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258725 Mechanical Terminologies

258725 Mechanical Terminologies

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Published by: asdfghjklove on Oct 10, 2011
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  • Abrasion
  • Abrasive
  • Accordion Reed Steel
  • Acid Steel
  • Acid-Brittleness
  • Acid-Process
  • Activation
  • Age Hardening
  • Aging
  • Air Cooling
  • Air-Hardening Steel
  • AISI Steels
  • Alclad
  • Allotriomorph
  • Allotropy
  • Alloy
  • Alloy Steel
  • Alloying Element
  • Alpha Brass
  • Alpha Bronze
  • Alpha Iron
  • Aluminizing
  • Aluminum (Chemical symbol Al)
  • Aluminum Killed Steel
  • Angstrom Unit
  • Anisotropy
  • Annealing
  • Annealing Twin
  • Anodizing (Aluminum Adic Oxide Coating),
  • Arc Welding
  • Artifact
  • Artificial Aging
  • ASTM
  • Atomic-Hydrogen Weld,
  • Attenuation
  • Ausenitic Grain Size
  • Austempering
  • Austenite
  • Austenitic Steel
  • Austenitizing
  • Austentite
  • Autofrettage
  • Autoradiograph
  • Bainite
  • Bamboo Grain Structure
  • Band Saw Steel (Wood)
  • Banded Structure
  • Banding
  • Bark
  • Basic Oxygen Process
  • Basic Steel
  • Bath Annealing
  • Bauxite
  • Beading
  • Bearing Load
  • Bearing Strength
  • Bend Radius
  • Bend Test
  • Beryllium Copper
  • Bloom
  • Bloomery
  • Blooming-Mill
  • Blowhole
  • Blue Annealing
  • Blue Brittleness
  • Bluing
  • Body-Centered
  • Bonderizing
  • Boron ( chemical symbol B)
  • Bottle Top Mold
  • Box Annealing
  • Brake
  • Brale
  • Brasses
  • Braze Welding
  • Brazing
  • Break Test (for tempered steel)
  • Bridling
  • Bright Annealed Wire
  • Bright Annealing
  • Bright Basic Wire
  • Bright Bessemer Wire
  • Bright Dip
  • Brinell Hardness Test
  • Brittle Fracture
  • Brittleness
  • Broaching
  • Bronze
  • Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S)
  • Buckle
  • Buffer
  • Burning
  • Burnishing
  • Burnt
  • Burr
  • Butcher Saw Steel
  • Butt Welding
  • Cake
  • Camber
  • Camber or Bow
  • Camera Shutter Steel
  • Canning
  • Capped Steel
  • Carbide
  • Carbon
  • Carbon Equivalent
  • Carbon Free
  • Carbon Potential
  • Carbon Range
  • Carbon Restoration
  • Carbon Steel
  • Carbonitriding
  • Carbonitriding
  • Carburizing
  • Carburizing (Cementation)
  • Cartridge Brass
  • Case
  • Case Hardening
  • Cast
  • Cast Iron
  • Cast Steel
  • Casting
  • Cavitation
  • Cavitation Damage
  • Cementation
  • Cementite
  • Centrifugal Casting
  • Ceramic Tools
  • Chafery
  • Chamfer
  • Charcoal Tin Plate
  • Charpy Test
  • Chatter Marks
  • Chemical Milling
  • Chipping
  • Chromadizing (Chromodizing, Chromatizing)
  • Chromium
  • Chromium-Nickel Steel
  • Chromizing
  • Cigarette Knife Steel
  • Clad Metal
  • Cladding
  • Cleavage
  • Cleavage Plane
  • Cluster Mill
  • Cobalt
  • Coil Breaks
  • Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl
  • Coil Weld
  • Coils
  • Coining
  • Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate)
  • Cold Reduced Strip
  • Cold Reduction
  • Cold Rolled Finish
  • Cold Rolling
  • Cold Short
  • Cold Shut
  • Cold Work
  • Cold Working
  • Columbium
  • Columnar Structure
  • Commercial Bronze
  • Commercial Quality Steel Sheet
  • Compressive Strength
  • Constitute
  • Constitutional Diagram
  • Continuous Casting
  • Continuous Furnace
  • Continuous Phase
  • Continuous Pickling
  • Continuous Strip Mill
  • Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces
  • Controlled Rolling
  • Converter
  • Cooling Stresses
  • Copper
  • Coring
  • Corrosion
  • Corrosion Embrittlement
  • Corrosion Fatigue
  • Corrugated
  • Covered Electrode
  • Creep
  • Creep Limit
  • Creep Strength
  • Crevice Erosion
  • Critical Cooling Rate
  • Critical Point
  • Critical Points
  • Critical Range
  • Critical Strain
  • Critical Temperature
  • Crop
  • Cross Rolling
  • Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal)
  • Crown
  • Crown or Heavy Center
  • Crucible
  • Crucible Steel
  • Crystal
  • Crystalline
  • Crystalline Fracture
  • Crystallization
  • Cube-Centered
  • Cup Fracture
  • Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture)
  • Cutting Speed
  • Cyaniding
  • DC (Direct Chill) Casting
  • Dead Flat
  • Dead Soft Annealing
  • Dead Soft Steel
  • Dead Soft Temper
  • Deburring
  • Decarburization
  • Decoration (of dislocations)
  • Deep Drawing
  • Deformative Bands
  • Degassing Process (In steel making)
  • Delta Iron
  • Dendrite
  • Dendritic Segregation
  • Deoxidation
  • Deoxidizing
  • Die Sinking
  • Die-Lines
  • Diffusion
  • Dilatometer
  • Dish
  • Dislocation
  • Doctor Blade Steel Strip
  • Drawing
  • Drawing Back
  • Drill Rod
  • Drop Forging
  • Drop Hammer
  • Dry Rolled Finish
  • Ductile Crack Propagation
  • Ductility
  • Duralumin
  • Duralumin (obsolete)
  • Earing
  • Eddy-Current Testing
  • Edge Filing
  • Edge Strain or Edge Breaks
  • Edges
  • Edging
  • Elastic Limit
  • Elastic Strain
  • Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening)
  • Electric Furnace Steel
  • Electro-Galvanizing
  • Electrolytic Tin Plate
  • Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer
  • Electroplating
  • Electropolishing
  • Elongation
  • Elongation After Fracture
  • Embossing
  • Endurance Limit
  • Epitaxy
  • Eqilibrium Diagram
  • Equiaxed Structure
  • Erichsen Test
  • Etchant
  • Etching
  • Eutectoid
  • Eutectoid Steel
  • Exfoliation
  • Expander Steel
  • Extensometer
  • Extensometer Test
  • Extra Hard Temper
  • Extra Spring Temper
  • Extrusion
  • Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices)
  • Fatigue
  • Fatigue Life
  • Fatigue Limit
  • Fatigue Strength
  • Ferrite
  • Ferrite Banding
  • Ferrite-pearlite Banding
  • Ferritic Grain Size
  • Ferro-Manganese
  • Ferrous
  • Fiber
  • Fiber or Fibre
  • Fiber Stress
  • Fibrous Fracture
  • Filed Edges
  • Filler Metal
  • Finery
  • Finished Steel
  • Finishing Temperature
  • Fish eyes
  • Flakes
  • Flame Annealing
  • Flame Hardening
  • Flapper Valve Steel
  • Flare Test
  • Flash
  • Flat Latch Needle Steel
  • Flat Wire
  • Flow Stress
  • Flowlines
  • Fluting
  • Flux
  • Foil
  • Folds
  • Forge Welding
  • Forging
  • Fractography
  • Fracture
  • Fracture Test
  • Fragmentation
  • Free Machining
  • Fretting (Fretting Corrosion)
  • Friction Gouges or Scratches
  • Full Annealing
  • Full Finish Plate
  • Full Hard Temper
  • Fusion Welding
  • Half Hard Temper
  • Hammer Forging
  • Hard Chromium
  • Hard Drawing
  • Hard Drawn
  • Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire
  • Hard Temper
  • Hardenability
  • Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip
  • Hardening
  • Hardness
  • Hardness (indentation)
  • Heat of Steel
  • Heat Tinting
  • Heat Treatment
  • Heat-Affected Zone
  • Hematite
  • High Brass
  • Homogenizing
  • Homogenizing Annealing
  • Honing
  • Hooke's Law
  • Hot Dip
  • Hot Short
  • Hot Shortness
  • Hot Top
  • Hot Working
  • Hydrogen Embrittlement
  • Hypereutectoid Alloy
  • Hypereutectoid Steel
  • Hypoeutectic Alloy
  • Hypoeutectoid Steel
  • Idiomorph
  • Immersed Scanning
  • Impact Energy (Impact Value)
  • Impact Test
  • Impurities
  • Inclusion
  • Inclusions
  • Indentation Hardness
  • Induction Hardening
  • Induction Heating
  • Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding
  • Ingot
  • Ingot Iron
  • Inhibitor
  • Intercrystalline
  • Interleaving
  • Intermediate Annealing
  • Internal Oxidation
  • Interrupted Aging
  • Interrupted Quenching
  • Interstitial Solid Solution
  • Intracrystalline
  • Investment Casting
  • Irom
  • Iron
  • Ironing
  • Isothermal Annealing
  • Isothermal Transformation
  • Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram
  • Izod Test
  • Killed Steel
  • Kind Band (deformation)
  • Kip
  • Ladle Analysis
  • Lamellar Tear
  • Lamination
  • Laminations
  • Lap
  • Lap-Weld
  • Lath Martensite
  • Lattice
  • Leveling
  • Light Metal
  • Light Metals
  • Liquation
  • Liquidus
  • Lithographic Sheet Aluminum
  • Long Terne
  • Longitudinal Direction
  • Low Carbon Steels
  • Low-Hydrogen Electrode
  • Luders Lines (Steel)
  • Luders Lines or Bands
  • M B Grade
  • Machinability
  • Machinability Index
  • Macro-Etch
  • Macroetch Test
  • Macroetching
  • Macrograph
  • Macroscopic
  • Macrostructure
  • Magnetic-Particle Inspection
  • Magnetite
  • Malleability
  • Malleabilizing
  • Manganese
  • Manual Welding
  • Martempering
  • Martensite
  • Martensite Range
  • Matalloid
  • Matrix
  • Matt or Matte Finish
  • Mechanical Polishing
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Mechanical Spring
  • Mechanical Working
  • Medium-Carbon Steel
  • Melting Point
  • Melting Range
  • Metal
  • Metal Spraying
  • Metallography
  • Metalograph
  • Microbands (deformation)
  • Microcrack
  • Micrograph
  • Microstructure
  • Mild Steel
  • Mill Edge
  • Mill Finish
  • Modulus of Elasticity
  • Modulus of Elasticity (tension)
  • Mold
  • Molybdenum
  • Ms Temperature
  • Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy)
  • Music Wire
  • Natural Aging
  • Needle Cutter Steel
  • Network Structure
  • Neumann Band
  • Nickel
  • Nickel Silver
  • Nickel Steel
  • Niobium
  • Nitriding
  • Nitriding Steel
  • Nodular Pearlite
  • Non-Ferrous Metals
  • Non-Metallic Inclusions
  • Non-Refractory Alloy
  • Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel
  • Normalizing
  • Notch Brittleness
  • Notch Sensitivity
  • Nucleation
  • Nucleus
  • Number as Pertaining to Hardness
  • Oil Hardening
  • Oil Stain Aluminum
  • Oil-Hardening Steel
  • Open Surface
  • Open-Hearth Furnace
  • Open-Hearth Process
  • Orange Peel
  • Orange Peel (effect)
  • Ore
  • Orientation (crystal)
  • Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound
  • Overaging
  • Overheating
  • Oxidation
  • Oxide
  • Oxidized Surface
  • Oxygen Lance
  • Oxygen-Free Copper
  • Quarter Hard (No. 3 Temper)
  • Quench Aging
  • Quench Hardening
  • Quench Hardening (Steel)
  • Quenching
  • Radiant Tube Annealing Box
  • Radiography
  • Ragged Edges
  • Recarburizing
  • Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal)
  • Recovery
  • Recrystallization
  • Recrystallization Temperature
  • Recystallization Annealing
  • Red Brass
  • Red Shorness
  • Reduction of Area
  • Refining Temperature
  • Refractory
  • Refractory Alloy
  • Refractory Metal
  • Rephosphorizing (Steel)
  • Residual Elements
  • Residual Stress
  • Residuals
  • Resilience
  • Resistance Welding
  • Resulfurized Steel
  • Ribbon Wound
  • Riffles
  • Rimmed Steel
  • Ripple (defect)
  • Rockwell Hardness (Test)
  • Roll Forming
  • Rolled Edges
  • Rolled In Scale
  • Roller Leveling
  • Rolling
  • Rolling Direction (in rolled metal)
  • Rolling Mills
  • Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine)
  • Rough Machining
  • Rule Die Steel
  • SAE
  • Salt Spray Test
  • Scab
  • Scab (scabby)
  • Scale
  • Scaling
  • Scalped Extrusion Ingot
  • Scalping
  • Scarf Joint
  • Scarfing
  • Scleroscope Hardness (Test)
  • Scleroscope Test
  • Scrap
  • Scratch Brushed Finish
  • Seam
  • Seam (A defect.)
  • Seam Welding
  • Secondary Hardening
  • Seconds
  • Segment Steel
  • Segregation
  • Segregation Banding
  • Self Diffusion
  • Self-Hardening Steel
  • Semi-Steel
  • Semifinished Steel
  • Semikilled Steel
  • Sendzimir Mill
  • Shear
  • Shear Bands (deformation)
  • Shear Crack
  • Shear Steel
  • Shear Strength
  • Sheet
  • Shell Molding
  • Shielded-Arc Welding
  • Shim
  • Shore Hardness Test
  • Short Terne
  • Shortness
  • Shot Blasting
  • Shrinkage Cavity
  • Silicon
  • Silicon Steel
  • Siliconizing
  • Silky Fracture
  • Silver Solders
  • Single-Action Press
  • Sinker Steel
  • Sintered Carbide
  • Sintering
  • Skelp
  • Skin
  • Skull
  • Slab
  • Slack Quenching
  • Slag
  • Slip
  • Slip Direction
  • Slip Line
  • Slip Plane
  • Slit Edges
  • Slitting
  • Sliver (defect)
  • Soaking
  • Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. 4 Temper)
  • Solder Embrittlement
  • Soldering
  • Solid Solution
  • Solidus
  • Solute
  • Solution Heat Treatment
  • Solvent
  • Solvus
  • Sorbite
  • Sorbite (obsolete)
  • Sorbitic Pearlite
  • Space Lattice (crystal)
  • Space-Centered (concerning space lattices)
  • Spalling
  • Specific Gravity
  • Spectograph
  • Spectograph (X-rays)
  • Spelter (Prime Western Spelter)
  • Speroidizing
  • Speroidizing Annealing
  • Spheroidized Structure
  • Spheroidizing
  • Spiegel
  • Spinning
  • Spot Welding
  • Spring Steel Strip
  • Spring Temper
  • Spring-Back
  • Stabilizing Anneal
  • Stabilizing Treatment
  • Stablizing Treatment
  • Stainless Steel
  • Stamping
  • Standard Gold
  • Steel
  • Sterling Silver
  • Straight-Chrome
  • Strain
  • Strain Aging
  • Strain Hardening
  • Stress
  • Stress Relief
  • Stress Relieving
  • Stress-corrosion Cracking
  • Stress-Corrosion Cracking
  • Stress-Rupture Test
  • Stretch Forming
  • Stretcher Leveling
  • Stretcher Straightening
  • Stretcher Strains
  • Strip
  • Strip Steel (cold rolled)
  • Structure
  • Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure)
  • Subcritical Annealing
  • Subgrain
  • Substitutional Solid Solution
  • Substrate
  • Sulfide Spheroidization
  • Sulfur
  • Sulfur Print
  • Superalloy
  • Supercooling
  • Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test
  • Superheating
  • Surface Hardening
  • Tack Welds
  • Arrangement of
  • Taper Section
  • Tapping
  • Tarnish
  • Teeming
  • Telescoping
  • Temper
  • Temper (Met.)
  • Temper Brittleness
  • Temper Rolling
  • Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip
  • Tempered Spring Steel Strip
  • Tempering
  • Tempering (Also termed 'drawing.')
  • Tensile Strength
  • Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength)
  • Ternary Alloy
  • Terne Plate
  • Texture
  • Thermal Analysis
  • Thermocouple
  • Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock
  • Three-Quarter Hard Temper
  • Tin
  • Tin Plate Base Box
  • Tin Plating
  • Tinning
  • Titanium
  • Tolerance Limit
  • Tong Hold
  • Tool Steel
  • Torsion
  • Toughness
  • Trace
  • Transformation
  • Transformation Range
  • Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges)
  • Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges)
  • Transformation Temperature
  • Transition Temperature
  • Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature
  • Transverse
  • Triple Point
  • Troosite
  • Troosite (obsolete)
  • Trowel Steel
  • Truss Spring Steel
  • Tukon Hardness Test
  • Tumbling
  • Tungsten
  • Tungsten Carbide
  • Twin
  • Twin, Annealing
  • Twin, Crystal
  • Twin, Deformation
  • Ultimate Strength
  • Ultrasonic Frequency
  • Ultrasonic Waves
  • Universal Mill
  • Upset
  • Upsetting
  • Utility Sheet Aluminum
  • Vacancy
  • Vacuum Melting
  • Vanadium
  • Veining
  • Vibrator Reed Steel
  • Vickers Hardness (Test)
  • Virgin Metal
  • Waloon Process
  • Wasters
  • Watch Main Spring Steel
  • Water Hardening
  • Wavy
  • Wedge
  • Weld
  • Weld Bead
  • Weldability
  • Welding
  • Wetting
  • Wetting Agent
  • Widmanstatten Structure
  • WMB, WHB and Extra WHB Grades
  • Wootz
  • Work Hardening
  • Workability
  • Wrought Iron
  • Wustite
  • Yellow Brass
  • Yield Point
  • Yield Strength
  • Young's Modulus


Abrasion The process of rubbing, grinding, or wearing away by friction. Abrasive A substance capable of grinding away another material. Accordion Reed Steel Hardened, tempered, polished and blued or yellow flat steel with dressed edges. Carbon content about 1.00. Material has to possess good flatness, uniform hardness and high elasticity. Acid Steel Steel melted in a furnace with an acid bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of an acid substance such as silica. Acid-Brittleness Brittleness resulting from pickling steel in acid; hydrogen, formed by the interaction between iron and acid, is partially absorbed by the metal, causing acid brittleness. Acid-Process A process of making steel, either Bessemer, open-hearth or electric, in which the furnace is lined with a siliceous refractory and for which low phosphorus pig iron is required as this element is not removed. Activation The changing of the passive surface of a metal to a chemically active state. Contrast with passivation. Age Hardening Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. The term as applied to soft, or low carbon steels, relates to a wide variety of commercially important, slow, gradual changes that take place in properties of steels after the final treatment. These changes, which bring about a condition of increased hardness, elastic limit, and tensile strength with a consequent loss in ductility, occur during the period in which the steel is at normal temperatures. Aging A change in properties that occurs at ambient or moderately elevated temperatures after hot working or a heat treating operation (quench aging in ferrous alloys), or after a cold working operation (strain aging). The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change (precipitation), but does not involve a change in chemical composition. In a metal or alloy, a change in properties that generally occurs slowly at room temperature and more rapidly at higher temperatures. Air Cooling Cooling of the heated metal, intermediate in rapidity between slow furnace cooling and quenching, in which the metal is permitted to stand in the open air. Air-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon and other alloying elements to harden fully during cooling in air or other gaseous mediums from a temperature above its transformation range. Such steels attain their martensitic structure without going through the quenching process. Additions of chromium, nickel, molybdenum and manganese are effective toward this end. The term should be restricted to steels that are capable of being hardened by cooling in air in fairly large sections, about 2 in. or more in diameter.


AISI Steels Steels of the American Iron and Steel Institute. Common and alloy steels have been numbered in a system essentially the same as the SAE. The AISI system is more elaborate than the SAE in that all numbers are preceded by letters: A represents basic open-hearth alloy steel, B acid Bessemer carbon steel, C basic openhearth carbon steel, CB either acid Bessemer ar basic open-hearth carbon steel, E electric furnace alloy steel. Alclad Composite sheet produced by bonding either corrosion-resistant aluminum alloy or aluminum of high purity to base metal of structurally stronger aluminum alloy. The coatings are anodic to the core so they protect exposed areas of the core electrolytically during exposure to corrosive environment. Allotriomorph A particle of a phase that has no regular external shape. Allotropy The property whereby certain elements may exist in more than one crystal structure. Alloy A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is a metal. Alloy Steel Steel containing substantial quantities of elements other than carbon and the commonly-accepted limited amounts of manganese, sulfur, silicon, and phosphorus. Addition of such alloying elements is usually for the purpose of increased hardness, strength or chemical resistance. The metals most commonly used for forming alloy steels are: nickel, chromium, silicon, manganese tungsten, molybdenum and vanadium, Low Alloy steels are usually considered to be those containing a total of less than 5% of such added constituents. Alloying Element An element added to a metal, and remaining in the metal, that effects changes in structure and properties. Alpha Brass A copper-zinc alloy containing up to 38% of zinc. Used mainly for cold working. Alpha Bronze A copper-tin alloy consisting of the alpha solid solution of tin in copper. Commercial forms contain 4 or 5% of tin. This alloy is used in coinage, springs, turbine, blades, etc. Alpha Iron The polymorphic form of iron, stable below 1670 (degrees) F. has a body centered cubic lattice, and is magnetic up to 1410 (degrees) F. Aluminizing Forming an aluminum or aluminum alloy coating on a metal by hot dipping, hot spraying, or diffusion. Aluminum (Chemical symbol Al) Element No. 13 of the periodic system; Atomic weight 26.97; silvery white metal of valence 3; melting point 1220 (degrees) F; boiling point approximately 4118 (degrees) F.; ductile and malleable; stable against normal atmospheric corrosion, but attacked by both acids and alkalis. Aluminum is used extensively in articles requiring lightness, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, etc. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making; (1) Deoxidizes efficiently. (2) Restricts grain growth (by forming dispersed oxides or nitrides) (3) Alloying element in nitriding steel. Aluminum Killed Steel A steel where aluminum has been used as a deoxidizing agent.


Angstrom Unit (A) A unit of linear measure equal to 10(-10)m, or 0.1 nm; not an accepted Si unit, but still sometimes used for small distances such as interatomic distances and some wavelengths. Anisotropy The characteristics of exhibiting different values of a property in different directions with respect to a fixed reference system in the material. Annealing Heating to and holding at a suitable temperature and then cooling at a suitable rate, for such purposes as reducing hardness, improving machinability, facilitating cold working, producing a desired microstructure, or obtaining desired mechanical, physical, or other properties. When applicable, the following more specific terms should be used: black annealing, blue annealing, box annealing, bright annealing, flame annealing, graphitizing, intermediate annealing, isothermal annealing, malleablizing, process annealing, quench annealing, recrystallization annealing, and spheroidizing. When applied to ferrous alloys, the term annealing, without qualification, implies full annealing. When applied to nonferrous alloys, the term annealing implies a heat treatment designed to soften an age-hardened alloy by causing a nearly complete precipitation of the second phase in relatively coarse form. Any process of annealing will usually reduce stresses, but if the treatment is applied for the sole purpose of such relief, it should be designated stress relieving. Annealing Twin A twin formed in a metal during an annealing heat treatment. Anodizing (Aluminum Adic Oxide Coating), A process of coating aluminum by anodic treatment resulting in a thin film of aluminum oxide of extreme hardness. A wide variety of dye colored coatings are possible by impregnation in process. Arc Welding A group of welding processes wherein the metal or metals being joined are coalesced by heating with an arc, with or without the application of pressure and with or without the use of filler metal. Artifact In microscopy, a false structure introduced during preparation of a specimen. Artificial Aging An aging treatment above room temperature. ASTM Abbreviation for American Society For Testing Material. An organization for issuing standard specifications on materials, including metals and alloys. Atomic-Hydrogen Weld, Arc welding with heat from an arc between two tungsten or other suitable electrodes in a hydrogen atmosphere. The use of pressure and filler metal is optional. Attenuation The fractional decrease of the intensity of an energy flux, including the reduction of intensity resulting from geometrical spreading, absorption, and scattering. Ausenitic Grain Size The size of the grains in steel heated into the austenitic region.


Austempering Quenching a ferrous alloy from a temperature above the transformation range, in a medium having a rate of heat abstraction high enough to prevent the formation of high-temperature transformation products, and then holding the alloy, until transformation is complete, at a temperature below that of pearlite formation and above that of martensite formation. Austenite Phase in certain steels, characterized as a solid solution, usually of carbon or iron carbide, in the hamma form of iron. Such steels are known as austenitic. Austenite is stable only above 1333 (degrees) F. in a plain carbon steel, but the presence of certain alloying elements, such as nickel and manganese, stabilizes the austenitec form, even at normal temperatures. Austenitic Steel Steel which, because of the presence of alloying elements, such as manganese, nickel, chromium, etc., shows stability of Austenite at normal temperatures. Austenitizing Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing). Austentite A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Autofrettage Pre-stressing a hollow metal cylinder by the use of momentary internal pressure exceeding the yield strength. Autoradiograph A radiograph recorded photographically by radiation spontaneously emitted by radioisotopes that are produced in, or added to, the material. This technique identifies the locations of the radioisotopes.

Bainite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and a fine dispersion of carbide, generally formed at temperatures below 840 to 930 F (450 to 500 C): upper bainite is an aggregate containing parallel lathshape units of ferrite, produces the so-called feathery appearance in optical microscopy, and is formed at temperatures above about 660 F (350 C) ; lower bainite consists of individual plate-shape units and is formed at temperatures below about 660 F (350 C). Also, a slender, needle-like (acicular) microstructure appearing in spring steel strip characterized by toughness and greater ductility than tempered Martensite. Bainite is a decomposition product of Austenite best developed at interrupted holding temperatures below those forming fine pearlite and above those giving Martensite. Bamboo Grain Structure A structure in wire or sheet in which the boundaries of the grains tend to be aligned normal to the long axis and to extend completely through the thickness. Band Saw Steel (Wood) A hardened tempered bright polished high carbon cold rolled spring steel strip produced especially for use in the manufacture of band saws for sawing wood, non ferrous metals, and plastics. Usually carries some nickel and with a Rockwell value of approximately C40/45.


samples should be edge filed to remove burrs and any edgewise cracks resulting from slitting or shearing. Bend Radius The inside radius of a bent section. to permit a flow of the metal in the piece being tested. under the oxide-scale layer. then you must line the jaws with some soft metal. springs. For testing. resulting from heating in an oxidizing environment. Because of such hardness and good electrical conductivity. The melting cycle duration is extremely short with quality comparable to Open Hearth Steel. such bark always suffers from decarburization. Bath Annealing Is immersion is a liquid bath (such as molten lead or fused salts) held at an assigned temperature-when a lead bath is used. Basic Oxygen Process A steel making process wherein oxygen of the highest purity is blown onto the surface of a bath of molten iron contained in a basic lined and ladle shaped vessel. rivet. corresponding essentially to the formula Al2O3xH2O. Beading Raising a ridge on sheet metal. Bearing Load A compressive load supported by a member. Alloys of this series show remarkable age-hardening properties and an ultimate hardness of about 400 Brinell (Rockwell C43). Bend Test Various tests which is used to ascertain the toughness and ductility of a metal product. In the case of steel. usually a tube or collar. Beryllium Copper An alloy of copper and 2-3% beryllium with optionally fractional percentages of nickel or cobalt. A complete test might specify such a bend to be both with and against the direction of grain. the iffective area is calculated as the product of the diameter of the hole and the thickness of the bearing member. If a vice is to be employed. beryllium-copper is used in electrical switches.Society4Pakswissians Banded Structure Appearance of a metal showing parallel bands in the direction of rolling or working. axle. 5 . etc. Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements or phases aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. or shaft. along a line where contact is made with a pin. in which the material is bent around its axis and/ or around an outside radius. Bauxite The only commercial ore of aluminum. Basic Steel Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining and under a slag containing an excess of a basic substance such as magnesia or lime. Bearing Strength The maximum bearing load at failure divided by the effective bearing area. the process is known as lead annealing. Bark Surface of metal. In a pinned or riveted joint.

rolling. trap springs. Blister Steel High-carbon steel produced by carburizing wrought iron. as brass containing the two elements copper and zinc. It will take a more severe bend before fracture than will clock spring. Bloom (1) Ancient Definition: iron produced in a solid condition directly by the reduction of ore in a primitive furnace. Blast Furnace A vertical shaft type smelting furnace in which an air blast is used. lock springs. (2) On modern. hold down springs. (1) Form sheet bar on single stand sheet mills or sheet mills in tandem. and the cross-sectional area varies from 2 1/4 to 36 sq. resulting from the expansion of gas in a subsurface zone. It is used either as is for stampings. Black Oil Tempered Spring Steel Strip (Scaleless Blue) A flat cold rolled usually .80 medium high carbon steel strip. for producing pih iron. The bar. Also known as bloomery iron. Billet A solid semi-finished round or square product that has been hot worked by forging. Used for less exacting requirements than clock spring steel. it may also be a casting suitable for finished or semi-finished rolling or for extrusion.70/. or may be enameled or painted or tin or terne coated. usually hot. but it does not have the same degree of spring-back. high speed continuous tandem cold reduction mills from coiled hot rolled pickled wide strip into ribbon wound coils to finished gage. The furnace is continuous in operation using iron ore. Binary Alloy An alloy containing two elements. and in thicknesses from 55 lbs. Sizes range from 12 to 32 in width. to 275 lbs. coke.Society4Pakswissians Bessemer Process A process for making steel by blowing air through molten pig iron contained in a refractory lined vessel so that the impurities are thus removed by oxidation. Black Plate A light weight or a thin uncoated steel sheet or strip so called because of its dark oxide coloring prior to pickling. An iron or steel billet has a minimum width or thickness of 1 1/2 in. or extrusion. The earliest iron 6 . While it looks and acts much like blue tempered spring steel and carries a Rockwell hardness of C44/47. This method is now almost obsolete. on or near the surface. it has not been polished and is lower in carbon content. in. is covered with small blisters when removed from the cementation (carburizing) furnace. Very small blisters are called pinheads or pepper blisters. For nonferrous metals. strip or wire after hot working and pickling. blue-black in color. Black Annealing A process of box annealing or pot annealing ferrous alloy sheet. and limestone as raw materials which are charged at the top while the molten iron and slag are collected at the bottom and are tapped out at intervals. It is manufactured by two different processes. which has been quenched in oil and drawn to desired hardness. The carbon content is variable but usually low. originally smooth. apart from minor impurities. Blister A defect in metal. base box weight. etc. such as snaps.

For iron and steel. Boron is used in steel in minute quantities for one purpose only. sometimes called centered. usually produced on a blooming mill but sometimes made by forging.82. This phenomenon may be observed at the working temperature or subsequently at lower temperatures. Atomic weight 10. which in failing to escape is held in pockets. The formation of a bluish oxide on the surface is incidental. and at its center. or other agents at a suitable temperature. rectangular in cross section. It is used also to denote the heating of springs after fabrication in order to improve their properties. and burns with a brilliant green flame. and the cross-sectional area is usually not less than 36 sq. Bloom A semi-finished hot rolled product. the width is not more than twice the thickness. 7 . thus forming a thin blue film of oxide and improving the appearance and resistance to corrosion. 5 of the periodic system. Bloomery A primitive furnace used for direct reduction of ore to iron. sheet-bar etc. and more especially if the steel is worked at the elevated temperature. or space-centered. produced on a blooming mill. NOTE: This term is ordinarily applied to sheet. (2) Modern Definition: a semi-finished hot rolled steel product. strip. Blue Brittleness Reduced ductility occurring as a result of strain aging. Boron ( chemical symbol B) Element N..Society4Pakswissians making process. Blue Annealing Heating hot rolled ferrous sheet in an open furnace to a temperature within the transformation range and then cooling in air. Blowhole A cavity which was produced during the solidification of metal by evolved gas. in order to soften the metal. billets slabs. It is gray in color. Blooming-Mill A mill used to reduce ingots to blooms. Bonderizing The coating of steel with a film composed largely of zinc phosphate in order to develop a better bonding surface for paint or lacquer. Blue Brittleness Brittleness exhibited by some steels after being heated to some temperature within the range of 300 (degrees) to 650 (degrees) F. in. rectangular in section. when certain ferrous alloys are worked between 300 and 700 (degrees) F. Iron and steel blooms are sometimes made by forging. Body-Centered Having the equivalent lattice points at the corners of the unit cell.to increase the hardenability as in case hardening and to increase strength and hardness penetration. ignites at about 1112 (degrees) F. or finished parts. but its melting point in a non-oxidizing atmosphere is about 4000 (degrees) F. but still used in underdeveloped countries. steam. Bluing Subjecting the scale-free surface of a ferrous alloy to the action of air. Killed steels are virtually free of this kind of brittleness.

Caution-Bridled metal should be used promptly and not permitted to (of itself) return to its pre-bridled condition. but above 840 (450 C). Pressure is applied until the metal fractures at which point a reading is taken and compared with a standard chart of brake limitations for various thickness ranges. also called a bar folder. washers. Bridling The cold working of dead soft annealed strip metal immediately prior to a forming. or drawing operation. May be accomplished by a torch. but lower than those of the metals being joined.Society4Pakswissians Bottle Top Mold Ingot mold. Braze Welding A family of welding procedures where metals are joined by filler metal that has a melting temperature below the solidus of the parent metal. Box Annealing Annealing a metal or alloy in a sealed container under conditions that minimize oxidation. but sometimes above or within it. Brasses Copper base alloys in which zinc is the principal alloying element. this process is also called close annealing or pot annealing. the metal in the constriction being covered with a cap fitting into the bottle-neck. if power driven. in order to minimize the effects of oxidation. and is then cooled slowly. Bright Annealed Wire Steel wire bright drawn and annealed in controlled non-oxidizing atmosphere so that surface oxidation is reduced to a minimum and the surface remains relatively bright. it is called a hand brake. It is formable and ductile. Brale A diamond penetrator. but occasionally above or within it. Break Test (for tempered steel) A method of testing hardened and tempered high carbon spring steel strip wherein the specimen is held and bent across the grain in a vice-like calibrated testing machine. whereas in furnace and dip brazing the work material is first assembled and the filler metal may then be applied as wire. conical in shape. The charge is normally heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. Brass is harder and mechanically stronger than either of its alloying elements copper or zinc. Filler metal is ordinarily in rod form in torch brazing. bending. In box annealing a ferrous alloy. the charge is usually heated slowly to a temperature below the transformation range. used in the manufacture of capped steel. 8 . Brazing Joining metals by fusion of nonferrous alloys that have melting points above 800 F (425C). bands. If operated manually. Box Annealing A process of annealing a ferrous alloy in a closed metal container. which stops rimming action by trapping escaping gases. Bright Annealing The process of annealing in a protective atmosphere so as to prevent discoloration of the bright surface desired. used with a Rockwell hardness tester for hard metals. it is called a press brake. as in brazing sheet. clips. with or without packing materials. and then is slowly cooled. develops high tensile strength with cold-working and is not heat treatable. A process designed to prevent the formulation of Luder's lines. or may be bonded. with the top constricted. Brake A piece of equipment used for bending sheet.

The smooth surface of the metal is subjected to indentation by a hardened steel ball under pressure. and beryllium bronze. Brittle Fracture Fracture preceded by little or negligible plastic deformation. Buckle Bulges and/ or hollows occurring along the length of the metal with the edges remaining otherwise flat. electric welded chain. in which the diameter of wire or thickness of sheet metal is generally produced and which is used in the manufacture of brass. the name is used when referring to other alloys not containing tin. Brinell Hardness Test A common standard method of measuring the hardness of materials. manganese bronze. Broaching Multiple shaving. Burning 9 . even in the presence of acids or alkalis. etc. but additionally. Bright Bessemer Wire Stiff bright wire of hard temper. bolts and rivets. In this system. bright surface. For each B&S gage number in thickness reduction. slightly softer than Bright Bessemer Wire. Normally wire is drawn down to size without annealing. bronze. copper-base alloys and aluminum. accomplished by pushing a tool with stepped cutting edges along the piece. (2) In grinding getting the work hot enough to cause discoloration or to change the microstructure by tempering or hardening. for example. These gage numbers have a definite relationship to each other.while temper is expressed by the number of B&S gage numbers as cold reduced in thickness from previous annealing. in the material surface. where is assigned a hardness value of 1/4 hard. Burning (1) Permanently damaging a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation. Brown & Sharp Gages (B&S) A standard series of sizes refered to by numbers. Buffer A substance added to aqueous solutions to maintain a constant hydrogen-ion concentration.Society4Pakswissians Bright Basic Wire Bright steel wire. Bright Dip An acid solution into which pieces are dipped in order to obtain a clean. particularly through holes. the decimal thickness is reduced by 50% every six gage numbers. The diameter of the indentation. Used for round head wood screws. is then measured by a microscope and the hardness value is read from a chart or determined by a prescribed formula. Brittleness The tendency of a metal or material to fracture without undergoing appreciable plastic deformation. copper. aluminum bronze. Bronze Primarily an alloy of copper and tin.

Camber (1) Deviation from edge straightness usually referring to the greatest deviation of side edge from a straight line. sometimes referred to as oil canning. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. Carbon content 1. and polished high carbon spring steel strip material (carbon content is generally higher than that of a material used for wood band saw applications) with a Rockwell value of roughly C47/49. Camber or Bow Edgewise curvature. Butcher Saw Steel A hardened. Camera Shutter Steel Hardened. tempered and bright polished extra flat and extra precision rolled. etc.25 Chromium . Pressure is built up in the sealed-in molten metal and results in a surface condition much like that of rimmed steel. Burnt A definition applying to material which has been permanently damaged by over-heating. Cake A copper ingot rectangular in cross section intended for rolling.15.Society4Pakswissians Heating a metal beyond the temperature limits allowable for the desired heat treatment. Canning A dished distortion in a flat or nearly flat surface. tempered. or beyond the point where serious oxidation or other detrimental action begins. 10 . (2) Sometimes used to denote crown in rolls where the center diameter has been increased to compensate for deflection cause by the rolling pressure. Burnishing Smoothing surfaces through friction between the material and material such as hardened metal media. The cap causes to top metal to solidify. Burr Roughness left by a cutting operation such as slitting. shearing. Capped Steel Semikilled steel cast in a bottle-top mold and covered with a cap fitting into the neck of the mold. A lateral departure of a side edge of sheet or strip metal from a straight line. Butt Welding Joining two edges or ends by placing one against the other and welding them. Carbide A compound of carbon with one or more metallic elements. blanking .

creates a concentration gradient. 11 . A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen by the surface and. Also termed plain carbon steel. by diffusion. in the form of coke. Element No. Also termed plain carbon steel. Carbonitriding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in an atmosphere that contains suitable gases such as hydrocardons. Carbon Range In steel specifications. Carbon Restoration Replacing the carbon lost in the surface layer during previous processing by carburizing this layer to substantially the original carbon level.60% and manganese to about 1. with silicon usually limited to 0. has three allotropic modifications. Carbon Steel A steel containing only residual quantities of elements other than carbon. Carbon is also an essential component of the cemented carbides. under prescribed conditions.65%. atomic weight 12. ordinary steel. The carbonitrided alloy is usually quench hardened.60% and manganese to about 1. Carbon Potential A measure of the capacity of an environment containing active carbon to alter or maintain. all non-metallic. and has tremendous effect on the properties of the resultant metal. create a concentration gradient. ordinary steel. The process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired properties in the work piece. Its metallurgical use. Carbon Equivalent Referring to the rating of weld-ability. Carbon Free Metals and alloys which are practically free from carbon.Society4Pakswissians Carbon Chemical symbol C. For rating of weld-ability. Silicon is usually limited to about 0. is very extensive. Carbon is present in practically all ferrous alloys. by diffusion. for reduction of oxides. and straight carbon steel. and ammonia. a formula commonly used is: CE = C + (Mn/6) + [(Cr + Mo + V)/5] + [(Ni + Cu)/15].65%.01. 6 of the periodic system. except those added for deoxidization or to counter the deleterious effects of residual sulfur. Carbon Steel Steel containing carbon up to about 2% and only residual quantities of other elements except those added for deoxidization. carbon monocide. Carbon Steel Common or ordinary steel as contrasted with special or alloy steels. Carburizing A process in which an austenitized ferrous material is brought into contact with a carbonaceous atmosphere having sufficient carbon potential to cause absorption of carbon at the surface and. which contain other alloying metals in addition to the usual constituents of steel in their common percentages. straight carbon steel. Carbonitriding. the carbon range is the difference between the minimum and maximum amount of carbon acceptable. the carbon concentration in a steel. this is a value that takes into account the equivalent additive effects of carbon and other alloying elements on a particular characteristic of a steel.

Case Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to steel that change the the chemical composition of the surface layer by absorption of carbon or nitrogen. and. Case Hardening Carburizing and subsequently hardening by suitable heat-treatment. Cartridge Brass 70% copper 30% zinc. induction hardening. Cavitation produced by ultrasonic radiation is sometimes used to give violent localized agitation. Cast Steel Any object made by pouring molten steel into molds.Society4Pakswissians Carburizing Introducing carbon into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with a suitable carbonaceous material. (2) Pouring molten metal into a mold to produce an object of desired shape. is made substantially harder than the inner portion. good for silver alloy brazing or oxyacetylene welding and fair for resistance of carbon arc welding. Case Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy so that the outer portion. nitriding. or case. Cast Iron Iron containing more carbon than the solubility limit in austenite (about 2%). Carburizing (Cementation) Adding carbon to the surface of iron-base alloys by absorption through heating the metal at a temperature below its melting point in contact with carbonaceous solids. Cast Steel Steel in the form of castings. all or part of the surface portions of a piece of iron-base alloy. cyaniding. The oldest method of case hardening. liquid. Typical processes used for case hardening are carburizing. 12 . (2) In reference to Bright or Polished Strip Steel or Wire. liquids or gases. or core. and flame hardening. or a mixture of the two. the outer portion that has been made harder than the inner portion. Cavitation The formation and instantaneous collapse of innumerable tiny voids or cavities within a liquid subjected to rapid and intense pressure changes. Rated excellent for soft-soldering. (3) A term implying a lack of straightness as in a coil set. or core. The alloy develops high tensile strength with cold-working. poor hot working and poor machining properties. The carburized alloy is usually quench hardened. Cast (1) A term indicating in the annealed state as Cast Spring Steel Wire. or gas. usually containing less than 2% carbon. Casting (1) An object at or near finished shape obtained by solidification of a substance in a mold. Case In a ferrous alloy. create a concentration gradient. carbonitriding. which may be a solid. by diffusion. the word cast implies discoloration as a shadow. That caused by severe turbulent flow often leads to cavitation damage. Temper is obtained by cold rolling. it is formable and ductile and possesses excellent cold-working. This is one of the most widely used of the copper-zinc alloys.

is supported at both ends as a simple beam and broken by a falling pendulum.69% of carbon. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. Cementite A metastable carbide. Charcoal Tin Plate Tin Plate with a relatively heavy coating of tin (higher than the Coke Tin Plate grades). Chatter Marks Parallel indentations or marks appearing at right angles to edge of strip forming a pattern at close and regular intervals.Society4Pakswissians Cavitation Damage Wearing away of metal through the formation and collapse of cavities in a liquid. caused by roll vibrations. the chemical composition will be altered by the presence of manganese and other carbide-forming elements. but not as readily as ferrite. It is characterized by an orthorhombic crystal structure. Wrought iron bars were packed in sealed chests with charcoal and heated at about 2000 F (1100 C) for 6 to 8 days. it is the hard constituent of cast iron. known chemically as iron carbide and having the approximate chemical formula Fe3C. and the normal form in which carbon is present in steel. When it occurs as a phase in steel. Centrifugal Casting A casting made by pouring metal into a mold that is rotated or revolved. having limited substitutional solubility for the carbide-forming elements. Chafery A charcoal-fired furnace used in early iron making processes to reheat a bloom of wrought iron for forging to consolidate the iron and expel entrapped slag. which has the approximate chemical formula Fe3C containing 6. notably manganese. as determined by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. (2) A relieved angular cutting edge at a tooth corner. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon. Cementite A compound of iron and carbon known as Iron carbide. It is magnetizable. or cemented metallic oxides. (2) An obsolete process used to convert wrought iron to blister steel by carburizing. Cementation was the predominant method of manufacturing steels particularly high-carbon tool steels. with composition Fe3C and orthorhombic crystal structure. Cementation (1) Introduction of one or more elements into the outer layer of a metal object by means of diffusion at high temperature. Chamfer (1) A beveled surface to eliminate an otherwise sharp corner. Hard and brittle. sintered. The energy absorbed. 13 . Chemical Milling Removing metal stock by controlled selective chemical etching. Charpy Test A pendulum-type single-blow impact test in which the specimen usually notched. prior to the introduction of the bessemer and open-hearth methods. Ceramic Tools Cutting tools made from fused.

01. by treatment with a solution of chromic acid. Chromadizing (Chromodizing. 14 . Accurate flatness necessary and a high hardness with Rockwell C 51 to 53. generally carried out in pack. in which an alloy is formed by the inward diffusion of chromium into the base metal. Cleavage Fracture Fracture of a grain. In some instances a thick electroplate may be deposited before rolling. relatively hard.Chromium . The stainless steel of 18% chromium and 8% nickel are the better known of the chromium-nickel types. Chromatizing) Forming an acid surface to improve paint adhesion on aluminum or aluminum alloys. It is of bright silvery color.25 Carbon content. or most of the grains.004 to . Chromium plating has also become a large outlet for the metal. Cladding A process for covering one metal with another.15. Usually the surfaces of fairly thick slabs of two metals are brought carefully into contact and are then subjected to co-rolling so that a clad composition results. 1. welding. It is of great value in the manufacture of Stainless Steel as an iron-base alloy. heavy chemical deposition or heavy electroplating. atomic weight 52. 24 of the periodic system. or heavy electroplating. vapor. Chromium Chemical symbol Cr. mainly aircraft skins. Chipping A method for removing seams and other surface defects with chisel or gouge so that such defects will not be worked into the finished product. Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. Usual sizes are 4 3/4 wide and 6 wide x . Clad Metal A composite metal containing two or three layers that have been bonded together. Element No. (1) increases resistance to corrosion and oxidation (2) increases harden-ability (3) adds some strength at high temperatures (4) resists abrasion and wear (with high carbon). in a polycrystalline metal by cleavage. Cleavage Fracture of a crystal by crack propagation across a crystallographic plane of low index. Chromium-Nickel Steel Steel usually made by the electric furnace process in which chromium and nickel participate as alloying elements.010. or salt bath. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making.Society4Pakswissians Chemical Polishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by chemical treatment. heavy chemical deposition. Cigarette Knife Steel Hardened. Removal of defects by gas cutting is known as deseaming or scarfing. Chromizing A surface treatment at elevated temperature. tempered and bright polished. Chipping is often employed also to remove metal that is excessive but not defective. welding. casting. The bonding may have been accomplished by co-rolling. resulting in bright reflecting facets. The bonding may have been accomplished by corolling. It is strongly resistant to atmospheric and other oxidation.

produced from hot-rolled strip. melting point 2696 (degrees) F. of medium hardness. it contributes to red hardness by hardening ferrite. the sulfate being used as electrolyte. except that the working method is limited to rolling. occasionally occurring when the metal has been coiled hot and uncoiled cold. Same as cold reduction. For high qualities and heavier coatings. A higher grade is the best cokes. Can be removed by roller or stretcher leveling from metals in the softer temper ranges. with the lightest commercial tin coat.not always visible in the cold reduced product.9. which it resembles closely. 27 of the periodic system. stiffness. Coining A process of impressing images or characters of the die and punch onto a plane metal surface.. Coils Coiled flat sheet or strip metal. it resists corrosion like nickel. Coil Weld A joint between two lengths of metal within a coil .usually in one continuous piece or length. used for food containers. specific gravity 8. Cold Reduction Reduction of metal size. 15 . Cold Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling plain pickled sheet or strip with a lubricant resulting in a relatively smooth appearance. by rolling on a cold reduction mill. which see. It is used as the matrix metal in most cemented carbides and is occasionally electroplated instead of nickel. oil canning. atomic weight 58.Society4Pakswissians Cleavage Plane A characteristic crystallographic plane or set of planes in a crystal on which cleavage fracture occurs easily. Cold Reduced Strip Metal strip. Cobalt Chemical symbol Co. Cold rolling changes the mechanical properties of strip and produces certain useful combinations of hardness. with special cokes representing the best of the coke tin variety.94. Cold Rolling Rolling metal at a temperature below the softening point of the metal to create strain hardening (workhardening). Its principal function as an alloy in tool steel. Coil Breaks Creases or ridges across a metal sheet transverse to the direction of coiling. strength. while the metal is maintained at room temperature or below the recrystallization temperature of the metal. Coke Plate (Hot Dipped Tin Plate) Standard tin plate. Element No. A gray magnetic metal. ductility and other characteristics known as tempers. A departure from longitudinal flatness. Cluster Mill A rolling mill where each of the two working rolls of small diameter is supported by two or more back-up rolls. usually by rolling or drawing particularly thickness. etc. Cold Short A condition of brittleness existing in some metals at temperatures below the recrystalization temperature. Coil Set or Longitudinal Curl A lengthwise curve or set found in coiled strip metals following its coil pattern.

91. A Standard Quality Carbon Steel Sheet. used for screws. 16 . drawing. Melting point at about 4380 (degrees) F. It is somewhat stronger than copper and has equal or better ductility. or may represent metastable conditions or phases. Columbium Chemical symbol Cb. Commercial Quality Steel Sheet Normally to a ladle analysis of carbon limit at 0. 41 of the periodic system. Although termed commercial-bronze it contains no tin. Constitutional Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they actually exist under specific conditions of heating and cooling (synonymous with phase diagram). Continuous Casting A casting technique in which the ingot is continuously solidified while it is being poured. Compare equilibrium diagram. from the main body of metal by oxide. Specific gravity 8. at a temperature sufficiently low to create strain-hardening (work-hardening). in part. In the case of materials which do not fail in compression by a shattering fracture. etc. and equilibrium diagram.Society4Pakswissians Cold Shut (1) A discontinuity that appears on the surface of cast metal as a result of two streams of liquid meeting and failing to unite. or combination of phases. Compressive Strength The maximum compressive stress that a material is capable of developing. Cold Working Plastic deformation. Atomic weight 92. Commonly. or may approximate. Element No. element No. the compressive strength has a very definite value. wire.. Constitute A phase. based on original area of cross section. Commercial Bronze A copper-zinc alloy (brass) containing 90% copper and 10% zinc. A constitutional diagram may be.) Columnar Structure A structure consisting of elongated grains whose tong axes are parallel. It is used mainly in the production of stabilized austenitic chromium-nickel steels.57. the term refers to such deformation at normal temperatures. In the case of a material which fails in compression by a shattering fracture. 41 of the periodic system. that occurs in a characteristic configuration in a microstructure. and the length is not determined by mold dimensions. the value obtained for compressive strength is an arbitrary value depending upon the degree of distortion that is regarded as indicating complete failure of the material. such as rolling. having the long axis perpendicular to the casting surface. also to reduce the air-hardening characteristics in plain chromium steels of the corrosion resistant type. etc. It is steel gray in color and brilliant luster. Columnar Structure A coarse structure of parallel columns of grains. hardware. (2) A portion of the surface of a forging that is separated. (Now known as Niobium (Nb). hammering. Cold Work Permanent strain produced by an external force in a metal below its recrystallization temperature.15 max.

tube. melting point 1981 (degrees) F. Coring A variation of composition between the center and surface of a unit of structure (such as a dendrite. Universally used in the pure state as sheet. boiling point 4327 F. 29 of the periodic system. to produce a fine-grain microstructure.Society4Pakswissians Continuous Casting A casting technique in which an ingot. or other shape is continuously solidified while it is being poured.. rod and wire and also as alloyed by other elements and an alloy with other metals. highly malleable and ductile and having high electrical and heat conductivity. particularly during the final rolling passes. Controlled Rolling A hot rolling process in which the temperature of the steel is closely controlled. tube. Continuous Phase In an alloy or portion of an alloy containing more than one phase.57. Cooling Stresses Stresses developed by uneven contraction or external constraint of metal during cooling. 17 . in which the material being heated moves steadily through the furnace. Copper Chemical symbol Cu) Element No. also those stresses resulting from localized plastic deformation during cooling. moisture or other agents. The finished strip is recoiled upon leaving the final or finishing pass..94. Corrosion Deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment. Controlled Atmosphere Furnaces A furnace used for bright annealing into which specially prepared gases are introduced for the purpose of maintaining a neutral atmosphere so that no oxidizing reaction between metal and atmosphere takes place. billet. a grain or a carbide particle) resulting from non-equilibrium growth over a range of temperature. so that its length is not determined by mold dimensions. Corrosion Gradual chemical or electrochemical attack on a metal by atmosphere. Converter A furnace in which air is blown through the molten bath of crude metal or matte for the purpose of oxidizing impurities. and retained. Continuous Strip Mill A series of synchronized rolling mill stands in which coiled flat rolled metal entering the first pass (or stand) moves in a straight line and is continuously reduced in thickness (not width) at each subsequent pass. Unibersally and extensively used in the arts in brasses. Continuous Pickling Passing sheet or strip metal continuously through a series of pickling and washing tanks. specific gravity 8. A characteristically reddish metal of bright luster. the phase that forms the background or matrix in which the other phase or phases are present as isolated volumes. bronzes. Continuous Furnace Furnace. atomic weight 63.

oxygen. The covering is usually mineral or metal powders mixed with cellulose or other binder. Creep Strength (1) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified quantity of creep in a given time at constant temperature. Such material is usually susceptible to the intergranular type of corrosion attack. corrosion of a metal that is caused by the concentration of dissolved salts. A series of deep short waves. Corrugated As a defect. Creep Limit (1) The maximum stress that will cause less than a specified quantity of creep in a given time. secondary creep. that occurring at an accelerating rate. usually intergranular and often not visually apparent. Covered Electrode A filler-metal electrode. with a resultant building up of differential cells that ultimately cause deep pitting. used in arc welding. The creep strain occurring at a diminishing rate is called primary creep. Corrosion Embrittlement The embrittlement caused in certain alloys by exposure to a corrosive environment. The effect is particularly important if the temperature of stressing is above the recrystallization temperature of the metal. 18 . metal ions. Crevice Erosion A type of concentration-cell corrosion. or other gases. that occurring at a minimum and almost constant rate. (2) The constant nominal stress that will cause a specified creep react at constant temperature. (2) The maximum nominal stress under which the creep strain rate decreases continuously with time under constant load and at constant temperature. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. Sometimes used synonymously with creep strength.Society4Pakswissians Corrosion Embrittlement The severe loss of ductility of a metal resulting from corrosive attack. improves the properties of the weld metal and stabilizes the arc. Corrosion Fatigue Effect of the application of repeated or fluctuating stresses in a corrosive environment characterized by shorter life than would be encountered as a result of either their repeated or fluctuating stresses alone or the corrosive environment alone. Alternate ridges and furrows. tertiary creep. and such. Creep The flow or plastic deformation of metals held for long periods of time at stresses lower than the normal yield strength. Creep Time-dependent strain occurring under stress. in crevices or pockets remote from the principal fluid stream. consisting of a metal core vire with a relatively thick covering which provides protection for the molten metal form the atmosphere. Critical Cooling Rate The limiting rate at which austenite must be cooled to ensure that a particular type of transformation product is formed.

Critical Range A temperature range in which an internal change takes place within a metal. or physical properties occurs. phase. temperature and pressure. Critical Points Temperatures at which internal changes or transformations take place within a metal either on a rising or falling temperature. Also termed transformation range. that specific combination of composition. Same as transformation temperature. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. as well as a direction parallel to. that specific value of composition. (2) In an equilibrium diagram. at which the phases of a heterogeneous systems are in equilibrium. phase or physical properties occurs. Critical Strain That strain which results in the formation of very large grains during recrystallization. Crop The defective ends of a rolled or forged product which are cut off and discarded. Cross Rolling The rolling of sheet so that the direction of rolling is changed about 90 (degrees) from the direction of the previous rolling. temperature and pressure at which the phases of an inhomogeneous system are in equilibrium. Cross Rolling Rolling at an angle to the long dimension of the metal. 19 . The direction at right angles to the direction of rolling or drawing. Cross Direction (in rolled or drawn metal) The direction parallel to the axes of the rolls during rolling. usually done to increase width. For steel. Cross Rolling A (hot) rolling process in which rolling reduction is carried out in a direction perpendicular to. Critical Point (1) The temperature or pressure at which a change in crystal structure. (2) In an equilibrium diagram.Society4Pakswissians Critical Cooling Rate The minimum rate of continuous cooling just sufficient to prevent undesired transformations. Critical Temperature Synonymous with critical point if pressure is constant. the length of the original slab. same as transformation temperature. Crown A contour on a sheet or roll where the thickness or diameter increases from edge to center. the slowest rate at which it can be cooled form above the upper critical temperature to prevent the decomposition of austenite at any temperature above the Ms. Crown or Heavy Center Increased thickness in the center of metal sheet or strip as compared with thickness at the edge. or combinations thereof.

(Fatigue. followed by quenching. frequently seen in tensile test pieces of a ductile material. Refers to crystal structure. 20 . ions or molecules are arranged in a threedimensional repetitive pattern. Compare fibrous fracture. Crucible steel was developed by Benjamin Huntsman in about 1750 and remained in use until the late 1940's. Cyaniding Surface hardening of an iron-base alloy article or portion of it by heating at a suitable temperature in contact with a cyanide salt.Society4Pakswissians Crucible A ceramic pot or receptacle made of graphite and clay. Crystal (1) A physically homogeneous solid in which the atoms.Body-centered cubic. This is what happens when a liquid metal solidifies. Crystalline Composed of crystals. Cup Fracture A type of fracture in a tensile test specimen which looks like a cup having the exterior portion extended with the interior slightly depressed. cast steel or wrought steel. and used in the melting of metal. Cup Fracture (Cup-and-Cone Fracture) Fracture. all parts of which have the same anisotropic arrangement of atom. or clay or other refractory material. the failure of metals under repeated stresses. (2) A coherent piece of matter. The term is sometimes applied to pots made of cast iron. The cyanided alloy is usually quench hardened. is sometimes falsely attributed to crystallization. Cutting Speed The linear or peripheral speed of relative motion between the tool and work piece in the principal direction of cutting. Crystallization The formation of crystals by the atoms assuming definite positions in a crystal lattice. in metals.) Cube-Centered Metallography. Crucible Steel High-carbon steel produced by melting blister steel in a covered crucible. with an exterior extended rim of failure in shear. Crystalline Fracture A fracture of a polycrystalline metal characterized by a grainy appearance. Cyaniding Introducing carbon and nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding above Ac1 in contact with molten cyanide of suitable composition. usually synonymous with grain and crystallite.(concerning space lattices) . in which the surface of failure on one portion shows a central flat area of failure in tension.

normally made in the basic open-hearth furnace or by the basic oxygen process with carbon less than 0. Dead Soft Steel Steel. The ingot is usually cooled by the impingement of water directly on the mold or on the walls of the solid metal as it is lowered. In ferrite. usually by heating in an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere. bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously. therefore. Dead Flat Perfectly flat. Dead Soft Annealing Heating metal to above the critical range and appropriately cooling to develop the greatest possible commercial softness or ductility. Degenerate Structure 21 . or sheet metal in the annealed state. The length of the ingot is limited by the depth to which the platform can be lowered. Refer to Stretcher Leveling. strip. Deep-drawing quality sheet or strip steel. it is often called semicontinuous casting. completely annealed. Decarburization Loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with carbon. Decoration (of dislocations) Segregation of solute atoms to the line of a dislocation in a crystal. Dead Soft Temper Condition of maximum softness commercially attainable in wire.10% and manganese in the 0. The base of the mold is a platform that is gradually lowered while the metal solidifies. As pertaining to sheet. Decarburization The loss of carbon from the surface of a ferrous alloy as a result of heating in a medium that reacts with the carbon at the surface. the frozen shell of metal acting as a retainer for the liquid metal below the wall of the mold. the dislocations may be decorated with carbon or nitrogen atoms.50% range. oxygen and carbon dioxide are strong decarburizers.20-0. strip or plate. Water vapor. Deep Drawing The process of cold working or drawing sheet or strip metal blanks by means of dies on a press into shapes which are usually more or less cup-like in character involving considerable plastic deformation of the metal. Deburring A method whereby the raw slit edge of metal is removed by rolling or filing. Reheating with adhering scale is also strongly decarburizing in action. Degassing Process (In steel making) Removing gases from the molten metal by means of a vacuum process in combination with mechanical action.Society4Pakswissians DC (Direct Chill) Casting A continuous method of making ingots or billets for sheet or extrusion by pouring the metal into a short mold. Decarburization Removal of carbon from the outer surface of iron or steel. ordered or sold on the basis of suitability for deep-drawing Deformative Bands Generally.

(2) Sometimes refers to removal of undesirable elements other than oxygen by the introduction of elements or compounds that readily react with them. the term refers to heat treatment in a reducing atmosphere. usually blued.85 carbon cold rolled spring steel strip specially selected for straightness and good edges. stable above 2552 (degrees) F. Die-Lines Lines of markings daused on drawn or extruded products by minor imperfections in the surface of the die. Indicates transverse or across the width. polymorphic changes. Drawing (1) Forming recessed parts by forcing the plastic flow of metal in dies. Dilatometer An instrument for measuring the expansion or contraction of a solid metal resulting from heating. Dislocation A linear defect in the structure of a crystal. being most evident in cast metals slowly cooled through the solidification range. Deoxidizing Removal of oxygen. to melting point. (3) A misnomer for tempering. Deoxidation (1) Removal of oxygen from molten metals by use of suitable chemical agents. Delta Iron Allotropic modification of iron. tending to make the composition of all parts uniform. and wire technology. This product is used in the printing trade as a blade to uniformly remove excess ink (dope) from the rolls. Doctor Blade Steel Strip A hardened and tempered spring steel strip. Dendrite A crystal that has a tree-like branching pattern. liquid or solid. strip. to lessen the amount of scale. The degree of degeneracy may vary from slight perturbations in the lamellar arrangement to structures that are not recognizably lamellar. Dendrite A crystal that has grown in treelike branching mode. 22 .Society4Pakswissians Usually refers to pearlite that does not have an ideally lamellar structure. (2) Reducing the cross section of wire or tubing by pulling it through a die. (2) The spontaneous movement of atoms or molecules to new sites within a material. Dendritic Segregation Inhomogeneous distribution of alloying elements through the arms of dendrites. It is of body-centered cubic crystal structure. etc. Die Sinking Forming or machining a depressed pattern in a die. hence its name. produced from approximately . Diffusion (1) Spreading of a constituent in a gas. Dish A concave surface departing from a straight line edge to edge. In steel sheet. Sometimes hand straightened or straightened by grinding and cur to desired lengths. cooling.

magnesium. Drill Rods are used principally by machinists and tool and die makers for punches. etc.Society4Pakswissians Drawing Back Reheating after hardening to a temperature below the critical for the purpose of changing the hardness of the steel. The term is sometimes used to include the class of wrought aluminum-copper-magnesium alloys that harden during aging at room temperature. dowel pins. giving a burnished appearance.013 to 1 1/2 diameter. Drop Hammer A forging hammer than depends on gravity for its force. without fracture. drills. 23 . being measured by elongation or reduction of area in a tensile test. or silicon. 1/2% Mg. Also termed scallop. A less popular but nevertheless standard grade is a non-deforming quality. taps. small tools. ductility is usually measured by elongation and reduction of area as determined in a tensile test. In steel. of material previously plain pickled. Earing Wavy projections formed at the open end of a cup or shell in the course of deep drawing because of difference in directional properties. Ductility The ability of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. Ductility The capacity of a material to deform plastically without fracturing. Drill Rod A term given to an annealed and polished high carbon tool steel rod usually round and centerless ground. screw machine parts. which contains nominally 4% Cu. Drop Forging A forging made with a drop hammer. by height of cupping in an Erichsen test or by other means. Duralumin The trade name applied to the first aluminum-copper-magnesium type of age-hardenable alloy (17S). Ductile Crack Propagation Slow crack propagation that is accompanied by noticeable plastic deformation and requires energy to be supplied from outside the body. Commercial qualities embrace water and oil hardening grades. Dry Rolled Finish Finish obtained by cold rolling on polished rolls without the use of any coolant or metal lubricant. Duralumin (obsolete) A term formerly applied to the class of age-hardenable aluminum-copper alloys containing manganese. The sizes range in round stock from . Ductility The property of metals that enables them to be mechanically deformed when cold.

2 Edge. or edge rolled. Slit and Edge Rolled. Sheared.A natural sound mill edge carried through from the hot rolled band. No. Edges Many types of edges can be produced in the manufacture of flat rolled metal products. Electocleaning (Electrolytic Brightening) An anodic treatment. uniform. 1 edge.An approximately square edge produced by slitting and filing or slitting and rolling to remove burr.A round edge produced by edge rolling either from a natural mill edge or from slit edge strip. Copper Base Alloys. Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of the stress.Smooth. No. . . . 24 . No. Has not been slit. 1 edge. polishing. Width tolerances and finish not as exancting as No. 3 Edge . Not filed. Tolerances not closer than hot-rolled strip limits. Eddy-Current Testing Nondestructive testing method in which eddy-curent flow is induced in the test object. No. mounted at various angles. Over the years the following types of edges have become recognized as standard in their respective fields. Changes in the flow caused by variations in the object are reflected into a nearby coil or coils for subsequent analysis by suitable instrumentation and techniques. produced by slitting only. or oxidizing treatment i which the specimen or work is made the anode in a suitable electrolyte. either slit or filed or slit and edge rolled as specified. round or square edge. Width tolerances close. Elastic Strain Dimensional changes accompanying stress where the original dimensions are restored upon release of the stress.. Elastic Limit The maximum stress to which a material may be subjected without any permanent strain remaining upon complete release of stress. A cleaning.Square. Edge Strain or Edge Breaks Creases extending in from the edge of the temper rolled sheet. This method may be used for deburring only or filing to a specific contour including a completely rounded edge. Sawed. an inert metal is used as cathode and a potential is applied. . 1 Edge A. 4 Edge . No. 5 Edge .Society4Pakswissians Earing The formation of scallops (ears) around the top edge of a drawn part caused by differences in the directional properties of the sheet metal used. filing or drawing.Slit. Not as perfect as No. width tolerance +/. Machined or Drawn . Elastic Limit Maximum stress that a material will stand before permanent deformation occurs. Edge Filing A method whereby the raw or slit edges of strip metal are passed or drawn one or more times against a series of files.A square edge produced by square edge rolling. Slit Edge or Sheared Edge. generally from square edge hot-rolled occasionally from slit strip. . . Width tolerances liberal. No. Strip Steels and Stainless Strip . Edging The dressing of metal strip edges by rolling. . filed.005. 6 Edge . Sheet Steels or Aluminum SheetMill Edge.

. Embossing Raising or indenting a design in relief on a sheet or strip of metal by passing between rolls of desired pattern... to illustrate: 1..chromium ... measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length.......... Electroplating The production of a thin coating of one metal on another by electodeposition. 4. Protection against carburization and for brazing operations..........chromium or nickel ... Protection against corrosion..... Epitaxy Induced orientation of the lattice of a crystal of a surface deposit by the lattice of the substrate crystal....... Electron Beam Microprobe Analyzer An instrument for selective chemical analysis of a small volume of material.......brass ....... Elongation Increase in length which occurs before a metal is fractured........... Elongation After Fracture In tensile testing. almost always by arc. Various plated metal and combinations therof are being used for different purposes...........Society4Pakswissians Electric Furnace Steel Steel made in any furnace where heat is generated electrically..... Because of relatively high cost........ Endurance Limit Maximum alternating stress which a given material will withstand for an infinite number of times without causing fatigue failure.... usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length......... Electro-Galvanizing Galvanizing by Electro deposition of zinc on steel.cadmium or zinc ... 5. the increase in the gauge length.. This is usually expressed as a percentage of the original length and is a measure of the ductility of the metal... Decorative and protection against corrosion..... only tool steels and other high-value steels are made by the electric furnace process.... 2.copper......... It is very extensively used in industry and is continuing to enlarge its useful functions..... Endurance Limit Same as fatigue limit. Protection against wear......... 3.. when subjected to stress. 25 .......... the increase in the gauge length measured after fracture of the specimen within the gauge length and usually expressed as a percentage of the original gauge length......... nickel and chromium .... 6........... Electrolytic Tin Plate Black Plate that has been Tin plated on both sides with commercially pure tin by electrodeposition... Elongation In tensile testing.. An electron beam bombards the area of interest and x-radiation thereby emitted is analyzed in a spectrometer............ Pate for rubber adhesion.... Build-up of a part or parts undersize.copper and nickel Electropolishing Improving the specular reflectivity of a metal surface by electrochemical dissolution.

Chromium . Range of sizes run for grooves 3/32 to 1/4 wide with the steel approximately .83% carbon. Extensometer Test The measurement of deformation during stressing in the elastic range. Expander Steel Hardened and tempered. Exfoliation A type of corrosion that progresses approximately parallel to the outer surface of the metal.020. Readings are in millimeters. proof stress. Equiaxed Structure A structure in which the grains have approximately the same dimensions in all directions. Extensometer An apparatus for indicating the deformation of metal while it is subjected to stress. (2) An alloy having the composition indicated by the eutectoid point on an equilibrium diagram. with about 0. is deformed by a coneshaped spherical-end plunger until fracture occurs. Steels with less than this quota of carbon are known as hypo-eutectoid and contain free ferrite in addition to the pearlite. the process of revealing structural details by the preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface. Such steel in the annealed condition consists exclusively of pearlite. (3) An alloy structure of intermixed solid constituents formed by a eutectoid transformation.17. Carbon content about 1. Eutectoid (1) An isothermal reversible transformation in which a solid solution is converted into two or more intimately mixed solids. Hardness 30 N 70 to 73. pressure is usually considered constant. the steel is known as hyper-eutectoid and contains free cementite. the eutectoid temperature being about 1333 (degrees) F. pressure and composition limits of phase fields in an alloy system as they exist under conditions of thermodynamical equilibrium. permitting determination of elastic properties such as properties such as proportional limit.00.003 less than the grooves and thickness from . When more carbon is present. blue polished. In condensed systems.012 to . causing layers of the metal to be elevated by the formation of corrosion product.80% to 0. such as nickel or chromium. Used for the expanders in oil piston rings. Eutectoid Steel Steel representing the eutectoid composition of the iron-carbon system. restrained except at the center. Etching In metallography. the number of solids formed being the same as the number of components in the system. Erichsen Test A cupping test in which a piece of sheet metal. The presence of certain elements. Etchant A chemical solution used to etch a metal to reveal structural details.Society4Pakswissians Eqilibrium Diagram A graphical representation of the temperature. Erichsen Test Similar to the Olsen Test. yield strength by the offset method 26 . Etching Subjecting the surface of a metal to preferential chemical or electrolytic attack to reveal structural details. The height of the cup in millimeters at fracture is a measure of the ductility. lowers the eutedtoid carbon content.

Fatigue Strength The maximum stress that can be sustained for a specified number of cycles without failure. beginning as minute cracks that grow under the action of the fluctuating stress. Extra Spring is ten numbers hard or 68. the value of the mean stress. Extra Hard is six B&S numbers hard or 50. Extra Hard Temper In brass mill terminology. Face Centered (concerning cubic space lattices) Having equivalent points at the corners of the unit cell and at the centers of its six faces.55% reduction in thickness from the previous annealing or soft stage. Requires the use of special testing equipment and testing procedures such as the use of an extensometer or the plotting of a stress-strain diagram.Society4Pakswissians and so forth. Fatigue Limit The maximum stress below which a materiel can presumable endure an infinite number of stress cycles. If the stress is not completely reversed. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stress. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeatef or fluctuating stresses (having maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material). Fatigue Life The number of cycles of stress that can be sustained prior to failure for a stated test condition. On some equilibrium diagrams 27 . the stress being completely reversed within each cycle unless otherwise stated. Unless otherwise designated (for instance. as chromium ferrite). Fatigue fractures are progressive beginning as minute cracks and grow under the action of fluctuating stress. A face-centered cubic space lattice is characteristic of one of the slose-packed arrangements of equal hard spheres. Extrusion Shaping metal into a chosen continuous form by forcing it through a die of appropriate shape. Fatigue fractures are progressive. Fatigue The phenomenon leading to fracture under repeated or fluctuating stresses having a maximum value less than the tensile strength of the material. Ferrite A solid solution of one or more elements in body-centered cubic iron.15% reduction from the previous annealing or soft stage. the minimum stress or the stress ratio should be stated. Extra Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. the solute is generally assumed to be carbon.

ther are two ferrite regions separated by an austenite area. The lower area is alpha ferrite; the upper, delta ferrite. If there is no designation, alpha ferrite is assumed. Ferrite Generally, a solid solution of one or more alloying elements in the bcc polymorph of iron ( -Fe). Specifically, in carbon steels, the interstitial solid solution of carbon in -Fe. Ferrite Banding Parallel bands of free ferrite aligned in the direction of working. Sometimes referred to a ferrite streaks. Ferrite-pearlite Banding Inhomogeneous distribution of ferrite and pearlite aligned in filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Ferritic Grain Size The grain size of the ferric matrix of a steel.

Ferro-Manganese An alloy of iron and manganese (80% manganese) used in making additions of manganese to steel or castiron. Ferroalloy, An alloy of iron with a sufficient amount of some element or elements such as manganese, chromium, or vanadium for use as a means in adding these elements into molten steel. Ferrous Related to iron (derived from the Latin ferrum). Ferrous alloys are, therfore, iron base alloys. Fiber (1) The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties. It is revealed by etching a longitudinal section or manifested by the fibrous appearance of a fracture. It is caused chiefly by extension of the constituents of the metal, both metallic and nonmetallic, in the direction of working. (2) The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystal after a given deformation process. Fiber or Fibre Direction in which metals have been caused to flow, as by rolling, with microscopic evidence in the form of fibrous appearance in the direction of flow. Fiber Stress Unit stress which exists at any given point in a structural element subjected to load; given as load per unit area. Fiber Stress Local stress through a small area (a point or line) on a section where the stress is not uniform, as in a beam under a bending load. Fibrous Fracture A fracture whose surface is characterized by a dull gray or silky appearance. Filed Edges Finished edges, the final contours of which are produced by drawing the strip over a series of small steel files. This is the usual and accepted method of dressing the edges of annealed spring steel strip after slitting in cases where edgewise slitting cracks are objectionable or slitting burr is to be removed. Filler Metal A third material that is melted concurrently with the parent metal during fusion or braze welding. It is usually, but not necessarily, of different composition from the parent metals.


Finery A charcoal-fueled hearth furnace used in early processes for converting cast iron to wrought iron by melting and oxidizing it in an air blast, then repeatedly oxidizing the product in the presence of a slag. The carbon oxidizes more rapidly than the iron so that a wrought iron of low carbon content is produced. Finished Steel Steel that is ready for the market without further work or treatment. Blooms, billets, slabs, sheet bars, and wire rods are termed semi-finished produced by the in-the-line thermal treatment following electrodeposition. Finishing Temperature The temperature at which hot working is completed. Finishing Temperature Temperature of final hot-working of a metal. Fish eyes Areas on a fractured steel surface having a characteristic white crystalline appearance. Flakes Short discontinuous internal fissures in ferrous metals attributed to stresses produced by lacalized transformation and decreased solubility of hydrogen during cooling after hot working. In a fractured surface, flakes appear as bright silvery areas; on an etched surface thay appear as short discontinuous cracks. Also called shatter cracks and snowflakes. Flame Annealing Annealing in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flame Annealing A process of softening a metal by the application of heat from a high-temperature flame. Flame Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of a hightemperature flame, and then cooling as required. Flame Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is applied directly by a flame. Flapper Valve Steel An extremely flat, very smooth, very accurate to gage, polished, hardened and tempered spring steel produced from approximately 1.15 carbon. The name is derived from its common and principle usage. Flare Test A test applied to tubing, involving a tapered expansion over a cone. Similar to pin expansion test. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash (1) In forging, the excess metal forced between the upper and lower dies. (2) In die casting, the fin of metal which results form leakage between the mating die surfaces. (3) In resistance butt welding, a fin formed perpendicular to the direction of applied pressure. Flash Welding


A resistance butt welding process in which the weld is produced over the entire abutting surface by pressure and heat, the heat being produced by electric arcs between the members being welded. Flat Latch Needle Steel Supplied cold rolled and annealed. Carbon content .85. Supplied both in coil and flat length. Used to make flat latch needles which are used in the manufacture of knitted goods. Flat Wire A flat Cold Rolled, prepared edge section up to 1 1/4 wide, rectangular in shape. Generally produced from hot rolled rods or specially prepared round wire by one or more cold rolling operations, primarily for the purpose of obtaining the size and section desired. May also be produced by slitting cold rolled flat metal to desired with followed by edge dressing. Flow Lines (1) Texture showing the direction of metal flow during hot or cold working. Flow lines often can be revealed by etching the surface or a section of a metal part. (2) In mechanical metallurgy, paths followed by volume elements of metal during deformation. Flow Stress The shear stress required to cause plastic deformation of solid metals. Flow Stress The uniaxial true stress required to cause plastic deformation at a specified value of strain. Flowlines Always visible to a greater or less degree when a longitudinal section has been subjected to Macro etching, indicating the direction of working or rolling. Fluting Kinking or breakage due to curving of metal strip on a radius so small, with relation to thickness, as to stretch the outer surface above its elastic limit. Not to be confused with the specific product, Fluted Tubes. Flux (1) In refining, a material used to remove undesirable substances as a molten mixture. It may also be used as a protective covering for molten metal. (2) In welding, a material used to prevent the formation of, or to dissolve and facilitate the removal of, oxides and other undesirable substances. Foil Metal in sheet form less than 0.006 in. in thickness. Foil Metal in any width but no more than about 0.005 thick. Folds Defects caused in metal by continued fabrication of overlapping surfaces. Forge Welding Welding hot metal by applying pressure or blows. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies. Forging Plastically deforming metal, usually hot, into desired shapes with compressive force, with or without dies.


Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metals, with specific reference to photographs of the fracture surface. Macrofractography involves photographs at low magnification; microfractography, at high magnification. Fractography Descriptive treatment of fracture, especially in metal, with specific reference to photography of the fracture surface. Fracture Surface appearance of metals when broken. Fracture Test Nicking and breaking a bar by means of sudden impact, to enable macroscopic study of the fractured surface.

Fracture Test Breaking a specimen and examining the fractured surface with the unaided eye or with a low-power microscope to determine such things as composition, grain size, case depth, soundness, and presence of defects. Fragmentation The subdivision of a grain into small discrete crystallites outlined by a heavily deformed network of intersecting slip bands as a result of cold working. These small crystals or fragments differ from one another in orientation and tend to rotate to a stable orientation detemined by the slip systems. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which one or more ingredients have been introduced to produce small broken chips, low power consumption, better surface finish or longer tool life. Free Machining Pertains to the machining characteristics of an alloy to which an ingredient has been introduced to give small broken chips, lower power consumption, better surface finish, and longer tool life; among such additions are sulfur or lead to steel, lead to brass, lead and bismuth to aluminum, and sulfur or selenium to stainless steel. Fretting (Fretting Corrosion) Action that results in surface damage, especially in a corrosive environment, when there is relative motion between solid surfaces in contact under pressure. Friction Gouges or Scratches A series of relatively short surface scratches variable in form and severity. Refer to Galling. Full Annealing Annealing a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling slowly through the transformation range. The austenitizing temperature to hypoeutectoid steel is usually above Ac3; and for hypereutectoid steel, usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). Full Annealing Used principally on iron and steel, means heating the metal to about 100 (degrees) F. above the critical temperature range, followed by soaking at this point and slow cooling below the critical temperature. Full Annealing (ferrous materials)


1% reduction. 110. It is the hardest temper obtainable by hard cold rolling. Hard Drawing Drawing metal wire through a die to reduce cross section and increase tensile strength. (C) In Stainless Steel Strip. Full Hard Temper (A) (No. stiff and springy. A typical cooling rate would be 210F/h 100 C/h. (B) In Stainless Steel Strip. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. (B) In brass mill terminology. Hardenability In a ferrous alloy. For Chromium-Nickel grades Half-Hard Temper 150.000 YS Min.S. For Chromium-Nickel grades Full Hard temper is 185. produced by cold rolling to a hardness next to but somewhat softer than full hard temper. Used principally for cold wound springs.70% thickness reduction.000 T. Fusion Welding Any welding process in which fusion is employed to complete the weld.Society4Pakswissians An annealing treatment in which a steel is ausenitized by heating to a temperature above the upper critical temperature (A3 or Acm) and then cooled slowly to room temperature.. half hard is two B&S numbers hard or 20. tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength. Hard Drawn Spring Steel Wire A medium high carbon cold drawn spring steel wire. and then cold-rolled to a bright finish. Hard Temper is four B&S numbers hard or 37. Term also used in connection with copper base alloys and considered synonymous with Hard Temper. It is usually applied directly to basis metal and is customarily thicker than a decorative deposit. Hard Temper (A) (For steel see Full Hard Temper) (B) In brass mill terminology. Hard Drawn Wire or tubing drawn to high tensile strength by a high degree of cold work. Hard Chromium Chromium deposited for engineering purposes. not suitable for bending in any direction. reduced either hot or cold. annealed.000 TS. Use of the term annealing without qualification implies full annealing. rather than as a decorative coating. such as increasing the wear resistance of sliding metal surfaces. Compare with press forging.Min.S. 140. 1 Temper) In low carbon sheet or strip steel. Compare normalizing. 32 . Hammer Forging Forging in which the work is deformed by repeated blows. cleaned. Half Hard Temper (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. Tempers are based on minimum tensile or yield strength.000 Y. Full Finish Plate Steel sheet or strip.

cutting. Tensile Strength also is an indication of hardness. When applicable. or welding. hardness. Scleroscope Hardness. Various hardness tests such as Brinell. the following more specific terms should be used: age hardening. Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. 33 . abrasion. quench hardening. Rockwell Hardness. The indicated hardness of metals will differ somewhat with the specific apparatus and technique of measuring. Heating for the sole purpose of hot working is excluded from the meaning of this term. conditions or properties are attained. flame hardening. Heat Treatment Heating and cooling a solid metal or alloy in such a way that desired structures. Heat of Steel The product of a single melting operation in a furnace. ductility. See Brinell Hardness. starting with the charging of raw materials and ending with the tapping of molten metal and consequently identical in its characteristics. to harden in depth as distinguished from the terms hardness. Usually heating and quenching certain iron base alloys from a temperature either within or above the critical temperature range. penetration. time of retention at specific temperature and rate of coolingtherfrom being as important as the temperature itself. Vickers Hardness. bending and stetching. usually involving heating and cooling. and similar properties of both metals and their alloys. Heat Treatment Altering the properties of a metal by subjecting it to a sequence of termperature changes. Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Strip A medium or high carbon quality steel strip which has been subjected to the sequence of heating. malleability.Society4Pakswissians Hardenability The ability of a metal. but whose microstructure and physical peoperties were altered by the heat. usually involving heating and cooling. Hardening Any process which increases the hardness of a metal. Rockwell and Vickers may be used. Hardness Degree to which a metal will resist cutting. Hardenability In ferrous alloys. quenching and tempering. Heat Tinting Colouration of a metal surface through oxidation by heating to reveal details of structure. usually steel. induction hardening. Hardening Increasing the hardness by suitable treatment. a diamond pyramid with an included face angle of 136 is used as the indenter. Heat treatment usually markedly affects strength. For details concerning the various types of apparatus used in measuring hardness. the property that determines the depth and distribution of hardness induced by quenching. precipitation hardening. Hardening Increasing hardness by suitable treatment. case hardening. In the Vickers test. Hardness (indentation) Resistance of a metal to plastic deformation by indentation.

Hot Short Brittleness in hot metal. Homogenizing Holding at high temperature to eliminate or decrease chemical segregation by diffusion. Possesses high tensile strength. Honing Removing stock generally on the internal cylindrical surface of a workpiece with an abrasive stick mounted in a holder. The value of the stress at which a material ceases to obey Hooke's law is known as the elastic limit. Hydrogen Embrittlement A condition low ductility in metals resulting from the absorbtion of hydrogen. usually zinc. but within which microstructure and physical properties were altered by the treatment. Used for springs. (2) A condition of low ductility resulting from hydrogen absorption and 34 . Homogenizing Annealing An annealing treatment carried out at a high temperature.Society4Pakswissians Heat-Affected Zone That portion of the base metal which was not melted during brazing. screws. Hot Shortness Brittleness in metal in the hot forming range. cutting or welding. for the purpose of fizing a rust resistant coating. The lower limit of temperature for this process is the recrystallization temperature. Hot Top (1) A reservoir. tin. for a sufficiently long time that inhomogeneous distributions of alloying elements are reduced by diffusional processes. Hematite The oxide of iron of highest valency which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe2O3. High Brass 65% A copper-zinc alloy containing 35% zinc. to hold molten metal on top of a mold to feed the ingot or casting as it contracts on solidifying to avoid having pipe or voids. etc. resulting from the occlusion of hydrogen (usually as a by-product of pickling or by co-deposition in electroplating). thermally insulated or heated. or terne. Hot Working Deformation under conditions that result in recrystallization. a process wherby ferrous alloy base metals are dipped into molten metal. Hydrogen Embrittlement (1) Brittleness of metal. approaching the solidus temperature. Hot Working Plastic deformation of metal at a temperature sufficiently high not to create strain hardening. Hooke's Law Stress is proportional to strain in the elastic range. Hot Dip In steel mill practice. rivets.

The type of speciment and testing conditions affect the values and therfore should be specified. the search unit being coupled to this object through a column of liquid.usually in bending. silicates.) that are held mechanically or are formed during the solidification or by subsequent reaction within the solid metal. systematic movement of the beam relative to the object being inspected. Inclusion A nonmetallic material in a solid metallic matrix.Society4Pakswissians internal pressure developed subsequently. any alloy containing less than the eutectic concentration of solute. Hypoeutectic Alloy In a eutectic system. usually by concentrating the applied stress to a notched specimen. sulfides. Impurities Elements or compounds whose presence in a material is undesired. Hypereutectoid Steel A steel having more than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. Impact Test A test to determine the behavior of materials when subjected to high rates of loading. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed in breaking the specimen by a single blow. usually measured by means of an Izod or Charpy test. Electrolytic copper exhibits similar results when exposed to reducing atmosphere at elevated temperatures. usually in bending. etc. Hypoeutectoid Steel Steel with less than the eutectoid percentage of carbon. as in the Charpy or Izod. Inclusions Particles of impurities (usually oxides. or torsion. Hypereutectoid Alloy In a eutectoid system. Immersed Scanning In ultrasonics. 35 . Idiomorph A particle of a phase the has a regular external shape. tension or torsion. The quantity measured is the energy absorbed when the specimen is broken by a single blow. Impact Test A test for determining the behaviour of materials when subjected to high rates of loading under conditions designed to promote fracture. tension. In most cases the object and the search unit are submerged in water. any alloy containing more than the eutectoid concentration of solute. a planned. Impact Energy (Impact Value) The amount of energy required to ffracture a material. Impact Test Test designed to determine the resistance of metal to breakage by impact.

and cooling to room termperature after each step. Ingot Iron Commercially pure open-hearth iron. Inert-Gas Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in an inert gas such as argon or helium. This is the usual type osf hardness test. Intermediate Annealing An annealing treatment given to wrought metals following cold work hardening for the purpose of softening prior to further cold working. or between grains.etallic materials in a solid metallic matrix. Pickling inhibitors retard the sissolution of metal without hindering the removal of scale from steel. Indentation Hardness The resistance of a meterial to indentation. Induction Heating A process of heating by electrical induction. Ingot Iron Commercially pure iron. or to prevent sticking or scratching. Inhibitor A substance which retards some specific chemical reaction. Induction Hardening Quench hardening in which the heat is generated by electrical induction. Ingot A casting for subsequent rolling or forging. Ingot A casting suitable for hot working or remelting. Same as intergranular. in which a pointed or rounded indenter is pressed into a surface under a substantially static load. Intercrystalline Between crystals. and then cooling as required. Internal Oxidation Formation of oxides beneath the surface of a metal.Society4Pakswissians Inclusions Non. Compare with progressuve aging. Induction Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy by heating it above the transformation range by means of electrical induction. Interrupted Aging The aging of an alloy at two or more temperatures by steps. 36 . Interleaving The placing of a sheet of paper between two adjacent layers of metal to facilitate handling and shearing of rectangular sheets.

Same as transcrystalline and transgranular. Same as time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram or S-curve. or frozed mercury pattern is removed through the use of heat. Ironing Thinning the walls of deep drawn articles by reducing the clearance between punch and die. Interstitial Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solute atoms occupy (interstitial) positions between the atoms in the structure of the solvent.85. Isothermal Transformation A change in phase at any constant temperature. Investment Casting (1) Casting metal into a mold produced by surrounding (investing) an expendable pattern with a refractory slurry that sets at room temperature after which the wax. Atomic weight 55. is fixed at one end and broken by a falling pendulum. usually notched. Iron An element that has an average atomic number of 55.) Element No. (2) A casting made by the process.1% C may be referred to as irons. is a measure of impact strength or notch toughness. or lost-wax process. Izod Test A pendulum type of single-blow impact test in which the specimen. 37 . Thus iron-carbon alloys containing less than about 0. Isothermal Transformation (IT) Diagram A diagram that shows the isothermal time required for transformation of austenite to commence and to finish as a function of temperature.85 and that always. Irom (Chemical symbol Fe.Society4Pakswissians Interrupted Quenching Quenching in which the metal object being quenched is removed from the quenching medium while the object is at a temperature substantially higher than that of the quenching medium. Intracrystalline Within or across crystals or grains. Isothermal Annealing A process in which a ferrous alloy is heated to produce a structure partly or wholly austenitic. plastic. Chemically iron is chiefly base forming. ductile and malleable. 26 of the periodic system. as measured by the subsequent rise of the pendulum. The energy absorbed. cast iron and wrought iron. Also called precision casting. Melting point of pure iron about 2795 (degrees) F. contains small but significant amounts of carbon. in engineering practice. and is then cooled to and held at a temperaure that causes transformation of the austenite to a relatively soft ferritecarbide aggregate. A magnetic silver white metal of high tensile strength. The principal forms of commercial iron are steel. Alloys with higher carbon contents are always termed steels.

The general practice is to use aluminum ferrosilicon or manganese as deoxidizing agents. a volume of crystal that has rotated physically to accommodate differential deformation between adjoining parts of a grain while the band itself has deformed homogeneously. 38 . Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent such as silicon or aluminum in order to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification.15% carbon are rimmed steel. In general all steels above 0. Lamination An abnormal structure resulting in a separation or weakness aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of the metal. However. To become divided. This occurs by regular bending of the slip lamellae along the boundaries of the band. for the same carbon and manganese content Killed Steel is harder than Rimmed Steel.25% carbon are killed. Kip A load of 1000 lbs. It is determined by analyzing a test ingot sample obtained during the pouring of the steel from a ladle. Most steels below 0. structural steels from 0. such as silicon or aluminum. Usually associated with a fusion weld in thick plate.15% to 0.Society4Pakswissians Killed Steel Steel deoxidized with a strong deoxidizing agent. Killed Steel The term killed indicates that the steel has been sufficiently deoxidized to quiet the molten metal when poured into the ingot mold. Ladle Analysis A term applied to the chemical analysis representative of a heat of steel as reported by the producer.25% carbon and some special steels in the low carbon range. A properly killed steel is more uniform as to analysis and is comparatively free from aging. Kind Band (deformation) In polycrystalline materials. also all forging grades. Lamellar Tear A system of cracks or discontinuities aligned generally parallel to the worked surface of a plate. to reduce the oxygen content to such a level that no reaction occurs between carbon and oxygen during solidification. caused by gas pockets in the ingot. Laminations A defect appearing in sheets or strips as a segregation or in layers.

Lap A surface defect appearing as a seam. inclusions. magnesium and aluminum.1 to 0. appearing as a seam. and having a habit plane that is close to {111}. or their alloys. Light Metal One of the low-density metals such as aluminum. Lattice Space lattice.Society4Pakswissians Laminations Metal defects with separation or weakness generally aligned parallel to the worked surface of the metal. Lamination defects may also occur in metal-powder compacts.3 m thick. such as beryllium. Lap A surface defect. seams.5% C. blisters. Lithographic Sheet Aluminum Sheet having a superior surface on one side with respect to freedom from surface imperfections and supplied with a maximum degree of flatness. partly in steel containing less than about 1. Liquation Partial melting of an alloy. and applied particularly to the longitudinal joint produced by a welding process for tubes or pipe. in which the edges of the skelp are beveled or scarfed so that when they are overlapped they can be welded together. Light Metals Metal and alloys that have a low specific gravity. for use as a plate in offset printing. but not welding them. fins. titanium. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components commence freezing on cooling or finish melting on heating. respectively. as parallel arrays or packets of lath-shape units about 0. Low Brass 39 . but not welding them. and non-collinear lattice points. Liquidus In a constitutional diagram.0% C and solely in steels containing less than about 0. Longitudinal Direction The principal direction of flow in a worked metal. Lattice lines and lattice planes are lines and planes chosen so as to pass through collinear lattice points. caused by fording over hot metal. Leveling Flattening rolled metal sheet or strip. fins or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface. caused by folding over hot metal. Lap-Weld A term applied to a weld formed by lapping two pieces of metal and then pressing or hammering. or segregation elongated and made directional by working. magnesium. beryllium. May be the result of pipe. Long Terne A term applying to steel sheets that have been terne coated (Lead and Tin) by immersion in a bath of Terne Metal. Lath Martensite Martensite formed. or sharp corners and then rolling or forging them into the surface.

Macro-Etch Etching of a metal surface for accentuation of gross structural details and defects for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters.10 to 0. while W M B. . Macroetch Test Consists of immersing a carefully prepared section of the steel in hot acid and of examining the etched surface to evaluate the soundness and homogeneity of the product being tested. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the field point. W H B and extra W H B designate Acid Open Hearth Steels. 5 dead soft temper. Machinability The relative ease of machining a metal.Society4Pakswissians 80% cu. NOTE M B. etc. Oil tempered wire is more suitable to precision forming and casting operations than hard drawn wire. forming. H B and extra H B designate Basic Open Hearth steels.30% carbon and less than 0. drawing. 40 . M B Grade A term applied to Open-Hearth steel wire in the . 5 Yemper-Not a defect in No. Open Hearth or Electric Processes.) Low-Hydrogen Electrode A covered arc-welding electrode that provides an atmosphere around the arc and molten weld metal which is low in hydrogen. Machinability The capacity of a material to be machined easily.) Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals. Luders Lines (Steel) (Characteristic of No. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. because of close control of tensile strength and superior straightness. Low Carbon Steels Contain from 0.75 carbon range either hard drawn or oil tempered. The chemical composition and the mechanical properties are the same for both basic and acid steel.60% manganese. A copper-Zinc alloy containing 20% zinc. Is a light golden color. Because of its good strength and corrosion resistance it is used for flexible metal gose. Oil tempered wire of M B and W M B types are the most widely used of all spring wires.45/. Machinability Index A relative measure of the machinability of an engineering material under specified standard conditions. suitable for cupping. very ductile. etc. Bessemer. metal bellows. Luders Lines or Bands Elongated surface markings or depressions caused by localized plastic deformation that results form discontinuous (inhomogeneous) yielding. (The product of Basic Oxygen.

part of the carbon is removed completely.93. It increases hardenability inexpensively. atomic weight 54. 25 of the periodic system. When photographed. Magnetite The oxide or iron of intermediate valence which has a composition close to the stoichiometric composition Fe3O4. The more malleable metals can be hammered or rolled into thin sheet more easily than others. Lustrous. Malleability The property that determines the ease of deforming a metal when the metal is subjected to rolling or hammering. with a tendency toward embrittlement when too high carbon and too high manganese accompany each other. Magnetic-Particle Inspection A nondestructive method of inspection for determining the existence and extent of possible defects in ferromagnetic materials. in someinstances. 41 . (2) It counteracts brittleness from sulfur. applied to the magnetized part. for observation by the unaided eye or at magnifications not exceeding ten diameters. Macrostructure The structure of metals as revealed by examination of the etched surface of a polished specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. Macrostructure The structure of a metal as revealed by examination of the etched surface at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters. Manganese (Chemical symbol Mn. Macrograph A photographic reproduction of any object that has not been magnified more than ten times. therfore. Macroscopic Visible either with the naked eye or under low magnification (as great as about ten diameters. The metal is used in large quantities in the form of Spiegel and Ferromanganese for steel manufacture as well as in manganese and many copperbase alloys. the reproduction is known as a photomacrograph (not a macrophotograph). non-malleable character. reddishwhite metal of hard brittle and.) Element No. Macrostructure The structure of metal as revealed by macroscopic examination. Manual Welding Welding where in the entire welding operation is performed and controlled by hand. Finely divided magnetic particles.Society4Pakswissians Macroetching Etching of a metal surface with the abjective of accentuating gross structural details. Its principal function is as an alloy in steel making: (1) It is ferrite-strengthening and carbide forming element. anre attracted to and outline the pattern of any magnetic-leakage fields created by discontinuities. Malleabilizing A process of annealing white cast iron in such a way that the combined carbon is wholly or partly transformed to graphitic or free carbon or. Macrograph A graphic reproduction of a prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification not exceeding ten diameters.

Obviously. Matrix The principal phase in which another constituent is embedded. meaning. the controlling Ms temperature is that of the case.and then cooled in air. It is produced by rapid cooling from quenching temperature and is the chief constituent of hardened carbon tool steels. 42 . Matt or Matte Finish (Steel) Not as smooth as normal mill finish. (b) In steel metallurgy. frequently one allotropic modification of an element will be non-metallic. Matalloid (a) Element intermediate in lustre and conductivity between the true metals and non-metals. Its microstructure is characterized by an acicular. and selenium. or needle-like. are generally considered metalloids. pattern. The treatment is frequently followed by tempering. a metastable transitional structure intermediate between two allotropic modifications whose abilities to dissolve a given solute differ considerably.. It is the hardest constituent of steel of eutectoid composition. tellurium. This variation of the process is frequently called marquenching. held in the medium until the temperature is uniform through-out -but not long enough for bainite to form . Martensite is magnetic. boron. another metalloid in character. phosphorus. there being a rather distinct beginning temperature. Martensite Range The interval between the Ms and Mf temperatures. etc. carbon. It is an interstitial supersaturated solid solution of carbon in iron having a bodycentered tetragonal lattice. antimony. it covers elements commonly prosent in simple steel. The alloy is then allowed to cool in air through the martensite range. or slightly above that range. Arsenic. even if erroneous. Martensite A distinctive neddle like structure existing in steel as a transition stage in the transformation of austenite. a metalstable transition phase with a body-centered-tetragonal crystal structure formed by diffusionless transformation of austenite generally during cooling between the Ms and Mf temperatures. (2) A metastable phase of steel. formed by a transformation of austenite below the Ms (or Ar) temperature. no hard and fast line can be drawn.Society4Pakswissians Martempering Quenching an austenitized ferrous alloy in a medium at a temperature in the upper part of the martensite range. Produce by etched or mechanically roughened finishing rolls. the high-temperature phase transformed to martensite depends to a large extent upon the temperature attained in cooling. Martensite (1) In an alloy. metalloid has a specialized. Matrix The principal phase or aggregate in which another constituent is embedded. and holding it in the medium until the temperature throughout the alloy is substantially uniform. (2) When the process is applied to carburized material. silicon and sulfur. Martempering (1) A hardening procedure in which an austenitized ferrous material is quenched into an appropriate medium at a temperature just above the Ms temperature of the material. manganese. Martensite In steel.

Metal Spraying A process for applying a coating of metal to an object. the modulus of elasticity. drawing. lustrous. compound or eutectic changes form solid to liquid. Melting Range The range of temperature in which an alloy melt. Mechanical Properties Those properties of a meterial that reveal the elastic and inelastic reaction when force is applied. a good reflector or light. elemental substance that is a good conductor of heat and electricity and.Society4Pakswissians Mechanical Polishing A method of producing a specularly reflecting surface by use of abrasives. Metastable 43 . for example. tensile strength and fatigue limit. modulus of elasticity. etc. and fatigue limit. or that involve the relationship between stress and strain. hardness. Mechanical Working Plastic deformation or other physical change to which metal is subjected. Metal An opaque. Metalograph An optical instrument designed for both visual observation and photomicrography of prepared surfaces of opaque materials at magnifications ranging from about 25 to about 1500 diameters. These properties have often been designated as physical properties. in general. usually in the form of wire. tensile strength. that is the range between solidus and liquidus temperatures.30% to 0. May be made by any of the standard processes. when polished. The metal.60% carbon and less than 1. by rolling. Most metals are malleable and ductile and are. hammering. properties or structure.00% manganese. Metallography The science concerning the constituents and structure of metals and alloys as revealed by the microscope. elongation.. the temperature at which the liquid and the solid are in equilibrium. Medium-Carbon Steel Contains from 0. Mechanical Spring Any spring produced by cold forming from any material with or without subsequent heat treatment. is melted by an oxyhydrogen or oxyacetylene blast or by an electric arc and is proficted at high speed by gas pressure against the object being coated. The mechanical properties of steel are dependent on its microstructure. thereby indicating its suitability for mechanical application. Mechanical Properties The properties of a material that reveal its elastic and inelastic behavior where force is applied. denser than other substances. but the term mechanical properties is much to be preferred. Melting Point The temperature at which a pure metal. to change its shape. Mechanical Twin A twin formed in a metal during plastic deformation by simple shear of the structure. for example.

Ratio of stress. The tangent modulus and secant modulus are not restricted within the proportional limit. obey Hooke's Law throughout the twist. which usually contain two sets of bands. Microstructure The structure of a prepared surface of a metal as revealed by a microscope at a magnification greater than ten diameters. stretch modulus or modulus of extensibility.55(degrees) to the compression direction and are confined to individual grains. the modulus obtained in tension or compression is Young's modulus. Also called elastic modulus and coefficient of elasticity. They are an instability which carry exclusively the deformation at medium strains when normal homogeneous slip is precluded. i.. Mf Temperature The temperature at which martensitic transformation is essentially complete during cooling after austenitization. within proportional limit. Micrograph A graphic reproduction of the prepared surface of a specimen at a magnification greater than ten diameters. the modulus obtained in torsion or shear is modulus of rigidity.25% C. Mill Finish A surface finish produced on sheet and plate. Microbands (deformation) Thin sheet like volumes of constant thickness in which cooperative slip occurs on a fone scale. The ratio of stress to strain within the perfectly elastic range. Compare shear bands. Unsheared. on the assumption that it would remain perfectly elastic. Modulus of Elasticity (tension) Force which would be required to stretch a substance to double its normal length. Mill Edge The edge of strip.e. Mild Steel Carbon steel containing a maximum of about 0. Microstructure The structure of polished and etched metal and alloy specimens as revealed by the microscope. Characteristic of the ground finish used on the rolls in fabrication. sheet or plate in the as rolled state. the reproduction is known as a photomicrograph (not a microphotograph). the former is the slope of the stress-strain curve at a specified point.Society4Pakswissians Possessing a state of pseudo-equilibrium that has a free energy higher than that of the true equilibrium state but from which a system does not change spontaneously. to corresponding strain. The sheets are aligned at +/. shear modulus or modulus of torsion. Mold A form of cavity into which molten metal is poured to produce a desired shape. the modulus covering the ratio of the mean normal stress to the change in volume per unit volume is the bulk modulus. When photographed. Specifically. the latter is the slope of a line from the origin to a specified point on the stress-strain curve. Modulus of Elasticity A measure of the rigidity of metal. Microcrack A crack of microscopic size. 44 .

melting point 4748 (degrees) F. Used for cutting the eyes of needle and milling the latch in a latch needle. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature.035. 60% copper and 40% zinc. by reduction of molybdenum trioxide or ammonium molybdate with hydrogen. (2) Deepens hardening. red hardness.002 to . tough metal of grayish-white color. High strength brasses are developed from this by adding other elements. boiling point about 6600 (degrees) F. Ms Temperature The temperature at which a martensitic transformation starts during cooling after austenitization.Society4Pakswissians Molybdenum (Chemical symbol Mo) Element No. Needle Cutter Steel Usually supplied quarter hard rolled. Necking Local reduction of the cross-sectional area of metal by stretching. Music Wire A polished high tensile strength cold drawn wire with higher tensile strength and higher torsional strength than any other material available. The high toughness characteristic of this material is obtained by the patenting. atomic weight 95. Carbon content 1. (3) Counteracts tendency toward temperbrittleness. these are used in radio and related work.25 Chromium . specific gravity 10. Usually supplied in a 2 width from .. becoming very ductile and malleable when properly treated at high temperatures.2 . From this powder. extra precision rolled with sheared edges. Pure molybdenum can best be obtained as a black powder.15. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Raises grain-coarsening temperature of austenite. (6) Forms abrasion-resisting particles. Stronger than alpha-brass and used for castings and hotworked (rolled. (5) Enhances corrosion resistance in stainless steel. These high mechanical properties are obtained by a combination of the high carbon content. Network Structure A structure in which the crystals of one constituent are surrounded by envelopes of another constituent which gives a network appearance to an etched test specimen.. or extruded) products. 45 . Muntz Metal (A refractory Alloy) Alpha-beta brass. Natural Aging Spontaneous aging of a supersaturated solid solution at room temperature. Neumann Band A mechanical (deformation) twin in ferrite. Hard.95. 42 of the peridic system. the patenting treatment and by many continuous passes through drawing dies. stamped. (4) Raises hot and creep strength. Such wire is purchased according to tensile strength. ductile sheet and wire are made by powder metallurgy techniques. not hardness.

41 of the periodic system. the depth of the case is less than with carburizing. specific gravity 8.. .69. See Columbium Nitriding Introducing nitrogen into a solid ferrous alloy by holding at a suitable temperature (below Ac1 for ferritic steels) in contact with a nitrogenous material. the increase in hardness being the result of surface nitride formation..40 carbon. on the edges of the steel. Certain alloying constituents. usually ammonia of molten cyanide of appropriate composition. Nodular Pearlite Pearlite that has grown as a colony with an approximately spherical morphology. that is. Normalizing 46 . Nitriding Process of surface hardening certain types of steel by heating in ammonia gas at about 935-1000 (degrees) F. sulphides.. Non-Ferrous Metals Metals or alloys that are free of iron or comparatively so. Non-Refractory Alloy A term opposed to refractory alloy. as well as in nickel-base alloys such as Monel Metal.90-1. Nickel Steel Steel containing nickel as an alloying element. it will form a very hard and adherent surface upon proper nitriding (heating in a partially dissociated atmosphere of ammonia gas). Silvery white. Nickel Silver Copper base alloys that contain 10-45% Zn. A non-refractory alloy has malleability. (2) Toughens pearlitic-ferritic steels (especially at low temperature).15-1. Its principal functions as an alloy in steel making: (1) Strengthens unquenched or annealed steels.50 chromium. boiling point about 5250 (degrees) F. and . slightly magnetic metal. Used for electroplating. silicates or similar substances held in metals mechanically during solidification or formed by reactions in the solid state. ease of flattening when subjected to rolling or hammering. Nitriding Steel Steel which is particularly suited for the nitriding process. it is of great importance in iron-base alloys in stainless steels and in copper-base alloys such as Cupro-Nickel.90. greatly facilitate the hardening reaction. melting point 2651 (degrees) F. of medium hardness and high degree of ductility and malleability and resistance to chemical and atmospheric corrosion. principal among them being aluminum. Used as an alloying agent.00 molybdenum. (3) Renders highchromium iron alloys austenitic. 28 of the periodic system. In general. Quenching is not required to produce a hard case. or ears.20-. Varying amounts are added to increase the strength in the normalized condition to enable hardening to be performed in oil or air instead of water.20% aluminum.85-1. Composition usually . atomic weight 58. and 5-30% Ni. Non-Scalloping Quality Strip Steel Strip steel ordered or sold on the basis of absence of unevenness. that is. Non-Metallic Inclusions Impurities (commonly oxides).Society4Pakswissians Nickel (Chemical symbol Ni) Element No. when subjected to deep drawing. Niobium (Chemical symbol Nb) Element No. .

i. (2) The heavy central core of an atom. Number as Pertaining to Hardness In copper base alloys inductry. Yellow Brass Half Hard is termed 2 numbers hard.e. Normalizing A heat treatment applied to steel. Values can be obtained from static. in a notch tensile test a material is said to be notch brittle if its notch strength is less than its tensile strength. For example. Oil Hardening A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and quenching in oil. otherwise. it is said to be notch ductile. Normalizing Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above the transformation range and then cooling in air to a temperature substantially below the transformation range. in which most of the mass and the total positive electrical charge are concentrated. Notch Brittleness A measure of the susceptibility of a material to brittle fracture at locations of stress concentration. and separated form the matrix by an interface.Society4Pakswissians Heating a ferrous alloy to a suitable temperature above A3 or Acm and then cooling in still air to a temperature substantially below A1. Involves heating above the critical range followed by cooling in still air. The cooling rate usually is in the range 900 to1800 F/h (500 to 1000C/h). temper is referred to as so many numbers hard. Nucleation Initiation of a phase transformation at discrete sites. impact or fatigue tests. Nucleus (1) The first structurally stable particle capable of initiating recrystallization of a phase or the growth of a new phase. Oil Stain Aluminum Stain produced by the incomplete burning of the lubricants on the surface of the sheet. Oil-Hardening Steel Steel adaptable to hardening by heat treatment and quenching in oil. Rolling subsequent to staining will change color from darker browns to lighter browns down to white. Is performed to refine the crystal structure and eliminate internal stress. This term is derived from terminology used on the mill gloor where by temper or hardness is imparted by cold working and classified as to hardness by the number of Brown & Sharpe gages away from the soft or as-annealed state. Notch Sensitivity A measure of the reduction in strength of a metal caused by the presence of stress concentration. the new phase growing from nuclei. Olsen (Ductility) Test 47 .

This test is sometimes used to detect stretcher straining and indicates the surface finish after drawing. Open-Hearth Furnace A reverberatory melting furnace with a shallow hearth and a low roof. Sometimes termed stagger wound or vibrated wound. is used as the furnace lining and pig iron. Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. the lining of the hearth is basic. whereas in the acid open-hearth steel process. The opposite of ribbon wound. usually magnesite. Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum change in a certain property. so that the property is altered in the direction of the initial value. it is known as the preferred orientation. Also referred to as pebbles and alligator skin. In ferrous industry.04%). an acid material. resulting from imperfection in the original steel bars from which the plate was rolled. causing the charge to be heated both by direct flame and radiation from the roof and sidewalls of the furnace. The test simulating a deep drawing operation is made by a standard steel ball under pressure. in the absence of any such preference. In the basic openhearth steel process. Orientation (crystal) Arrangement of certain crystal axes or crystal planes in a crystalline aggregate with respect to a given direction or plane. sheet or strip. The flame passes over the charge in the hearth. Open-Hearth Process Process of making steel by heating the metal in the hearth of a regenerative furnace. Orientation (crystal) Directions in space of the axes of the lattice of a crystal with respect to a chosen reference or coordinate system. the furnace is regenerative. Open Surface Rough surface on black plate. If there is any tendency for one arrangement to predominate. Orange Peel A pebble-grain surface which develops in forming of metals having coarse grains.Society4Pakswissians A method of measuring the ductility and drawing properties of strip or sheet metal which involves determination of the width and depth of impression. It is due to uneven flow or to the appearance of the overly large grains usually the result of annealing at too high a temperature. silica. extremely low in phosphorous (less than 0. Oscillated Wound or Scroll Wound A method of even winding metal strip or wire on to a reel or mandrel wherein the strands are uniformly over-lapped. Ore A mineral from which metal is (or may be) extracted. similar to the Erichsen ductility test. continuing until the cup formed from the metal sample fractures. is the raw material charged in. Readings are in thousandths of an inch. random orientation exists. 48 . Orange Peel (effect) A surface roughening (defect) encountered in forming products from metal stock that has a coarse grain size.

hence a staining or discoloration. by mechanical working. tightly adhering oxidized skin.Society4Pakswissians Overaging Aging under conditions of time and temperature greater than those required to obtain maximum strength. This effect is increased with temperature increase. or by combination of working and heat treating. Oxygen Lance A length of pipe used to convey oxygen onto a bath of molten metal. Oxidized Surface A surface having a thin. the overheating is known as burning. When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. Oxygen-Free Copper Electrolytic copper free from cuprous oxide. Oxide Compound of oxygen with another element. Pack Rolling Rolling two or more pieces of thin sheet at the same time. by mechanical working or by a combination of working and heat treating. Oxidation The addition of oxygen to a compound. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. the overheating is known as burning. When the original properties cannot be restored by further heat treating. (2) Chemical combination with oxygen to form an oxide. Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. Oxidation (1) A reaction in which there is an increase in valence resulting from a loss of electrons. produced without the use of residual metallic or metalloidal deoxidizers. Pack Rolling Hot rolling a pack of two or more sheets of metal. scale prevents their being welded together. a method usually practiced in rolling sheet into thin foil. Exposure to atmosphere sometimes results in oxidation of the exposed surface. Overheating Heating a metal or alloy to such a high temperature that its properties are impaired. scale prevents the sheets from being welded together. Pancake Grain Structure 49 . Pancake Forging A rough forged shape which may be obtained quickly with a minimum of tooling. It usually requires considerable machining to attain the finish size.

Pearlite A eutectoid transformation product of ferrite and cementite that ideally has a lamellar structure but that is always degenerate to some extent. A regular decorative pattern can be developed in the final product. or in a fused salt mixture held between 800 (degrees) F. Homogeneity and toughness are thereby improved.. Peritectic An isothermal reversible reaction in which a liquid phase reacts with a solid phase to produce another solid phase.Society4Pakswissians A structure in which the lengths and widths of individual grains are large compared to their thicknesses. The treatment involves austenitization followed by isothermal transformation at a temperature that produces a microstructure of very fine pearlite. 50 . Patterned or Embossed Sheet A sheet product on which a raised or indented pattern has been impressed on either on or both surfaces by the use of rolls. and 1050 (degrees) F. with subsequent colling. (3) The weld metal deposited in one run along the axis of a weld. (2) The open space between two grooved rolls through which metal is processed. Penetrant Inspection A method of non-destructive testing for determining the existence and extent of discontinuities that are open to the surface in the part being inspected. Peening Mechanical working of metal by hammer blows or shot impingement. Contrast with activation. Pearlite Lamellar structure resembling mother of pearl. Patenting Treatment of steel. in which the metal is gradually heated to about 1830 (degrees) F. Pattern Welding A process in which strips or other small sections of iron or steel are twisted together and then forge welded. in a bath of molten lead.D. Pass A term indicating the process of passing metal through a rolling mill. Passivation The changing of the chemically active surface of a metal to a much less reactive state. COmmonly used for making swords as early as the 3rd century A. usually in wire form. usually in air. Pass (1) A single transfer of metal through a stand of rolls. Pearlite A lamellar aggregate of ferrite and cementite. Patenting A heat treatment applied to medium and high-carbon steel prior to cold drawing to wire. A compound of iron and carbon occurring in steel as a result of the transformation of austenite into aggregations of ferrite and iron carbide. The indications ore made visible through the use of a dye or fluorescent chemical in the liquid employed as the inspection medium. oftern occurring in steel and case iron.

electrical conductivity. density. Temper is imparted by cold rolling. to which has been added in the molten state phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1% for deoxidizing and strengthening purposes. density. carbon arc and resistance welding. Phosphor Bronze Strip A copper-base alloy containing up to 10% tin. In the manufacture of Phosphor Bronze it is used as a deoxidizing agent.5 to 10% of tin. Rated good for soft soldering. great toughness and resistance to fatigue. it is specified as an alloy in steel to prevent the sticking of light-gage sheets. co-efficient of thermal expansion. oxyacetylene. The various tempers from One Number Hard to Ten Numbers Hard are classified in hardness by the number of B&S Gages reduction in dimension from the previous soft or as-annealed state. even after stress relieving treatment at 325 (degrees) to 350 (degrees) F. Physical Properties Properties other than mechanical properties. that pertain to the physics of a material. resulting in greater tensile strength and hardness than in most copper-base alloys or either of its alloying elements copper or tin.. In steels it is usually undesirable with limits set in most specifications.. other than mechanical properties. The term micrograph may be used. etc. reflectivity. Physical Properties The properties.g.98. Phosphorus (Chemical symbol P) Element No. Non-metallic element occurring in at least three allotropic forms. Because of excellent toughness. resistance to fatigue and wear. and chemical resistance. for example. It has corrosion resisting properties comparable to copper. boiling point 536 (degrees) F.82. 51 . electrical conductivity. It does not withstand elevated temperatures very well and should not be used in service above 225 (degrees) F. that pertain to the physical nature of a material. and improves machinability in free-cutting steels. with 3. strength. which has been deoxidized with phosphorus in varying amounts of less than 1%. exclusive of those described under mechanical properties. fine grain. melting point 111 (degrees) F. density. these alloys find general use as springs and in making fittings. for example. increases resistance to corrosion. thermal expansion. This term often has been used to describe mechanical properties. Phosphor Bronze is not heat treatable for purposes of hardness development. Photomicrograph A photographic reproduction of any object magnified more than ten diameters. electrical conductivity. thermal expansion. However. 15 of the periodic system. Physical Properties Those properties familiarly discussed in physics. to a degree it strengthens low carbon steel. Permanent Set Non-elastic or plastic.. specific gravity 1. magnetic susceptibility. deformation of metal under stress. silver alloy brazing. used for their high magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity. after passing the elastic limit. but this usage is not recommended.Society4Pakswissians Permalloy Nickel alloys containing about 20 to 60% Fe. Phase A physically homogeneous and distincy portion of a material system. corrosion resistant comparable to copper. e. Phosphor Bronze Copper base alloys. Phase Diagram Synonymous with constitutional diagram. It has excellent electrical properties. atomic weight 30. heat conductivity.

essentially cone-like in shape. Pitting Forming small sharp cavities in a metal surface by nonuniform electro-deposition or by corrosion. Pinholes Microscopic imperfection of the coatings. Used in primitive iron making. leaving areas from which the oxide has not been completely removed. Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. galvanized or terne plated steel due to faulty pickling. Pickling The process of chemically removing oxides and scale from the surface of a metal by the action of water solutions of inorganic acids. Pipe (defect) Contraction cavity. in which the grains within a definite area are counted. made by forcing a tapered pin into the open end of a tube. also microscopic holes penetrating through a layer or thickness of light gage metal. (2) Cast Iron in the form of pigs. sulphur. Pig Iron (1) High-carbon iron made by reduction of iron ore in the blast furnace. Pin Expansion Test A test for determining the ability of tubes to be expanded or for revealing the presence of cracks or other longitudinal weaknesses. during solidification. Pinchers Long fern like creases usually diagonal to the direction of rolling. Planimetric Method A method of measuring grain size. that is. Pickling Patch A defect in tin plate. cast or wrought. (4) A tubular metal product. Piling A process in which several bars are stacked and hot rolled together with the objective of improving the homogeneity of the final product. especially ingots. Pig iron contains approximately 92% iron and about 3. Balance largely silicone and manganese with small percentages of phosphorus. and other impurities. (2) The defect in wrought or cast products resulting from such a cavity. (3) An extrusion defect due to the oxidized surface of the billet flowing toward the center of the rod at the back end. Pit (defect) A sharp depresssion in the surface of the metal. caused by the shrinkage of cast metal. (2) Cast iron in the form of pigs.Society4Pakswissians Pickling Removing surface oxides from metals by chemical or electrochemical reaction. at the top and reaching down into a casting. microscopic bare spots. Pig Iron Iron produced by reduction of iron ore in a blast furnace. 52 . which occurs in the approximate center. Pipe (1) The central cavity formed by contraction in metal.5% carbon.

The allotropy of iron.0% C. Plate A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width argitrarily dependent on the type of metal. Polymorphism The ability of a material to exist in more than one crystallographic structure. Among elements. Plasticity The capacity of a metal to deform non-elastically without rupturing. or by rolling in a planishing mill. Plasticity The ability of a metal to be deformed extensively without rupture. Polymorphism The property whereby certain substances may exist in more than one crystalline form. Postheating Heating weldments immediately after welding. it is allotropy. temperature and pressure. this phenomenon is also called allotropy. Also used to refer to the electrolytic reduction cell employed in winning certain metals. or {259}A in very-high-carbon steels Plating A thin coating of metal laid on another metal.Society4Pakswissians Planishing Producing a smooth surface finish on metal by rapid succession of blows delivered by highly polished dies or by a hammer designed for the purpose.5% C and solely in steels containing more than about 1. from a fused electrolyte. partly in steels containing more than about 0. as lenticular-shape plates on irrational habit planes that are near (225)A. or will remain. the particular form depending on the conditions of crystallization . or for providing a controlled rate of cooling to prevent formation of a hard or brittle structure. and usually a large number of crystals. Polished Surface The finish obtained by buffing with rouge or similar fine abrasive. resulting in a high gloss or polish. Pot A vessel for holding molten metal.e. for stress relieving. Polycrystalline Comprising an aggregate of more than one crystal. for tempering. Plastic Deformation Deformation that remains.g. 53 . Polishing Producing a specularly reflecting surface. permanent after release of the stress that caused it. If the change is reversible.. such as aluminum. particularly the changes between the alpha body-centered and the gamma face centered form. Plate Martensite Martensite formed. Plastic Deformation Permanent distortion of a material under the action of applied stresses. Numerous metals change in crystallographic structure at transformation temperatures during heating or cooling. is of fundamental importance in the hardening of steel.

-Heating a metal to a relatively high temperature for a relatively long time in order to change the structure before working. Powder Metallurgy The art of producing metal powders and of utilizing metal powders for the production of massive materials and shaped objects. Precipitation Heat Treatment Nonfer met. Ingots are homogenized by preheating. Preferred Orientation A condition of a polycrystalline aggregate in which the crystal orientations are not random. heating to an intermediate temperature immediately before austenitizing. of the highest quality and free from visible defects. usually hot. Precipitation Hardening A process of hardening an alloy in which a constituent precipitates from a supersaturated solid solution. Preheating (1) A general term used to describe heating applied as a preliminary to some further thermal or mechanical treatment. heating to a high temperature for a long time. met. (2) A term applied specifically to tool steel to describe a process in which the steel is heated slowly and uniformly to a temperature below the hardening temperature and is then transferred to a furnace in which the temperature is substantially above the preheating temperature. but below. For some nonferrous alloys. Primes Metal products. of the highest quality and free from visible surface defects. Precipitation Hardening Hardening caused by the precipitation of a constituent form a supersaturated solid solution. heating a ferrous alloy to a temperature close to. in castings. Primary Crystal The first type of crystal that separates from a melt during solidifacation. between dies in a press.Society4Pakswissians Pot Annealing Is the same as box annealing. in order to homogenize the structure before working. Preheating Heating before some further thermal or mechanical treatment. Process Annealing 54 . (3) Nonfer. Press Forging Forging metal. principally sheet and plate. Pouring The transfer of molten metal from the ladle into ingot molds or other types of molds. Process Annealing In the sheet and wire industries. in order to soften the alloy for futher cold working. for example. Any of the various aging treatments conducted at elevated temperatures to improve certain of the mechanical properties through precipitation from solid solution. such as sheet and plate. Primes Metal products. For tool steel. the lower limit of the transformation range and then cooling.

000 Y. (C) In stainless steel terminology tempers are based on minimum tensile.S.95% reduction. blanking. Quarter Hard (No. coining. Progressive Aging An aging process in which the temperature of the alloy is continuously increased during the aging cycle. S. Punch The movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing. min. Puddling Process A process for making wrought iron in which cast orn is melted in a hearth furnace and rabbled with slag and oxide until a pasty mass is obtained. the lower limit of the transformation range and is subsequently cooled. This process is applied in order to soften the alloy for further cold working.. Punching Shearing holes in sheet metal with punch and die. Proof Stress (1) The stress that will cause a specified small permanent set in a material. For Chromium-Nickel grades Quarter Hard Temper is 125. Pyrometer An instrument of any of various types used for measuring temperatures. This process was developed by Henry Cort about 1784 and remained in use until 1957. The temperature may be increased in steps or by any other progressive method. or yield strength. Compare with interrupted aging. Quarter hard is one B and S number hard or 10. (2) A specified stress to be applied to a member or structure to indicate its ability to withstand service loads. a medium soft temper produced by a limited amount of cold rolling after annealing.Society4Pakswissians In the sheet and wire industries. Pulse-Echo Method A nondestructive test in which pulses of energy are directed onto a part. 3 Temper) (A) In low carbon cold-rolled strip steel. Proeutectoid (phase) Particles of a phase that precipitate during cooling after austenitizing but before the eutectoid transformation takes place. Propertional Limit The maximum stress at which strain remains directly propertional to stress. 55 . but below. 75. embossing and the like. Propertional Limit The greatest stress that the material is capable of sustaining without a deviation from the law of proportionally of stress to strain (Hooke's Law). a process by whcih a ferrous alloy is heated to a temperature close to.000 T. and the time for the echo to return from one or more reflecting surfaces is measured. (B) In brass mill terminology. although on a very small scale during the present century.

Radiant Tube Annealing Box A box which is heated. the step of cooling metals rapidly in order to obtain desired properties. are apparent in the shadow image either on a fluorescent screen or on photographic film placed behind the object. by means of tubes in which gas is burned. Differences in thickness. split. Quenching In the heat treating of metals. Recarburizing (1) Increasing the carbon content of molten cast iron or steel by adding carbonaceous material. standing on the base of the box. Quench Hardening Hardening a ferrous alloy by austenitizing and then cooling rapidly enough so that some or all of the austenite transforms to martensite. density or absorption. Quench Hardening (Steel) A process of hardening a ferrous alloy of suitable composition by heating within or above the transformation range and cooling at a rate sufficient to increase the hardness substantially. the hot tubes radiate their heat to the covered pile of metal. inside. The austenitizing temperature for hypoeutectoid steels is usually above Ac3 and for hypereutectoid steels usually between Ac1 and Ac (cm). cracked. Reciprocal Lattice (for a crystal) A group of points arranged about a center in such a way that the line joining each point of the center is perpendicular to a family of planes in the crystal. caused by internal defects or inclusions. (2) Carburizing a metal part to return surface carbon lost in processing. Usually a protective atmosphere is maintained in the box to protect the metal from oxidation. Quenching Rapid cooling. Radiography A nondestructive method of internal examination in which metal objects are exposed to a beam of X-ray or gamma radiation.Society4Pakswissians Quench Aging Aging that occurs after quenching following solution heat treatment. The process usually involves the formation of martensite. most commonly accomplished by immersing the metal in oil or water. and the length of this line is inversely proportional to their interplanar distance. ragged or burred or otherwise disfigured. Quench Hardening Hardening by austenitizing and then cooling at a rate such that a substantial amount of austenite is transformed to martensite. In the case of most copper base alloys. quenching has no effect other than to hasten cooling. high-carbon pig iron or a high-carbon alloy. Ragged Edges Edges of Sheet or Strip which are torn. 56 .

Recovery (1) The removal of residual stresses by localized plastic flow as the result of low-temperature annealing operations. the difference. (2) The difference. condenser tubes. performed on cold worked metals without altering the grain structure or strength properties substantially. employed in the heat treatment of steel to refine the structure -. as occurs on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. Recrystallization A process whereby a distorted grain structure of cold worked metals is replaced by a new. Recrystallization (1) A change from one crystal structure to another. Reflector Sheet 57 . strain-free grain. is used or vanity cases.A copper-zinc alloy containing approximately 15% zinc. structure from the structure existing in cold worked metal. usually just higher than the transformation range. (2) The formation of a new. Recystallization Annealing Annealing cold worked metal to produce a new grain structure without a phase change. Red Shorness Brittleness in steel when it is red hot. plaques. Recrystallization (1) The change from one crystal structure to another. It is somewhat stronger than commercial bronze and is hardened more rapidly by cold working. used for plumbing pipe. hardware. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time.in particular. between original cross-sectional area and that after straining the specimen. Refining Temperature A temperature. strain-free grain structure from that existing in cold worked metal. Red Brass 85% Copper -. badges. such as that occurring on heating or cooling through a critical temperature. usually accomplished by heating. (2) Formation of a new. expressed as a percentage of original area. etc.Society4Pakswissians Recovery Reduction or removal of work-hardening effects. coins. Recrystallization Temperature The approximate minimum temperature at which complete recrystallization of a cold worked metal occurs within a specified time. expressed as a percentage of original area. Reduction of Area (1) Commonly. without motion of large-angle grain boundaries. Because of its color. between the original crosssectional area of a tensile test specimen and the minimum cross-sectional area measured after complete separation. the grain size. stress-free grain structure as a result of annealing above a specific minimum temperature for a specific time.

Resilience The tendency of a material to return to its original shape after the removal of a stress that has produced elastic strain. This deformation may be caused by cold working or by drastic gradients of temperature from quenching or welding. which is used for furnace linings and such. seam or line welding and percussion welding. Refractory Alloy A term applied to those alloys which due to hardness or abrasiveness present relative difficulty in maintaining close dimensional tolerances. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. NOTE: Black Plate in tempers T5 and T6 (R/B range 68/84) are temper rolled from Rephosphorized steel. Rephosphorizing (Steel) A Ladle-chemical treatment consisting of the addition of phosphorus as a work hardening agent when temper rolling black plate or sheet steel resulting in greater hardness and stiffness and with a corresponding loss in ductility. Flash and butt welding are sometimes considered as resistance welding processes.Society4Pakswissians An alclad product containing on one side a surface layer of high-purity aluminum superimposed on a core or base alloy of commercial-purity aluminum or an aluminum-manganese alloy. Residual Elements Small quantities of elements unintentionally present in an alloy. . the work being part of an electrical circuit. Refractory Metal A metal having an extremely high melting point. and nickel. it refers to metals having melting points above the range of iron. The high-purity coating imparts good polishing characteristics and the core gives adequate strength and formability. Resistance Welding A type of welding process in which the work pieces are heated by the passage of an electric current through the contact. Such processes include spot welding. Resolution 58 . Residuals 'Incidental' or 'tramp' elements not named in a specification. usually nonmetallic. Residual Stress Stress present in a body that is free of external forces or thermal gradients. Refractory A heat-resistant material. cobalt. These inclusions are usually due to contaminated scrap. Resistance Welding Welding with electrical resistance heating and pressure. In the broad sense. Residual Stress Macroscopic stresses that are set up within a metal as the result of non-uniform plastic deformation.

Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to produce continuous evolution of carbon monoxide during ingot solidification. resulting in the formation of a bottom and side rim of considerable thickness. also. Resulfurized Steel Steel to which sulfur has been added in controlled amounts after refining. the B and C scales are most commonly in use. This residual penetration is automatically registered on a dial when the major load is removed from the penetrator. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. the degree to which such forms or entities can be discriminated. Riffles Waviness at the edge of sheet or strip. resulting in a case or rim of metal virtually free of voids. Roll Forming An operation used in forming sheet. the final contours of which are produced by side or edging rolls. For the same carbon and manganese content rimmed steel is softer than killed steel. The sulfur is added to improve machinability. sometimes called molded sections. twists. Rolled In Scale A surface defect consisting of scale partially rolled into the surface of the sheet. Roller Leveling Passing sheet or strip metal through a series of staggered small rolls so as to flatten the metal. Rimmed Steel A low-carbon steel containing sufficient iron oxide to give a continuous evolution of carbon monoxide while the ingot is solidifying. The edge contours most commonly used are square corners. Ripple (defect) A slight transverse wave or shadow mark appearing at intervals along the piece. This method is relatively ineffective in removing defects such as buckles. Sheet and strip products made from the ingot have very good surface quality. The rim is of somewhat purer composition than the original metal poured. five scales designated by letters varying from A to H.. or from steel in the higher hardness ranges. wavy edges. The hardness is expressed as a number related to the depth of residual penetration of a steel ball or diamond cone (brale) after a minor load of 10 kilograms has been applied to hold the penetrator in position.Society4Pakswissians The capacity of an optical or radiation system to separate closely spaced forms or entities. If the rimming action is stopped shortly after pouring of the ingot is completed. Rimmed Steel Low-carbon steel in which incomplete deoxidation permits the metal to remain liquid at the top of the ingot. corrugations. Rolled Edges Finished edges. Various dial readings combined with different major loads. the metal is known as capped steel. Strips of sheet are passed between rolls of definite settings that bend the sheet progressively into structural members of various contours. Rockwell Hardness (Test) A standard method for measuring the hardness of metels. rounded corners and rounded edge. etc.15% carbon are rimmed steels. 59 . Ribbon Wound A term applied to a common method of winding strip steel layer upon layer around an arbor or mandrel. Most steels below 0.

or occurring where the skin from a blowhole has partly burned away and is not welded. Rolling A term applied to the operation of shaping and reducing metal in thickness by passing it between rolls which compress. Scab A defect consisting of a flat volume of metal joined to a casting through a small area.g. sections. blooms. 60 . or otherwise shaping metal products. NOTE: cutter discs are also employed in producing dircles from flat sheets but with differently designed machines. Rule Die Steel A hardened and tempered medium high carbon spring steel strip sufficiently low in hardness to take moderately sharp bends without fracture. a flat side being separated from the metal of the casting proper by a thin layer of sand.05%. and metal foil into desired shape. Rolling Mills Equipment used for rolling down metal to a smaller size or to a given shape employing sets of rolls the contours of which determine or fashion the product into numerous intermediate and final shapes. Salt Spray Test An accelerated corrosion test in which the metal specimens are exposed to a fine mist of salt water solution either continuously or intermittently. usually within 0. in the plane of the sheet. rods. slabs. Rough Machining Machining without regard to finish. This organization has specified common and alloy steels and copper base alloys in accordance with a numerical index system allowing approximation of the composition of the metal.Society4Pakswissians Roller Leveling Leveling by passing flat stock through a machine having a series of small-diameter staggered rolls. Rolling Reducing the cross-sectional area of metal stock. shape and lengthen it following the roll pattern. paper. rails. through the use of rotating rolls. plastics. intended for manufacture into rule dies for the purpose of cutting or stamping fabrics. It is usually set in a depression. bars. cardboard. plates. e. Rotary Shear (Slitting Machine) A cutting machine with sharpened circular blades or disc-like cutters used for trimming edges and slitting sheet and foil. usually to be followed by a subsequent operation. perpendicular to the axes of the rolls during rolling. Scab (scabby) A blemish caused on a casting by eruption of gas from the mold face. Rolling Direction (in rolled metal) The direction.. SAE Abbreviation for Society of Automotive Engineers. Scale A layer of oxidation products formed on a metal at high temperature. The last two digits always indicate the carbon content. sheets and strip. or by uneven mold surfaces.

) On the surface of metal a crack that has been closed but not welded. Scratch Brushed Finish Finish obtained by mechanically brushing the surface with wire bristle brushes. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. ordinarily by using a gas torch. with a specified high-carbon steel as 100. Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. resulting in relatively heavy surface layers of oxide. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. billets and slabs before fabrication. Similar to cold shut and laminations. Scleroscope Test A hardness test where the loss in kinetic energy of a falling metal tup. by buffing with greaseless compound or by cold rolling with wire bristled rolls on scratch etched finish. billets. Seam Welding An electric-resistance type of welding process. absorbed by indentation upon impact of the tup on the metal being tested.Society4Pakswissians Scaling (1) Oxidation of metal due to heat. Scalped Extrusion Ingot A cast. solid. The scleroscope hardness value is empirically taken from the rebound distance. or the edges of plate that is to be beveled for butt welding. 61 . Scarfing Cutting surface areas of metal objects. is indicated by the height of rebound. usually resulting from a defect obtained in casting or in working. ordinarily by using a gas torch. Seam On the surface of metal. an unwelded ford or lap which appears as a crack. Scarf Joint A butt joint in which the plane of the joint is inclined with respect to the main axes of the members. Scrap Material unsuitable for direct use but usable for reprocessing by re-melting. (2) Removal of scale from metal. billets. The operation permits surface defects to be cut from ingots. in which the lapped sheet is passed between electrodes of the roller type while a series of overlapping spot welds is made by the intermittent application of electric current. usually produced by some defect either in casting or in working. Scalping Machining the surface layers from ingots. Scaling Forming a thick layer of oxidation products on metals at high temperatures. a diamond-pointed hammer drops from a fixed distance through a tube onto the smoothed metal surface and the rebound measured. such as blowholes that have become oxidized or folds and laps that have been formed during working. Seam (A defect. or hollow extrusion ingot which has been machined on the outside surface. Scleroscope Hardness (Test) A method for measuring the hardness of metals.

. Seconds The designation given to sheet or strip that has imperfections in moderate degree or extent.163 and thicknesses are . concentration of alloying elements at specific regions. Carbon content about . Self Diffusion The spontaneous movement of an atom to a new site in a crystal of its own species. Segregation In an alloy. to permit evolution of sufficient carbon monoxide to offset solidification shrinkage. usually as a result of the primary crystallization of one phase with the subsequent concentration of other elements in the remaining liquid. Semi-Steel Cast iron (not steel) of high quality. or both. widths vary from . 62 . blooms.Society4Pakswissians Secondary Hardening Tempering certain alloy steels at certain temperatures so that the resulting hardness is greater than that obtained by tempering the same steel at some lower temperature for the same time. This term not used in connection with non-ferrous alloys. Segregation Banding In homogeneous distribution of alloying elements aligned on filaments or plates parallel to the direction of working. Self-Hardening Steel A steel containing sufficient carbon or alloying element. through rapid removal of heat from a locally heated portion by conduction into the surrounding cold metal. Semifinished Steel Steel in the form of billets. Semikilled Steel Steel that is incompletely deoxidized and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide and thus offset solidification shrinkage. or other manufacturing defects.imperfections in the base material. impurities or microphases. which may be classified in two general groups -. impurities or phases. Segregation Nonuniform distribution of alloying elements. fo form martensite either through air hardening or.058 to . Hardness usually Rockwells 30 N 68 to 71. . requiring further working before completion into finished steel ready for marketing. Hardened and blue tempered with round edges. Segment Steel Used for laminated piston rings. as in welding and induction hardening. Semikilled Steel Steel incompletely deoxidized. 024 and .60%. obtained by using a large percentage of steel scrap with the pig iron. itc. Segregation Nonumiform distribution of alloying elements. Semikilled Steel Steel that is completely deoxided and contains sufficient dissolved oxygen to react with the carbon to form carbon monoxide to offset solidifacation shrinkage.030.020.

Compare microbands. used primarily for tool. providing a more homogeneous product. Shielded-Arc Welding Arc welding in which the arc and the weld metal are protected by a gaseous atmosphere. Shear Strength The stress required to produce fracture in the plane of cross section. the conditions of loading being such that the directions of force and of resistance are parallel and opposite although their paths are offset a specified minimum amount. Shear That type of force that causes or tends to cause two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact. die and machine alignment purposes. the products of decomposition of the electrode covering. (4) Austenitic Stainless Steel Rockwell C 35/45. Shore Hardness Test Same as scleroscope test. They carry most of the deformation at large strains. Usually only one system is present in each regional group of grains. each. resulting in a firm shell with a cavity corresponding to the outline of the pattern. or a blanket of fusible flux. Also called Croning process. In steel there are four general types: (1) Low Carbon Rockwell B 80/100. (3) Hardened and Tempered Spring Steel Rockwell C 44/51. Short 63 . Shear Bands (deformation) Bands in which deformation has been concentrated inhomogeneously in sheets that extend across regional groups of grains. (2) Hard Rolled High Carbon Rockwell C 28/33. Hard but may be 4 Nos. The bands are noncrystallographic and form on planes of maximum shear stress (55(degrees) to the compression direction). Shim A thin flat hard metal strip produced to close tolerances. Shear A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved. different systems being present in adhoining groups. Shell Molding Forming a mold from thermosetting resin-bonded sand mixtures brought in contact with pregeated (300 to 500 (degrees) F) metal patterns. Shear Steel Steel produced by forge welding together several bars of blister steel. Shear Crack A diagonal. transgranular crack caused by shear stresses. Hard. Sheet A flat-rolled metal product of some maximum thickness and minimum width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. backed up by two rolls twice that diameter and each of these backed up by bearings on a shaft mounted eccentrically so that rotating it increases the pressure between bearings and backup rolls. Brass shim of commercial quality is also used and most generally specified is 2 Nos. Sheet is thinner than plate.Society4Pakswissians Sendzimir Mill A mill having two work rolls of 1 to 2 1/2-in diam.

It is designated as cold. Silver Solders Alloys of silver.50-5. silicon sheet and strip are standard in electric magnet manufacture.25. Carbon content about 1. Single-Action Press A forming press that operates with a single function. to some extent. Silky Fracture A steel fracture that has a very smooth fine grain or silky appearance. the major component of all rodks and sands. Silicon Steel Steel usually made in the basic open-hearth or electric furnace. are those of a metalloid. and is deliberately added to the extent of approximately 4% for electric sheets. its chemical reactions. Silicon cannot be electrodeposited. Sinker Steel Used for making sinkers in hosiery making machinery.% silicon. atomic weight 28. copper. Because of high electrical resistance and low hysterisis loss.06. Shot Blasting Cleaning surface of metal by air blast. Short Terne A term applying to terne coated (Lead and Tin) sheets with reference to Base Box sizes (14 x 20) Refer to terne plate. Sinkhead or Hot Top 64 . with about 0.Society4Pakswissians Brittle. 14 of the periodic system. hot. Extremely common element. usually steel. Silicon Chemical symbol Si. used for making strong yet moderately ductile joints that resist corrosion. other elements being usually dept as low as possible. It is designed as cold. and red. extensively used in alternating current magnetic circuits. melting between 650 and 875 (degrees) C. Shrinkage Cavity A void left in cast metals as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. Element No. in all steels. Siliconizing Diffusing silicon into solid metal. Used in metallurgy as a deoxidizing scavenger. hot. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs. Supplied both hardened and tempered and cold rolled and annealed. at an elevated temperature. Silicon is present. sinc and other metals. using metal as a result of solidification shrinkage and the progressive freezing of metal towards the center. such as moving a punch into a die with no simultaneous action for holding down the bland or ejecting the formed work. however. and red. Usually extra precision rolled and extra flat. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal. Shortness A form of brittleness in metal. to indicate the temperature range in which the brittleness occurs.

such as tungsten. Also called shrink head or feeder head. such as cobalt acing as a matrix. etc. Skull A layer of solidified metal or dross on the wall of a pouring vessel often when metal has been poured. Slag A nonmetallic product resulting form mutual dissolution of flux and nonmetallic impurities in smelting and refining operations. cemented together by a relatively low-melting metal. Slip Plastic deformation by irreversible shear displacement of one part of a crystal relative to another in a definite crystallographic direction and on a definite crystallographic plane. Slag A product resulting from the action of a flux on the nonmetallic constituents of a processed ore. and edge configuration. usually after preliminary compacting by pressure. by heating Sintering Converting powder into a continuous mass by heating to a temperature considerably below fusion. Slip Line Trace of a slip plane on a viewing surface. from which pipe or tubing is made. Skelp A plate of steel or wrought iron from which pipe or tubing is made by rolling the skelp into shape longitudinally and welding or riveting the edges together. at least twice as wide as it is thick. structure or other characteristics. containing carbides of extremely refractory metals. Slip Direction The crystallographic direction in which translation of slip takes place. Skin A thin surface layer that is different from the main mass of a metal object.Society4Pakswissians A reservoir insulated to retain heat and to hod excess molten metal on top of an ingot mold. or on the oxidized metallic constituents that are undesirable. in order to feed the shrinkage of the ingot. intermediate between ingot and plate. resulting in incomplete hardening and the formation of one or more transformation products in addition to or instead of martensite. Sintering Bonding of adjacent surfaces of particles in a mass of metal powders. in composition. titanium. Slab A piece of metal. or in a compact. tantalum. 65 .. and neutral oxides are added to aid fusibility. Slack Quenching The process of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate for the particular steel. width. Sintered Carbide Composite. Usually slags consist of combinations of acid oxides with basic oxides. Skelp A piece or strip of metal produced to a suitable thickness.

and then cooled rapidly enough to hold these constituents in solution. copper. soft and ductile. the locus of points representing the temperatures at which various components finish freezing on cooling or begin to melt on heating. The alloy is left in a supersaturated. is generally termed brazing. or nickel bases and use of these alloys with melting points higher than 800 (degrees) F. held at that temperature long enough to cause one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. Solute The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the lesser or minor extent. Slit Edges The edges of sheet or strip metal resulting from cutting to width by rotary slitters. Solution Heat Treatment Heating an alloy to a suitable temperature. and may subsequently exhibit quench aging.most commonly. unstable state. Slitting Cutting sheet or strip metal to width by rotary slitters. Solid Solution A solid crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species in concentrations that may vary between limits imposed by phase equilibrium. Solder Embrittlement Reduction in ductility of a metal or alloy. and then cooling rapidly enough to hold the constituents in solution. Solution Heat Treatment 66 . 4 Temper) In low carbon-rolled strip steel. which are the soft solders.Society4Pakswissians Slip Plane The crystallographic plane on which slip occurs in a crystal. Soaking Prolonged heating of a metal at selected temperature. associated with local penetration by molten solder along grain boundaries. the component that is dissolved in the solvent. Soft Skin Rolled Temper (No. Solid Solution A single solid homogeneous crystalline phase containing two or more chemical species. holding at that temperature long enough to allow one or more constituents to enter into solid solution. Soldering Joining metals by fusion of alloys that have relatively low melting points -. Produced by subjecting annealed strip to a pinch pass or skin rolling (a very light rolling). Sliver (defect) Loose metal piece rolled down onto the surface of the metal during the rolling operations. lead-base or tin-base alloys. Solution Heat Treatment A heat treatment in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature. Hard solders are alloys that have silver. Solidus In a constitutional diagram.

unstable state and may subsequently exhibit age hardening. the space lattice may be thought of as formed by the corners of the unit cells. The first type is very fine pearlite difficult to resolve under the microscope. 2. Heating to temperature above Ae1 or Ae3 67 . or a fluorescent screen -. the second type is tempered martensite. on cooling under the proper conditions. the cementite is completely dispersed in the matrix. Prolonged holding at a temperature just below Ae1.a photographic plate or film. the component that dissolves the solute. Spalling The cracking and flaking of particles out of a surface. Spectograph (X-rays) An instrument using an extended surface -. from the decomposition of austenite.Society4Pakswissians A process in which an alloy is heated to a suitable temperature long enough to allow a certain constituent to enter into solid solution and is then cooled rapidly to hold the constituent in solution. Space-Centered (concerning space lattices) Body-centered. Sorbite (obsolete) A fine mixture of ferrite and cementite produced either by regulating the rate of cooling of steel or tempering steel after hardening. Space Lattice (crystal) A system of equivalent points formed by the intersections of three sets of planes parallel to pairs of principal axes. for which the specific gravity is taken as 1. Speroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel. the limits of solid solubility. Spheroidizing methods frequently used are: 1. Sorbitic Pearlite Structure of steel resulting. Sorbite Structure of steel. lamellar appearance. resulting from the tempering of martensite. Specific Gravity A numerical value representing the weight of a given substance as compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. .0000. In a truly sorbitic structure. The metal is left in a supersaturated. Solvent The component of either a liquid or solid solution that is present to the greater or major extent. Solvus In a phase or equilibrium diagram. Spelter (Prime Western Spelter) A low-grade of Virgin Zinc containing approximately 98% Zinc used in Galvanizing processes. that is. . has a fine.for receiving the X-ray diffraction pattern. Heating and cooling alternately between temperatures that are just below Ae1. Spectograph An optical instrument for determining the presence or concentration of minor metallic constituents in a material by indicating the presence and intensity of specific wave lengths of radiation when the material is thermally or electrically excited. the locus of points representing the temperature at which solid phases with various compositions coexist with other solid phases. The trend is to call this structure tempered martensite. 3.

approximately 5% carbon. gas-shielded metal-arc. Spiegel High-manganese pig iron. Spring Steel Strip Any of a number of strip steels produced for use in the manufacture of steel springs or where high tensile properties are required marketed in the annealed state. Spheroidized Structure A microstructure consisting of a matrix containing spheroidal particles of another constituent. which might reduce the resistance of the steel to corrosion. Spring-Back An indicator of elastic stresses.Society4Pakswissians and then cooling very slowly in the furnace or holding at a temperature just below Ae1. and less than 1% silicon used in the manufacture of steel by the Bessemer. Spheroidizing Heating and cooling to produce a spheroidal or globular form of carbide in steel.50% reduction. Spinning The procedure of making sheet metal discs into hollow shapes by pressing the metal against a rotating form (spinning chuck) by a tool. or basic open-hearth process. . or submerged-arc welding. Spot Welding An electric-resistance welding process in which the fusion is limited to a small area. Spheroidizing Any process of prolonged heating and slow cooling of steel which will convey the carbide content into rounded or spheroid form. hard rolled or as hardened and tempered strip. 68 . frequently measured as the increase in diameter of a curved strip after removing it from the mandrel about which it was held. This eliminates precipitation at lower temperatures. It is generally resistance welding. but may also be gas-shielded tungsten-arc. Spring Temper In brass mill terminology. and then re-heating in accordance with methods 1 or 2 above. (Applicable to hypereutectoid steel containing a carbide network. Spring Temper is eight numbers hard or 60. The pieces being welded are pressed together between a pair of water-cooled electrodes through which an electical current is passed during a very short interval so that fusion occurs over a small area at the interface between the pieces. Cooling at a suitable rate from the minimum temperature at which all carbide is dissolved. containing 15-30% manganese. Stabilizing Anneal A treatment applied to austentic stainless steels that contain titanium or columbium. Speroidizing Annealing A subcritical annealing treatment intended to produce spheroidization of cementite or other carbide phases. This treatment consists of heating to a temperature below that of a full anneal in order to precipitate the maximum amount of carbon at titanium carbide or columbium carbide. Spot Welding Welding of lapped parts in which fusion is confined to a relatively small circular area. The measurement is employed as an indicator of the extent of recovery or relief of residual stresses that has been achieved by the transformation of elastic strain to plastic strain during heating or stress relieving. to prevent the reformation of a carbide network. 4.

These are highly resistant to corrosion attack by organic acids. columbium. Steel Iron. Usually by fusion spots caused by overheating during box annealing. and often other alloying elements. Steel An iron-base alloy. but all steels contain at least small amounts of manganese and silicon. carbonyl iron. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. (1) Heating austenitic stainless steels that contain titanium. or tantalum. substantially free from slag. Stainless Steel Corrosion resistant steel of a wide variety.0%. In carbon steel and low-alloy steel. on the high-carbon side. Sterling Silver A silver alloy containing at least 95. and relatively pure irons. steel usually containing at least 0. cast irons. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature. and containing carbon bore than about 0. blanking.namely.2% Ag.25%.Society4Pakswissians Stabilizing Treatment A thermal treatment designed to precipitate material from solid solution. Sticker Steel sheets or strip adhering. weak mineral acids. In some steels containing extremely low carbon. containing maganease. (3) Precipitating a constituent from a nonferrous solid solution to improve the workability. usually carbon. Standard Gold A legally adopted alloy for coinage of gold. malleable in at least one range of temperature below its melting point without special heat treatment. or to obtain dimensional stability.00%. or to obtain dimensional stability under service at slightly elevated temperatures. on the low-carbon side. but always containing a high percentage of chromium. which have low carbon concentrations. about 2. Stamping A term used to refer to various press forming operations in coining.05% and less than about 2. (2) Transforming retained austenite in parts made from tool steel. Steel is differentiated from two general classes of iron . or tantalum to a suitable temperature below that of a full anneal in order to inactivate the maximum amount of carbon by precipitation as a carbide of titanium. the maximum carbon content is about 2. in high-alloy steel. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as being at about 5% metallic alloying elements. to decrease the tendency of certain alloys to age harden at room temperature.0%. in order to improve the workability. which have high carbon concentrations.5%. the remainder being unspecified but usually copper. malleable in some temperature range as initially cast. Stablizing Treatment Any treatment intended to stabilize the structure of an alloy of the dimensions of a part. Steel is to be differentiated from two general classes of irons: the cast irons.5%. 69 . Other alloying elements may be present in significant quantities. the maximum carbon is about 2. about 2. embossing. columbium. the maganese content is the principal differentiating factor. ingot iron contains considerably less. and electrolytic iron. The dividing line between low-alloy and high-alloy steels is generally regarded as the 5% level of total metallic alloying elements. in high-alloy steel. Steel An iron-base alloy usually containing carbon and other alloying elements. etc. and the relatively pure irons such as ingot iron. In the United States the alloy contains 10% Cu. atmospheric oxidation. and usually as undesirable constituents. and pressing.

Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. Strain Aging Aging induced by cold working. referred to its original size or shape. True (or natural) strain is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by plastic deformation at temperatures lower than the recrystallization range.Society4Pakswissians Straight-Chrome An iron alloy. called normal stress and shear stress. Stress Force per unit area. Strain Deformation produced on a body by an outside force. is force divided by original area. often thought of as force acting through a small area within a plane. It can be divided into components. is force decided by the original gauge length. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. Linear strain is the change per unit length of a linear dimension. as applied to tension and compression tests. Conventional stress. True stress denotes stress determined by measuring force and area at the same time. Stress Deforming force to which a body is subjected. True stress denotes the stress where force and area are measured at the same time. 70 . When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. Stress Force per unit area. or. Strain A measure of the change in the size or shape of a body. normal and parallel to the plane. Shearing strain (or shear strain) is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two lines originally at right angles. Strain Aging Aging induced by cold work. Nominal stress is stress computed by simple elasticity formula. receptively. Conventional strain is the linear strain referred to the original gauge length.00 to 27. A term indicating a group of stainless steels the principal alloying element of which is chromium in varying amounts from 4.00%. the resistance which the body offers to deformation by the force. When the term is used alone. it usually refers to linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. Strain Hardening An increase in hardness and strength caused by p. Strain A measure of the relative change in the size of a body. Conventional stress. Shearing strain is the change in angle (expressed in radians) between two reference lines originally at right angles.astic deformation at temperatures below the recrystallization range. True strain (or natural strain) is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the length at the moment of observation to the original gauge length. When the term strain is used alone it usually refers to the linear strain in the direction of the applied stress. as applied to tension and compression tests.

71 . Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. Stretcher Leveling Leveling where a piece of metal is gripped at each end and subjected to a stress higher than its yield strength to remove warp and distortion. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. when the metal is subjected to deformation beyond the yield point. These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding. the load being held at such a level as to cause rupture. 5 dead soft temper. Also known as creep-rupture test.) Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surfaces of some materials when they are deformed just past the yield point. depending on the metal and the corrosive medium. Stretch Forming A process of forming panels and cowls of large curvature by stretching sheet over a form of the desired shape. such as those resulting on a metal from work hardening or quenching. Stretcher Strains Long vein-like marks appearing on the surface of certain metals.Society4Pakswissians Stress Relief Low temperature annealing for removing internal stresses. Sometimes called patent leveling. Stress-Corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under combined action or corrosion and stress. The products are elongated a definite amount to remove warpage. Stress Relieving Heating to a suitable temperature. (Not a defect in No. Stress-corrosion Cracking Failure by cracking under the combined action of corrosion and stress. This method is more rapid than hammering and beating. depends on metal and corrosive medium. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. either external (applied) or internal (residual). and shapes by the application of tension at the ends of the stock. Stress-Rupture Test A tension test performed at constant temperature. Stretcher Straightening A process for straightening rod. either external (applied) or internal (residual). These markings lie approximately parallel to the direction of maximum shear stress and are the result of localized yielding Same as Luders lines. Cracking may be either intergranular or transgranular. holding long enough to reduce residual stresses and then cooling slowly enough to minimize the development of new residual stresses. in the direction of the maximum shear stress. tubing. Stretcher Strains Elongated markings that appear on the surface of some materials when deformed just past the yield point. Stretcher Leveling A method of making metal sheet or strip dead flat by stretching. Also termed Luders Lines.

Substrate The layer of metal underlying a coating. Supercooling Cooling to a temperature below that of an equilibrium phase transformation without the transformation taking place. single stand reversing.Society4Pakswissians Strip A sheet of metal whose length is many times its width. 16 of the periodic system. and shock) are encountered and where oxidation resistance is frequently required. Structure The arangement of parts. kinds and positions of the atoms within it. regardless of whether the layer is base metal.250 in thickness.06. Non-metal occurring in a number of allotropic modifications. Substitutional Solid Solution A solid solution in which the solvent and solute atoms are located randomly at the atom sites in the crystal structure of the solution. expecially. neighboring subgrains are separated by low-angle boundaries. which has been cold reduced to desired decimal thickness and temper on single stand. atomic weight 32. to increase machinability. 72 . Generally. vibratory. Sub-boundary Structure (subgrain structure) A network of low-angle boundaries (usually with misorientations or less than one degree) within the main grains of a microstructure. In steel most commonly encountered as an undesired contaminant. Sulfur Print A macrographic method of examining distribution of sulfide inclusions. and the number. Sulfur Chemical symbol S) Element No. Subcritical Annealing An annealing treatment in which a steel is heated to a temperature below the A1 temperature and then cooled slowly to room temperature. Subgrain A portion of a crystal or grain slightly different in orientation from neighboring portions of the same crystal. thermal. in crystals. it is frequently deliberately added to cutting stock. or tandem cold mills in coil form from coiled hot rolled pickled strip steel. under . However. Sulfide Spheroidization A stage of overheating in which sulfide inclusions are partly or completely spheroidized. Strip Steel (cold rolled) A flat cold rolled steel product (Other than Flat Wire) 23 15/16 and narrower. the most common being a pale-yellow brittle solid. Superalloy An alloy developed for very high temperature service where relatively high stresses (tensile. the shape and dimension of the until cell.

in direct line. Use of the applicable specific process name is preferred. Teeming Pouring molten metal from a ladle into ingot molds. re-heating hardened steel or hardened steel or hardened cast iron to some temperature below the eutectoid temperature for the purpose of decreasing the hardness and increasing the toughness. (2) In tool steels. A sectioning angle 5(degrees) 43 achieves a depth magnification of 10: 1. The processes commonly used are induction hardening. Arrangement of Tandem Mill rolling mills. Tarnish Surface discoloration on a metal. Superheating (1) Heating a phase to a temperature above that of a phase transformation without the transformation taking place. There is no significant alteration of the chemical composition of the surface layer. The term applies particularly to the specific operation of pouring either iron or steel into ingot molds. allowing the metal to pass from one set of rolls into the next. Temper (1) In heat treatment. thereby achieving a geometrical magnification of depth. Tapping Transferring molten metal from melting furnace to ladle. Surface Hardening A generic term covering several processes applicable to a suitable ferrous alloy that produce. flame hardening and shell hardening. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. (2) Heating molten metal to a temperature to obtain more complete refining or greater fluidity.Society4Pakswissians Superficial Rockwell Hardness Test Form of Rockwell hardness test using relatively light loads which produce minimum penetration. (3) In nonferrous alloys and in some ferrous alloys (steels that 73 . Telescoping Transverse slipping of successive layers of a coil so that the edge of the coil is conical rather than flat. by quench hardening only. Tack Welds Small scattered welds made to hold parts of a weld in proper alignment while the final welds are being made. temper is sometimes used. usually from a thin film of oxide or sulfide. or where large hardness impression might be harmful. a surface layer that is harder or more wear resistant than the core. Taper Section A section made at an acute angle to a surface of interest. Teeming Pouring metal into ingot molds. to denote the carbon content. but inadvisedly. Used for determining surface hardness or hardness of thin sections or small parts.

Temper Rolling Light cold rolling of sheet steel. or are cooled slowly through.03 carbon range (Also known as clock spring steel. Temper Brittleness Brittleness that results when certain steels are held within. Blue is developed at approximately 600 (degrees) F. Tempering (Also termed 'drawing. or slowly cooled through. is manufactured and processed with great and extreme care exercised in each step of its production. Tempered Spring Steel Strip Any medium or high carbon (excluding clock spring) strip steel of spring quality which has been hardened and tempered to meet specifications. In flat-rolled products including sheet and strip steel. to minimize the formation of stretcher strains.') A process of re-heating quench-hardened or normalized steel to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired.03 with Rockwell range C 48/51. or reduction in area during cold working. tin mill products. springs for the electric and electonic fields. same is accomplished by passing through heat prepared at proper temperature depending on color required. Clock spring quality has been ground and polished with edges dressed. The brittleness is revealed by notched-bar impact tests at or below room temperature. while similar to general description under heading of Tempered Spring Steel Strip.) This product. ignition vibrator springs. Tempered and Polished Spring Steel Strip 90/1. the hardness and strength produced by mechanical or thermal treatment. Tempering In heat treatment. the temperature range from about 700 to 1100 F (375 to 575 C). mechanical properties. Each branch of the metal producing industry has developed its own system of temper designations. such as coiled and flat mechanical springs. re-heating hardened steel to some temperature below the A1 temperature for the purpose of decreasing hardness and/or increasing toughness. Where specification calls for blue or straw color. aluminum sheet and copper base alloy strip they are shown as follows Temper Brittleness A reversible increase in the ductile-brittle transition temperature in steels heated in. and characterized by a certain structure. or both. 74 .) The state of or condition of a metal as to its hardness or toughness produced by either thermal treatment or heat treatment and quench or cold working or a combination of same in order to bring the metal to its specified consistency. rules.Society4Pakswissians cannot be hardened by heat treatment). The operation is performed to improve flatness. a certain range of temperature below the transformation range. The primary purpose of tempering is to impart a degree of plasticity or toughness to the steel to alleviate the brittleness of its martensite. The process also is sometimes applied to normalized steel. etc. Also termed Pinch Pass or Skin Rolled. springs for timing devices. steel tapes. Temper (Met. stainless strip. It is usually supplied hard blue in color and has a wide range of uses. and to obtain a specified hardness or temper. Manufactured from carbon range of . Temper Rolling Subjecting metal sheet or strip to a slight amount of cold rolling following annealing (usually 1/2 to 1 1/2%) to forestall stretcher strains.90/1. Tempering Re-heating a quench-hardened or normalized ferrous alloy to a temperature below the transformation range and then cooling at any rate desired.

Texture In a polycrystalline aggregate. the ratio of maximum load to original cross-sectional area.000 T.00011.70. also as a constituent in alloys. ground.S. and automobile technicians. Tin Plate Base Box A Tin Plate Base Box is measured in terms of pounds per Base Box (112 sheets 14 x 20) a unit peculiar to the tin industry. Tensile Strength In tensile testing. To convert to decimal thickness multiply weight per base box by . The percentage of tin is usually kept as low as possible because of its high cost. Tensile Strength (Also called ultimate strength) Breaking strength of a material when subjected to a tensile (stretching) force. Thermocouple A device for measuring temperatures by the use of two dissimilar metals in contact.. coated with a lead-tin alloy. atomic weight 118. This corresponds to it's area of sheet totaling to 31.. Universally used in the metal industry.Society4Pakswissians Tensile Strength In tensile testing.050 manufactured to extremely close tolerances. Tensile strength is commonly expressed as pounds (or tons) per square inch of original cross section. the ratio of the maximum force sustained to the original cross-sectional area. about 15% is normally necessary in order to obtain proper coating of the steel. Ternary Alloy An alloy that contains three principal elements. and measuring the stretching force necessary to break the test piece. in which the distribution is not random. but low tensile strength. however. Terne Plate Sheet steel. In the usual sense. It is prepared in handy pocket size knife-like holders containing an assembly of various thicknesses. it is synonymous with preferred orientation. Three-Quarter Hard Temper (A) In stainless steel strip tempers are based on a minimum tensile or yield strength. gradually separating the jaws. Also called ultimate strength. Soft silvery white metal of high malleability and ductility.001 to .28. since pure lead does not alloy with iron and some surface alloying is necessary for proper adhesion. Also prepared in standard 12 lengths with rounded ends and in 10 ' and 25' coils.000 Y. For Chromium-Nickel grades three-quarter hard temper is 175. high carbon strip steel. and polished thin section. the junction of these metals gives rise to a measurable electrical potential with changes in temperature.S. yielding the longest molten-state range for any common metal. Tin Chemical symbol Sn.. min.4% thickness reduction. specific gravity 7. Thickness Gage or Feeler Stock A hardened and tempered. this temper is three B&S numbers hard or 29. Thermal Analysis A method of studying transformations in metal by measuring the temperatures at which thermal arrests occur. 135. Usually 1/2 in width and in thicknesses from .360 square inches of any gage and is applied to tin plate weighing from 55 to 275 pounds per base box. edged. Element No. the state of distribution of crystal orientations. boiling point 4384 (degrees) F. Usually measured by placing a standard test piece in the jaws of a tensile machine. Principal use as a coating on steel in tin plate. 50 of the periodic system. (B) In Brass mill terminology. 75 . It is used primarily for determining measurement of openings by tool and die makers. melting point 449 (degrees) F. machinists.

but the area under the stress-strain curve in tensile testing is also a measure of toughness. that is gripped by the operator's tongs. Toughness Ability of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. 22 of the periodic system. Element No. melting point about 3270 (degrees) F. It is removed from the part at the end of the forging operation. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of steel.Society4Pakswissians Tin Plating Electroplating metal objects with tin. also by spraying. usually on one end. Trace Extremely small quantity of an element. or the formation of pearlite from austenite. Tolerance Limit The permissible deviation from the desired value. specific gravity 4. boiling point over 5430 (degrees) F. Common to drop-hammer and press-type forging. Tong Hold The portion of a forging billet. (c) prevents localized depletion of chromium in stainless steel during long heating. e. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. The limiting temperatures of 76 . (1) Fixes carbon in inert particles (a) reduces martensitic hardness and hardnability in medium chromium steels.5. Toughness Property of resisting fracture or distortion. very malleable and ductile when exceedingly pure. Torsion A twisting action resulting in shear stresses and strains. Tool Steel Any high carbon or alloy steel capable of being suitably tempered for use in the manufacture of tools. Now finding application in its own right because of its high strength and good corrosion resistance. It is usually measured by the energy absorbed in a notch impact test. commonly either by immersion into molten tin or by electro-deposition. usually too small to determine quantitatively. Transformation Ranges (transformation temperature ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. Bright white metal. The two ranges are distinct... Transformation A constitutional change in a solid metal.90. atomic weight 47. the change from gamma to alpha iron. the object to be coated is made cathode (negative electrode) in an electrolytic bath containing a decomposable tin salt. (b) prevents formation of austenite in high-chromium steels. Titanium Chemical symbol Ti. high impact values indicating high toughness. Transformation Range Temperature range over which a chemical or metallurgical change takes place..g. Tinning Coating with tin. Toughness Capacity of a metal to absorb energy and deform plastically before fracturing. Usually measured by impact test.

Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. the temperature at which the solution of cementite in austentite is completed during heating. Ae(cm) Ae1 Ae3 Ae4 The temperatures of phase changes at equilibrium. the temperature at which precipitation of cementite starts during cooling. The two ranges are distinct. Transformation Ranges (Transformation Temperature Ranges) Those ranges of temperature within which austenite forms during heating and transforms during cooling. particularly during cooling. Ar(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. Transition Temperature (1) An arbitrarily defined temperature within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics determined usually by notched tests are changing rapidly such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to promarily crystalline (cleavage) fracture. .The temperature at which pro-eutectoid cementite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. M(s) (or Ar) The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling.The temperature at which pro-eutectiod ferrite begins to separate from austenite under conditions of slow cooling. . . Ar3 The temperature at which austenite begins to transform to ferrite during cooling. . . Ac4 The temperature at which austenite transforms to delta ferrite during heating. Ac(cm) In hypereutectoid steel. -Acm. . M(f). . Transformation Temperature The temperature at which transformation occurs. (2) Sometimes also used to denote the arbitrarily defined temperature in a range in which the ductility changes rapidly with temperature. -A3. particularly during cooling.The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite finishes during cooling. Commonly used definitions are transition temperature for 50% cleavage fracture. . Ac1 The temperature at which austenite begins to form during heating. . . . . M(s)-The temperature at which transformation of austenite to martensite starts during cooling. Transformation Temperature The temperature at which a change in phase occurs. The limiting temperatures of the ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature. and transition temperature for half maximum energy. Transition Temperature (ductile-brittle transition temperature An arbitrarily defined temperature that lies within the temperature range in which metal fracture characteristics (as usually determined by tests of notched specimens) change rapidly. usually signifying a direction or plane perpendicular to the direction of working. Ar4 The temperature at which delta ferrite transforms to austentie during cooling. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. Ac3 The temperature at which transformation of ferrite to austenite is completed during heating. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range. 10-ft-lb transition temperature. such as from primarily fibrous (shear) to primarily cleavage. 'across'. The following symbols are used: . .Society4Pakswissians these ranges depend on the composition of the alloy and on the rate of change of temperature. sometimes overlapping but never coinciding. The following symbols are used for iron and steels: . and depend on the rate of change of temperature. . M(f) The temperature at which martensite formation finishes during cooling. Transverse Literally. . Trepanning 77 . Ar1 The temperature at which transformation of austenite to ferrite or to ferrite plus cementite is completed during cooling. -A1-The temperature of the eutectoid transformation. NOTE: All these changes except the formation of martensite occur at lower temperatures during cooling than during heating. The term is sometimes used to denote the limiting temperature of a transformation range.

imbedded in a matrix of soft metal. . ductile and malleable when specially handled. Tukon Hardness Test A method for determining microhardness by using a Knoop diamond indenter or Vickers square-base pyramid indenter.90 to 1. (2) Promotes hardness and strength at elevated temperatures. Twin Two portions of a crystal having a definite orientation relationship. (1) Forms hard abrasion -. such as cobalt. Gray metal of high tensile strength. deformation twins form on {211} planes.05 carbon content. of composition varying between WC and W(2)C. extensively used for Sintered Carbide Tools. Trowel Steel Hardened and tempered spring steel. Tungsten Chemical symbol W. Ordinary tolerances. Must be formed very severely and must be as free as possible from decarburization.Society4Pakswissians A type of boring where an annular cut is made into a solid material with the coincidental formation of a plug or solid cylinder. Troosite (obsolete) A previously unresolvable rapidly etching fine aggregate of carbide and ferrite produced either by tempering martensite at low temperature or by quenching a steel at a rate slower than the critical cooling rate. Used in the manufacture of plastering trowels. Truss Spring Steel Supplied cold rolled and bright annealed. Carbon content about . as observed in a section. Element No. Triple Point The intersection of the boundaries of three adjoining grains.92. Preferred terminology for the first product is tempered martensite. atomic weight 183. Annealing A twin produced as the result of heat treatment. one may be regarded as the parent. fine pearlite. the other as the twin. usually appears dark. Twist 78 .70 -. Twin.resistant particles in tool steels. The orientation of the twin is either a mirror image of the orientation of the parent across a twinning plane or an orientation that can be derived by rotating the twin portion about a twinning axis. Crystal A portion of a crystal in which the lattice is a mirror image of the lattice of the remainder of the crystal. It is immune to atmospheric influences and most acids. but rolled extra flat -Rockwell C 50. 74 of the periodic system. Troosite Tempered martensite that etches rapidly. In ferrite. and is not resolved by the microscope. Tumbling Cleaning articles by rotating them in a cylinder with cleaning materials. The metal is used as filament and in thin sheet form in incandescent bulbs and radio tubes. Twin. but not to strong alkalis. Tungsten Carbide Compound of tungsten and carbon.Manganese .74. for the latter. Twin. Deformation A twinned region produced by a shear like distortion of the parent crystal structure during deformation.

Upsetting (1) A metal working operation similar to forging. Vanadium Chemical symbol V. Vacuum Melting Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air. surface.95. compressive. 79 . as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal. boiling point about 6150 (degrees) F. specific gravity 5. (2) The process of axial flow under axial compression of metal. and standing waves. transverse. atomic weight 50. They include longitudinal. associated with elastic waves. tensile. Ultimate Strength The maximum conventional stress. generally regarded as being higher than 15 kc per sec. It cannot be electrodeposited. Universal Mill A rolling mill in which rolls with a vertical axis roll the edges of the metal stock between some of the passes through the horizontal rolls. (2) That portion of welding cycle during which the cross-sectional area is increased by the application of pressure. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain). Element No. Ultrasonic Frequency A frequency. Upset (1) The localized increase in cross-sectional area resulting from the application of pressure during mechanical fabrication or welding.Society4Pakswissians A winding departure from flatness. Utility Sheet Aluminum Mill finish coiled or flat sheet of unspecified composition and properties produced in specific standard sizes and suitable for general building trade usage.. melting point 3119 (degrees) F. as in forming heads on rivets by flattening the end of wire. (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening. Gray-white. Ultrasonic Waves Waves of ultrasonic frequency. Vacancy A type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is temporarily unoccupied. that is greater than the highest audible frequency. or shear. hard metal. unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids. 23 of the periodic system.. the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure.87. that a material can withstand. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels.

Water Hardening Process of hardening high carbon steels by quenching in water or brine. Generally fit for re-melting purposes only.Society4Pakswissians Veining A type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms.00. Virgin Metal Metal obtained directly from ore and not used before. Steel must withstand great fatigue stresses. Vickers Hardness (Test) Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals. Weldability Suitability of a metal for welding under specific conditions. seams and buckled plates. The conversion proper was carried out in a hearth furnace known as a finery. for example.15 and Tungsten . particularly those with extremely hard surfaces. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table. 80 . Waloon Process An early two-hearth process for making wrought iron by refining cast iron. Wavy Not flat. tempered and white polished wxtra precision rolled. Wedge A hardwood stick used as a forming tool in spinning. after heating. Watch Main Spring Steel Usually supplied cold rolled and annealed in large widths and cut and hardened by the spring manufacturers. Vibrator Reed Steel Hardened. Carbon content about 1. re-heating for forging was carried out in a second hearth furnace known as a chafery. A slight wave following the direction of rolling and beyond the standard limitation for flatness. Weld A union made by welding.17. the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. extra precision rolled. Wasters Sheets that have prohibitive defects. Weld Bead A deposit of filler metal from a single welding pass. Carbon content about 1.

Work Hardening Same as strain hardening. This distinguishes fusion welding from brazing. on being removed from the liquid bath. Wetting A phenomenon involving a solid and a liquid in such intimate contact that the adhesive force between the two phases is greater than the cohesive force within the liquid. Wootz A carbon steel containing 1 to 1. In pressure welding joining is accomplished by the use of heat and pressure without melting. so that recrystallization occurs across the interface. Addition agents. The iron has a low carbon content. or both. with or without filler metal. WHB and Extra WHB Grades Spring steel wires produced from aced open-hearth steels. The structure was originally observed in meteorites but is readily produced in many other alloys with certain heat treatment.D.6% C produced by melting a bloomery iron or an inhomogeneous steel with charcoal in a crucible. arc. Foreign substances such as grease may prevent wetting. may induce wetting by lowering the surface tension of the liquid. Workability The characteristic or group of characteristics that determines the ease of forming a metal into desired shapes. requires that the parent metals be melted. The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related crystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometrical pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase along certain crystallographic planes of the parent solid solution. and resistance welding. The parts that are being welded are pressed together and heated simultaneously. Wrought Iron An iron produced by direct reduction of ore or by refining molten cast iron under conditions where a pasty mass of solid iron with included slag is produced.e. will have a thin continuous layer of liquid adherring to it. The process originated in India as early as the 3rd century A. Thus a solid that is wetted. Welding Joining two or more pieces of material by applying heat or pressure. Widmanstatten Structure A structure characterized by a geometric pattern resulting from the formation of a new phase on certain crystallographic planes in the parent phase. such as detergents. to produce a loxalized union through fusion or recrystallization across the interface. which includes gas. WMB. in hardness) produced by cold working. Wrought Iron 81 . The orientation of the lattice in the new phase is related cystallographically to the orientation of the lattice in the parent phase.Society4Pakswissians Welding A process used to join metals by the application of heat. Fusion welding. Wetting Agent A surface-active agent that produces wetting by decreasing the cohesion within the liquid. Work Hardening Increase in resistance to deformation (i.

Young's Modulus is the ratio of the stretching force per unit cross-sectional area to the elongation per unit length. A copper-zinc alloy. named for its yellow hue. Also known as High Brass. Formerly a very popular alloy. but now largely replaced by Cartridge Brass. 82 . at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Wrought Iron A commercial iron consisting of slag (iron silicate) fibers entrained in a ferrite matrix. a marked increase in deformation occurs without increase in load. Yield Point The first stress in a material. If there is a decrease in stress after yielding. Wustite The oxide of iron of lowest valence which exist over a wide range of compositions the do not quite include the stoichiometric composition FeO. in soft steel. Is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily. Yield Point The first stress in a material less than the maximum obtainable stess at which an increase in strain occurs without an increase in stress. Only certain metals exhibit a yield point.2% is used for many metals. Also known as proof stress. Yield Point The load per unit of original cross section at which. Also known as upper yield stress. usually less than the maximum attainable stress. s Yellow Brass 65% copper and 35% zinc.Society4Pakswissians Iron containing only a very small amount of other elements. An offset of 0. Young's Modulus The coefficient of elasticity of stretching. a distinction may be made between upper and lower yield points. giving the iron a characteristic grain. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified limiting deviation from the proportionality of stress to strain. but containing 1-3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction. Yield Strength The stress at which a material exhibits a specified deviation from propertionality of stress and strain. The deviation is expressed in terms of strain. For a stretched wire. The values of Young's Modulus for metals are of the order 10(12) dynes per square cm.

Society4Pakswissians 83 .

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