G. Ductule. + derma. skin. Decussation. + ferre. crura). cutis. L. e. L. Endochondral. G. within. L. to lead. L. L. G. L. bladder. L. L. to stand apart. Eminence. + chondros. to press. cartilage. Dizygotic. within. + zygoo.

+ mys. extendo. fibre. epi. Epithelium. sling. L. fibre. epi. dried up. shape. + krinein. Fibril. shape. Fossa. endon. pipe. G. + cartilago. Exudate. bone. Fiber. fascia. out. Epineurium. Filament. flexus. within. fibre. Extension. Fibrocartilage. Fibre. + neuron. nerve. weak. + neuron. Eversion. L. on the outside. L. L. Epimysium. endon. L. + blastos. nerve. Endosteum. 11 . G. Flexor. on. L. skin. + thele. Flaccid. Fissure. + tendere. fissura (findo). muscle. string. Fundiform. G. window. a small bag. filamentum. L. + derma. Extrinsic. fibrilla. fascis. Form. something dug. fossa. L. gristle. nipple. + thele. fistula. L. forma. ex. Foramen. + forma. bud. fibra. Endothelium. Fibroblast. channel. funda. extrinsecus. a cleft. e. upon. out. on. Epidermis. fenestra. endon. -iae). to turn. a little thread. L. Fascia (pl. L. within. epi. G. + vertere. + skeletos. L. out. Endoneurium. bent. fibra. G. L. endon. ex. out. L. extend. L. + osteon. band. hole. Extensor. flaccidus.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Endomysium. L. within. Endoskeleton. folliculus. to sweat. L. epi. + mys. G. Fenestra. + sudare. L. muscle. Fistula. Exocrine. within. on. thin fibre. G. nipple. likeness. to separate. endon. G. L. G. L. ditch. within. fibra. G. Fasciculus. NL. ex. L. bundle. foramen. thread. to stretch. Follicle.

bottom. to plant. G. axis. L. Habitus. G. Insertion. L. L. + krinein. Impression. bud. . to excite. same. condition of the body. L. ball. L. Hemopoietic. glans. hormaein. Innervation. to plant. Implantation. Hemiplegia. incidere. stroke. germen. Gland. globus. habitus. + forma. blood. acorn. + L. in. in. creative. G. G. blood. to cover. Hemisphere. + plantere. Glia. Hormone. rope. Haemal. nerve. Haemoglobin. germen. gloia. L. centre line. L. Hilum. homos. germ. sphere. shape. L. hemi. + sphaira. Holocrine. whole. to separate. haima. in. excite. in. L. to bear. haima. G. fluid. in. G. pellet. over. + plege. in. in. germ. hemal. holos. funis. + logos. axis. in. L. G. L. Incisura. L. + nervus. hemi. likeness. half. Integument. blood. treatise. gestare. a small thing. + premere. hilum. moisture. hypo. Gestation. fundus.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Fundus. inducere. spindle. under. to press. to lead on. G. half. + poietikos. + L. Germinative. + tegere. Inductor. L. L. haima. Fusiform. bud. fusus. 12 Germinal. humor. G. glandula. Haemopoietic. L. Humor. L. to cut into. in. Funicular. L. glue. Hypaxial. G. Homology. dim. + serere. Hemoglobin.

Karyolysis. pertaining to a side. spring water. inward. digit.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Intercalated. L. G. L. spring water. large. lacuna. lympha. L. lipos. interlocked by finger-like processes. G. L. Lobus. thin plate. L. white. G. makros. resemblance. inter. + phagein. + lysis. leaf. G. Inversion. L. between. in. in. lacerare. lobos. -ae). L. Lymphocyte. to call. place. L. cell. karyon. near. nucleus. Locus. nut. karyon. L. nut. between. Lateral. L. Lipid. + G. large. Lymph. movement. ligamentum. innermost. L. + vertere. + calare. dim. place. inter. L. a bandage. locus. between. + sistere. L. to eat. lympha. kytos. + eidos. + skopeo. makros. loosening. Leukocyte. L. G. juxta. L. Interdigitating. lamina. inter. Interstitial. kinesis. Intima. G. + kytos. to set. Leucocyte. L. to tear. Kinetic. Lamella. + digitus. leukos. inserted or placed between. G. G. Karyocyte. thus placed in spaces or gaps. nucleus. fat. 13 . + kytos. intima. to turn. of lamina. pond. Invagination. intrinsecus. in. I see. Macroscopic. Lamina (pl. lobe. Intrinsic. Lacerate. lateralis (latus). Ligamentum. sheath. in. + positio. cell. cell. Macrophage. L. Juxtaposition. + vagina. Lacuna.

nerve. a cutting. Microsome. change. mucus. appearance. bud. middle. in. mys. monos. neuron. + chondrion. + derma. Monocyte. small. bordering. hence middle lining layer.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Marginal. snivel. G. G. mikros. Metaplasia. G. mesos. groundwork. single. + logos. + krinein. nekrosis. G. Matrix. Mucus. Metabolic. G. G. treatise. matrix (mater). myos. Morphology. pain. after. grain. G. meatus. Mitosis. mesos. + phasis. Metaphase. I look. G. marginalis (margo). G. metabole. sight. small. + soma. Neuralgia. tendon. neuron. membrana. Mesothelium. cordlike structure. body. G. megas. + algos. mitos. Neural. L. Muscle. passage. nerve. + plasma. G. + thele. 14 . meros. L. after. big. G. + kytos. middle. middle. Necropsy. + logos. mitos. Membrane. muxa. Medial. G. medianus. muscle. L. skin. G. slippery secretion. a killing. treatise. Mitochondria. pertaining to the middle. + en. L. meta. Microscope. molded. mesos. Mesenchyme. + opsis. Nerve. Megaloblast. G. mikros. portion. morphos. formed. to separate. musculus. G. little mouse. G. mys. nipple. Necrosis. corpse. + blastos. Myotome. form. meta. G. L. -us). in the middle. thread. nerve. Median. + chymos. cell. womb. juice. thread. Mesoderm. nervus. G. Merocrine. nekros. mold. neuron. L. muscle. Meatus (pl. G. L. G. G. + skopeo. L. L. medialis (medius). Myology. skin. + tome.

L. Occlusion. G. Neurilemma. husk. G. osteon. L. oidema. nucleus. + lemma. Oligodendroglia. G. Osteone. neuron. small bone. ob. in the way of. felt. Neuropil. Oedema. square used by carpenters. tree. stinging insect. L. implement. axis. nut. neuron. G. + logos. few. + poros. G. cordlike structure. nodus. G. hence. oligos. Osteology. G. nerve. Neuropore. Osseous. norma.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Neuraxon. + kytos. swelling. Nucleolus. G. rule. G. L. equivalent of L. oistros. G. sinew. hole. L. treatise. os. bone. orificium. G. Opposition. treatise. Estrus. neuron. G. bud. stung into activity at time of heat. Organ. rule. nut. L. L. bud. + pilos. nerve. G. sheath. neuron. Os. + ektome. Oestrus. nerve. I close. nerve. G. os (pl. Neurology. neuron. neuron. nervus. Edema. + logos. Orifice. L. before. knot. L. Neuroblast. placed. + axon. + claudo. to make. Osteocyte. + positus. Node. ossa). Neuroectomy. Neuroglia. excision. os. tendon. organum. nerve. Normoblast. + gloia. nerve. glue. neuron. norma. Nucleus. neuron. osteon. Ossification. bone. L. + blastos. L. G. + facere. ob. osteon. glue. opening. nerve. bone. + blastos. + dendron. 15 . nucleus.” L. + gloia. nerve. bone. Ossicle. cell. Norma. New derivation “small nucleus. nerve. Neuron. hence standard viewpoint. ossiculum. L. bone. bone. neuron.

Phenotype. G. cell. G. to generate. pleon. G. + gradior. axis. Paralysis. + ganglion. bone. + mesos. + chondros. Polymorphonuclear. L. forms. Physis. L. + lyein. Perimysium. to loosen. physikos. OF. knot. alongside of. to display. plaiting. something formed. along. cell. beside. alongside of. G. bone. G. melting. diversified. Plasma. Paresthesis. sympathetic. Piriform. type. paresis. para. Poikilocyte. sensation. + kytos. phagein. G. pear. L. G. para. axle. shape. G. + L. plasma. middle. hence mixed term. + forma. nut. ostium. + aisthesis. form. G. G.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Osteolysis. alongside of. alongside of. alongside of. plate. door. planta. Perichondrium. Paradox. + lysis. cartilage. likeness. around. G. alongside of. belief. Parasympathetic. plexus. para. natural. + osteon. pirum. braid. G. para. G. + mys. G. osteon. peri. peri. morphos. Physic. para. Phagocyte. Platelet. phyein. para. para. phainein. Paraplegia. + morphe. anything flat. polys. G. Paramedian. Paraganglion. para. G. Ostium. side of foot. + kytos. hence an outgrowth. I strike. Paresis. G. Paraxial. Pleomorphic. L. pathos. nucleus. -us). G. + typos. disease. G. more (or many) + G. Pathology. + logos. G. alongside of. peri. Plexus (pl. G. 16 . Plantigrade. poikilos. plate. Periosteum. Paraesthesia. muscle. around. plax. treatise. + L. + plesso. G. around. relaxation. to eat. + doxa. + sympathetikos. to walk. G. Placode. many.

quattuor. in front of. pyknos. Receptor. falling. porus. porta (pl. Pyknic. compact. protubero. pyramid. primordium. Radicle. L. to make. first. root. Proximal. L. L. root. Porus. radix. G. ramus. four angles. L. cord. L. before. Protuberance. L. L. pro. Protoplasm.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Pore. L. branch. + capere. L. Radix. Ramify. + forma. quadratus. G. L. G. beginning. L. part. radix. gate. G. Processus. Portal. pyramis. before. raphe. passage. Pyknosis. pro. G. G. -ae). Portio. poros. secare. angulus. G. ramus. L. Prochordal. proximus. going forwards. Quadratus. next. Primordial. to take back. pro. + ptosis. Proprioceptor. Pyriform. G. Quadrigeminus. L. Promontory. G. Progesterone. four-fold. branch. Prosector. squared. L. -ae). L. seam. Pyramid. + chorde. pear. I swell. + L. to bear. protos. L. receive. to cut. passage. four. L. + facere. proprius. Quadriceps. + gerere. head. pro. profundus. porta (pl. Proptosis. + caput. shape. pirum. Profundus. portio. processus. special. mountain ridge. G. compact. L. quattuor four + L. G. Porta. gate. Quadrangular. pyknos. promontorium. 17 . form. four. deep. Raphe. L. recipere. + plasma. Ramus. before. to take. L. quadrigeminus.

Sac. arrow. saccus. bud. Somatic. -us). sigma. sponge. L. Sebum. indicating origin. Sclerotic. viscera. G. + pleura. scala. + eidos. squama. L. Sebaceous. L. sinister. skleros. G. re. L. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. L. Retractor. Sarcolemma. Splanchnic. + trahere. splanchna. body. body. shape. curve. sack. + blastos. L. little net. side. Spongioblast. to draw back. cavity. rostrum. L. tallow. Sinister. G. sebum. G. soma. cell. retreat. soma. Squamo-. sagitta. Somite. L. likeness. Sigmoid. -a). back. G. Sinus (pl. tallow. Spongiosum. L. germ. Sinusoid. G. L. 18 . Greek letter. Soma. sinus. spongia. sinus. cavity. bosom. to turn back. Somatopleure. beak. Retraction. L. to whirl about. L. rotare. body. flesh. body. retrahere. Rotator. Rostrum (pl. L. soma (pl. recessus. + kytos. Reticulum. sponge. Reticulocyte. a little bag. L. Reflect. left side or unlucky. L. reflecto. shape. + lemma. somata). curve. husk. scale. reticulum. G. spongia. Scala. sarx. L. G. hard. Sacculus. soma. to draw. L. Sagittal. sebum. G. + suffix -ite. likeness. skin. + eidos. grease. staircase. sacculus. little net. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Recess. reticulum. G.

G. layer. Synapse. Tract. G. terminare. L. G. cell. bud. Trabecula (pl. work. Thrombocyte. G. G. thrombus. rub. a little beam. undergarment. + ergon. syn. seam. tero. Tuberosity. tuber. tunica. Sympathetic. lump. Thrombus. tractus. Terminalis. Stroma. syn. syn. syn. L. stroma. L. to fasten. Tunica. + desmosis. Synostosis. thrombos. trabecula. L. Sulcus. theca. occurrence. Teres. L. Syndrome. stratum. cell. sutura. envelope. furrow. to stretch. + haptein. grooved. trophe. Synergy. I grind. to limit. together. syn. + ovum. 19 . together. together. Trophoblast. sheath. syn. Tensor. syndrome. G. L. G. Theca. + kytos. sulcus. together. strata). striatus. egg. syn. + cytos. G. -ae). Tome.Terms Common to All Anatomical Regions Stenosis. G. L. Synchrondosis. G. G. bone. Suture. G. L. G. strength. tennein. together. stria. + chondros. Stratum (pl. Striatum. L. Synovia. round smooth swelling. to stretch. + osteon. + blastos. to cut. Sthenic. L. stenosis. Syncytium. wool drawn out for spinning. nourishment. G. joint. L. Synarthrosis. Stria. Tendon. together. cartilage. streaked. syn. together. furrow. tendere. band. to suffer. lump. L. syn. tendere. narrowing. G. Syndesmosis. together. G. blanket. sthenos. G. sewing together. L. + pathein. + arthron. L. together.

vestigium. 20 . belly. uncus. furnished with a hook. dim. G. Vertex. L. shape. vasculum. Valve. hook. belt. zona. L. of zona. venter. vein. L. valve. vertex. L. zygoein. L. L. Vein. Vascular. + forma. valvula. Vestige. small vessel. uncus. uncinatus. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Unciform. L. Ventral. vena. a little fold. L. Zona. Zonula. L. hook. leaf of door. belt. L. whirl. whirlpool. girdle. Uncinate. vessel. valva. trace. Vas. L. Uncus. to yoke together. girdle. vas. Valvula. Zygote. footprint. L.

angulus. L. G. + ducere. small head. L. ansa. handle. a purse. inner vein. L. arm. two. extremity. before. (upper arm).TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE UPPER LIMB Abductor. ante. Adductor. axilla. L. + pinna. turning. a ring. akron. ab. + ducere. Biceps. L. + venter. before. bursa. bis. bis. ante. Anconeus. L. Ansa. agkon. + caput. Brachium (pl. Capitulum. Brachial. -ia). Bipennate. height. Angle. L. + brachium. head. two. to lead. belonging to the arm (upper arm). + omos. Bursa. bis. Anteflexion. Brevis. adjectival form of appendix. angle. brevis. away. + versio. feather. L. two. Biventer. short. Axilla. Appendicular. L. dim. L. elbow. 21 . G. L. A. Accessory. shoulder. anulus (annulus). + flexere. L. supplementary. hence purse-shaped object. brachium. L. belly. Basilic. Anteversion. al-basilic. L. Acromion. L. L. to bend. arm. caput. ante. Antebrachium. to lead. armpit. to. before. ad. accessorius. Annulus. L. brachialis. L.

to bend. head. korax or corone. chorion. L. of capsa. L. crest. L. G. crista. G. dorsum. + physis. cubitus. Distal. comitantes). body. collum. Comitans (pl. dim. disc. G. leather. companion. elbow. L. Dermatome. L. + eidos. to accompany. G. finger. knuckle. Deltoid. derma. hence crowlike. caput. skin. Communicans. back. Disc.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Capsule. digitus. comitari. G. between. Circumflex. likeness. triangular-shaped. crow. a little key. L. delta. to stand apart. + temnein. Diarthrosis. Coraco-. Dactyl. Corpus (pl. Corium. crow. Cubitus. L. Caput (pl. kondylos. G. through. G. 22 . cingulum. L. around. Dorsal. L. to cut. Collateral. korax. wrist. L. G. Crista. Cingulum. Collum. growth. karpos. Coracoid. side. G. dia. dia. + latus. daktylos. corpora). neck. cervix. to fasten by a joint. + arthroun. distare. L. Comes. letter in Greek alphabet. discus. capita). communicans. clavicula. circum. + flexere. G. Clavicle. Digit. together. Condyle. neck. corono-. L. L. comes. box. finger. L. communicating. form. Carpus. L. skin. L. L. L. Diaphysis. girdle. Cervical. con.

Hamulus. L. infra. on. ginglymus. Fasciculus. + spina. Fascia (pl. Epithelium. Incisura. + L. L. L. Extrinsic. on. likeness. something dug. to cut into. L. Ginglymus. L. fossa. fusus. foramen. shape. G. G. channel. G. incidere. extrinsecus. below. spindle. bundle. G. -iae). + eidos. in. Intercalated. hamatus. under. inserted or placed between. form. Hamatum. to call. Insertion. knuckle. to cover. G. Glenoid. pointer. out. growth. + vertere. + thele. spine. Epiphysis. centre line. L. Integument. likeness. to stretch. L. Humerus. L. Index. Foramen. flaccidus. out. + serere. Extension. Fusiform. between. Extensor. band. over. Fossa. ganglion. fascia. L. on. L. epi. 23 . + calare. + tegere. bent. ditch. nipple. glass. L. G. G. hypo. a swelling under the skin. extend. G. index. weak. fascis. hook-shaped. hyalos. L. hook. in. to plant. glene. epi. Hypaxial. L. hole. extendo. L. axis. L. on the outside. shoulder. + kondylos. Ganglion. in. axis. + tendere. flexus. L. L. Flaccid. L.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Epicondyle. + physis. Hyaline. L. hinge. Eversion. Infraspinous. epi. ex. Flexor. dim. L. socket. inter. + forma. humerus. hamus. e. to turn.

L. -ae). L. Inversion. manubrium. Manus. G. + L. sheath. L. G. 24 . L. large. bordering. womb. growth. hilt (as of a sword). in. kinesis. Matrix. locus. interlocked by finger-like processes. Metacarpus. latus. L. long. after. minimus. in. -a. juxta. marginalis (margo). L. innermost. Marginal. + digitus. L. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Interdigitating. meta. L. + positio. between. Intrinsic. in. broad. a bandage. place. Locus. rim. L. matrix (mater). G. Mammillary. movement. place. Minimus. near. digit. L. mold. L. after. breast. superlative. Mammary. earthworm. Longus. dim. L. L. L. Manubrium. meta. Labrum. L. carpus. in. L. longus. L. mamma. L. intima. lateralis (latus). to raise. lumbricus. hand. -um. inward. inter. + vertere. wrist. Metaphysis. Intima. little breast. to turn. L. mammillaris (mamma. magnus. L. Lumbrical. pertaining to a side. Juxtaposition. + physis. + vagina. therefore very broad. Invagination. handle. intrinsecus. ligamentum. levare. Magnus. Ligamentum. Kinetic. labrum. groundwork. Latissimus. manus. least. Lateral. L. Levator.

pisum. cordlike structure. sympathetic. phalanx. L. Phalanges. nerve. os (pl. G. L. bone. pollex. thumb. hence. + L. G. rule. L. Osseous. Paraxial. sinew. axle. ob. tendon. Ossicle. Opposition. square used by carpenters. axis. elbow. bone. Parasympathetic. plate. + sympathetikos.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Nerve. palma. ossiculum. equivalent of L. neuron. hence standard viewpoint. pea. L. alongside of. to turn face downward. pronare. + forma. placed. shape. chest. neuron. middle. Parasternal. head. the (open) hand. L. originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. G. tendon. nerve. G. platysma. 25 Olecranon. Paramedian. norma. Platysma. neuron. G. ossa). para. + positus. pectoralis (pectus). para. treatise. Palma. osteon. + mesos. os. plaiting. G. Os. Pronator. cordlike structure. G. Ossification. L. to make. . belonging to the breast. Pollex. nodus. L. singular phalanx. alongside of. band of soldiers. L. Node. Neural. alongside of. nervus. L. nerve. olene. in the way of. -us). L. Neuron. braid. Pisiform. G. + kranion. pain. os. Plexus (pl. nervus. para. L. neuron. + algos. + logos. L. bone. + sternon. Pectoral. nerve. Norma. para. L. Osteology. alongside of. L. bone. plexus. small bone. G. G. G. + facere. Neuralgia. knot. G.

back. above. Somatic. 26 . spina. joint. or seed. sesamen. G. + suffix -ite. sagitta. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. I swell. arrow. root. Synarthrosis. Radial. angulus. together. G. proximus. Ramus. together. Reflect. supra. radius. L. L. rod. G. branch. Proximal. raphe. G. Scapula. G. radix. Quadrangular. L. somata). + arthron. boat. L. + eidos. uneven. spoke. left side or unlucky. quattuor four + L. re. shape. four angles. body. thorn. Sesamoid. reflecto. radix. Radius. radius. L. syn. ramus. chest. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Protuberance. lying on the back. + eidos. Sternum. G. seam. Sinister. sesame plant. Retraction. soma. to fasten. body. Scaphoid. shape. thorn. G. soma (pl. skaphe. L. + haptein. Sagittal. + spina. Supinator. Supraspinatus. next. L. to bend backward. scapulae. L. L. Synapse. root. rotare. sinister. L. Spina. Scalene. Rotator. Supination. L. protubero. syn. L. Retractor. supinare. L. spoke. likeness. Radix. shoulder-blades. Somite. G. L. retrahere. L. G. to turn back. skalenos. indicating origin. to draw back. sternon. rod. Radicle. + trahere. supinus. Raphe. L. L. to draw. to whirl about. likeness. L.

G. theca. Uncus. Tuberosity. to stretch. together. G. G. + desmosis. bone. rub. small four-sided table. thenar. Trochanter. L. G. Theca. elbow. Unipennate. together. one. trochilia. feather. sword. tuber. L. pulley. three. Trochlea. sheath. G. + penna. L. + ergon. footprint. belly. tendere. L. hand. trace. L. + chondros. xiphos. Teres. + caput. shape. together. L. envelope. tres. syn. Tensor. syn. L. egg. ulna. triquetrus. venter. G. Synovia. L. Thenar. vestigium. G. head. L. trochos. palm of hand. syn. Synostosis. pulley. together. G. Volar. Triquetrum. trapezion. round smooth swelling.Terms Important in the Upper Limb Synchrondosis. together. likeness. vola. Xiphoid. tero. G. tendere. L. to stretch. Ulna. L. Trapezius. work. band. L. Ventral. Synergy. I grind. + osteon. L. triangular. three-cornered. G. Triceps. + ovum. hook. unus. uncus. cartilage. Syndesmosis. 27 . wheel. + eidos. Tendon. Vestige. syn. syn.

G. L. a ring. acetabulum. ante. fat. Adhesion. rough. air. on both sides. axle of a wheel. ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. axle of a wheel. + ducere. articulationes. to lead. ad. Aponeurosis. G. angle. L. cause to communicate. ab. G. to keep (L. arcualis. Artery. axis. later: tendon). Aspera. joint. Anastomosis. Adipose. arteria. Annulus. shape of hip joint. Axial. amphi. L. 28 . L. joint. L. L. axis. + arthrosis. Arcuate. angulus. adhaereo. to stick together. articulatus. before. L. Amphiarthrosis. from. away. Axis. arch-shaped. aer. Ankle. L. G. tendon (earlier: nerve. L. pl. anulus (annulus). + ducere. adeps. + terein. to. asper.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE LOWER LIMB Abductor. to bring to a mouth. L. L. L. little joint. L. anastomoein. Articulation. joints. artus. Adductor. to lead. Anterior. windpipe). the line about which any body turns. Acetabulum. + neuron. vinegar cup. apo.

+ facere. L. bis. lime. to accompany. to make. dia. L. head. to fasten by a joint. Calcar. Circumflex. cube-shaped. con. Capsule. + arthroun. Commissure. commissura (cum + mittere). brevis. L. L. comes. calcar. head. Cingulum. leg. L. G. hip. caudal. between. Calcification. L. Cuboid. Condyle. + caput. two. L. Collateral. spur. crus. dia. Caput (pl. growth. Comitans (pl. + latus. Cauda. comitantes). G. L.Terms Important in the Lower Limb Biceps. bursa. . L. Diarthrosis. cross. shape. calx. + flexere. communicans. around. crista. dim. hence purse-shaped object. G. Digit. L. connection. Coxa. + latus. girdle. L. L. to bend. Diaphysis. L. Bipennate. L. cauda. L. L. kondylos. L. bis. comitari. side. Communicans. + physis. cuneus. circum. 29 Calcaneus. two. cingulum. finger. crux. digitus. feather. side. crura). L. short. crest. L. caput. bi. Crus (pl. wedge. + pinna. G. box. communicating. Bilateral. heel. companion. L. coxa. L. L. of capsa. knuckle. Crista. Cruciate. through. Brevis. Bursa. L. Comes. + forma. L. tail. a purse. together. two. kuboeides. calcaneus. capita). Cuneiform. likeness.

flexus. Gastrocnemius. L. fusus. bent. Fibula. dorsum. fascia. L. extrinsecus. Falciform. fossa. femur. + tendere. Genu. Geniculate. bundle. L. likeness. Emissary. L. spindle. e. shape. with bent knee. L. Femur. Extensor. L. foramen. distare. 30 . out. discus. Gemellus. Distal. brooch. Eversion. Extrinsic. G. to stand apart. L. L. epi. ex. Gluteus. L. genu. to jut. on. falx. G. + minere. Fascia (pl. G. ginglymus. L. ditch. on the outside. gemellus. Epiphysis. L. post. L. leg. knuckle. Flexor. growth. gloutos. + mittere. Fusiform. thigh. + physis. L. gracilis. Fulcrum. geniculatus. + forma. fascis. out. out. rump. G. to turn. Gracilis. gaster. likeness. L. + forma. channel. to send. L. extendo. G. Eminence. e. L. disc. L. + kneme. Fasciculus. pin. epi. twin. fulcrum. + vertere. Dorsal. hole. belly. extend. something dug. Extension. sickle. shape. L. -iae). e. Epicondyle.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Disc. out. band. Foramen. hinge. on. thin. skewer. Fossa. to stretch. L. L. Ginglymus. fibula. L. L. + kondylos. back. L. knee.

Terms Important in the Lower Limb Hernia. Hiatus. Hilum. Hypaxial. Iliacus. Ilium. Incisura. Inductor. Inguinal. Innominate. Insertion. Intrinsic. Invagination. Inversion. Ischiofemoral. Ischium (pl. -ia). Kinetic. Labrum. Lateral. Ligamentum. Locus. Longus. Lumbrical. Magnus, -a, -um. Marginal. Medial. L. hernia, protrusion. L. hiatus, gap. L. hilum, a small thing. G. hypo, under, + L. axis, centre line, axis. See ilium. L. ileum, flank. L. incidere, to cut into. L. inducere, to lead on, excite. L. inguina, groin. L. in, in, + nomen, name, unnamed bone, unnamed artery. L. in, in, + serere, to plant. L. intrinsecus, inward. L. in, in, + vagina, sheath. L. in, in, + vertere, to turn. G. ischion, hip, + L. femur, thigh. G. ischion, hip. G. kinesis, movement. L. labrum, rim. L. lateralis (latus), pertaining to a side. L. ligamentum, a bandage. L. locus, place. L. longus, long. L. lumbricus, earthworm. L. magnus, large. L. marginalis (margo), bordering. L. medialis (medius), pertaining to the middle.

31

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Median. Meniscus. Metatarsus. Minimus. Nates. Navicular. Obliquus. Obturator. Os. Osseous. Ossicle. Ossification. Osteone. Osteomalacia. Paraxial. Patella. Pedicle. Pelvic. Penniform. Peroneal. Pes. Phalanges. L. medianus, in the middle. L. menis, cresent, half-moon, dim. of mene, moon. G. meta, after, + L. tarsus, ankle. L. minimus, least. L. nates, buttocks. L. navicula, small boat. L. obliquus, slanting. L. obturo, I stop up. L. os, bone. L. os (pl. ossa), bone. L. ossiculum, small bone. L. os, bone, + facere, to make. G. osteon, bone. G. osteon, bone, + malakia, softness. G. para, alongside of, + L. axis, axle. L. patella, small pan. L. pes, foot. L. pelvis, basin. L. penna, feather, + forma, form, likeness. G. perone, = L. fibula, pin; hence pertaining to needle-shaped leg bone. L. pes, foot. G. phalanx, band of soldiers; singular phalanx, originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape, likeness. L. planta, sole of the foot. L. planta, side of foot, + gradior, to walk.

Piriform. Planta. Plantigrade.

32

Terms Important in the Lower Limb Platycnemia. G. platys, flat, + kneme, knee; hence condition of side-to-side flattening of tibia giving prominence to it’s anterior border. G. platys, flat, + meros, thigh; as previous for thigh. L. poples, ham. L. profundus, deep. G. promontorium, mountain ridge. L. pronare, to turn face downward. L. pronus, bent downward, + gradus step. L. protubero, I swell. L. proximus, next. G. psoa, loin. L. pubes, mature. L. pubes, mature. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape. L. quattuor four + L. angulus, four angles. L. quattuor, four, + caput, head. G. raphe, seam. L. reflecto, to turn back. L. re, back, + trahere, to draw. L. retrahere, to draw back. L. rotare, to whirl about. A. al-safin, hidden (later G. saphenes, visible). L. sartor, tailor. G. ischion, hip joint. L. semi, half, + luna, moon. L. semi, half, + membranosus, membrane. L. semi, half, + tendinosus, tendon. 33

Platymeria. Popliteus. Profundus. Promontory. Pronator. Pronograde. Protuberance. Proximal. Psoas. Pubes. Pubis (pl. -es). Pyriform. Quadrangular. Quadriceps. Raphe. Reflect. Retraction. Retractor. Rotator. Saphenous. Sartorius. Sciatic. Semilunar. Semimembranosus. Semitendinosus.

Tarsus. Varus. Tensor. Teres. L. Ungual. + G. L. L. claw. 34 . to bend backward. sole of the foot. see Valgus). calf of leg. venter. unguis. Vincula. + ovum. likeness. syn. Talonid. tendere. L. Spina. Synovia. solea. Talipes. L. eidos. L. egg. Tuberosity. sinister. Sinister. L. + eidos. I grind. L. Tendon. sesame plant. support. shape. L. varus. form. Sural. or seed. Supination. sole. G. L. sustentaculum. sandal. talus. lying on the back. ankle-bone. G. Tibia. L. cord. together. L. band. + penna. to stretch. belly. Sustentaculum. clubfoot). talipedo. supinus. left side or unlucky. sesamen. L. long flute. L. spina. likeness. thorn. Supinator. Unipennate. nail. rub. L. L. vinculum. G. tarsos. feather. L. L. Valgus. Talus. one. tibia. L. sura. tendere. knock-kneed (term has become transposed. L. L. valgus. talus. unus. round smooth swelling. ankle bone. weak in the feet (talipes. to stretch.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Sesamoid. Ventral. bow-legged (Genu valgus now means knock-kneed). tero. supinare. tuber. Soleus.

Atrium. law. L. bulb. self. to. Azygos. to stick together. L. axon. of bronchus. L. L. to come. a ring. Acinus. entrance hall. ad. yoke. autos. mass. to carry. to. end of windpipe. Bronchus. L. L. supplementary. to. court. Adnexa. + venire. swollen root. atrium. L. ante. auricula. Aditus. G. Adhesion. 35 . L. G. + nomos. bronchiolus (dim. bound. unpaired. opening. + ferre. L. alveolus. G. Annulus. + zygon. + nexus. Adipose. external ear.. Bolus. L. Autonomic. adhaereo. a. Bulbus. before. hence. axis. bronchia. Auricle. L. L. ad. to moisten). G. bulbus. Alveolus. adeps. also shape of heart chamber. aditus. L. Axon. dim. G. fat. Afferent.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE THORAX Accessory. Adventia. accessorius. anulus (annulus). ad. little cavity. Bronchiole. bolos. G. grape. not. Anterior. acinus. brechein. L.

Deglutition. L. Cisterna. cornu. to swallow. Costa (adj. Carina. L. G. reservoir. Crus (pl. comitantes). + latus. costa. Dermatome. leg. likeness. hence. korax. L. L. gristle. companion. Disc. communicans. Corona. L. dia. G. G. L. cord. Circumflex. to send. Crista. communicating. crown. + eidos. G. G. Comitans (pl. L. centre. cartilago. Diastole. cone. through. cavus. derma. G. karon. G. string of gut. L. bursa. L. chorde. Diaphragm. around. Conus. L. to accompany. to bend. Cartilage. centrum. disc. horn. pertaining to the heart. L. con. L. wall. through. to cut. Communicans. Coronary. Cornu. costal). dia. Coronoid. carina. pertaining to a wreath or crown. encircling. L. Chorda. -um. L. keel. corona. L. conus. crura). a purse. side. . together. Centrum. coronarius. -a. L. L. comitari. Carotid. + temnein. crista. deglutire. cisterna. + stellein. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). rib. skin. kardiakos (kardia). comes. cartilage. crest. L. Comes. form. + flexere. circum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bursa. hence purse-shaped object. + phragma. discus. 36 Cardiac. Cava. crus. crow. hollow or cave. L. Collateral. L.

-iae). G. endon. L. Fenestra. epi. thin fibre. + tendere. heart. Endoneurium. endon. out. extendo. L. Fascia (pl. bone. Endothelium. skin. to turn aside. Fistula. heart. + mittere. Epineurium. G. epi. ducere. growth. Epimysium. anything inserted. dim. to bear. Extrinsic. filamentum. epi. within. nerve. L. band. weak. Epiphysis. dorsum. L. epi. ducere. + gaster. muscle. extend. Duct. out. + minere. + thele. L. endon. G. Embolus. Endocardium. epi. e. Epidermis. to lead or draw. G. outside. Ductule. Extension. L. ex. upon. + neuron. + mys. cartilage. to send. muscle. G. flaccidus. Extensor. L. on the outside. epi. window. nerve. G. pipe. extra. G. Endomysium. Epicardium. endon. Endochondral. out. to lead. + chondros. L. + osteon. + physis. fascia. extrinsecus. out. fistula. L. to stretch. + vas. Dorsal. + kardia. Filament. on. endon. + derma. vessel. L. + neuron. Epigastrium. within. G. within. L. on. Flaccid. divertere. L. within. Efferent. L. on. G. G. L. + ferre. endon. belly. to jut. Extravasation. within. Eminence. wedge. within. fenestra.Terms Important in the Thorax Diverticulum. 37 . ex. Emissary. plug. on. + kardia. L. + mys. L. nipple. embolos. G. G. Endosteum. back. e. G. upon.

Hiatus. innermost. Hypaxial. bent. of lamina. to call. intima. hiatus. rib. to tear. kyphos. sheath. a small thing. dim. + vagina. in. protrusion. interlocked by finger-like processes. + vertere. pellet. Juxtaposition. L. axis. L. Hernia. lactare. acorn. to cut into. Kyphosis. joint. to turn. L. lacerare. between. L. G. L. hernia. + nervus. Gland. L. in. foramen. axis. in. G. Insertion. L. + positio. inter. bent. Intervertebral. centre line. Hilum. under.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Flexor. to suckle. Intima. to cover. Lamella. + vertebra. inward. L. isthmos. Lactation. + costa. Lacerate. gap. Invagination. hole. in. near. L. over. Intercostal. in. Intrinsic. intrinsecus. flexus. juxta. L. L. inter. narrow connection. hilum. L. place. leaf. glans. L. + serere. to plant. L. digit. + L. between. + calare. Interdigitating. Intercalated. in. L. + tegere. Foramen. L. L. hypo. L. Integument. nerve. Incisura. incidere. in. between. L. L. inter. Isthmus. L. Innervation. inter. between. 38 . in. + digitus. in. dim. L. inserted or placed between. G. glandula. Inversion.

L. servant. a bandage. L. Mesothelium. mys. + thele. Myocardium. levare. to raise. L. G. hilt (as of a sword). L. bordering.Terms Important in the Thorax Lamina (pl. 39 . Marginal. Lordosis. marginalis (margo). ligamentum. but Hebrew priest headress the only head covering that the mitral valve resembles. L. pertaining to the middle. heart. place. L. Muscle. AS. turban. handle. Locus. G. skin. muscle. Medial. mesos. mammillaris (mamma. lumen. Ligamentum. mys. musculus. breast. hence middle lining layer. L. lobe. pertaining to a side. lateralis (latus). Lung. -ae). light. little breast. L. + logos. G. medianus. nipple. Lobus. lingula. Lumen. + kardia. Lateral. L. L. middle. opening. mitra. membrana. lunge. lobos. little mouse. I bend. Levator. manubrium. L. mamma. Mammary. thin plate. small tongue. L. Membrane. but anatomical term mediastinum probably derived from per medium tensum. lordoo. locus. tight in the middle. G. L. G. -ae). Myology. medialis (medius). muscle. Mammillary. dim. in the middle. Manubrium. Median. lamina. Mitral. drudge. Mediastinum. Lingula. L. L. L. L. myos. lung. treatise. mediastinus.

G. L. L. pain. + logos. neuron. Neuralgia. + algos. nerve. + gloia. neuron. neuron. Osseous. along. Neuroblast. nerve. neuron. nervus. para. swelling. G. Ossicle. Parenchyma. axis. Parasympathetic. hence. neuron. knot. G. nerve. para. para. neuron. orificium. L. para. neuron. bud. G. organum. to eat. bone. Neuroglia. nerve. G. sinew. os. L. treatise. bone. + ganglion. + ektome. L. Neuron. Paraganglion. L. to make. + facere. sheath. + axon. Organ. Oedema. pouring out into the adjacent. Neurilemma. nerve. implement. G. Esophagus. chest. parenchyma. + sternon. opening. bone. sympathetic. tendon. axle. Orifice. middle. wall. alongside of. + sympathetikos. alongside of. + L. Ostium. alongside of. ossiculum. alongside of. G. L. os. G. door. nerve. G. G. knot. Oesophagus. Paramedian. G. para. axis. nodus. Paraxial. to carry. oidema. tendon. G. nerve. Os.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Nerve. Neuroectomy. G. Parietal. os (pl. oisein (phero). Neurology. ostium. excision. small bone. cordlike structure. nervus. + phagein. 40 . Node. neuron. G. L. G. Neuraxon. G. nerve. husk. glue. G. equivalent of L. Neural. L. L. ossa). nerve. Parasternal. neuron. + lemma. + mesos. paries. Ossification. nerve. Edema. neuron. beside. + blastos. cordlike structure. G.

proximus. plexus. L. fluid. + L. branch. Pectoral. ie related to the ribs. G. cartilage. Radix. + cordis. retreat. next. + mys. L. G. prae. Sinister. lympha. around. Perichondrium. pulmo. reflecto. braid. G. pectoralis (pectus). L. peristaltikos. L. L. + kardia. to make. Septum. wall. Ramify. G. radix. clasping and compressing. Plexus (pl. Pleura. around. heart. G. G. root. Praecordium. -us). L. around. Recess. around. Percussion. striking. skin. G. plaiting. pertaining to breath. seam. L. L. peri. pulmo. Sac. saccus. rib. fence. peri. Pulmonary. L. peri. a little bag. in front of. + facere. sack. Pericardial. L. peri. bone. Sarcolemma. G. Proximal. L. muscle. Pulmones. belonging to the breast. Periosteum. L. peri. G. L. flesh. raphe. pneumatikos. Perilymph. pleura. around. left side or unlucky. percussio. Ramus. recessus. serra. ramus. lung. Perimysium. G. root. Radicle. + chondros. L. Precordium. Sacculus. 41 . L. sarx. saeptum. + lemma. ramus. radix. + osteon. saw. sinister. L. Serratus. L. Reflect. L. sacculus. of the heart. Raphe. husk. lung. to turn back. L. Pneumatic. branch. Peristalsis. paries.Terms Important in the Thorax Parieties.

cavity. truncus. Thymus. rib. tracheia. together. G. stenosis. sub. Sinusoid. body. to suffer. Thorax (pl. + costa. Syncytium. soma (pl. narrowing. theca. bosom. + costa. Stenosis. lump. G. Thrombus. chest. systole. thymos. thyme. breast. Valve. inverted. undergarment. windpipe. rib. valve. G. syndrome. position. G. soma. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Sinus (pl. + eidos. body. G. L. 42 . Theca. thrombus. sinus. G. syn. Syndrome. Somatopleure. G. G. G. G. thorax. situs. Sternum. vas. envelope. + cytos. side. body. Vagus. Subcostal. + haptein. + pathein. thoraces). + pleura. a little fold. Tunica. sinus. soma. vagus. Vas. G. L. Truncus. L. above. + viscerum. L. together. valva. L. curve. Systole. Trachea. L. sphingein. sternon. L. Supracostal. of the viscera. to fasten. G. cavity. somata). indicating origin. valvula. Synapse. vessel. splanchna. Splanchnic. trunk of tree. Sphincter. G. to bind tight. Somite. together. Situs inversus viscerum. occurrence. G. L. L. likeness. Sympathetic. shape. supra. cell. + suffix -ite. breast-plate. curve. sheath. G. syn. Valvula. contraction. viscera. under. wandering. L. + inversus. tunica. L. -us). site. leaf of door. Somatic. G. syn.

L. bowels. zygon. + eidos. xiphos. sword. Vertex. L. vena. Vincula. entrails. band. Visceral. belly. process of a bone. Xiphoid.Terms Important in the Thorax Vascular. vertex. L. L. Viscus. small vessel. veil. viscus. likeness. Vertebra. L. cord. vasculum. Ventricle. 43 . shape. joint. Ventral. loculus. L. L. velum. little cavity. internal organ. L. + apophysis. vinculum. whirl. whirlpool. vertebra. vein. venter. yoke. Zygapophysis. ventriculus. Vein. L. G. viscera. L. Velum. G.

+ venire. G. + eidos. precursor). amnion. to abort. ante. + renes. to. Aditus. fat. L. adeps. anastomoein. grape. Absorption. Aberrant. ad. Allantois. sausage. to carry. Alveolus. from abdere (?). to swallow. appearance. Adventia. L. form. L. to hide. ab. Adnexa. to. fetal membrane. aditus. to stick together. Adhesion. before. adhaereo. abortio. acinus. allas. supplementary. ad. 44 . Abortion. + nexus. Ger. Acinus. away. absorptio. L. Accessory. anulus (annulus). + errare. G. Annulus. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. L. L. to lay (a laying on — primordium. Amnion. L. L. L. cause to communicate. accessorius. G. + ferre. ampulla. Anterior. Anlage. bound. ad. to. Afferent. ad. Ampulla. on. L. kidneys. L. L. L. to bring to a mouth. Anastomosis. + legen. near. a ring. alveolus.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE ABDOMEN AND PELVIS Abdomen. Adipose. L. to come. an. to stray. L. L. L. opening. little cavity. Adrenal.

bis. bile. cavum. a hollow or cave. Apertura. koiloma. belly. Anus. G. without. Atrium. husk. Cecum. Arcus. bis. autos. Bolus. hole. bow. L. centrum. two. -um. L. to hang upon. L. Aorta. L. arcualis. Celom (e). Bicuspid. two. G. Biventer. + latus. -a. L. L. Centrum. L. Arcuate. Cauda. L. a. Antrum. Atresia. -a. bilis. to raise. nourishment. + versio. koilia. Coeliac. apertura. + venter. atrium. tail. Cavum. two. L. L. hollow or cave. Cava. L. fundament. the line about which any body turns. calyx. G. caecus. law.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Anteversion. + nomos. a. + trophe. court. Caecum. cup-shaped protective covering. turning. axle of a wheel. mass. G. Calyx (pl. G. L. belly. blind. 45 . ante. Coelom. L. L. cave. a hollow. G. Bilateral. L. side. L. caverna. Autonomic. Appendicular. Atrophy. L. L. Axial. caudal. before. -um. aeiro. Cavernosus. arcus. + tresis. G. a hollow or cave. self. + cuspis. L. adjectival form of appendix. axis. entrance hall. appendere. point. cavus. anus. bolos. G. cauda. calices). Appendix. without. centre. bi. antron. opening. arch-shaped. Celiac. Bile.

Circumflex. pouch. container. (adj. Coccyx. L. + flexere.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Choledochus. juice. + dochos (dechomai ). cisterna. horn. skinned. Cyst (adj. L. L. Corona. cloaca. Crus (pl. L. + phragma. wall. Defecation. L. bladder. companion. kystis. a cuckoo. circum. L. juice. chole. L. G. Cremaster. Detritus. reservoir. (de + cado). Comitans (pl. deterere. corpora). defaecare. kolon. detrudere. through. Colon. Communicans. chylos. G. commissura (cum + mittere). Cisterna. crown. Comes. G. Defaecation. L. Decidua. crus. G. dia. dartos. kokkyx. bag. communicating. to accompany. Coraco-. communicans. away. G. carrying. Deferens. 46 . korax or corone. L. suspender. G. comitantes). leg. chymos. deciduus. Chyme. de. G. to bend. cystic). L. to rub away. bile. drain. great gut. + ferens. G. Chyle. L. L. cornu. to push down. sewer. Deciduous). G. comitari. corono-. crura). falling off. to cleanse. Dartos. L. hence a structure shaped like a cuckoo’s bill. connection. Diaphragm. body. around. Corpus (pl. Detrusor. Commissure. G. crow. L. cremaster. Cornu. comes. corona. L. L. hence crowlike. Cloaca.

ex. spadias. Embolus. + didmoi. to carry. -iae). embolos. eunuch. within. falcis. (excretus) ex. extra. womb. Dorsal. wedge. G. omentum. erect. Epididymis. distare. Epispadias. on the outside. + forma. anything inserted. G. G. embolos. to throw. likeness. to lead or draw. upon. F. + N. Endothelium. ducere. L. extrinsecus. Duodenum. G. + omphalos. Erector. G. G. + vas. sickle. upon. + cernere. belly. out. to sift. falx. + sudare. duodeni. L. ex. out. Extrinsic. wedge. vessel. Fasciculus. L. + thele. Feces. shape. L. L. to lead. Fascia (pl. ducere. Falciform. Exomphalos. Extravasation. . fascis. L. out. L. back. endon. dis. span.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Digastric. double. band. Ductule. plug. Duct. sickle. epiploon. bundle. outside. spadon. faex. to sweat. e. + gerere. Emboliformis. epi. L. L. dim. L. Distal. L. + gaster. epi. falx. 47 Ejaculatory. G. disc. discus. on. dis. within. belly. endon. twelve (meaning twelve fingerbreadths). dorsum. forma. F. L. to draw L. L. L. testicles. Disc. fascia. Excretion. apart. Exudate. L. G. L. Diverticulum. Epiploic. divertere. dregs. caul. G. navel. Epigastrium. shape. + metra. + gaster. to stand apart. + L. Falx.L. G. to turn aside. L. Endometrium. + jacere. out. nipple. erectus. L. epi. Digestion. Faeces.

dim. Glomerulus. L. L. L. Frenulum. Fissure. granum. something dug. Fimbria. + forma. foramen. shape. pellet. L. Fourchette. bridge. L. Fossa. Genital. folliculus. Filum. dim. glandula. dim. Fetus. flaccidus. Granulum. L. bud. G. arch or vault. ditch. Foramen. acorn. fourchette. Fraenum. sling. Frenum. L. Gestation. germ. Fistula. Germinative. L. Fusiform. fimbriae. of glomus. L. hole. seed. bud. acorn. L. L. gone. fundus. pregnant. likeness. funda. bottom. channel. F. L. Fundus. Gonad. Gubernaculum. L. likeness. Gland. L. fringe. fraenum. L. Gravid. filum. L. gestare. a small bag. Fornix. germen. glans. L. germen. fork. Granulation. fenestra. + forma. granulum. L. threads. dim. L. offspring. a ball. 48 . pipe. L. shape. fistula. fossa. small grain. glans. fetus. helm. thread. L. Follicle. Fundiform. pertaining to birth. L. L. gubernaculum. grain. fraenum. fornix. window. gravida. Glans. fissura (findo). L. Flaccid. weak. genitalis (gigno). to bear. Foetus. Germinal.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Fenestra. fusus. a cleft. L. L. spindle. a little bridge. L. germ.

L. intrinsecus. Hemoglobin. in. Innervation. Hymen. in. hydor. . membrane. L. rib. hiatus. centre line. Intrinsic. F. within. between. L. within. between. to cut into. Hilum. L. Hepar. Hepatic. hollow. inter. L. Incisura. Ileum. Hypaxial. Hydrocele. hepar. sphere. + koilos. L. inguina. to draw. in. a small thing. L. to go. Hernia. jaundice. digit. spadias. span. in. globus. hymen. to wind or turn. guts. G. blood. inter. inward. Haemopoietic. inter. intus. G. + poietikos. in. blood. spadon. innermost. haima. incidere. G. haima. + plantere. Intestine. L. L. hilum. L. intestina. creative. L. G. eilein. Inguinal. axis. + N. under. Implantation. G. 49 Icterus. in. G. Introitus. between. L. ikteros. entrails. under. L. sheath. in. L. Hydrocoele. or L. interlocked by finger-like processes. Interdigitating. G. intima. hepar. F. Impression. axis. groin. Intercostal. Intima. + digitus. Haemoglobin.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Haemal. + costa. blood. G. Hemopoietic. joint. liver. water. Invagination. Hiatus. + L. to plant. Hypospadias. protrusion. G. + premere. G. + L. L. to press. hypo. L. L. in. hernia. + nervus. nerve. gap. intro. haima. liver. Intervertebral. hemal. + ire. hypo. + vagina. L. + vertebra.

section. AS. G. locus. Marginal. G. lunge. spleen. + pausis. L. Meatus (pl. Menopause. light. splen (the sp having been dropped). L. Liver. lobe. L. L. labrum. place. to bind. Lien. cessation. Lieno-. lapara. I bend. labialis (labia). + tome. near. labium. ligamentum. isthmos. medialis (medius). Locus. + positio. matrix (mater). L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Inversion. L. skin. to suckle. L. in the middle. liver. lien. Isthmus. month. Labrum. Ligature. that part of intestine that appears empty. Medial. medianus. L. Ligamentum. apron for the loins. in. G. L. pertaining to the middle. juxta. Juxtaposition. L. empty (of food). L. L. L. + vertere. lung. lactare. mold. Labium. Lung. L. Labial. lumen. men. place. Lumen. lumbare. lordoo. spleen from original L. opening. Lobus. marginalis (margo). rim. G. bordering. L. lip. ligare. pertaining to lips. L. yellow. Jejunum. L. L. Matrix. cut. womb. to turn. in. -us). Lacteals. groundwork. L. Membrane. L. lobos. L. L. Luteum. meatus. lien. luteus. membrana. Lumbar. narrow connection. AS. 50 . flank. Median. passage. lifer. a bandage. jejunus. Laparotomy. Lordosis.

nerve. G. cord. muscle. gut. middle. corpse. + enteron. middle. mesos. ovarium. G. G. a killing. + nephros. + kylos. in. implement. neuron. + genesis. sight. Mesosalpinx. birth. Navel. + opsis. Oogonium. mesos. Neuralgia. muscle. pertaining to a month. + gaster. Mesothelium. Nerve. + axon. Mesentery. myos. + gonos. Mesovarium. meta. G. hollow body. mesos. organum. after. G. L. mesos. mucus. + en. + L. mys. Mesonephros. stomach. multus. nerve. month. many. middle. muxa. G. Mesocolon. Metanephros. G. G. L. G. nerve. G. back. + kardia. nerve. to give birth. menstruus. nipple. gut. + chymos. mesos. Neuraxon. snivel. oon. Node. tendon. neuron. L. neuron. centre of hub of wheel. + chorde. Multiparous. G. Neural. Oogenesis. oon. mesos. nerve. Mucus. mesos. middle. AS. G. Oocyte. G. middle. kidney. noton. Necrosis. kidney. + nephros. Mesogastrium. L. nervus. midway between. ovary. knot. G. Organ. slippery secretion.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Menstruation. G. Neurenteric. mesos. Notochord. pain. nekros. offspring. juice. neuron. egg. Myocardium. G. G. L. G. + parire. + salpinx. Myenteric. heart. tube. 51 . hence middle lining layer. G. G. + algos. axis. cordlike structure. nafe. G. + kolon. middle. oon. Necropsy. nodus. G. G. mys. G. + thele. neuron. L. great gut. middle. + enteron. Mesenchyme. gut. + enteron. egg. egg. men. nekrosis.

Paraplegia. para. L. para. alongside of. bone. Ostium. L. para. Oxyntic. L. Osteolysis. bone. L. flesh. G. L. + kytos. + sympathetikos. + kreas. + didymos. bone. ovum. pan. + metra.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Orifice. Parasympathetic. alongside of. para. axle. ossa). G. + ganglion. G. ovum. tube. I strike. double. birth. Ovum (pl. Paraganglion. Osteology. Ossicle. osteon. + forma. knot. Oviduct. melting. duct. + mesos. door. + plesso. osteon. Osteone. Paracentesis. alongside of. Osseous. small piece of cloth. G. G. alongside of. making acid. panniculus. Parametrium. L. ova). L. puncture. + L. para. + lysis. Pancreas. Paradidymis. ovum. hence covering of deeper tissues. G. G. para. L. all. to make. Ovary. osteon. Paramedian. Pampiniform. Panniculus. L. para. alongside of. giving birth by laying eggs. beside. along. + ductus. os (pl. Paraxial. bone. orificium. G. G. + tokos. hence alongside the testes. likeness. bone. ossiculum. sympathetic. + kentesis. G. G. + logos. G. os. swift. L. para. treatise. L. Oviparous. oxyntos. egg. Oxytocin. pampineus. bone. small bone. middle. womb. L. G. osteon. bone. G. Ossification. cell. Os. alongside of. alongside of. + facere. full of or wrapped around with vine leaves. ostium. Osteocyte. egg. egg. + parus. os. egg. 52 . oxys. G. ovum. opening. axis.

pepsis. + pherein. birth. tail. gate. G. peristaltikos. cartilage. Paresis. Placenta. Peritoneum. porta (pl. Pepsinogen. Parthenogenesis. wall. paresis. G. G. + chondros. G. G. to stretch. + gnascor. 53 . Percussion. foreskin. penis. Porta. relaxation. Promontory. L. to bear. plaiting. Perimysium. plexus. Paroophoron. percussio. + oon. alongside of. porta (pl. a flat cake. digestion. + hodaios. L. G. phallos. pertaining to a way. Periosteum. processus. G. L. -ae). to bear. + gennao. to be born. pepsis. proktos. wall. G. portio. G. around. L. peri. paries. phallus. around. anus. G. + mys. G.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Parenchyma. pouring out into the adjacent. muscle. G. before. Proctodeum. Phrenic. + teinein. Phallus. parenchyma. + osteon. parthos. prae. L. L. L. braid. Phallic. diaphragm. egg. Perichondrium. L. Perineum. G. striking. + genesis. L. digestion. L. peri. Parietal. G. going forwards. around. Portio. G. gate. Plexus (pl. Parieties. penis was a later meaning. bone. part. L. around. clasping and compressing. mountain ridge. Penis. phallikos. Prepuce. L. placenta. perinaion. perineum. Pepsin. Processus. Peristalsis. -ae). G. phren. praeputium. promontorium. Parous. Portal. I produce. peri. pario. para. G. peri. pertaining to the penis. Pregnancy. virgin. L. paries. -us).

curve. Sinister. psoa. tub. L. Recess. L. semen. Serum. G. bosom. Greek letters. a little bag. sack. kidney. Psoas. Sinus (pl. to be ashamed. Raphe. mature. Renal. seam. mature. L. Seminiferous. L. + gramma. Scoliosis. Restiform.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Pronephros. fence. to draw. shape. Semen. skoliosis. Scrotum. skin. + forma. Sac. G. L. curvature. seed. + stare. L. + graphein. pro. Sarcolemma. L. G. mark. L. moon. restis. semi. + ferre. G. sinus. L. scrotum. husk. pyelos. semen. Rectum. rectus. Prostate. Septum. raphe. recessus. trough. pubes. + lemma. branch. kidneys. Salpinx. form. gate-keeper. loin. half. ramus. shape. sacculus. Sacculus. sigma. pubes. saccus. L. 54 . flesh. before. to stand. G. L. ramus. G. pylouros. straight. L. renes. G. + nephros. -es). Ramus. Pyelograph. + luna. salpinx. trough. L. G. saeptum. Pyelogram. Pylorus. likeness. rope. -us). Sigmoid. L. seed. L. pudere. L. retreat. sarx. to bear. pyelos. whey. left side or unlucky. cavity. sinister. tub. in front. Semilunar. G. Pubis (pl. serum. branch. pro. trumpet. skin. L. rectus. Ramify. L. + facere. Pubes. + eidos. L. L. G. Pudendal. to make.

+ blastos. G. + costa. stenosis. L. splanchna. Splanchnic. side. narrowing. G. stomachos. G. Spermatozoon (pl. above. inverted. soma. Spleen. L. + logos. G. pertaining to a way. G. together. + odaios. Sympathetic. body. G. + inversus. sponge. animal. indicating origin. sperma.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Sinusoid. Spermatogenesis. Stomach. band. splen. spongia. L. G. under. G. ribbon. + pleura. testis. sperma. mouth. Testicle. taenia. Spongiosum. + eidos. sinus. + costa. 55 . G. G. Supracostal. body. soap. spongia. occurrence. + suffix -ite. splanknon. sub. Spermatocyte. germ. treatise. Somite. seed. testiculus. + genesis. sperma. Sphincter. growth. + kytos. Stomatodeum. soma. cell. Somatopleure. Situs inversus viscerum. terminare. seed. G. Terminalis. likeness. Symphysis. Tenia. -a). L. seed. rib. G. Spermatogonium. syndrome. seed. syn. Somatic. + viscerum. generation. + pathein. position. curve. spleen. G. L. sponge. oesophagus. G. G. Spongioblast. Splanchnology. to limit. L. bud. of the viscera. G. somata). L. site. Sperm. Syndrome. smegma. seed. Smegma. + gone. G. sphingein. to suffer. sperma. G. stoma. + zoon. G. Taenia. Subcostal. viscera. supra. + physis. rib. soma (pl. Stenosis. gullet. together. Stomodeum. origin. L. body. sperma. syn. to bind tight. G. cavity. shape. viscus. situs.

truncus. triangle. L. Urea. Tunica. Vas. G. L. Uterus. L. Vesicle. Valvula. L. vestibulum. bladder. testis. urine. venter. a witness. Umbilicus. vermis. vernatio. tunica. tuberculum. oura. valvula. vertebra. L. L. vena. a little fold. + tereo. ouethra. Vernix. valve. L. womb. I pour. uterus. ouron. L. whirl. Urine. L. trigonum. tail. Vertex.). vein. L. Vestibulum. G. L. Vesica. 460 B. urine. sheath. Truncus. + forma. L. envelope. Urostyle. leaf of door. G. wool drawn out for spinning. ouron. trunk of tree. umbilicus. a small hump. Urachus. ouron. Urogenital. L. Urethra. + stylos. L. vesicula. entrance court. worm. Theca. urine. ouron. word invented by Hippocrates (c. vessel. tractus.C. urine. Vein. a small bladder. whirlpool. + L. Tuberculum. L. shape. shedding of snake skin. genitalis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Testis. genital. valva. L. vesica. G. G. theca. Vagina. sheath. urine. testicle. Trigone. Venter. L. G. L. Ventral. belly. Valve. navel. L. vagina. Tract. venter. joint. belly. L. L. undergarment. vas. vertex. Vermiform. Ureter. pillar. 56 . Vertebra. + cheo. L. ouron. G. to preserve. L.

vitellus. L. vitellus. Villus (pl. entrails. living. viscera. zona. G. L. volvulus. Zygapophysis. belt.D. Vulva. Zonula.). little calf (became transferred to yolk of egg by Celsus c. + parere. villi). belt. L. dim. Viviparous. Vitelline. internal organ. twisted. trace. Vitellus. yolk of egg. L. L. Zona. Visceral. hair. L. villus. process of a bone. L. Viscus. girdle. of zona. L. 57 . L. girdle. to beget. Volvulus. L. viscus. volva. yoke. vestigium. + apophysis. bowels. 10 A. L. zygon. cover. footprint.Terms Important in the Abdomen and Pelvis Vestige. vivus.

ansa. G. L. G. Antrum. goat. antron. jaw. anulus (annulus). L. (perhaps the small tuft of hair growing here was likened to a goat’s beard?). G. to. Aberrant. to carry. anti. Amygdaloid. + ducens. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. grape. without. accessorius. Adductor. + eidos. + tragus. G. L. away. form. an. without. + gnathos. acinus. against. L. both ways. Ansa. speech. 58 . amb. + ducere. + helix. aditus. to drive. Acoustic. L. L. G. Accessory. Ampulla. ad. without. anti. against. ampulla. a. Annulus. Acrania. + enkephalos. brain. pertaining to hearing. to. acorn. away. Antitragus. L. Adenoid. opening. G. Antihelix. a ring. L. a. G. G. Ala. Aphasia. Afferent. before. + agere. handle. Ambiguus. a. ab. likeness. before. L. ala.TERMS IMPORTANT IN THE HEAD AND NECK Abducens. Agnathism. L. to lead. ab. Anencephaly. G. leading. L. form. supplementary. amydale. L. + errare. G. Acinus. to stray. akoustikos. + eidos. coil. + krania. aden. + phasis. ad. almond. + ferre. heads. likeness. wing. cave. without. Aditus.

brachys.. branchia. Auricle. L. L. cheek. branchiae. + taxis. Blepharal. to moisten. arch-shaped. Aqueous. mass. G. gills.. aster. head. bucca. + sphenoeides. Arbor vitae. arcualis. Auditory. G. blepharon. G. point. Asterion. bow. base. star. Arcus.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Aphonia. a. Arytenoid. Atresia. G. bolos. L. Bicuspid. G. two. Autonomic. autos. tree. Axial. + cuspis. hole. the line about which any body turns. + ducere. of life. entrance hall. + pallium. external ear. cloak. a. archi. G. Buccal. + nomos. L. aqua. wedgeshaped. audire. axle of a wheel. shape. Aqueduct. L. + phone. G. Basion. Basisphenoid. + eidos. to lead. L. eyelid. jug. arcus. Brachycephalic. arachnes. (thought most humid part of infant skull). weight (pressure receptor). without. G. L. water. + vitae. without. G. a. base. arbor. shape. without. atrium. baros. basis. L. . G. Ataxia. likeness. axis. L. Arachnoid. G. L. G. G. nourishment. dim. Branchial. L. G. L. law. water. G. order. principal. self. + tresis. Atrium. Bolus. or G. basis. spider. arytana. + trophe. Atrophy. Arcuate. aqua. + kephale. G. brechein. 59 Baroreceptor. footing. without. court. voice. Archipallium. short. a. likeness. Bregma. to hear. auricula. + eidos. bis.

Centrum. L. Bursa. barrier. G. rough stone. L. cisterna. . L. G. Calvaria. L. kephale. around. brain. neck. Circumflex. L. caverna. G. bulbus. -ae). L. Claustrum. -a. snail shell. -a. L. Carotid. Cementum. kanthos. thick-skinned. wall. centre. Cisterna. Bulla. any fleshy eminence. centrum. a purse. dog. cavum. eyelash. bursa. hollow or cave. choane. cilium (pl. cavus. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). cochlea (G. claustrum. Cerebrum. L. -um. cerebrum. shape. swollen root. Caruncle. Caput (pl. Circumvallate. bulb. L. calvus. -um. cilia). brain. likeness. circum. kochlias). Cochlea. L. hence purse-shaped object.. head. head. cervix. L. L. flesh. L. dim. L. Cephalic. bald. L. L. G. L. a hollow or cave. Cavum. capita). L. L. callosus. a bubble. Collum. + eidos. collum. + flexere. around. circum. a hollow or cave. G. chiasma. 60 Callosum. also a beam or rafter. Canthus. + vallum. caput. Cavernosus. hence spherical in shape. Cava. neck. cerebrum. skin. rim on a wheel. Cervical. funnel. Ciliary. chorion. L. L. L. bulla. figure of X. to bend.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bulbus. Choroid. Chiasma. canis. Cerebellum. karon. L. of caro. dim. Canine. reservoir. caementum. Choana (pl. G. spiral.

skull. Corticopetal. together + ruga. communicating. crista. to accompany. to draw together. Corticofugal. Cortex (adj. Crista. L. rind. L. G. likeness. L. wrinkle. krikos. cribrum. conj. Constrictor. Corrugator. bark of a tree. tie (from copulare. commissura (cum + mittere). cornu. Cranial. Comitans (pl. conus. Concha. L. companion. L. cortex. oyster shell. to roll. communicans. copula. together. hence cock’s comb. concha. cortex. cone. L. crow. L. corona. coronarius. Crista galli. Commissure. 61 . to flee. L. L. con. + petere. Conjunctiva. con. skull. gallus. corneus. L. L. Cornu. hence. kranion. bivalve. to copulate). form. Conus. likeness. cortical). Corpus (pl. korax. L. L. together + jungo. form. horn. Cranium (adj. hence connecting. body. L. L. cock. Convolution. crest + L. comitari. bark of a tree. Cricoid. cortex. G. G. horny. constringere. Cribriform. Communicans. encircling. + eidos. comitantes). comes. kranion. ring. + eidos. Coronoid. to seek. Corona. + fugere. L. L. Cornea. L. L. Coronary. corpora). L. crista. + forma. G. I join.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Comes. sieve. cranial). L. crown. pertaining to a wreath or crown. Copula. bark. crest. + volvo. form. L. connection.

e. within. Culmen. brain. top. Dentine. hollow. + opsis. water. diploos. lympha. disc. G. L. 62 . to push down. L. endon. to turn aside. cutting of teeth. head. Duct. G. Decussation. dens. L. as in Roman X. + mittere. L. Encephalocele. L. dia. crus. Cuspis. within. L. out. decussatio. L. en. garment. L. crura). Crus (pl. cupula. dolichos. L. discus. Diencephalon. + minere. diastema. Ependyma. L. fold. + kranion. L. through. + enkephalos. strong. + kephalos. within. ducere. G. endon. Diplopia. Diverticulum. G. Dentition.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cruciate. L. to send. G. Diploë. G. out. Diastema (pl. Endolymph. tree. G. cross. L. diploë. divertere. G. Dendrite. Detrusor. Cupula. double. L. + L. detrudere. Dura. enkephalos. cuspis. G. L. -ata). culmen. tear. dakryon. G. ducere. a small cask or cup. tooth. Dens. Disc. dim. + koilos. Dolichocephalic. epi. dens. + endyma. kephale. upon. skull. intersection of two lines. L. G. brain. interval. Ductule. Dacryon. dentitis. leg. Emissary. L. to lead or draw. long + G. dura. vision. tooth. crux. Endocranium. point. to lead. to jut. G. head. Encephalocoele. hard. e. dendros. Encephalon. Eminence.

sieve. Fauces. upon. L. + ophthalmos. L. a cleft. G. fornix. epi. likeness. fraenum. L. L. G. larynx. L. falx. -iae). yellow. likeness. fissura (findo). Fastigius. fascia. Funicular. eye. L. rope. L. L. L. Fenestra. forehead. Fossa. F. flavus. floccus. foramen. G. Fraenum. Flocculus. facies. Exophthalmos. funis. + kanthos. L. Facies. + forma. L. folliculus. L. upon. L. facies. dim. L. G. + glottis. frons. fontanelle. 63 . arch or vault. Falciform. ex. throat. sickle. + thalamos. Fasciculus. frontis. a small fountain. epi. Epiglottis. upon. out. Fourchette. NL. ditch. skull. Epicranium. Falx. Fissure. Foramen. + forma. something dug. L. Epithalamus. Fontanelle.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Epicanthus. epi. fossa. L. fourchette. F. spindle. fundus. + kranion. brow. chamber. shape. bottom. Follicle. channel. Flavum. sickle. epi. hole. face. dim. a little bridge. slope. bridge. window. Fovea. Ethmoid. Frenum. rim. a tuft of wool. fusus. faux. Fundus. Frenulum. Facialis. a small bag. Frontal. small pit. fascis. + eidos. Fusiform. L. falx. band. shape. on. falcis. bundle. fork. fenestra. L. fraenum. L. fastigium. G. G. likeness. L. Fornix. ethmos. form. fovea. L. L. face. Fascia (pl.

G. head. horse. jaundice. incisus (incidere). G. gap. Hiatus. G. L. Hemisphere. L. chin. Hernia. Globus. hippos. Griseum. Infundibulum. G. glottis. infundibulum. Hippocampus. Hemiplegia. L. gyros. hernia. hypo. geneion. geneion. tongue. habena. tongue. 64 . strap. mouth of the windpipe. to cut into. leather helmet. hypo. hypo. U-shaped. Hilum. Glossopharyngeus. G. G. G. Hyoid. G. + glossa. griseus. protrusion. Genioglossus. gnathos. Hypophysis. bluish. ball. Habenula. under. G. chin. half. hydor. jaw. ikteros. + kephale. Hypothalamus. geneion. L. G. Geniohyoid. U-shaped. tongue. Icterus. L. Incisor. stroke. Glottis. gloia. hemi. G. + plege. sphere. Glia. G. + L. L. glossa. G. couch. half. a small thing. + physis. L. G. smooth.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Galea. a turn. hyoeides. Gallus. incidere. Hypaxial. + hyoeides. water. hiatus. hilum. G. L. + sphaira. + thalamos. hypo. Gnathion. hemi. chin. growth. G. Genial. + kampos. G. cut. globus. + glossa. L. G. + pharynx. L. Incisura. Glabella. Hydrocephalus. tongue. under. Hypoglossal. glue. Gyrus (pl. axis. a funnel. galea. axis. gallus. gyri). G. centre line. under. L. glaber. Glossal. chamber. under. throat. L. glossa. cock. sea monster.

Lamina (pl. yoke. Labium. L. L. lip. Jugal. Insula. Lacerate. lacuna. sheath. G. L. leptos. G. L. jugum. Intima. inion. in. dim. G. lambda. lentil. Lemma. border. larynx. L. limbus. small tongue. intima. threshold. upper part of windpipe. Limbus. innermost.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Inion. tongue. skin. L. limen. lemma. Lens. membrane. L. Labrum. L. Lingula. Limen. iris. L. tear. leaf. pertaining to lips. Intrinsic. Ling-. 65 . labium. L. L. yoke. G. Leptomeninges. G. Leminiscus. G. maze. jugum. Lamella. to tear. Lacrimal. pertaining to the neck. Lingual. L. lamina. of lamina. labialis (labia). back of head. Jugular. band. G. Lambdoid. intrinsecus. L. L. island. lingua. L. labyrinthos. + vagina. isthmos. L. L. Isthmus. leminiskos. rim. in. Larynx. Lacus. Invagination. lingula. Lacuna. Iris. thin plate. lens. lacus. shaped like Greek letter L. Jugum. labrum. rainbow. L. tongue. Labyrinth. G. narrow connection. G. thin. lingua. Labial. -ae). lacrima. L. L. jugularis (jugulum). lacerare. pond. insula. L. lake. L. + meninx. inward.

mikros. full of light. macula. after. G. brain. Lumen. Lucidum. pith. meta. mikros. to smell. + thalamus. G. Lunate. mikros. G. L. Marginal. masticatio. metopon. + koilos. meninges). mastos. Malleus. now bone of upper jaw. Masseter. Metathalamus. meninx. L. in. locus. small. wrap or nutrient. L. membrane. mentum. jaw. matrix (mater ). chin. opening. Matrix. cheek bone. place. L. mikros. middle.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Lobus. mando. head. Meningocele. head. Maxilla. G. meatus. + enkephalos. L. G. L. G. G. bordering. Metencephalon. + kephale. L. medulla. womb. mala. forehead. passage. light. marrow. mold. Mastication. mesos. membrane. -us). Locus. 66 . lucidus (lux). chewer. L. moon. A. L. groundwork. Meningocoele. lobe. marginalis (margo). meninx. Meninx (pl. membrane. Meninges. Mastoid. mater. masseter. L. Microsmatic. G. Mental. L. clear. Mandible. small. small. glue. hammer. chewing. spot. chamber. G. malleus. G. meninx. + en. G. stain. lobos. Microglia. L. L. I chew. L. + eidos. form. G. Metopic. likeness. small. Meatus (pl. Malar. hollow. breast. Microcephaly. meta. G. + kephale. + gloia. G. + osmaomai. Macula. Mesencephalon. L. Mater. luna. after. lumen. maxilla. tooth. Microdont. + odous. Medulla.

Molar. neuron. L. neuron. black. rhythmic eye movements. G. Neuraxon. + algos. G. nerve. G. myle. mill. sheath. obelos. new. Neural. + axon. 67 Obelion. Neurilemma. neuron. before. cloak. neos. G. L. G. neuron. husk. G. Neuroblast.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Modiolus. molaris (mola). nervus. Mylohyoid. nerve. G. nerve. nerve. neuron. nostril. Neuron. treatise. L. G. + hyoeides. + gloia. occipitium. neuron. noton. Neuroectomy. neuron. G. niger. pertaining to a millstone. Neuralgia. nasus. Nictitating. Nuchal. L. L. G. axis. G. nose. + pallium. pain. + chorde. I close. myelos. cord. nerve. equivalent of L. nucha. -es). modern use. neuron. G. cordlike structure. + lemma. + claudo. modiolus. brain. G. nystagma. Nigra. back of head. L. G. nerve. L. Notochord. glue. neuron. sinew. excision. nervus. bud. G. back. + logos. neuron. Neurology. cordlike structure. L. L. nerve. marrow. + enkephalos. L. . Neuroglia. nape of neck. hub. nictare. + blastos. tendon. Nystagmus. Myelencephalon. Occipital. knot. Node. naris. Nerve. Naris (pl. Occlusion. nucha. L. hence. Neopallium. Nucha. U-shaped. tendon. nerve. pointed pillar. G. nerve. L. to wink. nape of neck. Nasion. + ektome. nodus. short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). ob. nerve.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Oculomotor. Odontoblast. Odontoid. Oligodendroglia. Omohyoid. L. oculus, eye, + motor, mover. G. odous, tooth, + blastos, bud. G. odous, tooth, + eidos, shape, likeness. G. oligos, few, + dendron, tree, + gloia, glue. G. omos, shoulder, + G. hyoeides, U-shaped; thus muscle passing from shoulder to U-shaped hyoid bone. G. opisthios, posterior. G. ophthalmos, eye. G. opsis, sight. L. os, oris, mouth; (compare L. os, bone, below). L. ora, edge, + serra, saw. L. orbis, anything circular. L. orificium, opening. L. os, bone. L. os (pl. ossa), bone. L. ossiculum, small bone. L. os, bone, + facere, to make. G. osteon, bone. G. osteon, bone, + kytos, cell. G. osteon, bone, + logos, treatise. G. osteon, bone, + lysis, melting. G. osteon, bone, + malakia, softness. L. ostium, door. G. otikos, belonging to the ear. G. ous, otos, ear, + lithos, stone. G. pachys, thick, + meninx, membrane. L. palatum, palate. L. pallidus, pale. L. pallium, cloak. L. palpebra, eyelid. 68

Opisthion. Ophthalmic. Optic. Oral. Ora serrata. Orbit. Orifice. Os. Osseous. Ossicle. Ossification. Osteone. Osteocyte. Osteology. Osteolysis. Osteomalacia. Ostium. Otic. Otolith. Pachymeninges. Palate. Pallidus. Pallium. Palpebra.

Terms Important in the Head and Neck Papilloedema, Papilledema. Paraesthesia, Paresthesis. Paraflocculus. Paraganglion. Paralysis. Paraplegia. Parasympathetic. Parathyroid. Paraxial. Paresis. Parotid. Periodontal. Petrosal. Petrous. Pharynx. Philtrum. Phonation. Pia. Pilus. Pineal. Pinna (pl. -ae). Piriform. Pituitary. L. papilla, nipple, + oedema, swelling. G. para, alongside of, + aisthesis, sensation. G. para, alongside of, + L. floccus, flock of wool. G. para, along, beside, + ganglion, knot. G. para, alongside of, + lyein, to loosen. G. para, alongside of, + plesso, I strike. G. para, alongside of, + sympathetikos, sympathetic. G. para, near, + thyreos, oblong shield, + eidos, form, likeness. G. para, alongside of, + L. axis, axle. G. paresis, relaxation. G. para, near, + ous, otos, ear. G. peri, around, + odous, tooth. L. petrosus, rocky. L. petrosus, rocky. G. pharynx, throat. G. philtron, love potion, anything that awakens love. G. phone, voice. L. pius, delicate. L. pilus, hair. L. pinea, pine cone. L. penna, pinna, feather; hence, wing. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape, likeness. L. pituita, slime, phlegm; at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. G. platys, flat, + kephale, head. G. platysma, plate. 69

Platycephaly. Platysma.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Plexus (pl. -us). Plica. Pneumatic. Pons. Popliteus. Pore. Porta. Portal. Portio. Porus. Premolar. Presbyopia. Procerus. Processus. Prochordal. Prognathism. Promontory. Proptosis. Prosencephalon. Prosthion. Protuberance. Pterygoid. Ptosis. Pulvinar. Punctum. Pupil. Putamen. Pyramid. Pyriform. Quadrigeminus. L. plexus, plaiting, braid. L. plicare, to fold. G. pneumatikos, pertaining to breath. L. pons, pontis, bridge. L. poples, ham. L. porus, passage. L. porta (pl. -ae), gate. L. porta (pl. -ae), gate. L. portio, part. G. poros, passage. L. pre, in front, + molaris, molar. G. presbys, old man, + opsis, sight. L. procerus, tall, extended. L. processus, going forwards. G. pro, in front of, + chorde, cord. G. pro, in front of, + gnathos, jaw. G. promontorium, mountain ridge. G. pro, before, + ptosis, falling. G. pro, before, + enkephalos, brain. G. prosthen, before. L. protubero, I swell. G. pteryx, wing, + eidos, likeness, shape. G. ptosis, fall. L. pulvinar, cushioned couch. L. punctum, point. L. pupa, girl. L. putamen, shell, husk. G. pyramis, pyramid. L. pirum, pear, + forma, shape. L. quadrigeminus, four-fold, four.

70

Terms Important in the Head and Neck Recess. Reflect. Retina. Rhinal. Rhinencephalon. Rhinion. Rhombencephalon. Rima. Risorius. Rostrum (pl. -a). Ruga (pl. -ae). Sac. Sacculus. Salivary. Scala. Scalene. Scalp. Sclera. Sclerotic. Sella turcica. Semilunar. Septum. Sialogram. Sigmoid. Sinister. Sinus (pl. -us). Sphenoid. Stapes. Strabismus. Stratum (pl. strata). Stria. L. recessus, retreat. L. reflecto, to turn back. L. rete, net. G. rhis, nose. G. rhis, nose, + enkephalos, brain. G. rhinion, nostril. G. rhombos, rhomboid, + enkephalos, brain. L. rima, cleft. L. risus, laughter. L. rostrum, beak. L. ruga, wrinkle. L. saccus, sack. L. sacculus, a little bag. L. saliva, saliva. L. scala, staircase. G. skalenos, uneven. Teutonic. skalp, shell. G. skleros, hard. G. skleros, hard. L. sella, saddle, + turcica, Turkish. L. semi, half, + luna, moon. L. saeptum, fence. G. sialon, saliva, + gramma, mark. G. sigma, Greek letter S, + eidos, shape, likeness. L. sinister, left side or unlucky. L. sinus, curve, cavity, bosom. G. sphen, wedge, + eidos, likeness, shape. L. stapes, stirrup. G. strabismos, squinting. L. stratum, layer. L. stria, furrow. 71

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Striatum. Styloid. Sublingual. Submandibular. Substantia. Sulcus. Superciliary. Sustentaculum. Sympathetic. Taenia, Tenia. Tapetum. Tectum. Tegmen. Tegmentum. Tela. Telencephalon. Tentorium. Teres. Terminalis. Thalamus. Theca. Tonsil. Tragus. Tympanic. Uvea. Uvula. Vallate. Vallecula. Valve. L. striatus, grooved, streaked. G. stylos, pillar, + eidos, likeness. L. sub, under, + lingua, tongue. L. sub, under, + mandibula, jaw. L. substantia, substance. L. sulcus, furrow. L. super, above, + cilium, eyelid. L. sustentaculum, support. G. syn, together, + pathein, to suffer. L. taenia, band, ribbon. L. tapete, carpet, tapestry. L. tectum (tego), roof. L. tegmen, covering. L. tegumentum, covering. L. tela, web. G. telos, end, + enkephalos, brain. L. tentorium, tent. L. tero, I grind, rub. L. terminare, to limit. G. thalamos, chamber. L. theca, envelope, sheath. L. tonsilla, mooring post. G. tragos, goat, from small tuft of hair (goat’s beard) in this region. L. tympanum, drum. L. uva, grape. L. uva, grape. L. vallum, rampart, walled. L. dim. of vallus, fossa. L. valva, leaf of door. 72

shape. Vestige. L. vestigium. whirlpool. valve. vomer. vermis. zygon. L. footprint. loculus. vermis. trace. Zygapophysis. vertebra.Terms Important in the Head and Neck Valvula. Vermis. L. 73 . L. L. + apophysis. G. vertex. vitreous. valvula. vitreus. transparent. hence. little cavity. Velum. L. L. Vestibulum. a little fold. ploughshare. L. joint. Vitreus. veil. yoke. L. Ventricle. Vermiform. worm. of glass. vestibulum. ventriculus. Vertex. whirl. worm. velum. Vomer. entrance court. L. + forma. L. process of a bone. Vertebra.

G. a ring. a. wing. Antrum. Arcus. aqua. spider. G. + phasis. Afferent. L. Ambiguus. + vitae. + ducere. Acoustic. water. L. speech. water. accessorius. + eidos. aqua. Apophysis. Aphasia. pertaining to hearing. Ataxia. a. L. amb. G. + physis. without. tree. Amygdaloid. + ferre. order. L. voice. G. G. from. + ducens. amydale. handle. principal. to carry. + eidos. ab. arbor. almond. 74 . form. cave.TERMS SPECIFIC TO THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Abducens. G. ansa. anulus (annulus). Arachnoid. L. both ways. supplementary. Aberrant. of life. apo. ala. to. akoustikos. L. archi. Auditory. arch-shaped. cloak. arcualis. Aphonia. Aditus. Archipallium. L. L. without. L. likeness. Ala. antron. arachnes. + pallium. Aqueous. + errare. G. L. L. ab. to lead. + agere. L. G. growth. + phone. away. arcus. opening. Annulus. aditus. Aqueduct. G. Arbor vitae. L. leading. Ansa. to drive. bow. without. away. L. ad. likeness. to hear. L. shape. Arcuate. to stray. + taxis. a. audire. Accessory.

G.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Autonomic. weight (pressure receptor). kochlias). L. L. L. swollen root. corpora). Axon. G. Basilic. colliculus. A. reservoir. -a. cavus. G. self. L. G. barrier. husk. cilia). around. wall. baros. L. caudal.. bulb. commissura (cum + mittere). L. Convolution. + nomos. hollow or cave. con. chiasma. Cerebrum. figure of X. L. brain. tie (from copulare. a hollow or cave. brain. Commissure. koilia. L. circum. -um. Copula. Calyx (pl. Celiac. L. Cerebellum. Concha. L. cerebrum. spiral. inner vein. connection. Ciliary. dim. cavum. autos. also a beam or rafter. L. tail. 75 . law. bivalve. caverna. L. Cavernosus. to copulate). L. Cauda. L. -um. Cava. L. concha. cochlea (G. eyelash. thick-skinned. cauda. L. together. Communicans. cilium (pl. copula. a hollow or cave. axis. snail shell. Callosum. cerebrum. claustrum. L. belly. al-basilic. cup-shaped protective covering. callosus. little hill. Circumvallate. communicating. Claustrum. bulbus. Bulbus. + volvo. Cavum. Baroreceptor. axon. L. L. calyx. L. body. calices). L. oyster shell. G. Colliculus. communicans. Cisterna. -a. to roll. Coeliac. cisterna. Chiasma. Corpus (pl. Cochlea. + vallum.

sickle. diploos. G. divertere. on. cortical). likeness. Endoneurium. decussatio. window. fenestra. tree. L. brain. Fenestra. hence disjointed speech. upon. + ferre. Corticopetal. endon. through. Diplopia. fastigium. cortex. + neuron. + neuron. top. skin. dia. Encephalon. falcis. arthron. Fibre. epi. enkephalos. Epineurium. to turn aside. L. cortex. + thalamos. on. L. rind. Endolymph. Dermatome. cortex. L. G. dendros. to bear. en. 76 Efferent. G. falx. L. + opsis. + petere. L. as in Roman X.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cortex (adj. endon. hollow. Encephalocele. Diverticulum. within. L. Dendrite. Ependyma. intersection of two lines. shape. Decussation. vision. falx. L. G. Cotyledon. garment. head. L. fibra. strong. G. + kephalos. G. double. hard. bark of a tree. epi. Diencephalon. + fugere. G. bark of a tree. G. joint. Dura. to cut. dura. L. dys. Dysarthria. lympha. within. Epithalamus. fibre. epi. derma. ex. string. nerve. within. L. Fastigius. . to flee. + forma. G. Encephalocoele. G. out. sickle. + temnein. + L. L. culmen. water. bark. G. hard. to seek. G. L. + koilos. Falx. thread. brain. cup-shaped hollow. kotyledon. Falciform. + enkephalos. + endyma. Corticofugal. Fiber. Culmen. chamber. G. slope. nerve.

Ganglion. knee. under. folliculus. Flocculus. Hydrocephalus. + sphaira. fibrilla. Fusiform. L. L. Fovea. tongue. under. half. glossa. hydor. L. hiatus. threads. a tuft of wool. G. thin fibre. G. Hypoglossal. Genu. a turn. Funicular. funis. sphere. Hippocampus. fissura (findo). genu. gyros. L. gap. protrusion. L. water. fusus. axis. hernia. L. G. fork. L. L. L. likeness. Habenula. L. hemi. Glossopharyngeus. thread. Fundus. axis. griseus. L. 77 . Hilum. Glia. a cleft. G. L. bluish. gloia. head. throat. Filament. Gyrus (pl. G. hilum. + L. ganglion. L. G. fundus. globus. ball. a little thread. fourchette. arch or vault. Fourchette. centre line. rope. bottom. glue. spindle. filum. Hypaxial. small pit. + kampos. Filum. hypo. G. + plege. + glossa. fimbriae. Fissure. NL. Fimbria. floccus. strap. + forma. fovea. a small bag. filamentum. NL. half. G. hypo. L. shape. G.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Fibril. Fornix. habena. dim. L. hippos. + kephale. stroke. Hernia. a small thing. + pharynx. fornix. F. Hemisphere. L. G. gyri). tongue. a swelling under the skin. Hemiplegia. sea monster. fringe. hemi. horse. Griseum. Follicle. Globus. Hiatus. L.

L. isthmos. Intrinsic. L. + nervus. lobe. L. G. moon. L. Lacuna. chamber. to cut into. Jugular. pond. kinesis. incidere. L. Lingula. movement. in. nerve. in. L. unequal. + vagina. in. G. Indusium. inward. Lucidum. Leminiscus. + premere. in. growth. Labyrinth. threshold. limen. insula. hypo. L. Lobus. Jugum. border. luna. jugum. Kinetic. small tongue. L. Impression. Hypothalamus. leptos. opening. to press. jugularis (jugulum). L. Insula. hypo. intrinsecus. G. under. clear. in. thin. sheath. L. under. band. -ae). labyrinthos. yoke. Lunate. indusium. Invagination.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Hypophysis. impar. in. + physis. lacuna. L. pertaining to the neck. lobos. L. membrane. L. G. island. Leptomeninges. 78 . lamina. Limen. + meninx. Limbus. light. G. + thalamos. full of light. Infundibulum. G. L. couch. maze. leminiskos. limbus. L. lumen. G. L. Isthmus. lingula. Incisura. a funnel. lucidus (lux). Impar. tunic. Innervation. L. Lamina (pl. G. Lumen. infundibulum. thin plate. L. narrow connection. L.

Neuroglia. + blastos. G. axis. nerve. meatus. marrow. mikros. nervus. membrane. brain. nerve. L. meninx. pith. in. L. + enkephalos. neuron. Neurilemma. myelos. head. Medulla. + koilos. G. Mater. G. nerve. + axon. Meninx (pl. G. nerve. nerve. G. + lemma. mikros. G. + pallium. Microglia. Microcephaly. A. G. neos. nerve. meninges). G. G. G. neuron. -us). G. G. neuron. G. middle. matrix (mater ). 79 . Nerve. Mesencephalon. Meninges. mikros. Matrix. mesos. glue. neuron. pain. G. mold. + enteron. G. spot. Neuralgia. + thalamus. glue. neuron. meta. Neural. + en. dilation of pupil. G. L. marrow. after. neuron. Neurology. Neuraxon. G. excision. G. small. Meingocele. gut. bud. Neuroblast. G. small. new. meta. Neopallium. G. Myelencephalon. mys. mater. + osmaomai. cordlike structure. Myenteric. groundwork. G. passage. Microsmatic. womb. to smell. meninx. head. neuron. + algos. nerve. gut. G. membrane. tendon. neuron. neuron. + enkephalos. Neurenteric. cloak. Neuroectomy. brain. chamber. nerve. sheath. + enteron. stain.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Macula. treatise. + gloia. medulla. wrap or nutrient. muscle. + ektome. after. L. membrane. macula. Metathalamus. G. Meatus (pl. + logos. mydriasis. nerve. small. + kephale. L. hollow. Metencephalon. Mydriasis. nerve. + kephale. + gloia. neuron. husk. Meningocoele. meninx.

+ aisthesis. para. pachys. Ophthalmic. eye. Paraplegia. rhythmic eye movements. Paraesthesia. Paraganglion. alongside of. neuron. Oligodendroglia. otos.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Neuron. para. oligos. G. tendon. Papilledema. neuron. short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). + meninx. sympathetic. Papilloedema. + ganglion. knot. hole. to smell. nipple. L. + dendron. sensation. ostium. G. + gloia. belonging to the ear. Pachymeninges. L. Otolith. alongside of. eye. + sympathetikos. G. + L. pale. otikos. to loosen. Paresthesis. Nigra. L. para. + poros. nystagma. knot. para. door. Parasympathetic. cloak. thick. L. ear. alongside of. L. + facere. black. L. + pilos. G. G. Nystagmus. + oedema. pallium. G. Pallidus. nerve. G. papilla. G. equivalent of L. Neuropore. along. sight. Neuropil. I strike. hence. Otic. para. mover. few. 80 Oculomotor. olere. opsis. pallidus. neuron. modern use. Ostium. G. G. floccus. felt. cordlike structure. stone. swelling. L. Paralysis. glue. oculus. sinew. nervus. nerve. + plesso. Paraflocculus. + motor. alongside of. para. G. membrane. G. Node. tree. Pallium. + lyein. + lithos. G. G. to make. beside. alongside of. nodus. ophthalmos. flock of wool. . ous. G. L. Optic. G. nerve. niger. Olfactory.

G. phone. to shine. cord. G. L. Paresis. Pellucida. profundus. L. Presbyopia. pro. a little foot. G. cushioned couch. Phrenic. pes. Prochordal. G. L. Photoreceptor. slime. Pedunculus. to take. lympha. pulvinar. + recipio. pro. Petrosal. to fold. plax. point. L. around. L. Pedicle. phlegm. + capere. special. Pituitary. at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. plaiting. per. L. paries. L. fluid. pirum. peri. pear. L. + L. I receive. Perineum. Processus. + opsis. plexus. Proptosis. Parenchyma. axle. processus. G. anything flat. brain. axis. L. through.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Paraxial. G. G. petrosus. presbys. pediculus. Profundus. + chorde. old man. L. Perilymph. phren. wall. bridge. L. pro. para. G. 81 Placode. Piriform. punctum. phos. Proprioceptor. sight. pontis. pituita. rocky. before. plicare. Prosencephalon. G. braid. likeness. G. pons. . perineum. Pons. Parieties. G. Pulvinar. L. wall. L. going forwards. foot. L. Plexus (pl. petrosus. L. G. pouring out into the adjacent. + lucere. G. light. + enkephalos. -us). + forma. voice. relaxation. perinaion. + ptosis. Plica. + L. proprius. Phonation. L. paresis. parenchyma. Pia. deep. Punctum. paries. Petrous. L. alongside of. delicate. shape. L. pius. falling. Parietal. in front of. diaphragm. before. rocky.

pyramis. Putamen. -us). quadrigeminus. a little bag. Sclerotic. brain. Reticulum. seam. Radix. rostrum. four-fold. flesh. L. 82 . curve. sinus. shell. L. recipere. L. skleros. L. rhis. pirum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Pupil. branch. rhombos. shape. L. staircase. + forma. sarx. bosom. sack. pupa. G. nose. Scala. Sinusoid. Recess. shape. hard. curve. + enkephalos. Pyriform. cavity. girl. rete. reticulum. husk. G. + eidos. Sac. form. radix. left side or unlucky. + enkephalos. ischion. Rostrum (pl. sacculus. skleros. root. to make. L. L. L. cavity. Sinus (pl. brain. Ramus. L. L. rhomboid. likeness. saeptum. L. Radicle. beak. rope. restis. hard. G. -a). + lemma. shape. Quadrigeminus. fence. Sclera. Raphe. G. G. putamen. Sciatic. raphe. Sacculus. husk. Septum. Restiform. Rhombencephalon. pyramid. L. L. hip joint. L. ramus. G. L. sinus. retreat. to take back. skin. Retina. Ramify. Sinister. four. little net. saccus. root. Sarcolemma. G. ramus. Receptor. radix. G. Rhinencephalon. L. + forma. receive. L. L. scala. + facere. net. L. recessus. pear. branch. Pyramid. sinister. L. L.

L. table. web. born three together. spina. G. Sulcus. L. G. streaked. thalamos. Uncinate. tectum (tego). sub. + lingua. squinting. tegmen. brain. tractus. substantia. substance. to fasten. above. Spina. Terminalis. stria. Stratum (pl. trigeminus. wool drawn out for spinning. terminare. + pathein. tegumentum. L. together. under. Striatum. Tela. G. tabula. chamber. super. shape. Substantia. G. together. soma. + suffix -ite. G. telos. strata). thorn. to limit. L. + cilium. furrow. G. tongue. Stria. L. syn. stratum. Tectum. uncus. + enkephalos. L. indicating origin. grooved. to suffer. strabismos. Strabismus. + forma. carpet. L. tapestry. sub. hook. Somite. undergarment. G. L. tent. L. tentorium. Tract. covering. roof. covering. L. Tegmentum. Synapse. board. L. soma (pl. sheath. L. Tabular. 83 . envelope. body. Thalamus. eyelid. L. end. Sympathetic. tela. L. L. theca. Submandibular. furrow. L. Superciliary. + haptein.Terms Specific to the Nervous System Somatic. Tegmen. jaw. furnished with a hook. tunica. somata). sulcus. body. L. Tapetum. L. Telencephalon. L. uncinatus. L. L. + mandibula. Tentorium. Theca. L. Unciform. L. Tunica. Trigeminus. syn. tapete. Sublingual. layer. striatus. under.

entrance court. zona. wandering. L. Uvea. veil. L. Zonula. hook. L. vestibulum. grape. L. L. Vagus. Ventricle. uncus. little cavity. Velum. Zona. vermis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Uncus. Vestibulum. L. L. ventriculus. belt. worm. L. vagus. girdle. dim. belt. Vermis. 84 . velum. loculus. girdle. uva. of zona. L.

ab. to. pertaining to hearing. Acrania. Adolescence. Adenoid. fat. G. L. Aberrant. ad. L. L. Aditus. opening. away. likeness. to lead. akron. Acinus. away. G. adhaereo. G. Adductor. to. + ducere. grape. heads. L. without. extremity. extremity. G. ad. supplementary. form. + renes. kidneys. + megale. Acromegaly. Absorption. height. L. L. L. + eidos. + omos. Abductor. + errare. away. Accessory. Abortion. G. to stick together. L. L. L. Adhesion. absorptio. abortio. shoulder. ab. Adrenal. L. to abort. adolesco. akoustikos. aden. + ducere. leading. acetabulum. to stray. to grow up. ab. vinegar cup. a. to swallow. 85 . Acromion. L. akros. + ducens. shape of hip joint. Acoustic. bound. L. L. aditus. to lead. to hide. great. adeps. + nexus. Adipose. ad. accessorius.ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TERMS A Abdomen. L. near. acinus. acorn. + krania. Acetabulum. from abdere (?). L. Adnexa. Abducens.

G. angulus. an. ana. law. vessel. G. G. to. L. ampulla. without. G. Ambiguus. fetal membrane. angle. 86 . an. andros. Annulus. a. apart. + agere. ana. to bring to a mouth. G. Androgen. + enkephalos. ansa. to drive. precursor). L. alveolus. likeness. form. L. G. elbow. stiffening of the joint. G. without. to produce. Ankylosis. L. L. handle. form. agonistes. both ways. G. + gennan. G. angle. Amygdaloid. without. + gnathos. G. G. jaw. on both sides. almond. + eidos. Android. L. form. G. breast. anulus (annulus). an. G. a. + eidos. G. L. man. Agnathism. amydale. Allantois. amphi. to come. Amastia. L. angeion. ad. Ger. Anatomy. + tennein. ad. amb. cause to communicate. on. ankylosis. ala. Afferent. + eidos. Anomaly. Ampulla. L. Ankle. + logos. angulus. according to. to cut. treatise. anastomoein. little cavity. Anastomosis. treatise. + ferre. appearance. Anlage. a ring. + mastos. to carry. without. to. Amnion. brain. wing. Ala. Alveolus. rival. likeness. Anencephaly. sausage. to lay (a laying on — primordium. L. G. andros. agkon. G. + nomos. G. amnion. + arthrosis. allas. Amphiarthrosis.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Adventia. Angiology. + legen. + logos. Angle. Ansa. a flask or vessel swelling in the middle. man. Analogy. Anconeus. + venire. Agonist. joint.

G. of life. G. ante. ante. later: tendon). anti. aqua. + eidos. open space). G. voice. Aorta. G. without. L. tree. before. against. before. apo. apo. likeness. Arcus. Aqueous. ante. arachnes. Apocrine. G. + neuron. L. + tragus. rival. appendere. goat. Antitragus. Archipallium. of area. aqua. L. + phasis. G. shape. from. to bend. Aponeurosis. Anteversion. Arachnoid. Anterior. 87 Antrum. Aphasia. G. water. before. without. before. a. G. Apertura. G. to lead. archi. anthropos. L. from. G. L. fundament. Arcuate. a. Antihelix. arch-shaped. Areola. + physis. turning. tendon (earlier: nerve. before. to raise. + brachium. L. + vitae. as previous. to hang upon. anus. arcualis. ante. apertura. L. Aqueduct. against. Anthropoid. water. Appendix. arm. Antebrachium. to separate. arcus. antron. likeness. + eidos. L. Anteflexion. spider. adjectival form of appendix. form. Apophysis. + versio. L. growth. speech. Arachnodactyli. arbor. Appendicular. G. + krinein. Aphonia. aeiro. agonistes. L.Alphabetical List of Terms Antagonist. G. + flexere. from. cave. areola (dim. G. bow. Arbor vitae. apo. + phone. + helix. L. L. before. + ducere. against. Marfans syndrome. anti. + pallium. Anus. principal. anti. coil. . man. opening. (perhaps the small tuft of hair growing here was likened to a goat’s beard?). cloak. L. spider fingers.

artus. Atresia. G. G. G. hence. a. Atelectasis. aer. autos. ancient belief that blood vessels contained air. atrium. G. Atrium. asper. Auricle. atavus. order. Aspera. axis. axilla. + terein. unpaired. articulationes. a. without. likeness. G. axle of a wheel. L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Arrector.. + eidos. Articulation. + ectasis. without. incomplete. jug. G. G. joint. arteria. without. L. court. joints. dim. Atrophy. audire. a. thus arrectores pilorum. G. + factus. made. to keep (L. + sthenos. Azygos. arte. nourishment. Asthenic. little joint. L. aster. strength. Atavistic. axis. external ear. not. Axial. G. atlao. Asterion. L. L. law. rough. Arytenoid. axle of a wheel. armpit. I sustain (Greek god who bears the world). Ataxia. L. grandfather. air. a. ateles. Auditory. Axilla. a. to hear. shape. + nomos. pl. articulatus. by art. arytana. + tresis. G. L. expansion. L. Artery. windpipe). + taxis. + trophe. L. Axis. to raise. auricula. G. self. entrance hall. G. Atlas. the line about which any body turns. L. small muscles in skin that erect the hairs. + zygon. Artefact. 88 . axon. L. Autonomic. hole. Axon. star. arrigere. without. yoke. axis.

Basal. swollen root. arm. end of windpipe. short. belly. bronchia. L. to cleave. basis. mass. brechein. belonging to the arm (upper arm). two. + sphenoeides. horns. brevis. Bregma. fork. gills. L. bolos. Bifurcate. two. Bulbus. or G. + kephale. Bifid. Bile. to moisten. Brachycephalic. 89 . Basion. bucca. + caput. bilis. G. point. L. L. L. brachium. (thought most humid part of infant skull). L. two. L. + venter. Basisphenoid. head. basis. + findere. head. Bronchiole. G. + furca. bis. bulbus. Bipennate. L. two. footing. L. L. Biventer. eyelid. G. base. bis. short. Bicuspid. Brachial. brachialis. bronchiolus (dim. bis. basis. Biceps. two. (upper arm). bi. Bolus. Branchial. + latus. bulb. G. L. two. branchiae. base. bis. bis. al-basilic. + cornua. L. cheek. L. bile. G. wedgeshaped. + pinna. Bronchus. bis. L. baros. L. of bronchus. to moisten). blepharon. side. branchia. + cuspis. weight (pressure receptor). G. Bicornuate. brachys. Brachium (pl. bis. A. -ia). two. footing.Alphabetical List of Terms B Baroreceptor. base. brechein. Bilateral. L. two. Blepharal. Buccal. feather. Basilic. G. Brevis. G. G. inner vein.

L. hence spherical in shape. Calvaria. thick-skinned. L. L. a purse. as above. L. calices). latticework. L. watepipe. . pertaining to the hair. L. Canthus. head. + facere. spur. small head. carina. -a. capita). rim on a wheel. L. calyx. Caput (pl. Carneae. cup-shaped protective covering. calvus. Bursa. dim. canis. Calcar. Capillary. L. box. L. pertaining to the heart. 90 Carina. bulla. Canaliculus. L. capillaris. G. reed. -um. caput. Callous. hence purse-shaped object. L. L. Calyx (pl. callosus. husk. Cannula. Cancellous. lime. dog. L. also a beam or rafter. L. calcar. to make. C Calcaneus. L. calcaneus. canalis. carneus. L. Cardiac. on which something important or fundamental hinges. bursa. G. fleshy. calx. cancelli.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Bulla. Capsule. caput. keel. L. dim. canna. Calcification. of capsa. Capitulum. L. L. cardinalis. kanthos. L. Canine. kardiakos (kardia). bald. a bubble. pertaining to a door hinge. heel. dim. Cardinal. Callosum. newly formed bone at fracture site.

likeness. G. chorion. caudal. Cervical. a hollow. flesh. koiloma. cavus. G. work. G. dissolution. Cephalic. L. fleshy. Carotid. G. brain. Cauda. 91 . flesh. cauda. L. carnosus. caecus. + lysis. chole. dim. figure of X. caverna. chroma. brain. karon. L. Cartilage. deep sleep (pressure on artery produces stupor). Carnosus. + heimi. chorion. cavum. L. chiasma. L. skin. hand. choane. Cavernosus. -ae). Celiac. cord. (hence surgery). any fleshy eminence. gristle. Celom (e). dim. L. G. Cerebrum. Coelom. rough stone. L. carno. G. centre. funnel. + dochos (dechomai). shape. Cecum. Chorda. L. Chromatolysis. G. string of gut. -a. neck. container. thrust. cervix. head. blind. Cavum. G. -a.Alphabetical List of Terms Carnivorous. to devour. L. Catheter. cerebrum. caementum. G. koilia. L. cerebrum. Caecum. G. centrum. G. a hollow or cave. L. G. L. karpos. kata. + ergon. cartilago. Chorion. skin. + vorare. Caruncle. belly. Centrum. wrist. Cava. Carpus. hollow or cave. -um. Chirurgery. G. Coeliac. down. Choledochus. cheir. kephale. Cementum. G. L. of caro. cartilage. colour. Choana (pl. Cerebellum. tail. Choroid. bile. a hollow or cave. chorde. Chiasma. + eidos. L. -um.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Chromosome. kolla. G. shape. Circumflex. Cloaca. + eidos. reservoir. comitari. barrier. body. to draw together. kochlias). circum. communicans. cilia). L. cilium (pl. Constrictor. klimakter. together. L. top of ladder (from klimax. oyster shell. kokkyx. a little key. Circumvallate. colour. spiral. + latus. to bend. Colliculus. chroma. Chyme. side. L. kondylos. Collum. 92 . constringere. begetter of. clavicula. G. Concha. together + jungo. Collagen. juice. knuckle. glue. conj. kolon. Communicans. eyelash. G. clava. G. Cingulum. comitantes). glue. bivalve. cisterna. G. Comes. connection. likeness. claustrum. L. Clava. L. around. cingulum. drain. L. wall. L. + vallum. snail shell. G. L. Clavicle. Cisterna. Climacteric. colliculus. L. hence a structure shaped like a cuckoo’s bill. L. Condyle. kolla. L. chylos. G. commissura (cum + mittere). L. L. + soma. communicating. comes. cochlea (G. sewer. Chyle. Cochlea. L. Ciliary. concha. ladder). I join. L. L. Commissure. gen. L. collum. companion. Colon. great gut. girdle. L. G. Comitans (pl. Coccyx. chymos. cloaca. a cuckoo. little hill. neck. G. con. circum. club. Conjunctiva. + L. Colloid. L. + flexere. hence connecting. Collateral. juice. L. Claustrum. to accompany. around.

+ forma. + volvo. copula. form. Coronoid. G. form. hence cock’s comb.Alphabetical List of Terms Conus. crown. Convolution. Cotyledon. corono-. skull. skin. bark of a tree. gallus. Cornea. Costa (adj. form. korax. + eidos. leather. bark. crow. korax. G. L. L. Coracoid. + fugere. hip. wrinkle. L. suspender. rind. G. L. Cribriform. likeness. crest + L. pertaining to a wreath or crown. crow. + eidos. kotyledon. cornu. hence. G. little body. cremaster. Cremaster. kranion. L. costa. conus. L. Cortex (adj. G. cock. cortex. cortex. corneus. crow. together + ruga. chorion. cortex. cranial). tie (from copulare. body. L. Corpus (pl. L. costal). 93 . Crista. L. corona. Corticofugal. likeness. Coraco-. Corticopetal. L. horny. to copulate). crista. to roll. encircling. corpora). corpusculum. cone. to flee. L. Corium. Cranial Cranium. rib. L. L. crista. cortical). korax or corone. horn. cup-shaped hollow. Coronary. krikos. together. Copula. Cornu. Crista galli. L. crest. form. + eidos. Cricoid. likeness. sieve. (adj. to seek. G. Corpuscle. hence crowlike. coronarius. L. Corrugator. coxa. Corona. L. con. L. cribrum. bark of a tree. L. G. con. + petere. skull. ring. Coxa. G. kranion. G.

G. cubitus. Deglutition. L. Cutaneous. intersection of two lines. L. falling off. to swallow. Cuneiform. Cytology. skinned. Dendrite. leg. + ferens. + forma. Dactyl. Cubitus. 94 . daktylos. L. bladder. Deferens. Dartos. Culmen. cuneus. carrying. L. tooth. wedge. G. skin. cell. plasma. Crus (pl. cell. G. Dens. Cuspis. G. (de + cado). Deciduous). Cyst (adj. L. Defaecation. L. defaecare. as in Roman X. L. L. elbow. G. top. away. Cupula. kytos. dendros. L. G. cystic). de. treatise. Decussation. + plasma. deglutire. kuboeides. L. G. cupula. D Dacryon. L. L. dakryon. culmen. decussatio. to cleanse. Cytoplasm. cross. bag. Defecation. point. + logos. crura). dartos. kytos. L. crux. delta. Decidua (adj. L. triangular-shaped. Cutis. deciduus. cutis. cutis. skin. tree. likeness. L. Cuticle. dens. kystis. L. cube-shaped. crus. a small cask or cup. tear. G. letter in Greek alphabet. cuspis. skin. Cuboid.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Cruciate. cutis. finger. Deltoid. G. pouch. shape. anything molded.

discus. G. + physis. through. L. G. to carve. to turn aside. Diarthrosis. Diploid. G. de. L. + opsis. G. interval. dis. G. ducere. detrudere. between. + stellein. derma. G. G. L. + gnosis. L. + temnein. down. dentitis. dia. to press. through. to push down. Dizygotic. G. ducere. knowledge. -ata). to rub away. G. to lead. + zygoo. G. Detritus. Dentition. Duct. G. G. to cut. Dolichocephalic. Disc. + phragma. skin. finger. diploë. Dorsal. Diaphysis. Ductule. digitus. G. divertere. back. L. Diaphragm. G. dia. diploos. distare. L. L. Dermatome. to send. to carry. Digestion. deterere. Dermis. apart. dia. L. derma. diploos. double. + enkephalos. to lead or draw. wall. Dermatoglyphics. dim. join together. dens. diastema. skin. cutting of teeth. tooth.Alphabetical List of Terms Dentine. twice. growth. Diastole. skin. Detrusor. Diplopia. L. + gerere. + premere. Diencephalon. long + G. Depressor. belly. fold. Diastema (pl. through. double. through. through. + glyphein. dia. Diagnosis. derma. dis. brain. L. L. G. 95 . skin. dia. Distal. + arthroun. G. Digastric. G. Diploë. disc. dis. L. Dermal. + gaster. dolichos. to fasten by a joint. to stand apart. kephale. dia. L. derma. twofold. Digit. head. vision. dorsum. Diverticulum.

within. forma. G. L. ektopos. heart. arthron. within. + mittere. G. Endocranium. G. G. endon. lympha. L. womb. from G. L. out. in. cartilage. endon. Eminence. G. hence disjointed speech. ex. 96 . embryon. + L. hard. hard. + kardia. Encephalon. + derma. endon. + ferre. + minere. G. endon. Emboliformis. Emissary. e. to bring to pass. G. e. e. en. G. + chondros. + jacere. + kranion. twelve (meaning twelve fingerbreadths). + koilos. G. skin. Efferent. brain. shape. efficere. to separate. Endolymph. wedge. Embolus. + arthron. distant. endon. out. G. outside. hollow. elastikos. G. Elastin. within. G. to send. Ectopia. Enarthrosis. fruit in the womb. + logos. L. Embryology. Endochondrial. bryein. + krinein. within. joint. + L. G. water. duodeni. Endocrine. plug. Ejaculatory. fruit in the womb. L. G. to jut. G. E Ectoderm. Dura. Endoderm. Dysarthria. to bear. Embryo. out. skin. G. anything inserted. impulsive. endon. to throw. enkephalos. embolos. embryon. Effector. within. dys. within. Encephalocele. L. head. L. + metra. strong.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Duodenum. to grow. + kephalos. ektos. dura. Endometrium. G. Encephalocoele. + derma. joint. wedge. embolos. treatise. endon. G. Endocardium. skull. en. within. within. out.

on. G. growth. G. epi. + glottis. bearing. G. + phoros. bone. G. epi. G. + eidos. Epiglottis. on. skull. nerve. Ependyma. Epigastrium. Epithalamus. within. + N. + gaster. muscle. F. + krinein. nipple. dried up. endon. Epicanthus. upon. G. Erythrocyte. within. + physis. endon. G. (excretus) ex. Epicardium. epi. + mys. span. G. Epiphysis. G. upon. G. on. within. epi. likeness. out. to generate.L. G. erect. Epineurium. epi. Endothelium. navel.Alphabetical List of Terms Endomysium. G. G. epi. on. out. to draw. L. G. ethmos. Ethmoid. Exocrine. to sift. en. G. G. + kondylos. epiploon. + oön. egg. upon. Epicranium. out. chamber. epi. out. Epicondyle. + kranion. Endosteum. eunuch. G. G. + mys. well. Exomphalos. erythros. Excretion. + omphalos. epi. leaven. L. en. G. garment. G. Epidermis. on. heart. Eversion. testicles. + thele. within. skin. ex. sieve. F. nipple. + derma. to separate. muscle. Epithelium. Enzyme. to turn. + osteon. G. epi. + thalamos. G. within. + cernere. endon. epi. epi. L. on. Erector. omentum. Epimysium. red. rim. nerve. knuckle. G. Endoneurium. epi. + gennan. + kanthos. Epididymis. Eugenics. belly. e. ex. endon. epi. on. + thele. Epispadias. + neuron. + kardia. caul. Epoöphoron. G. epi. erectus. epi. + zyme. upon. in. + vertere. upon. G. G. + endyma. + skeletos. upon. + neuron. larynx. 97 . endon. G. Endoskeleton. upon. form. + kytos. + didmoi. Epiploic. cell. epi. upon. spadon. G. on. spadias.

+ ophthalmos. Fibre. Extrinsic. ex. fibre. L. offspring. Fasciculus. + blastos. L. + vas. Facies. ex. filum. L. + skeleton. L. fibre. sickle. Fimbria. shape. a little thread. Filum. out. ex. L. Facialis. skewer. fissura (findo). Fibrocartilage. face. Fastigius. 98 . throat. L. extendo. L. facette. fibrilla. L. thin fibre. G. Fascia (pl. face. fringe. L. extrinsecus. L. to stretch. Exudate. falx. threads. + tendere. fibra. string. extend. Fenestra. outside. L. Femur. + sudare. fascis. + cartilago. Fissure. F Facet. -iae). L. Falx. L. a cleft. Exoskeleton. L. L. Faeces. femur. bundle. Fibroblast. to sweat. skeleton. falcis. F. brooch. G. thread. Fibril. fibula. Foetus. Fiber. fastigium. L. dregs. on the outside. vessel. extra. L. filamentum. L. Feces. Filament. facies. facies. gristle. fetus. eye. L. face. Fauces. falx. fascia. fenestra. + forma. Fetus. band. out. fimbriae. NL. out. bud. thigh. L. Fibula. faux. out. thread.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Exophthalmos. Extension. fibra. sickle. L. Extensor. Falciform. L. pin. L. Extravasation. window. L. fibra. ex. likeness. slope. L. fibre. faex.

shape. G. yellow. fistula. NL. flexus. fornix. folliculus. frontis. L. L. funis. a tuft of wool. pincers. fourchette. frons. stomach. Frontal. hole. bridge. leather helmet. fovea. Form. Folia. gametes. Gallus. leg. flaccidus. fusus. G Galea. galea. Gametes. Fusiform. ditch. F. L. ganglion. Gastrocnemius. Fornix. fulcrum. gaster. pipe. Flaccid. forma. L. L. funda. L. forceps. belly. a small fountain. spindle. + forma. from G. dim. something dug. Flocculus. channel. small pit. leaf. Fulcrum. forehead. Frenum. bent. floccus. fontanelle. bottom. Forceps. dim. fundus. flavus. gallus. spouse. L. folium. likeness. L. Ganglion. fork. dim. gaster. L. arch or vault. Fovea. G. shape. Fourchette. + forma. fossa. L. fraenum. Flavum. L. a small bag. shape. L. Fraenum. fraenum. L. Funicular. L. Frenulum. Fundiform. L. sling. L. L. L. L. F. cock.Alphabetical List of Terms Fistula. post. Fontanelle. brow. Flexor. L. Fossa. a swelling under the skin. NL. L. Foramen. + kneme. Follicle. G. foramen. rope. Fundus. L. 99 . weak. a little bridge. likeness. Gastrula.

Glenoid. glans. Glabella. Griseum. helm. G. pellet. + glossa. + pharynx. L. acorn. tongue. to bear. ginglymus. G. glans. L. Genioglossus. G. gemellus. Gonion. gonia. L. bud. throat. glue. Genial. L. glossa. G. glaber. with bent knee. knee. Geniohyoid. L. L. geniculatus. granulum. grain. 100 . G. Gravid. G. glossa. L. Germinative. pregnant. Genu. chin. small grain. G. G. Geniculate. Glia. tongue. geneion. L. Granulum. Glans. smooth. L. U-shaped. G. Germinal. gomphos. germen. gnathos. L. bud. gravida. Gland. acorn. glottis. thin. L. Glossopharyngeus. dim. a ball. + hyoeides. Globus. G. dim. jaw. Glossal. sphere. mouth of the windpipe. Gluteus. Glottis. glandula. griseus. genitalis (gigno). globus. dim. Gracilis. socket. L. seed. G. L. Gnathion. tongue. germ. hinge. G. G. Gestation. germen. Gubernaculum. gloutos. twin. granum. Granulation. genu. gestare. chin. geneion. gubernaculum. + eidos. L. form. Ginglymus. gloia. glene. likeness. L. bluish.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Gemellus. Glomerulus. pertaining to birth. germ. wedge-shaped nail. L. gone. G. Genital. L. rump. Gomphosis. of glomus. angle. chin. L. Gonad. gracilis. geneion.

G. L. Hyaline. liver. Haploid. L. a small thing. hamatus. Hemopoietic. G. habena. homos. stroke. humor. Hallux. head. whole. condition of the body. humerus. G. treatise. + kephale. hydor. Hemisphere. + poietikos. half. L. haima. + plege. G. G. hiatus. web. liver. L. breast. shoulder. hallux. L. hemal. sea monster. Habitus. blood. G. L.Alphabetical List of Terms Gynaecomastia. glass. Hepatic. woman. gyri). Hilum. Gyrus (pl. to excite. G. Hamulus. habitus. G. L. plain. half. Hormone. L. L. G. L. G. dim. horse. treatise. holos. hilum. L. G. + logos. G. histos. hemi. Hippocampus. hamus. hernia. globus. + L. fluid. + logos. Haemal. + mastos. ball. haplos. Hemiplegia. big toe. hippos. Hiatus. blood. hook-shaped. Hernia. a turn. hepar. Hamatum. + krinein. to separate. blood. G. haima. Gynecomastia. Histology. gyne. Hepar. G. hemi. Haemoglobin. Homology. gap. sphere. 101 . G. hepar. hormaein. Humor. hyalos. moisture. + kampos. Holocrine. Haemopoietic. gyros. Humerus. G. hook. Hydrocephalus. protrusion. Hemoglobin. + sphaira. H Habenula. haima. water. creative. strap. same.

I Icterus. jaundice. in. G. + nervus. under. hymen. + physis. G. hypo. Hypophysis. infra. to plant. + thalamos. + plantere. ikteros. U-shaped. + spina. span. Infundibulum. Hypospadias. eunuch. Ileum. under. 102 . eilein. below. inducere. Inductor. L. L. L. hypo. + glossa. under.L. ima. incus. hypo. growth. Index. Indusium. in. Hymen. Hypoglossal. index. Iliacus. Ilium. in. under. spine. inguina. Incus. chamber. L. infundibulum. in. pointer. Impression. Infraspinous. nerve. G. Incisor. unequal. G. spadias. hollow. flank. F. L. Hydrocele. Incisura. Ima. + N. to draw. to press. G. spadon. Innervation. to cut into. membrane. back of head. in. under. G. G. L. G. couch. water. axis. L. impar. cut. indusium. hydro. Impar. tunic. L. + koilos.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Hydrocoele. L. axis. + premere. anvil. incisus (incidere). See ilium. L. excite. inion. Inion. incidere. L. ileum. to lead on. hypo. hypo. Hypothalamus. centre line. Hypaxial. L. + L. G. Hyoid. Inguinal. to wind or turn. G. hyoeides. tongue. groin. L. in. a funnel. lowest. L. F. G. L. Implantation.

Jugal. yoke. sheath. L. insula. in. Ischium (pl. within. juxta. L. L. L. intestina. entrails. Iris. innermost. unnamed bone. within. inter. joint. L. to set. L. inter. J Jejunum. pertaining to the neck. in. thus placed in spaces or gaps. G. Intercalated. inter. rib. Intervertebral. Isthmus. Insula. in. in. inter. + calare. ischion. interlocked by finger-like processes. Jugular. intima. Intercostal. to plant. between. inter. to go. Insertion. + sistere. Interdigitating. L. between. G. empty (of food). or L. island. Inversion. G. + tegere. narrow connection. jugum. 103 . L. + vertere. in. intrinsecus. + L. that part of intestine that appears empty. Intestine.Alphabetical List of Terms Innominate. between. over. inserted or placed between. Intima. + nomen. to turn. L. femur. + ire. Invagination. yoke. Introitus. L. place. in. L. near. Integument. L. L. + vertebra. iris. jugularis (jugulum). Jugum. Ischiofemoral. intus. jugum. -ia). Intrinsic. inward. L. + digitus. to cover. + costa. between. between. + positio. G. Interstitial. to call. ischion. L. hip. jejunus. in. unnamed artery. L. digit. + serere. L. intro. rainbow. Juxtaposition. L. thigh. guts. hip. isthmos. in. name. L. in. + vagina. L.

Lactation. nucleus. keras. lacrima. karyon. G. lapara. Labyrinth. L. karyon. Lateral. Kinetic. Lacerate. G. Labium. Leminiscus. lamina. G. lemma. L. L. lip. + kytos. pertaining to lips. Kyphosis. G. tear. lambda. labialis (labia). L. L. band. skin. dim. superlative. section. -ae). lactare. lactare. rim. maze. Lambdoid. Lamella. Larynx. labium. kyphos. to tear. Lemma. cut. G. Karyolysis. lanugo. G. shaped like Greek letter L. L. Labrum. L. to suckle. leaf. kinesis. lake. G. Lacteals. 104 . L.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation K Karyocyte. lacus. Lacuna. nut. pond. lacerare. movement. loosening. Keratin. L. thin plate. latus. fine hair. therefore very broad. labrum. leminiskos. Laparotomy. Latissimus. upper part of windpipe. to suckle. L Labial. L. lacuna. G. L. broad. L. larynx. horn. cell. L. labyrinthos. Lamina (pl. Lacrimal. Lacus. flank. G. bent. L. pertaining to a side. of lamina. L. Lanugo. nucleus. nut. G. + lysis. lateralis (latus). + tome.

lucidus (lux). lympha. ligare. cell. L. L. Lobus. Lucidum. L. to raise. L. G. lumen. L. lordoo. + eidos. Lung. Lumbar. splen (the sp having been dropped). yellow. place. L. L. L. G. Liver. a bandage. opening. Lordosis. Ling-. moon. Leucocyte. lingula. G. long. clear. kytos. tongue. lingua. Ligature. Lingula. Limbus. lung. Leptomeninges. thin. spring water. lobos. spleen. Locus. apron for the loins. 105 . + G. Lumen. spring water. lingua. lien. border. L. to bind. L. tongue. fat. G. Lien. Lymphocyte. limbus.Alphabetical List of Terms Lens. AS. L. Longus. Lymph. leukos. L. Luteum. I bend. levare. Levator. Lunate. white. lentil. lympha. liver. longus. L. lumbricus. lien. Ligamentum. L. Lieno-. lipos. light. AS. locus. membrane. full of light. + meninx. lens. limen. lifer. L. earthworm. L. resemblance. Lumbrical. leptos. L. lumbare. L. L. lunge. Lipid. L. small tongue. Lingual. spleen from original L. G. ligamentum. luteus. threshold. + kytos. lobe. luna. cell. L. Leukocyte. Limen.

G. Malar. macula. little breast. Membrane. chewing. L. stain. G. G. Mammillary. makros. form. breast. L. Meiosis. meion. . mold. large. I chew. 106 Medulla. Macroscopic. L. + blastos. masseter. mediastinus. Macula. dim. Matrix. medianus. I see. big. G. Melanin. likeness. Maxilla. Magnus. hammer. L. + phagein. Mater. marrow. Mastoid. magnus. mammillaris (mamma. masticatio. -us). L. breast. large. L. mamma. pertaining to the middle. hilt (as of a sword). L. Meatus (pl. black. L. A. mando. marginalis (margo). L. in the middle. handle. G. L. Marginal. now bone of upper jaw. Manubrium. Malleus. Masseter. passage. hand. maxilla. Mediastinum. tight in the middle. -um. chewer. L. L. L. manus. spot. servant. Median. groundwork. Megaloblast. L. drudge. skin. Medial. -a. womb. mastos. manubrium. L. less. jaw. to eat. Manus. mala. + skopeo. bud. medialis (medius). medulla. cheek bone. Mammary. Mandible. + eidos. L. melas. malleus. L. but anatomical term mediastinum probably derived from per medium tensum. wrap or nutrient.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation M Macrophage. large. G. Mastication. L. L. G. pith. meatus. bordering. matrix (mater). megas. mater. makros. -ae). membrana.

G. portion. cessation. chamber. Meningocoele. meta. G. + thele. + chymos. kidney. dim. + nephros. signifying change. Metaphysis. after. stomach. chin. cresent. middle. G. middle. G. G. tube. G. juice. + L. meta. + nephros. mesos. Metanephros. G. + en. G. mesos. meninges). form. + kolon. nipple. G. mentum. growth.Alphabetical List of Terms Meninges. Mesentery. in. Meninx (pl. Menstruation. Menopause. middle. meta. meninx. meros. G. Mesenchyme. Metamorphosis. + kephale. + physis. skin. G. membrane. mesos. G. meta. menstruus. + koilos. G. Mesogastrium. meninx. + L. mesos. 107 . after. + enteron. + derma. G. of mene. + phasis. head. Mesovarium. middle. ovarium. + krinein. men. mesos. L. G. middle. mesos. G. L. meta. kidney. membrane. meta. membrane. Metabolic. Mesonephros. moon. + pausis. G. hence middle lining layer. Metaphase. Mental. after. ankle. after. + salpinx. after. menis. mesos. appearance. pertaining to a month. mesos. Metacarpus. gut. + plasma. hollow. ovary. G. carpus. Meniscus. G. in. tarsus. Metaplasia. L. meta. Mesencephalon. Mesothelium. Metathalamus. after. month. Mesocolon. after. middle. Mesoderm. + en. G. G. G. + L. mesos. change. wrist. men. G. great gut. Mesosalpinx. G. Meningocele. month. to separate. after + morphe. formed. meninx. Merocrine. molded. + gaster. + thalamus. middle. mesos. meta. middle. middle. half-moon. Metatarsus. G. metabole. midway between.

G. Mylohyoid. G. + skopeo. small. G. Mono-. minimus. least. + chondrion. + parire. form. Mitochondria. morus. small. to smell.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Metencephalon. mitra. + kephale. + logos. U-shaped. brain. Mons. G. Mitosis. G. mikros. G. mucus. L. Myelencephalon. mitos. mys. thread. G. slippery secretion. L. muscle. G. L. + hyoeides. Microcephaly. mikros. G. monos. mulberry. small. myle. L. Myocardium. glue. metopon. heart. tooth. + enkephalos. small. G. marrow. Mitral. mountain. mikros. small. + kardia. morphos. body. G. + gloia. Mydriasis. much divided. molaris (mola). G. mikros. little mouse. Microsmatic. L. Muscle. after. morphe. + kytos. mikros. + odous. snivel. gut. cutting. Myelin. L. + soma. mikros. monos. Molar. Morula. Mucus. Multiparous. treatise. I look. alone. musculus. + enkephalos. Microtome. cell. mitos. mydriasis. Microsome. G. mikros. mys. modiolus. muscle. small. Myenteric. + osmaomai. L. Multifidus. Morphology. Metopic. Monocyte. single. dilation of pupil. to give birth. multus. mill. G. myelos. L. muxa. G. Microscope. forehead. turban. G. many. Microglia. Minimus. L. + enteron. G. L. shape. G. hub. Microdont. myelos. multifidus. 108 Modiolus. thread. mons. pertaining to a millstone. meta. grain. marrow. small. myos. Morph-. G. G. G. but Hebrew priest headress the only head covering that the mitral valve resembles. + tome. brain. head. . G.

hence. + pilos. L. nekros. naris. G. sheath. tendon. Necrosis. pain. gut. husk. G. Neuroblast. neuron. felt. myxa. + ektome. neos. nerve. Nomina Anatomica. equivalent of L. myos. G. 109 . Myotome. corpse. excision. neuron. a cutting. neuron. neuron. neuron. bud. Navel. neuron. Neuropil. G. Myxedema. Navicular. nervus. nerve. G. Nasion. G. + algos. G. treatise. centre of hub of wheel. nates. neuron. nerve. + poros.Alphabetical List of Terms Myology. Neurenteric. + pallium. L. muscle. L. new. G. Necropsy. G. G. to wink. muscle. + opsis. + axon. navicula. hole. L. mucus. nerve. Neuroglia. swelling. L. Neuroectomy. N N. nervus. neuron. sinew. + enteron. tendon. glue. Myxoedema. treatise. nostril. + gloia. neuron. + lemma. Naris (pl. cordlike structure. nerve. Nates. G. cordlike structure. mys. + logos. Neurology. G. nose.A. G. nerve. mys. Nictitans. nafe. sight. + logos. nerve. Neural. Neuron. Neuralgia. nerve. nerve. a killing. nerve. buttocks. G. G. G. small boat. Neo-. + oidema. G. neuron. nerve. Neuropore. neuron. G. nerve. neuron. Neurilemma. L. G. axis. neos. -es). nasus. new. Neuraxon. G. + tome. nictare. AS. + blastos. Neopallium. cloak. nekrosis. neuron. Nerve. nerve.

Oedema. Nictitating. Nucleolus. I stop up. G. cord. oidema. noton. elbow. ob. nut. odous. back. rule. Occipital. + facere. Estrus. norma. olere. stinging insect. L. bud. to make. oculus. G. short sleep (during which rhythmic head movements occur). back of head. L. L. to smell. Nystagmus. niger. likeness. + chorde. L. + claudo. G. swelling. modern use. nape of neck. 110 . L. Occlusion. obelos. before. + motor. Olecranon. G. Obturator. G. Oestrus. nucleus. Olfactory. oistros. + phagein. eye. Nuchal. L. L. Nucha. slanting. shape. black. nucha. rhythmic eye movements. oisein (phero). norma. O Obelion. nodus. occipitium. L. nucha. Odontoblast. Oesophagus. G. L. stung into activity at time of heat. Odontoid. Edema. square used by carpenters. knot. New derivation “small nucleus. L. to eat. L. nucleus. head. mover. G. + kranion. rule. Obliquus. + blastos. Nucleus. + eidos. L. Normoblast. tooth. pointed pillar. Node. hence standard viewpoint. obturo. L. Oculomotor. G. Esophagus. obliquus. nictare. Notochord. to carry. Norma. bud.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Nigra. odous. I close. tooth. + blastos. to wink. nystagma. nut. nape of neck. olene.” L. G. L.

mouth. Opposition. os. G. orificium. U-shaped. ophthalmos.Alphabetical List of Terms Oligodendroglia. Organ. hyoeides. Osteocyte. L. G. + kytos. Orifice. egg. Operculum. + lithos. Orbit. os (pl. + G. (compare L. bone. + logos. bone. onta. shoulder. G. ossa). Omohyoid. osteon. eye. door. + gonos. + gennan. adipose membrane enclosing the bowels. + gloia. placed. + genesis. L. osteon. G. belonging to the ear. os. G. G. bone. bone. Oogenesis. in the way of. + dendron. posterior. below). hollow body. G. Oral. L. opisthios. L. oligos. G. treatise. osteon. Osteomalacia. G. osteon. Oogonium. G. ossiculum. + serra. bone. glue. bone. to beget. oon. omos. Os. edge. otos. small bone. Osteology. organum. L. + kylos. orbis. stone. + facere. anything circular. os. birth. Ostium. Osteone. G. few. things that exist. opsis. egg. otikos. egg. oris. cell. thus muscle passing from shoulder to U-shaped hyoid bone. . bone. ob. G. to make. L. ora. + malakia. L. softness. offspring. os. ostium. Optic. implement. bone. omentum. + lysis. G. Osteolysis. Oocyte. saw. Opisthion. G. corner or lid. Ossicle. melting. Otolith. Osseous. L. oon. L. L. Otic. ear. 111 Ontogeny. G. ous. bone. L. L. opening. Ossification. osteon. oon. tree. + positus. L. G. Omentum. operculum. Ora serrata. sight. Ophthalmic.

hence alongside the testes. + doxa. palpebra. L. + kreas. P Pachymeninges. all. ovum. floccus. alongside of. L. pallidus. membrane. swift. para. making acid. egg. L. para. palma. Pallium. G. alongside of. ovum. Papilledema. egg. nipple. para.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Ovary. + ductus. + tokos. G. Papilla. full of or wrapped around with vine leaves. G. + didymos. the (open) hand. ovum. G. L. papilla. nipple of breast. double. tube. pallium. swelling. L. Paresthesis. Palate. L. + meninx. pampineus. palate. Paradidymis. oxys. G. flesh. G. Panniculus. egg. Oxytocin. alongside of. duct. Ovum (pl. L. L. papilla. giving birth by laying eggs. Paradox. panniculus. para. likeness. pale. egg. + forma. Oviparous. Papilloedema. hence covering of deeper tissues. pan. para. L. Pallidus. birth. L. Pampiniform. ova). flock of wool. sensation. small piece of cloth. Palpebra. + kentesis. eyelid. + L. oxyntos. palatum. L. Paraesthesia. ovum. pachys. cloak. + parus. G. Pancreas. Oxyntic. puncture. alongside of. 112 . + oedema. alongside of. belief. Paracentesis. L. Palma. G. thick. + aisthesis. Oviduct. G. Paraflocculus. L.

+ plesso. para. G. + ganglion. ear. Pathology. L. G. Patella. pario. G. pelvis. pathos. womb. Parasternal. L. G. axis. paresis. along. penis. paries. Parenchyma. near. G. Paresis. L. sympathetic. + L. pectoralis (pectus). + metra. para. a little foot. G. + mesos. G. Parametrium. Paramedian. patulus. + oon. + lucere. Parietal. + sympathetikos. axle. belonging to the breast. through. + lyein. Parathyroid. Paralysis. Paraxial. foot. alongside of. L. + sternon. Pecten. egg. pecten. alongside of. part. alongside of. para. + ous. near. Parous. alongside of. wall. L. alongside of. para. Paraplegia. Paroophoron. to shine. Parotid. parenchyma. beside. para. to bear. pediculus. form. G. G. middle. L. L. para. chest. G. + thyreos. treatise. Pectoral. Penis. Pedicle. Pedunculus. birth. para. para. para. basin. Parasympathetic. to loosen. alongside of. relaxation. wall. knot. L. G. alongside of. parthos. L. Parthenogenesis. + logos. patella. I strike. L. L. + pherein. paries. pes. standing open. virgin. G. likeness. L.Alphabetical List of Terms Paraganglion. Patulous. G. comb. G. Pellucida. small pan. para. L. G. alongside of. pars. to bear. + eidos. disease. para. otos. per. Parieties. Pelvic. + genesis. oblong shield. tail. Pars. 113 . pouring out into the adjacent.

peri. G. light. around. striking. feather. around. pharynx. to display. 114 Phallic. G. petrosus. originally denoted whole set of bones of a digit not just one bone. cartilage. phallikos. + odous. phos. Phrenic. peri. percussio. phagein. G. Petrosal. + recipio. G. love potion. cell. G. + kardia. Periodontal. Petrous. rocky. = L. + kytos. G. pepsis. G. phalanx. pertaining to the penis. G. Pes. Perimysium. philtron. anything that awakens love. peri. lympha. phallos. Percussion. tooth. peri. digestion. Phenotype. likeness. hence pertaining to needle-shaped leg bone. G. L. G. Phallus. G. Periosteum.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Penniform. band of soldiers. + mys. + L. throat. peri. + osteon. bone. Pharynx. G. Pepsinogen. clasping and compressing. phone. diaphragm. G. I receive. L. type. phainein. + gennao. + forma. to stretch. around. penna. Phalanges. pepsis. Pericardial. peri. G. G. G. Peristalsis. petrosus. Perilymph. pes. Phagocyte. Pepsin. L. Peroneal. G. + chondros. Perichondrium. G. penis was a later meaning. singular phalanx. . G. rocky. heart. perone. perineum. pin. Philtrum. peri. L. peristaltikos. around. to eat. Phonation. foot. digestion. around. G. fluid. + teinein. L. muscle. phallus. G. around. phren. Peritoneum. form. fibula. + typos. around. I produce. G. Perineum. voice. Photoreceptor. perinaion.

platys. as previous for thigh. forms. knee. G. planta. more (or many) + G. Plantigrade. L. hence condition of side-to-side flattening of tibia giving prominence to it’s anterior border. Plica. plate. Platycnemia. L. phlegm. L. pius. Platymeria. foot. natural. Pleura. flat. Plasma. Pod. Planta. Platelet. -ae). Pneumatic. shape. 115 Placenta. hence an outgrowth. L. hair. G. platysma. plasma. podos. + kneme. Platycephaly. feather. platys. slime. flat. anything flat. planta. . i. pneumatikos. Pia. head. a flat cake. Pituitary. plicare. to walk. L. delicate. hence. pleura. Plexus (pl. G. + kephale. G. + gradior. braid. Platysma. G. + forma. side of foot. G. wing. OF. G. rib. G. pea. L. pirum. Pineal. penna. -us). something formed. pine cone. pleon. L. plaiting. sole of the foot. pituita. L. shape. pous. pear. G. to fold. to generate. L. pinea. L. pertaining to breath. Pilus. related to the ribs. G. L. Pisiform. likeness. plax.Alphabetical List of Terms Physic. Piriform. + meros. pisum.e. Placode. + forma. flat. plexus. pilus. plate. at one time believed to secrete a mucous material from the brain into the nose. physikos. morphos. G. L. phyein. Pinna (pl. thigh. placenta. pinna. Pleomorphic. G. plate. platys. Physis.

nucleus. Profundus. pro. anus. Progesterone. polys. L. porta (pl. thumb. G. L. G. Pronephros. many. + nephros. Praecordium. Promontory. gate. L. G. praeputium. pre. before. Prochordal. Pore. L. Pregnancy. procerus. L. going forwards. pons. extended. special. deep. porus. foreskin. sight. L. pertaining to a way. pronare. pronus. poros. tall. + kytos. L. Progeria. Porus. part. pro. Pronograde. Premolar. Prophase. L. G. + cordis. porta (pl. prae. to be born. G. cord. L. + hodaios. promontorium. in front of. form. in front of. 116 . pro. passage. bridge. + molaris. + L. Polymorphonuclear. bent downward. G. ham. before. before. + gnascor. -ae). + morphe. proktos. L. portio. + gerere. hence mixed term. + opsis. + capere. Popliteus. before. jaw. Portal. Pollex. G. L. L. passage. + chorde. before. in front of. pro. G. mountain ridge. primordium. presbys. Precordium. to bear. molar. G. Proprioceptor. L. L. L. cell. Processus. + gradus step. Prognathism. Prepuce. processus. + phainein. profundus. G. pro. old age. prae. Pronator. pollex. L. poples. proprius. L. kidney. Proctodeum. G. Portio. of the heart. Presbyopia. + gnathos.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Poikilocyte. + geras. pro. -ae). Porta. nut. old man. to show. Procerus. G. Pons. in front. pontis. diversified. to turn face downward. poikilos. Primordial. to take. gate. beginning. L.

pyknos. protos. G. pteryx. pupa. Puberty. pubes. pubes. wing. Pubes. Pterygoid. trough. tub.Alphabetical List of Terms Proptosis. protubero. Pupil. 117 . pyelos. + enkephalos. pylouros. L. + graphein. Pulmonary. first. L. Proto-. Putamen. pulvinar. loin. Pubis (pl. Protuberance. G. G. form. likeness. Pyelograph. pro. L. L. mature. Pyknic. G. L. pyramis. trough. G. mature. to be ashamed. L. -es). Pyknosis. L. before. compact. gate-keeper. lung. mark. pro. G. secare. Pyriform. before. G. punctum. brain. prosthen. point. G. shell. Prosector. G. L. Psoas. pubes. before. + plasma. pear. Protoplasm. pulpa. G. pyknos. putamen. falling. lung. cushioned couch. L. pudere. pulmo. L. pro. Pyramid. + ptosis. L. + eidos. to cut. G. Pylorus. G. before. shape. proximus. L. Proximal. Pulvinar. next. L. Pulmones. Ptosis. Pulpa. shape. G. Prostate. I swell. G. psoa. girl. + gramma. soft part of animal body. in front. Punctum. fall. + stare. pyramid. pulmo. pro. + L. Pyelogram. protos. + forma. compact. G. to draw. pyelos. mature. first. L. Prosthion. ptosis. tub. Pudendal. Prosencephalon. husk. to stand. pirum. L.

rhis. cell. Retraction. + forma. Retractor. retreat. Retina. back. root. Raphe. L. L. L. quadruplaris. G. shape. Renal. fourfold. L. squared. + trahere. rod. reflecto. to draw back. rhis. Quadratus. re. network. quattuor four + L. L. retinaculum. L. L. Restiform. Quadrigeminus. Reflect. 118 . L. kidneys. to make. Recess. + caput. L. clustering. angulus. receive. Retinaculum. rectus. four-fold. L. raphe. L. net. reticulum. renes. Receptor. root. L. ramus. Reticulum. Rhinencephalon. branch. restis. nose. seam. Ramify. L. nose. band. to turn back. four. quadratus. L. radius. Radicle. R Racemose. straight. radix. L. recipere. quattuor. radius. quadrigeminus. Radius. Quadruplets. rod. Reticulocyte. rete. L. Rectum. spoke. brain. L. L. little net. + enkephalos. rete. L. radix. four angles. L. G. branch. little net. spoke. Quadriceps. rope. to draw. Ramus. recessus. Rhinal. reticulum. racemosus. rectus. L. ramus. + facere. L. + kytos. retrahere. L. to take back.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Q Quadrangular. L. Radix. Rete. form. four. G. L. Radial. head.

skleros. sagitta. Risorius. laughter. L. sacculus. sartor. G. saccus. G. curvature. saphenes. shape. skalenos. Rima. L. Ruga (pl. scalprum. rhomboid. L. G. L. flesh. S Sac. cleft. 119 . skleros. sarx. L. arrow. + enkephalos. + lemma. + eidos. risus. shoulder-blades. Rhombencephalon. ruga. scala. Scoliosis. trumpet. G. hard. nostril. to whirl about. L. likeness. beak. shape of saggital suture including the lambdoid suture. skoliosis. Sagittal. Scaphoid. G. G. an aldopentose. sacred. ischion. Salivary. uneven. Saphenous. Scala. skin. G. Scalpel. + soma. Sclera. Scapula. sacer. tailor. salpinx. brain. rostrum. Scalp. boat. a little bag. staircase. body. G. L. -ae). saliva. Sciatic. L. A. wrinkle. Salpinx. rima. L. hard. husk. Sarcolemma. Sartorius. Sacculus. hidden (later G. knife. skalp. rhinion. visible). shell. Scalene. al-safin. rotare. G. L. Ribosome. scapulae. hip joint. G. L. skaphe. L. Teutonic. Sclerotic. ribose.Alphabetical List of Terms Rhinion. L. Rostrum (pl. Rotator. saliva. -a). L. Sacrum. rhombos. G. sack.

120 . likeness. G. + eidos. half. semi. sigma. G. G. Greek letter. + kytos. body. Skeleton. whey. skin. L. or seed. L. shape. likeness. shape. sandal. sialon. + luna. sebum. G. -us). position. L. L. saw. G. Sialogram. skeletos. Turkish. curve. G. Soma. seed. body. L. sole. site. soma. body. L. sinus. saliva. L. Soleus. shape. solea. Sigmoid. membrane. G. Spermatocyte. + eidos. + eidos. smegma. cell.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Scrotum. sebum. somata). Sinister. curve. soap. Somite. Serratus. sinus. + gramma. + pleura. Smegma. sperma. + suffix -ite. tendon. situs. L. L. L. sperma. sperma. G. Seminiferous. side. inverted. Somatic. soma (pl. L. sesamen. semen. likeness. cavity. tallow. G. scrotum. half. seed. Sella turcica. indicating origin. semi. saddle. G. seed. L. Spermatogenesis. half. serum. + tendinosus. Semilunar. seed. soma. mark. Somatopleure. fence. of the viscera. + viscerum. L. sesame plant. + turcica. Sinus (pl. moon. cavity. + inversus. Sebum. sinister. Semen. grease. Sebaceous. + membranosus. sella. Sperm. body. left side or unlucky. Semitendinosus. G. L. saeptum. tallow. dried. L. bosom. L. Sinusoid. semen. Sesamoid. soma. + genesis. origin. Semimembranosus. semi. to bear. seed. Septum. serra. + ferre. L. Situs inversus viscerum. G. Serum.

121 . + odaios. G. spongia. L. L. Spina. chest. Stomach. sub. Sulcus. Spongioblast. sub. Subcostal. bud. Stomodeum. sternon. viscus. under. pertaining to a way. Submandibular. L. L. + costa. rib. stomachos. Stroma. viscera.Alphabetical List of Terms Spermatogonium. Strabismus. + logos. + blastos. G. splanknon. + eidos. stenosis. L. strata). sperma. Striatum. G. gullet. Styloid. sphen. spina. squinting. shape. sponge. seed. Stapes. G. under. Stratum (pl. sulcus. squama. L. L. mouth. stroma. grooved. Splanchnic. stylos. G. super. Squamo-. L. + eidos. G. + zoon. Sphincter. G. sphingein. likeness. eyelid. Sphenoid. G. strength. Superciliary. L. splanchna. + lingua. + gone. streaked. sponge. narrowing. spleen. stirrup. thorn. germ. splen. seed. layer. Splanchnology. Sternum. G. -a). oesophagus. Stenosis. furrow. sthenos. stratum. sub. wedge. spongia. Substantia. furrow. stria. Stomatodeum. tongue. treatise. + cilium. jaw. G. G. Stria. G. pillar. under. L. substantia. Sthenic. + mandibula. Spleen. blanket. to bind tight. strabismos. G. G. likeness. stapes. L. animal. generation. Spongiosum. Sublingual. scale. substance. stoma. L. G. G. sperma. striatus. L. above. Spermatozoon (pl.

122 . T Tabular. syn. talipedo. Talipes. table. eidos. contraction. L. lying on the back. together. + ergon. + osteon. together. Taenia. ankle-bone. band. G. tectum (tego). above. Sustentaculum. syn. cartilage. L. from G. + cytos. together. together. G. to bend backward. syn. Synostosis. L. G. cell. L. supinus.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Supination. work. roof. band. together. Synarthrosis. + ergon. Syndesmosis. Surgery. Syndrome. to fasten. tapete. syn. tapestry. + desmosis. together. cheir. + pathein. + physis. Sural. form. + chondros. Supinator. clubfoot). bone. Suture. joint. Supraspinatus. + arthron. G. together. Systole. L. growth. syn. rib. L. talus. Synapse. Tenia. L. weak in the feet (talipes. sura. board. syn. work. + ovum. Synergy. sewing together. Sympathetic. talus. syn. + costa. sole of the foot. L. together. taenia. Talonid. carpet. syn. L. L. egg. tabula. support. chirurgia. supinare. syn. thorn. Tapetum. occurrence. syn. Tarsus. + haptein. L. supra. + G. G. G. likeness. G. ribbon. L. hand. G. Talus. Supracostal. seam. sutura. G. sustentaculum. L. tarsos. Tectum. L. G. G. together. syndrome. Symphysis. G. Syncytium. above. to suffer. systole. Synovia. calf of leg. together. supra. Synchrondosis. L. G. + spina. ankle bone.

thrombos. Terminalis. tegumentum. Thymus. G. windpipe. thymos. L. + phasis. web. tendere. belonging to time. + eidos. G. far. L. L. Teres. tetanus. tendere. tela. Tentorium. L. Testis. covering. Telencephalon. tent. Temporal. theca. G. Trabecula (pl. L. thrombus. G. testis. G. G. thorax. L. L. terminare. Tome. tennein. Trachea. Theca. distant. I consider. stiffness. the temples. Tegmentum. tegmen. thyreos. theoreo. tractus. G. + enkephalos. Tensor. cell. envelope. Tendon. Tela. Temporal. lump. Tibia. tibia. tonsilla. Thorax (pl. end. L. Tonsil. mooring post. G. hand. Temporalis. temporalis. rub. tero. thalamos. a witness. Thrombocyte. Tetany. L.Alphabetical List of Terms Tegmen. breast. -ae). tracheia. Thrombus. I grind. testiculus. form. L. shield. Thenar. to stretch. telos. chamber. tele. tempora. Tract. wool drawn out for spinning. G. to cut. to limit. + kytos. Thalamus. sheath. a little beam. L. thoraces). time. long flute. L. Theory. thenar. brain. L. L. 123 . G. contemplate. Telophase. Thyroid. breast-plate. to stretch. thyme. tempus. testicle. L. G. L. L. L. testis. G. Testicle. lump. covering. G. tentorium. trabecula. stage.

urine. L. G. point. Urethra. 460 B. ouethra. L. furnished with a hook. tuberculum. urine. claw. Trochlea. Unipennate. hook. L. ouron.Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Tragus. + forma. elbow. + penna. tres. head. G. G. three. G. triangle. nail. L. urine. tympanum. + tereo. + blastos. uncus. Triquetrum. triquetrus. tres. unguis. genitalis. L. undergarment. Ureter. Urine. Tricuspid. L. Uncinate. a small hump. Trochanter. genital. G. 124 . G. G. unus. round smooth swelling. + caput. truncus. Trophoblast. three. trophe. L. one. trochos. Urachus. Uncus. L. trunk of tree. + cuspis. word invented by Hippocrates (c. Trigone. L. shape. Urea. Urogenital. Truncus. from small tuft of hair (goat’s beard) in this region. ouron. pulley. L. G. ulna. born three together. L. bud. G. Tympanic. trigeminus. Ungual. urine. wheel. goat. ouron. Unciform. Triceps. tuber. L. trapezion. Umbilicus. tunica. ouron. uncinatus. G. U Ulna. G. L. trochilia. uncus. trigonum. to preserve. Tunica. I pour. hook. three-cornered. L. pulley. + L. Tuberculum.). L. nourishment. L. drum. feather. L. small four-sided table. navel. Trapezius. ouron. urine. Trigeminus. Tuberosity. triangular. umbilicus. tragos. + cheo.C.

Vestibulum. vagus. small skin or leather bottle. venter. valva. Vesica. Vallecula. Vertebra. fossa. Ventricle. varus. L. worm. vermis. Uvea. shape. walled. worm. V Vagina. Valvula. vesicula. Vallate. Vermis. L. Vernix. L. venter. vertex. L. vagina. L. belly. uva. vermis. Vermiform. vein. Vagus. L. of vallus. L. G. Utriculus. L. uterus. oura. Valgus. dim. knock-kneed (term has become transposed. + forma. vesica. L. womb. Velum. little cavity. L. ventriculus. small vessel. uva. Vein. Ventral. L. L. Uterus. veil. a small bladder. wandering. L. vestibulum. sheath. L. rampart. L. + stylos. pillar. L. L. L. bow-legged (Genu valgus now means knock-kneed). L. L. Vesicle. Venter. L. vas. a little fold. see Valgus). Varus. L. valvula. entrance court. grape. utriculus. L. shedding of snake skin. Vas. Vascular. whirlpool. vernatio. L. Vertex. grape. 125 . vertebra. L. belly. vasculum. bladder. valve. valgus. L. L. vena.Alphabetical List of Terms Urostyle. Uvula. velum. loculus. vallum. Valve. tail. leaf of door. vessel. whirl. joint.

Anatomical Terms and their Derivation Vestige. bowels. footprint. 10 A. sword. of zona. Vitellus. vestigium. L. Zygote.). + apophysis. L. vivus. cover. G. belt. Vitreus. whirlpool. Viviparous. hence. volvulus. L. zygoma. villus. zona. L. yoke. Vorticosae. whirl. vitellus. L. + eidos. Zygoma.D. L. G. Vulva. Volar. Vincula. L. G. vinculum. likeness. zygon. L. to beget. + dermos. shape. xiphos. entrails. L. Visceral. L. of glass. yolk of egg. to yoke together. transparent. G. vola. girdle. vomer. hair. yoke. living. xanthos. Zonula. zygoma. palm of hand. 126 . ploughshare. viscus. Villus (pl. zygoein. dim. viscera. vitellus. girdle. volva. Zygomatic. villi). L. vitreous. twisted. little calf (became transferred to yolk of egg by Celsus c. L. vitreus. L. internal organ. yoke. Vitelline. process of a bone. Xiphoid. G. band. skin. Zygapophysis. X Xanthoderm. L. Vomer. belt. L. trace. Z Zona. yellow. L. cord. + parere. vertex. Volvulus. Viscus. G.

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