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Hollywood has developed a new dramatic

formula-

isolated human partiof Radio City Music density,

type); semi-invisible orchestra

microphones

on the stage, in the footlights, and an amplifier

in the

cles floating weightlessly through a magnetic field of fabricated pleasure, occasionally colliding - that can match the artificiality
Hall and fill it with abstracted, The production Roxy's brai nchild, formalized emotions of sufficient

pit and in the sub-basement

and six loudwords spoken office and even

speakers concealed above the proscenium; on the stage in the projection

a monitor system in connec

tion with the public address system which reproduces booths and the director's

of the Dream Factory is nowhere more at home than in

in the foyer and lobbies if desired, and which also carries the directions of the stage manager to the dressing rooms and electrical stations; an elaborate fiasco, humanity - in the form of superannuated and the Music Hall becomes a movie theater, booth, an auditorium and a lighting system with six motor-operated light bridges over lighting towers;

BACKSTAGE
After the first-night vaudeville - is abandoned,

the stage, each 104 feet long, from which lens units and floods can be used for special lighting; eight portable sixteen-floor booth in the auditorium battery of self-leveling, four spotting galleries, two on each side of the stage, and a spotting ceiling; a cyclorama strip in the floor and a floor disappearing footlights; six projection machines,

A movie theater needs only a projection perfectly

screen; but behind Radio City's screen still exists another realm, "a organized entity of 700 souls": backstage. include dormitories, an art department, a small hospital, rehearsal costume workshops. There is Its elaborate facilities rooms, a gymnasium,

four effect machines and the usual, or rather more than usual, complication of controis."> The waste of this mechanical unacceptable. The frenetic sunsets and daybreaks, the Roxyettes and the cosmopolitan inactivity of "the most complete create multiple the shortest infras tru ctu re. and the permanent installation availability of livestock. combined with the in the world," potential behind the movie screen is

Rad io City Symphony and a permanent out any action to sustain .. Furthermore,

trou pe of 64 female dancerschorus line with-

the Roxyettes, all between 5'4" and 5 '7" - a scriptless

there is a menagerie - horses, cows, goats and other stables, artificially lit and ventilated; to carry even elephants - not only

animals. They live in ultramodern an animal elevator - dimensioned Radio City's roof.

mechanical

pressures for a new stage show that can exploit in capacities of this top- heavy

deposits them on the stage but also on a special grazing ground on Finally, there is Roxy's own apartment fitted in between the roof trusses

possible time the maximum

Under these critical conditions leon leonidoff

Roxy, general: director of production ritual: a new routine that is, in a of the concept of "lack of

of his theater, "It is round, all white plaster and the walls describe a parabola to meet in a domed top. The whole thing is really breathlessvague, spaceless, timeless. fantastic, MakeS you feel like an unhatched chicken looking up at the top of his eggshell. To make the whole thing even more there are telephone dials in the walls. When you turn a dial, to do with radio.?" machine, "the a power-driven seventy-five operated; a
rOWS

and the director of the Roxyettes (their name soon stream

lined to Rockettes) invent a stunning inspiration"; variations

sense, a record of the crisis; a systematization

on the theme of "no content," founded on a that relies on frenzied synchroto the automatism a simultaneous of surrender of individuality

process, a display of inhuman coordination
nization, an exhilarating a synthetic year-round rite of spring.

a red li.ght starts to flash on and off - something But most painfully most complete orchestral cyclorama inactive is the colossal theatrical installation mechanical

in the world, including a revolving draped curtain;

The essence of this performance transcends old one. personal provocation.

is a mass high-kick:

stage; three manipulable

sections of stage flooring;

display of sexual regions, inviting inspection The Rockettes are a new race, exhibiting

but on a scale that

dais; a tank; an electrically

of fly lines for its scenery, ten of which are electrically picture projection sheets; a fountain

their superior charms to the
Rockettes and Mach ines: of the Corps de Ballet wait by elevators' huge gleaming pistons to be lifted to stage level during performance .... "
"Members

117 feet by 75; six horns for motion pictures and two motion in the middle of the revolving is in ribbon

stage which can be used for water effects while the turntable motion; a public-address thunder system for amplifying and wind effects (played from records with fifty-four

PV,RAMID
For the sake of the Music Hall audience, this pure abstraction occasionally
213

speech and producing

is

intersected

with a recognizable

reality. Producer leonidoff

214

Essence of the Rockettes' plotless theatrical energy.

performance:

216

invades traditional

stories with his man-made

race, rejuvenating

tired

mythologies,
Especially his Easter show becomes a classic of such cross-fertilization. A pyramid of eggs occupies center stage. Cracks develop, marked by neon scars. After some struggling The stage magically traditional formation, the Rockettes emerge intact from the shattered cleared of debris, the reborn Rockettes assume their lift their legs as high as they will go .... shells in a direct reference to the Resu rrection ..

CHORUS
Only the Rockettes' abstract theatrical movement can generate completely with the theater plotless
Rockettes in crisis: their permanent - useless - availability led to, routine based on concept of lack of inspiration.

energy commensurate

Roxy has created. The Rockettes,

It is as if the chorus of a Greek tragedy decided to desert the play it was supposed to support and pursued its own emancipation. daughters stage. The Rockettes ::::the chorus iine as main protagonist, personage made up of 64 individuals, in Suprernatist costumes: flesh-colored bodystockings the lead, a single marked with a filling the gigantic stage, dressed of the multiple sunset, are a democratic finally left its background chorus line that has

role and gone to flex its muscles at center

series of black rectangles that shrink toward the waist to end in a small black triangle -living With the development generated abstract art that denies the human body. its own time,
Rockettes' medical center: fresh awakening of a new race.

of its own race, its own mythology,

its own rituals, the container a worthy content. Its architecture

of Radio City Music Hall has finally a new culture

has provoked, and is now supporting,

which, preserved in its own artificial

time, will remain forever fresh.

ARK
From the moment of his sunset Revelation, Roxy has become a Noah: the chosen recipient of a quasi -divine "message" who - oblivious to its apparent implausi bi Iity - imposes its real ity on the world. Radio City Music Hall is his Ark; it now contains ultrasophisticated accommodation them throughout for selected wild animals and the apparatus to dispatch the structure. in its mirror-clad dorm hospital beds suggest a maternity the effects of
"Dormitory for dancers is located backstage. Girls can rest between shows, stay ovemlght.. ."

In the Rockettes, it has its own race, luxuriating whose regular rows of unglamorous architecture,

ward, but without babies. Beyond sex, strictly through the virgins reproduce themselves.

217

218

In Roxy, finally, the Music Hall has its own helmsman, vision who has built a self-contained the real world to vindicate imagination In the completeness

a planner with a of his event in

Kremlin on Fifth Avenue
MOSCOW
In 1927 Diego Rivera, famous Mexican muralist, rnunist Party in good standing, International Red Aid, representative "member of the Corndelegate of the Mexican Section of the of the Mexican Peasant League, League, editor of EI Libertador," of "workers and peasants" of the October

cosmos on the allotment

block .. But unlike Noah, Roxy does not depend on a cataclysmic he is right as long as the "fun never sets." of its facilities and mechanical equipment, its

his Revelation; in the universe of the human in the

selection of its human and animal menagerie -in Ark - or Ship of Fools, perhaps - recruiting claims and promises of redemption Existing in such abundance, through their cumulative

cosmogony, in other

General Secretary of the Anti-Imperialist

word s - eac h of Man hattan's 2,028 blocks pate nt iaIIy harbors su chan its own crew with competing further hedonism. impact is one of optimism;

visits Moscow as a member of a delegation Revolution.

that is invited to help celebrate the tenth anniversary

From the reviewing stand on Lenin's Tomb, he watches "with greedy eyes. notebook in hand, but mostly sketching on the tablets of his tenacious brain" the Red pageantry. Delighted, the radical artist records the full panoply of totalitarian mise of

together, these arks ridicule the possibility

of apocalypse.

en scene: "Moscow's toiling millions celebrating

their greatest holiday .... movement

the surging sea of crimson banners, the swift straining squares of marching serpentine the city marching for Russian Walls." As his biographer infantry ... the vast, banner-plumed,

cavalry ... the cubic pattern of trucks loaded with riflemen ... the solid float- bearing of the slow, joyous singing masses of men and' women of

all day long and far into the night through the great

square," all impressions. from "which he hoped one day to build murals writes, "It is not merely that [Rivera] apprehended intellectually [the

Russian Revolution]

- too many radical artists have found to Rather did and feeling were integrated

their cost that in art bare intellect may prove a straight-jacket. it possess him wholly, stir him till thought into the unity from which art alone can issue,""

1927
in this year the collision between the Russian Modernists regime reaches an ominous phase: the Modernists elitists whose production is determined The potential and the Soviet are accused of being of an art that will

is literally use-less: the Soviet government

to define once and for all the principles

energize and inspire the masses. of Rivera's narrative style - he is one of the few convincing in the world - is not lost on his hosts. After interof Agitation and Propaganda with International attacks the Russian avant-garde visual demagogues of the Communist arguments advanced artistic
2.19

viewing Rivera, the head of the Department

borrowed from the Mexican. "The gap between the most expression and the elementary tastes of the masses

220

can be bridged only by following a course which will improve the cultural level of the masses and capacitate them for artistic perception of the new ways developed by the dictatorship of the proletariat. Nevertheless,

it may be possible to begin at once the rapprochement public buildings ..37
il

between the

masses and art. The road is simple: Paint! Paint murals in the clubs and Rivera adds a personal reproach that undermines Modernist colleagues still further: simple and clear and transparent
concrete,

the position of his

"They should have given an art as crystal, hard as steel, cohesive as of the new historical stage

the trinity of the great architecture

of the world."38 The proto-Socialist Realism of Rivera's work fits exactly the ideological correct art. Lunacharsky in Moscow" to do a profile that guides the Soviets' search tor-the also signs a contract with Fine Arts Commissar library V I. Lenin, at present under construction

Barely a month in Moscow, Rivera is asked to do a portrait of Stalin .. He fresco in the Red Army Club "and to prepare serious work for the new But through the professional jealousy of local artists, the Red Army project - the projection of Rivera's mental notes onto Russian wallsis aborted; Rivera leaves the USSR abruptly, taking with him only his notebooks and, inevitably, the sketches "on the tablets of his tenacious brain!'

NEW YORK
Back in Mexico, Rivera decorates walls in the National Palace with, among other images, the Billionaires' Henry Ford dining on ticker tape. To feed his output, continuously.
Rivera's Diagonal bacteria "chemical soldiers In metal atrocious unfinished from mural in RCA Building, right: diagonal' Upper I'eft: of masked Germany." and oersisof the toilers.' cosmos Second microscope. 01 Hitlerized through without the machine:' demagogy Upper right: _ "expressed the in ornntpo lower left to upper telescope. typified or fantasy the organized towards

Banquet:

Rockefeller, Morgan and

Rivera has to consume fresh iconographies oil well, the America of the thirties gushes

Like a demented

myth, from the assembly line to the bread line - both equally useful to Rivera. In 1931 the Museum of Modern Art-the to the latest developments retrospective. Rockefellers' connection in the avant-garde - offers Rivera a

seen through

Soviet masses. development tent method center: dier, black In reality, bourgeoisie

__ ar'6 marching

seen through warfare cocoon: In the uniforms

of a new social order, trustlng in the clear, rational. materialism pact between of dialectical farmer

by hordes

the light of history.

.... " Just off

"the degeneration of the e~ploited bewildered "man controls

Lenin and subversive

sol...

tent pleasures

of the rich in the midst

and white worker.

"The attack a pretext. to the

Five weeks before the opening, on November 13, 1931, "in a land where buildings do not

sufferings. -

on the portrait

of Lenin was merely Portrait

Rivera arrives in Manhattan to produce a series of seven mobile frescoes - portable as a precaution stand long.":" As in Moscow, he immediately the new frescoes interpret starts to harvest iconography. Three of Drilling, Electric Welding New York on three levels, at the New York: Pneumatic

At center-seemingly logical' conflict

by this ideovital energy

the whole mural .. ,:' (Rivera.

was displeasing 01 AmeriCiI.)

and Frozen Assets .. "The third depicted
221 222

" Hood wires hastily. Frozen Assets: A Cross-Section the City.) The explicit politics of Frozen Assets create controversy. Later in 1932. of the the sacred conInstitute More fascinated assembly line. Rockefeller. a liberated CROSSROADS Like the Soviets. the Rockefellers are planning to incorporate works of art in their colossal complex to substantiate Through the attraction of a peculiar econornlc-artlstlc and innumerable Square notebooks . the murals are to be in three colors: white... his mural is a sensual apotheosis of the industrial mystique. but Nelson Rockefeller negotiates "The philosophical the mural. above. Sponsored by the Ford dynasty. and a more specific subject is formulated. John D. Rivera spends 1932 largely in the mechanical financed entrails of Detroit. Other he is still expected to submit for a competition. Picasso refuses to see the He refuses. Diego Rivera. "mobile" fresco. The critical. or spiritual quality should dominate you can't accept.base a guarded bank vault with immobilized municipal lodging with immobilized a morgue and." They were painted with such speed and so' late that they could not be incl uded in the catalogue. at its end. the immobilized ments on a tomb of business. a glorification veyor belt that delivers. in the middle a men lying on the floor like corpses in skyscrapers of New York like monuchosen to occupy the the show breaks (The two "tombs" are Raymond Hood's Daily News and McGraw-Hili buildings. all MoMA records. Suppose some iii-disposed . the Museum of Modern Art invited Rivera "to paint seven frescos ."'42 "Sorry always has the feeling of a crypt. on Hood's in the subject.48 watercolors Rockefellers too buy Rivera's work. than critical. in the style ·of his Mexican work with the possibility that two might be on United States subjects. although world-famous. but insists insistence. For its exhibition. where he is asked to decorate the Fordfor Fine Arts.. We want the paintings to make people pause and think and to turn their 223 224 ... In the lower parts of a building one Palace. accentuate the funereal at the same time on using color. Jr. black and grayMatisse is not interested Rockefeller delegation and Rivera is insulted that. warning Hood that otherwise "we would feeling which is fatally aroused in the public by persons the juxtaposition of black and white . mankind. _. Through appropriate claims."! are anxious about art invading their domain. its cultural gravity the Red penciled notes- end up in the possession of Mrs.."? foreground wealth. subversive nature of his "U nited States subjects" was discovered when it was too late. Nelson Rockefeller invites Rivera to decorate the main lobby of the RCA Building. With Matisse and Picasso. Rivera is Invited to submit sketches on the theme "man at the crossroads The architects looking with hope and high vision to the choosing of a new and better future. should chance upon a nickname such as 'Undertakers' a settlement. 1931.

the walls of the Kremlin. joyous. the lenses of television. the RCA lobby becomes an interior. The fortuitous meeting of a layer of Communist the appropriation paint and a Manhattan or groups of ideologithrough special elevator bank represents Gardens strategy: cally unclaimed territories forms of decoration.. At the same time. That is man's new and more complete of the real meaning of the Sermon on the Mount":" politan Wild West.' and workers are arranged on each side of the main types" who will "realize in the future divested of racial hates.. Mane Antoinettesa nightclub representatives elongated ellipses that for acting exactly within "the development of concept of "New Frontiers": of the meaning and mystery of life. cloud over the heads of the card-playing 226 .. having arranged to connect in the middle. Rivera Nelson Rockefeller's civilization the ideological claim. DIAGONALS The fresco is organized by two diagonals." A tactless close. The style of Communism suddenly intersect. This approximation ideological Americanism" of visual vocabularies "Communism is misread by many as actual confluence: is the Twentieth-Century and the style of Capitalism -two of civilization is no longer lateral. Rockefeller Center. "a pair of young lovers and a mother nursing her newborn child see in the realization Groups of students the synthetic sibility of living. The development and mind. he is staking a of the paintings in this hallway. and a political version of the Murray's Roman by individuals inside Manhattan's architecture ellipse is a view through living organisms.. It is the cultivation of man's soul are- American Socialist Soviets. consciously or not. "Our theme is NEW FRONTIERS! a not only material but above Just as before this strategy desirable futures: could produce flashbacks to nonexistent of pasts. "the result of by ethical development". " The first the cosmos of "infinitesimal germs responsible on the banks of the Hudson.' He has to solve them on his own lot. women. That is man's new possi bilities from his "2 . jealousies a microscope. the Negro farmer the mass of workers with the will to sustain this fact. only to find that when they reach the intended spot there is no one on the other side. it can now generate political flash-forwards.if not a "Kremlin at least a Red Square on Fifth Avenue. Rockefeller ." Underneath Red Square..." Then "a group of young women in the enjoyment gesture of permanent of health-giving another cocoon. to the glorification FATA MORGANA The story of the RCA mural is that of two parties who start digging a tunnel from both ends. settler. while in the background their fists held high affirms In the foreground." of the Leader's vision the sale posin love and peace. materialized through itself a Capitalist-realist pamphlet devoted of management. singing masses of men and women marching long and far into the night. it is inward and upward.minds inward and upward . if colorful. At the he will fix for eternity Morgana in Manhattan . if ever- scene.up of the for venereal disease forms an ominous. growing and reproducing panel.can su rface in the pages of Cosmopolitan appear on the cover of Fortune. Rivera create "dynamic symmetry:' in a bread line. of the bourgeoisie . lobby becomes a displaced a Communist Fata Russian wall on which he will finally project the Red Army fresco. For is no longer lateral but inward and upward. Man's New Relation to Man.now in the possession of Mrs.play cards in the armored isolation of a metallic On the right. headquarters IS the establishment of the Union of "Man cannot pass up his pressing and vital problems by 'moving on. Man's New Relation to Matter.. images of war. all day is the slogan of the American Communists. 225 The "slow. in which a group of latter-day cocoon.. made up of "international human compound antagonisms . [to] stimulate all spiritual awakening .. sports. the virgin surface of the Manhattan service of the Rockefellers. The silhouette of Lenin's Tomb.. For Rivera. in which (in Rivera's synopsis) "the Leader unites in a peace the hands of the Soldier. these frontiers of material things. metroof the frontier." For Rivera. and even So it can be that Rivera's Red Square sketches . and "1." and the white worker. policemen victimizingworkers technical power unaccompanied parallel lines that might be expected to meet in Infinity. at last. a fuller comprehension the development new understanding understanding CONFUSION 1932 is a time of iconographic convergence between the USSR and the USA. in the best tradition On the left of this cross is an itemized quilt of capitalist abuse.

but they ignore its lrnplications obscured the Leader's face.ridden masses. Looked at strictly that is the fresco's real center of gravity: the multiple in terms of square footage. Foots Bill. Below right the crlsls. writes Rivera a note: "While I was in the #1 building yesterday viewing the progress of your thrilling mural. barely controlleo by mounted police. Harriet Beecher Stowe. willing to put up with Red Square. I noticedthat in the most recent portion of the of Lenin. the image is occupied by a colossal machine that is to perform the miracle for which the entire mural is an incantation: of Communist 'ethos with Arnerlcanknow-how USSR/USA can ever be sparked into life. Rivera paints out the large cap that has so far of the bald-headed Activity. dislike to do so . "The streets surrounding men and the upper air was filled with the roar of airplanes flying 227 228 . At the intersection of the ellipses. staring the viewer straight screams a World-Telegram in the face. appears. another vision awaits Rivera: the Center were patrolled by mounted policethe scene with his assistants. the tabby is sealed oft Rivera is asked to come down from the scaffolding. the May 1 opening. painting you had included a portrait "This piece is beautifully painted. Rivera's juxtaposition of the two ideologies causes until. but it seems to me that his portrait am afraid we must ask you to substitute appearing in this mural might very easily offend a great many people.". point into productive energy:'44 But this energy is to an oft-center handshakevsngitwo antennae is conducted where it is transformed rerouted from the formal center of the composition nee red by the Leader. Its enormous size is a measure of Rivera's subconscious to whether the synthesis ANXIETY From the beginning. Above: "progress" of the arrna m en Is ind us try. and reveals a portrait Lenin."! women under heroes . weeks before anxiety in his patrons. As much as I. given a check for his full.1 the face of some man where Lenin's head now their venereal cloud with a group of American restore the balance. "Rivera paints scenes of Communist headline. Wendell Phillips . Arou nd th e corne r: benevolent deity spins electricity. "the cosmic energy received by to the machinery controlled by the worker. fee and asked to leave Outside.that might Two weeks tater." Nelson Rockefeller. Rivera responds by offering to replace the card-playing Nat Turner.such as Lincoln. by far the largest part of the amalgamation pessimism as Lenin Jn 'Manhattan. Left side of Rivera's mural. Jr.. threaten the rich in their protective cocoon.The second ellipse brings the vision of man to the most distant celestial bodies. and John D.

Manhattan. The toes would be eliminated. of the human race itself casts a shadow is superior to its occupants. The best maybe fly is a better word.. The Kremlin becomes elevator bank again." The count has designed cars. This would permit interaround. the architecture suggests Count Alexis de Sakhnoffsky. changes would be made in the contours of both men and women to . "Viewing New York through the 24 large windows of the Rainbow Room. "Now let's streamline the luncheon table in the Rainbow Room." orchestras play in the room. Rockefeller vetoes the name. beautifully for accent and decoration..229 230 . changeable shoes. let us apply it to ourselves. "tilting But Men and Women.. Half an hour after we had evacuated the city's workers arrived before the scene of battle. reacted rapidly. in this arena of ecstasy. slotted and streamlined to the head . Six months later the fresco is forever destroyed.. streamlining have called the eternal fitness of things is streamlined. The artists would then design the perfect human being for the life of today and tomorrow. At once the mounted police made a show of their heroic and incomparable upon the demonstrators with a brutal blow of a club. They were given to us to climb The ears would be turned Certain trees. a circular dance floor that John D. "Q6 prowess. watches and clothes . Now he unveils his plan for the remodeling the human race. a demonstration menaced by the portrait of Lenin .. The window recesses are clad with mirrors so that the view of the Metropolis is equal parts real and mirror-image The room is the culmination Only the lingering imperfection even that may be corrected. The scientists would tell us what the body lacks for things it is called on to do today. "What poets and philosophers the objective of streamlining. "Thus was won the glorious victory of Capitalism Lenin in the Battle of Rockefeller Center . They would point out what it has that it no longer needs. composed of the most belligerent section of the 2 Postscripts ECSTASY Atop the RCA Building is the Rainbow Room. "Jack Holland and June Hart dance . on all possible levels. make them more graceful.. charging and injuring the back of a seven-year-old girl against the portrait The planners of the Center want to call the space the "Stratosphere. of a perfect creation."49 back his chair at of It was the only Rivera mural ever to come alive.'?" but of splendor. designer. Hair would be used only The nose would be streamlined...round the skyscraper "The proletariat fort. Ma n hatta n need s not decongestion but smooth congestion." In a culture that creates congestion equals progress. because it is not correct. and we do not climb trees anymore.. "Improvement is in the air."48 The diners are arranged in curved terraces a~ und a remnant of the Globe symbolism: slowly revolves.. or watching a floor show in the Rainbow Room's sparkling visitors taste the ultimate in 20th century entertainment.

." Reality ot the RCA slab. elevation and plan. Hair wowId be used for decoration on'ly. . . "Count SakhnoHsky's Idea of future men and women..New human race unvelled. "Americans are the materialists of the Abstract. Ears and noses Sakhnottsky-strearnlinsd. ." 231 232 .

returns to the office."50 But in the Great Depression there is no work. The RCA Building now An old friend visits. seemingly recovered. Rockefeller Center. fiery in a sunset. "By God. reminding become the greatest architect "The greatest architect He dies in 1934. also the last. he felt of his health collapses. not even for Hood."?' Madelon Vriesendcrp. when the first installment Rockefeller Center is complete.ILL Hood has never been ill. fellow theoretician of Manhattan. and all without a trace of 'pose. I am. brilliant yet affable 'Ray. Friends think that him. but in fact "His energy never left him" in the hospital. he suffers from rheumatoid the frantic work on Rockefeller Center has exhausted arthritis. "even when he was sick to death he was tingling to go back to his office and do the buildings he had in him. but in 1933." of the final Manhattan. co-promoter and designer of the Culture of Congestion. in New York?" Hood repeats. dynamic. is. writes: "His friends all knew him as 'Ray' Hood. first fragment foreseeable completely future. dominates the view from his window in the Radiator Building. Freud Unlimited. him that he left the provincial office "to in Nevy York." 233 . for the Hood. focusing on the RCA slab.' "I have never known a man in any walk of life with a more vivid imagination or more vital energy. Corbett.

Their reactions .diametrically parts jealousy and admiration) to "reclaim" METHOD "I bel ieve that the moment is at hand when by a paranoid and active advance of the mind..Benjamin de Casseres. long before I are too small")? Corbusier by proposing literally to destroy it.:' (Note large number 01 Polaroid cameras in toregrou nd. . ." A plastic token for each convention rememberedsmile. Such "incentives proved very effecti. other .are episodes (fueled by equal in the long history of European attempts Manhattan. why did you create my statue long ago. Both conquer it.Le Corbusier CONQUEST In the mid-thirties both Salvador Dalf and Le Corbusier-they through interpretative hate each Diagram of the inner workings of the ParanoidCritical Method : limp. PIPOUL IN NIU YORK JOVE BIN INFECTIO SORS OF SURREALISM. the debilitating called Europe. unprovableccnjectures generated through the deliberate simulation of paranoiac thought processes. ready to "record" this tnumph of simulated normality..visit New York for the first time. Mirrors of New York BlUER! AULREOI AI BRING MENI OU SURREALISM. . etc. lipstick.ve . . it willi be possible to systematize thus help to discredit completely the world of reality":" confusion and in the late 235 236 opposite . great until/eted sale spread out on a rock .' Le ("its skyscrapers appropriation ("New York: why. small talk.Salvador Dali Manhattan. Dali conceptually was born?"). BAI ZI Rei'n lorcement therapy patients at hospital party: "sustained and potent challenge to Freud..Europeans: Bruer! Dalf and Le Corbusier Conquer New York For New York is the Futurist spirituality city. supported (made critical) by the "crutches" of Cartesian rationality. the Baden Baden of that dying stench offspring of the senility.in motivating the patients to look alter themselves . the ironic gargantuan and black breath of the European succubus.) LAIFQUIVING AND MARVELOS .

were redeemable for canteen items or for amenities of colored plastic tokens. that the into some form of sanity like sick mind will insinuate itself successfully a hermit crab into an empty shell. and and then gave bonus points (tokens) to those patients who made their beds.. inmates of a particular Method is a sequence of but discrete operations: reproduction and to a critical point part of the method of the paranoid of those of the paranoiac's way of seeing the world correspondences. worked in the kitchen.Ayllon and Azrin . to prove unprovable) thesis of Mary's Ascension- the paranoiac (i. Method into the medical research. now project an image of the Holy Virgin on the falling peas. Through the generous distribution possible. " his point of departure. from the next one only by space. envisaging the possibility event. such systematic simulation of normality will turn into real normality. just like the particles of an atom. It is easiest to explain the PCM by describing "reinforcement therapy" In the sixties two American behaviorists . observation and reinforces is caught in one system of speculation method based on the power that dominates the systematic peculiar to paranoia. that never ends. Dali in Paris.. all pointing Dali proposes a second. When Dali invents the PCM. as snapshots. the synthetic in a new light ..invent a which they call Token Economy.. which is only one fragment In fact.that is. force. 2. through associations. exploitation to the sub- rational the paranoiac turns the whole in the same direction: with conscious of the early Surrealist automatisms of the unconscious through in writing. sooner or later. the initial delusion that is The paranoiac blows fall.twenties Salvador Dali injects his Paranoid-Critical of Surrealism. always hits the nail on the head. the compression of these gaseous speculations of objectifying where they achieve the density of fact: the critical consists of the fabrication tourism.. Paranoia is a shock of recognition SOUVENIRS As the name suggests. 238 direction. This is my method: take five bags of green peas. Just as in a magnetic a collective. Instead of the diseased performing of sanity into the realm of paranoia. the patients to look after themselves ideally in forms as obvious and As a didactic model of such a critical operation . world into a magnetic the one he is going in... paranoia is a delirium by the afflicted individual of a much larger tapestry "It was in 1929 that Salvador Dali turned of paranoid phenomena. the conscious "the sponta . to exert and in systematic Instead of the passive and deliberately sculpture. swept their rooms. no become the frenzied critical synthesis that bears the name of 'paranoid critical activity . subsequently this method was to in such a way that it absolutely his thesis . now one projects the image upside down and takes a photograph.. essentially Dali describes one of his dreams. The essence of paranoia is this intense . will reflect a small part of the total Image." "understood" confirms matter has been amplified beyond simple Each fact. Through 237 of concrete evidence that brings the "discoveries" back to the rest of mankind.. cumulative themselves strictly where the hammer Method (PCM) is "The Conquest uncritical surrender of the field metal molecules align themselves pull.if distorted .. excursions undeniable "souvenirs" staying up later at night or a private room. two consecutive Dali's Paranoid-Critical The PCM is defined by DaJ[ mostly in tantalizing neous method of irrational systematic objectifications formulas: the real world: "The reality of the external world is used for illustration "7 knowledge based on the critical and of delirious associations and interpretations its exact opposite. its definition persecution at delusion. each pea. to serve the reality of our mind . insane asylum are encouraged to behave like normal people whenever 1. The two experimenters "posted a list of desired behaviors on the wall etc. his attention to the internal of an of interpretation. ' The motto of the Paranoid-Critical Irrational. unstoppable. paranoia is fashionable ." The hope that underlies such therapy is that.relationship and proof . but in the opposite the rituals of health. These incentives proved very effective in motivating take care of the ward. so.with its rich harvest of unsuspected analogies and patterns.phase Surrealism: the PCM. These tokens such as a color TV.e.. collect all of them in a single large bag and then drop them from an altitude separated of 50 feet. field of facts. painting. TOURISM Dali's PCM is a form of reinforcement proposes a tourism therapy. "Now that I am awake I still find this dream as masterly as when I slept..in this case.. and bloodstream mechanism experimental associations mania.

a triumph of engineering skill and determination by English and American Bu ilders five generations apart" . La n dan 8ridge stood again. Broad promenade under the east arch of the bridge leads to English Village at upper lett . 239 ZIllQ . 1929. Arizona.the red phone booths. with fragments of London life .. it now spans an artificial lake. before embarking on his career as a Surrealist in Paris.a quarter of a world away from Scotland where its sto nes were qua rrie d.adding authenticity at both ends. c. perhaps the most blatant Parancid-Critrcal [ou rney in recent memory: dismantled stone by stone. I he guards .. the dcu ble-decker buses.. -" London Bridge rebuilt in original form at Lake Havasu.Salvador Dali. three yea's after its demolition in Engl and.and incidentally solving the Reality Shortage at Lake Havas u. " "Nearty a century and a half after its inaugu rat ion. "London Bridge Racquet Club in foreground is part of the park complex at the Wesl End of the bridge.

have been reconstructed as paranoiac "substitutes. including that which is still simply through The PCM proposes to destroy.the pitchfork. IIIustrati on for Les Che nics de Ma tdotor. can become active. through that ever-new generations be generated to short-circuit conceptual recycling. Dati could see a reproduction of this painting from his school bench. been categorized unknown.2 Dall's permutations of Millet's Angelus... contents of the world can be recharged or enriched like uranium. put into the real world where it of evidence for unprovable of this evidence on the world.as if 241 24. the definitive all existing categorizations. ingredients. which will fall of the peas will produce the effect of the Ascension. 1932-33: Millet's couple n ow co n fro n ted wit h t heaccu salary 0ffspri nil 01 their scandalous relationship. This process intensifies parallel malaise: the fact that all facts. I t "prod uced a vague anxiety in me . Millet's Original protagonists have dlsa ppeared. I he wheelbarrow and Its enigmatic bags . but their accessories . the worn. The PCM is both the product of and the remedy against that anxiety: it promises that. the conjecture of the Ascension is the initial paranoiac propellant. escalating frequency the Parthenon visits. under the onslaught Kiss of mankind. the faster the process of consumpThey are worn out so rapidly in the 20th century and is accompanied phenomena. by a etc. "3 Here. The Acropolis disintegrates. to make a fresh start . Paranoid-Critical speculations activity is the fabrication grafting and the subsequent so that a "false" fact takes its unlawful place among the "real" facts. that the definitive world has been taken. or at least upset."Due to the acceleration. consumed and evidences can catalogue. These false facts relate to the real world as spies to a given society: the more conventional devote themselves TOiE Facts wear. To refine the effect even more one can coat each pea with a reflective give it the quality of a screen. L'Angelus. As the big toe of a saint's statue gradually disappears inexorably under perpetual of his devotees' kisses. it isis collapsing due to the everof tourists' and unnoted their existence.. As a. reality is consumed . " Francois by recording it in a medium that cannot lie.. 1934--35: here. so intense that the memory of these two immobile silhouettes never left me. child. . of false facts and fabricated the act of interpretation. the upside-down film. That is the cause of the Reality Shortage. more metropolitan the higher the frequency of the Kiss.. that postulate critical. so the Big Toe of reality dissolves slowly but exposure to the continuous The higher the density of a civilization -the tion of the reality of nature and artifacts. the better they can to that society's destruction. Everything is known. is made made undeniable." Meditation on the Harp. that the supply is depleted. of the world have stock of the and catalogued. . Millet.objectified.. conform to the laws of gravity.

the second wrong.the world can be reshuffled is a disappointment. From that moment. if not fits. through . or like banging a piece into a jigsaw puzzle so that it sticks. like a pack of cards whose original sequence Dall. 1959. the two enigmatic only announce the imminent pitchfork member. the only true representation hat glowing in the sunset is a close-up of the impatient Through interpretation. When Columbus sailed west.fabricated that their discoverer had indeed reached India.the tableaux preceding of flashbacks and flash-forwards and following the known image freeze-frame Dali reveals that the Angelus is an and discovers hidden meanings: the couple is in a moment of sexual: desire that will animate them in the next bags slumped together on the wheelbarrow couple. he proved both theses to his own satisfaction.were estabtlshed as "fads" shore. intimacy of the stillseparated is the force of sexual attraction and so on made concrete.. ostensibly taken off in a gesture of piety. PC activity existed long before its formal invention. The Dise'Dvery of America by Christopher a split Columbus. Dali himself attacks Millet's Angelus . and 2. that he would reach lndia by sailing westward. the Jollaln's as "bird'seye the result projections view of New Amsterdam. Columbus depicted secon d before h is two theses . lease on lite.fingerprints evidence of a 244 hypotheses: 243 ." INDIANS 1 proiect Dali explodes the Angelus and gives it a new paranoid f rmly established soil 01 Man'hatlan. saying prayers in front of a wheelbarrow the scene is completed of the Enlighten that the world Is round and the incorrect one that he had reached India ." 01 New York flow 01 on the 01 a never-ending instant: the man's hat. he wanted to prove two distinct 1. the natives became "Indians" . by the imprint of his footstep on the stuck firmly in the earth.th e co rreet 0 ne PC activity is like cheating with the last moves of a game of solitaire that refuses to come out. Yet when he printed his footstep on the New World. that the world was round. the woman's red tip of the man's 1672. Through the systematic the fabrication ambiguous petrified reshuffling of these contents. PC activity ties the loose ends left by the rationalism ment finally together. DESIRE As an example of recycling the used contents of the globe. The first conjecture was right. a basket and a church spire on the worn-out contents. At first sight it is one of the most banal of 19th-century with two bags of unspecified pitchfork horizon. Cliches: a loaded by a couple on a barren field. hides an erection..

. with Dalf's PCM. episode in the Bible.5 .from 24. Many "took. transplantations becomes modern architecture scheduled realization fication performance: the only true representation From its discovery. In times of danger.) CA PC race.nd myself. He must always find the hole. including gabled roofs and a canal that has to be excavated with superhuman Street . into the undeniably The transformation absolutely different of the speculative souvenirs of a journey that never was . . COMBAT when the mistake was Le Corbusier is ten years older than Dal1. persona and method of operation = from mud to bedrock. architectures). plaster casts of the objects of antiquity Modernity. as a last-minute opportunity For this subversive play within a play it has cultivated modeled on Noah's Paranoid-Critical is invariably presented an urgent invitation Modern architecture for redemption.Antiquity of paranoiac transposition. Through the strategies of the Skyscrapers accurate prediction: "tourisms"-both to share the paranoiac thesis that a calamity will wipe out that unwise part of mankind that clings to old forms of habitation and urban coexistence..he depends on maximum = the imposition on the world of structures it never asked in the minds for and that existed previously only as clouds of conjectures of th ei r creators. exposed to a misrepresentations. Therefore. Like a lone actor who enacts an play from that of other actors on the same stage.ire . undeniable in his own mind. Manhattan constant bombardment and grafts. he claims: "I live like a monk and hate to show urban model onto an Indian island. . the more so if it occurs in the void of the previous culture.island a complete catalogue of European precedentsof New York as project. the 1672 "map" of New York . of projections.specu lative error. OTH ERWORLiD LI N E55 Architecture as modern message . In a classic paranoid self-portrait.." "While everybody else foolishly pretends that nothing is wrong. is settled in an of Amsterdam's streak in his character.of making his structu res critical246 is rei nforced concrete. to New Amsterdam of conceptual cloning.to the extent of using actual to impose his own form of "there" is for modern architect.is in itself a PC process. by its proud owner. wants to perform without belonging to the of justieven in its most aggressive campaigns a rhetorical PROJECT In the artificial accommodating light of the PCM. to impose the "reality" analogy between the Romans and Manhattan's of his stolen goods. New Amsterdam the transplantation effort. we construct our Arks so that mankind and the Great Lobotomies (with their invisible interior a more and more of colossal portrait of a paranoiac Venice. avatars and simulacrums that testify to all the accumulated literal and mental=-ot CONCRETE Le Corbusier's favorite method of objectification . they were doomed to extinction discovered . receptivity). may survive the coming flood .: version: Purism). on the most conventional. the 1672 map becomes in retrospect souvenirs. it insists on its otherworldJiness.the past authenticity imitative. Coming from Switzerland.wiped out as embarrassing GRAFT Any process of colonization -the left by the extirpation Amsterdam foundation operation alien site . signs of a truly paranoiac makes no difference . Architecture traumatic is inevitably a form of PC activity. as in traffic where there are no red or green lights!':" Erkins knows of his never really existed except as inhabitants . show many parallels Dalf abhors Modernism. Le Corbusier despises Surrealism. but there is no doubt that this streak has been and with relish. but this new Some of these must be the involuntary systematically exploited. he claims to reproduce on 42. The successive steps .is also an operation that the situation a hypothesis reshuffled In a more conscious way. the chief must be where others aren't." but even those that were rejected left traces of the Grid (with its fabulous incremental of the synthetic Wild West the inexhaustible Lebensraum or scars. archipelago Western culture. private Protestant graft of a particular culture onto an Le Corbusier's he shares with Dalf that Paris that is the breedbut also of Cubism (and Le Corbusier's But ing ground not only of Surrealism evidence. has been an urban canvas. but I carry the idea of combat in my person. Murray's Roman Gardens . I have been called to all countries to do battle.

. . then sudden Iy hard as rock. "In times of danger.Dall's diagram of the Paranoid·Critical Method at work doubles as diagram of rein forced-concrete construction: a mouse-gray liquid with the substance 01 vomit. infinitely malleable at first. the chief must go where others aren't.." 247 248 . held up by steel reinforcements calcuIated according to the strictest Newtonian physics.

First. a prodigious hiatus between us and the realities of nature [italics added].) What Noah needed was reinforced What Modern Architecture concrete.. Noah's project: an inexplicably BUMS In 1929 Le Corbusier realizes a Floating Asylum for the Parisian Salvation Army. so that we are mere hunted animals! . 10 have allowed ourselves to drift so far in our cities ~ all our cities -thai the human mechanism has run ·off the rails. leaving only the fingerprints shuttering . an object that establishes all these metaphors His barge offers accommodation (Bums are the ideal clients of modern architecture: to architectural doctrine and on a literal plane. possible possible pursuit.dimensioned strictly according to the of Newtonian physics . with its landmad clutter of shuttering.the speculative transposition to the real- of this construction method constitute a of Dalf's dream of photographing Mary's Ascension that.·Uving in order to work! This means breaking ou r backs.the negative of Then steel reinforcements rational principles . the conjectural the initial thesis. pi unging Into a black abyss of artificiality.) of warfare are PC objects: the most rational CITY But these are mere finger exercises. Broken down in sequence. driving ourselves mad. pairs of double-decker of reinforced concrete. It is Le Corbusier's all-consuming ambition to invent and build the and potential glories 249 New City commensurate with the demands 250 . an undeniable reality. in everyday life.are inserted: the reinforcing process of paranoiac calculation.have of the wood's grain. Why? In order 10 struggle for improvement in their lives' In order to sufferl To have gone 50 Iar. needs is a flood. reinforcedconcrete structure of shuttering is erected . Flowers! We must live surrounded by ftowers!" Illustration and caption lor the Radiant City. reinforced concrete can objectify vacuity and fullness with equal ease: it is the architects' plastic. especially after the signs of the initial madness -the been removed. (Remnant of World War I military experimentation. Infinitely malleable at first. (It is no coincidence locked shipyard.. Then a mouse-gray liquid is poured into the empty speculative counterforms to give them permanent Ilife on earth. for up to 160 clochards. that each reinforced-concrete resembles building site. So men have grouped themselves together. in perpetual need of indifferent "ldentikit" portrait of Le Corbusler's imaginary New York. shelter and hygiene. all paraphernalia instruments at the service of the most irrational to formal layout. then suddenly hard as rock. moral bewilderment. for construction proceeds as all its commonness follows. is no less dreamlike.) They are arranged in beds along the length of the barge. which is made like architecture. real lovers of sun and the great outdoors.

the machine age. these strange skyscrapers The louse loves it. the louse He sees the ocean and boats. For the inhabitants petrified Hot yet modern._. louse at the foot of the tower.of the machine civilization. it night in the tower oppressed becomes radiant. "II IS by the other towers: sadness. waging a systemic campaign of ridicule and defamation while carrying out a parallel operation For Le Corbusier New York's Skyscrapers accident._ He moves anxiously near the bottom of the skyscraper. . academic contraption. eye with other Skyscrapers. :'15 IDENTIKIT Le Corbusier's the top. skyscraper. the torso remains normal. _..._ But on top of those skyscrapers taller than the others. birthright namely Manhattan. alone..14 " They are immature.. "The louse is flattered. in the jungle. To establish the he has to destroy New York's credibility. of actually designing the antiare "child's play"" "an archidisturbance of The secret formula ot Le Corbusier's Radiant City: the "City 01 Panic [Manhattan] . at are usually crowned by some That the louse is exhilarated. but his legs become ten or twenty times too long __ "12 Skyscrapers . Manhattan. kill the From 1920 he fights on two fronts and its natural habitat. has him Le Corbusler feels only pity. "In the age of speed." Le Corbusier's task is clear: before he can deliver the city with which he of his brainchild. of this grotesque congregation has reestablished of architectural cripples. is pregnant. . the skyscraper the city. other lice . The louse hoists himself up in the tower." "handled romantic city ordinance"l3-the nonsensically are misshapen "adolescents as the result of a deplorably hairgrowth. 1916 Zoning Law. It is his tragic bad luck that such a city already exists when he develops this ambition.. _. _ Imagine a man undergoing a mysterious of his organic life. The skyscraper the pedestrian. They represent not the second (real) Machine Age but "tumult. _. "The louse approves of these expenses to decorate the cork of his campaign of denigration is made possible only by the fact an 251 252 that its strategist has never beheld the object of his aggression- . depres- sion. he has to prove that it does not yet exist. glamorous sparkle of its modernity. he is above the not by nature. simultaneously: against the American Skyscraper Skyscraper tectural and the anti-Manhattan. first explosive stage of the new middle ages. but because he is eye to is inconceivable to Le Corbusier for "there.

that the only way to make the Skyscraper undress is of misbehavior is to undress it. from the original Manhattan model.) pulls out the Horizonte! In this performance become unrecognizable: = rational) abstraction. a I5.that show no guilt is illustrated by his victims . his imputations assembled from photographic then Le Corbusier's fragments portrait on the strength of more or less accurate product par excellence.unrecognizable by a suspect. in fact. But the have tried to design superior costumes.year." (The "best" modem architecture Is that which' is prepared for the "worst" catastrophe. Manhattan's resemblance Le Corbusier the crime.is a Paranoid-Criticat tive collage of its "criminal" In book after book. In spite of his angry obliterations he is secretly nourished tator who accidentally by its reservoir of precedents his anti-Skyscraper.) course also a well-known of models from their natural contexts. who invents the victims (the and avoids the scene of lice). Skyscraper the Skyscraper tunis into a Cartesian (= French together. European architects But Le Corbusier understands . "armored platform against aerial bombardments. The Cartesian/Horizontal splendor. in a series of hasty mug shots . Skyscraper in all its gives his trick away: he makes the American Skyscraper disappear in the black velvet pouch of his speculative incompatible elements in his Paranoid-Critical both the Manhattan verse. forges the likeness of the perpetrator TOP HAT Le Corbusier's passionate involvement with New York is. su rrounding park with elevated highways. paste-ups of grainy images . long attempt to cut an umbilical cord.fabricated is a paranoid detective whatsoever to his supposed adversary. the jungle into a carpet of green vegetation is supposed to hold the Cartesian Skyscrapers Usually after such PC kidnappings essence of New York's Skyscrapers Before.ignorance that he carefu Ily preserves for the duration If an identikit descriptions portrait of an alleged criminal- of his attacksare unverifiable. Le Corbusier's Cartesian rabbit. is that they already wear costumes. the Horizontal Skyscraper. of New York is an identikit: a purely specula. When he finally "introduces" he is like a prestidigiuni- Presto! The Cartesian Rabbit: or. 254 253 Top and base have been amputated . at the top. urbanistic features.surprise!and the jungle that Section through the Cartesian Skyscraper: metro in the basemen t. (This form of forcible police tactic to prevent further OVEREXPOSURE The Cartesian Skyscraper is naked. by the police and that for his European audience. too. the victims are forced to spend the rest of their lives in disguise. then shakes up the top hat and . adds jungle (nature in its purest possible form). and models. 60 floors of offices and. Skyscraper.

on the problem of Paris.or not see . of a European. . stone cladding. while in practice they steered of Manhattan's efficiency. "Since 1922 I have continued to work. the merciless overexposure cruciform social intercourse ideological of its plan.it '·A Battle 0·1Gian Is? No! The miracle of trees and parks rea (firms t he human scale. can only be displayed in its purest form. enclose a complete Further tricks 01 a Paranoid -Critical magician. NON-EVENT Le Corbusier names the grouping of these Cartesian Skyscrapers implanted infantile in their parkthe remnants of the jungle . rationality . The Cartesian Rabbit multiplies itself to constitute the Radiant City: Le Corbusler's antiMan hattan unveiled." Anti-Man harten In the heart of Paris. primitive. all preclude occupation that have begun to invade Manhattan.pragmatism.the Radiant City. "To say skyscraper automobiles . and extension of the from It has as instrument of total banality. are grafted onto an organism in deliberate ignorance 01 its further anatomy. in general and in detail. (Some desirable For Le Corbusier. use of technology imagination There is no place here for Manhattan's equals abuse. the distance of Europe. The Voisin Plan imposed on Paris as if according to the Surrealist formula 01 "Le Cadavre Exquis. Everything has been made public. The City Council has never contacted me. to flourish. official thinkers archi- It is exactly the rational Skyscraper that Manhattan's as far away from it as possible. . The ai r is clean and pu re. then the Radiant City is finally Le Corbusier's metropolitan wilderness. for him technology totemic presence. Le Corbusier that allowed. If the Cartesian Skyscraper anti -Man hattan. . He introduces honesty on such a scale that it exists only at the price social activity is allergic to daylight... that is businessmen Skyscraper means business only.the Le Ccrbusier's Radiant City as a pedestrian would see . Le Corbusier's "1& always pretended they wanted to realize. tiny of Paris that I insist ·Yes'·. 256 .) Technology of the Fantastic. there is hardly any noise.has colonized the mind and is to say offices.the part in between is stripped dressed in glass and stretched of its "old-fashioned" to 220 meters. No trace here of New York's soul-destroying "You are under the shade of trees." (no place for a Murray's) and a top (no seductive claims of competing realities).. II called me 'Barbarian'! . The rnake-belteve teets .. a strictly The glass walls of his Horizontal cultural void. "Vast lawns spread all around you. "What? You cannot see where the buildings are? "Look through the charmingly diapered arabesques of branches out into 255 is the antipode of Manhattan's Towers. By stri pping off the reassu ri ng exterior architecture hysteria of the interior architecture even undoes the Great Lobotomy.. True believer in the myth of technology itself is fantastic." whereby fragments. Skyscraper to remain virginal."... ·'It is in the name 01 the beauty of Paris that you say 'No! '" "It IS in the flame 01 the beauty and des. Its lack of a base to the sun implied by the thin by any of the forms of floor by floor.

"The two theses lace to face.. first explosive stage 01 a new middle age). Alhambra. He creates the urban non-event that' New York's own planners have always avoided (despite their lip service to it): Decongested Congestion. as Manhattan is "removing stone by stone the it the Kremlin and the Louvre" to "build them anew on the New York. credulous victim of the pragmatic But his real intention emotional services that Le Corbusier has been the builders. the Voisin Plan (with its Horizontal Skyscrapers) and the American trad ition (turnu It." Le Corbusier dismantles back to Europe. AFTERBIRTH Through the twenties. to the exclusion of those indefinable have been built into the Ferrissian Mountain. illustration for Ihe Radiant City. him alone. collection of Super-r+iouses" structu re ever devised. magically glittering offices . freely from tower to tower over' a carpet of chlorophyll-producing he solves the Problem but kills the Culture of Congestion.. hair standing on end. his Cartesian conblocks ... IS In 1925 the first attempt to graft It onto the face of the earth made "in the name of the beauty and destiny of Paris. smuggles and stores it for future banks of the Hudson. illustration lor the Radiant City. birth of a Siamese Twin. Metropolis in search of a location. and mutant lifestyles intracan· provoked and sustained by the most fantastic then isolates the Skyscrapers and finally nects them with a network of elevated_ highways 50 that automobiles = modern) instead of pedestrians (medieval) can shuttle agents.. to really Further steps in a campaign of denigration: Le Corbusler's juxtaposition Paris-New York." fairy tales of Manhattan's in the Radiant City is even more destructive: solve the problems of congestion. the Radiant City is its afterbirth.. Le Corbusier has correctly perceived that Manhattan the pedestrian. New York is countered by the Cartesian City.the sky toward those widely spaced crystal towers that soar higher than any pinnacle on earth. are huge blocks of for age to the ground. flashing in summer sunshine. " In designing the Cartesian Skyscraper as universal accommodation business. "Two spirits confront each other: the French tradition of the Notre Dame. but with nothing victs are lined up 400 meters apart (i.but if a is a phantom pregnancy. makes it unrecognizable reconstruction. Both operations Manhattan theoretical are pu re PC processes . harmonious and lyricaL ."IB The Plan Voisin is 257 258 . Marooned in grass. "17 New York/Ville Radieuse: "opposites" that have become inseparable. "Those translucent prisms that seem to float in the air without anchor at nightfall." The essence of Manhattan Mega-Village enlarged where traditional it is an ultramodern are simultaneously When he first (= businessmen has "reestablished is exactly that a to the scale of a Metropolis. eight Manhattan the distance between Hood's super-peaks They are spaced out beyond any possible association. or.cities of forged fabric .e.about in between). softly gleaming under gray winter skies. strips.

will be destroyed will tame the vertical.. . his horizontal glass Skyscraper colossal glass slipper on an Odyssey from Metropolis to Metropolis. we erect the Cartesian skyscraper. ... elegantly shining in the sky of France . Paris.. in Paris. it seems.. 259 260 efforts to separate them...~ oJ'iJ....one element turned frantic efforts to outdistance of an experiment in into another. malist and romantic conceptions "Against New York's skyscraper "Against New York.planned.' I " . to Paris' future. . this plan is clearly a is intended to generate not a new Paris but a was directed against the purely forlimpid. pathetic paradox . - . Their like a furious prince dragging a rejection forces Le Corbusier to become a Cartesian carpetbagger.. turbulent machine age-I the straight Manhattan counteract .. .' that are of the #' Lower housing blocks meander around Cartesian Skyscrapers scraped away to be replaced by "jungle": Ground. Le Corbusier draws a torso that deliberately ignores the further anatomy of the "exquisite corpse.adaptation folded.. _- ~ In spite of Le Corbusier's dedication pretext. . "Our invention... "Le Cadavre of the child's game in which a piece of paper is draws a head and folds the paper. ..is in terms of its from Manhattan. .~~~--.. according to the early Surrealist theorem Exquis" ... the second from draws a body and folds. arranged on a plain in central Paris where all traces of history have been the so called mobilization from which even the Louvre barely escapes... Argentina.New York... :'19 TWINS The Radiant City is intended as the apotheosis architectural Le Corbusier's differences juxtaposition alchemy . city of line and the horizontal. ~ . . Bue nos Aires? destination of a New City!" precise. " . Illustration lor the Radiant City: Buenos Aires. the only way to describe his new city . The two are like Siamese twins that grow progressively of a surgeon's desperate SLIPPE. - .J. . . so that a poetic hybrid is "released" As if Paris' surface were folded... ') ~ .. ~. The transplantation first anti-Manhattan.. clamor of the giant adolescent of the with horizontal skyscrapers..R The Parisian authorities peddling do not take the Radiant proposal seriously.J. the first participant the su bconscious.... last stopover for the Carteslan carpetbagger on his way to New York._. is by comparison and of the in spite of the "negative" of Manhattan and the "positive" together The only way his city can be understood Ville Radieuse.. from its beginnings.. But despite Manhattan.. etc. I of the American Skyscraper ..verbally and even visually ...---".

. everywhere offers his towers. on solid ground and even in good health. offers the most chaotic cities the chance to be the opposite of the "pathetic That only reinforces "I am kicked out. shading the areas where he felt his books [i. or seems to be. he waves can register. but New York can shock Dali. These roars were mingled with the cries of ducks and other animals more difficult to differentiate.2. I want to go to America .. utterly anti-Parisian so as to imitate the supposed 'modern sparkle' of New York .?" For shock effect on arrival. On the wall of the elevator there was a copy of a painting by EI Greco hung from heavily ornamented Spanish red velvet century .that of an Immense 'modern and mechanical' city-that I felt completely lost. This was followed by complete silence. was so unlike the din that I had expected . " "I want to go to America. "But deep inside me I know: "I am right. so to speak. " Dali's fi rst discovery is that in Ma n hattan Dough is just another false fact of convention. PC activity counts for its impact on a solid background Just as the success of Robin Hood's activity depends on the continuous . a second revelation occurs as he ascends in an elevator.natural or self-induced . his wares] would sell. "This was assuming the form of a childish caprice.. in Manhattan. of bread which I held conspicuously The disconcerter Surrealism disconcerted: my arm or resting on the ground as If it had been a large cane . it means that. from any other. A crew of workers black smoke that whistled like apocaby means of that blackish lyptic dragons was in the act of patining the outer walls of the building in ARRIVAL 1 In 1935 the attraction voluptuousness fragrances of the New World becomes irresistible for DaB. on the other hand. Directly under Dali's window are the lions of the Central Park Zoo...61 revisions and the European myth of Manhattan 262 . :' But when Dali thing" happens: "Not one of the during the whole interview either in [of a waiting group] asked me a single question about the loaf by the persistence roars that I had just heard in my sleep.it is a su pply of ric h people traversi ng his forest..e. . Nobody wants even to try the slipper on. Dali enters the Skyscraper.In the best traditions worldwide journey. his thesis. . Rome....retroactively . "Doors slam behind me.."? Manhattan.a Surrealist project originally intended to upset Paris." The baker on board offers to bake a version 2Y2 meters long (the maximu-m capacity of the ship's oven) with "a wood armature disembarks reporters an "utterly disconcerting inside it so that 2. I was surprised and lions.... The only unshaded part was a negligible strip of Africa.. On his first day in Manhattan fundamentally different he experiences mutations three revelations that disthat make this Metropolis close to him the essential cultural there is no such scale against which its intended shock "Last spring he pulled out a pad and drew a map of the world. of a sensational order to 'age' this excessively new skyscraper smoke characteristic of the old houses of Paris.the velvet was authentic and probably of the fifteenth 3. He sails for New York. of paranoia . " strips . Algiers. of the lions' it would not break in two the moment it began to dry . "I was surprised by the fact that instead of electricity it was lighted by a large candle... "Each image that came from America I would sniff. Buenos Aires. Three disintegrates. so aII pi ots to "d iscred it completely the world of reality" rely on a reality that is."? Barcelona. "I am right. HIS Reinforced among the multitudes.. :' But the lions' roar is real. with the with which one welcomes the first whiffs of the inaugural meal of which one is about to partake.. "I am right. is invisible. the modern architects a la Le Corbusier were materials. Oali decides to realize . That same night Dali has a dream involving "eroticism After I was fully awake. Rio de Janeiro. "In Paris. broken only by roars and savage cries."22 paradox. . the baking of "a fifteen -meter loaf of bread. manifested itself in the most 1. racking their brains to find new and flashy. This silence. If a 2Y2-meter loaf of French bread becomes unnoticeable. Paranoid-Critical "souvenir" of a "jungle" that never existed there. beginning with the very facade. On Park Avenue "fierce anti-modernism spectacular armed' with implements projecting fashion. SHOCK 1 Dalf cannot shock New York.

.... the poetry of New York is that of a giant many.. organ. and ready to perform the sexu al act . Dali invents his own New York on his first day in town: a Manhattan that does not even want before any other city. the stark folly of whose historical wardrobes gnaws away at the earth around the foundations cupolas of your thousand new religions.. organ of Babel.. motionless..piped organ of red it does not scrape the sky. and you erect pyramids with the vertical organ pipes of your skyscrapers of liberty! of the Atlantic Dream.. you are an Egypt! But the Egypt turned democracy inside. already had a horror of this . organ of virginal is its poetic efficiency. once carefully separated by space and time. but it is just this superficial with a jolt. New York. appear sirnultaneously. " is not yet modern.. "For having been so at the beginning. organ of calves' lungs. " He maps his discovery through association and metaphor.. " 263 264 systole and diastole of the visceral canticle of elementary . Atlantis of the suband swells the inverted rites of your Roxy Theatre? And lighted the venomous at the point of infinity to celebrate a final "Eacheveni ng the skyscrapers at New York assume the anthropomorphic shapes of multiple gigantic MIllet's Angeluses .. "No. to find the rational core of the true Machine Age. organ . the thinness of Manhattan's mimicry of philistinism. New York was not a modern city.out . "New York. doctrines. The poetry of New York is organ.. Le Corbusier has spent 15 years proving that Manhattan to be modern... Dali looks inspection that exposes.. it resounds in it with the compass of the biology .. it is seething biology . a ParanoidCritical redesign: New York is a field where all histories... it now. "New York .. with Prometheus "What Piranesi invented the ornamental what Gustave Moreau apoplectic colors that flutter EFFICIENCY 1 In his blind rage. The linearity of history is short-circuited spasm of Western culture. ideologies.. its pragmatic at the summit of the Chrysler Building?" only at their surface. Le Corbusier has stripped expecting Manhattan's towers. "The poetry of New York is not serene esthetics. IS "The poetry of New York ivory- not that of a practical concrete building that scrapes the sky. and history-less abyss .. its ambivalent New York's only efficiency pursuit of efficiency.. resurrection conscious. organ of actuality.. dissimulations. organ of bad taste. She of all meeting erected pyramids of slavery to death..REDESIGN 1 To acquire the right to invent his own New York.

"To reconstruct Manhattan.. five dollars and implored to arrange an adoption. 266 . But beyond th is opportu nistic urgency... "New York: why. glass slipper spurned by worldwide consensus ~ Le Corbusier sails for New York with the accumulated bitterness of an unwed mother. in its campaign to impose real Modernism on board were busy taking pictures of other celebrities. after the suit. sponsor of his crossing. Manhattan American cities and especially Manhattan. It is people ... far apart. 'I've used up all my film: said the photographer. "New York is not prismatic. They should be great obelisks... why did you erect my statue long ago. long before I was born. of the aseptic beauty of functionalism" tried to impose New York "as an example of anti-artistic They have all made a terrible mistake.. As if under a curse. And he finds "CITY ALL humanity.... but it is utterly lacking in order and of the spirit which must surround are little needles all crowded together . Being an obliging fellow. It is the sanguinary bone stru ctu reo. more desperate than another?'?' ARRIVAL 2 Also in 1935 ~ 12 years pregnant with the Radiant City. "These are.'" Or.. 'where is the picture they took of me on the boat?"'25 SHOCK 2 At a press conference in Rockefeller Center a few hours after his arrival. 'where are the photographers?' press cameramen He slipped a newspaperman returning engaged for him by Jacobs .with the fragility To secure the Paranoid-Critical irrepressible Skyscrapers admiration) as innocent." '''Jacobs. motionless. picture of Le Corbusier. .. he turns the whole city into "Each evening the skyscrapers shapes of multiple diagnosis and remedy.. the things that my town of Happy Light will have! "1 believe within myself that the ideas I bring here and that ground . so that the city would have space and light and air and order .. failure of all attempts For him no reporters.. still more desperate motive: the real Man hattan confronts reinforcements Le Corbusier -Ii ke the underlying his urbanism real America Colurnbus=.. higher than another. threatening.. It is there for him alone. INDIANS tautology. " PC activity records facts that do not exist. to hold six million it is first necessary to know a place where the reconstruction which is large enough itself is now one of the last remaining Cartesian hard sell .. New York is vivid red. " For a moment. with one final gesture.. especially when... '''Jacobs. 265 and prevent the collapse of his "system. "New York is a round pyramid!" MONUMENT Dati's Paranoid-Critical a spectacle... of his lifelong speculations." he is forced (in spite of his almost to persist in his earlier casting of the American even childish natives and of his own horizontal Cartesian towers as the true settlers of the machine civilization. of New York assume the anthropoMillet's Angefuses .. which have survived the first confrontation "After a cursory inspection for its improvement "'The trouble with New York is that its skyscrapers there are too many of them. found that the him to take a MoMA.. of the New Babylon. New York is all round... the money. however. performed morphic conquest of Manhattan for his sale pleasure. "27 j present under the phrase Radiant City will find in this country their natural "~6 2 by more Paranoid-Critical But that natural ground has to be fertilized ling on the doorstep of its natural father and instigate a paternity areas of the globe not yet exposed to Le Corbusier's It is his last candidate.' he said several times..Dalf prepares this Manhattanist puritanical "apologists poetry as truculent antidote to the who have virginity . _.' said Le Corbusier [to the interpreter on the USA]. gigantic is a model of economy. can take place. and ready to perform the sexual act and to devour one another . he snapped his empty camera at Le Corbusier who looked mollitied . reporters with his Parisian with Le Corbusier stuns New York's hard-boiled Man hattan intact. there is a second. New York is not white .. to lay the phantom founddesire that illuminates them and makes all the central heating and the central poetry ci rcu late withi n th ei r ferrugi nous RIGHT AS FAR AS IT GOES . as he rimed through the newspapers.. Le Corbusier exists but cannot be recorded. his interpretation suspends all other functions of the city. he gave a simple recipe are too small. Le Corbusier is as invisible in New York as Dali's bread. as New York's tabloids harmony and the comforts The skyscrapers headline in disbelief.

TG(lllIail....iM_ l.IA I~~~1IIm...u.Yes..d&illlli:bliilibiiC ~..~'aI.:..iir'~ IiiI~UII~ ~~..~"IiriidJIII'IIIl[d ~l'iII:m.lIIIiiIiiUI!ii.jriU.!!...a!I!Q.d:ior.CDr~ .II~~0U4 __ ~-:IIiGIII~br..Ip~f.. ~'II~~~'i..r. ICh.. ~~I..IIl~.$II!JI."-..III.. _. a.II~j@t!~U!t...I...millt!._ .b .t.._I~~~~_~~~N~1o*.~-.ru!n. 1935.1.qJMilt..==~1. Clbad. Says Le Corbusier. ~MllPlIliiiIIlIIlI:lJ. with no traces lell 01 any previous culture/architecture .!!1!Vi!II ~fJt~~t!.1YI'" aqla-.tIIIlllInJ:QI..p..a:N ...... '~~... " Shock waves 01 the architect's arrival as recorded in New York's press..IIIIIIsi.. _ !nilllll tli... or'!.rw~ ~ ~ ~ ~lIIl1-.Mr' Lot~@. ~j~.~1i1llllllilll m. ~ . ' ~~IiIIi!._ ::'~~:"'~.lI ~ 'I"iIIo!:Ii til' M 1M _ iiIIIi ~ ~~ ~~~ mo-- DIoiI.r l!iQIriiIilllldlaJ'IIIfn1.lIIIiiItto!rf.. ~ UI~~..!I~ .!....._ ~.. ~ IItAIvtll... 'C1oi~It.!I~"'. ~. 1II.'~ ~~:!w"'_II!!II/jI~~1Mii.ILN~N..iIIDilllili~~'" lMiiII!t."..)'it' ~ Ui.~'-""1JT..~tQoI'l!icl!:.l....m"I"""~ Ilii:~~u ~oiIirHcia:IK"~ ~1&IiiIIi"IIIiWiII~oIit ~1V!d. -. II... m.!'.i'_I~"-tliiil.IIIIII]. ~.. ~4 .!ll UIJ"II!k!i!I .URj:noiiiI [M£r . ~ Iirii.r_E'1ia~"'lIr 11ia'lOll~'III.r!illlItl\.n. ~MilIIIIlDi4lM...IW~ I" ~...-~~.I!! IliI ... .. .lMlwU--...u.-~.... that even the Christ mas cards he sends from New York show a grotesque Radiant City on Man hetteo.arn . "Teo small? .Jili.I-.~.I!I..)" ~g "tli!I'..'btRblM~ II!AdIM~....T-~_ ~~.D. ..I. Finds the City Violently Alive."tvTv:L"'kIII .J..~'I!!!IIJdo "..." ~~fhI-~"'Ii!~~ gI u..n ~u-~ .lr.... November 3. ~HI C!!~".mbt. 1..I..mabI "4' . ..:rII~~I~· 'lflllll1iIII!Iq-lii tM' .. n.1 ~~Nop..". ~t-Loor~~lkitlly o~~~_ "Le Corbusler Looks...IIIII!~"'..ii.'ifWH'1r~ &M ..lM.I!I1WlIIuH_ ~ 'ibdI.Q"Io:a. the massacre 01 the Indians/Skyscrapers.7lii1._~.....t!dI~!i1!olc.. oUII..I LE CORBUSIER SCANS GOTHAM'S TOWERS The French Architect.III-aI.IDINi!II ti:rI..1l:uiJ1ll1'HTilDdt.!! 'IIiIII . ~~'~~~ 'DR~ p.....Ili.a-tllnl.tIq"l.-.l4!~IiIi'~"'" pro.lII'_"'lm'" '.Idt:llllludl:UlId..tQtCaa~tol!iloll!!'~ ~-~.~'IIIaia".. GI~~ 1I.demessdfEl(perimCllt Toward a Nli:wOrder TH"~"~~"'~"'~'I11"I~ iIfiIl1 j ~ik ~_""mppill1jlbl.'O"""-.fc.lI!IIIY.LII(II 1!tUu:'~~ldiIdItIou..!liot:7 iI.IIuI ~ . ~ u..... ~~~u.li~hiI'~ ~~ul...:..m ~ii1."""'I[I(1NJW'I!'~Im.~~LD... _~tlllfilllfJ... " (New York Times Magazine. 'b.... Too Narrow for Free.n~....IiIP~'IO'II.1W~ .:13"11lo ....r--ojI~~~. ._ .iIoi ~l~riw'l..J!I~"I'IIiIl1JJ~ 1iII-..'I!~r.II ~ 1II .~~ ~J:.:: u.1I!II~h.bii! ""_"ltl!:IIII" pil!lll:!"_ 1I1m11W11...~~~~_~c:.'Ii~IIt_ H~WiIId~b iU!4~..VliL~~1JIaI IliIfl(l'iIlHl!6JI.'j ~~ 'T_ Iolsnlll'" (~I 1"1.~~ 'm.IIIiI 1M MH4111. a WiI.:::..I:I!~~blliil.) 261 268 ..IIH:rm...LI.-~~L IIU!~ ~1iFIIi"l\~ •• " ~_~II1Mo'~ ~1IIlm.i~~ ~ m&)' ~Y'i!:tka. Crltlcally ..1V1 LP.tLql t. Efficient Circulation .c". on a Tour..Mq'IIL" So obsessed was Le Cor busier with the "exterrninatlng principles" 01 his urbanism and its object. runt. 9tC.~i111l:1P1JiiIi"'iII '"f'I'd~IIIo""fiIomb"~~~1H •• I!.IKiiuIIiI~ b:7~[:rtiJIua. l!uIW ...IIIj!iiJft.~~~ fIImRIg_.oiII ~i:iIlII...IiII~l...1kM liIiIIIII~Mliitliid... of_uOlii_~crI.l ____ ~1:H~~H4 lhiIiIIIIlI1!IDIdI... ..~.mbot1~~ 11lIII!!1IIidftb.I:IJ.....- oiilllWn.LI :r.'l'illl1iI7..~ .~~IJIi'at:flil.lII ~ IN I!!i DIll' ~ 'bdrip 1o:I:...ollo~III'_IIIII. ~ ta...1'IIi"'u..t0l 1A:I$d!~'lutllIIlLIII'Il:I!I:~""~~tI!!I._:_:_4!1!1.Mr.."II..P4.'~ tII". _ 1..~u..ii.. am- :JIliIIIiq:pH..il ... ~Ijjf_ pr...9u:IJI~_.-'Twt!.....r. [!i'Ll:Yi""_ ..np.'-iI.- ~Ij.lI2ilI ~ ~~ • .

the massacre of the Indians.. j"h1IJna '~ n!J r) for reflection.Manhattan's Skyscrapers are Le Corbusier's Indians.. the traces of his conceptual of this double motivation prepares the ground for a urbanism augmenting race" . it immediately "layers" that constitute of Manhattan's extraordinary. at each step in New for dreams of than Dali's: near at hand . would never cease to act until the whole aboriginal Skyscrapers .." barbarism" and their memory . the GridYork I find pretexts speculative accumulation engaged in a process of continuous poetic reproduction.jr1. Manhattanl Ville Radieuse. Le Corbusier supply of work... "the age of the car. Manhattan". be almost to his American audiences that "you are strong. :'Z9 TO 1900 cheering tomorrows New York is literal. a hundred identical Cartesian settlers implanted 269 270 .is to be scraped off the TOMORROW surface of the island and replaced by grass and a much wider network of elevated highways. in the age of the horse" . Manhattan's ~ architectural this time . with constantly tragedy.. Central Parkmultiplied "too large" . will "give place to European In his ongoing surgery to separate the Siamese twins. takes its rightful Manhattan."28 he warns them in effect that. architectural and therefore more implausible "perfect ." he could finally become. are to be razed and superseded by about in grass and framed by "its verdure distributed and throughout Provisional timetable for the definitive Cartesian settlement." When Le Corbusier ominously condescends once again.. once and for all. we have reflected.. would not only assure himself of an inexhaustible destroy in the process all remaining transformations forgeries..is to be shrunk. The intransigence reenactment = evidence of his Paranoid·Critical inventor. But his design for TO 1935 "'''oQ nab-anon.. its with its physique. Without tampering has recast the Metropolis as an antifunctional as this project is. the Skyscrapers ."should be extirpated blotted out from under heaven. Le Corbusier is now ready for the final solution: to kill the f rstborn."too small"the new highways. wipe out.of the New World's primordial principles which. he of atavistic Cerebral "A new efficient city on Manhattan: six million inhabitants . delirium.the "The age of the horse" vs. for mental construction. place as one of the Le Corbusier too acts under the influence "Night or day. but By substituting his anti-Manhattan for the real Manhattan. REDESIGN 2 Dali's "discovery" conquest therefore monuments of an antimodern Manhattan has been strictly verbal." complete. Le Corbusier's unleashes "exterminating force. "North American refinement.

to live near a amid the "essential joys" of the Machine To be born. the Old World vision remains tragic. Retreat via the interior of Bonwit Teller or leap through the window? and cars up in the air. period of breathing to another. The European's program for the true Machine Age is the efficiency tree. that is the lesson of America.. of fake Dalinian gestures. rhetoric. of an implacable of misunderstood it returns American from Europe brainwashed. astronomical also leads to a proliferation 271 ..." banality: "to be able to open your eyes on a patch of sky. synthetic To the European humanist/artist humanist non sequiturs this creation is only a chaos. a Time cover story.2 Sometimes a tourist returns from foreign lands unrecognizable. properties Manhattan will be fit for six million inhabitants. to die." "to go simply from one skyscraper Everyday life will regain its eternal immutability of sun. Dali commutes between Europe and Manhattan.So redesigned.. 272 between the Metropolis and Surrealism is prices. The natural affinity into astronomical But this popularity images.. space and vegetation. As for all paranoiacs. pay for the ruined . has happened to the Skyscraper excursion. Le Corbusier has patience . "30 Le Corbusier's "solution" congestion. both unpredictable and uncontrollable. "Reality. "It gives your boldest speculation the certainty of imminent birth . fame... give the city verdure and excellent circulation. things are going his way. simply from one skyscraper of its lifeblood. This on its Paranoid-Critical transatlantic Through a bizarre cross-fertilization philistines configuration and European idealism have exchanged ethos: the of New York had invented and built an oneiric emotion and pleasure. all the ground in parks for pedestrians a few roads (one way) permitting drains Manhattan EFFI!CI'ENCY. Le Corbusier "will restore an immense area of ground . to another. throughout translated the thirties. pragmatism materialistic its ultimate instrument Puritanism. beside a lawn. an invitaat the of tion to problem solving: Le Corbusier responds with a majestic flow of that fails to disguise the sentimentality core of his vision of Modernity.. It left as hedonistic instrument of the Culture of Congestion. with an extended in between: in spite of the optimism Age. a speed of ninety miles an hour and going . field devoted to the pursuit of fantasy... poetry. "3l EXPOSURE Meanwhile.. on elevated roads.

"an extremely 273 274 . March of the interior hysteria suppressed. but absolutely so that the serenity of the Great Lobotomy is restored. Dali has pondered a visible Surrealist performance in NIU YORK to act as a "public demonstration of the difference between the true and the false Oali manner" and. 1939.. vaguely exaggerated is most and is ornamented and other oddities." it into a completion ~ to test in broad daylight. filled islands insulated by the lagoon of the Grid." the and stalagmites of my anger. "Everything. lined with astrakhan .Ever since the non-event of the french bread. amid so much Surrealist decorativism.) females." For" Night" a second figu re recl ines on a bed "whose canopy was a buffalo head carrying a bloody pigeon in its mouth. " with stupor when the morrow... Fair." When Bonwit Teller invites him to dress a display window on Fifth Avenue. to celebrate and impose his own poetic redesign of Manhattan. management of the artist.. "Tile an with All resembles objective space of the street is a subversive action: exposure of the interior hothouse tips the balance between rational and irrational Manhattanism acts in self-defense to restore the integrity when DaB returns ~ the morning after its midnight the shock value of his manifesto removed altogether. gaped at by a silent crowd. Salvador Dali turns into a European puritan to defend the rights A choice: Dalf can retreat via the interior of the store or leap "through window bristling with the stalactites A violation of Manhattan's formula. " If Manhattan neutralizing is an archipelago of Paranoid-Critical covered with several years' dust and cobwebs" steps into a "hairy bathtub blrd's-eye view with Man hattan skyline in background: the exiled interiors 01 Manhattan's Skyscrapers." In "Day" a manikin "marvelously with water to the edge.. From inside the store. For once. Dali conceives a "manifesto of elementary surrealist poetry right out in the of passersby lifted New York World's Fair. at the same time. he enters the window.. "Before I could raise one side it slipped right up against the window so that at the moment when in a supreme effort I finally succeeded in turning thousand it over it crashed into the plate glass. He jumps.. 1939. '. the lasciviousness everything" has been changed by the store (Ufe. The escapee from the interior prison enters no-rnan's-land. attempts to lift and topple the bath.. of its formula' Dall's Dream of Venus at 1939 World's outside plaster this of the bu ildlng shellfish spikes interesting 17." The black satin sheets are burnt and the "pillow on which the manikin rested her dreamy head was composed entirely of live coals . the fiery bed has been the naked manikins covered. As he walks back to his hotel. His theme is "Day and Night. street" that "wou Id inevita bly arrest the angu ished attention the curtain on an authentic Dalinian vision . shattering pieces. then to spill their hidden contents into the domains. and am using.

orchestrated by the Museum of Modern Art. behind the facade words for the Dalf risks Its exterior . parks and sporting fields . look like the exiled interiors of Skyscrapers. that he had to arrest me . his first architectural project. of the two formal poles that have defined Manhattan's tanism: after 50 years of relative engagement.... Vast avenues will originate from this central building toward the gardens. beached Revelation at interior of the Perisphere: Democrecity. delicately placed his hand on my shoulder and in Manhattan. Oemocracily represents the collapse of Manhat· tan ism. August 25. the Metropolis of the Machine Age. Only the fact that the central Skyscraper has 100 floors betrays a lingering trace of Manhattanism.. going from the sublime to the ridiculous.and therewith their own vision of the Metropolis as headquarters of a Cullure of Congestion . the exhibit marks the end of Manhatthe forms are now 276 . the exact moment when Ma. PERISPHERE The central feature of the Fair is the theme exhibitPerisphere . 275 Trylon and architecture: It is a stark reappearance Globe and Needle. Unofficially. of adjacent New York. " act has been "booked" the Board of Design for the 1939 World's Fair works in Flushing Meadows. room on the top floor of the Empire State Building. the Skyscrapers windowless. " (France·$oir. yet feminine and seductive. Manhattan's murals and shadows cast by vines and trees .conceived by Wallace Harrison. of American woman- strong." by representatives Essentially. a collection of architectural jellyfish "34 The pavilions. In trading of the Strange .. It consists of 11 single 100·story skyscraper at lts center I hal will accommodate all the services of Ihe luture city. Legs Under the Sea. athletic. Unconsciously.a relentless assemblage Manhattanism's of the common.. But no matter: "A set of telescopes on the roof of the drafting drawing against actual site conditions .to trade it for a vision of Towers in a Park inspired mostly by Le Corbusier. The object of its considers tions is not on. before they could reach their distant destination: PLASTER Among these jellyfish "20.. molluscs without shells.000 Dalf establishes the needles...) After years of relentless MOdernist propaganda.nhaUan's architects surrender their own version of the Skyscraper as sublime instrument of controlled irrationality .only demonstrates wisdom in isolating the unspeakable his claim on the whole of Manhattan through building of a specific fragment of actual Dalinian architecture.. Queens. brought the grounds Into clear View.polite plainclothesman explained apologetically A Paranoid-Critical BLOBS Deep into the thirties. it is a basin inhabited hood -lean.. Fair Buildings consist largely of illuminated The barren aspect of bla nk su rfaces was overcome th rough the appl ication of sculpture. completely separated. but near Manhattan. and one could check what one was _"33 The Fair itself is conceived as an anti-Manhattan: one-story structures artificially "By way of contrast with and ventilated. "Thrs city is the result of all 1'119 research by urbanists allover the world. 1938. a it is named plaster pavilion that contains the Dream of Venus.

position." The center of the city accommodates The population efficient the arts.om 7. . enter the middle ages . by green . of Manhattan's The Globe is the largest ever built in the history of mankind: is 200 feet. 278 . "For those who see far. It is flanked by rows of subordinate towers ~ all identical ~ and surrounded by a "perfectly integrated 'garden city of tom morrow. in Flushing Meadows.ew Yor. The city in the first and position in Paris.000 feet. last Globe Tower is the Radiant City. from 1939 onward. 277 site." interior is hollow and contains an elaborate model of the elusive City of the At its center stands a single 100·story Tower.. realize Through intermediaries. Le Corbusier represents France.. "Eighteen stories high. Its It should be rolled over to Manhattan to assume its definitive Unlike the Globe Tower. l. Skyscraper is a he proudly claims credit.. or at least displaced.e Corbusier's sites for UN headN. "By the way. a city of light and air and green space as it would appear fr. . with its random.. the Perisphere is not subdivided Machine Age: "Democracity. even American architects nonsens.' not a dream city but a practical suggestion of ·how we should be living today. " Le Corbusier has won. into floors. that Last critical intervention 's proposal of Manhattan's Ferriss' re rid e ri ng on East River au loma tic pila t: Hugh of Le Corbusier DENOUEMENT World War II postpones the denouement. After the holocaust. unspaced towers without sufficient New York will.k Metropol. America offers to finance Its home base."3S Search that investigating qu arters is no search: su itable Le Corbusler UN site torn oft the map: prey in his grasp. and sports centers.ltan City? in Greater Region . its diameter block. who is to build the new headquarters. From his monitoring that the unguided of the past.. its interior more than twice the size of Radio City Music Hall . should be regarded as provisional. it is as broad as a city block. "36 air. but "New York. exactly the width of a Manhattan The Perisphere is nothing but the pure archetype Sky- scraper: a Globe tall enough to be a Tower. An international design committee is set up to advise Wallace Harrison.The Needle of the Trylon ~ a triangular pylon ~ is empty. it IS one of simple tunctional buildings ~ most of them low ~ all of them surrounded vegetation and clean air. the concept of a United Nations revives with a new urgency.. New York is no longer the city of the Future." The Perisphere's location at the Fair. implanted not in the Grid but in a meadow.the UN in Jersey lives in satellite towns connected with the center by "This is not a city of canyons and gasoline fumes. business administration. the higher schools of learning and the amusement public transport..

blocks a second street. monopolizes the strength all discussions. project as architecture.it includes the Swiss .. all its layers of real or phantom surface replaced by a green Bandbitter perhaps. That conclusion . Flushing Meadows . beneficial. the office slab is placed exactly in the middle although contains no metaphor. The rest of the site is scraped clean like restored. "New York will not after all crush the UN in receiving it. not theory. one Ark . Follows a period that is traumatic Each day the UN design committee for all parties involved... this building is a medicine. it is soon apparent that he expects to become the UN's sole architect He does not know that in Manhattan theories are only diversionary tactics. a search party . mere decorative dressing for the essential founding And Le Corbusier's Anti·Manhattan. of Darkness Modernism at Night. On the contrary. in New York. invites the United Nations to in San Francisco . In Le Corbusier's urbanism which is. Life has spoken ." .." trymg to absorb Void: Ihat only an adviser.it gravitates 1946 New York City formally home.it follows the true paranoiac like celestial inner music Harrison. It i. thus effecting upon itself a startling metamorphosis. All this research is pretense: the real target is Manhattan itself. The Master Le Corbusier's buildings float. as it always has been.travels across the USA to find a suitable site. Frantic now to make the UN the delayed beginning of a Radiant Manhattan. Like a vulture. the UN will bring to a head New York's long expected crisis. except that of the in the Ferrissian "He insisted '"The UN Building of a street. more reinforced-concrete architecture Aid of grass. one. imperturbable in the face is and remains in control of the UN Manhattan its final medicine .. lower... 279' Le Corbusier is not invited to administer 280 . but ultimately an old painting too drastically removed: the metropolitan To Le Corbusier. unseductive. For Le Corbusier this small strip of six blocks on the East River is as close as he will ever get to realizing his designs on Manhattan. " vators are the only part Le Corbusier ever admits liking). meets in Rockefeller Center (its eleLe Corbusier on "The UN will bring to a head New York's long ex peel ed cnsl s .. "37 though in this case it is a providential wherever he goes . Le Corbusier swoops down on his prey. make New York its permanent Now sites in the New York area are considered: Jersey City. through which New York will find the ways and means to resolve its urbanistic deadlock. of his urbanistic Though he is officially theories. UN.. of the French torrent of articulation. metaphors. He tears a piece of Manhattan off the map: the Site..Like a posse. The auditorium.. Starting possibleIn September as far away from New York as slowly toward the East Coast.s promptly donated by the Rockefellers. Westchester County.is premature..

INNOCENCE "I just couldn't posed by his vision. light and sound. this min iature city. suspended things through the interpreter quantity in the air: could understand not speak French). of Manhattanism's has never been more ruthlessly automatic in the modest renderings At the same time -like has to be . Le Corbusier's UN is.' Wallace Harrison 30 years later.. laundered of its metaphoric and irrational contaminants pretations. As Le Corbusier tried to drain Manhattan In his sensitive and professional Manhattan's Manhattan's Manhattanism drains Le Corbusier's Ville Radieuse of ideology. the world's ungratefulness difficulties remembers.. has choked on. transforming Harrison restores its innocence. " Manhllltanism concluded with ~.a city with electrical nerves to control its movements and transmit its thoughts . once more disgusted with by the "critical" . Le Corbusier. reappearance of the Master of Darkness." still anxious at the thought The design of the UN marks the last significant of the various alternatives engagement. He draws Le Corbusier's night as an enigmatic "As nearly asl project in the gloom of his perpetual of concrete. Hugh Ferriss. staged on a heroic scale.climax in cardboard. its abstract abrasiveness mellows to the point where the entire complex becomes merely one of enclaves. "Under the spell of the voice from the sky and the ever-changing pageant of color. suddenly comes to life to give you a new pictu re of New York as it actually exists .and perhaps also daunted imagine him detailing that curtain wail. after all. 281 . so Harrison now urgencies . one isolated island of archipelago.. breathing city wit h a network 01 iron and copper arteries and veins under the su rface to supply vital heal and energy . Like that of Ferriss. a block like the others.and undoes the paranoia. . through Le Corbusier's equallyirrationaJ interCity of Light. pavilion for Consolidated Edison at 1939 New York World's Fair. nothing but a part of a redesigned Manhattan. Le Corbusier has after all not swallowed Manhattan. In his elaboration of the UNit from theory to objecthe carefully removes its apocalyptic of congestion. hands. interior (Walla.Before any design is finalized. of Le Corbusier's urbanism Ferriss' art remains."build me or else!" . His ultimate in the Ferrissian Void.. subconsciously. his attitude is ambiguous: he sincerely considers the merits of Le Corbusier's proposal.he desperately urbanism the healthy schizophrenic ambition the Manhattan architect tries to imbue the new forms with rornantiis to absorb even modern American (I do cism and even mystery. The dullness exposed than pilot. than ever a believer in Modern Architecture. Harrison.but a living. architect). he insisted that buildings float. he goes home. but finally digested. but discovers that what is intended as explosive fragment of an anti-Manhattan has no detonation charge.ce K. He is now more But in spite of this conscious critical.not [ust a mass at liteless masonry and steel . who is called in to make quick renderings proposed by the advisers. :'39 Harrison is an admirer and friend of the Swiss architect.

"from skyline to subway"that compresses the Metropolis' minutes.OOO·percent lntensificationot model exhibits an even more disturbing Manhattan has been bent. the show will have come around again to the hour at which he entered . not a dream city but a practical suggestion 01 how we should be living today. if completed. buildings and the earth reveal the subconscious of elevators between ground and top...000 leel. carry the visitor to the two entrances in the side of the Peri· sphere.. During the daylight cycle" the voice of a commentator describes the physical plan of Democracity while a special symphony is synchronized with the entire show. so that its streets converge at a point somewhere in the dense crowd that has rushed to witness the spectacle. Manhattanism runs This its can only be realized as a model. one above the other. the ligures attain a size of litteen feel. The spine of the Grid has been forced into a slight curve.From ten equidistant points in the sky come groups of marching persons. Far in thedlstance a chorus of a thousand voices is heard singing the Theme Song of the Fair. of its theoretical model- presence at the Fair suggests that Manhattan approximation presents Manhattan itself is doomed to remain this exhibit . farmers. 283 284 . Like the Perisphere.. After two minutes of dayfight the lights in the Perisphere slowly dim. Among the multiple Manhattanism out of time.which along as a city not of matter but of light... stars appear in the dome abovs and the city's lights go on.. sections through Its ballpark shows only highlights Cutaway of Trylon and Perisphere. the other 120. the definitive model is a simulacrum an imperfect Manhattan would hold the audience captive. educators . Night has fallen.. the But beyond this I. factory workers.. " (New York Herilld Tribune.Manhattan's Metropolis. a city of light and air and green space as it would appear from 7. Starling as pinpoints.. can be concluded only with a climax in cardboard. April 30..wave upon wave 01 men and women reo presenting the various groups In modern society.is completed and he steps off.. set away from the walls of the Globe and revolving in opposite directions. showing circulation and mechanical apparatus. miners. from which enclosed escalators.. Oemocracity may be in morning. anxieties of the late thirties. traveling the cosmic curve of relativity. There he steps onto one 01 two clrcular balconies.. a living mural in Ihe sky.Postmortem CLIMAX Consolidated Edison . rnid-alternoon or night as the spectator steps upon Ihe revotving balcony. City of Light. The City of Light is a model of Manhattan . World's Fair Section.. The curved island describes the initial section of a circle that..owlies Democraci!y .. 1939. aile 96 leet long. By the time the six-minute cycle . seemingly unsupported in space. innovation.... the weather of the infrastructure: the in seconds. "Entrance to the exhibit is through the lobby of the Trylon.. of the Culture of Congestion completed. the longest moving staircases ever built in this country. electricity generatorhas its own pretensions of pavilion at the 1939 World's Fair. . this contains a miniature Democracity. Bel. the speeding of life in the Metropolis. 24·hour cycle of day and night into 24 of famous games..) but without the predictive changes from sunshine to thunderstorm frenzied shuttling trains underground.. .

HERITAGE Democracity ~ a Metropolis of the Future=. assisted by George Dudley). they were sate. public assembly rooms. by the late thirties. an enigmatic heritage that They left all their masterpieces the next generation pean idealism. after World War II the possible coincides no longer with the sublime. As long as its tribal secrets were preserved by a cabal of sophisticated architects posing as philistines.eller Center's urbanistic ideology.between stage in the gradual loss 01 Manhattan's density. Discipline of the Grid is rejected in favor 01 free play of Towers implanted in a riverside park. reenactment effectively on a self-imposed of the same subconscious systematically amnesia. X·City was conceived by Harrison simultaneously as the retroactive realization of Ihe "dream" of Rockefeller Center-s-the "blob' would finally contain. safer than they would have ensures its been as explicit formulas. Harrison. Theaters were turned into the main. conceives the apotheosis of Manhattanism to have forgotten rhetorical ~ be it in caroboard-> all its doctrines while with Democracity and even started to believe those that were merely intended simulation Wallace K. among other theaters. luminous "blob" surrounded by office lowers. now unbent=with his United Nations Apartments on the exact location of Le Corbusier's unrealized second slab. the collapse 01 a Culture 01 Congestion stands most starkly revealed. men foot the bill ~ ostensibly for their own myths of hyper-efficiency.tions. Big apron cantilevered over East River was to be heliport. Harrison. could no longer decipher. On site of present UN bu ilding. Manhattan's Hamiel. accommodation for the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Phllharrncnic ~ and as a rncdernistic "revision" 01 Rockef. two cu rved sla bs straddle a colossal. X·City is the missing link between Radio City IRockefelier Center and Lincoln Center. Harrison "converted" scheme 10 accommodate the new program. lunctions in X·City are rigorously separated and each given its own specific location. Harrison would later realize a fragment of his proposal ~ the two-tower slab. an in. Where Radio City is a series of su perimposed projects in which each "layer" enriches the others. plan (Harrison. for two such wildly divergent Trained and implications deny each other ~ illuminates like a fake thunderbolt of Manhattan ever since the design he seems The fact that one man is responsible spectacles ~ whose incompatible the acute crisis of Manhattanism nourished on the purest architecture of Rockefeller Center. But for a body that wanted to symbolize World Unity. conversions to Modern Architecture as tactical diversions. count on the businessmen's tions that make the impossible The revolutionary inevitable. X·City (renderi ng by Hugh Ferriss). relationship between the two slabs ~ and within that. Manhattanism against the virulence of any explicit ideology. When site was subsequently considered for UN headquarters. had become. It is probably inevitable that a doctrine based on the continual of pragmatism. tects from the desires of the population.and City of Light have a single architect: Wallace Harrison. that allows the continuous themes in ever new reincarnations cultivated in order to operate more Manhattan's but who made the businessdistilled by the archi- and on inarticulateness can never last longer than a single generation.btcb" In I he sequence Radio City ~ X·City ~ Lincoln Center. Lincoln Center is a partial realization 01 the . On the same site. with no testament. It is his tragedy that phantom calculais the dreams. That made Man hattan's architectu re susceptible defense mechanism HAMLET Harrison is Manhattan's No longer can architects accountants' to the ravages of Eu roo had no as the Indians had been to measles. the inexplicable bifurcation Of the north slab into two towers ~ remained problematic. X·City "converted" lor the United Na. own extinction: selves~ Manhattan's Manhattan But such a method of preservation never revealing their true intentions ~ not even to themarchitects took them with them to the grave. last genius of the possible. knowledge was stored in the brains of architects in fact for the creation of a Culture of Congestion.. with City of Light. slabs into Secretariat (on the south) and a hotel (north slab). The postwar architecture revenge on the prewar businessmen's formula of Coney Island -technology + cardboard :::: 285 286 .

so that even through The same curve returns in his Alcoa Building (the entrances are formed as if the curtain wall is lifted like a veil to form a curve) and the Corning Glass Building (where the interior "escapes" from the main volume in the form of a curved extension of the mirrored lobby ceiling). he acts as if he still knows the inner a reluctant liquidatorseems to secrets.reality-has unfortunately.curved in planis an impossible coupling of elements that any European would surely have that is curved in both plan and section. the last contradiction Hamlet: sometimes The result is not "peeling white that is. Airport.become Harrison's trademark. worksheet. City of Light to (after the war) X-City. The most spectacular curve is described by the plan of La Guardia by blocking out the the shrouded in mist. Harrison -like step by step.. December 5. at other times as if he has lost them or never even heard of them. the Alcoa and Corning La Guardia Airport stages of his ambivalence. on a single theme: the curve. The building's guiding concept is a curve that runs its full length. but at the same the name of Manhattanism .288 287 . composition of two slabs .and perhaps even agonized dialectic between the rectangle and the kidney shape": initial concept lor lincoln Center was il circular court that would connect all component theaters and facllit ies through a system 01 curvlltnear lobbies. not only is the roof of the auditorium curved. a collection of Towers in a park on the East River site of the as revealed once again in Ferriss renderings. kept separate: an idiosyncratic straddling an auditorium Ville Radieuse. He becomes paint" but the disintegrating curtain walls of the cheap Skyscraper: in terms Manhattan Harrison's career is marked by this waning of Manhattanism. In the name of Modernity. But its centerpiece. the UN. 1955). Manhattan's returned to haunt Manhattan. . At first sight X-City (1946) is a straightforward later UN. elevations echo Corbett's pergolas.he preserves always some of its echoes. definitive Manhattan . but inside there is a dizzying collection of curved balsensuality.since City of Light the secret symbols of a bent. longest conies that stun the visitor with the impact of their unexpected The park araund the slabs is landscaped The line of flagpoles flying all the nations' flags along First Avenue inflects suddenly in the middle toward the main slab to form Hamson's curve in Manhattan. After X-City they recur obsessively in the UN. a bent version of the" Radio Forum" once planned lor ROCkefeller Center (Hugh Ferriss. time -In "A secret . resolves. Those curves . from Rockefeller Center via the Perisphere and the and Lincoln Center describes the tangible version of Le Corbusier's Lincoln Center as "island": sloping plaza replaced by steps. essence and resuscitates CURVE Harrison's trajectory buildings. Its suspense (where does it end?) is reinforced airplane traffic "Modern" curtain wall. strip Manhattan. Manhattan is perpetually behind plates of frosted glass. of Its architectural its most persistent assets.

once again.Harrison's oeuvre is a secret . between rigidity and of. Only his curve remains as a fossil of the freer language. The implosion of these universes is like that of the original IOO-story building and perhaps merely the beginning of a new alphabet. after the Z follows A again. Like charred pork chops. but ghostlike and transparent. The Globe again.incoln Center's raised podium .all his friends . The Skyscraper unlearned has come full circle. Y and Z are the last letters of the alphabet of the site that stops somewhere arbitrarily. the free form is of the rectangle.no tenth floorsuperstructures The munificence Lincoln Center is doomed to be no parks on the tenth one project only. But then that liberating impulse surrenders to the implacable logic of the Grid. of the Skyscrapers. of univalence -to it has regressed back to the clarity and predictability Harrison cannot resist. with no contents. acres of stage and back stage" that shrank in the end to the size of Radio City Music Hall. he posits his own limp curve of humanism. of one of the original designs for Rockefeller Center's ground floor. Manhattan number of superimposed the known. for instance. a theater only. to the carcass cling desperately and missing most of all are the commercial subsidized existence of an opera only. Always juxtaposed inhumanity ISLAND The pathos of Harrison's ambiguity Lincoln Center project. derived from the Modernism of Manhattan -the ALPHABET The X. forced back uncomfortably to the conformity But on the other hand. It has no Beaux-Arts basement. of Manhattanism's activities poetic GLOBE World's Fair. But on close and retroactive it can also be understood as the resurfacing is most touchingly evident in his against the of the Grid. Calder. That is a development the remnants and unpredictable no longer supports an infinite on a single site. Through its amnesia. Y and Z buildings of Rockefeller Center are Wallace Harrison's last contri bution to Man hatta n. 289 290 . At first sight it is a triumph inspection realization of monumental Modernism. that "three block ocean of red velvet chairs. the continents of Manhattanisrn. 1964. Manhattanism. Theme exhibit: the Unisphere.and perhaps eve n agon ized . That curve is Harrison's theme. Leger. But the genius of Rockefeller Center is that It is at least five projects at the same time. His first architectural antithesis impulse.dialectic between the rectangle freedom. of its culture-loving patrons has finally made possible the only. But even in Lincoln Center version of of his old faith are apparent is nothing but that elusive "island" that none of L.is always to propose some curvilinear to the rigidity most glorious example being of course the Perisphere. In postwar Manhattan. and the kidney shape. a philharmonic Culture lovers have paid for the dissolution density. floor . it is a simple extrusion Harrison has finally X.echo of Corbett's "Venetian" Rockefeller CenterHarrison's earlier colleagues managed to build. Arp . the discreet signature of his loyalties divided between the old and the new.

x... Y and Z bu ildings ~ postwar addition to Rockefeller Center: Manhattanism unlearned. "The Globe is 120 feet in diameter with an open grid of latitudes and longitudes supporting the land masses .." 291 . II dramatizes the interrelation of the peoples in the world and their yearning for 'peace through understancing. World's Fair. 1964: the Unisp'here.

undeniable physical conditions.the Appendix should words. certainly indescribable. the Globe gains weight. one that can vi ndicate condition and develop the fresh More obliquely. has the right to expand indefinitely present limbs of complete certainty structu res of tentative Each Science or Mania has its own plot. these bases .. of the shriveling of Manhattanisman interpretation of the same projects. To facilitate speculative activity. The Metropolis strives to reach a mythical pletely fabricated The Metropolis is an addictive unless it offers that. or a This book was written to show that Manhattan a Culture of Congestion. its century to deal with the extravagant After the chronicle in "Postmortem" be regarded as a fictional material. not through conclusion.Appendix: A Fictional Conclusion The City of the Captive Globe (1972) The City of the Captive Globe is devoted to the artificial accelerated birth of theories. From these solid blocks of granite. A lie that has become a truth. proposals and their infliction conception and mental constructions. architectu re.. tions and possibilities of the Culture of Congestion further. Through this pervasiveness. science. suspended at the center of the City. that the Metropolis A mania that sticks. ejaculation: collapse of one of the towers can mean two things: failure. At these moments the purpose of the Captive Globe. is no longer limited to the island 293 294 . they are breeding on in the Towers. as a con- rises slowly. from which there is no escape.. becomes apparent: all these Institutes form an enormous incubator the Globe.ideological to suspend unwelcome laws. giving up. masturbation. but in a series of architectural product of Manhattanism These proposals are the provisional scious doctrine whose pertinence of its invention.. A dream from which there is no waking up. It is the capital of Ego. too . machine. destroy and restore the world of phenomenal base. so that it absolutely coincides with his desires.are equipped truths. moral fever or intellectual visual Eureka. a speculative A theory that works. on the World. interpretations. poetry and forms of madness compete under ideal conditions to invent. it contains a hidden second argument: needs/deserves traditions its own specialized the original promise of the metropolitan Man hatta n's arch iteets performed imposed unconsciousness. where Reality. metropolitan Urbanismpoint where the world is corn by man. In spite of the most humiliating as if it had been too suddenly exposed to daylight . The The changes in this ideological skyline will be rapid and continuous: spectacle of ethical joy. arnbiit is the arduous task of the final part of this together of the World itself. its existence has become like the Nature it almost invisible. Its setbacks. Through our feverish thinking temperature ageless pregnancy survives. to create nonexistent. others display soft a rich conjectu res and hypn otic suggestions. Some of these blocks and serenity. built from heavy polished stone. each philosophy toward heaven. art. its own had generated has replaced: taken for granted. the ir miracles Iuxu riating in a self and megalomaniac claims. of the Metropolis openly. On each plot stands an identical and provoke laboratories .

develops its own instantaneous of lobotomy and schism - "fol klore. If the essence of metropolitan of various permanences." The more each "island" more the unity of the archipelago never have to be revised. as system is reinforced ..The City of the Captive Globe was a first. The projects that follow are interpretations these axioms. the three axioms have allowed Manhattan's buildings to be both architecture modern and eternal. and modifications 295 296 . In the metropolitan disconnection architecture The City of the Captive Globe. of both between form celebrate monoliths Alone in this century.and the essence of the concept "city" is a legible sequence then only the three fundamental which the City of the Captive Globe is based . its conjectu res.a state of perpetual axioms on animation . lobotomy and schismcan regain the terrain of the Metropolis for architecture." such a system will in the absence of real exterior and interior installmentsand their "change" ls contained on the component archipelago each Skyscraper=- history . In this way. the within Cities. exploration of drawn before research would substantiate culture is change ." Th rough the double by separating and developing the latter in small autonomous can devote their exteriors only to formalism such structures interiors only to functionalism. Because "islands. and hyper-efficient machines. The Grid maximum or any other subdivision increments of controlof the metropolitan celebrates different territory into describes an archipelago of "Cities values. they not only resolve forever the conflict and function. metropolitan but create a city where permanent instability. intuitive Manhattan's architecture.Grid.

ballrooms. this is the section over the entrance lobby and main head of the Sphinx.Hotel Sphinx (1975-76) Hotel Sphinx straddles two blocks at the intersection of urban form. or and garden for the number the view of a typical midtown at least New Jersey. and below the circular divided by the number of clubs that occupy it. its twin tails to the north and its wings spreading across 48th Street. zone. These are headquarters for the various trades and professions to which the residents belong. The legs of the Sphinx contain escalators ascending to a large foyer serving theaters. The Hotel's main entrance lobby on 47th Street. a site condition of Manhattan that (with few exceptions) has failed to generate its own typology It sits facing Times Square. on the other side of Nature. facing Times Square (and the Times Building) contains an international A new subway station . of Broadway and Seventh Avenue. as a spider's web . which dissects it. and to achieve better east-west views. On one side it enjoys street. auditoriums. with the existing signs and symbols of Times Square .. a restaurant forms the wings of the Sphinx .height studio apartments. its claws on the southern block. The Sphinx is a luxury hotel as a model for mass housing. 298 . This section is The neck of the Sphinx facing Times Square contains the residents' and social facilities: auditorium. The roof of this restaurant surrounding residential This accommodation is an outdoor playground accommodation in the flanks of the structure.lities . The ground and mezzanine floors contain functions that are extensions and additions of the questionable facilities that give the Times Square the luxuriant area its character. while the clubs middle section is an office block for the residents .complicated This lobby also connects with the existing infrasfructural faci. The twin towers that form the tail of the Sphinx contain north-facing connecting double. information center. population consists of a collection of any imaginable and culminate of units: hotel bedrooms and serviced suites for transient alternate with apartments the terraced steps that descend in opposite directions in villas with private gardens on to avoid the over· shadowing that would result from the narrowness of the site.. conference and banquet rooms.will link all the subway stations that now serve the Times Square area. Over this Hotel Sphinx facing onto Times Square... each displaying the ideological competing its identity and proclaiming billboard construction its messages by means of that clads the face of the tower. They are designed to accommodate demand of sidewalk activities along Broadway and Seventh Avenue.

with all the agonies that implies . A glazed screen divides the pool by four into two parts: indoor and outdoor. New Wellfare' Island (1975-76) Welfare (now Roosevelt) lsland Is a long (about three kilometers). Below the pool is a floor for games and gymnastics. indoor/outdoor an exit to the smaller island) and casually Corporation. For this demonstration. a kind of resort that offers. is a metropolitan settlement and 59th streets in Manhattan. and which are arranged kinked Main Street. the floor below. programmatically . The project is intended made Manhattan's with the metaphysical. New Welfare Island. the refined former capacity explain Manhattan's and intentions with the primitive . a stretch that coincides with the area between 50th of some of the teatures that architecture unique: its ability to fuse the popular with the sublime. no more than 150 meters from Manhattan. its patrons can influence the planetarium's heavenly bodies. The area north of the bridge has now been developed by the Urban Development enthusiasm State agency. It also revives Manhattan's mental "laboratory" tradi on smaller. Swimmers can dive under the screen from one part to the other. A spectacular pool crash directly planetarium stories of locker rooms and showers. by an elevated travelator All the blocks are connected 300 299 . open-air beach. 'improvising new trajectories for the Since 1965. In the beauty parlor and hairdresser A staircase and ladders connect the diving island in the pool to this floor and continue to saunas and massage parlor. Waves made in the outdoor part of the onto the pavement. For over a century. to the mother island merely by a cable car (colored in a cheerful "holiday" purple) whose service could easily be suspended architectural urban emergencies. residents relax. the spectacle of Manhattan The island's planners ithough burning? it is now connected in case of incident had have so far chosen the latter alternative- circular bar that forms the crown of the Sphinx. The chairs face the perimeter in mirror glass. as a resuscitation the commercial of nervous energy in the Metropolis as a whole.which together tion of "testing" the century). Welfare Island's dominant been the crossing of the monumental Manhattan to Queens (without Queensboro Bridge that connects Sphinx). as a "parking competing identical certain themes to seduce a mass audience for itself. In response to the level on the contrary. on the sector south of on both sides of a picturesquely that separates the head of the Sphinx from the clubs. This is the location of the jacking and twisting mechanisms response to certain important directed events..or is it to be a civilized escape zone. it has been undergoing question is: is it to be a true part of New York . with suspended galleries for the audience and a semiprogramming. A glass. Queensboro Bridge.The head of the Sphinx is dedicated Its main feature is the swimming to physical culture and relaxation. Below the part reflecting a small porthole Finally a lounge. with a series. more or less parallel to Originally the island was the site of hospitals and asylumsfor "undesirables:' a half-hearted "urbanization:' The generally a storehouse pool.brick wall separates these view of the city can be enjoyed The ceiling over the pool is a from the small. These sites will be used lot" for formally. of blocks that terrace down with equal to both Manhattan and Queens (why?). narrow (200 meters on average) island in the East River. restau rant and garden form the section of the head of Hotel Sphinx: in cuts Welfare Island into two parts. which contains steambaths. the whole head can be jacked up or down. a New York affords a view out toward the city below. Manhattan. wall. which is clad (the lowest floor of the head of the the face from a sitting position. the face of the Sphinx can be to "stare" at various points in the city. expert- islands (such as Coney Island at the beginning of the Manhattan Grid is extended across the East River to create eight new blocks on the island.which would confront and ideologically each other from their (moving pavement) architectures parking spaces. from a safe distance. The indoor section is surrounded from the pool space .

architectural promenade. too ephemeral to establish themselves Those blocks that are not occupied are left vacant for future generations From north to south.. a planet without pipes . In the middle of the New Welfare Island development carved out of the rock to receive floating structures this case Norman Bel Geddes' "special streamlined is the harbor. may sit on its surface . slotted underneath accommodation separating it is the that accommodates the a formal entrance porch to Manhattan the southern An auditorium ~j '\ \ for mass meetings is cellular office ~I. tist Architecton sometime in the early twenties scientific and parked on the blocks to One such building is a Suprema- stuck by Malevich on a postcard of the Manhattan skylinein Moscow . by a future civilization Architectons simply exist. simple as a tiny speck.. in fine weather. Without by man for his own purposes . 2.fare Island. New Welfare Island in the middle. Between them..but never received.. Opposite the UN Building on Manhallan Island is the Counter-U N standing on a small island. ManhaHan is on the left Queens on the right. concrete. heated by electricity. Approaching in the river is the floating pool.. such as boats .that runs from the bridge southward down the center of the island: an accelerated amphibious. they support a center for the \ \J suspended glass object . " 3. two marble slabscontain . the bridge. In Queens is "desperation park" with its modern housing. process that would be able to suspend with the surface of Due to an unspecified gravity. a colossal "roadblock" half of the island from the northern. at any moment. The had no program: "Built without purpose.if at all. everywhere accessible to the man living inside it who. Buildings that were once proposed for New York. The planet is as New Wel... axcnornetrlc.whose steps reflect the cu rve of the bridgethat contains a stacked sports and entertainment Conventioneers. floating attractions of builders.in yacht" (1932).. but for whatever reason aborted. the subu rb: the Pepsi-Cole sign: the Power Station. From top to bottom: Entrance Convention Center penetrated by Queensboro Bridge. the status planets visiting the earth only occasionally . !' They were supposed to be "conquered" programmatically function. built from "opaque glass. connecting on land. at the same time. tarred felt. the involvement of artificial Architectons of Malevich's Architectons the earth was tenuous: they could assume. [they] may be used that deserved them. On Manhattan ltself can be seen the "separation" of Hotel Sphinx and the RCA Building. Supremetlst Architecton: harbor with streamlined yacht: "Chinese" swimming pool: Welfare Palace Hotel with raft: plaza: river-trOltoir. New Welfare Island sofar fol towing structu res: 1. will be built "retroactively" complete the history of Manhattanism. At the tip of the island it becomes leaving the land to turn into a trottoir on the river. Built around Queensboro Bridge without actually touching Entrance Convention Centeris.. above the bridge. 301 302 .

The tip of the island is occupied by Welfare Palace Hotel and a semicircular plaza. exactly 304 303 . is the dominant themselves from have a double of the fragments have dissociated The southern facade. eat and watch performances the terraces along the water or they may board the lifeboats -luxuriously equipped with velvet benches and marble tabletops . Three-dimensional function: the especially at the A seventh tower on the Queens side does not with a root"fit" on the island. the other for women).. The towers increase in height as they move away from Manhattan. Undressed. Columns are disguised as lighthouses. It is a composition The ten-story the form of a square. garden on its former facade.. slabs are placed on the edges of the block to define the but the two slabs still run the full width of the island "field" of the Hotel. It can be used for dancing. Hotel's accommodation for private functions.small palatial skyscrapers The materials lack. it passes a small island opposite the United Nations has been attached: a slab that repeats The open of the original. as possible . Two revolving doors at either end lead to locker rooms inside the two halves of the bridge (one for men. needs of the office the main slab to lead their own lives. symbolizing Manhattan in its virgin state . and each day of seven towers and two slabs. each with its own particular club-restaurant function: and uninhabited island. to which the Counter-LlN the silhouette space of this small island serves the recreational workers of this Counter-UN. steel..an aluminum Chinese bridge that follows in become three-dimensional plan the line of the natural coastline. six towers are arranged in a V torrnation. designed ind ivid uaIly to respond to the different formal and symbolic demands of their respective situations. The Hotel has fou r facades.that emerge from a hole in the sinking ship to move slowly through the interior on submerged tracks.000 guests. into the water so that the shore runs through the Hotel as a geological fault. Since the island tapers toward the tip.000 people . darkness with their beams. the block of the Hotel is incomplete. tops are so designed that they "stare" at Manhattan. plaza. Opposite the sinking ship is a sandy island.only a small percentage of the Hotel's visitors. A stage is carved. pointing at Manhattan.occupies the block 10. with an attached auditorium. plastic. The original coastline has . Guests can sit.marble. relief with an explicit figurative that can be reserved are as diverse separately. 5.the sector closest to Man hattan . near the tip of the island. Its floor is inundated. The fragments together.a city collapsing. along the semicircular elevation. RCA Building. The travelator continues on the water to a point just south of 42nd Street Along its way. It accommodates as many visitors again.is a theater and nighton the twin themes of shipwreck holds 2. they form a decorative message . glass . it has become a horizontal water-scraper 6.•South of the harbor is a park with a "Chinese" swimming complementary pool in Welfare Palace Hotel (1976) The Welfare Palace Hotela "City within a City" . It into a series of independent The fi rst zone . Outside the Hotel.4 .providing the Hotel with the history it would otherwise The ground floor of the Hotel is subdivided zones. which steps down toward the Hotel. while the part ls built out on the river. they provide differentiation of the fragments . Building. part of which is carved out of the island. frantically piercing the on sinking ship. out of the steel hull of an overturned. from where they can swim to the recessed beach. the sexes emerge from the middle of the bridge. On the field between the slabs.

Their glass visors directly below can retract to expose the club's activities to sunlight The. lighthouse columns. On each side of the Hotel's transverse axis is a long low slab . the other the semicircular plaza. Cutaway axonornetrlc shows. tower 4: vacant. A glass plate with the The first tower . North of the Hotel is the "Chinese" swimming pool'.represents the island is interrupted ." It is an When the weather permits it. Chrysler and Empire State the Hotel is the "postponed" relationships 305 . The top of the fifth tower. consecutively on the grou no floor: inundated theater jrestau rant/nightclub (with uninhabited island. interior that extrapolates is allegorical The top of the sixth tower. the one furthest by a three-dimensional the real destinies of whose tortured and "predicts" of the RCA. conducting the arbitrariness . tower 6: Freud Unlimited Cluo The light blue in front 01 the Hotel is an artificial skating rink: to the left of the Hotel is a park with the "Chinese" swimming pool. relaying the music that is hidden microphones. island-asfound-plaza. them on the ground floor. The facade of this latter slab has been fragmented into a three-dimensional mural which functions as 'luxury accommodation. Beyond that is the fourth zone . so that elevators shuttle between two interof the same "story:' island on the ground floorswimming pool. tower 5: waterfalll restaurant.compare the monumental sculpture. They circle around the raft. In V formation are six skyscrapers . occupancies. which stands in water. Tower 1: locker rooms.above the uninhabited has a square beach and a circumferential The second tower -the "displaced" drinking separates locker rooms for men and women. dining terraces. The third tower is an Expressionistic agitatlon of the south facade in a paroxysm of decorative The top of the fourth tower is vacant and awaits future.the horizontal water-scraper on top and conference There is a different club at the top of each skyscraper. to their own petty anxieties.themes of the clubs relate to the themes established pretations Welfare Palace Hotel. intront of the Hotel is a gigantic three-dimensional Raft of the Medusa executed in plastic (with a small area equipped lor dancing). open to the air . of metropolitan of "escape. it is a symbol of Manhattan's agonies . access 10 the horizontal water-scraper (concealed between the rear four skyscrapers with park on top). unspecified to the disaster that occurs 30 floors below them. with a park facilities inside. their cocktails in the euphoria of apparent control.one overlooks the "Chinese' pool. lifeboats)... removed from Manhattan. oblivious environment. only office buildingis equipped. offspring . reception area 01 Hotel. with shopping.. That part of the semicircular plaza in front of the Hotel which is not on the island is turned into ice. the course of the travelator area of the Hotel. overtu rned ship. square beach surrounded by Circumferential pool. floats a gigantic reproduction Gericault's Raft of the Medusa.is the produced inside the Hotel through The second zone of the HotelThe third zone -where reception as found. watch the moonlit sky and even board the A section is equipped as dance floor. tower 2: ship's bridge as bar: tower 3: Expressionist club as climax of the mural. bridge of the sinking ship. Guests feel like captains here.. and is lined with shops.between Manhattan and Welfare Island. 306 reflections will be visible from the city.each with its own dub (whose respective themes are related to the mythology established on the grou nd 1100 r of eac h towe r).proving both the need and the impossibility equivalent of 19th-century public sculpture. is a waterfall whose unpredictable terminated buildings. suffering of its occupants the lifeboats leave the interior of the Hotel to go out on the river.

Two seemingly endless linear locker rooms formed its long sides . One day they discovered that if they swam laps from one end of the pool to locomotion. some sectors of the locker room/ hammocks. It was strange how familiar dreamed of stainless-steel Manhattan was to them.one for men. in regular synchronized walls.they had to swim away from where they wanted to go. An idea such as the pool. of which. the lockers and showers. The pool was a long rectangle of metal NEW YORK. just of hysteria sheets bolted onto a steel frame. the pool was a Manhattan Moscow. In a way. Through the by now well-rehearsed they could go anywhere in the world where block realized in directed the there was water.practically was proof: with the clouds reflected in its surface.) . modest yet students decided to build radical. At either end was a glass lobby with two transparent healthy. Someone had to invent the floating swimming pool. circumcisions they wondered in horror. a standardization following integrity a turn at the command swimming to such rejected by some hard-core anarchists. the other for women. edict to simplify and accelerate production) Over the years. of the golden onions of the Kremlin. the Atlantic? who swamped the craft in a brute rush through Had Communism of the superintendents.) When they finally arrived. except as a delayed reaction to their collective middle age. the pool by the Atlantic's had been unable to explain. whole artificial purity in contaminated planets. ironically. used activities in the New World. became rigid. This was exactly what they had swum all this time to avoid. sometimes exciting underwater for physical exercise. even ominous. these fish were hard and on the fish they found each daybreak washed into fish agonizing in polluted water.. room. It was amazing how. they had even had much bolder visions. in a gradual program of improving the world through architecture. decided to use the pool as a vehicle for their escape to freedom. In a secret meeting. Nobody remembered who it was. its almost invisible physical presence. it was more than a = reaction. it was the other . by a simple law of physics: action the political situation. and the other. spherical theaters. in unison:became the most popular structure in the history of Modern the architects/ Due to the chronic Soviet labor shortage.seemed a first step. They had always Chryslers and flying Empire States. but popular as ever). of continuous had almost disintegrated.the pool would begin to move slowly in the opposite direction. while they were crossing lack of individuality. they had converted corridor into "rooms" with improvised after 40 years at sea. which did not to this even disappear when all the businessmen Brothers suits. living on supplies of preserved cabbage waves.. They were amazed at this involuntary explained In the early thirties. toward what they wanted to get away from. they hardly noticed it . Early one morning in the Stalinist thirties. It was thus a truly dialectical sunbathing and socializing between the to catch due to the pool's immensity . especially New York. the pool (almost invisible .. actually. 307 Skyscraper ~ it was a patch of heaven here on earth. They had expected them to hover over the Metropolis like a dense cloud drift of weightless lifeguards were shocked at the uniformity completely ignoring the instructions reached America whales. To prove the strength of the idea. which would now reach its logical destination. The idea had been in the air. The prototype Architecture..The Story of the Pool (1977) MOSCOW. 1923 At school one day. there had been a flare-up which the architects/swimmers They cooked on a primitive and tomatoes. the architects/swimmers/ (dress. (Their unexpected impression 308 the architects stepped out of their Brooks contributed pool away from Moscow by swimming their relentless laps in the direction in the eyes of the provincial Russians. a student designed a floating swimming pool. It was only logical that they wanted to go to America. one wall exposed the in the pool. artificial almost naked swimmers. (Although captive. others were designing flying cities. A few years later still (the pool was quite rusty now. between the men had not stabilized familiar from Russian novels. When the pool docked near Wall Street. At school. relationships but continued before arriving to display a volatility their swimsuits (front and a 1922 back panels were exactly the same. the iceberg-like quality of its submerged social activity. 1916 A rotating schedule gave each lifeguard/architect of the "ship" (an opportunity who preferred the anonymous responsibilities). Only the Zeppelins they had seen crossing the Atlantic with infuriating velocity 40 years before were rnissing. the ideology it represented became suspect. this crudeness. behavior) of their visitors. the architecture a prototype in their spare time. etc. all these became suddenly subversive. The floating pool ~ an enclave of surroundings . After four decades of crossing the Atlantic. the architects/lifeguards method of auto·propulsion. its shittiness. which had once stimulated projects such as the pool. stove. submerged in the pollution of the East River) builders were also the lifeguards.

But they hardly notice it: due to the particular form of locomotion of the pool.. " Then they dove into the water to assume their familiar formation.. the architects/lifeguards reach their destination.. ready . It said. their own increasingly pathetic irrelevance. It was by now irrelevant. . "THERE IS NO EASY WAY FROM THE EARTH TO THE STARS. of a new motto.) Still. ignoring the spectacular decline of their profession.. the pool threatened them .to spawn? the pool further upstream: a rusty 3 MONTHS LATER The architects Constructivists of New York were uneasy about the sudden influx of (some quite famous. so unadventurous.. one architect/lifeguard. answered for alii of them: "We just went from Moscow to New York." Looking at the starry sky reflected in the narrow rectangle of their pool. the raft of the Constructivists with the raft of the Medusa: optimism The steel of the pool slices through knife through butter. They were all against Modernism ate production offlacdd now.finally .Iike a thermometer of their (In its ruth less simplicity. A moving "block" joins the blocks of Manhattan's Grid. the dry taste of their fabricated their irrelevant sophistication.They took off again in shock. right angles and the drab color of rust. .if not executed . to have Constructivism Against the background York's architects from the thirties. the dapper spokesman of New the swimmers. had been able to think gave a gracious speech . wit-only sions: there was no decoration. the limp suspense of their poetry. there were no historical allutrite complexities. the New Yorkers decided to give their so' called colleagues a collective medal at a discreet waterside ceremony. there was no . over with. directing salmon. decadence. but none of Manhattan's 5 Mil N UTIE:S LATER In front of Welfare Palace Hotel. the agonies of they complained that the pool was so bland. others long thought to have been First tentative landings of pool: Wall srreet.after Fran k Lloyd Wright visited the USSR in 1937 and betrayed his Modern colleagues in the name of Arc hitectu re). exiled to Siberia . of the skyline. The Russians read it. shear. he said. vs. so boring. pessimism.they have to swim toward what they want to get away from and away from where they want to go.. still dripping wet from the last lap.its reaction to their own displacement In the water . their despercountry mansions. like a the plastic of the sculpture collides 309 310 . no straight lines.The medal had an old Inscription he reminded present architects that might be inserted in their projects to take the temperature Arrival of the Floating Pool: after 40 years of crossing the Atlantic.. no tension. The New Yorkers did not hesitate to criticize the design of the pool. so rectilinear.

.

October 1909.. Life. and Brooklyn Daily Eagle. 2 (New York. 28. 6.. p. assisted by Harold M. p. The New Cosmopolis (New York. A History. Lindsay Denison. p. "The Drawings for the New Waldorf·Astoria. May 13." New York Times. p. 12.' 36. 23. 41. ed. 25." in The Building of the City. (New York: Official Publication of the Fifth Avenue Association. Sodom by the Sea. pp. p. 1939). 1930. Texts on back of postcards. Guide to Coney ISland. 40. "Fete Moderne " 27. New York Herald Tribune. pp. New York Herald. 4. Guide to Coney Island (Long Island Historical Society Library.4-7. Good Old Coney Island (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 16. All quotes about the IOO·story building Batl. 36. 3. April 9. 331-39. Louis (Official Photographic Company. Ferriss. 291. p. 8. Porter Belden. Sodom by the Sea (New York: Doubleday. p. Manna Hatin. "The Biggest Playground:' 29. 38. Ibid. p. Parker Cadman et al. 37.). February 22. Benjamin de Casseres. 172. King's Views of New York (New York: Moses King. Louis Horowitz. 1915). 24. 1904). Official Guidebook. p. p. The Unofficial Palace of New York (New York: Hotel Waldorf· Astoria Corp. As quoted in ibid. 12. "Commissioners' Remarks. 25. 22. 1906. 18. 7. p. vol. 1931. 168. 16. Future (New York: Putnam. This section is based on various Hippodrome programs. 7. 1904). Architectural Forum. Offices in the Sky (Indianapolis and New York. A Day in tile Crystal Palace and How to Make the Most of It (New York.. PREHISTORY 1. 18. 1929). R. as quoted on book jacket of Ferriss. 191. 1925). the World. Quotes about Globe Tower are from Brooklyn Union Standard. Kenneth M. Pilat and Ransom. Sodom by the Sea. 24. Paul Starrett. History of Coney Isl<lnd (New York: Burroughs & Co. 43. Empire State. 40. 1912). Good Old Coney Island. 22. p. 9. January 1931. The Story of New York (New York: The Manhattan Company." Architectural Forum. February 27. Parker Chase. 1939)." in Crowninshield.34. "Boredom:' 31.. 1. Power il] Buildings (New York: Columbia Universit. Henri Collins Brown. "The Biggest Playground.Case Notes for a Cornerstone. 19. 1907. 128-30. Bobbs-Merrill 1959). 1938). 30. 145. Hugh Ferriss. 32. 29-53.J. The Metropolis of Tomorrow (New York: lves WashbUrn. Ibid. 37. The Making of Urban America.LAND. Guide to Coney Island. 6. p. Power in Buildings. W.55. x.. Ferriss. 284-308. 31. VII: The General Design. The Wonder City (New York: Wonder City Publishing Co. Gorky. 28. 2. 3. lbid. 1906. "Fete Moderns: A Fantasie in Flame and Silver. "The Annual Awakening. The Regional Plan of New York and Its Environs. text on book jacket. New York World's Fair (New York: Exposition Publications. pp. 308-10. 17.7. sec.' program for the Beaux-Arts January 18. 11. E. 26. 1907.. Ibid. 20.. Pilat and Ransom.y Press. Howard Robertson. Hungerford. Thomas Adams. February 1931. 33.d. 15. "Hippodrome Days . John W. James Huneker. Guide to Coney Island. 1953). 1941). 1953). 10. 16. 16-17. Oliver Pilat and Jo Ransom. 39. New York: Past.. Present and Future. McCullough. 5. Ibid.: Princeton University Press. The Story of the Waldorf·Astoria (New York: G. Walter Creedmoor. 14.. Changing the Skyline: An Autobiography (New York: Whittlesey House. p. 185. Pilat and Ransom. Grandeur of the Universal Exhibition at St. William Bridges. The Cathedral of Commerce (New York: Broadway Park Place Co. 26. 1906. Unofficial Palace. Sodam by the Sea. 33. 4-7. 24. William Richards. 1965 12. Article. 1931. 148. Power in Buildings. 38. This building was first discovered by Robert Descharnes and published in his superb Gaudl. Inc. 35. 1 (New York: New York Plaisance Co. Empire State. History of Coney Island. The Metropolis of Tomorrow. Denison. Mirrors of New York (New York: Joseph Lawren. pp. Lamb. pp.. The Making of Urban America (Princeton. CONEY IS. August 1905. pp. pp. August 8. 169. 14. 161. 22. 19. pp.. 1908). Orton. 1853). "The Real Coney Island. Denison. 42. 8. August 1899. 5. p. 8. 1965). "The Annual Awakening of the Only Coney Island. 8. All quotes about Murray's Roman Gardens from Chas. New York p. 1925)." 13. May 6. and on "Remember lhe Hippodrome?" Cue. Text on back of postcard. "The Biggest Playground in the World. S. 10. 99-117. 177. Bevington in New York PlaisanceAn Illustrated Series of New York Places of Amusement. The Columbia Historical Portrait of New York (New York: Doubleday. 27. p. New Yorker. p." 15. Putnam & Sons. 313 314 . January 1931. 11. Ibid. Co.. Lucius Boomer. 2. p. Sodom by the Sea. 1929). 1906. Ihid. N. pp.• 1917). 1. 19. 1909. 35. Guide to Coney Island." New Yorker. 333. Gorky. 2. p.. "Boredom.' American Architect. 13. McCullough. 21. I am very grateful for his collaboration in securing the illustrations reproduced here. 6. Kouwenhoven. Empire State. New York: Past. Advertisement in New York Herald. 1811). n. Present and 7. 21. THE DOUBLE LIFE Of UTOPIA: THE SKYSCRAPER 1. 3.. p . Ibid. History 01 Coney Island. Chase... pp. Guide to Coney Is/and. John A.The Wander City. May 6. p. New York. Pencil Points." Munsey's Magazine. Hugh Ferriss. p. lbid. May 7. 82. Maxim Gorky. History of Coney Is/and. pp. Lewis and Lawrence M. 1931). 219. 1931). Murchison. 23. 30. "The Empire State Building. p. "Boredom. Pilat and Ransom. 29. "The Greatest Household in 3. lbid. William F. Text of advertisement in Belden. Good Old Coney Island. 32. 10. Ibid. A History. 20. 9. P.: THE TECHNOLOGY OF THE FANTASTIC 1." Munsey's Magazine. 331. 34. 4. p. 17. Ibid. 26. Empire State. in Map of the City of New York and Island of Manhattan (New York. A History. p. lnc. are from an article in the New York Herald. 10. Edward Hungerford. 1931. p. 1849).' The Independent. 184. pp. Fifth Avenue Old and New-1824-1924 1924). A History (New York: Empire State. no. May 2. Ibid. 1931). xvi. Edo McCullough.. May 19. 24. 15. 39. Tile Story of the Waldorf·Astoria. Andy Logan. Reps. "Beauty and Reality in Civic Art. 9. 4.57). Text on back of postcard. Article. as quoted in Earle Schultz and Walter Simmons. 80. 1949. 109. 72-73. on Murdock Pemberton. Frank Crowninshield." 5.. Reps. 41. 297-98.

Paris so«. 28. C. Kenneth Crowninshieid.ilham. "A City of Towers ~ American of Made by the Well." of Industry. Boomer." Fortune. "The Design of Rockefeller 1932. p. 151-66. 115. August Diego Rivera. Le Myths p.' in 14. 32. Ibid" p. p. Crowninshield. Center Inc. Fortune. Diego Rivera.. 10. 5-17." 35. p. "Wheels pp. "Off the Record. For much Raymond Walter of the biographical this chapter information has relied on on Hood. "The Conquest appendix of Wl1ite. p. Murchison. Official Guidebook. as quoted by Helen Worden in ibid" Behind p. 49. published 1935. 180-8l. Le Corbusier. in ibid. S. 4. Raymond Hoad. For Le Corbusier's design process. lbid. 33. p. Ibid. 16. 5. Ibid. Showplace 33." pp. Raymond Hood. 41. Center Tribune. Raymond Hood. North. see Salvador Dali. North. p. 24. p. 45.260. po." 18. Hugh 34. p. UN 1947). Crowninshield." 11... Lenygon. September Raymond Hood. "Rockefeller 1936. 357. 27 and May 3. March T Hellman. 13.. L 21." p." 18. diary entry for Sunday. "Raymond Mathewson Press. April and Diego Rivera. Hood. 9. 5. 31. 1963). 1932). 4. p.639-42. 1939. See Howard Proposals Architect.Known Raymond Hood. October pp. Diego Rivera ~ His We 1943). Le Corbusier. 19. The and Building. Unofficial H. Hellman. 42. 1932). Power in Buildings. Hood.AND LE CORBUSIER CONQUER NEW YORK 1. 8. November in "New special America (New York: Covict. 26-27. 9. Men and 5. p. "From Within to Unofficial "Women Palace. 356-57. The Secret Life of Salvador was provided Jacques White. 63. K.07." in Robert Sommer. 2. 1934)." 43. New York ~ The Wonder City. Salvador Editions 1952. "What written is the American for The American to When the p. as quoted "The in ibid" The Metropolis of Tomorrow. as quoted in ibid" I and 2. o. Arthur series Tappan Contemporary 1931. 7. "Debut p. p. psychiatrist parano'iaque l. Forum. 38. David The City Within a City: The 1966). Center. Salvador Dali.. "Architecture. 1935. Chase. Architectural ed. 25. North. Rockefeller Center. caption. 50. New Yorker. put into practice. 1- 48. pp. January 52. Were White ~ A Journey to the Country of Timid People (New York: Reynal & Hitchcock. Introduction. Kilham. 33-48. 174. Friede. pp. January American House. 240. Columbia University Loth. p. p. 134. in tragique de l'Angelus Jacques Pauvert. 44. lbid. Ibid. Le Corbusisr. Nation's Business. Rockefeller Center (New York: Rockefeller HOW PERfECT PERFECTION CAN BE: THE CREATION OF ROCK. Ibid" p. Headquarters 38. December 47. (New York: Reinhold. Le Corbusier. Publications. 30. 40. Worden. New York's Problem of Overcrowding. Raymond Hood. important reinforcement by the dissertation for Dali's of the. 237. and Times (New York: Alfred A. La Femme visible. 220. pp. plate 30. 27. Rockefeller Center Weekly. EUROPEANS: BlUER! DALI . 31. 337. 133. Geoffrey to Without. of the lnc. p. Le Corbusier. "Off the was actually Record. 35.. The End of University K. (New York: Dutton. 17. For a more permutations." in Center. Cathedrals Were White. p. 12. p. Hood. plate 41. Le Corbusier. Architectural Forum. 1927. "New York Salutes Mel. 37. 1964). 32. of the Nation. Knopf. a City. Wallace Practice. Wolfe. Raymond Hood." Arts Weekly. Kilham. 354. and the Waldorf. pp. "The Greatest "Captains Household. Architectural Forum. o. p. 127. 30. 6. 36. o. 133. pp. 1934. Alfred Kurella. Ibid. 127 in Hellman. Architectural Forum. 315 316 . "Drafting Room 1932. o.43. October 22. See Loth. Diego Rivera.' in Club. The City Within a City. D. Kilham. Raymond Hood. in Wolfe. 26. Bertram New York Worlds Fair (New York: Exposition 1939). La Ville radieuse. 53." 19. North. Architect 34.Hill. Salvador Irrational. 8. Ibid" 13. 139-53. Ufe of Salvador Dal! (New York: Dial Press. Ccovetsetions with Dali p.EFELLER CENTER 1. 193. p... Ibid. pp.327-35..ilham. Portrait of lnc. 133-36. 15. 28. 1941." 1931. Ibid." 17. Imprisonment brochure of Radio City Press. 25. Oall. Quotations Secret 1942). 1976). Ferriss. Hellman." R.brochure. Hugh p." Spain. 49. 338. January 1933. Quotes from p." K. Harrison. Diego Rivera. Ferriss. and the Waldorf. 197. Wiley Corbett. 23. 50. When the Cathedrals Were on back of postcard. Robertson." 1935.66. Rivera. Let's Streamline 16. 8. Through Function in the American Skyscraper (New York: Architectural and on further Kilham details provided 29. 20." Raymond Hood. 37. in The Story of Rockefeller New York: Rockefeller p. pp. 2.4. 4.' 81-84. as quoted 22. 23. Athletic Romance of Rockefeller Center (New York: William Morrow & Co" "The 20. August 2. Text Surrealistes. Journal d'un genie (Paris: entry for July 12. Monagan. Russia Position of the Artist 11. p. p. 12. "Hotel Pilgr'lm. Club. 120. 92 27. the Scenes. issue of Creative Art. pp. New York Wor/d's Fair. "Hood. 24. 12. 51. February the opening When the Cathedrals Were Dali. 44. "De la psychose avec la dansses rapports :' Dall. DaH. 8. p. complete record of all the Dali. 'The Design of Rockefeller Center.acan. p. (New York: Oxford as appendix in personal interviews. See New York Herald Tribune. Caption (. Kilham. 139. May 23. 7. parts 39. 16.. Kilham. All quotations from Raymond Hood are in Roof. of 7. 6. Lucius in "Women 46. 14. in New York Herald are from Salvador Dali. 78. 16. Clyde M. As quoted Without. (New York: Whittlesey 1931). When the Cathedrals 1947). 4L Architectural Forum. Le Corbusier. by Raymond Hood. 11. 51. p. Place. See "The Downtown 1881-1934. Dali. B. p. Frank Ferriss. description ot the UN and Building News. February Athletic 1931. Rockefeller Center Weekly. Salvador Editions 26.' Portrait of America. in the Architects McGraw. Elsa Maxwell. January 48. October 1935. The Last Rivet (New York: 1939). Music Hall. Harvey Hood. Francis Decoration:' 45. Tisdale.. Downtown 22 . 133. pp. 15. p. pp. July 22. 50 . published p. pp. 2. 363. p. Raymond Hood. "New York Salutes "From Within Me!" to Without" 22. 12. 89. The Showplace of the Nation. 14. Architect ~ Form Publishing generously Co" 1973). 3. 47. p." de Millet (Paris: Jean "From Within see Le Corbusier.. personalite Power in Buildings. Raymond Center. Frea]. and Fortune. Published "A City Under a Single 1929. As quoted 46. 160-61. La Ville radieuse. 63. 186-201. of Rockefeller Center. lbid. Boomer. February 1933. 27. 1932.erview 39. Forbes. Merle Crowell." Architecture September 21 Le Corbusier. 22. Design p. 359.' Dali. 42. in ibid . La Ville radieuse (Paris: Vincent p. Ibid" 29. La Femme visible (Paris: '1930).38. La Ville retiieuse... 23. Palace. "Furnishing and F. "Debut 36. Kilham. 53.. Problem?" article Architect.' York of the Future. p.5." 1934. 'Raymond Hood. "Hood. Today. p. 1937. Int. 10. 7. "From Architectural and "The Forum. As quoted in "Now Women. Especially theses of a City.28-29.49-56. to celebrate p.' 21. Le Corbusier. 38. p. for the Solution Raymond Hood. 1947. with author. de la Table Ronde). 129. ad. This "theory" as described 1969). p. pp. October 3. Wolfe. I bid. Within to Without" Unofficial Palace. 62-67. 372-75. p. Official Souvenir Book. pp.

18-19. Pierre Apraxine. 202-3. Walter Kilham.ents Credits This book would not exist without the support of: the Harkness Manhattan. Philip Johnson. 244 bottom New York Public Regional Rockefeller 206. New Welfare Island: Rem Koolhaas Perlmutter. 190 Library of Congress.: 167 top. 196. Snare. 187. 286 right top. Between Institute with Derrick Mrs. 111. Plan Association.all of them inval uablehave been Liviu Dimitriu. Columbia Appendix City of the Captive Globe. 179. 180 top. 115. 16. Joseph Harriss: 116 Waller Kilham.K. New York: 268 of Modern of the City of New York: Library: 22 left New York: 118 14. Jr. 274 bottom 149 The Appendix is a collective production Architecture. 218 bottom Mrs. 278 bottom. which offered a base in the Institute for Architecture Illustration University: Credits Library. 168. and Urban Studies.: 193. Andrew MacNair. Hubert Darnisch. Pascale Ogee and Sylviane Rey the book would never have become a physical reality. Life Picture 280 bottom Service: painting by Madelon Vriesendorp. 175. 286 right bottom. Richard 106.. 239 Weltare Palace Hotel: Rem Koolhaas Perlmutter. Division of Maps and Charts: Life Picture Museum Museum the Manhattan New York. Jean Ferriss-Leie-r Herb Gehr. Martinez. Richard painting with Zoe Zenghelis. Richard Perlmutter. 280 top. Elia and in the Office for Metropolitan and generous in sharing his original Inc. R. 212. working together New York owes a special debt of inspiration to Madelon Vriesendorp. 122. of Madelon Vriesendorp. Paris: with German Martinez. In ways known and unknown to them.in any way. January 1978 317 . 124. German Derrick Snare and Ellen Soroka. Center. but even more through this book's progress without. Peter Eisenman. 290 Dali Museum. and which sponsored my first two years in the USA. 286 right middle. which awarded a grant to complete it. Above all. 186. right Life Picture Hotel: Cleveland: Service: 244 top Salvador 242 bottom Eric Schall. Mathias Ungers. 167 bottom. Rem Koolhaas Hotel Sphinx: Elia and Zoe Zenghelis. has been exceptionally materials and his recollections. 189. 121. 218 top. James Stirling. 288 Cooper-Hewitt New York: 112 Robert Descharnes. Jr. Dick Frank. to the book in the text. Delirious reinforcement Zoe Zenghelis and myself. Fellowships. Jacques Maillot.. Rachel Magrisso. Jeremie Frank. Fred Starr. Waldorf·Astoria Active colla borators at various stages of the work . Museum of Design. being by Zoe Zenghelis. Laurinda Spear. of its interns James Raimes and Stephanie Golden have contributed through their critical interventions t hei r conti nuous moral su pport. Without Georges Herscher. Teri Wehn and Ella Zenghelis have stimulated responsible for its contents. 12 Service: 180 bottom Art. the Graham Foundation for Advanced Studies in the Fine Arts in Chicago. 1972 and 1976 much of the work on projects was produced and Urban at the Studies in for Architecture 209. 188.Acknowledgm. Avery Architectural 109. 205. with the assistance and students.

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