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258725 Mechanical Terminologies

258725 Mechanical Terminologies

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Published by: asdfghjklove on Oct 10, 2011
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  • Abrasion
  • Abrasive
  • Accordion Reed Steel
  • Acid Steel
  • Acid-Brittleness
  • Acid-Process
  • Activation
  • Age Hardening
  • Aging
  • Air Cooling
  • Air-Hardening Steel
  • AISI Steels
  • Alclad
  • Allotriomorph
  • Allotropy
  • Alloy
  • Alloy Steel
  • Alloying Element
  • Alpha Brass
  • Alpha Bronze
  • Alpha Iron
  • Aluminizing
  • Aluminum (Chemical symbol Al)
  • Aluminum Killed Steel
  • Angstrom Unit
  • Anisotropy
  • Annealing
  • Annealing Twin
  • Anodizing (Aluminum Adic Oxide Coating),
  • Arc Welding
  • Artifact
  • Artificial Aging
  • ASTM
  • Atomic-Hydrogen Weld,
  • Attenuation
  • Ausenitic Grain Size
  • Austempering
  • Austenite
  • Austenitic Steel
  • Austenitizing
  • Austentite
  • Autofrettage
  • Autoradiograph
  • Bainite
  • Bamboo Grain Structure
  • Band Saw Steel (Wood)
  • Banded Structure
  • Banding
  • Bark
  • Basic Oxygen Process
  • Basic Steel
  • Bath Annealing
  • Bauxite
  • Beading
  • Bearing Load
  • Bearing Strength
  • Bend Radius
  • Bend Test
  • Beryllium Copper
  • Bloom
  • Bloomery
  • Blooming-Mill
  • Blowhole
  • Blue Annealing
  • Blue Brittleness
  • Bluing
  • Body-Centered
  • Bonderizing
  • Boron ( chemical symbol B)
  • Bottle Top Mold
  • Box Annealing
  • Brake
  • Brale
  • Brasses
  • Braze Welding
  • Brazing
  • Break Test (for tempered steel)
  • Bridling
  • Bright Annealed Wire
  • Bright Annealing
  • Bright Basic Wire
  • Bright Bessemer Wire
  • Bright Dip
  • Brinell Hardness Test
  • Brittle Fracture
  • Brittleness
  • Broaching
  • Bronze
  • Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S)
  • Buckle
  • Buffer
  • Burning
  • Burnishing
  • Burnt
  • Burr
  • Butcher Saw Steel
  • Butt Welding
  • Cake
  • Camber
  • Camber or Bow
  • Camera Shutter Steel
  • Canning
  • Capped Steel
  • Carbide
  • Carbon
  • Carbon Equivalent
  • Carbon Free
  • Carbon Potential
  • Carbon Range
  • Carbon Restoration
  • Carbon Steel
  • Carbonitriding
  • Carbonitriding
  • Carburizing
  • Carburizing (Cementation)
  • Cartridge Brass
  • Case
  • Case Hardening
  • Cast
  • Cast Iron
  • Cast Steel
  • Casting
  • Cavitation
  • Cavitation Damage
  • Cementation
  • Cementite
  • Centrifugal Casting
  • Ceramic Tools
  • Chafery
  • Chamfer
  • Charcoal Tin Plate
  • Charpy Test
  • Chatter Marks
  • Chemical Milling
  • Chipping
  • Chromadizing (Chromodizing, Chromatizing)
  • Chromium
  • Chromium-Nickel Steel
  • Chromizing
  • Cigarette Knife Steel
  • Clad Metal
  • Cladding
  • Cleavage
  • Cleavage Plane
  • Cluster Mill
  • Cobalt
  • Coil Breaks
  • Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl
  • Coil Weld
  • Coils
  • Coining
  • Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate)
  • Cold Reduced Strip
  • Cold Reduction
  • Cold Rolled Finish
  • Cold Rolling
  • Cold Short
  • Cold Shut
  • Cold Work
  • Cold Working
  • Columbium
  • Columnar Structure
  • Commercial Bronze
  • Commercial Quality Steel Sheet
  • Compressive Strength
  • Constitute
  • Constitutional Diagram
  • Continuous Casting
  • Continuous Furnace
  • Continuous Phase
  • Continuous Pickling
  • Continuous Strip Mill
  • Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces
  • Controlled Rolling
  • Converter
  • Cooling Stresses
  • Copper
  • Coring
  • Corrosion
  • Corrosion Embrittlement
  • Corrosion Fatigue
  • Corrugated
  • Covered Electrode
  • Creep
  • Creep Limit
  • Creep Strength
  • Crevice Erosion
  • Critical Cooling Rate
  • Critical Point
  • Critical Points
  • Critical Range
  • Critical Strain
  • Critical Temperature
  • Crop
  • Cross Rolling
  • Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal)
  • Crown
  • Crown or Heavy Center
  • Crucible
  • Crucible Steel
  • Crystal
  • Crystalline
  • Crystalline Fracture
  • Crystallization
  • Cube-Centered
  • Cup Fracture
  • Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture)
  • Cutting Speed
  • Cyaniding
  • DC (Direct Chill) Casting
  • Dead Flat
  • Dead Soft Annealing
  • Dead Soft Steel
  • Dead Soft Temper
  • Deburring
  • Decarburization
  • Decoration (of dislocations)
  • Deep Drawing
  • Deformative Bands
  • Degassing Process (In steel making)
  • Delta Iron
  • Dendrite
  • Dendritic Segregation
  • Deoxidation
  • Deoxidizing
  • Die Sinking
  • Die-Lines
  • Diffusion
  • Dilatometer
  • Dish
  • Dislocation
  • Doctor Blade Steel Strip
  • Drawing
  • Drawing Back
  • Drill Rod
  • Drop Forging
  • Drop Hammer
  • Dry Rolled Finish
  • Ductile Crack Propagation
  • Ductility
  • Duralumin
  • Duralumin (obsolete)
  • Earing
  • Eddy-Current Testing
  • Edge Filing
  • Edge Strain or Edge Breaks
  • Edges
  • Edging
  • Elastic Limit
  • Elastic Strain
  • Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening)
  • Electric Furnace Steel
  • Electro-Galvanizing
  • Electrolytic Tin Plate
  • Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer
  • Electroplating
  • Electropolishing
  • Elongation
  • Elongation After Fracture
  • Embossing
  • Endurance Limit
  • Epitaxy
  • Eqilibrium Diagram
  • Equiaxed Structure
  • Erichsen Test
  • Etchant
  • Etching
  • Eutectoid
  • Eutectoid Steel
  • Exfoliation
  • Expander Steel
  • Extensometer
  • Extensometer Test
  • Extra Hard Temper
  • Extra Spring Temper
  • Extrusion
  • Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices)
  • Fatigue
  • Fatigue Life
  • Fatigue Limit
  • Fatigue Strength
  • Ferrite
  • Ferrite Banding
  • Ferrite-pearlite Banding
  • Ferritic Grain Size
  • Ferro-Manganese
  • Ferrous
  • Fiber
  • Fiber or Fibre
  • Fiber Stress
  • Fibrous Fracture
  • Filed Edges
  • Filler Metal
  • Finery
  • Finished Steel
  • Finishing Temperature
  • Fish eyes
  • Flakes
  • Flame Annealing
  • Flame Hardening
  • Flapper Valve Steel
  • Flare Test
  • Flash
  • Flat Latch Needle Steel
  • Flat Wire
  • Flow Stress
  • Flowlines
  • Fluting
  • Flux
  • Foil
  • Folds
  • Forge Welding
  • Forging
  • Fractography
  • Fracture
  • Fracture Test
  • Fragmentation
  • Free Machining
  • Fretting (Fretting Corrosion)
  • Friction Gouges or Scratches
  • Full Annealing
  • Full Finish Plate
  • Full Hard Temper
  • Fusion Welding
  • Half Hard Temper
  • Hammer Forging
  • Hard Chromium
  • Hard Drawing
  • Hard Drawn
  • Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire
  • Hard Temper
  • Hardenability
  • Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip
  • Hardening
  • Hardness
  • Hardness (indentation)
  • Heat of Steel
  • Heat Tinting
  • Heat Treatment
  • Heat-Affected Zone
  • Hematite
  • High Brass
  • Homogenizing
  • Homogenizing Annealing
  • Honing
  • Hooke's Law
  • Hot Dip
  • Hot Short
  • Hot Shortness
  • Hot Top
  • Hot Working
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement
  • Hypereutectoid Alloy
  • Hypereutectoid Steel
  • Hypoeutectic Alloy
  • Hypoeutectoid Steel
  • Idiomorph
  • Immersed Scanning
  • Impact Energy (Impact Value)
  • Impact Test
  • Impurities
  • Inclusion
  • Inclusions
  • Indentation Hardness
  • Induction Hardening
  • Induction Heating
  • Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding
  • Ingot
  • Ingot Iron
  • Inhibitor
  • Intercrystalline
  • Interleaving
  • Intermediate Annealing
  • Internal Oxidation
  • Interrupted Aging
  • Interrupted Quenching
  • Interstitial Solid Solution
  • Intracrystalline
  • Investment Casting
  • Irom
  • Iron
  • Ironing
  • Isothermal Annealing
  • Isothermal Transformation
  • Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram
  • Izod Test
  • Killed Steel
  • Kind Band (deformation)
  • Kip
  • Ladle Analysis
  • Lamellar Tear
  • Lamination
  • Laminations
  • Lap
  • Lap-Weld
  • Lath Martensite
  • Lattice
  • Leveling
  • Light Metal
  • Light Metals
  • Liquation
  • Liquidus
  • Lithographic Sheet Aluminum
  • Long Terne
  • Longitudinal Direction
  • Low Carbon Steels
  • Low-Hydrogen Electrode
  • Luders Lines (Steel)
  • Luders Lines or Bands
  • M B Grade
  • Machinability
  • Machinability Index
  • Macro-Etch
  • Macroetch Test
  • Macroetching
  • Macrograph
  • Macroscopic
  • Macrostructure
  • Magnetic-Particle Inspection
  • Magnetite
  • Malleability
  • Malleabilizing
  • Manganese
  • Manual Welding
  • Martempering
  • Martensite
  • Martensite Range
  • Matalloid
  • Matrix
  • Matt or Matte Finish
  • Mechanical Polishing
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Mechanical Spring
  • Mechanical Working
  • Medium-Carbon Steel
  • Melting Point
  • Melting Range
  • Metal
  • Metal Spraying
  • Metallography
  • Metalograph
  • Microbands (deformation)
  • Microcrack
  • Micrograph
  • Microstructure
  • Mild Steel
  • Mill Edge
  • Mill Finish
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Modulus of Elasticity (tension)
  • Mold
  • Molybdenum
  • Ms Temperature
  • Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy)
  • Music Wire
  • Natural Aging
  • Needle Cutter Steel
  • Network Structure
  • Neumann Band
  • Nickel
  • Nickel Silver
  • Nickel Steel
  • Niobium
  • Nitriding
  • Nitriding Steel
  • Nodular Pearlite
  • Non-Ferrous Metals
  • Non-Metallic Inclusions
  • Non-Refractory Alloy
  • Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel
  • Normalizing
  • Notch Brittleness
  • Notch Sensitivity
  • Nucleation
  • Nucleus
  • Number as Pertaining to Hardness
  • Oil Hardening
  • Oil Stain Aluminum
  • Oil-Hardening Steel
  • Open Surface
  • Open-Hearth Furnace
  • Open-Hearth Process
  • Orange Peel
  • Orange Peel (effect)
  • Ore
  • Orientation (crystal)
  • Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound
  • Overaging
  • Overheating
  • Oxidation
  • Oxide
  • Oxidized Surface
  • Oxygen Lance
  • Oxygen-Free Copper
  • Quarter Hard (No. 3 Temper)
  • Quench Aging
  • Quench Hardening
  • Quench Hardening (Steel)
  • Quenching
  • Radiant Tube Annealing Box
  • Radiography
  • Ragged Edges
  • Recarburizing
  • Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal)
  • Recovery
  • Recrystallization
  • Recrystallization Temperature
  • Recystallization Annealing
  • Red Brass
  • Red Shorness
  • Reduction of Area
  • Refining Temperature
  • Refractory
  • Refractory Alloy
  • Refractory Metal
  • Rephosphorizing (Steel)
  • Residual Elements
  • Residual Stress
  • Residuals
  • Resilience
  • Resistance Welding
  • Resulfurized Steel
  • Ribbon Wound
  • Riffles
  • Rimmed Steel
  • Ripple (defect)
  • Rockwell Hardness (Test)
  • Roll Forming
  • Rolled Edges
  • Rolled In Scale
  • Roller Leveling
  • Rolling
  • Rolling Direction (in rolled metal)
  • Rolling Mills
  • Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine)
  • Rough Machining
  • Rule Die Steel
  • SAE
  • Salt Spray Test
  • Scab
  • Scab (scabby)
  • Scale
  • Scaling
  • Scalped Extrusion Ingot
  • Scalping
  • Scarf Joint
  • Scarfing
  • Scleroscope Hardness (Test)
  • Scleroscope Test
  • Scrap
  • Scratch Brushed Finish
  • Seam
  • Seam (A defect.)
  • Seam Welding
  • Secondary Hardening
  • Seconds
  • Segment Steel
  • Segregation
  • Segregation Banding
  • Self Diffusion
  • Self-Hardening Steel
  • Semi-Steel
  • Semifinished Steel
  • Semikilled Steel
  • Sendzimir Mill
  • Shear
  • Shear Bands (deformation)
  • Shear Crack
  • Shear Steel
  • Shear Strength
  • Sheet
  • Shell Molding
  • Shielded-Arc Welding
  • Shim
  • Shore Hardness Test
  • Short Terne
  • Shortness
  • Shot Blasting
  • Shrinkage Cavity
  • Silicon
  • Silicon Steel
  • Siliconizing
  • Silky Fracture
  • Silver Solders
  • Single-Action Press
  • Sinker Steel
  • Sintered Carbide
  • Sintering
  • Skelp
  • Skin
  • Skull
  • Slab
  • Slack Quenching
  • Slag
  • Slip
  • Slip Direction
  • Slip Line
  • Slip Plane
  • Slit Edges
  • Slitting
  • Sliver (defect)
  • Soaking
  • Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. 4 Temper)
  • Solder Embrittlement
  • Soldering
  • Solid Solution
  • Solidus
  • Solute
  • Solution Heat Treatment
  • Solvent
  • Solvus
  • Sorbite
  • Sorbite (obsolete)
  • Sorbitic Pearlite
  • Space Lattice (crystal)
  • Space-Centered (concerning space lattices)
  • Spalling
  • Specific Gravity
  • Spectograph
  • Spectograph (X-rays)
  • Spelter (Prime Western Spelter)
  • Speroidizing
  • Speroidizing Annealing
  • Spheroidized Structure
  • Spheroidizing
  • Spiegel
  • Spinning
  • Spot Welding
  • Spring Steel Strip
  • Spring Temper
  • Spring-Back
  • Stabilizing Anneal
  • Stabilizing Treatment
  • Stablizing Treatment
  • Stainless Steel
  • Stamping
  • Standard Gold
  • Steel
  • Sterling Silver
  • Straight-Chrome
  • Strain
  • Strain Aging
  • Strain Hardening
  • Stress
  • Stress Relief
  • Stress Relieving
  • Stress-corrosion Cracking
  • Stress-Corrosion Cracking
  • Stress-Rupture Test
  • Stretch Forming
  • Stretcher Leveling
  • Stretcher Straightening
  • Stretcher Strains
  • Strip
  • Strip Steel (cold rolled)
  • Structure
  • Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure)
  • Subcritical Annealing
  • Subgrain
  • Substitutional Solid Solution
  • Substrate
  • Sulfide Spheroidization
  • Sulfur
  • Sulfur Print
  • Superalloy
  • Supercooling
  • Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test
  • Superheating
  • Surface Hardening
  • Tack Welds
  • Arrangement of
  • Taper Section
  • Tapping
  • Tarnish
  • Teeming
  • Telescoping
  • Temper
  • Temper (Met.)
  • Temper Brittleness
  • Temper Rolling
  • Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip
  • Tempered Spring Steel Strip
  • Tempering
  • Tempering (Also termed 'drawing.')
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength)
  • Ternary Alloy
  • Terne Plate
  • Texture
  • Thermal Analysis
  • Thermocouple
  • Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock
  • Three-Quarter Hard Temper
  • Tin
  • Tin Plate Base Box
  • Tin Plating
  • Tinning
  • Titanium
  • Tolerance Limit
  • Tong Hold
  • Tool Steel
  • Torsion
  • Toughness
  • Trace
  • Transformation
  • Transformation Range
  • Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges)
  • Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges)
  • Transformation Temperature
  • Transition Temperature
  • Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature
  • Transverse
  • Triple Point
  • Troosite
  • Troosite (obsolete)
  • Trowel Steel
  • Truss Spring Steel
  • Tukon Hardness Test
  • Tumbling
  • Tungsten
  • Tungsten Carbide
  • Twin
  • Twin, Annealing
  • Twin, Crystal
  • Twin, Deformation
  • Ultimate Strength
  • Ultrasonic Frequency
  • Ultrasonic Waves
  • Universal Mill
  • Upset
  • Upsetting
  • Utility Sheet Aluminum
  • Vacancy
  • Vacuum Melting
  • Vanadium
  • Veining
  • Vibrator Reed Steel
  • Vickers Hardness (Test)
  • Virgin Metal
  • Waloon Process
  • Wasters
  • Watch Main Spring Steel
  • Water Hardening
  • Wavy
  • Wedge
  • Weld
  • Weld Bead
  • Weldability
  • Welding
  • Wetting
  • Wetting Agent
  • Widmanstatten Structure
  • WMB, WHB and Extra WHB Grades
  • Wootz
  • Work Hardening
  • Workability
  • Wrought Iron
  • Wustite
  • Yellow Brass
  • Yield Point
  • Yield Strength
  • Young's Modulus


Abrasion The process of rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction. Abrasive A substance capable of grinding away another material. Accordion Reed Steel Hardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00. Material has to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity. Acid Steel Steel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica. Acid-Brittleness Brittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness. Acid-Process A process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus pig iron is required as this element is not removed. Activation The changing of the passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. Age Hardening Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. The term as applied to soft, or low carbon steels, relates to a wide variety of commercially important, slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures. Aging A change in properties that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after hot working or a heat treating operation (quench aging in ferrous alloys), or after a cold working operation (strain aging). The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but does not involve a change in chemical composition. In a metal or alloy, a change in properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures. Air Cooling Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air. Air-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. Such steels attain their martensitic structure without going through the quenching process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly large sections, about 2 in. or more in diameter.


AISI Steels Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in that all numbers are preceded by letters: A represents basic open-hearth alloy steel, B acid Bessemer carbon steel, C basic openhearth carbon steel, CB either acid Bessemer ar basic open-hearth carbon steel, E electric furnace alloy steel. Alclad Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy or aluminum of high purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum alloy. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas of the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environment. Allotriomorph A particle of a phase that has no regular external shape. Allotropy The property whereby certain elements may exist in more than one crystal structure. Alloy A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Alloy Steel Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium, Low Alloy steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents. Alloying Element An element added to a metal, and remaining in the metal, that effects changes in structure and properties. Alpha Brass A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly for cold working. Alpha Bronze A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc. Alpha Iron The polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670 (degrees) F. has a body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410 (degrees) F. Aluminizing Forming an aluminum or aluminum alloy coating on a metal by hot dipping, hot spraying, or diffusion. Aluminum (Chemical symbol Al) Element No. 13 of the periodic system; Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting point 1220 (degrees) F; boiling point approximately 4118 (degrees) F.; ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently. (2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides) (3) Alloying element in nitriding steel. Aluminum Killed Steel A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent.


Angstrom Unit (A) A unit of linear measure equal to 10(-10)m, or 0.1 nm; not an accepted Si unit, but still sometimes used for small distances such as interatomic distances and some wavelengths. Anisotropy The characteristics of exhibiting different values of a property in different directions with respect to a fixed reference system in the material. Annealing Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical, or other properties. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used: black annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright annealing, flame annealing, graphitizing, intermediate annealing, isothermal annealing, malleablizing, process annealing, quench annealing, recrystallization annealing, and spheroidizing. When applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing, without qualification, implies full annealing. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften an age-hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving. Annealing Twin A twin formed in a metal during an annealing heat treatment. Anodizing (Aluminum Adic Oxide Coating), A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness. A wide variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process. Arc Welding A group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being joined are coalesced by heating with an arc, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Artifact In microscopy, a false structure introduced during preparation of a specimen. Artificial Aging An aging treatment above room temperature. ASTM Abbreviation for American Society For Testing Material. An organization for issuing standard specifications on materials, including metals and alloys. Atomic-Hydrogen Weld, Arc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The use of pressure and filler metal is optional. Attenuation The fractional decrease of the intensity of an energy flux, including the reduction of intensity resulting from geometrical spreading, absorption, and scattering. Ausenitic Grain Size The size of the grains in steel heated into the austenitic region.


Austempering Quenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the transformation range, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction high enough to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products, and then holding the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation. Austenite Phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of carbon or iron carbide, in the hamma form of iron. Such steels are known as austenitic. Austenite is stable only above 1333 (degrees) F. in a plain carbon steel, but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese, stabilizes the austenitec form, even at normal temperatures. Austenitic Steel Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of Austenite at normal temperatures. Austenitizing Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing). Austentite A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Autofrettage Pre-stressing a hollow metal cylinder by the use of momentary internal pressure exceeding the yield strength. Autoradiograph A radiograph recorded photographically by radiation spontaneously emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in, or added to, the material. This technique identifies the locations of the radioisotopes.

Bainite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of carbide, generally formed at temperatures below 840 to 930 F (450 to 500 C): upper bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lathshape units of ferrite, produces the so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy, and is formed at temperatures above about 660 F (350 C) ; lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and is formed at temperatures below about 660 F (350 C). Also, a slender, needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite. Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite. Bamboo Grain Structure A structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely through the thickness. Band Saw Steel (Wood) A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.


5 . Basic Steel Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime. Bend Radius The inside radius of a bent section. or shaft. etc.Society4Pakswissians Banded Structure Appearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working. Bearing Strength The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective bearing area. Bark Surface of metal. samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. along a line where contact is made with a pin. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel. the process is known as lead annealing. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain. Beading Raising a ridge on sheet metal. Bend Test Various tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a metal product. For testing. Basic Oxygen Process A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. In the case of steel. In a pinned or riveted joint. Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. springs. to permit a flow of the metal in the piece being tested. axle. such bark always suffers from decarburization. then you must line the jaws with some soft metal. Beryllium Copper An alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. usually a tube or collar. If a vice is to be employed. resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. Bauxite The only commercial ore of aluminum. in which the material is bent around its axis and/ or around an outside radius. under the oxide-scale layer. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). Bearing Load A compressive load supported by a member. Bath Annealing Is immersion is a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used. rivet. beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches. Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity. corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O. the iffective area is calculated as the product of the diameter of the hole and the thickness of the bearing member.

The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore. This method is now almost obsolete. usually hot. as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc. originally smooth. Billet A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging.Society4Pakswissians Bessemer Process A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation. is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation (carburizing) furnace. For nonferrous metals. and in thicknesses from 55 lbs. Very small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters. Also known as bloomery iron. high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. or extrusion. such as snaps. base box weight. trap springs. Blister Steel High-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. Blast Furnace A vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used. It is manufactured by two different processes. Bloom (1) Ancient Definition: iron produced in a solid condition directly by the reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. Black Plate A light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring. and the cross-sectional area varies from 2 1/4 to 36 sq. (1) Form sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem. The bar.80 medium high carbon steel strip. Sizes range from 12 to 32 in width. blue-black in color. Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel. While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47. lock springs. apart from minor impurities. in. Binary Alloy An alloy containing two elements. it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content. hold down springs. coke. The carbon content is variable but usually low. etc. strip or wire after hot working and pickling. and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals. or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated. for producing pih iron. resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface zone. on or near the surface. Black Oil Tempered Spring Steel Strip (Scaleless Blue) A flat cold rolled usually . which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. Blister A defect in metal. rolling. Black Annealing A process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet.70/. The earliest iron 6 . An iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thickness of 1 1/2 in. to 275 lbs. It is used either as is for stampings. but it does not have the same degree of spring-back. (2) On modern. it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished rolling or for extrusion.

ignites at about 1112 (degrees) F. Blowhole A cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas. in order to soften the metal. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only. Blue Annealing Heating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. or space-centered. thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. 5 of the periodic system.to increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration. sheet-bar etc. and more especially if the steel is worked at the elevated temperature. usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes made by forging. Iron and steel blooms are sometimes made by forging. 7 . It is gray in color. Bonderizing The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lacquer. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.. (2) Modern Definition: a semi-finished hot rolled steel product. strip. Blue Brittleness Brittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some temperature within the range of 300 (degrees) to 650 (degrees) F. Blooming-Mill A mill used to reduce ingots to blooms. in.82. but still used in underdeveloped countries. which in failing to escape is held in pockets. NOTE: This term is ordinarily applied to sheet. Boron ( chemical symbol B) Element N. produced on a blooming mill. the width is not more than twice the thickness. or other agents at a suitable temperature. Bloom A semi-finished hot rolled product. Killed steels are virtually free of this kind of brittleness. Body-Centered Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell. Blue Brittleness Reduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties. or finished parts. and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than 36 sq. Bloomery A primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron. when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300 and 700 (degrees) F. Atomic weight 10. This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures. rectangular in cross section. Bluing Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air. For iron and steel. and at its center. sometimes called centered. but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000 (degrees) F. billets slabs. steam.Society4Pakswissians making process. and burns with a brilliant green flame. rectangular in section.

Box Annealing A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a closed metal container. Bright Annealing The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired. Bridling The cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming. also called a bar folder. In box annealing a ferrous alloy. Brale A diamond penetrator. Brasses Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. Brake A piece of equipment used for bending sheet. bands. or drawing operation. Brazing Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800 F (425C).Society4Pakswissians Bottle Top Mold Ingot mold. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges. 8 . as in brazing sheet. May be accomplished by a torch. it is called a press brake. or may be bonded. Filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing. Break Test (for tempered steel) A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. clips. The charge is normally heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. bending. It is formable and ductile. used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals. but sometimes above or within it. which stops rimming action by trapping escaping gases. and is then cooled slowly. and then is slowly cooled. the charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. Box Annealing Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation. Caution-Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder's lines. this process is also called close annealing or pot annealing. with the top constricted. if power driven. but lower than those of the metals being joined. the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the bottle-neck. in order to minimize the effects of oxidation. with or without packing materials. conical in shape. washers. Bright Annealed Wire Steel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright. develops high tensile strength with cold-working and is not heat treatable. but above 840 (450 C). If operated manually. Brass is harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc. whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire. used in the manufacture of capped steel. Braze Welding A family of welding procedures where metals are joined by filler metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal. it is called a hand brake. but occasionally above or within it.

Burning (1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. For each B&S gage number in thickness reduction. the name is used when referring to other alloys not containing tin. Brittle Fracture Fracture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation. bolts and rivets. Buckle Bulges and/ or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the edges remaining otherwise flat. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other. Broaching Multiple shaving. Used for round head wood screws. electric welded chain. In this system. and beryllium bronze.while temper is expressed by the number of B&S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. is then measured by a microscope and the hardness value is read from a chart or determined by a prescribed formula. Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S) A standard series of sizes refered to by numbers. Bronze Primarily an alloy of copper and tin. particularly through holes. slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. The diameter of the indentation. but additionally. copper-base alloys and aluminum. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure. bronze. Bright Dip An acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean.Society4Pakswissians Bright Basic Wire Bright steel wire. Burning 9 . even in the presence of acids or alkalis. (2) In grinding getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening. bright surface. manganese bronze. for example. Bright Bessemer Wire Stiff bright wire of hard temper. aluminum bronze. where is assigned a hardness value of 1/4 hard. in which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is generally produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass. copper. the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers. accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the piece. etc. Brittleness The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing appreciable plastic deformation. in the material surface. Normally wire is drawn down to size without annealing. Brinell Hardness Test A common standard method of measuring the hardness of materials. Buffer A substance added to aqueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-ion concentration.

shearing. Pressure is built up in the sealed-in molten metal and results in a surface condition much like that of rimmed steel. Butcher Saw Steel A hardened. etc. Camber (1) Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line. sometimes referred to as oil canning. The cap causes to top metal to solidify. A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line. Capped Steel Semikilled steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap fitting into the neck of the mold. (2) Sometimes used to denote crown in rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection cause by the rolling pressure.25 Chromium . Burr Roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting. Carbon content 1.15.Society4Pakswissians Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment. Burnt A definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by over-heating. and polished high carbon spring steel strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for wood band saw applications) with a Rockwell value of roughly C47/49. 10 . blanking . Canning A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface. or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. tempered. Burnishing Smoothing surfaces through friction between the material and material such as hardened metal media. tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. Cake A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling. Butt Welding Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. Camber or Bow Edgewise curvature. Camera Shutter Steel Hardened.

this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. Carbon Equivalent Referring to the rating of weld-ability. A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and.60% and manganese to about 1. Also termed plain carbon steel. ordinary steel.65%. Carbon Free Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon. create a concentration gradient.01. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. the carbon concentration in a steel. a formula commonly used is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15]. Also termed plain carbon steel. 6 of the periodic system. creates a concentration gradient. for reduction of oxides. Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys. Carbon Potential A measure of the capacity of an environment containing active carbon to alter or maintain. Its metallurgical use. all non-metallic. in the form of coke. and ammonia. For rating of weld-ability. ordinary steel. is very extensive.60% and manganese to about 1. Carbon Steel Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels. Carburizing A process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at the surface and. Carbon Restoration Replacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level. 11 . except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of residual sulfur. which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages. atomic weight 12. straight carbon steel. by diffusion. Carbonitriding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocardons. carbon monocide.65%. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the work piece. with silicon usually limited to 0. Carbon Steel Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidization. and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal.Society4Pakswissians Carbon Chemical symbol C. Carbonitriding. by diffusion. the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable. Carbon Range In steel specifications. and straight carbon steel. Silicon is usually limited to about 0. Element No. has three allotropic modifications. Carbon Steel A steel containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon. under prescribed conditions. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened.

Cartridge Brass 70% copper 30% zinc. or core. Cast Steel Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds. carbonitriding. all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy. Rated excellent for soft-soldering. 12 . Case Hardening Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment. Casting (1) An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation. The oldest method of case hardening. liquids or gases. Cast (1) A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast Spring Steel Wire. or core. good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set. poor hot working and poor machining properties. the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. Case Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that change the the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or nitrogen. Temper is obtained by cold rolling. Case Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion. Case In a ferrous alloy. and flame hardening. is made substantially harder than the inner portion. create a concentration gradient. liquid. (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire. Cast Steel Steel in the form of castings. it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-working. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys. or case. nitriding. (2) Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape. which may be a solid. Cavitation The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. Carburizing (Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids. by diffusion. usually containing less than 2% carbon. induction hardening. or a mixture of the two. cyaniding. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-working. or gas. and.Society4Pakswissians Carburizing Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with a suitable carbonaceous material. the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion. Cast Iron Iron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about 2%). That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage.

13 . but not as readily as ferrite.Society4Pakswissians Cavitation Damage Wearing away of metal through the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid. Chatter Marks Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high-carbon tool steels. Chamfer (1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. It is magnetizable. as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon.69% of carbon. When it occurs as a phase in steel. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. Chafery A charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron making processes to reheat a bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag. Ceramic Tools Cutting tools made from fused. having limited substitutional solubility for the carbide-forming elements. known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. Charpy Test A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched. Charcoal Tin Plate Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades). prior to the introduction of the bessemer and open-hearth methods. the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements. caused by roll vibrations. (2) A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner. is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron carbide. Centrifugal Casting A casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated or revolved. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Cementation (1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. Chemical Milling Removing metal stock by controlled selective chemical etching. Hard and brittle. or cemented metallic oxides. The energy absorbed. it is the hard constituent of cast iron. sintered. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6. with composition Fe3C and orthorhombic crystal structure. notably manganese. Cementite A metastable carbide.

24 of the periodic system. or heavy electroplating. tempered and bright polished. Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together.Society4Pakswissians Chemical Polishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by chemical treatment. Usual sizes are 4 3/4 wide and 6 wide x . Cleavage Fracture of a crystal by crack propagation across a crystallographic plane of low index. relatively hard. in a polycrystalline metal by cleavage. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling. Chipping A method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be worked into the finished product. heavy chemical deposition. Chromizing A surface treatment at elevated temperature. vapor. welding. Cleavage Fracture Fracture of a grain. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. by treatment with a solution of chromic acid. Chromium Chemical symbol Cr. Cigarette Knife Steel Hardened. Chromadizing (Chromodizing. in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of chromium into the base metal. 1. or salt bath. Chromatizing) Forming an acid surface to improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys. welding. generally carried out in pack.Chromium . It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Chipping is often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective.15. mainly aircraft skins.004 to . It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. It is of bright silvery color. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing. Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. or most of the grains. (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases harden-ability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon). Chromium-Nickel Steel Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. atomic weight 52. Element No.01.010. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Cladding A process for covering one metal with another. heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating. casting. 14 .25 Carbon content. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types. resulting in bright reflecting facets. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling.

Coil Weld A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil . except that the working method is limited to rolling. Cobalt Chemical symbol Co.9. Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate. atomic weight 58.usually in one continuous piece or length.not always visible in the cold reduced product. Cluster Mill A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls.. Cold Short A condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures below the recrystalization temperature.94. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness. A higher grade is the best cokes. by rolling on a cold reduction mill. it resists corrosion like nickel. 27 of the periodic system. 15 . Cold Reduced Strip Metal strip. strength. occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold. Coils Coiled flat sheet or strip metal. which it resembles closely. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel. stiffness. it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite. produced from hot-rolled strip. usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness. Cold Reduction Reduction of metal size. which see. specific gravity 8. while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal. etc. Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges. For high qualities and heavier coatings. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel. with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. oil canning. A departure from longitudinal flatness. Coining A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface. melting point 2696 (degrees) F. the sulfate being used as electrolyte. Cold Rolling Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (workhardening). ductility and other characteristics known as tempers. Cold Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance. Same as cold reduction. with the lightest commercial tin coat. used for food containers. A gray magnetic metal.Society4Pakswissians Cleavage Plane A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily. Element No. of medium hardness. Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. Coil Breaks Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of coiling.

wire. Atomic weight 92. having the long axis perpendicular to the casting surface. Constitute A phase. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels. Compare equilibrium diagram. 16 . Cold Work Permanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its recrystallization temperature. In the case of materials which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture. Melting point at about 4380 (degrees) F. also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. based on original area of cross section. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet. that occurs in a characteristic configuration in a microstructure. (2) A portion of the surface of a forging that is separated. Columnar Structure A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains.15 max. etc. used for screws. Commercial Quality Steel Sheet Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at 0. or may approximate. A constitutional diagram may be. and equilibrium diagram. Commonly. drawing. Element No. 41 of the periodic system. the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures. Although termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility. or combination of phases. Compressive Strength The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of developing.) Columnar Structure A structure consisting of elongated grains whose tong axes are parallel.Society4Pakswissians Cold Shut (1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. hammering. at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening). 41 of the periodic system. Specific gravity 8. Constitutional Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram). and the length is not determined by mold dimensions. It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. hardware. or may represent metastable conditions or phases. In the case of a material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture. from the main body of metal by oxide.91. etc. such as rolling. Commercial Bronze A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc.57. in part. Columbium Chemical symbol Cb. element No. (Now known as Niobium (Nb). the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material. the compressive strength has a very definite value. Continuous Casting A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured. Cold Working Plastic deformation..

.94. Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place. a grain or a carbide particle) resulting from non-equilibrium growth over a range of temperature. atomic weight 63. boiling point 4327 F. 29 of the periodic system. Continuous Pickling Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks. highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster. Unibersally and extensively used in the arts in brasses.. the phase that forms the background or matrix in which the other phase or phases are present as isolated volumes. rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals. Controlled Rolling A hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is closely controlled. 17 . in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace. so that its length is not determined by mold dimensions. Coring A variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of structure (such as a dendrite. moisture or other agents. bronzes.Society4Pakswissians Continuous Casting A casting technique in which an ingot. to produce a fine-grain microstructure. billet. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass. Cooling Stresses Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling. Converter A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. particularly during the final rolling passes. and retained. tube. or other shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured. Universally used in the pure state as sheet. Copper Chemical symbol Cu) Element No. Continuous Furnace Furnace. Continuous Phase In an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one phase. Continuous Strip Mill A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. tube. Corrosion Deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. melting point 1981 (degrees) F. Corrosion Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere.57. also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling. specific gravity 8.

Corrugated As a defect. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack. Corrosion Embrittlement The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. 18 . The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal. Creep Limit (1) The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified quantity of creep in a given time. tertiary creep. used in arc welding. Creep Strength (1) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. (2) The maximum nominal stress under which the creep strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant temperature. Creep The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. corrosion of a metal that is caused by the concentration of dissolved salts. A series of deep short waves. oxygen. Critical Cooling Rate The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is called primary creep. consisting of a metal core vire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal form the atmosphere.Society4Pakswissians Corrosion Embrittlement The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack. Alternate ridges and furrows. Crevice Erosion A type of concentration-cell corrosion. that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate. with a resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting. secondary creep. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. and such. Corrosion Fatigue Effect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive environment alone. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. usually intergranular and often not visually apparent. or other gases. that occurring at an accelerating rate. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with cellulose or other binder. metal ions. improves the properties of the weld metal and stabilizes the arc. Sometimes used synonymously with creep strength. in crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid stream. (2) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature. Covered Electrode A filler-metal electrode.

Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel to the axes of the rolls during rolling. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. Critical Range A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. 19 . that specific combination of composition. Crop The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. as well as a direction parallel to. phase. temperature and pressure. Cross Rolling A (hot) rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a direction perpendicular to. The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing. (2) In an equilibrium diagram. Crown A contour on a sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center. For steel. Critical Temperature Synonymous with critical point if pressure is constant. phase or physical properties occurs. (2) In an equilibrium diagram. the length of the original slab. Cross Rolling Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal. that specific value of composition. Crown or Heavy Center Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge. Critical Points Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature.Society4Pakswissians Critical Cooling Rate The minimum rate of continuous cooling just sufficient to prevent undesired transformations. temperature and pressure at which the phases of an inhomogeneous system are in equilibrium. usually done to increase width. same as transformation temperature. Critical Strain That strain which results in the formation of very large grains during recrystallization. at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems are in equilibrium. Also termed transformation range. the slowest rate at which it can be cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of austenite at any temperature above the Ms. or combinations thereof. Same as transformation temperature. or physical properties occurs. Cross Rolling The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about 90 (degrees) from the direction of the previous rolling.

The cyanided alloy is usually quench hardened. frequently seen in tensile test pieces of a ductile material. Cyaniding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. and used in the melting of metal. (2) A coherent piece of matter. Crucible Steel High-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered crucible. Cyaniding Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron. 20 . in metals. the failure of metals under repeated stresses. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom. Crystal (1) A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms.) Cube-Centered Metallography. followed by quenching. Crystallization The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a central flat area of failure in tension. Cutting Speed The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool and work piece in the principal direction of cutting. Refers to crystal structure. Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture) Fracture.Body-centered cubic. Crystalline Composed of crystals. ions or molecules are arranged in a threedimensional repetitive pattern. or clay or other refractory material.Society4Pakswissians Crucible A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay. is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization. cast steel or wrought steel.(concerning space lattices) . Crucible steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman in about 1750 and remained in use until the late 1940's. (Fatigue. with an exterior extended rim of failure in shear. Cup Fracture A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed. Crystalline Fracture A fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a grainy appearance. Compare fibrous fracture. usually synonymous with grain and crystallite.

Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action. completely annealed. The length of the ingot is limited by the depth to which the platform can be lowered. ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-drawing Deformative Bands Generally. Dead Flat Perfectly flat. Decarburization Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. Degassing Process (In steel making) Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action. or sheet metal in the annealed state. normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the basic oxygen process with carbon less than 0. The ingot is usually cooled by the impingement of water directly on the mold or on the walls of the solid metal as it is lowered.50% range. Dead Soft Steel Steel. the dislocations may be decorated with carbon or nitrogen atoms. Decarburization The loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon at the surface. usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. therefore. bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously. As pertaining to sheet. Deep-drawing quality sheet or strip steel.Society4Pakswissians DC (Direct Chill) Casting A continuous method of making ingots or billets for sheet or extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold. strip or plate.10% and manganese in the 0. strip. Degenerate Structure 21 . Decoration (of dislocations) Segregation of solute atoms to the line of a dislocation in a crystal. Decarburization Removal of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel. Deburring A method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing. Dead Soft Annealing Heating metal to above the critical range and appropriately cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility.20-0. oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers. Water vapor. The base of the mold is a platform that is gradually lowered while the metal solidifies. it is often called semicontinuous casting. the frozen shell of metal acting as a retainer for the liquid metal below the wall of the mold. Refer to Stretcher Leveling. In ferrite. Deep Drawing The process of cold working or drawing sheet or strip metal blanks by means of dies on a press into shapes which are usually more or less cup-like in character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal. Dead Soft Temper Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire.

cooling. Die Sinking Forming or machining a depressed pattern in a die. produced from approximately . hence its name. The degree of degeneracy may vary from slight perturbations in the lamellar arrangement to structures that are not recognizably lamellar. being most evident in cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range. Dish A concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. (3) A misnomer for tempering. Delta Iron Allotropic modification of iron. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (dope) from the rolls. tending to make the composition of all parts uniform. Deoxidation (1) Removal of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable chemical agents. Dilatometer An instrument for measuring the expansion or contraction of a solid metal resulting from heating. Dislocation A linear defect in the structure of a crystal. Deoxidizing Removal of oxygen. polymorphic changes.Society4Pakswissians Usually refers to pearlite that does not have an ideally lamellar structure. Indicates transverse or across the width. Dendrite A crystal that has grown in treelike branching mode.85 carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. Dendrite A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern. and wire technology. strip. to melting point. Doctor Blade Steel Strip A hardened and tempered spring steel strip. stable above 2552 (degrees) F. Diffusion (1) Spreading of a constituent in a gas. usually blued. etc. to lessen the amount of scale. (2) The spontaneous movement of atoms or molecules to new sites within a material. (2) Reducing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. the term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. It is of body-centered cubic crystal structure. Drawing (1) Forming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies. Dendritic Segregation Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements through the arms of dendrites. (2) Sometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with them. Die-Lines Lines of markings daused on drawn or extruded products by minor imperfections in the surface of the die. 22 . In steel sheet. Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cur to desired lengths. liquid or solid.

013 to 1 1/2 diameter. A less popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming quality. giving a burnished appearance. Drop Hammer A forging hammer than depends on gravity for its force. Commercial qualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. Drop Forging A forging made with a drop hammer. In steel. magnesium. dowel pins. The term is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys that harden during aging at room temperature. Duralumin The trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type of age-hardenable alloy (17S). Ductile Crack Propagation Slow crack propagation that is accompanied by noticeable plastic deformation and requires energy to be supplied from outside the body. Dry Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant. by height of cupping in an Erichsen test or by other means. or silicon. 1/2% Mg. 23 . Drill Rod A term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod usually round and centerless ground. Drill Rods are used principally by machinists and tool and die makers for punches. Duralumin (obsolete) A term formerly applied to the class of age-hardenable aluminum-copper alloys containing manganese. Ductility The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. Ductility The property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold. of material previously plain pickled. Also termed scallop. ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test. Earing Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. without fracture. small tools. which contains nominally 4% Cu. being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test.Society4Pakswissians Drawing Back Reheating after hardening to a temperature below the critical for the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel. screw machine parts. The sizes range in round stock from . drills. etc. Ductility The capacity of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. taps.

Sawed. 24 . uniform.. an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied. or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte.An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress. Width tolerances liberal. 5 Edge . Sheet Steels or Aluminum SheetMill Edge.Smooth. No. 1 edge. 3 Edge . Edging The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge. Edge Filing A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files. mounted at various angles. Slit Edge or Sheared Edge.Society4Pakswissians Earing The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used. . No.A square edge produced by square edge rolling. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. or edge rolled. No. polishing. width tolerance +/. Sheared. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. . filing or drawing. Edge Strain or Edge Breaks Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet. .A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. A cleaning. Width tolerances close. 4 Edge . produced by slitting only. Copper Base Alloys. 6 Edge . No. Elastic Limit Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs. Has not been slit. either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified. . . Eddy-Current Testing Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. Not as perfect as No.Square. round or square edge. No. . Not filed.A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. filed. Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress. Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening) An anodic treatment. Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . Slit and Edge Rolled. 1 Edge A. 1 edge. Machined or Drawn . generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. . Elastic Strain Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are restored upon release of the stress.005. Edges Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. 2 Edge. No. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques.Slit.

Elongation Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured. Protection against corrosion... Elongation After Fracture In tensile testing. Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer An instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material........ only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.. Electrolytic Tin Plate Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition... Endurance Limit Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.. An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.....brass ... This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal.. Epitaxy Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the lattice of the substrate crystal... 2...........Society4Pakswissians Electric Furnace Steel Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically..... Because of relatively high cost.... Protection against wear.. Decorative and protection against corrosion.. nickel and chromium ..........chromium .... It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions. 3..copper and nickel Electropolishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by electrochemical dissolution.. the increase in the gauge length...... almost always by arc.... 5...... Build-up of a part or parts undersize.. when subjected to stress.....chromium or nickel .... Elongation In tensile testing....copper......... 25 . Electroplating The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electodeposition.......... Pate for rubber adhesion.cadmium or zinc ... Electro-Galvanizing Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel... Protection against carburization and for brazing operations............. measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length... 4...... Embossing Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern..... to illustrate: 1................. 6. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes...... usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length............... the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length........ Endurance Limit Same as fatigue limit......

pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface. the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. Erichsen Test A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal. with about 0. Eutectoid (1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids. Etching Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details. In condensed systems. yield strength by the offset method 26 . Exfoliation A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal. restrained except at the center. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. Erichsen Test Similar to the Olsen Test. Etching In metallography. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. Extensometer An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately .83% carbon. Carbon content about 1. Eutectoid Steel Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system. Chromium .012 to . proof stress. such as nickel or chromium. lowers the eutedtoid carbon content. pressure is usually considered constant.80% to 0. Expander Steel Hardened and tempered. blue polished.00. When more carbon is present. causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product. the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation. Etchant A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details. Readings are in millimeters. Extensometer Test The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range.020.17.Society4Pakswissians Eqilibrium Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite.003 less than the grooves and thickness from . is deformed by a coneshaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. The presence of certain elements. permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit. Equiaxed Structure A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility.

Ferrite A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron. the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeatef or fluctuating stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material). On some equilibrium diagrams 27 . Extra Hard Temper In brass mill terminology. Extra Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. If the stress is not completely reversed. the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68. Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices) Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. the value of the mean stress.Society4Pakswissians and so forth. Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress. Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50. Unless otherwise designated (for instance. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the slose-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres. Fatigue Strength The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure. beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress. Fatigue Limit The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure an infinite number of stress cycles. Fatigue Life The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure for a stated test condition. Extrusion Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape. Fatigue fractures are progressive. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage. the solute is generally assumed to be carbon. as chromium ferrite).

ther are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed. Ferrite Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc polymorph of iron ( -Fe). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon in -Fe. Ferrite Banding Parallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of working. Sometimes referred to a ferrite streaks. Ferrite-pearlite Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Ferritic Grain Size The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel.

Ferro-Manganese An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or castiron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel. Ferrous Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum). Ferrous alloys are, therfore, iron base alloys. Fiber (1) The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties. It is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous appearance of a fracture. It is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of working. (2) The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process. Fiber or Fibre Direction in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow. Fiber Stress Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area. Fiber Stress Local stress through a small area (a point or line) on a section where the stress is not uniform, as in a beam under a bending load. Fibrous Fracture A fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or silky appearance. Filed Edges Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed. Filler Metal A third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal during fusion or braze welding. It is usually, but not necessarily, of different composition from the parent metals.


Finery A charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast, then repeatedly oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced. Finished Steel Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars, and wire rods are termed semi-finished produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition. Finishing Temperature The temperature at which hot working is completed. Finishing Temperature Temperature of final hot-working of a metal. Fish eyes Areas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white crystalline appearance. Flakes Short discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. In a fractured surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface thay appear as short discontinuous cracks. Also called shatter cracks and snowflakes. Flame Annealing Annealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flame Annealing A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high-temperature flame. Flame Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a hightemperature flame, and then cooling as required. Flame Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flapper Valve Steel An extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15 carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage. Flare Test A test applied to tubing, involving a tapered expansion over a cone. Similar to pin expansion test. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In die casting, the fin of metal which results form leakage between the mating die surfaces. (3) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash Welding


A resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat, the heat being produced by electric arcs between the members being welded. Flat Latch Needle Steel Supplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods. Flat Wire A flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to 1 1/4 wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired with followed by edge dressing. Flow Lines (1) Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. Flow lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part. (2) In mechanical metallurgy, paths followed by volume elements of metal during deformation. Flow Stress The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals. Flow Stress The uniaxial true stress required to cause plastic deformation at a specified value of strain. Flowlines Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of working or rolling. Fluting Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes. Flux (1) In refining, a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten mixture. It may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal. (2) In welding, a material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate the removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances. Foil Metal in sheet form less than 0.006 in. in thickness. Foil Metal in any width but no more than about 0.005 thick. Folds Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces. Forge Welding Welding hot metal by applying pressure or blows. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies.


Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metals, with specific reference to photographs of the fracture surface. Macrofractography involves photographs at low magnification; microfractography, at high magnification. Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metal, with specific reference to photography of the fracture surface. Fracture Surface appearance of metals when broken. Fracture Test Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fractured surface.

Fracture Test Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, and presence of defects. Fragmentation The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined by a heavily deformed network of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold working. These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to rotate to a stable orientation detemined by the slip systems. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or more ingredients have been introduced to produce small broken chips, low power consumption, better surface finish or longer tool life. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an ingredient has been introduced to give small broken chips, lower power consumption, better surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel. Fretting (Fretting Corrosion) Action that results in surface damage, especially in a corrosive environment, when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in contact under pressure. Friction Gouges or Scratches A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. Refer to Galling. Full Annealing Annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly through the transformation range. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid steel is usually above Ac3; and for hypereutectoid steel, usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). Full Annealing Used principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100 (degrees) F. above the critical temperature range, followed by soaking at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature. Full Annealing (ferrous materials)


(B) In brass mill terminology. 1 Temper) In low carbon sheet or strip steel. Tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper.Min. Half Hard Temper (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. Hard Drawing Drawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength.1% reduction. Hardenability In a ferrous alloy. annealed. 32 .S. reduced either hot or cold. Hard Drawn Wire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work. stiff and springy. rather than as a decorative coating. (C) In Stainless Steel Strip. For Chromium-Nickel grades Half-Hard Temper 150. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185.000 TS. and then cold-rolled to a bright finish.000 YS Min. 110.S. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. Used principally for cold wound springs. cleaned.000 Y. Full Hard Temper (A) (No. Hammer Forging Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows. Hard Temper is four B&S numbers hard or 37. not suitable for bending in any direction. such as increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces.Society4Pakswissians An annealing treatment in which a steel is ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (A3 or Acm) and then cooled slowly to room temperature. Compare with press forging. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. Fusion Welding Any welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the weld. A typical cooling rate would be 210F/h 100 C/h..000 T. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip.70% thickness reduction. It is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thicker than a decorative deposit. Compare normalizing. Full Finish Plate Steel sheet or strip. half hard is two B&S numbers hard or 20. Hard Temper (A) (For steel see Full Hard Temper) (B) In brass mill terminology. Hard Chromium Chromium deposited for engineering purposes. Use of the term annealing without qualification implies full annealing. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper. Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire A medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. 140.

Various hardness tests such as Brinell. induction hardening. For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness. Heat Tinting Colouration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal details of structure. and similar properties of both metals and their alloys. precipitation hardening. case hardening. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. Rockwell and Vickers may be used. usually involving heating and cooling. Hardenability In ferrous alloys. usually involving heating and cooling. See Brinell Hardness. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range. penetration. or welding. hardness. to harden in depth as distinguished from the terms hardness. Heat Treatment Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures. Hardness Degree to which a metal will resist cutting. Scleroscope Hardness. abrasion. Hardening Increasing hardness by suitable treatment. bending and stetching. Hardening Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics. Heat of Steel The product of a single melting operation in a furnace. time of retention at specific temperature and rate of coolingtherfrom being as important as the temperature itself. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring. quenching and tempering. a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of 136 is used as the indenter. usually steel. In the Vickers test. cutting. flame hardening. Hardening Increasing the hardness by suitable treatment. Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating. Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness. but whose microstructure and physical peoperties were altered by the heat. the following more specific terms should be used: age hardening. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. ductility. quench hardening. Vickers Hardness. 33 . Hardness (indentation) Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by indentation. malleability. When applicable. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength. Rockwell Hardness. Heat Treatment Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of termperature changes. conditions or properties are attained.Society4Pakswissians Hardenability The ability of a metal.

usually zinc. Hematite The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe2O3. Homogenizing Annealing An annealing treatment carried out at a high temperature. Hydrogen Embrittlement (1) Brittleness of metal. thermally insulated or heated. High Brass 65% A copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. Hot Working Deformation under conditions that result in recrystallization. Hot Top (1) A reservoir. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature. approaching the solidus temperature.Society4Pakswissians Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. Possesses high tensile strength. Hot Working Plastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening. Hooke's Law Stress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. to hold molten metal on top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid having pipe or voids. tin. Honing Removing stock generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a workpiece with an abrasive stick mounted in a holder. Homogenizing Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion. for the purpose of fizing a rust resistant coating. resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). for a sufficiently long time that inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional processes. (2) A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and 34 . cutting or welding. but within which microstructure and physical properties were altered by the treatment. Used for springs. a process wherby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal. Hot Short Brittleness in hot metal. Hydrogen Embrittlement A condition low ductility in metals resulting from the absorbtion of hydrogen. screws. rivets. Hot Shortness Brittleness in metal in the hot forming range. or terne. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey Hooke's law is known as the elastic limit. etc. Hot Dip In steel mill practice.

The quantity measured is the energy absorbed when the specimen is broken by a single blow. any alloy containing less than the eutectic concentration of solute. Impact Test A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading. or torsion. Hypereutectoid Steel A steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon.) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal. Hypereutectoid Alloy In a eutectoid system. Hypoeutectoid Steel Steel with less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. the search unit being coupled to this object through a column of liquid. Hypoeutectic Alloy In a eutectic system. Inclusion A nonmetallic material in a solid metallic matrix. Impact Energy (Impact Value) The amount of energy required to ffracture a material. tension. any alloy containing more than the eutectoid concentration of solute. usually measured by means of an Izod or Charpy test. tension or torsion. as in the Charpy or Izod. In most cases the object and the search unit are submerged in water. usually in bending. a planned.usually in bending. Impact Test A test for determining the behaviour of materials when subjected to high rates of loading under conditions designed to promote fracture. systematic movement of the beam relative to the object being inspected. Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures. usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen. etc. Impact Test Test designed to determine the resistance of metal to breakage by impact. silicates. Immersed Scanning In ultrasonics.Society4Pakswissians internal pressure developed subsequently. Impurities Elements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow. Idiomorph A particle of a phase the has a regular external shape. 35 . Inclusions Particles of impurities (usually oxides. The type of speciment and testing conditions affect the values and therfore should be specified. sulfides.

Internal Oxidation Formation of oxides beneath the surface of a metal. Interleaving The placing of a sheet of paper between two adjacent layers of metal to facilitate handling and shearing of rectangular sheets. Indentation Hardness The resistance of a meterial to indentation. Ingot A casting suitable for hot working or remelting. This is the usual type osf hardness test. 36 . and then cooling as required. Ingot Iron Commercially pure open-hearth iron. or to prevent sticking or scratching. Pickling inhibitors retard the sissolution of metal without hindering the removal of scale from steel.Society4Pakswissians Inclusions Non.etallic materials in a solid metallic matrix. Induction Heating A process of heating by electrical induction. Compare with progressuve aging. Induction Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is generated by electrical induction. Induction Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction. in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load. Interrupted Aging The aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps. Ingot A casting for subsequent rolling or forging. Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in an inert gas such as argon or helium. Intercrystalline Between crystals. and cooling to room termperature after each step. Same as intergranular. Intermediate Annealing An annealing treatment given to wrought metals following cold work hardening for the purpose of softening prior to further cold working. Inhibitor A substance which retards some specific chemical reaction. Ingot Iron Commercially pure iron. or between grains.

Intracrystalline Within or across crystals or grains.Society4Pakswissians Interrupted Quenching Quenching in which the metal object being quenched is removed from the quenching medium while the object is at a temperature substantially higher than that of the quenching medium. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming. Melting point of pure iron about 2795 (degrees) F. Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram A diagram that shows the isothermal time required for transformation of austenite to commence and to finish as a function of temperature. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Thus iron-carbon alloys containing less than about 0.1% C may be referred to as irons. Iron An element that has an average atomic number of 55. and is then cooled to and held at a temperaure that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferritecarbide aggregate. (2) A casting made by the process. as measured by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. The energy absorbed.85 and that always. contains small but significant amounts of carbon. Ironing Thinning the walls of deep drawn articles by reducing the clearance between punch and die.) Element No.85. 37 . Izod Test A pendulum type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen. Atomic weight 55. cast iron and wrought iron. Isothermal Annealing A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic. in engineering practice. Alloys with higher carbon contents are always termed steels. Interstitial Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solute atoms occupy (interstitial) positions between the atoms in the structure of the solvent. or lost-wax process. or frozed mercury pattern is removed through the use of heat. Investment Casting (1) Casting metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature after which the wax. Also called precision casting. is fixed at one end and broken by a falling pendulum. Irom (Chemical symbol Fe. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel. Isothermal Transformation A change in phase at any constant temperature. ductile and malleable. 26 of the periodic system. Same as transcrystalline and transgranular. A magnetic silver white metal of high tensile strength. Same as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram or S-curve. usually notched. plastic.

It is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle. also all forging grades. Ladle Analysis A term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported by the producer. Usually associated with a fusion weld in thick plate. Laminations A defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers. However. A properly killed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from aging. for the same carbon and manganese content Killed Steel is harder than Rimmed Steel. Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent such as silicon or aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Kip A load of 1000 lbs. Kind Band (deformation) In polycrystalline materials. In general all steels above 0. caused by gas pockets in the ingot.15% carbon are rimmed steel.Society4Pakswissians Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent. 38 . Lamination An abnormal structure resulting in a separation or weakness aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of the metal. a volume of crystal that has rotated physically to accommodate differential deformation between adjoining parts of a grain while the band itself has deformed homogeneously. To become divided. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. such as silicon or aluminum. Most steels below 0.25% carbon and some special steels in the low carbon range. Lamellar Tear A system of cracks or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of a plate. This occurs by regular bending of the slip lamellae along the boundaries of the band.15% to 0. Killed Steel The term killed indicates that the steel has been sufficiently deoxidized to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. structural steels from 0.25% carbon are killed. The general practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents.

such as beryllium. seams. magnesium. Liquation Partial melting of an alloy. caused by fording over hot metal. as parallel arrays or packets of lath-shape units about 0. Lath Martensite Martensite formed. in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together. or segregation elongated and made directional by working.Society4Pakswissians Laminations Metal defects with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of the metal. Lap A surface defect appearing as a seam. and non-collinear lattice points. Lap A surface defect. May be the result of pipe. Lattice Space lattice. but not welding them. blisters. respectively. for use as a plate in offset printing. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish melting on heating. inclusions. partly in steel containing less than about 1. appearing as a seam. Lattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so as to pass through collinear lattice points. or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface.1 to 0. Low Brass 39 . Long Terne A term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Lead and Tin) by immersion in a bath of Terne Metal. but not welding them. Longitudinal Direction The principal direction of flow in a worked metal. titanium. Light Metals Metal and alloys that have a low specific gravity. fins or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface. and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe. and having a habit plane that is close to {111}.5% C.3 m thick. caused by folding over hot metal. Lithographic Sheet Aluminum Sheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness. Leveling Flattening rolled metal sheet or strip. Light Metal One of the low-density metals such as aluminum. Lap-Weld A term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering. Lamination defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts. fins. beryllium. or their alloys.0% C and solely in steels containing less than about 0. magnesium and aluminum. Liquidus In a constitutional diagram.

75 carbon range either hard drawn or oil tempered. Macro-Etch Etching of a metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. Machinability The relative ease of machining a metal. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the field point. drawing. (The product of Basic Oxygen.45/. . suitable for cupping. etc. NOTE M B.) Low-Hydrogen Electrode A covered arc-welding electrode that provides an atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen. Luders Lines (Steel) (Characteristic of No. M B Grade A term applied to Open-Hearth steel wire in the . 5 dead soft temper. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal gose. Luders Lines or Bands Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results form discontinuous (inhomogeneous) yielding. H B and extra H B designate Basic Open Hearth steels. W H B and extra W H B designate Acid Open Hearth Steels. Oil tempered wire of M B and W M B types are the most widely used of all spring wires. Open Hearth or Electric Processes.60% manganese. 5 Yemper-Not a defect in No.) Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. etc. very ductile. metal bellows. Machinability Index A relative measure of the machinability of an engineering material under specified standard conditions.30% carbon and less than 0. 40 . Oil tempered wire is more suitable to precision forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire. forming. because of close control of tensile strength and superior straightness. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. Macroetch Test Consists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in hot acid and of examining the etched surface to evaluate the soundness and homogeneity of the product being tested.Society4Pakswissians 80% cu. Is a light golden color. A copper-Zinc alloy containing 20% zinc. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties are the same for both basic and acid steel. while W M B. Machinability The capacity of a material to be machined easily. Bessemer.10 to 0. Low Carbon Steels Contain from 0.

Manganese (Chemical symbol Mn. Manual Welding Welding where in the entire welding operation is performed and controlled by hand. Macrostructure The structure of a metal as revealed by examination of the etched surface at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. When photographed. The more malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others. with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high manganese accompany each other. Finely divided magnetic particles. Magnetic-Particle Inspection A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. Macrostructure The structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination. Magnetite The oxide or iron of intermediate valence which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe3O4. in someinstances.Society4Pakswissians Macroetching Etching of a metal surface with the abjective of accentuating gross structural details. non-malleable character. Malleabilizing A process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free carbon or. atomic weight 54.) Element No. 41 . 25 of the periodic system. for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. Macroscopic Visible either with the naked eye or under low magnification (as great as about ten diameters. therfore. anre attracted to and outline the pattern of any magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities. Macrograph A graphic reproduction of a prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. Lustrous. applied to the magnetized part. Malleability The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the metal is subjected to rolling or hammering.93. It increases hardenability inexpensively. Macrograph A photographic reproduction of any object that has not been magnified more than ten times. the reproduction is known as a photomacrograph (not a macrophotograph). Its principal function is as an alloy in steel making: (1) It is ferrite-strengthening and carbide forming element. reddishwhite metal of hard brittle and. (2) It counteracts brittleness from sulfur. The metal is used in large quantities in the form of Spiegel and Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copperbase alloys. part of the carbon is removed completely. Macrostructure The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.

the controlling Ms temperature is that of the case. The alloy is then allowed to cool in air through the martensite range. silicon and sulfur. even if erroneous. meaning. Martensite Range The interval between the Ms and Mf temperatures. phosphorus. a metalstable transition phase with a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure formed by diffusionless transformation of austenite generally during cooling between the Ms and Mf temperatures. carbon. Arsenic. it covers elements commonly prosent in simple steel. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. Its microstructure is characterized by an acicular. (b) In steel metallurgy. a metastable transitional structure intermediate between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a given solute differ considerably. metalloid has a specialized. pattern. (2) A metastable phase of steel.. Matalloid (a) Element intermediate in lustre and conductivity between the true metals and non-metals. Matt or Matte Finish (Steel) Not as smooth as normal mill finish. there being a rather distinct beginning temperature. formed by a transformation of austenite below the Ms (or Ar) temperature. boron. the high-temperature phase transformed to martensite depends to a large extent upon the temperature attained in cooling. or slightly above that range. Martensite (1) In an alloy. 42 . tellurium. are generally considered metalloids. Martensite A distinctive neddle like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. Matrix The principal phase in which another constituent is embedded. Martempering (1) A hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous material is quenched into an appropriate medium at a temperature just above the Ms temperature of the material. and selenium. another metalloid in character. manganese. Obviously. Matrix The principal phase or aggregate in which another constituent is embedded. antimony.and then cooled in air. no hard and fast line can be drawn. and holding it in the medium until the temperature throughout the alloy is substantially uniform. Produce by etched or mechanically roughened finishing rolls. (2) When the process is applied to carburized material. or needle-like. The treatment is frequently followed by tempering. This variation of the process is frequently called marquenching. It is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a bodycentered tetragonal lattice. Martensite is magnetic. etc. held in the medium until the temperature is uniform through-out -but not long enough for bainite to form . Martensite In steel. frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition.Society4Pakswissians Martempering Quenching an austenitized ferrous alloy in a medium at a temperature in the upper part of the martensite range.

Metal Spraying A process for applying a coating of metal to an object. hardness. Melting Range The range of temperature in which an alloy melt. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are. elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and. for example. properties or structure.Society4Pakswissians Mechanical Polishing A method of producing a specularly reflecting surface by use of abrasives. The mechanical properties of steel are dependent on its microstructure. Mechanical Twin A twin formed in a metal during plastic deformation by simple shear of the structure.60% carbon and less than 1. Metallography The science concerning the constituents and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the microscope. when polished.30% to 0. Medium-Carbon Steel Contains from 0. Mechanical Spring Any spring produced by cold forming from any material with or without subsequent heat treatment. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain.00% manganese. usually in the form of wire. the modulus of elasticity. etc. Metastable 43 . a good reflector or light. for example. compound or eutectic changes form solid to liquid. tensile strength. hammering. but the term mechanical properties is much to be preferred. Mechanical Working Plastic deformation or other physical change to which metal is subjected. elongation. in general.. thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application. Melting Point The temperature at which a pure metal. These properties have often been designated as physical properties. denser than other substances. Mechanical Properties Those properties of a meterial that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied. to change its shape. is melted by an oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene blast or by an electric arc and is proficted at high speed by gas pressure against the object being coated. Metalograph An optical instrument designed for both visual observation and photomicrography of prepared surfaces of opaque materials at magnifications ranging from about 25 to about 1500 diameters. the temperature at which the liquid and the solid are in equilibrium. drawing. The metal. Metal An opaque. Mechanical Properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied. modulus of elasticity. tensile strength and fatigue limit. by rolling. and fatigue limit. May be made by any of the standard processes. lustrous. that is the range between solidus and liquidus temperatures.

Mill Finish A surface finish produced on sheet and plate. the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity. Microcrack A crack of microscopic size. Microstructure The structure of polished and etched metal and alloy specimens as revealed by the microscope. Modulus of Elasticity A measure of the rigidity of metal. Unsheared. Microbands (deformation) Thin sheet like volumes of constant thickness in which cooperative slip occurs on a fone scale. The ratio of stress to strain within the perfectly elastic range. which usually contain two sets of bands.Society4Pakswissians Possessing a state of pseudo-equilibrium that has a free energy higher than that of the true equilibrium state but from which a system does not change spontaneously.55(degrees) to the compression direction and are confined to individual grains. Characteristic of the ground finish used on the rolls in fabrication. to corresponding strain.25% C. When photographed. Modulus of Elasticity (tension) Force which would be required to stretch a substance to double its normal length. the reproduction is known as a photomicrograph (not a microphotograph). i. The tangent modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit. Mill Edge The edge of strip. stretch modulus or modulus of extensibility. Micrograph A graphic reproduction of the prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification greater than ten diameters. 44 . Mild Steel Carbon steel containing a maximum of about 0. Mold A form of cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a desired shape. Specifically. Ratio of stress. obey Hooke's Law throughout the twist. Also called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity. shear modulus or modulus of torsion. within proportional limit. the former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point. sheet or plate in the as rolled state. Microstructure The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters. Compare shear bands. the modulus obtained in tension or compression is Young's modulus.e. The sheets are aligned at +/. the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal stress to the change in volume per unit volume is the bulk modulus.. on the assumption that it would remain perfectly elastic. the latter is the slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. They are an instability which carry exclusively the deformation at medium strains when normal homogeneous slip is precluded. Mf Temperature The temperature at which martensitic transformation is essentially complete during cooling after austenitization.

or extruded) products.2 . boiling point about 6600 (degrees) F. Music Wire A polished high tensile strength cold drawn wire with higher tensile strength and higher torsional strength than any other material available.035. (5) Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steel. specific gravity 10. These high mechanical properties are obtained by a combination of the high carbon content. Network Structure A structure in which the crystals of one constituent are surrounded by envelopes of another constituent which gives a network appearance to an etched test specimen. Stronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hotworked (rolled. Used for cutting the eyes of needle and milling the latch in a latch needle. melting point 4748 (degrees) F. Usually supplied in a 2 width from . atomic weight 95. Hard. High strength brasses are developed from this by adding other elements. (3) Counteracts tendency toward temperbrittleness. not hardness.. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Raises grain-coarsening temperature of austenite. Neumann Band A mechanical (deformation) twin in ferrite. these are used in radio and related work.25 Chromium . Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy) Alpha-beta brass. stamped. the patenting treatment and by many continuous passes through drawing dies. (4) Raises hot and creep strength. Carbon content 1.95.002 to . Such wire is purchased according to tensile strength. Necking Local reduction of the cross-sectional area of metal by stretching. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature. Pure molybdenum can best be obtained as a black powder. becoming very ductile and malleable when properly treated at high temperatures. The high toughness characteristic of this material is obtained by the patenting. ductile sheet and wire are made by powder metallurgy techniques.Society4Pakswissians Molybdenum (Chemical symbol Mo) Element No. 60% copper and 40% zinc.. 45 .15. by reduction of molybdenum trioxide or ammonium molybdate with hydrogen. Needle Cutter Steel Usually supplied quarter hard rolled. tough metal of grayish-white color. red hardness. (6) Forms abrasion-resisting particles. 42 of the peridic system. (2) Deepens hardening. From this powder. extra precision rolled with sheared edges. Ms Temperature The temperature at which a martensitic transformation starts during cooling after austenitization.

boiling point about 5250 (degrees) F. that is.Society4Pakswissians Nickel (Chemical symbol Ni) Element No. Used as an alloying agent. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels. Silvery white. as well as in nickel-base alloys such as Monel Metal. melting point 2651 (degrees) F. silicates or similar substances held in metals mechanically during solidification or formed by reactions in the solid state. .. principal among them being aluminum. Quenching is not required to produce a hard case. or ears.15-1. and . and 5-30% Ni.. when subjected to deep drawing. the increase in hardness being the result of surface nitride formation. Nitriding Steel Steel which is particularly suited for the nitriding process. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water. Certain alloying constituents. ease of flattening when subjected to rolling or hammering. it is of great importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-Nickel. it will form a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding (heating in a partially dissociated atmosphere of ammonia gas). Non-Ferrous Metals Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so.40 carbon.90-1.90. Nodular Pearlite Pearlite that has grown as a colony with an approximately spherical morphology. of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. In general. on the edges of the steel. usually ammonia of molten cyanide of appropriate composition. the depth of the case is less than with carburizing. . sulphides. greatly facilitate the hardening reaction. Composition usually .20% aluminum. Normalizing 46 . Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel Strip steel ordered or sold on the basis of absence of unevenness. Nitriding Process of surface hardening certain types of steel by heating in ammonia gas at about 935-1000 (degrees) F. Nickel Silver Copper base alloys that contain 10-45% Zn.85-1.50 chromium. Nickel Steel Steel containing nickel as an alloying element. atomic weight 58.. Non-Refractory Alloy A term opposed to refractory alloy.00 molybdenum. Used for electroplating.20-. 28 of the periodic system. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature). slightly magnetic metal. See Columbium Nitriding Introducing nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable temperature (below Ac1 for ferritic steels) in contact with a nitrogenous material. Non-Metallic Inclusions Impurities (commonly oxides). specific gravity 8. 41 of the periodic system. A non-refractory alloy has malleability. that is.69. Niobium (Chemical symbol Nb) Element No. (3) Renders highchromium iron alloys austenitic.

This term is derived from terminology used on the mill gloor where by temper or hardness is imparted by cold working and classified as to hardness by the number of Brown & Sharpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state. it is said to be notch ductile. in a notch tensile test a material is said to be notch brittle if its notch strength is less than its tensile strength.Society4Pakswissians Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above A3 or Acm and then cooling in still air to a temperature substantially below A1. Is performed to refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress. Oil-Hardening Steel Steel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and quenching in oil. otherwise. Oil Stain Aluminum Stain produced by the incomplete burning of the lubricants on the surface of the sheet. Nucleation Initiation of a phase transformation at discrete sites. Notch Sensitivity A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress concentration. Nucleus (1) The first structurally stable particle capable of initiating recrystallization of a phase or the growth of a new phase. Rolling subsequent to staining will change color from darker browns to lighter browns down to white. in which most of the mass and the total positive electrical charge are concentrated. Yellow Brass Half Hard is termed 2 numbers hard. Olsen (Ductility) Test 47 . Notch Brittleness A measure of the susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture at locations of stress concentration. Oil Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil.e. Normalizing A heat treatment applied to steel. temper is referred to as so many numbers hard. the new phase growing from nuclei. impact or fatigue tests. Normalizing Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. The cooling rate usually is in the range 900 to1800 F/h (500 to 1000C/h). i. Number as Pertaining to Hardness In copper base alloys inductry. Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. Values can be obtained from static. (2) The heavy central core of an atom. For example. and separated form the matrix by an interface.

In ferrous industry. This test is sometimes used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing. It is due to uneven flow or to the appearance of the overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too high a temperature. Sometimes termed stagger wound or vibrated wound. silica. sheet or strip. Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. Ore A mineral from which metal is (or may be) extracted. it is known as the preferred orientation. Open Surface Rough surface on black plate.Society4Pakswissians A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and depth of impression. The opposite of ribbon wound.04%). causing the charge to be heated both by direct flame and radiation from the roof and sidewalls of the furnace. random orientation exists. in the absence of any such preference. the lining of the hearth is basic. usually magnesite. Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. Orange Peel (effect) A surface roughening (defect) encountered in forming products from metal stock that has a coarse grain size. Orange Peel A pebble-grain surface which develops in forming of metals having coarse grains. Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound A method of even winding metal strip or wire on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. Readings are in thousandths of an inch. is used as the furnace lining and pig iron. 48 . If there is any tendency for one arrangement to predominate. the furnace is regenerative. Also referred to as pebbles and alligator skin. Open-Hearth Process Process of making steel by heating the metal in the hearth of a regenerative furnace. is the raw material charged in. similar to the Erichsen ductility test. Open-Hearth Furnace A reverberatory melting furnace with a shallow hearth and a low roof. Orientation (crystal) Arrangement of certain crystal axes or crystal planes in a crystalline aggregate with respect to a given direction or plane. resulting from imperfection in the original steel bars from which the plate was rolled. whereas in the acid open-hearth steel process. In the basic openhearth steel process. continuing until the cup formed from the metal sample fractures. Orientation (crystal) Directions in space of the axes of the lattice of a crystal with respect to a chosen reference or coordinate system. The flame passes over the charge in the hearth. The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a standard steel ball under pressure. extremely low in phosphorous (less than 0. an acid material. so that the property is altered in the direction of the initial value.

Pancake Forging A rough forged shape which may be obtained quickly with a minimum of tooling. Pancake Grain Structure 49 . Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. produced without the use of residual metallic or metalloidal deoxidizers. Oxygen-Free Copper Electrolytic copper free from cuprous oxide. scale prevents their being welded together. Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. scale prevents the sheets from being welded together. or by combination of working and heat treating. hence a staining or discoloration. a method usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil. When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. by mechanical working or by a combination of working and heat treating. Oxidation (1) A reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a loss of electrons. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. by mechanical working. the overheating is known as burning. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface. tightly adhering oxidized skin. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. Oxidized Surface A surface having a thin. This effect is increased with temperature increase. Oxidation The addition of oxygen to a compound. the overheating is known as burning. (2) Chemical combination with oxygen to form an oxide. Oxide Compound of oxygen with another element. Oxygen Lance A length of pipe used to convey oxygen onto a bath of molten metal.Society4Pakswissians Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum strength. It usually requires considerable machining to attain the finish size. When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. Pack Rolling Rolling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time.

Pearlite Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. Pattern Welding A process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel are twisted together and then forge welded. usually in air. oftern occurring in steel and case iron. Pearlite A lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite. A regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final product. with subsequent colling. 50 . Peritectic An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase to produce another solid phase. Penetrant Inspection A method of non-destructive testing for determining the existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being inspected. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite. Patenting Treatment of steel. Homogeneity and toughness are thereby improved. Peening Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement. or in a fused salt mixture held between 800 (degrees) F. and 1050 (degrees) F. Patenting A heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold drawing to wire.D. Pass A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill. Pearlite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent.. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. COmmonly used for making swords as early as the 3rd century A. Passivation The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. Patterned or Embossed Sheet A sheet product on which a raised or indented pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls. Contrast with activation. usually in wire form. Pass (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent chemical in the liquid employed as the inspection medium.Society4Pakswissians A structure in which the lengths and widths of individual grains are large compared to their thicknesses. in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830 (degrees) F. in a bath of molten lead. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide.

co-efficient of thermal expansion. to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel. deformation of metal under stress.Society4Pakswissians Permalloy Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe. and chemical resistance. which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. Physical Properties Those properties familiarly discussed in physics. Photomicrograph A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters.. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. other than mechanical properties. Phosphor Bronze Copper base alloys. for example. that pertain to the physics of a material. corrosion resistant comparable to copper.5 to 10% of tin. e. Rated good for soft soldering.. but this usage is not recommended. to which has been added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1% for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity. reflectivity. strength. that pertain to the physical nature of a material. 51 .98. In the manufacture of Phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent. carbon arc and resistance welding. Temper is imparted by cold rolling. and improves machinability in free-cutting steels. silver alloy brazing. it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets. atomic weight 30. Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms. It has corrosion resisting properties comparable to copper. fine grain. electrical conductivity. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F. boiling point 536 (degrees) F. for example. after passing the elastic limit. great toughness and resistance to fatigue. 15 of the periodic system. However. density. Phase A physically homogeneous and distincy portion of a material system. Phase Diagram Synonymous with constitutional diagram. Physical Properties The properties. thermal expansion. oxyacetylene. It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F.. thermal expansion. resistance to fatigue and wear. It has excellent electrical properties. etc. Phosphor Bronze Strip A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin. resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. melting point 111 (degrees) F. exclusive of those described under mechanical properties. magnetic susceptibility. The term micrograph may be used. with 3. density. specific gravity 1. In steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications. Permanent Set Non-elastic or plastic. these alloys find general use as springs and in making fittings. heat conductivity. density. Physical Properties Properties other than mechanical properties. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties. increases resistance to corrosion. Phosphorus (Chemical symbol P) Element No.g. electrical conductivity. Because of excellent toughness. electrical conductivity.82.

in which the grains within a definite area are counted. Pickling The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids. essentially cone-like in shape. and other impurities. Pinchers Long fern like creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling. Pipe (1) The central cavity formed by contraction in metal. Piling A process in which several bars are stacked and hot rolled together with the objective of improving the homogeneity of the final product.Society4Pakswissians Pickling Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical reaction. which occurs in the approximate center. also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thickness of light gage metal. (2) The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a cavity. microscopic bare spots. galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty pickling. 52 . Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. (3) An extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward the center of the rod at the back end. during solidification. made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube. (2) Cast iron in the form of pigs. Pitting Forming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by nonuniform electro-deposition or by corrosion. caused by the shrinkage of cast metal. Balance largely silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus. Pickling Patch A defect in tin plate. that is. Pig Iron Iron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. Planimetric Method A method of measuring grain size. Pin Expansion Test A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses. especially ingots. Pipe (defect) Contraction cavity. cast or wrought. (2) Cast Iron in the form of pigs. sulphur. leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed. at the top and reaching down into a casting. Pinholes Microscopic imperfection of the coatings. Pit (defect) A sharp depresssion in the surface of the metal. Used in primitive iron making. (4) A tubular metal product. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3.5% carbon.

e. this phenomenon is also called allotropy. Plasticity The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture. Polycrystalline Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal. Plate Martensite Martensite formed. 53 . permanent after release of the stress that caused it. the particular form depending on the conditions of crystallization . or will remain. partly in steels containing more than about 0. temperature and pressure. Plastic Deformation Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses. from a fused electrolyte. or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels Plating A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.. is of fundamental importance in the hardening of steel. for stress relieving. Pot A vessel for holding molten metal. or by rolling in a planishing mill. Plastic Deformation Deformation that remains. resulting in a high gloss or polish. Also used to refer to the electrolytic reduction cell employed in winning certain metals. it is allotropy. or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure. Postheating Heating weldments immediately after welding. Polishing Producing a specularly reflecting surface. Polymorphism The property whereby certain substances may exist in more than one crystalline form. such as aluminum. If the change is reversible.0% C. Polymorphism The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic structure.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1. Polished Surface The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive. Numerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation temperatures during heating or cooling.g. as lenticular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near (225)A. Plasticity The capacity of a metal to deform non-elastically without rupturing. and usually a large number of crystals.Society4Pakswissians Planishing Producing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose. The allotropy of iron. Plate A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width argitrarily dependent on the type of metal. Among elements. for tempering. particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and the gamma face centered form.

Preheating (1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. Primes Metal products. (3) Nonfer. Ingots are homogenized by preheating. usually hot. Preferred Orientation A condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the crystal orientations are not random. heating to an intermediate temperature immediately before austenitizing. Primary Crystal The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during solidifacation. of the highest quality and free from visible surface defects. met. the lower limit of the transformation range and then cooling. for example. Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution.-Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working. Pouring The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other types of molds. For tool steel. in castings. Powder Metallurgy The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects. principally sheet and plate. but below. Process Annealing 54 . Press Forging Forging metal. in order to soften the alloy for futher cold working. Precipitation Heat Treatment Nonfer met. Primes Metal products. heating to a high temperature for a long time. in order to homogenize the structure before working.Society4Pakswissians Pot Annealing Is the same as box annealing. Preheating Heating before some further thermal or mechanical treatment. Precipitation Hardening Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent form a supersaturated solid solution. of the highest quality and free from visible defects. (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. between dies in a press. Process Annealing In the sheet and wire industries. Precipitation Hardening A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution. heating a ferrous alloy to a temperature close to. For some nonferrous alloys. such as sheet and plate.

or yield strength. Punch The movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing. Proof Stress (1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. min. (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads.Society4Pakswissians In the sheet and wire industries. although on a very small scale during the present century. Quarter hard is one B and S number hard or 10. For Chromium-Nickel grades Quarter Hard Temper is 125. The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method. but below. the lower limit of the transformation range and is subsequently cooled. 55 . embossing and the like.95% reduction. Punching Shearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die. Propertional Limit The maximum stress at which strain remains directly propertional to stress. This process is applied in order to soften the alloy for further cold working.000 Y. (C) In stainless steel terminology tempers are based on minimum tensile. Puddling Process A process for making wrought iron in which cast orn is melted in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained.000 T. Progressive Aging An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continuously increased during the aging cycle. Propertional Limit The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (Hooke's Law). a process by whcih a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature close to. 75. (B) In brass mill terminology. 3 Temper) (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. S.. and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured. This process was developed by Henry Cort about 1784 and remained in use until 1957.S. Pyrometer An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures. Quarter Hard (No. Compare with interrupted aging. a medium soft temper produced by a limited amount of cold rolling after annealing. Proeutectoid (phase) Particles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation takes place. Pulse-Echo Method A nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed onto a part. blanking. coining.

most commonly accomplished by immersing the metal in oil or water. cracked. 56 . Quench Hardening (Steel) A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially. density or absorption. Recarburizing (1) Increasing the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material. high-carbon pig iron or a high-carbon alloy. caused by internal defects or inclusions. by means of tubes in which gas is burned. The austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually above Ac3 and for hypereutectoid steels usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). Quench Hardening Hardening by austenitizing and then cooling at a rate such that a substantial amount of austenite is transformed to martensite. Quenching In the heat treating of metals. and the length of this line is inversely proportional to their interplanar distance. (2) Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing. Usually a protective atmosphere is maintained in the box to protect the metal from oxidation. Quench Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling rapidly enough so that some or all of the austenite transforms to martensite. the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal. inside. Radiant Tube Annealing Box A box which is heated. The process usually involves the formation of martensite. Ragged Edges Edges of Sheet or Strip which are torn. Differences in thickness. are apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent screen or on photographic film placed behind the object. standing on the base of the box. the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties. In the case of most copper base alloys. split.Society4Pakswissians Quench Aging Aging that occurs after quenching following solution heat treatment. Radiography A nondestructive method of internal examination in which metal objects are exposed to a beam of X-ray or gamma radiation. ragged or burred or otherwise disfigured. Quenching Rapid cooling. quenching has no effect other than to hasten cooling. Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal) A group of points arranged about a center in such a way that the line joining each point of the center is perpendicular to a family of planes in the crystal.

Recrystallization (1) The change from one crystal structure to another. stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time. (2) Formation of a new. condenser tubes. plaques. Reflector Sheet 57 . usually just higher than the transformation range. the difference. Red Brass 85% Copper -. Because of its color. etc. badges. the grain size. Recrystallization (1) A change from one crystal structure to another.in particular. structure from the structure existing in cold worked metal. expressed as a percentage of original area. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. is used or vanity cases. strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold worked metal. (2) The formation of a new. (2) The difference. between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the specimen. expressed as a percentage of original area. usually accomplished by heating. Reduction of Area (1) Commonly. Red Shorness Brittleness in steel when it is red hot. used for plumbing pipe. employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the structure -. Recrystallization A process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced by a new. strain-free grain. Refining Temperature A temperature. coins. Recystallization Annealing Annealing cold worked metal to produce a new grain structure without a phase change. It is somewhat stronger than commercial bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold working.Society4Pakswissians Recovery Reduction or removal of work-hardening effects. hardware. Recovery (1) The removal of residual stresses by localized plastic flow as the result of low-temperature annealing operations. performed on cold worked metals without altering the grain structure or strength properties substantially. between the original crosssectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. without motion of large-angle grain boundaries. such as that occurring on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature.A copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 15% zinc.

Flash and butt welding are sometimes considered as resistance welding processes. Resistance Welding Welding with electrical resistance heating and pressure. The high-purity coating imparts good polishing characteristics and the core gives adequate strength and formability. Refractory A heat-resistant material. Refractory Metal A metal having an extremely high melting point. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding. Resilience The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain. These inclusions are usually due to contaminated scrap. Resolution 58 . and nickel. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients.Society4Pakswissians An alclad product containing on one side a surface layer of high-purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of commercial-purity aluminum or an aluminum-manganese alloy. Residual Elements Small quantities of elements unintentionally present in an alloy. Residuals 'Incidental' or 'tramp' elements not named in a specification. it refers to metals having melting points above the range of iron. usually nonmetallic. Refractory Alloy A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances. cobalt. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. the work being part of an electrical circuit. Such processes include spot welding. NOTE: Black Plate in tempers T5 and T6 (R/B range 68/84) are temper rolled from Rephosphorized steel. Residual Stress Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation. In the broad sense. Rephosphorizing (Steel) A Ladle-chemical treatment consisting of the addition of phosphorus as a work hardening agent when temper rolling black plate or sheet steel resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a corresponding loss in ductility. Resistance Welding A type of welding process in which the work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact. . seam or line welding and percussion welding. which is used for furnace linings and such.

Rimmed Steel A low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide while the ingot is solidifying. etc. The rim is of somewhat purer composition than the original metal poured. Riffles Waviness at the edge of sheet or strip. Rockwell Hardness (Test) A standard method for measuring the hardness of metels. five scales designated by letters varying from A to H. Rolled In Scale A surface defect consisting of scale partially rolled into the surface of the sheet. the B and C scales are most commonly in use.15% carbon are rimmed steels. rounded corners and rounded edge. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. Roller Leveling Passing sheet or strip metal through a series of staggered small rolls so as to flatten the metal. For the same carbon and manganese content rimmed steel is softer than killed steel. the final contours of which are produced by side or edging rolls. 59 . If the rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring of the ingot is completed. The edge contours most commonly used are square corners. wavy edges. corrugations. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. Rolled Edges Finished edges. Most steels below 0. the metal is known as capped steel. The sulfur is added to improve machinability.. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator. Ribbon Wound A term applied to a common method of winding strip steel layer upon layer around an arbor or mandrel. sometimes called molded sections. Roll Forming An operation used in forming sheet. This method is relatively ineffective in removing defects such as buckles. Resulfurized Steel Steel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts after refining. Ripple (defect) A slight transverse wave or shadow mark appearing at intervals along the piece. Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to produce continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during ingot solidification. Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel in which incomplete deoxidation permits the metal to remain liquid at the top of the ingot. Sheet and strip products made from the ingot have very good surface quality. also. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. Various dial readings combined with different major loads. Strips of sheet are passed between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural members of various contours. the degree to which such forms or entities can be discriminated. twists. resulting in the formation of a bottom and side rim of considerable thickness. or from steel in the higher hardness ranges.Society4Pakswissians The capacity of an optical or radiation system to separate closely spaced forms or entities.

g. Scab (scabby) A blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold face. Scab A defect consisting of a flat volume of metal joined to a casting through a small area. or occurring where the skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded. NOTE: cutter discs are also employed in producing dircles from flat sheets but with differently designed machines.. rails. intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of cutting or stamping fabrics. sheets and strip. Salt Spray Test An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently. bars.Society4Pakswissians Roller Leveling Leveling by passing flat stock through a machine having a series of small-diameter staggered rolls. perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling. Rule Die Steel A hardened and tempered medium high carbon spring steel strip sufficiently low in hardness to take moderately sharp bends without fracture. usually to be followed by a subsequent operation. Rolling A term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thickness by passing it between rolls which compress. rods. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content. or otherwise shaping metal products. through the use of rotating rolls. Rolling Reducing the cross-sectional area of metal stock.05%. SAE Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine) A cutting machine with sharpened circular blades or disc-like cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil. It is usually set in a depression. Rolling Mills Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls the contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous intermediate and final shapes. Rolling Direction (in rolled metal) The direction. plastics. or by uneven mold surfaces. usually within 0. plates. This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal. e. slabs. Scale A layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature. blooms. Rough Machining Machining without regard to finish. sections. 60 . shape and lengthen it following the roll pattern. and metal foil into desired shape. cardboard. a flat side being separated from the metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand. in the plane of the sheet. paper.

Scleroscope Hardness (Test) A method for measuring the hardness of metals.Society4Pakswissians Scaling (1) Oxidation of metal due to heat. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. ordinarily by using a gas torch. Seam On the surface of metal. Scrap Material unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. or hollow extrusion ingot which has been machined on the outside surface. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. billets. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. Scalping Machining the surface layers from ingots. Scalped Extrusion Ingot A cast. billets and slabs before fabrication. absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal being tested. Seam (A defect. such as blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during working. Scleroscope Test A hardness test where the loss in kinetic energy of a falling metal tup.) On the surface of metal a crack that has been closed but not welded. is indicated by the height of rebound. billets. in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current. usually resulting from a defect obtained in casting or in working. a diamond-pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. with a specified high-carbon steel as 100. The scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance. by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish. an unwelded ford or lap which appears as a crack. Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working. (2) Removal of scale from metal. ordinarily by using a gas torch. Similar to cold shut and laminations. Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. Seam Welding An electric-resistance type of welding process. Scratch Brushed Finish Finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes. Scaling Forming a thick layer of oxidation products on metals at high temperatures. Scarf Joint A butt joint in which the plane of the joint is inclined with respect to the main axes of the members. solid. 61 . resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide.

.Society4Pakswissians Secondary Hardening Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same steel at some lower temperature for the same time. impurities or phases. 024 and . Semi-Steel Cast iron (not steel) of high quality. Self Diffusion The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of its own species.163 and thicknesses are . itc. impurities or microphases. through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction into the surrounding cold metal.058 to . concentration of alloying elements at specific regions. obtained by using a large percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron. This term not used in connection with non-ferrous alloys. Semikilled Steel Steel that is completely deoxided and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidifacation shrinkage. fo form martensite either through air hardening or. Hardness usually Rockwells 30 N 68 to 71. Segment Steel Used for laminated piston rings.020. Segregation In an alloy. Hardened and blue tempered with round edges. Carbon content about . Semifinished Steel Steel in the form of billets. as in welding and induction hardening. Self-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element. requiring further working before completion into finished steel ready for marketing. or other manufacturing defects.030. 62 . Semikilled Steel Steel incompletely deoxidized. Semikilled Steel Steel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset solidification shrinkage. to permit evolution of sufficient carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage. . or both. Segregation Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements. usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid. which may be classified in two general groups -. blooms.60%.imperfections in the base material. widths vary from . Segregation Nonumiform distribution of alloying elements. Seconds The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in moderate degree or extent. Segregation Banding In homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working.

Compare microbands. die and machine alignment purposes. Usually only one system is present in each regional group of grains. They carry most of the deformation at large strains. In steel there are four general types: (1) Low Carbon Rockwell B 80/100. or a blanket of fusible flux. different systems being present in adhoining groups. transgranular crack caused by shear stresses. Sheet is thinner than plate. resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. Hard but may be 4 Nos. Brass shim of commercial quality is also used and most generally specified is 2 Nos. Shim A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances. Shear Strength The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of cross section. Sheet A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and minimum width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. used primarily for tool. the products of decomposition of the electrode covering. Shell Molding Forming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pregeated (300 to 500 (degrees) F) metal patterns. The bands are noncrystallographic and form on planes of maximum shear stress (55(degrees) to the compression direction). the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified minimum amount. each. Shore Hardness Test Same as scleroscope test. Shear Steel Steel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel. Shear That type of force that causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. Short 63 . Shear Crack A diagonal. (4) Austenitic Stainless Steel Rockwell C 35/45. Also called Croning process. Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are protected by a gaseous atmosphere. Hard. backed up by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these backed up by bearings on a shaft mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings and backup rolls.Society4Pakswissians Sendzimir Mill A mill having two work rolls of 1 to 2 1/2-in diam. (3) Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Rockwell C 44/51. (2) Hard Rolled High Carbon Rockwell C 28/33. Shear A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved. Shear Bands (deformation) Bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. providing a more homogeneous product.

usually steel. hot. Short Terne A term applying to terne coated (Lead and Tin) sheets with reference to Base Box sizes (14 x 20) Refer to terne plate. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. in all steels. It is designated as cold. Shot Blasting Cleaning surface of metal by air blast. however. Silky Fracture A steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or silky appearance. Shrinkage Cavity A void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. Sinkhead or Hot Top 64 . It is designed as cold. Carbon content about 1. using metal as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. copper. Silicon Chemical symbol Si. Siliconizing Diffusing silicon into solid metal.Society4Pakswissians Brittle. and red. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss. 14 of the periodic system. the major component of all rodks and sands.% silicon. hot. to some extent. silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture.06. Supplied both hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited. its chemical reactions. such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or ejecting the formed work. Element No. Silver Solders Alloys of silver.25. Usually extra precision rolled and extra flat. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal. other elements being usually dept as low as possible. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal. Silicon Steel Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. Silicon is present. used for making strong yet moderately ductile joints that resist corrosion. Extremely common element. at an elevated temperature.50-5. and red. atomic weight 28. sinc and other metals. Single-Action Press A forming press that operates with a single function. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets. are those of a metalloid. melting between 650 and 875 (degrees) C. with about 0. Sinker Steel Used for making sinkers in hosiery making machinery. extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits.

such as cobalt acing as a matrix. such as tungsten. and edge configuration. in order to feed the shrinkage of the ingot. at least twice as wide as it is thick. from which pipe or tubing is made.Society4Pakswissians A reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hod excess molten metal on top of an ingot mold. Skelp A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness. Skull A layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when metal has been poured. Slab A piece of metal. containing carbides of extremely refractory metals. Skin A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object. and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility. Slip Plastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite crystallographic plane. Slag A product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of a processed ore. in composition. etc.. width. usually after preliminary compacting by pressure. Slack Quenching The process of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the particular steel. Slag A nonmetallic product resulting form mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in smelting and refining operations. cemented together by a relatively low-melting metal. Also called shrink head or feeder head. 65 . or in a compact. Skelp A plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together. Sintering Bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides. Slip Direction The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip takes place. tantalum. or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable. resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite. structure or other characteristics. Slip Line Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface. titanium. Sintered Carbide Composite. by heating Sintering Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion. intermediate between ingot and plate.

Soaking Prolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature. Solder Embrittlement Reduction in ductility of a metal or alloy. Slit Edges The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters. and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 (degrees) F. Hard solders are alloys that have silver. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt on heating. associated with local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries. Solid Solution A solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase equilibrium. which are the soft solders. holding at that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. Solution Heat Treatment 66 . soft and ductile. Slitting Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters. Solution Heat Treatment Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature. Produced by subjecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or skin rolling (a very light rolling).Society4Pakswissians Slip Plane The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal. and may subsequently exhibit quench aging. Solute The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the lesser or minor extent. unstable state.most commonly. the component that is dissolved in the solvent. held at that temperature long enough to cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. lead-base or tin-base alloys. Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. Solidus In a constitutional diagram. The alloy is left in a supersaturated. Solution Heat Treatment A heat treatment in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature. is generally termed brazing. Sliver (defect) Loose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during the rolling operations. Solid Solution A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species. 4 Temper) In low carbon-rolled strip steel. copper. and then cooled rapidly enough to hold these constituents in solution. Soldering Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -.

Spectograph (X-rays) An instrument using an extended surface -. 2. on cooling under the proper conditions. Specific Gravity A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. for which the specific gravity is taken as 1. from the decomposition of austenite. the space lattice may be thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells. Solvent The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the greater or major extent. Solvus In a phase or equilibrium diagram. Spalling The cracking and flaking of particles out of a surface. or a fluorescent screen -. .for receiving the X-ray diffraction pattern.Society4Pakswissians A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. 3. the second type is tempered martensite. Spectograph An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited. Sorbite Structure of steel. The metal is left in a supersaturated. the limits of solid solubility. that is. . The first type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope. Heating to temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 67 . Spelter (Prime Western Spelter) A low-grade of Virgin Zinc containing approximately 98% Zinc used in Galvanizing processes. In a truly sorbitic structure. Prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1. the locus of points representing the temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid phases. The trend is to call this structure tempered martensite. lamellar appearance. Sorbitic Pearlite Structure of steel resulting. Speroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. Space Lattice (crystal) A system of equivalent points formed by the intersections of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes.a photographic plate or film. the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. Space-Centered (concerning space lattices) Body-centered. Spheroidizing methods frequently used are: 1. resulting from the tempering of martensite.0000. Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just below Ae1. has a fine. the component that dissolves the solute. unstable state and may subsequently exhibit age hardening. Sorbite (obsolete) A fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening.

hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip. gas-shielded metal-arc. Stabilizing Anneal A treatment applied to austentic stainless steels that contain titanium or columbium. It is generally resistance welding. The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces. 4. 68 . and then re-heating in accordance with methods 1 or 2 above. Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. but may also be gas-shielded tungsten-arc. (Applicable to hypereutectoid steel containing a carbide network. Spring-Back An indicator of elastic stresses. . Spring Temper is eight numbers hard or 60. Speroidizing Annealing A subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases. which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide is dissolved. Spheroidizing Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or columbium carbide. approximately 5% carbon. to prevent the reformation of a carbide network. or basic open-hearth process. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving. Spheroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. Spot Welding An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area. frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held. Spot Welding Welding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively small circular area. Spring Steel Strip Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are required marketed in the annealed state. Spiegel High-manganese pig iron. or submerged-arc welding. containing 15-30% manganese.Society4Pakswissians and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below Ae1. and less than 1% silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer. Spheroidized Structure A microstructure consisting of a matrix containing spheroidal particles of another constituent. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures.50% reduction. Spinning The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool.

but always containing a high percentage of chromium. Steel Iron. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. and relatively pure irons. Sticker Steel sheets or strip adhering. usually carbon. (3) Precipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid solution to improve the workability. 69 . malleable in some temperature range as initially cast. Sterling Silver A silver alloy containing at least 95. cast irons. Standard Gold A legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold.00%. atmospheric oxidation. about 2. blanking.Society4Pakswissians Stabilizing Treatment A thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from solid solution. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel.2% Ag. the maximum carbon content is about 2. or tantalum. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids.0%. (2) Transforming retained austenite in parts made from tool steel. steel usually containing at least 0. the maximum carbon is about 2. containing maganease. substantially free from slag.0%.25%. carbonyl iron. columbium. and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron. malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point without special heat treatment. Steel is differentiated from two general classes of iron . on the low-carbon side. the maganese content is the principal differentiating factor. (1) Heating austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium.05% and less than about 2. ingot iron contains considerably less. weak mineral acids. embossing. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. and containing carbon bore than about 0. columbium. Stainless Steel Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety. or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a carbide of titanium.5%. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as being at about 5% metallic alloying elements. in order to improve the workability. which have high carbon concentrations.5%. and electrolytic iron. and usually as undesirable constituents. which have low carbon concentrations.namely. Other alloying elements may be present in significant quantities. and often other alloying elements. etc. Usually by fusion spots caused by overheating during box annealing. in high-alloy steel. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. about 2. Stablizing Treatment Any treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy of the dimensions of a part. Steel An iron-base alloy usually containing carbon and other alloying elements. Steel An iron-base alloy. but all steels contain at least small amounts of manganese and silicon. or to obtain dimensional stability under service at slightly elevated temperatures. and pressing. In some steels containing extremely low carbon. Stamping A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as the 5% level of total metallic alloying elements. or to obtain dimensional stability. Steel is to be differentiated from two general classes of irons: the cast irons. the remainder being unspecified but usually copper. on the high-carbon side. In the United States the alloy contains 10% Cu. in high-alloy steel.

00 to 27. True stress denotes the stress where force and area are measured at the same time. Stress Deforming force to which a body is subjected. Strain A measure of the relative change in the size of a body. Stress Force per unit area. True strain (or natural strain) is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. or. the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force. Strain Aging Aging induced by cold working. called normal stress and shear stress. A term indicating a group of stainless steels the principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from 4. referred to its original size or shape. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring force and area at the same time. Stress Force per unit area. 70 . receptively. Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. Conventional stress. is force divided by original area. Strain Aging Aging induced by cold work. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension.Society4Pakswissians Straight-Chrome An iron alloy. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. Shearing strain is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two reference lines originally at right angles. When the term is used alone. Conventional strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length.00%. is force decided by the original gauge length. True (or natural) strain is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Strain Deformation produced on a body by an outside force. Nominal stress is stress computed by simple elasticity formula. as applied to tension and compression tests. Conventional stress. as applied to tension and compression tests. it usually refers to linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. It can be divided into components. Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by p. Strain A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body. normal and parallel to the plane.astic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range. often thought of as force acting through a small area within a plane. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress.

Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. either external (applied) or internal (residual).) Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surfaces of some materials when they are deformed just past the yield point. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. Stress-corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and stress. Stress-Rupture Test A tension test performed at constant temperature. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. 71 . Stretcher Straightening A process for straightening rod. Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. either external (applied) or internal (residual). (Not a defect in No. Sometimes called patent leveling. depending on the metal and the corrosive medium. Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some materials when deformed just past the yield point. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under combined action or corrosion and stress. 5 dead soft temper. Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. Stretcher Strains Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. tubing. the load being held at such a level as to cause rupture. Also known as creep-rupture test.Society4Pakswissians Stress Relief Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses. Stretcher Leveling A method of making metal sheet or strip dead flat by stretching. Stretcher Leveling Leveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and subjected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. Also termed Luders Lines. such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding Same as Luders lines. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. depends on metal and corrosive medium. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage. Stretch Forming A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape.

Non-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications. Strip Steel (cold rolled) A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower. Sulfide Spheroidization A stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are partly or completely spheroidized. Superalloy An alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile. to increase machinability. the shape and dimension of the until cell. and the number. in crystals. Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure) A network of low-angle boundaries (usually with misorientations or less than one degree) within the main grains of a microstructure. kinds and positions of the atoms within it. 72 . thermal. Structure The arangement of parts. Generally. 16 of the periodic system. neighboring subgrains are separated by low-angle boundaries. Supercooling Cooling to a temperature below that of an equilibrium phase transformation without the transformation taking place. atomic weight 32. In steel most commonly encountered as an undesired contaminant.Society4Pakswissians Strip A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width.06. However. or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel. expecially. regardless of whether the layer is base metal. and shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required.250 in thickness. it is frequently deliberately added to cutting stock. single stand reversing. Subgrain A portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from neighboring portions of the same crystal. under . Substrate The layer of metal underlying a coating. vibratory. the most common being a pale-yellow brittle solid. Substitutional Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solvent and solute atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution. which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand. Sulfur Chemical symbol S) Element No. Sulfur Print A macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions. Subcritical Annealing An annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a temperature below the A1 temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature.

by quench hardening only. Telescoping Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of the coil is conical rather than flat. Teeming Pouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds. Superheating (1) Heating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase transformation without the transformation taking place. (2) In tool steels. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. but inadvisedly. Arrangement of Tandem Mill rolling mills. Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred. Tapping Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle. in direct line. Taper Section A section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest. allowing the metal to pass from one set of rolls into the next. (2) Heating molten metal to a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity. re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness. thereby achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. Teeming Pouring metal into ingot molds. The term applies particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that 73 . A sectioning angle 5(degrees) 43 achieves a depth magnification of 10: 1. Used for determining surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts. flame hardening and shell hardening. or where large hardness impression might be harmful. There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. Surface Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to a suitable ferrous alloy that produce. The processes commonly used are induction hardening. Temper (1) In heat treatment. Tack Welds Small scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper alignment while the final welds are being made. Tarnish Surface discoloration on a metal. temper is sometimes used. to denote the carbon content. a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core. usually from a thin film of oxide or sulfide.Society4Pakswissians Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test Form of Rockwell hardness test using relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration.

The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room temperature. The operation is performed to improve flatness. Tempered Spring Steel Strip Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip 90/1. steel tapes.03 with Rockwell range C 48/51. or slowly cooled through. same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite.90/1. Tempering Re-heating a quench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. mechanical properties. is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. rules. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed.03 carbon range (Also known as clock spring steel. and characterized by a certain structure. springs for the electric and electonic fields. or both. Where specification calls for blue or straw color. a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. such as coiled and flat mechanical springs. Temper Rolling Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually 1/2 to 1 1/2%) to forestall stretcher strains. while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip. It is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a wide range of uses. Temper (Met. springs for timing devices. Manufactured from carbon range of .') A process of re-heating quench-hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired.) The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency. Each branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own system of temper designations. to minimize the formation of stretcher strains. Temper Rolling Light cold rolling of sheet steel. Temper Brittleness Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within. and to obtain a specified hardness or temper. ignition vibrator springs. aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are shown as follows Temper Brittleness A reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature in steels heated in. or are cooled slowly through. or reduction in area during cold working. Tempering (Also termed 'drawing. Blue is developed at approximately 600 (degrees) F. Tempering In heat treatment. Also termed Pinch Pass or Skin Rolled. tin mill products. re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. stainless strip.) This product.Society4Pakswissians cannot be hardened by heat treatment). In flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel. the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment. etc. the temperature range from about 700 to 1100 F (375 to 575 C). 74 .

Universally used in the metal industry.70. the state of distribution of crystal orientations. Tin Chemical symbol Sn.S.000 Y..001 to . Principal use as a coating on steel in tin plate. It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers. coated with a lead-tin alloy. Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility. also as a constituent in alloys. but low tensile strength..S. specific gravity 7. Thermal Analysis A method of studying transformations in metal by measuring the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur. (B) In Brass mill terminology.360 square inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate weighing from 55 to 275 pounds per base box. it is synonymous with preferred orientation. This corresponds to it's area of sheet totaling to 31. ground.050 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. Texture In a polycrystalline aggregate. high carbon strip steel. since pure lead does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion. Thermocouple A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar metals in contact. Tensile Strength In tensile testing.000 T.. and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. Usually measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine. For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175. Also prepared in standard 12 lengths with rounded ends and in 10 ' and 25' coils. Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength) Breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. gradually separating the jaws. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons) per square inch of original cross section. boiling point 4384 (degrees) F. machinists. about 15% is normally necessary in order to obtain proper coating of the steel. and automobile technicians. the ratio of the maximum force sustained to the original cross-sectional area. 75 . Three-Quarter Hard Temper (A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength. melting point 449 (degrees) F.00011. edged.28. Usually 1/2 in width and in thicknesses from . 135. this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29. in which the distribution is not random. the junction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical potential with changes in temperature. yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal. Element No.Society4Pakswissians Tensile Strength In tensile testing. To convert to decimal thickness multiply weight per base box by . Terne Plate Sheet steel.4% thickness reduction. however. Ternary Alloy An alloy that contains three principal elements. Also called ultimate strength. the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area. and polished thin section. atomic weight 118. Tin Plate Base Box A Tin Plate Base Box is measured in terms of pounds per Base Box (112 sheets 14 x 20) a unit peculiar to the tin industry. 50 of the periodic system. It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses. In the usual sense. Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock A hardened and tempered. min. The percentage of tin is usually kept as low as possible because of its high cost.

or the formation of pearlite from austenite. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation. Toughness Ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. Tool Steel Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for use in the manufacture of tools. usually on one end. Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. high impact values indicating high toughness. Trace Extremely small quantity of an element. Toughness Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. boiling point over 5430 (degrees) F. melting point about 3270 (degrees) F. (1) Fixes carbon in inert particles (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in medium chromium steels. The limiting temperatures of 76 . atomic weight 47. commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electro-deposition. Usually measured by impact test.5. Transformation A constitutional change in a solid metal. the change from gamma to alpha iron. Element No. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. 22 of the periodic system. that is gripped by the operator's tongs. also by spraying.. Toughness Property of resisting fracture or distortion. but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness..g. Tong Hold The portion of a forging billet. Transformation Range Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes place. usually too small to determine quantitatively. Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. Now finding application in its own right because of its high strength and good corrosion resistance.Society4Pakswissians Tin Plating Electroplating metal objects with tin. e. The two ranges are distinct.90. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. Tolerance Limit The permissible deviation from the desired value. Torsion A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains. very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Bright white metal. It is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test. specific gravity 4.. Tinning Coating with tin. the object to be coated is made cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt. Titanium Chemical symbol Ti.

. Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. Ar3 The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. . 'across'. . The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature. Ac(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. . Ac3 The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. . Ar(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. . Transition Temperature (1) An arbitrarily defined temperature within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to promarily crystalline (cleavage) fracture. -A1-The temperature of the eutectoid transformation. . . particularly during cooling. Ar1 The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling. Ac1 The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating. . .The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite finishes during cooling. The two ranges are distinct. . . and transition temperature for half maximum energy. Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. and depend on the rate of change of temperature. the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling. Ae(cm) Ae1 Ae3 Ae4 The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. . (2) Sometimes also used to denote the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly with temperature.The temperature at which pro-eutectiod ferrite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. NOTE: All these changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during heating. The following symbols are used for iron and steels: . Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. M(s)-The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. M(s) (or Ar) The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. M(f). Transformation Temperature The temperature at which transformation occurs. . M(f) The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. Trepanning 77 . 10-ft-lb transition temperature.Society4Pakswissians these ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature. -A3. Ar4 The temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to austentie during cooling. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature An arbitrarily defined temperature that lies within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics (as usually determined by tests of notched specimens) change rapidly. The following symbols are used: .The temperature at which pro-eutectoid cementite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. Ac4 The temperature at which austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. -Acm. usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular to the direction of working. . sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. Commonly used definitions are transition temperature for 50% cleavage fracture. the temperature at which the solution of cementite in austentite is completed during heating. particularly during cooling. such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to primarily cleavage. Transverse Literally.

92. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. Troosite (obsolete) A previously unresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or by quenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. but not to strong alkalis. Twin. Tungsten Chemical symbol W. Used in the manufacture of plastering trowels. Twin. Tumbling Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials. extensively used for Sintered Carbide Tools.70 -. the other as the twin. . It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids.Society4Pakswissians A type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder. for the latter. one may be regarded as the parent. (2) Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures.74. Troosite Tempered martensite that etches rapidly. but rolled extra flat -Rockwell C 50. Twist 78 . Tukon Hardness Test A method for determining microhardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter. (1) Forms hard abrasion -. The orientation of the twin is either a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis.Manganese . Ordinary tolerances. Twin Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship. Must be formed very severely and must be as free as possible from decarburization. Trowel Steel Hardened and tempered spring steel. ductile and malleable when specially handled. In ferrite. Truss Spring Steel Supplied cold rolled and bright annealed.90 to 1. Preferred terminology for the first product is tempered martensite. Annealing A twin produced as the result of heat treatment. and is not resolved by the microscope. atomic weight 183. of composition varying between WC and W(2)C. Deformation A twinned region produced by a shear like distortion of the parent crystal structure during deformation.05 carbon content. as observed in a section. fine pearlite. imbedded in a matrix of soft metal. 74 of the periodic system. deformation twins form on {211} planes. Crystal A portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the lattice of the remainder of the crystal. Tungsten Carbide Compound of tungsten and carbon. Twin. usually appears dark. Carbon content about . such as cobalt. Triple Point The intersection of the boundaries of three adjoining grains. Element No.resistant particles in tool steels. Gray metal of high tensile strength.

They include longitudinal. It cannot be electrodeposited. generally regarded as being higher than 15 kc per sec.. 79 . melting point 3119 (degrees) F. as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal. tensile. Upset (1) The localized increase in cross-sectional area resulting from the application of pressure during mechanical fabrication or welding. Vacuum Melting Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air.87. Ultrasonic Frequency A frequency. surface. or shear. Element No. compressive. Vanadium Chemical symbol V. Gray-white. associated with elastic waves. that is greater than the highest audible frequency.. atomic weight 50. (2) The process of axial flow under axial compression of metal. (2) That portion of welding cycle during which the cross-sectional area is increased by the application of pressure. (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain).95. unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids. specific gravity 5. Vacancy A type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is temporarily unoccupied. boiling point about 6150 (degrees) F. hard metal. that a material can withstand. as in forming heads on rivets by flattening the end of wire. Upsetting (1) A metal working operation similar to forging. 23 of the periodic system. Ultrasonic Waves Waves of ultrasonic frequency. Universal Mill A rolling mill in which rolls with a vertical axis roll the edges of the metal stock between some of the passes through the horizontal rolls. and standing waves. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels.Society4Pakswissians A winding departure from flatness. transverse. Ultimate Strength The maximum conventional stress. the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure. Utility Sheet Aluminum Mill finish coiled or flat sheet of unspecified composition and properties produced in specific standard sizes and suitable for general building trade usage.

00. Steel must withstand great fatigue stresses. 80 .17. Weld A union made by welding. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only. Wavy Not flat. seams and buckled plates. re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace known as a chafery. Weldability Suitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions. Carbon content about 1. Virgin Metal Metal obtained directly from ore and not used before. particularly those with extremely hard surfaces. after heating.Society4Pakswissians Veining A type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms. Watch Main Spring Steel Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. tempered and white polished wxtra precision rolled. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace known as a finery. extra precision rolled. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness. Wasters Sheets that have prohibitive defects. the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. for example. Vickers Hardness (Test) Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. Waloon Process An early two-hearth process for making wrought iron by refining cast iron. Carbon content about 1. Water Hardening Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table. Wedge A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning. Weld Bead A deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass.15 and Tungsten . Vibrator Reed Steel Hardened.

Welding Joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure. may induce wetting by lowering the surface tension of the liquid. or both. Work Hardening Increase in resistance to deformation (i. in hardness) produced by cold working. which includes gas. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously.Society4Pakswissians Welding A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Foreign substances such as grease may prevent wetting. Addition agents. WMB.D. Wetting Agent A surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the cohesion within the liquid. on being removed from the liquid bath. Work Hardening Same as strain hardening. Wootz A carbon steel containing 1 to 1. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related cystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. will have a thin continuous layer of liquid adherring to it. to produce a loxalized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A. such as detergents. arc. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometric pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase on certain crystallographic planes in the parent phase. Wetting A phenomenon involving a solid and a liquid in such intimate contact that the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid. requires that the parent metals be melted. Wrought Iron An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced. and resistance welding. Workability The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes. so that recrystallization occurs across the interface.6% C produced by melting a bloomery iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. Thus a solid that is wetted. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting.e. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment. Wrought Iron 81 . Fusion welding. with or without filler metal. The iron has a low carbon content. WHB and Extra WHB Grades Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution.

usually less than the maximum attainable stress. s Yellow Brass 65% copper and 35% zinc. The deviation is expressed in terms of strain. Yield Point The first stress in a material. at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. in soft steel. giving the iron a characteristic grain. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from propertionality of stress and strain. The values of Young's Modulus for metals are of the order 10(12) dynes per square cm. but now largely replaced by Cartridge Brass.2% is used for many metals. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. Also known as High Brass. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding. Only certain metals exhibit a yield point. An offset of 0. A copper-zinc alloy. Formerly a very popular alloy. but containing 1-3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction. Also known as proof stress. Wrought Iron A commercial iron consisting of slag (iron silicate) fibers entrained in a ferrite matrix. Yield Point The first stress in a material less than the maximum obtainable stess at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Also known as upper yield stress. a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. 82 . named for its yellow hue. Young's Modulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to the elongation per unit length.Society4Pakswissians Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements. Yield Point The load per unit of original cross section at which. For a stretched wire. Wustite The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions the do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily. Young's Modulus The coefficient of elasticity of stretching.

Society4Pakswissians 83 .

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