Abrasion The process of rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction. Abrasive A substance capable of grinding away another material. Accordion Reed Steel Hardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00. Material has to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity. Acid Steel Steel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica. Acid-Brittleness Brittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness. Acid-Process A process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus pig iron is required as this element is not removed. Activation The changing of the passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. Age Hardening Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. The term as applied to soft, or low carbon steels, relates to a wide variety of commercially important, slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures. Aging A change in properties that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after hot working or a heat treating operation (quench aging in ferrous alloys), or after a cold working operation (strain aging). The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but does not involve a change in chemical composition. In a metal or alloy, a change in properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures. Air Cooling Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air. Air-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. Such steels attain their martensitic structure without going through the quenching process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly large sections, about 2 in. or more in diameter.


AISI Steels Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in that all numbers are preceded by letters: A represents basic open-hearth alloy steel, B acid Bessemer carbon steel, C basic openhearth carbon steel, CB either acid Bessemer ar basic open-hearth carbon steel, E electric furnace alloy steel. Alclad Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy or aluminum of high purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum alloy. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas of the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environment. Allotriomorph A particle of a phase that has no regular external shape. Allotropy The property whereby certain elements may exist in more than one crystal structure. Alloy A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Alloy Steel Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium, Low Alloy steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents. Alloying Element An element added to a metal, and remaining in the metal, that effects changes in structure and properties. Alpha Brass A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly for cold working. Alpha Bronze A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc. Alpha Iron The polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670 (degrees) F. has a body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410 (degrees) F. Aluminizing Forming an aluminum or aluminum alloy coating on a metal by hot dipping, hot spraying, or diffusion. Aluminum (Chemical symbol Al) Element No. 13 of the periodic system; Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting point 1220 (degrees) F; boiling point approximately 4118 (degrees) F.; ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently. (2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides) (3) Alloying element in nitriding steel. Aluminum Killed Steel A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent.


Angstrom Unit (A) A unit of linear measure equal to 10(-10)m, or 0.1 nm; not an accepted Si unit, but still sometimes used for small distances such as interatomic distances and some wavelengths. Anisotropy The characteristics of exhibiting different values of a property in different directions with respect to a fixed reference system in the material. Annealing Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical, or other properties. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used: black annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright annealing, flame annealing, graphitizing, intermediate annealing, isothermal annealing, malleablizing, process annealing, quench annealing, recrystallization annealing, and spheroidizing. When applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing, without qualification, implies full annealing. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften an age-hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving. Annealing Twin A twin formed in a metal during an annealing heat treatment. Anodizing (Aluminum Adic Oxide Coating), A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness. A wide variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process. Arc Welding A group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being joined are coalesced by heating with an arc, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Artifact In microscopy, a false structure introduced during preparation of a specimen. Artificial Aging An aging treatment above room temperature. ASTM Abbreviation for American Society For Testing Material. An organization for issuing standard specifications on materials, including metals and alloys. Atomic-Hydrogen Weld, Arc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The use of pressure and filler metal is optional. Attenuation The fractional decrease of the intensity of an energy flux, including the reduction of intensity resulting from geometrical spreading, absorption, and scattering. Ausenitic Grain Size The size of the grains in steel heated into the austenitic region.


Austempering Quenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the transformation range, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction high enough to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products, and then holding the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation. Austenite Phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of carbon or iron carbide, in the hamma form of iron. Such steels are known as austenitic. Austenite is stable only above 1333 (degrees) F. in a plain carbon steel, but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese, stabilizes the austenitec form, even at normal temperatures. Austenitic Steel Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of Austenite at normal temperatures. Austenitizing Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing). Austentite A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Autofrettage Pre-stressing a hollow metal cylinder by the use of momentary internal pressure exceeding the yield strength. Autoradiograph A radiograph recorded photographically by radiation spontaneously emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in, or added to, the material. This technique identifies the locations of the radioisotopes.

Bainite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of carbide, generally formed at temperatures below 840 to 930 F (450 to 500 C): upper bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lathshape units of ferrite, produces the so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy, and is formed at temperatures above about 660 F (350 C) ; lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and is formed at temperatures below about 660 F (350 C). Also, a slender, needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite. Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite. Bamboo Grain Structure A structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely through the thickness. Band Saw Steel (Wood) A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.


Beading Raising a ridge on sheet metal. For testing. Bearing Strength The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective bearing area. Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Beryllium Copper An alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. 5 . to permit a flow of the metal in the piece being tested. In a pinned or riveted joint. Bath Annealing Is immersion is a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used. beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches. etc. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel. the iffective area is calculated as the product of the diameter of the hole and the thickness of the bearing member. under the oxide-scale layer. usually a tube or collar. Basic Oxygen Process A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). springs. Bearing Load A compressive load supported by a member. resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. Bend Test Various tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a metal product. Bark Surface of metal. the process is known as lead annealing. corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain. axle. Basic Steel Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime. rivet. in which the material is bent around its axis and/ or around an outside radius. along a line where contact is made with a pin. If a vice is to be employed. Bend Radius The inside radius of a bent section. Bauxite The only commercial ore of aluminum. then you must line the jaws with some soft metal. Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity.Society4Pakswissians Banded Structure Appearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working. samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. or shaft. In the case of steel. such bark always suffers from decarburization.

such as snaps. Very small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters.70/. This method is now almost obsolete. originally smooth. Blister A defect in metal. Bloom (1) Ancient Definition: iron produced in a solid condition directly by the reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. The earliest iron 6 . Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel. The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore. (2) On modern. in. and in thicknesses from 55 lbs. (1) Form sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem. it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content. It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring. as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc. is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation (carburizing) furnace.80 medium high carbon steel strip. on or near the surface. It is manufactured by two different processes. or extrusion. or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated. usually hot. Also known as bloomery iron. for producing pih iron. but it does not have the same degree of spring-back. hold down springs. to 275 lbs. Binary Alloy An alloy containing two elements. Black Oil Tempered Spring Steel Strip (Scaleless Blue) A flat cold rolled usually . coke. and the cross-sectional area varies from 2 1/4 to 36 sq. etc.Society4Pakswissians Bessemer Process A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation. Black Annealing A process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet. It is used either as is for stampings. The carbon content is variable but usually low. An iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thickness of 1 1/2 in. apart from minor impurities. rolling. For nonferrous metals. Black Plate A light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. The bar. which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. lock springs. trap springs. Sizes range from 12 to 32 in width. Blast Furnace A vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used. resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface zone. it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished rolling or for extrusion. While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47. Blister Steel High-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. base box weight. blue-black in color. strip or wire after hot working and pickling. Billet A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging. and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals.

Body-Centered Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell. Blowhole A cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas. billets slabs. in order to soften the metal. This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only. (2) Modern Definition: a semi-finished hot rolled steel product. Blue Brittleness Brittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some temperature within the range of 300 (degrees) to 650 (degrees) F. but still used in underdeveloped countries. Blue Brittleness Reduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging. the width is not more than twice the increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration. steam. NOTE: This term is ordinarily applied to sheet. and at its center. sheet-bar etc. It is gray in color. or finished parts. sometimes called centered. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties. and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than 36 sq. and more especially if the steel is worked at the elevated temperature. or other agents at a suitable temperature. Killed steels are virtually free of this kind of brittleness. produced on a blooming mill. rectangular in cross section. Boron ( chemical symbol B) Element N. 5 of the periodic system. and burns with a brilliant green flame.Society4Pakswissians making process. Blooming-Mill A mill used to reduce ingots to blooms. rectangular in section. Bloomery A primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron. strip. in.82. usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes made by forging. Iron and steel blooms are sometimes made by forging. or space-centered. Atomic weight 10. Blue Annealing Heating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. Bloom A semi-finished hot rolled product. thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. 7 . Bluing Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air. which in failing to escape is held in pockets. Bonderizing The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lacquer.. For iron and steel. but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000 (degrees) F. when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300 and 700 (degrees) F. ignites at about 1112 (degrees) F. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental.

Filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing. this process is also called close annealing or pot annealing. whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire. Brake A piece of equipment used for bending sheet. 8 . Brazing Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800 F (425C). Brale A diamond penetrator. the charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder's lines. In box annealing a ferrous alloy. conical in shape. Braze Welding A family of welding procedures where metals are joined by filler metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal. washers. and is then cooled slowly. in order to minimize the effects of oxidation. Brasses Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. The charge is normally heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. with or without packing materials. It is formable and ductile. and then is slowly cooled. but lower than those of the metals being joined. clips. Break Test (for tempered steel) A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. but sometimes above or within it. Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges.Society4Pakswissians Bottle Top Mold Ingot mold. with the top constricted. it is called a press brake. Brass is harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc. or may be bonded. the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the bottle-neck. if power driven. May be accomplished by a torch. but occasionally above or within it. used in the manufacture of capped steel. Box Annealing A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a closed metal container. develops high tensile strength with cold-working and is not heat treatable. Bridling The cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming. or drawing operation. also called a bar folder. it is called a hand brake. bands. If operated manually. bending. but above 840 (450 C). as in brazing sheet. Box Annealing Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation. which stops rimming action by trapping escaping gases. Bright Annealing The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired. Bright Annealed Wire Steel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright. used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals. Caution-Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition.

(2) In grinding getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening. The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure. Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S) A standard series of sizes refered to by numbers. but additionally. for example. Used for round head wood screws. accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the piece. Bright Bessemer Wire Stiff bright wire of hard temper. particularly through holes. Burning 9 . where is assigned a hardness value of 1/4 hard. copper. in the material surface. even in the presence of acids or alkalis. Brittleness The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing appreciable plastic deformation.while temper is expressed by the number of B&S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. bronze.Society4Pakswissians Bright Basic Wire Bright steel wire. Broaching Multiple shaving. Buffer A substance added to aqueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-ion concentration. the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other. and beryllium bronze. Normally wire is drawn down to size without annealing. bright surface. Bronze Primarily an alloy of copper and tin. In this system. the name is used when referring to other alloys not containing tin. Brittle Fracture Fracture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation. copper-base alloys and aluminum. Bright Dip An acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean. Burning (1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. in which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is generally produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass. is then measured by a microscope and the hardness value is read from a chart or determined by a prescribed formula. electric welded chain. manganese bronze. For each B&S gage number in thickness reduction. aluminum bronze. bolts and rivets. The diameter of the indentation. Buckle Bulges and/ or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the edges remaining otherwise flat. slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. etc. Brinell Hardness Test A common standard method of measuring the hardness of materials.

Camber (1) Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line. blanking . A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line. Canning A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface. Burnishing Smoothing surfaces through friction between the material and material such as hardened metal media. Burnt A definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by over-heating. The cap causes to top metal to solidify. Camber or Bow Edgewise curvature. (2) Sometimes used to denote crown in rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection cause by the rolling pressure. Cake A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.15. etc.Society4Pakswissians Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment. Pressure is built up in the sealed-in molten metal and results in a surface condition much like that of rimmed steel.25 Chromium . Camera Shutter Steel Hardened. Butcher Saw Steel A hardened. Burr Roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. sometimes referred to as oil canning. or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. tempered. and polished high carbon spring steel strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for wood band saw applications) with a Rockwell value of roughly C47/49. Butt Welding Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them. Carbon content 1. Capped Steel Semikilled steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap fitting into the neck of the mold. 10 . shearing. tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled.

11 . by diffusion. Carbon Steel A steel containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon.65%. for reduction of oxides. Carbon Range In steel specifications. straight carbon steel. the carbon concentration in a steel. Element No. and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. Carbon Steel Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidization. ordinary steel. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened. 6 of the periodic system. atomic weight 12. and straight carbon steel. is very extensive.Society4Pakswissians Carbon Chemical symbol C.60% and manganese to about 1. all non-metallic. and ammonia. Also termed plain carbon steel. Silicon is usually limited to about 0. Carbon Potential A measure of the capacity of an environment containing active carbon to alter or maintain. For rating of weld-ability. Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys. create a concentration gradient. Also termed plain carbon steel. in the form of coke. Carbonitriding. with silicon usually limited to 0.65%. A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and. carbon monocide. Carbon Free Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon. creates a concentration gradient. except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of residual sulfur.01. Carburizing A process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at the surface and. ordinary steel. Carbonitriding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocardons. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the work piece. under prescribed conditions. by diffusion.60% and manganese to about 1. Carbon Restoration Replacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level. Carbon Steel Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels. this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel. the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable. has three allotropic modifications. which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages. Carbon Equivalent Referring to the rating of weld-ability. Its metallurgical use. a formula commonly used is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15]. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides.

Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation. or a mixture of the two. induction hardening. and flame hardening. all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing. or core. good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set. by diffusion. poor hot working and poor machining properties. Casting (1) An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold. carbonitriding. Temper is obtained by cold rolling. Case Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion. Case In a ferrous alloy. The oldest method of case hardening. cyaniding. usually containing less than 2% carbon. is made substantially harder than the inner portion. which may be a solid. Cartridge Brass 70% copper 30% zinc. Cast Steel Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds. (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire. Cast (1) A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast Spring Steel Wire. (2) Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape. create a concentration gradient. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys. Case Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that change the the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or nitrogen. the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-working. nitriding. 12 .Society4Pakswissians Carburizing Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with a suitable carbonaceous material. Case Hardening Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment. Carburizing (Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids. That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion. Rated excellent for soft-soldering. Cast Iron Iron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about 2%). Cast Steel Steel in the form of castings. liquid. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-working. or case. Cavitation The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. or gas. and. or core. liquids or gases.

but not as readily as ferrite. is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum. Cementation (1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6. caused by roll vibrations. the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements. sintered. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron carbide. The energy absorbed. it is the hard constituent of cast iron. Chatter Marks Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals. Cementite A metastable carbide. as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. When it occurs as a phase in steel. prior to the introduction of the bessemer and open-hearth methods. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon.69% of carbon.Society4Pakswissians Cavitation Damage Wearing away of metal through the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Hard and brittle. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high-carbon tool steels. Chemical Milling Removing metal stock by controlled selective chemical etching. notably manganese. with composition Fe3C and orthorhombic crystal structure. Chamfer (1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. Chafery A charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron making processes to reheat a bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag. 13 . It is magnetizable. Charpy Test A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched. or cemented metallic oxides. Charcoal Tin Plate Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades). Ceramic Tools Cutting tools made from fused. having limited substitutional solubility for the carbide-forming elements. known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. (2) A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner. Centrifugal Casting A casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated or revolved. and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel.

Chromizing A surface treatment at elevated temperature. Cladding A process for covering one metal with another. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results.Society4Pakswissians Chemical Polishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by chemical treatment. Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of chromium into the base metal. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling. tempered and bright polished. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing. Cleavage Fracture Fracture of a grain. generally carried out in pack.25 Carbon content. (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases harden-ability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon). or salt bath. Chromium-Nickel Steel Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements. atomic weight 52.004 to . Chromatizing) Forming an acid surface to improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys. 24 of the periodic system. heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating. welding. relatively hard. Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. Chipping is often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. resulting in bright reflecting facets. It is of bright silvery color. 1. in a polycrystalline metal by cleavage. Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal.15. or most of the grains. Chromadizing (Chromodizing. mainly aircraft skins. Element No. or heavy electroplating. heavy chemical deposition. vapor. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy.01. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling. Cleavage Fracture of a crystal by crack propagation across a crystallographic plane of low index. casting. by treatment with a solution of chromic acid. Usual sizes are 4 3/4 wide and 6 wide x .Chromium .010. Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. 14 . Cigarette Knife Steel Hardened. Chipping A method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be worked into the finished product. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making. welding. Chromium Chemical symbol Cr. The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types.

specific gravity 8. A gray magnetic metal. Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges. which see. A departure from longitudinal flatness.. 27 of the periodic system.94. ductility and other characteristics known as tempers. Cobalt Chemical symbol Co. melting point 2696 (degrees) F.not always visible in the cold reduced product. A higher grade is the best cokes. it resists corrosion like nickel. with the lightest commercial tin coat. while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal. except that the working method is limited to rolling. which it resembles closely. Coils Coiled flat sheet or strip metal. Coil Weld A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil . Cold Short A condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures below the recrystalization temperature. Element No. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel. Cold Reduced Strip Metal strip. Coining A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface. used for food containers. Cold Reduction Reduction of metal size. by rolling on a cold reduction mill. For high qualities and heavier coatings. Cold Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance. produced from hot-rolled strip. Same as cold reduction. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness. usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness.9. Cluster Mill A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls. stiffness. it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite. atomic weight 58. oil canning. with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety. Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern. Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate.Society4Pakswissians Cleavage Plane A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily.usually in one continuous piece or length. 15 . etc. occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold. Coil Breaks Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of coiling. the sulfate being used as electrolyte. strength. Cold Rolling Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (workhardening). of medium hardness. Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel.

wire.) Columnar Structure A structure consisting of elongated grains whose tong axes are parallel. Commercial Bronze A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc. Commonly. such as rolling. and equilibrium diagram. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet. Continuous Casting A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured. In the case of a material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture. or may approximate. Columnar Structure A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains. Specific gravity 8. and the length is not determined by mold dimensions.91. Although termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. Commercial Quality Steel Sheet Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at 0. based on original area of cross section. or combination of phases. 16 . etc.15 max. from the main body of metal by oxide. at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening). Constitutional Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram).. A constitutional diagram may be. 41 of the periodic system. the compressive strength has a very definite value. the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material. 41 of the periodic system. drawing.57. Atomic weight 92. Columbium Chemical symbol Cb. etc. Melting point at about 4380 (degrees) F. In the case of materials which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture. the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures. (2) A portion of the surface of a forging that is separated. that occurs in a characteristic configuration in a microstructure. (Now known as Niobium (Nb). It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. Cold Working Plastic deformation. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility. Cold Work Permanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its recrystallization temperature. Compare equilibrium diagram. Element No. element No. hammering. used for screws. or may represent metastable conditions or phases. Compressive Strength The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of developing. also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. hardware.Society4Pakswissians Cold Shut (1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. in part. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels. having the long axis perpendicular to the casting surface. Constitute A phase.

A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster. so that its length is not determined by mold dimensions. Cooling Stresses Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling. particularly during the final rolling passes. also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling. highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity. Copper Chemical symbol Cu) Element No. Unibersally and extensively used in the arts in brasses. Universally used in the pure state as sheet. Continuous Pickling Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks. the phase that forms the background or matrix in which the other phase or phases are present as isolated volumes. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass. Continuous Phase In an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one phase. specific gravity 8. bronzes. Coring A variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of structure (such as a dendrite.Society4Pakswissians Continuous Casting A casting technique in which an ingot.. boiling point 4327 F. 29 of the periodic system.. Corrosion Deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. a grain or a carbide particle) resulting from non-equilibrium growth over a range of temperature. Continuous Strip Mill A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. tube. Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place. Controlled Rolling A hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is closely controlled. Continuous Furnace Furnace. 17 . and retained. in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace. billet. moisture or other agents. tube. or other shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured. melting point 1981 (degrees) F. Corrosion Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere. rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals.57. to produce a fine-grain microstructure.94. Converter A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. atomic weight 63.

(2) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress.Society4Pakswissians Corrosion Embrittlement The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack. usually intergranular and often not visually apparent. secondary creep. and such. Critical Cooling Rate The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with cellulose or other binder. oxygen. used in arc welding. Covered Electrode A filler-metal electrode. Creep The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. tertiary creep. Creep Strength (1) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. or other gases. Corrosion Fatigue Effect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive environment alone. (2) The maximum nominal stress under which the creep strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant temperature. corrosion of a metal that is caused by the concentration of dissolved salts. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack. Creep Limit (1) The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified quantity of creep in a given time. with a resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting. A series of deep short waves. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal. Alternate ridges and furrows. metal ions. Crevice Erosion A type of concentration-cell corrosion. that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate. Sometimes used synonymously with creep strength. that occurring at an accelerating rate. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is called primary creep. improves the properties of the weld metal and stabilizes the arc. Corrugated As a defect. 18 . consisting of a metal core vire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal form the atmosphere. Corrosion Embrittlement The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. in crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid stream. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress.

Critical Temperature Synonymous with critical point if pressure is constant. same as transformation temperature. Same as transformation temperature. Also termed transformation range. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems are in equilibrium. The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing. temperature and pressure at which the phases of an inhomogeneous system are in equilibrium. phase or physical properties occurs. Cross Rolling The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about 90 (degrees) from the direction of the previous rolling. that specific value of composition. that specific combination of composition. Critical Range A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. the length of the original slab. or physical properties occurs. Critical Strain That strain which results in the formation of very large grains during recrystallization. or combinations thereof. Crown A contour on a sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center. For steel. Crown or Heavy Center Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge. Crop The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded. Cross Rolling Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal. Critical Points Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature. as well as a direction parallel to. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. (2) In an equilibrium diagram. usually done to increase width. phase.Society4Pakswissians Critical Cooling Rate The minimum rate of continuous cooling just sufficient to prevent undesired transformations. Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel to the axes of the rolls during rolling. 19 . Cross Rolling A (hot) rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a direction perpendicular to. temperature and pressure. the slowest rate at which it can be cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of austenite at any temperature above the Ms. (2) In an equilibrium diagram.

in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a central flat area of failure in tension. cast steel or wrought steel. Compare fibrous fracture. Crystalline Composed of crystals. Cup Fracture A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed. Cyaniding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. The cyanided alloy is usually quench hardened. Refers to crystal structure. (Fatigue. or clay or other refractory material. Cyaniding Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt. (2) A coherent piece of matter. Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture) Fracture. ions or molecules are arranged in a threedimensional repetitive pattern. Crucible Steel High-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered crucible.Body-centered cubic.(concerning space lattices) .) Cube-Centered Metallography. the failure of metals under repeated stresses. all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom. usually synonymous with grain and crystallite. in metals. Cutting Speed The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool and work piece in the principal direction of cutting. frequently seen in tensile test pieces of a ductile material. 20 . Crystal (1) A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms. is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization.Society4Pakswissians Crucible A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay. Crucible steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman in about 1750 and remained in use until the late 1940's. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. with an exterior extended rim of failure in shear. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron. and used in the melting of metal. Crystallization The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. Crystalline Fracture A fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a grainy appearance. followed by quenching.

strip. Refer to Stretcher Leveling.Society4Pakswissians DC (Direct Chill) Casting A continuous method of making ingots or billets for sheet or extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold. usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. Degenerate Structure 21 . Decarburization Removal of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel. The length of the ingot is limited by the depth to which the platform can be lowered. or sheet metal in the annealed state. In ferrite. Decarburization Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. Deburring A method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing. Dead Soft Steel Steel. bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously. oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers. Decarburization The loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon at the surface. completely annealed. Deep-drawing quality sheet or strip steel. Degassing Process (In steel making) Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action. Dead Soft Annealing Heating metal to above the critical range and appropriately cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility. the frozen shell of metal acting as a retainer for the liquid metal below the wall of the mold. ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-drawing Deformative Bands Generally. Dead Flat Perfectly flat. Deep Drawing The process of cold working or drawing sheet or strip metal blanks by means of dies on a press into shapes which are usually more or less cup-like in character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal. Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action. therefore. it is often called semicontinuous casting. Decoration (of dislocations) Segregation of solute atoms to the line of a dislocation in a crystal. Water vapor.20-0. strip or plate. Dead Soft Temper Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire. As pertaining to sheet.50% range. The base of the mold is a platform that is gradually lowered while the metal solidifies. normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the basic oxygen process with carbon less than 0.10% and manganese in the 0. The ingot is usually cooled by the impingement of water directly on the mold or on the walls of the solid metal as it is lowered. the dislocations may be decorated with carbon or nitrogen atoms.

Delta Iron Allotropic modification of iron. Dendrite A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern. produced from approximately . Dilatometer An instrument for measuring the expansion or contraction of a solid metal resulting from heating. It is of body-centered cubic crystal structure. liquid or solid. Doctor Blade Steel Strip A hardened and tempered spring steel strip. (3) A misnomer for tempering. Deoxidizing Removal of oxygen. Drawing (1) Forming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies. and wire technology. Dish A concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. Indicates transverse or across the width. Die-Lines Lines of markings daused on drawn or extruded products by minor imperfections in the surface of the die. strip. the term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. polymorphic changes. to lessen the amount of scale.Society4Pakswissians Usually refers to pearlite that does not have an ideally lamellar structure. Dendrite A crystal that has grown in treelike branching mode. Dendritic Segregation Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements through the arms of dendrites. tending to make the composition of all parts uniform. to melting point. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (dope) from the rolls.85 carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. 22 . Dislocation A linear defect in the structure of a crystal. The degree of degeneracy may vary from slight perturbations in the lamellar arrangement to structures that are not recognizably lamellar. usually blued. Deoxidation (1) Removal of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable chemical agents. Diffusion (1) Spreading of a constituent in a gas. hence its name. cooling. being most evident in cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range. Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cur to desired lengths. In steel sheet. (2) Sometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with them. etc. Die Sinking Forming or machining a depressed pattern in a die. (2) Reducing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. stable above 2552 (degrees) F. (2) The spontaneous movement of atoms or molecules to new sites within a material.

Commercial qualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. Also termed scallop. Ductility The property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold. without fracture. Ductile Crack Propagation Slow crack propagation that is accompanied by noticeable plastic deformation and requires energy to be supplied from outside the body. Drill Rod A term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod usually round and centerless ground. etc.Society4Pakswissians Drawing Back Reheating after hardening to a temperature below the critical for the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel. magnesium. Dry Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant. or silicon. The sizes range in round stock from . In steel. giving a burnished appearance. Drill Rods are used principally by machinists and tool and die makers for punches. Earing Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. of material previously plain pickled. Duralumin The trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type of age-hardenable alloy (17S). screw machine parts. The term is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys that harden during aging at room temperature. Duralumin (obsolete) A term formerly applied to the class of age-hardenable aluminum-copper alloys containing manganese. by height of cupping in an Erichsen test or by other means. ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test. small tools. A less popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming quality. Drop Hammer A forging hammer than depends on gravity for its force. which contains nominally 4% Cu. drills. Drop Forging A forging made with a drop hammer. being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test.013 to 1 1/2 diameter. Ductility The capacity of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. Ductility The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. dowel pins. 1/2% Mg. taps. 23 .

A square edge produced by square edge rolling. 1 edge. 6 Edge . Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. No. mounted at various angles. Elastic Limit Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs. Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. Width tolerances close. an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques. Not as perfect as No.Slit. Edging The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling. . Sheet Steels or Aluminum SheetMill Edge. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits.Square. Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress. No. or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte.005. 1 edge. 2 Edge. . produced by slitting only. No. No. 4 Edge .Smooth. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. Edges Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress..An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr. Has not been slit. uniform. round or square edge. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge.A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. . generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip.Society4Pakswissians Earing The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used. 1 Edge A. 3 Edge . polishing. Not filed. Edge Strain or Edge Breaks Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet. Width tolerances liberal. . No. width tolerance +/. Machined or Drawn . Elastic Strain Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are restored upon release of the stress. Slit and Edge Rolled. or edge rolled. 5 Edge . either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified. Copper Base Alloys. Eddy-Current Testing Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. . A cleaning. Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening) An anodic treatment. filed. Edge Filing A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files. . filing or drawing. Sheared. Sawed. No. 24 .A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. .

........ nickel and chromium . An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer.. 4..copper and nickel Electropolishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by electrochemical dissolution.. when subjected to stress........Society4Pakswissians Electric Furnace Steel Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically..brass ............. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes...chromium .chromium or nickel ... Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer An instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material. 5.... Protection against carburization and for brazing operations. Protection against wear.. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal........ Electrolytic Tin Plate Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition......... Epitaxy Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the lattice of the substrate crystal.. Electro-Galvanizing Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel.............. It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions............. Build-up of a part or parts undersize....... Elongation After Fracture In tensile testing... 6........... 25 .. Decorative and protection against corrosion. Elongation In tensile testing. usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length... Endurance Limit Same as fatigue limit....... almost always by arc........... the increase in the gauge length.... Because of relatively high cost..cadmium or zinc .... 3. Elongation Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured.. to illustrate: 1.. 2....... Embossing Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern.......... only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process..copper. the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length. Protection against corrosion.......... Pate for rubber adhesion....... Electroplating The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electodeposition... Endurance Limit Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure......... measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length....

Eutectoid Steel Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system. with about 0. In condensed systems.003 less than the grooves and thickness from . pressure is usually considered constant.17. Etching Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details. The presence of certain elements. the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface. Readings are in millimeters. Chromium . Extensometer An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress. Expander Steel Hardened and tempered. Equiaxed Structure A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. proof stress. Exfoliation A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal. such as nickel or chromium. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Erichsen Test A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation. Etchant A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details. Carbon content about 1. Eutectoid (1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids.012 to . Etching In metallography. Extensometer Test The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range. Erichsen Test Similar to the Olsen Test. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. blue polished. Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately . Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. yield strength by the offset method 26 . When more carbon is present.00.020.Society4Pakswissians Eqilibrium Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature. lowers the eutedtoid carbon content. the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit. is deformed by a coneshaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. restrained except at the center. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility.83% carbon.80% to 0. causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.

Society4Pakswissians and so forth. Ferrite A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron. the solute is generally assumed to be carbon. as chromium ferrite). Fatigue Limit The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure an infinite number of stress cycles. Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices) Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram. Unless otherwise designated (for instance. If the stress is not completely reversed. the value of the mean stress. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress. Fatigue fractures are progressive. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the slose-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres. the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated. beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress. Extra Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress. Fatigue Strength The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage. Extra Hard Temper In brass mill terminology. On some equilibrium diagrams 27 . the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated. Fatigue Life The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure for a stated test condition. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeatef or fluctuating stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material).15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage. Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50. Extrusion Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape.

ther are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed. Ferrite Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc polymorph of iron ( -Fe). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon in -Fe. Ferrite Banding Parallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of working. Sometimes referred to a ferrite streaks. Ferrite-pearlite Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Ferritic Grain Size The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel.

Ferro-Manganese An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or castiron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel. Ferrous Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum). Ferrous alloys are, therfore, iron base alloys. Fiber (1) The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties. It is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous appearance of a fracture. It is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of working. (2) The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process. Fiber or Fibre Direction in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow. Fiber Stress Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area. Fiber Stress Local stress through a small area (a point or line) on a section where the stress is not uniform, as in a beam under a bending load. Fibrous Fracture A fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or silky appearance. Filed Edges Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed. Filler Metal A third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal during fusion or braze welding. It is usually, but not necessarily, of different composition from the parent metals.


Finery A charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast, then repeatedly oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced. Finished Steel Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars, and wire rods are termed semi-finished produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition. Finishing Temperature The temperature at which hot working is completed. Finishing Temperature Temperature of final hot-working of a metal. Fish eyes Areas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white crystalline appearance. Flakes Short discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. In a fractured surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface thay appear as short discontinuous cracks. Also called shatter cracks and snowflakes. Flame Annealing Annealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flame Annealing A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high-temperature flame. Flame Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a hightemperature flame, and then cooling as required. Flame Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flapper Valve Steel An extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15 carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage. Flare Test A test applied to tubing, involving a tapered expansion over a cone. Similar to pin expansion test. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In die casting, the fin of metal which results form leakage between the mating die surfaces. (3) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash Welding


A resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat, the heat being produced by electric arcs between the members being welded. Flat Latch Needle Steel Supplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods. Flat Wire A flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to 1 1/4 wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired with followed by edge dressing. Flow Lines (1) Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. Flow lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part. (2) In mechanical metallurgy, paths followed by volume elements of metal during deformation. Flow Stress The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals. Flow Stress The uniaxial true stress required to cause plastic deformation at a specified value of strain. Flowlines Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of working or rolling. Fluting Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes. Flux (1) In refining, a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten mixture. It may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal. (2) In welding, a material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate the removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances. Foil Metal in sheet form less than 0.006 in. in thickness. Foil Metal in any width but no more than about 0.005 thick. Folds Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces. Forge Welding Welding hot metal by applying pressure or blows. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies.


Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metals, with specific reference to photographs of the fracture surface. Macrofractography involves photographs at low magnification; microfractography, at high magnification. Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metal, with specific reference to photography of the fracture surface. Fracture Surface appearance of metals when broken. Fracture Test Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fractured surface.

Fracture Test Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, and presence of defects. Fragmentation The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined by a heavily deformed network of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold working. These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to rotate to a stable orientation detemined by the slip systems. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or more ingredients have been introduced to produce small broken chips, low power consumption, better surface finish or longer tool life. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an ingredient has been introduced to give small broken chips, lower power consumption, better surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel. Fretting (Fretting Corrosion) Action that results in surface damage, especially in a corrosive environment, when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in contact under pressure. Friction Gouges or Scratches A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. Refer to Galling. Full Annealing Annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly through the transformation range. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid steel is usually above Ac3; and for hypereutectoid steel, usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). Full Annealing Used principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100 (degrees) F. above the critical temperature range, followed by soaking at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature. Full Annealing (ferrous materials)


and then cold-rolled to a bright finish. 32 . 1 Temper) In low carbon sheet or strip steel.S. not suitable for bending in any direction. 110. Compare normalizing. Full Finish Plate Steel sheet or strip. (C) In Stainless Steel Strip. tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. such as increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces.Min.Society4Pakswissians An annealing treatment in which a steel is ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (A3 or Acm) and then cooled slowly to room temperature. annealed. Hard Chromium Chromium deposited for engineering purposes. reduced either hot or cold.1% reduction.. Hardenability In a ferrous alloy. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper. Half Hard Temper (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. Tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. (B) In brass mill terminology. stiff and springy. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. rather than as a decorative coating. Hard Drawing Drawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength. Used principally for cold wound springs. Fusion Welding Any welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the weld. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching.70% thickness reduction. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip. Hard Temper (A) (For steel see Full Hard Temper) (B) In brass mill terminology. A typical cooling rate would be 210F/h 100 C/h. 140. It is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thicker than a decorative deposit. Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire A medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. Full Hard Temper (A) (No. Compare with press forging. half hard is two B&S numbers hard or 20. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185.000 TS. For Chromium-Nickel grades Half-Hard Temper 150. cleaned. Use of the term annealing without qualification implies full annealing.000 T. Hard Drawn Wire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work. Hammer Forging Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows.000 YS Min. produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper. Hard Temper is four B&S numbers hard or 37.S.000 Y.

usually involving heating and cooling. bending and stetching. In the Vickers test. flame hardening.Society4Pakswissians Hardenability The ability of a metal. Rockwell and Vickers may be used. Hardening Increasing hardness by suitable treatment. a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of 136 is used as the indenter. Hardening Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. 33 . Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring. induction hardening. usually involving heating and cooling. Heat Treatment Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of termperature changes. Hardness (indentation) Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by indentation. Scleroscope Hardness. penetration. or welding. Heat Treatment Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures. time of retention at specific temperature and rate of coolingtherfrom being as important as the temperature itself. Hardenability In ferrous alloys. starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics. Vickers Hardness. cutting. precipitation hardening. Hardening Increasing the hardness by suitable treatment. malleability. to harden in depth as distinguished from the terms hardness. ductility. When applicable. Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness. case hardening. Heat of Steel The product of a single melting operation in a furnace. and similar properties of both metals and their alloys. usually steel. For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness. conditions or properties are attained. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength. Rockwell Hardness. Hardness Degree to which a metal will resist cutting. quench hardening. quenching and tempering. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range. the following more specific terms should be used: age hardening. Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. but whose microstructure and physical peoperties were altered by the heat. hardness. Heat Tinting Colouration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal details of structure. Various hardness tests such as Brinell. abrasion. See Brinell Hardness.

Homogenizing Annealing An annealing treatment carried out at a high temperature. High Brass 65% A copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. rivets. Used for springs.Society4Pakswissians Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. for a sufficiently long time that inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional processes. tin. screws. Hot Working Plastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening. usually zinc. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey Hooke's law is known as the elastic limit. for the purpose of fizing a rust resistant coating. cutting or welding. (2) A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and 34 . Hot Shortness Brittleness in metal in the hot forming range. Hydrogen Embrittlement A condition low ductility in metals resulting from the absorbtion of hydrogen. or terne. etc. Homogenizing Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature. Hot Dip In steel mill practice. but within which microstructure and physical properties were altered by the treatment. Hooke's Law Stress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). approaching the solidus temperature. to hold molten metal on top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid having pipe or voids. Hot Short Brittleness in hot metal. Possesses high tensile strength. Honing Removing stock generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a workpiece with an abrasive stick mounted in a holder. Hydrogen Embrittlement (1) Brittleness of metal. thermally insulated or heated. a process wherby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal. Hematite The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe2O3. Hot Working Deformation under conditions that result in recrystallization. Hot Top (1) A reservoir.

Hypereutectoid Alloy In a eutectoid system. any alloy containing less than the eutectic concentration of solute.) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal. or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed when the specimen is broken by a single blow. silicates. Impact Test A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading. usually in bending. tension or torsion. Idiomorph A particle of a phase the has a regular external shape. any alloy containing more than the eutectoid concentration of solute. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow. In most cases the object and the search unit are submerged in water. usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen. The type of speciment and testing conditions affect the values and therfore should be specified. systematic movement of the beam relative to the object being inspected. Hypoeutectoid Steel Steel with less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. etc. 35 . Impact Energy (Impact Value) The amount of energy required to ffracture a material. a planned. Inclusion A nonmetallic material in a solid metallic matrix. Inclusions Particles of impurities (usually oxides. Hypoeutectic Alloy In a eutectic system. usually measured by means of an Izod or Charpy test.Society4Pakswissians internal pressure developed subsequently. Impact Test A test for determining the behaviour of materials when subjected to high rates of loading under conditions designed to promote fracture. Hypereutectoid Steel A steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. the search unit being coupled to this object through a column of liquid. Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures. tension. Immersed Scanning In ultrasonics. sulfides. Impurities Elements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired.usually in bending. Impact Test Test designed to determine the resistance of metal to breakage by impact. as in the Charpy or Izod.

and then cooling as required. or between grains. or to prevent sticking or scratching. Induction Heating A process of heating by electrical induction.etallic materials in a solid metallic matrix. Induction Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is generated by electrical induction. Interleaving The placing of a sheet of paper between two adjacent layers of metal to facilitate handling and shearing of rectangular sheets. Interrupted Aging The aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps. in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load. Ingot Iron Commercially pure iron. Indentation Hardness The resistance of a meterial to indentation. Pickling inhibitors retard the sissolution of metal without hindering the removal of scale from steel. Same as intergranular. Ingot A casting suitable for hot working or remelting.Society4Pakswissians Inclusions Non. Intermediate Annealing An annealing treatment given to wrought metals following cold work hardening for the purpose of softening prior to further cold working. Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in an inert gas such as argon or helium. Induction Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction. and cooling to room termperature after each step. 36 . Intercrystalline Between crystals. Inhibitor A substance which retards some specific chemical reaction. Internal Oxidation Formation of oxides beneath the surface of a metal. Ingot A casting for subsequent rolling or forging. Ingot Iron Commercially pure open-hearth iron. Compare with progressuve aging. This is the usual type osf hardness test.

Iron An element that has an average atomic number of 55. Ironing Thinning the walls of deep drawn articles by reducing the clearance between punch and die. Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram A diagram that shows the isothermal time required for transformation of austenite to commence and to finish as a function of temperature. and is then cooled to and held at a temperaure that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferritecarbide aggregate. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming. Thus iron-carbon alloys containing less than about 0. usually notched. (2) A casting made by the process.85 and that always. Intracrystalline Within or across crystals or grains.Society4Pakswissians Interrupted Quenching Quenching in which the metal object being quenched is removed from the quenching medium while the object is at a temperature substantially higher than that of the quenching medium.1% C may be referred to as irons. or lost-wax process. ductile and malleable. Also called precision casting. is fixed at one end and broken by a falling pendulum. Atomic weight 55. Same as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram or S-curve. cast iron and wrought iron. Investment Casting (1) Casting metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature after which the wax. Melting point of pure iron about 2795 (degrees) F. contains small but significant amounts of carbon. Isothermal Annealing A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic. as measured by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. in engineering practice. Irom (Chemical symbol Fe. The energy absorbed. 26 of the periodic system. plastic. A magnetic silver white metal of high tensile strength. Izod Test A pendulum type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel. Alloys with higher carbon contents are always termed steels. Interstitial Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solute atoms occupy (interstitial) positions between the atoms in the structure of the solvent.) Element No. Same as transcrystalline and transgranular. or frozed mercury pattern is removed through the use of heat. Isothermal Transformation A change in phase at any constant temperature.85. 37 .

for the same carbon and manganese content Killed Steel is harder than Rimmed Steel. Lamellar Tear A system of cracks or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of a plate. also all forging grades. Kip A load of 1000 lbs. The general practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents. To become divided.15% to 0.25% carbon are killed. Killed Steel The term killed indicates that the steel has been sufficiently deoxidized to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. a volume of crystal that has rotated physically to accommodate differential deformation between adjoining parts of a grain while the band itself has deformed homogeneously.15% carbon are rimmed steel. such as silicon or aluminum. Lamination An abnormal structure resulting in a separation or weakness aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of the metal. 38 . Kind Band (deformation) In polycrystalline materials. This occurs by regular bending of the slip lamellae along the boundaries of the band. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Laminations A defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers. However.25% carbon and some special steels in the low carbon range. It is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle. A properly killed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from aging. structural steels from 0.Society4Pakswissians Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent. Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent such as silicon or aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. Ladle Analysis A term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported by the producer. caused by gas pockets in the ingot. Most steels below 0. In general all steels above 0. Usually associated with a fusion weld in thick plate.

and non-collinear lattice points. or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface. Light Metals Metal and alloys that have a low specific gravity. but not welding them. titanium. Lattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so as to pass through collinear lattice points. magnesium and aluminum. fins or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface. for use as a plate in offset printing. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish melting on heating. but not welding them. Light Metal One of the low-density metals such as aluminum.0% C and solely in steels containing less than about 0. Longitudinal Direction The principal direction of flow in a worked metal. fins. or their alloys. in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together. as parallel arrays or packets of lath-shape units about 0. Low Brass 39 . Lithographic Sheet Aluminum Sheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness. seams. Lath Martensite Martensite formed. and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe. partly in steel containing less than about 1. Lap-Weld A term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering.5% C. Lap A surface defect appearing as a seam. and having a habit plane that is close to {111}. or segregation elongated and made directional by working. Lamination defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts. caused by folding over hot metal. Liquidus In a constitutional diagram. magnesium. blisters.Society4Pakswissians Laminations Metal defects with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of the metal. such as beryllium. beryllium. respectively. Lattice Space lattice. Long Terne A term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Lead and Tin) by immersion in a bath of Terne Metal. May be the result of pipe.3 m thick. Liquation Partial melting of an alloy.1 to 0. caused by fording over hot metal. inclusions. Leveling Flattening rolled metal sheet or strip. Lap A surface defect. appearing as a seam.

A copper-Zinc alloy containing 20% zinc. 5 dead soft temper. Open Hearth or Electric Processes.) Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. metal bellows.45/. Machinability The relative ease of machining a metal. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. Oil tempered wire of M B and W M B types are the most widely used of all spring wires. Bessemer. very ductile. drawing. while W M B. Is a light golden color. Low Carbon Steels Contain from 0.75 carbon range either hard drawn or oil tempered. etc. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties are the same for both basic and acid steel. Oil tempered wire is more suitable to precision forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire.) Low-Hydrogen Electrode A covered arc-welding electrode that provides an atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen. Luders Lines (Steel) (Characteristic of No.60% manganese. Macro-Etch Etching of a metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. 5 Yemper-Not a defect in No. Luders Lines or Bands Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results form discontinuous (inhomogeneous) yielding. M B Grade A term applied to Open-Hearth steel wire in the . .Society4Pakswissians 80% cu. suitable for cupping.30% carbon and less than 0. 40 . etc. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the field point. forming. Machinability The capacity of a material to be machined easily. W H B and extra W H B designate Acid Open Hearth Steels. H B and extra H B designate Basic Open Hearth steels. Macroetch Test Consists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in hot acid and of examining the etched surface to evaluate the soundness and homogeneity of the product being tested. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal gose. Machinability Index A relative measure of the machinability of an engineering material under specified standard conditions. (The product of Basic Oxygen. NOTE M B. because of close control of tensile strength and superior straightness.10 to 0.

Finely divided magnetic particles.93. Magnetite The oxide or iron of intermediate valence which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe3O4. Macrograph A photographic reproduction of any object that has not been magnified more than ten times. Manual Welding Welding where in the entire welding operation is performed and controlled by hand. anre attracted to and outline the pattern of any magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities. reddishwhite metal of hard brittle and. part of the carbon is removed completely. Macrostructure The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. Manganese (Chemical symbol Mn. Macroscopic Visible either with the naked eye or under low magnification (as great as about ten diameters. Macrostructure The structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination.) Element No. The more malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others. for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. Its principal function is as an alloy in steel making: (1) It is ferrite-strengthening and carbide forming element. Malleability The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the metal is subjected to rolling or hammering. applied to the magnetized part. in someinstances. Macrograph A graphic reproduction of a prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high manganese accompany each other. When photographed. atomic weight 54. The metal is used in large quantities in the form of Spiegel and Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copperbase alloys. Magnetic-Particle Inspection A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. 25 of the periodic system.Society4Pakswissians Macroetching Etching of a metal surface with the abjective of accentuating gross structural details. the reproduction is known as a photomacrograph (not a macrophotograph). It increases hardenability inexpensively. therfore. (2) It counteracts brittleness from sulfur. 41 . Malleabilizing A process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free carbon or. non-malleable character. Lustrous. Macrostructure The structure of a metal as revealed by examination of the etched surface at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.

The treatment is frequently followed by tempering. the controlling Ms temperature is that of the case. Obviously. Martensite In steel. Produce by etched or mechanically roughened finishing rolls. Martensite (1) In an alloy. Martensite A distinctive neddle like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. (b) In steel metallurgy. held in the medium until the temperature is uniform through-out -but not long enough for bainite to form . etc. 42 . antimony. (2) When the process is applied to carburized material. there being a rather distinct beginning temperature. Martempering (1) A hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous material is quenched into an appropriate medium at a temperature just above the Ms temperature of the material. frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. the high-temperature phase transformed to martensite depends to a large extent upon the temperature attained in cooling. metalloid has a specialized. Its microstructure is characterized by an acicular. This variation of the process is frequently called marquenching. Martensite is magnetic. are generally considered metalloids. silicon and sulfur. The alloy is then allowed to cool in air through the martensite range. formed by a transformation of austenite below the Ms (or Ar) temperature. boron. (2) A metastable phase of steel. or needle-like. Matt or Matte Finish (Steel) Not as smooth as normal mill finish. another metalloid in character. pattern.and then cooled in air. a metalstable transition phase with a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure formed by diffusionless transformation of austenite generally during cooling between the Ms and Mf temperatures. no hard and fast line can be drawn. tellurium. It is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a bodycentered tetragonal lattice. Matrix The principal phase or aggregate in which another constituent is embedded. Martensite Range The interval between the Ms and Mf temperatures. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition.. Arsenic. carbon. a metastable transitional structure intermediate between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a given solute differ considerably. Matalloid (a) Element intermediate in lustre and conductivity between the true metals and non-metals. and holding it in the medium until the temperature throughout the alloy is substantially uniform. and selenium. even if erroneous. it covers elements commonly prosent in simple steel. or slightly above that range. manganese. Matrix The principal phase in which another constituent is embedded.Society4Pakswissians Martempering Quenching an austenitized ferrous alloy in a medium at a temperature in the upper part of the martensite range. phosphorus. meaning.

Metalograph An optical instrument designed for both visual observation and photomicrography of prepared surfaces of opaque materials at magnifications ranging from about 25 to about 1500 diameters. Metastable 43 . May be made by any of the standard processes. etc. denser than other substances. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are. is melted by an oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene blast or by an electric arc and is proficted at high speed by gas pressure against the object being coated. tensile strength and fatigue limit. Melting Point The temperature at which a pure metal.00% manganese. Mechanical Properties Those properties of a meterial that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied.Society4Pakswissians Mechanical Polishing A method of producing a specularly reflecting surface by use of abrasives. thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application. for example. Medium-Carbon Steel Contains from 0. compound or eutectic changes form solid to liquid. Mechanical Spring Any spring produced by cold forming from any material with or without subsequent heat treatment. Metal An opaque. hardness. the modulus of elasticity. a good reflector or light. drawing. Mechanical Properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied. Melting Range The range of temperature in which an alloy melt. Metal Spraying A process for applying a coating of metal to an object. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. in general. usually in the form of wire. The mechanical properties of steel are dependent on its microstructure. elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and. Mechanical Twin A twin formed in a metal during plastic deformation by simple shear of the structure.30% to 0.. that is the range between solidus and liquidus temperatures.60% carbon and less than 1. modulus of elasticity. The metal. Mechanical Working Plastic deformation or other physical change to which metal is subjected. for example. but the term mechanical properties is much to be preferred. the temperature at which the liquid and the solid are in equilibrium. hammering. properties or structure. when polished. by rolling. tensile strength. to change its shape. and fatigue limit. lustrous. Metallography The science concerning the constituents and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the microscope. elongation. These properties have often been designated as physical properties.

Modulus of Elasticity A measure of the rigidity of metal.e. Modulus of Elasticity (tension) Force which would be required to stretch a substance to double its normal length. Ratio of stress. Mill Finish A surface finish produced on sheet and plate. Microcrack A crack of microscopic size. the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity.25% C. within proportional limit. the reproduction is known as a photomicrograph (not a microphotograph). Mill Edge The edge of strip. to corresponding strain. shear modulus or modulus of torsion. Micrograph A graphic reproduction of the prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification greater than ten diameters.55(degrees) to the compression direction and are confined to individual grains. the modulus obtained in tension or compression is Young's modulus. Microbands (deformation) Thin sheet like volumes of constant thickness in which cooperative slip occurs on a fone scale. Specifically. Characteristic of the ground finish used on the rolls in fabrication. stretch modulus or modulus of extensibility.. the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal stress to the change in volume per unit volume is the bulk modulus. obey Hooke's Law throughout the twist. which usually contain two sets of bands. sheet or plate in the as rolled state. Also called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity. Mild Steel Carbon steel containing a maximum of about 0. The tangent modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit. They are an instability which carry exclusively the deformation at medium strains when normal homogeneous slip is precluded. Microstructure The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters. Microstructure The structure of polished and etched metal and alloy specimens as revealed by the microscope. i. Mf Temperature The temperature at which martensitic transformation is essentially complete during cooling after austenitization. Mold A form of cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a desired shape. the latter is the slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. on the assumption that it would remain perfectly elastic. the former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point. The ratio of stress to strain within the perfectly elastic range. Compare shear bands. The sheets are aligned at +/. When photographed.Society4Pakswissians Possessing a state of pseudo-equilibrium that has a free energy higher than that of the true equilibrium state but from which a system does not change spontaneously. 44 . Unsheared.

by reduction of molybdenum trioxide or ammonium molybdate with hydrogen.. Pure molybdenum can best be obtained as a black powder. Music Wire A polished high tensile strength cold drawn wire with higher tensile strength and higher torsional strength than any other material available.002 to . The high toughness characteristic of this material is obtained by the patenting. (3) Counteracts tendency toward temperbrittleness. (5) Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steel. (2) Deepens hardening. or extruded) products. Hard. specific gravity 10. atomic weight 95.035.. boiling point about 6600 (degrees) F. (4) Raises hot and creep strength. ductile sheet and wire are made by powder metallurgy techniques. Stronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hotworked (rolled. Usually supplied in a 2 width from . Used for cutting the eyes of needle and milling the latch in a latch needle. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature. High strength brasses are developed from this by adding other elements. 45 . (6) Forms abrasion-resisting particles. From this powder. Such wire is purchased according to tensile strength. red hardness. Carbon content 1. Needle Cutter Steel Usually supplied quarter hard rolled.25 Chromium .Society4Pakswissians Molybdenum (Chemical symbol Mo) Element No. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Raises grain-coarsening temperature of austenite. becoming very ductile and malleable when properly treated at high temperatures. extra precision rolled with sheared edges. these are used in radio and related work. tough metal of grayish-white color. Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy) Alpha-beta brass. Necking Local reduction of the cross-sectional area of metal by stretching. stamped. These high mechanical properties are obtained by a combination of the high carbon content. the patenting treatment and by many continuous passes through drawing dies. Ms Temperature The temperature at which a martensitic transformation starts during cooling after austenitization. Neumann Band A mechanical (deformation) twin in ferrite. 42 of the peridic system.95. 60% copper and 40% zinc. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature.2 . not hardness. melting point 4748 (degrees) F. Network Structure A structure in which the crystals of one constituent are surrounded by envelopes of another constituent which gives a network appearance to an etched test specimen.15.

Composition usually . A non-refractory alloy has malleability. See Columbium Nitriding Introducing nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable temperature (below Ac1 for ferritic steels) in contact with a nitrogenous material. . . Used as an alloying agent.50 chromium. that is.20-. it is of great importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-Nickel. Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel Strip steel ordered or sold on the basis of absence of unevenness. 41 of the periodic system. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels. Certain alloying constituents.20% aluminum. Nitriding Steel Steel which is particularly suited for the nitriding process.00 molybdenum. boiling point about 5250 (degrees) F. melting point 2651 (degrees) F. that is. specific gravity 8. on the edges of the steel. it will form a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding (heating in a partially dissociated atmosphere of ammonia gas). ease of flattening when subjected to rolling or hammering. Nickel Silver Copper base alloys that contain 10-45% Zn. silicates or similar substances held in metals mechanically during solidification or formed by reactions in the solid state. the increase in hardness being the result of surface nitride formation. Nitriding Process of surface hardening certain types of steel by heating in ammonia gas at about 935-1000 (degrees) F. and 5-30% Ni. sulphides.Society4Pakswissians Nickel (Chemical symbol Ni) Element No. and .85-1. In general. principal among them being aluminum.90. Nickel Steel Steel containing nickel as an alloying element. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature).90-1. when subjected to deep drawing. of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. the depth of the case is less than with carburizing.69. Non-Ferrous Metals Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so. atomic weight 58. usually ammonia of molten cyanide of appropriate composition. Quenching is not required to produce a hard case. Niobium (Chemical symbol Nb) Element No. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water.15-1.40 carbon. Normalizing 46 .. slightly magnetic metal. 28 of the periodic system.. Non-Refractory Alloy A term opposed to refractory alloy. Silvery white. or ears. Non-Metallic Inclusions Impurities (commonly oxides). Nodular Pearlite Pearlite that has grown as a colony with an approximately spherical morphology. (3) Renders highchromium iron alloys austenitic. greatly facilitate the hardening reaction. Used for electroplating.. as well as in nickel-base alloys such as Monel Metal.

Oil-Hardening Steel Steel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and quenching in oil. in a notch tensile test a material is said to be notch brittle if its notch strength is less than its tensile strength. Yellow Brass Half Hard is termed 2 numbers hard. Oil Stain Aluminum Stain produced by the incomplete burning of the lubricants on the surface of the sheet. Nucleation Initiation of a phase transformation at discrete sites. impact or fatigue tests. Notch Sensitivity A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress concentration. temper is referred to as so many numbers hard. it is said to be notch ductile. and separated form the matrix by an interface. Olsen (Ductility) Test 47 . Values can be obtained from static. Notch Brittleness A measure of the susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture at locations of stress concentration.Society4Pakswissians Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above A3 or Acm and then cooling in still air to a temperature substantially below A1. This term is derived from terminology used on the mill gloor where by temper or hardness is imparted by cold working and classified as to hardness by the number of Brown & Sharpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state. in which most of the mass and the total positive electrical charge are concentrated. i. Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. Rolling subsequent to staining will change color from darker browns to lighter browns down to white. (2) The heavy central core of an atom. Oil Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil. For example. The cooling rate usually is in the range 900 to1800 F/h (500 to 1000C/h). otherwise. the new phase growing from nuclei. Normalizing A heat treatment applied to steel. Nucleus (1) The first structurally stable particle capable of initiating recrystallization of a phase or the growth of a new phase. Normalizing Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. Number as Pertaining to Hardness In copper base alloys inductry.e. Is performed to refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress.

similar to the Erichsen ductility test. Also referred to as pebbles and alligator skin. random orientation exists. Readings are in thousandths of an inch. Open Surface Rough surface on black plate. it is known as the preferred orientation. an acid material. The opposite of ribbon wound. usually magnesite. is the raw material charged in. causing the charge to be heated both by direct flame and radiation from the roof and sidewalls of the furnace. silica. so that the property is altered in the direction of the initial value. the furnace is regenerative. whereas in the acid open-hearth steel process. Sometimes termed stagger wound or vibrated wound. resulting from imperfection in the original steel bars from which the plate was rolled. Orange Peel A pebble-grain surface which develops in forming of metals having coarse grains. If there is any tendency for one arrangement to predominate.04%). Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. is used as the furnace lining and pig iron. Ore A mineral from which metal is (or may be) extracted. In ferrous industry. The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a standard steel ball under pressure. Orientation (crystal) Directions in space of the axes of the lattice of a crystal with respect to a chosen reference or coordinate system. Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. Orange Peel (effect) A surface roughening (defect) encountered in forming products from metal stock that has a coarse grain size. It is due to uneven flow or to the appearance of the overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too high a temperature. Open-Hearth Process Process of making steel by heating the metal in the hearth of a regenerative furnace. sheet or strip. in the absence of any such preference. Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound A method of even winding metal strip or wire on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. continuing until the cup formed from the metal sample fractures. the lining of the hearth is basic. This test is sometimes used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing. extremely low in phosphorous (less than 0. In the basic openhearth steel process.Society4Pakswissians A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and depth of impression. The flame passes over the charge in the hearth. Orientation (crystal) Arrangement of certain crystal axes or crystal planes in a crystalline aggregate with respect to a given direction or plane. Open-Hearth Furnace A reverberatory melting furnace with a shallow hearth and a low roof. 48 .

Pancake Grain Structure 49 . When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. It usually requires considerable machining to attain the finish size. by mechanical working or by a combination of working and heat treating. the overheating is known as burning. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. (2) Chemical combination with oxygen to form an oxide. or by combination of working and heat treating. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. Oxidation The addition of oxygen to a compound. tightly adhering oxidized skin. Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. Pack Rolling Rolling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time. Oxidation (1) A reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a loss of electrons. the overheating is known as burning. When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. a method usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil. scale prevents their being welded together. scale prevents the sheets from being welded together.Society4Pakswissians Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum strength. hence a staining or discoloration. Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. This effect is increased with temperature increase. Oxygen-Free Copper Electrolytic copper free from cuprous oxide. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface. Oxide Compound of oxygen with another element. by mechanical working. produced without the use of residual metallic or metalloidal deoxidizers. Oxygen Lance A length of pipe used to convey oxygen onto a bath of molten metal. Oxidized Surface A surface having a thin. Pancake Forging A rough forged shape which may be obtained quickly with a minimum of tooling.

with subsequent colling. Pearlite A lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite. Patenting Treatment of steel. oftern occurring in steel and case iron. usually in air. in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830 (degrees) F. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent chemical in the liquid employed as the inspection medium. Penetrant Inspection A method of non-destructive testing for determining the existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being inspected.Society4Pakswissians A structure in which the lengths and widths of individual grains are large compared to their thicknesses. Patenting A heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold drawing to wire.. Pattern Welding A process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel are twisted together and then forge welded. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. Homogeneity and toughness are thereby improved. Peening Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement. A regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final product. Contrast with activation. or in a fused salt mixture held between 800 (degrees) F. Patterned or Embossed Sheet A sheet product on which a raised or indented pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite. Pass A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill. in a bath of molten lead. Peritectic An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase to produce another solid phase. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. usually in wire form. COmmonly used for making swords as early as the 3rd century A.D. Pearlite Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. Pearlite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide. Passivation The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. and 1050 (degrees) F. 50 . Pass (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls.

This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties. Temper is imparted by cold rolling. Physical Properties The properties. density. corrosion resistant comparable to copper. that pertain to the physics of a material. It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F. resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin. atomic weight 30. heat conductivity. Phosphorus (Chemical symbol P) Element No.g. Phase A physically homogeneous and distincy portion of a material system.5 to 10% of tin. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. It has excellent electrical properties. Physical Properties Those properties familiarly discussed in physics. and improves machinability in free-cutting steels. e. deformation of metal under stress. fine grain. and chemical resistance. which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. magnetic susceptibility. increases resistance to corrosion. specific gravity 1. In steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications. The term micrograph may be used. with 3. resistance to fatigue and wear.98. boiling point 536 (degrees) F. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F. to which has been added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1% for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. electrical conductivity. to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel. reflectivity. these alloys find general use as springs and in making fittings. strength. density. etc. Rated good for soft soldering.. for example.Society4Pakswissians Permalloy Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe. oxyacetylene. Phase Diagram Synonymous with constitutional diagram. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. silver alloy brazing. melting point 111 (degrees) F. 15 of the periodic system. electrical conductivity. Phosphor Bronze Copper base alloys. exclusive of those described under mechanical properties. other than mechanical properties. Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms. carbon arc and resistance welding. In the manufacture of Phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent. it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets. that pertain to the physical nature of a material. great toughness and resistance to fatigue. used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity. thermal expansion. for example. Permanent Set Non-elastic or plastic. Because of excellent toughness. It has corrosion resisting properties comparable to copper. electrical conductivity. 51 .82. co-efficient of thermal expansion.. Physical Properties Properties other than mechanical properties. However. density. after passing the elastic limit.. thermal expansion. Photomicrograph A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters. but this usage is not recommended. Phosphor Bronze Strip A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin.

and other impurities. Pin Expansion Test A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses. which occurs in the approximate center. made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube. Piling A process in which several bars are stacked and hot rolled together with the objective of improving the homogeneity of the final product. Pinchers Long fern like creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3. (2) Cast iron in the form of pigs. Balance largely silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus. Pipe (defect) Contraction cavity. at the top and reaching down into a casting. also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thickness of light gage metal. (2) The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a cavity.Society4Pakswissians Pickling Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical reaction. Pickling The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids. caused by the shrinkage of cast metal. (2) Cast Iron in the form of pigs. Planimetric Method A method of measuring grain size. essentially cone-like in shape. 52 . galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty pickling. leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed. cast or wrought. Pig Iron Iron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. Pickling Patch A defect in tin plate. especially ingots. Used in primitive iron making. during solidification. that is.5% carbon. Pit (defect) A sharp depresssion in the surface of the metal. sulphur. Pitting Forming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by nonuniform electro-deposition or by corrosion. Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. (3) An extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward the center of the rod at the back end. Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. in which the grains within a definite area are counted. Pinholes Microscopic imperfection of the coatings. microscopic bare spots. Pipe (1) The central cavity formed by contraction in metal. (4) A tubular metal product.

it is allotropy. partly in steels containing more than about 0. particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and the gamma face centered form.. the particular form depending on the conditions of crystallization . or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure. Among elements. Plate Martensite Martensite formed. Also used to refer to the electrolytic reduction cell employed in winning certain metals. 53 . Polished Surface The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive. Plasticity The capacity of a metal to deform non-elastically without rupturing. resulting in a high gloss or polish. for stress relieving. temperature and pressure. is of fundamental importance in the hardening of steel. or will remain. If the change is reversible. Plate A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width argitrarily dependent on the type of metal. and usually a large number of crystals. Plastic Deformation Deformation that remains. permanent after release of the stress that caused it. Plasticity The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture. Plastic Deformation Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses. such as aluminum. Pot A vessel for holding molten metal. this phenomenon is also called allotropy. or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels Plating A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1. The allotropy of iron. Polymorphism The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic structure.e.0% C. from a fused electrolyte. Polycrystalline Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal. Polishing Producing a specularly reflecting surface. Numerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation temperatures during heating or cooling. Postheating Heating weldments immediately after welding.g. for tempering. as lenticular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near (225)A. Polymorphism The property whereby certain substances may exist in more than one crystalline form.Society4Pakswissians Planishing Producing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose. or by rolling in a planishing mill.

Primes Metal products. the lower limit of the transformation range and then cooling. Process Annealing 54 . (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature.Society4Pakswissians Pot Annealing Is the same as box annealing. Pouring The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other types of molds. of the highest quality and free from visible defects. Process Annealing In the sheet and wire industries. but below. Primes Metal products. met. of the highest quality and free from visible surface defects. (3) Nonfer. For tool steel. Precipitation Hardening Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent form a supersaturated solid solution. heating to an intermediate temperature immediately before austenitizing. Preferred Orientation A condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the crystal orientations are not random. between dies in a press. Powder Metallurgy The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects. principally sheet and plate. heating a ferrous alloy to a temperature close to. Primary Crystal The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during solidifacation. Press Forging Forging metal. For some nonferrous alloys. Precipitation Hardening A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution. usually hot. in order to soften the alloy for futher cold working. Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution. in castings. in order to homogenize the structure before working. such as sheet and plate. for example. Ingots are homogenized by preheating. Preheating Heating before some further thermal or mechanical treatment. Preheating (1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. heating to a high temperature for a long time. Precipitation Heat Treatment Nonfer met.-Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working.

Pyrometer An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures. the lower limit of the transformation range and is subsequently cooled. 55 . The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method. This process was developed by Henry Cort about 1784 and remained in use until 1957. a process by whcih a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature close to. Punch The movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing.000 Y. Punching Shearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die. (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads. Compare with interrupted aging. a medium soft temper produced by a limited amount of cold rolling after annealing. For Chromium-Nickel grades Quarter Hard Temper is 125. blanking. Proeutectoid (phase) Particles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation takes place. 3 Temper) (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. although on a very small scale during the present century.000 T. Puddling Process A process for making wrought iron in which cast orn is melted in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained. Quarter hard is one B and S number hard or 10. S. (C) In stainless steel terminology tempers are based on minimum tensile. and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured. coining. Progressive Aging An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continuously increased during the aging cycle.S. This process is applied in order to soften the alloy for further cold working. Pulse-Echo Method A nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed onto a part.Society4Pakswissians In the sheet and wire industries.. Proof Stress (1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. Propertional Limit The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (Hooke's Law). 75.95% reduction. (B) In brass mill terminology. min. embossing and the like. Propertional Limit The maximum stress at which strain remains directly propertional to stress. or yield strength. but below. Quarter Hard (No.

inside. high-carbon pig iron or a high-carbon alloy. Recarburizing (1) Increasing the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material. The process usually involves the formation of martensite. Quenching Rapid cooling. quenching has no effect other than to hasten cooling. Usually a protective atmosphere is maintained in the box to protect the metal from oxidation. and the length of this line is inversely proportional to their interplanar distance. are apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent screen or on photographic film placed behind the object. Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal) A group of points arranged about a center in such a way that the line joining each point of the center is perpendicular to a family of planes in the crystal. Quench Hardening (Steel) A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially. Quench Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling rapidly enough so that some or all of the austenite transforms to martensite. Quench Hardening Hardening by austenitizing and then cooling at a rate such that a substantial amount of austenite is transformed to martensite. density or absorption. cracked. Quenching In the heat treating of metals. Ragged Edges Edges of Sheet or Strip which are torn. Radiant Tube Annealing Box A box which is heated. Radiography A nondestructive method of internal examination in which metal objects are exposed to a beam of X-ray or gamma radiation. split. Differences in thickness. standing on the base of the box. the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties. In the case of most copper base alloys. by means of tubes in which gas is burned. the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal. caused by internal defects or inclusions. (2) Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing.Society4Pakswissians Quench Aging Aging that occurs after quenching following solution heat treatment. The austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually above Ac3 and for hypereutectoid steels usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). 56 . most commonly accomplished by immersing the metal in oil or water. ragged or burred or otherwise disfigured.

usually just higher than the transformation range. structure from the structure existing in cold worked metal. such as that occurring on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. coins. between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the specimen. (2) The formation of a new. the difference. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. Recrystallization (1) A change from one crystal structure to another. (2) Formation of a new. condenser tubes. without motion of large-angle grain boundaries. hardware. usually accomplished by heating.Society4Pakswissians Recovery Reduction or removal of work-hardening effects. Refining Temperature A temperature. expressed as a percentage of original area. performed on cold worked metals without altering the grain structure or strength properties particular. used for plumbing pipe. badges. as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. It is somewhat stronger than commercial bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold working. is used or vanity cases. expressed as a percentage of original area. Red Shorness Brittleness in steel when it is red hot. employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the structure -. Red Brass 85% Copper -. etc. (2) The difference. Reflector Sheet 57 . Recovery (1) The removal of residual stresses by localized plastic flow as the result of low-temperature annealing operations.A copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 15% zinc. strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold worked metal. plaques. Recrystallization (1) The change from one crystal structure to another. stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time. the grain size. Recrystallization A process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced by a new. strain-free grain. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. between the original crosssectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. Reduction of Area (1) Commonly. Because of its color. Recystallization Annealing Annealing cold worked metal to produce a new grain structure without a phase change.

the work being part of an electrical circuit. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding. Resistance Welding Welding with electrical resistance heating and pressure. Resistance Welding A type of welding process in which the work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact. Rephosphorizing (Steel) A Ladle-chemical treatment consisting of the addition of phosphorus as a work hardening agent when temper rolling black plate or sheet steel resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a corresponding loss in ductility. NOTE: Black Plate in tempers T5 and T6 (R/B range 68/84) are temper rolled from Rephosphorized steel. Refractory Alloy A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances. Flash and butt welding are sometimes considered as resistance welding processes. Residuals 'Incidental' or 'tramp' elements not named in a specification. Residual Stress Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation.Society4Pakswissians An alclad product containing on one side a surface layer of high-purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of commercial-purity aluminum or an aluminum-manganese alloy. Such processes include spot welding. Refractory Metal A metal having an extremely high melting point. Refractory A heat-resistant material. The high-purity coating imparts good polishing characteristics and the core gives adequate strength and formability. These inclusions are usually due to contaminated scrap. which is used for furnace linings and such. In the broad sense. cobalt. . and nickel. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. Residual Elements Small quantities of elements unintentionally present in an alloy. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. Resolution 58 . Resilience The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain. it refers to metals having melting points above the range of iron. usually nonmetallic. seam or line welding and percussion welding.

Most steels below 0. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position. etc. five scales designated by letters varying from A to H. Roll Forming An operation used in forming sheet. or from steel in the higher hardness ranges. Rockwell Hardness (Test) A standard method for measuring the hardness of metels. For the same carbon and manganese content rimmed steel is softer than killed steel. This method is relatively ineffective in removing defects such as buckles. corrugations. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator. sometimes called molded sections. Rolled Edges Finished edges. Strips of sheet are passed between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural members of various contours. the final contours of which are produced by side or edging rolls. Sheet and strip products made from the ingot have very good surface quality. Ripple (defect) A slight transverse wave or shadow mark appearing at intervals along the piece. twists. Various dial readings combined with different major loads..15% carbon are rimmed steels. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. the B and C scales are most commonly in use. wavy edges. Ribbon Wound A term applied to a common method of winding strip steel layer upon layer around an arbor or mandrel. Rolled In Scale A surface defect consisting of scale partially rolled into the surface of the sheet. Roller Leveling Passing sheet or strip metal through a series of staggered small rolls so as to flatten the metal. also. the degree to which such forms or entities can be discriminated. The edge contours most commonly used are square corners. Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to produce continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during ingot solidification. Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel in which incomplete deoxidation permits the metal to remain liquid at the top of the ingot.Society4Pakswissians The capacity of an optical or radiation system to separate closely spaced forms or entities. The sulfur is added to improve machinability. If the rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring of the ingot is completed. rounded corners and rounded edge. The rim is of somewhat purer composition than the original metal poured. the metal is known as capped steel. Riffles Waviness at the edge of sheet or strip. Rimmed Steel A low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide while the ingot is solidifying. 59 . resulting in the formation of a bottom and side rim of considerable thickness. Resulfurized Steel Steel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts after refining.

NOTE: cutter discs are also employed in producing dircles from flat sheets but with differently designed machines. This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal. sections. slabs.g. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content.. rods. cardboard.05%. bars. intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of cutting or stamping fabrics. sheets and strip. usually within 0. perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling. Rolling Reducing the cross-sectional area of metal stock. and metal foil into desired shape. or occurring where the skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded. Rough Machining Machining without regard to finish. a flat side being separated from the metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand. e. through the use of rotating rolls. Rule Die Steel A hardened and tempered medium high carbon spring steel strip sufficiently low in hardness to take moderately sharp bends without fracture. It is usually set in a depression. blooms.Society4Pakswissians Roller Leveling Leveling by passing flat stock through a machine having a series of small-diameter staggered rolls. paper. usually to be followed by a subsequent operation. plastics. Scab (scabby) A blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold face. Salt Spray Test An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently. Rolling Direction (in rolled metal) The direction. rails. Scale A layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature. or by uneven mold surfaces. or otherwise shaping metal products. Rolling A term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thickness by passing it between rolls which compress. 60 . SAE Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. plates. Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine) A cutting machine with sharpened circular blades or disc-like cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil. Rolling Mills Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls the contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous intermediate and final shapes. shape and lengthen it following the roll pattern. in the plane of the sheet. Scab A defect consisting of a flat volume of metal joined to a casting through a small area.

Seam Welding An electric-resistance type of welding process. ordinarily by using a gas torch. Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. Seam On the surface of metal. ordinarily by using a gas torch. by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish. 61 . Scratch Brushed Finish Finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes. Scrap Material unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. billets. usually resulting from a defect obtained in casting or in working. Seam (A defect. resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide. Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. billets. Scleroscope Test A hardness test where the loss in kinetic energy of a falling metal tup. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. Similar to cold shut and laminations. Scalping Machining the surface layers from ingots. with a specified high-carbon steel as 100. The scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance. Scalped Extrusion Ingot A cast. (2) Removal of scale from metal. billets and slabs before fabrication. is indicated by the height of rebound. such as blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during working. or hollow extrusion ingot which has been machined on the outside surface. in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current.) On the surface of metal a crack that has been closed but not welded. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal being tested.Society4Pakswissians Scaling (1) Oxidation of metal due to heat. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. a diamond-pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. Scarf Joint A butt joint in which the plane of the joint is inclined with respect to the main axes of the members. usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working. Scaling Forming a thick layer of oxidation products on metals at high temperatures. solid. Scleroscope Hardness (Test) A method for measuring the hardness of metals. an unwelded ford or lap which appears as a crack.

usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid. fo form martensite either through air hardening or. 62 .imperfections in the base material. Hardened and blue tempered with round edges. Self Diffusion The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of its own species. Hardness usually Rockwells 30 N 68 to 71. Segment Steel Used for laminated piston rings. concentration of alloying elements at specific regions. Semifinished Steel Steel in the form of billets. Segregation Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements.. Semikilled Steel Steel incompletely deoxidized. . itc. blooms. Seconds The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in moderate degree or extent. Semikilled Steel Steel that is completely deoxided and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidifacation shrinkage. or other manufacturing defects. Segregation Nonumiform distribution of alloying elements. impurities or microphases. impurities or phases.60%. Semi-Steel Cast iron (not steel) of high quality. widths vary from . which may be classified in two general groups -.058 to . Segregation In an alloy. Segregation Banding In homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Carbon content about . Self-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element. requiring further working before completion into finished steel ready for marketing.030.020. obtained by using a large percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron.Society4Pakswissians Secondary Hardening Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same steel at some lower temperature for the same time. to permit evolution of sufficient carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage. Semikilled Steel Steel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset solidification shrinkage. as in welding and induction hardening.163 and thicknesses are . 024 and . This term not used in connection with non-ferrous alloys. through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction into the surrounding cold metal. or both.

Shore Hardness Test Same as scleroscope test. used primarily for tool. or a blanket of fusible flux. Brass shim of commercial quality is also used and most generally specified is 2 Nos. each. the products of decomposition of the electrode covering. die and machine alignment purposes. Usually only one system is present in each regional group of grains. Shear Strength The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of cross section. backed up by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these backed up by bearings on a shaft mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings and backup rolls. Shear Steel Steel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel. the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified minimum amount. Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are protected by a gaseous atmosphere. providing a more homogeneous product.Society4Pakswissians Sendzimir Mill A mill having two work rolls of 1 to 2 1/2-in diam. Also called Croning process. Compare microbands. They carry most of the deformation at large strains. Shear Bands (deformation) Bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. different systems being present in adhoining groups. Shear Crack A diagonal. Sheet is thinner than plate. Hard. In steel there are four general types: (1) Low Carbon Rockwell B 80/100. Shear A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved. Shear That type of force that causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. Shim A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances. The bands are noncrystallographic and form on planes of maximum shear stress (55(degrees) to the compression direction). (2) Hard Rolled High Carbon Rockwell C 28/33. Sheet A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and minimum width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. (4) Austenitic Stainless Steel Rockwell C 35/45. (3) Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Rockwell C 44/51. Hard but may be 4 Nos. resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. Short 63 . Shell Molding Forming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pregeated (300 to 500 (degrees) F) metal patterns. transgranular crack caused by shear stresses.

Element No. and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets. however. It is designated as cold. using metal as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. Silky Fracture A steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or silky appearance. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. at an elevated temperature. melting between 650 and 875 (degrees) C. such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or ejecting the formed work. to some extent.06. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss. Siliconizing Diffusing silicon into solid metal. silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture. Shrinkage Cavity A void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. Extremely common element. Sinker Steel Used for making sinkers in hosiery making machinery. It is designed as cold. sinc and other metals. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. Single-Action Press A forming press that operates with a single function. Silicon Steel Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace. Shot Blasting Cleaning surface of metal by air blast.50-5. its chemical reactions. atomic weight 28. extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. in all steels. copper. hot. Supplied both hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal.25. Silicon is present. other elements being usually dept as low as possible. and red. Carbon content about 1.Society4Pakswissians Brittle. Usually extra precision rolled and extra flat. 14 of the periodic system. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal. the major component of all rodks and sands. usually steel. with about 0. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. Short Terne A term applying to terne coated (Lead and Tin) sheets with reference to Base Box sizes (14 x 20) Refer to terne plate. Sinkhead or Hot Top 64 . hot. Silver Solders Alloys of silver. Silicon Chemical symbol Si. and red.% silicon. used for making strong yet moderately ductile joints that resist corrosion. are those of a metalloid. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited.

Skull A layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when metal has been poured. etc. at least twice as wide as it is thick.. and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility. Slab A piece of metal. Skelp A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness. Skelp A plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together. such as cobalt acing as a matrix. usually after preliminary compacting by pressure. Also called shrink head or feeder head. by heating Sintering Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion. from which pipe or tubing is made.Society4Pakswissians A reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hod excess molten metal on top of an ingot mold. Slag A product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of a processed ore. containing carbides of extremely refractory metals. in order to feed the shrinkage of the ingot. Slip Plastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite crystallographic plane. or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable. Slip Line Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface. Slag A nonmetallic product resulting form mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in smelting and refining operations. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides. intermediate between ingot and plate. cemented together by a relatively low-melting metal. Slip Direction The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip takes place. width. or in a compact. Sintering Bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders. resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite. and edge configuration. titanium. tantalum. such as tungsten. Skin A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object. structure or other characteristics. in composition. Sintered Carbide Composite. 65 . Slack Quenching The process of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the particular steel.

Slitting Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters. The alloy is left in a supersaturated. copper. which are the soft solders. Soldering Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -. Solute The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the lesser or minor extent. Soaking Prolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature.Society4Pakswissians Slip Plane The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal. the component that is dissolved in the solvent. Solder Embrittlement Reduction in ductility of a metal or alloy. Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. holding at that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. Solution Heat Treatment A heat treatment in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature. Solidus In a constitutional diagram. Produced by subjecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or skin rolling (a very light rolling). or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 (degrees) F. and may subsequently exhibit quench aging. and then cooled rapidly enough to hold these constituents in solution. Solid Solution A solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase equilibrium. Solid Solution A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species. Hard solders are alloys that have silver. soft and ductile. and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. is generally termed brazing. Sliver (defect) Loose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during the rolling operations. Solution Heat Treatment 66 . lead-base or tin-base alloys. unstable state. held at that temperature long enough to cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. Solution Heat Treatment Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt on heating. 4 Temper) In low carbon-rolled strip steel. Slit Edges The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters. associated with local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries.most commonly.

from the decomposition of austenite.a photographic plate or film. Prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1. Spectograph An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited. that is. for which the specific gravity is taken as 1. Spectograph (X-rays) An instrument using an extended surface -. the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. Sorbite Structure of steel.Society4Pakswissians A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. Spheroidizing methods frequently used are: 1. . the locus of points representing the temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid phases. Sorbite (obsolete) A fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening. the space lattice may be thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells. lamellar appearance. the second type is tempered martensite. 3.for receiving the X-ray diffraction pattern. the component that dissolves the solute. Sorbitic Pearlite Structure of steel resulting. Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just below Ae1. Solvus In a phase or equilibrium diagram. In a truly sorbitic structure. 2. Heating to temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 67 . Solvent The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the greater or major extent. Specific Gravity A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. The first type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope. or a fluorescent screen -. The metal is left in a supersaturated. Speroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. Space-Centered (concerning space lattices) Body-centered. unstable state and may subsequently exhibit age hardening.0000. resulting from the tempering of martensite. on cooling under the proper conditions. Spelter (Prime Western Spelter) A low-grade of Virgin Zinc containing approximately 98% Zinc used in Galvanizing processes. The trend is to call this structure tempered martensite. Spalling The cracking and flaking of particles out of a surface. has a fine. . the limits of solid solubility. Space Lattice (crystal) A system of equivalent points formed by the intersections of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes.

containing 15-30% manganese. frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held. Spot Welding An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area. Spheroidizing Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form. Spiegel High-manganese pig iron. Stabilizing Anneal A treatment applied to austentic stainless steels that contain titanium or columbium.Society4Pakswissians and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below Ae1. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures. 4. to prevent the reformation of a carbide network. or basic open-hearth process. Speroidizing Annealing A subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases. Spring Temper is eight numbers hard or 60. and then re-heating in accordance with methods 1 or 2 above. 68 . . Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or columbium carbide. gas-shielded metal-arc. Spheroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. Spot Welding Welding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively small circular area. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide is dissolved.50% reduction. (Applicable to hypereutectoid steel containing a carbide network. which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion. Spring-Back An indicator of elastic stresses. Spheroidized Structure A microstructure consisting of a matrix containing spheroidal particles of another constituent. Spinning The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool. It is generally resistance welding. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving. but may also be gas-shielded tungsten-arc. approximately 5% carbon. Spring Steel Strip Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are required marketed in the annealed state. The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces. hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip. and less than 1% silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer. or submerged-arc welding.

atmospheric oxidation. the remainder being unspecified but usually copper. ingot iron contains considerably less.0%. or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a carbide of titanium. malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point without special heat treatment. embossing. malleable in some temperature range as initially cast. Steel is differentiated from two general classes of iron . the maximum carbon content is about 2. cast irons. and usually as undesirable constituents.5%. but all steels contain at least small amounts of manganese and silicon. usually carbon. or tantalum. and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron. columbium. (1) Heating austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium. Stainless Steel Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety. weak mineral acids. which have low carbon concentrations. substantially free from slag. 69 . In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. Steel An iron-base alloy.namely.25%.Society4Pakswissians Stabilizing Treatment A thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from solid solution. in high-alloy steel. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. in high-alloy steel. and electrolytic iron. columbium. about 2. etc. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as being at about 5% metallic alloying elements. (2) Transforming retained austenite in parts made from tool steel. (3) Precipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid solution to improve the workability. In some steels containing extremely low carbon. and often other alloying elements.05% and less than about 2. Steel An iron-base alloy usually containing carbon and other alloying elements. and relatively pure irons. on the high-carbon side. Sticker Steel sheets or strip adhering. or to obtain dimensional stability under service at slightly elevated temperatures. Standard Gold A legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold. Usually by fusion spots caused by overheating during box annealing. Sterling Silver A silver alloy containing at least 95. or to obtain dimensional stability. containing maganease. Steel Iron. about 2. in order to improve the workability. Stablizing Treatment Any treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy of the dimensions of a part. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. but always containing a high percentage of chromium. Steel is to be differentiated from two general classes of irons: the cast irons. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. on the low-carbon side. and containing carbon bore than about 0.2% Ag. Other alloying elements may be present in significant quantities. These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids. the maximum carbon is about 2. the maganese content is the principal differentiating factor. Stamping A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining. blanking.5%.00%. and pressing. steel usually containing at least 0. which have high carbon concentrations.0%. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as the 5% level of total metallic alloying elements. In the United States the alloy contains 10% Cu. carbonyl iron.

Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range. Conventional stress. receptively. Strain A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body. Conventional stress. Strain Deformation produced on a body by an outside force. True strain (or natural strain) is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. it usually refers to linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. 70 . Strain Aging Aging induced by cold work. It can be divided into components.astic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range.Society4Pakswissians Straight-Chrome An iron alloy. A term indicating a group of stainless steels the principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from 4. Shearing strain is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two reference lines originally at right angles. Stress Force per unit area. Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by p. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. normal and parallel to the plane. referred to its original size or shape. as applied to tension and compression tests. True stress denotes the stress where force and area are measured at the same time. When the term is used alone. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. Stress Deforming force to which a body is subjected. called normal stress and shear stress.00 to 27. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring force and area at the same time. Nominal stress is stress computed by simple elasticity formula.00%. Strain A measure of the relative change in the size of a body. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force. or. Strain Aging Aging induced by cold working. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. Conventional strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. is force divided by original area. is force decided by the original gauge length. often thought of as force acting through a small area within a plane. as applied to tension and compression tests. True (or natural) strain is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Stress Force per unit area.

Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. either external (applied) or internal (residual). Sometimes called patent leveling. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding Same as Luders lines.) Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surfaces of some materials when they are deformed just past the yield point. Stretcher Leveling Leveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and subjected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion. Stress-Rupture Test A tension test performed at constant temperature. Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some materials when deformed just past the yield point. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating. 5 dead soft temper. Stretcher Straightening A process for straightening rod. tubing. Stretcher Strains Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under combined action or corrosion and stress. Stretcher Leveling A method of making metal sheet or strip dead flat by stretching. such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching. 71 . and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. depending on the metal and the corrosive medium. (Not a defect in No. Stretch Forming A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape. Also known as creep-rupture test. either external (applied) or internal (residual). Also termed Luders Lines. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage.Society4Pakswissians Stress Relief Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses. depends on metal and corrosive medium. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. Stress-corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and stress. the load being held at such a level as to cause rupture.

72 . However. Subcritical Annealing An annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a temperature below the A1 temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature. in crystals. Subgrain A portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from neighboring portions of the same crystal. expecially. Sulfur Chemical symbol S) Element No. 16 of the periodic system. kinds and positions of the atoms within it. Sulfide Spheroidization A stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are partly or completely spheroidized. under . the shape and dimension of the until cell. Substrate The layer of metal underlying a coating. and the number. Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure) A network of low-angle boundaries (usually with misorientations or less than one degree) within the main grains of a microstructure. which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand. thermal.250 in thickness. it is frequently deliberately added to cutting stock. the most common being a pale-yellow brittle solid. Non-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications. Structure The arangement of parts.Society4Pakswissians Strip A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width. vibratory. to increase machinability. or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel. single stand reversing. Sulfur Print A macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions. Supercooling Cooling to a temperature below that of an equilibrium phase transformation without the transformation taking place. regardless of whether the layer is base metal. and shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required. Superalloy An alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile.06. Substitutional Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solvent and solute atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution. Strip Steel (cold rolled) A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower. Generally. neighboring subgrains are separated by low-angle boundaries. In steel most commonly encountered as an undesired contaminant. atomic weight 32.

flame hardening and shell hardening. by quench hardening only. (2) Heating molten metal to a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity. Teeming Pouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds. temper is sometimes used. The processes commonly used are induction hardening. allowing the metal to pass from one set of rolls into the next. (2) In tool steels. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that 73 . Temper (1) In heat treatment. Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred. Taper Section A section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest. Telescoping Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of the coil is conical rather than flat. Teeming Pouring metal into ingot molds. There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. Used for determining surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts. thereby achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. or where large hardness impression might be harmful. in direct line. a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core. usually from a thin film of oxide or sulfide. Tapping Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle. The term applies particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds. Arrangement of Tandem Mill rolling mills. Tarnish Surface discoloration on a metal. Surface Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to a suitable ferrous alloy that produce. Tack Welds Small scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper alignment while the final welds are being made.Society4Pakswissians Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test Form of Rockwell hardness test using relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration. Superheating (1) Heating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase transformation without the transformation taking place. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness. A sectioning angle 5(degrees) 43 achieves a depth magnification of 10: 1. to denote the carbon content. but inadvisedly.

aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are shown as follows Temper Brittleness A reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature in steels heated in. The operation is performed to improve flatness. the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment. mechanical properties.) This product. and characterized by a certain structure.03 carbon range (Also known as clock spring steel. is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. steel tapes. or are cooled slowly through. same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required. Each branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own system of temper designations. It is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a wide range of uses. tin mill products. 74 . The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel.Society4Pakswissians cannot be hardened by heat treatment). Tempering Re-heating a quench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. or reduction in area during cold working. springs for timing devices. such as coiled and flat mechanical springs. Tempered Spring Steel Strip Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. Also termed Pinch Pass or Skin Rolled. Temper Rolling Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually 1/2 to 1 1/2%) to forestall stretcher strains. or both. Where specification calls for blue or straw color. ignition vibrator springs. and to obtain a specified hardness or temper. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room temperature. Tempering (Also termed 'drawing. re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. Blue is developed at approximately 600 (degrees) F. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite. Manufactured from carbon range of . etc. rules.') A process of re-heating quench-hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired. Temper Brittleness Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within. Temper Rolling Light cold rolling of sheet steel. springs for the electric and electonic fields. to minimize the formation of stretcher strains. a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed. the temperature range from about 700 to 1100 F (375 to 575 C). stainless strip. or slowly cooled through.03 with Rockwell range C 48/51.90/1. Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip 90/1. while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip. Temper (Met. In flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel.) The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency. Tempering In heat treatment.

coated with a lead-tin alloy.28. edged. It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers.Society4Pakswissians Tensile Strength In tensile testing. the state of distribution of crystal orientations. Usually 1/2 in width and in thicknesses from . the ratio of the maximum force sustained to the original cross-sectional area.S. also as a constituent in alloys. specific gravity 7. The percentage of tin is usually kept as low as possible because of its high cost. machinists.70. 50 of the periodic system. Universally used in the metal industry. atomic weight 118.00011.. the junction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical potential with changes in temperature. In the usual sense. This corresponds to it's area of sheet totaling to 31. Tin Plate Base Box A Tin Plate Base Box is measured in terms of pounds per Base Box (112 sheets 14 x 20) a unit peculiar to the tin industry. min. yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal. Three-Quarter Hard Temper (A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength. Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility. high carbon strip steel. boiling point 4384 (degrees) F. (B) In Brass mill terminology. Also prepared in standard 12 lengths with rounded ends and in 10 ' and 25' coils. To convert to decimal thickness multiply weight per base box by .S.001 to . For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175. about 15% is normally necessary in order to obtain proper coating of the steel.360 square inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate weighing from 55 to 275 pounds per base box. 135. Tin Chemical symbol Sn. Ternary Alloy An alloy that contains three principal elements. melting point 449 (degrees) F. since pure lead does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion. Also called ultimate strength. It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses.050 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. in which the distribution is not random. and automobile technicians. Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength) Breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. but low tensile strength. however. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons) per square inch of original cross section. Usually measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine.000 T. Texture In a polycrystalline aggregate. 75 . it is synonymous with preferred orientation. and polished thin section. Thermal Analysis A method of studying transformations in metal by measuring the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur. Element No. this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29. Principal use as a coating on steel in tin plate. gradually separating the jaws. Terne Plate Sheet steel.000 Y.. the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area.. and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. ground. Thermocouple A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar metals in contact. Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock A hardened and tempered. Tensile Strength In tensile testing.4% thickness reduction.

specific gravity 4. very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Tong Hold The portion of a forging billet. The two ranges are distinct. commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electro-deposition. also by spraying. Trace Extremely small quantity of an element. Toughness Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. 22 of the periodic system. Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging. Toughness Property of resisting fracture or distortion. the change from gamma to alpha iron. It is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test. Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. boiling point over 5430 (degrees) F. Torsion A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains. melting point about 3270 (degrees) F. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. Tool Steel Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for use in the manufacture of tools. atomic weight 47.Society4Pakswissians Tin Plating Electroplating metal objects with tin. but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness.90. usually too small to determine quantitatively. Toughness Ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. or the formation of pearlite from austenite. Usually measured by impact test. Transformation A constitutional change in a solid metal.. Tinning Coating with tin. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. e. The limiting temperatures of 76 . Titanium Chemical symbol Ti. usually on one end. Bright white metal.. the object to be coated is made cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt.g. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. Element No. that is gripped by the operator's tongs.. Transformation Range Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes place. high impact values indicating high toughness. Now finding application in its own right because of its high strength and good corrosion resistance. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation. (1) Fixes carbon in inert particles (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in medium chromium steels. Tolerance Limit The permissible deviation from the desired value. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel.5.

Transition Temperature (1) An arbitrarily defined temperature within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to promarily crystalline (cleavage) fracture. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. Ar1 The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling.The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite finishes during cooling. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular to the direction of working. -Acm. Transformation Temperature The temperature at which transformation occurs. . Ac(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. Transverse Literally. Ar4 The temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to austentie during cooling. . and depend on the rate of change of temperature. . . The two ranges are distinct. Ac3 The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature An arbitrarily defined temperature that lies within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics (as usually determined by tests of notched specimens) change rapidly. . -A3. Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. . particularly during cooling. Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. . . The following symbols are used for iron and steels: . -A1-The temperature of the eutectoid transformation. Ac4 The temperature at which austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. NOTE: All these changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during heating. . (2) Sometimes also used to denote the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly with temperature. Ar(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. Commonly used definitions are transition temperature for 50% cleavage fracture. M(f) The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. The following symbols are used: . Ar3 The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to primarily cleavage. . and transition temperature for half maximum energy. . . Ac1 The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating. M(f). M(s)-The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. Ae(cm) Ae1 Ae3 Ae4 The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. Trepanning 77 . Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. particularly during cooling. the temperature at which the solution of cementite in austentite is completed during heating. 10-ft-lb transition temperature.Society4Pakswissians these ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature.The temperature at which pro-eutectiod ferrite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. . M(s) (or Ar) The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. . the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling.The temperature at which pro-eutectoid cementite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. . 'across'. The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature.

(1) Forms hard abrasion -. ductile and malleable when specially handled. but rolled extra flat -Rockwell C 50.resistant particles in tool steels. Used in the manufacture of plastering trowels. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. Twin. 74 of the periodic system. Twin Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship.90 to 1.74. It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids. for the latter. deformation twins form on {211} planes. such as cobalt. Trowel Steel Hardened and tempered spring steel. Tungsten Chemical symbol W. usually appears dark. Ordinary tolerances. Truss Spring Steel Supplied cold rolled and bright annealed. the other as the twin. Must be formed very severely and must be as free as possible from decarburization. of composition varying between WC and W(2)C. but not to strong alkalis. Carbon content about . In ferrite. Element No. Twin. Twin. Twist 78 .70 -. one may be regarded as the parent. and is not resolved by the microscope. imbedded in a matrix of soft metal. Annealing A twin produced as the result of heat treatment. Triple Point The intersection of the boundaries of three adjoining grains. Tumbling Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials. Tungsten Carbide Compound of tungsten and carbon. Preferred terminology for the first product is tempered martensite.92. Crystal A portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the lattice of the remainder of the crystal. extensively used for Sintered Carbide Tools. Troosite Tempered martensite that etches rapidly. The orientation of the twin is either a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis. Deformation A twinned region produced by a shear like distortion of the parent crystal structure during deformation.Manganese . as observed in a section.05 carbon content. atomic weight 183.Society4Pakswissians A type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder. (2) Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures. Troosite (obsolete) A previously unresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or by quenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. fine pearlite. Gray metal of high tensile strength. Tukon Hardness Test A method for determining microhardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter. .

They include longitudinal. as in forming heads on rivets by flattening the end of wire. and standing waves. Upset (1) The localized increase in cross-sectional area resulting from the application of pressure during mechanical fabrication or welding. that a material can withstand.87. (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening. melting point 3119 (degrees) F. as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal. Vanadium Chemical symbol V. Vacuum Melting Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air.95. or shear. Upsetting (1) A metal working operation similar to forging. It cannot be electrodeposited. surface. that is greater than the highest audible frequency. atomic weight 50. Vacancy A type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is temporarily unoccupied.. tensile. unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids. generally regarded as being higher than 15 kc per sec. Universal Mill A rolling mill in which rolls with a vertical axis roll the edges of the metal stock between some of the passes through the horizontal rolls. Element No. associated with elastic waves. 79 ..Society4Pakswissians A winding departure from flatness. Ultrasonic Waves Waves of ultrasonic frequency. Ultimate Strength The maximum conventional stress. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain). hard metal. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels. 23 of the periodic system. the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure. Utility Sheet Aluminum Mill finish coiled or flat sheet of unspecified composition and properties produced in specific standard sizes and suitable for general building trade usage. transverse. compressive. specific gravity 5. Ultrasonic Frequency A frequency. Gray-white. boiling point about 6150 (degrees) F. (2) The process of axial flow under axial compression of metal. (2) That portion of welding cycle during which the cross-sectional area is increased by the application of pressure.

The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table.Society4Pakswissians Veining A type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms. Wavy Not flat. Vibrator Reed Steel Hardened. Weld A union made by welding. Weld Bead A deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass. Vickers Hardness (Test) Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace known as a finery. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness. Water Hardening Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine. tempered and white polished wxtra precision rolled.15 and Tungsten . for example. Watch Main Spring Steel Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. Wedge A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning. Waloon Process An early two-hearth process for making wrought iron by refining cast iron. Weldability Suitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions. re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace known as a chafery. particularly those with extremely hard surfaces. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only. Wasters Sheets that have prohibitive defects. Steel must withstand great fatigue stresses. the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. 80 . Virgin Metal Metal obtained directly from ore and not used before. seams and buckled plates. after heating. Carbon content about 1. extra precision rolled.00.17. Carbon content about 1.

Wrought Iron An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced. will have a thin continuous layer of liquid adherring to it. Wetting A phenomenon involving a solid and a liquid in such intimate contact that the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid. Wetting Agent A surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the cohesion within the liquid. requires that the parent metals be melted. or both. and resistance welding.Society4Pakswissians Welding A process used to join metals by the application of heat. WHB and Extra WHB Grades Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels. Welding Joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure. Thus a solid that is wetted.D. may induce wetting by lowering the surface tension of the liquid. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. Work Hardening Same as strain hardening. Workability The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment. Foreign substances such as grease may prevent wetting. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometric pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase on certain crystallographic planes in the parent phase. with or without filler metal. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution. on being removed from the liquid bath. in hardness) produced by cold working. Addition agents. Work Hardening Increase in resistance to deformation (i. Wootz A carbon steel containing 1 to 1. which includes gas.e. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A. Fusion welding. The iron has a low carbon content. so that recrystallization occurs across the interface. to produce a loxalized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. Wrought Iron 81 . The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. arc.6% C produced by melting a bloomery iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. WMB. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related cystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. such as detergents. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously.

in soft steel. Also known as proof stress. at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Formerly a very popular alloy. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily. Yield Point The load per unit of original cross section at which. Young's Modulus The coefficient of elasticity of stretching. Wustite The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions the do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO. but containing 1-3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction. For a stretched wire. a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from propertionality of stress and strain. The deviation is expressed in terms of strain. Wrought Iron A commercial iron consisting of slag (iron silicate) fibers entrained in a ferrite matrix. a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. but now largely replaced by Cartridge Brass. An offset of 0. named for its yellow hue. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. Yield Point The first stress in a material. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding. Young's Modulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to the elongation per unit length. Also known as upper yield stress. giving the iron a characteristic grain. s Yellow Brass 65% copper and 35% zinc. Also known as High Brass. usually less than the maximum attainable stress.2% is used for many metals. Yield Point The first stress in a material less than the maximum obtainable stess at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. 82 .Society4Pakswissians Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements. Only certain metals exhibit a yield point. The values of Young's Modulus for metals are of the order 10(12) dynes per square cm. A copper-zinc alloy.

Society4Pakswissians 83 .

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