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03/18/2014

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PAMANTASAN NG LUNGSOD NG MAYNILA College of Human Development Intramuros, Manila

RETENTION AND ORGANIZATION OF RETRIEVAL OF INFORMATION

Sharene Y. Neri BS PSY III-2 2005-10577

Ms. Sarmiento Experimental Psychology (lab)

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ABSTRACT This experiment has an objective to know the outcome of repetition on semantic memory and to observe the organization method used in the recovery of information. Three random orders of a 40-item vernacular word list with three categories of 10 words each and ten neutral words should be prepared beforehand, stopwatch, pencil, and lined paper were the apparatuses used in this experiment. The experimenter divided the class into three groups (A, B, C) with equal number of members in each group. The experimenter read the list of words. After the experimenter had read it, group A wrote all the words they recalled. They were given five minutes to do so then the group departed the room. The experimenter read once more the list, five minutes was given to group B to write down all the words they remember. After that they exited the room. For the third time the experimenter read the list to group C. After the list had read, the last group also wrote all the words they remembered in five minutes. These were all for immediate recall. After 20 minutes interpolated activity, the groups all again wrote down all the remembered words. All the subjects tallied the words both in the immediate and later recall. There is a corresponding one point for each correct word and two for clusters. Results displays that group C, who heard the list for three times got the highest scores both in immediate and later recall. While group A who listened to the list once scrammed the lowest scores. This implies iteration of words gives longer recall.

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INTRODUCTION It is now believed that the loss of information stored in short term memory has the same characteristics as loss of information stored in long-term memory. It happens quicker because it involves information that is not learned as well. What we call the learning process is transferring information from short term to long-term memory and is a physiological process. The shapes of the memory loss curves are the same. Hence we don't need to postulate a special type of memory. Memory is retention of information over a period of time. Ebbinghaus studied memories by teaching himself lists of nonsense words and then studying his retention of these lists over periods of hours to days. This was one of the earliest studies of memory in psychology. While Ebbinghaus studied retention over long intervals, later experiments studied memory loss over periods of seconds to minutes. Short-term memory was postulated to explain temporary retention of information as distinct from long-term retention of information. Short-term memory acts to also store current sensory information and to rehearse new information from sensory buffers. It has limited capacity (Miller's 7 plus or minus 2). The probability of encoding in long-term memory has been directly related to time in short term memory. METHOD The objective of the experiment is to observe the organization method used in the retrieval of information. It could also be observed on this experiment the effects of repetition on semantic memory. Three random orders of a 40-item vernacular word list with three categories of 10 words each and ten neutral words should be prepared beforehand, stopwatch, pencil, and lined paper were the apparatuses used in this experiment. The experimenter fractioned the class into three groups (A, B, C) with equal

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number of members in each group. The experimenter read the list of words. After the experimenter had read it, group A wrote all the words they recalled. They were given five minutes to do so then the group departed the room. The experimenter read once more the list, five minutes was given to group B to write down all the words they remember. After that they exited the room. For the third time the experimenter read the list to group C. After the list had read, the last group also wrote all the words they remembered in five minutes. These were all for immediate recall. After 20 minutes interpolated activity, the groups all again wrote down all the remembered words. All the subjects tallied the words both in the immediate and later recall. There is a corresponding one point for each correct word and two points for clusters. The subjects are consisted of one block of third year psychology majors. PROCEDURE The experimenter fractioned the class into three groups (A, B, C) with equal number of members in each group. The experimenter read the list of words. After the experimenter had read it, group A wrote all the words they recalled. They were given five minutes to do so then the group departed the room. The experimenter read once more the list, five minutes was given to group B to write down all the words they remember. After that they exited the room. For the third time the experimenter read the list to group C. After the list had read, the last group also wrote all the words they remembered in five minutes. These were all for immediate recall. After 20 minutes interpolated activity, the groups all again wrote down all the remembered words. All the subjects tallied the words both in the immediate and later recall. There is a corresponding one point one point for each correct word and two points for clusters.

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RESULTS
450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Number

Immediate Later A B Group Fig.1 Total No. Recalled by Groups C

The chart is regarding the overall number recalled by the groups. Group A got 213 points in immediate and 330 points on later recall. On the other hand, group B scored 293 points in immediate and 360 points on later recall. Group C overpowered the two other groups by acquiring 370 points in immediate and 409 on later recall.

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

Number

Immediate Later
A B C

Group Fig.2 Total No. of Cluster by the Groups The Fig.2 is regarding the total number of points of clusters. Group A scored 104 points on clusters in immediate and 247 points on clusters in later recall. While group B got 200 points on clusters in immediate and 298 points on clusters in later recall. Again, group C

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got the highest points by making 291 points on clusters in immediate and 365 points on clusters in later recall. DISCUSSION As seen from the figures above, the number of recalls is greater when the number of times the words were repeated is more. Group A got the lowest points because of the fact that they just heard the list once unlike group C, the highest pointers, who heard it thrice. Repeated reading of the list of words affected not only the retention of the words but also the organization of it. There are more clusters formed on the groups who heard the list more. Even if there was an activity executed to divert the attention of the subjects, their scores still progress on the later recall. The advancement of scores might be affected when the list was read again on the first checking. That is why instead of forgetting the words they remembered it more. Another factor is that people tend to remember more the things they previously made a mistake or something they forgot. CONCLUSION In this experiment it could be generalized that the recall and memory of information could not be easily identified because there is a high correlation to extraneous variables. For example the physiological conditions of the subjects and even the capacity of the subjects for memory edhering tests. Hence, it could be observed that all the concepts that were recalled were just the familiar to the subjects.

REFERENCES

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http://www.brain.web-us.com/memory/memory_encoding.htm http://www.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_winter/Topics/human-cap/memory.html

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APPENDIXES

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