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Abstract Over the last thirty years the assessment of human attributes has shifted from the focus on defining and identifying aptitudes to defining and identifying competencies. The differences are partly real and partly only apparent. What is common (and inevitable) in both approaches is the need for proper validation through rigorous, time-honoured psychometric processes. The rapidly growing software industry poses its own challenges in the task of accomplishing a satisfying person-job fit. The challenges are both in the nature and content of SD work, and in the working context, including the globalized nature of operations. The assessment of human attributes – whether aptitudes or competencies – appears significant in all stages of HRM practice, from recruitment decisions to career path decisions. A validation project undertaken in a large multinational corporation devoted to technology development yielded several interesting findings, and raised some interesting pointers as well.
PART I : CLARIFYING IDEAS The name of the game is prediction. Every manager would like to be able to predict the on-job performance of people being considered for being put on any job. The decision situation calling for a prediction may be in recruitment, in induction, in performance appraisal, in promotions, in transfers, or in career path planning. Could we not have a fool-proof device for such a prediction? The search for such devices must begin with a recap of a few basics. 1. All prediction is probabilistic. The prediction of an expected performance on the job is no different.
2. Predictions of on-job performance are made assessable – and of practical value – if they are
about specific, observable behaviours, rather than about “qualities” in a person. 3. All prediction is a projection – predicting job performance at some point of time in the future based on observations made today or in the past.
4. That makes us think about the task on hand : What do we observe / assess today to predict
job behaviours tomorrow? 5. The focus on behaviours on the job, rather than on measures of output from the job is also a late acknowledgement of the fact that performance measures are influenced by several factors and not the on-job efforts of the person alone.
The focus on job related behaviours is the chief characteristic of competency modeling. However, the ideas leading up to this position should be worth tracing briefly. → In the beginning was the attribute, a generic term to include – – both abilities and skills and features of personality and temperament – both in-born features (biologically determined) and acquired features (determined by the environment) The links between select attributes and success on the job were tenuous, but promising. → Then came aptitude, a label for the attribute-mix that seemed to be associated with vocational success. → Was there high predictability of job performance from the “scientific” measurement of either pure attributes or the clusters called aptitude? Of course not. → Along came competency that offered itself as a quick and reliable short cut. The logic was simple and convincing. It could be spelt out as follows : • • Attributes and aptitudes have low, uncertain cause-effect connections with on-job performance. They also carry problems of definition and measurement, requiring special tools and specialist expertise to use the tools. (And psychologists are fussy about the use of these tools.) People in managerial roles should be concerned more with the job-related behaviours of the person than psychological labels. Performing a job competently finally boils down to certain critical on-job behaviours, no matter what the attributes behind them. If a cluster of behaviours is consistently observed to be responsible for success on the job, that cluster can be called, in effect a competency.
So far so good. We dispense with attribute-aptitude labels. We focus on job behaviours of proven value. We still have before us the old task of prediction. What do we assess today for predicting job behaviours tomorrow? These ideas combine with the earlier basic propositions to give us an inclusive view of job “success”.
Other influences ATTRIBUTE RANGE FROM COMPLEXITY OF ORIGINS SELECT ATTRIBUTES
Other factors ON-JOB BEHAVIOURS ROLE OUTPUT
Whether we set out to assess attributes or aptitudes or competency-related “behavioural predispositions” we need to assure ourselves that the assessments as well as the judgements from those assessments are valid Hence the discipline of validation. There remains an unanswered question. Who would have ever imagined that little Albert, with his consistently poor grades in school, would become the great Einstein one day? What do we do about predicting potentials, the latent forces waiting to blossom tomorrow with not a hint in behaviours displayed today or yesterday? Is that not the real challenge in human resource development? Is that prediction possible at all? If we would like to believe that it is, would that not take us back to the assessment of some critical attributes? PART II : THE IDEAS IN PRACTICE This is a case study of a validation project in a large, highly reputed American technology development corporation with a significant presence in India. The case study is an illustration of the essential bind between research and practice in developing management systems. For the purpose of the case the identity of the corporation has been disguised. Amtech India Ltd. (AIL) is a wholly owned subsidiary of Amtech Corporation, a technology leader with an enviable track record of innovations and firsts in the marketplace. AIL is a software development centre of Amtech, growing rapidly in both volume of work and reputation, to become one of the most prestigious units of the Corporation. Software Development Organizations The “software boom” has left many a spectator overawed and speechless. Some demystification should be in order, along with a more helpful perspective to the phenomenon. Software is best seen as “that which makes the hardware work”. Software development (SD) is therefore complementary to hardware development, the two tasks being integrated in the larger task of technology development. HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT R&D → for → TECHNOLOGY → comprising DEVELOPMENT SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
People in SD Organizations There is now a substantial body of experience in India in the management of SD organizations. This experience has also helped in recognizing the uniqueness of the management task on several counts. Naturally the task of managing the human resource also calls for special attention. Competency Modeling At AIL : The Whole and the Parts The task at AIL was visualized as three-pronged : → Deriving generic as well as role-specific competencies for SD → Identifying attributes that may predispose people towards the competencies → Developing assessment methods for the competencies and attributes.
Most important, it was also recognized that the efforts on the people competencies front would need to be complimented with efforts on the organizational-systemic conditions front – the basis for a genuine OD process in the organization. The three-pronged task at AIL was positioned as a validation project. In other words, the management of AIL was interested not merely in a bag of tools, but a scientific basis for their use. The totality of the validation project could be viewed thus:
It will be seen that the competencies that are made up of on-job behaviours can be brought into our analyses both as predictor variables and as criterion variables. The task of deriving a list of competencies at AIL began with an acceptance of the reality of a competency-culture fit. No competency can be called relevant or irrelevant in absolute terms. Its validity is determined to a great extent by the organizational context – the value system that promotes and reinforces certain patterns of behaviour and discourages certain other behaviours. Using a mix of methods, including the study of several documents, group discussions (using the critical incident technique), and individual interviews, it was possible to identify certain key features of the organizational culture at Amtech and, in particular, AIL :
• • • • • • •
Flexibility – a facilitative rather than regulatory approach in administrative practices. Openness – free expression on work related matters, unhindered by rank, status, domain considerations. Quality – a high concern for quality in all areas of work, striving for continuous improvement. Performance orientation – both in reward systems as well as in enabling systems. Work enrichment – jobs and assignments made challenging, demanding high levels of application. Teamwork – emphasis on collaborative processes, strengthening interfaces across roles and functions. Ethics – upholding high ethical standards both in external business and internal practices.
It was against this backdrop that we were to accomplish the project objectives, which may be summarized simply as : (1) Identifying the competencies that make a successful software professional in AIL.
(2) Identifying methods by which the competencies may be predicted in a variety of staffing situations. The very first task in the project therefore was to concentrate on the first objective, ie. deriving the competencies. A starting premise in the project was later proved correct : that the competency-mix for software professionals in AIL would have a 2-tier structure – – Tier 1 would comprise a generic list of competencies, relevant for all software professionals in AIL Tier 2 would have add-on competencies that would be function-specific or role-specific.
The method The precipitative model adopted for deriving the competencies at AIL may be depicted diagrammatically. (Figure 1) The method used in the very first stage should be worth a brief description here. --------------Figure 1 about here --------------The first requirement in the exercise of competency modeling is an empirically generated data base of specific behaviours in actual work situations. A reliable way to get at these behaviours is through a group exercise as outlined below. (The definitely unreliable way is to get a few managers to list competencies of the ideal player.) A standardized exercise has been developed at The P&P Group for this purpose. Step 1. Each member of the group identifies persons who s/he considers as having been very highly and consistently successful on the job in the position / function being examined. Important guidelines : • It must be a real person, not hypothetical / stereotype. • It must be from personal knowledge, not hearsay. • The name of the person should not be revealed. • The success on the job should be both (a) more than ordinarily high, and (b) consistently so. • A minimum of one such person and a maximum of three are to be identified. • The person/s must be identified on one’s own, without consultation / discussion with others in the group. Step 2. For each of the persons identified (separately) the participant lists specific behaviours observed on the job that might be associated with the success. The list must not contain traits / attributes (eg. hard working, dedicated), but things actually done (eg. taking personal charge, not giving up till the solution was found). Step 3 and 4. Steps 1 and 2 are repeated identifying persons who were unsuccessful on the job in the position / function being examined. The important guidelines remain. Step 5. The group pools the behavioural observations from Steps 1 and 2 and arrives at a consolidated list of specific behaviours with high success on the job. Step 6. The group pools the behavioural observations from steps 3 and 4 and arrives at a consolidated list of specific behaviours with failure or unsatisfactory performance on the job.
Similar lists generated by the various groups are examined together in Stage 2 of the exercise and tentative clusters of related behaviours derived. It must be noted that the behaviours associated with failure or consistent shortfalls in performance are equally important to examine. They reveal the contraindicators for assessment practice.
Fig. 1 A PRECIPITATIVE MODEL FOR DERIVING COMPETENCIES
Stage 1 : Begin with exhaustive list of specific behaviours
Stage 2 : Derive tentative clusters
Stage 3 : Cross-check with available body of literature, practice
Stage 4 : Derive competency-mix with operational definitions
The competencies The focus on behaviours was the single most important guideline for the team that was set up to drive the project within AIL. In the beginning this was more easily said than done. It was nevertheless a disciplined process that progressively translated into good practice through the project. A large number of on-job behaviours were identified that could be distributed between the 2 tiers of competencies. (Generic and role-specific.) A content analysis of the data collected showed that the on-job behaviours could clustered into 10 main types of competencies : • • • • • • • • • • Competencies in application of available knowledge in the subject / discipline / domain, and upgradation of knowledge. Competencies in learning / mastering the use of tools and techniques in a domain. Competencies in transferring learning across domains. Competencies in problem definition / analyses / selection. Competencies in professional communication. Competencies in interpersonal communication. Competencies in task perseverance. Competencies in working under pressure. Competencies in planning and goalsetting. Competencies in maintaining ethical standards of conduct.
Validation Although undertaken as a consultancy project by The P&P Group, it is interesting to note that within AIL the validation project was viewed (correctly) as applied research. The validation project was carried out in two broad phases of work : • • Research Application.
The research in the first phase comprised 4 streams of work : (10 deriving competencies; (2) a predictive validity exercise with testing in campus recruitment; (3) a concurrent validity exercise with in-house testing; (4) a comparative analysis with a data bank at The P&P Group. Predictor measures The project employed 6 different standardized psychometric instruments, covering 28 scalable attributes. In addition there were 3 scales yielding scores on test response pattern. The instruments were chosen for their possible association with the ten competency clusters identified earlier.
Attribute Abilities • • • Abstract reasoning Logical analysis Cognitive style Advanced Progressive Matrices W-G Critical Thinking Appraisal Sub-test of 16 PF 1 5 1 Name of instrument Number of scales
Temperament • • • • • • • • • Achievement motivation Locus of control Activity Super ego Dominance Emotionality Introversion 15 remaining scales Test response pattern Sentence Completion Test LOC scale Personality Traits Inventory 1 2 5
From 16 PF From 16 PF
In addition to the above the analyses included several demographic variables as predictor measures. Criterion measures One of the important features of this validation research was the inclusion of a wide range of variables as criterion measures. The totality of criterion measures is shown in Figure 2. A comprehensive performance review instrument was designed exclusively for AIL for the assessment of competencies. --------------Figure 2 about here --------------It will be seen in Figure 4 that the criterion measures include the 10 clusters of competencies. However, as shown earlier, it was possible to regard the measures of competencies both as predictor measures and as criterion measures in a multivariate plan of analysis. Analysis The in-house sample for the study was 90 software professionals. The campus recruitment sample for the predictive validity study was over 450, drawn from several campuses. Appropriate multivariate techniques were used for the analysis of data. Findings A summary of the main findings should be sufficient for the purposes of this paper : • • Tests of Abstract Reasoning and Logical Analysis were found to be relevant in predicting technical performance on the job. 9 personality dimensions were associated with high role performance.
3 personality dimensions appeared to be very promising, but did not show significant results on account of inadequacies in the instruments: – Achievement orientation – Locus of control – Activity /energy
Findings from the predictive validity stream of the project are not reported here.
COMPETENCIES in on-job behaviours
Innovative acts Interactional behaviours
Reports, Papers, Books Advancement 1 measure Salary difference Grade difference
By supervisory By self assessment assessment
6 measures Current levels Estimated potential
Total : 19 criterion measures
Application The application phase of the project identified certain clear lines of action as indicated by the research. A. Testing related 1. “Cleaning up” and finalizing a test battery for use in recruitment. 2. Standardization of test administration – booklets, manuals, scoring procedures, etc. 3. Training for – – test users – decision makers 4. Policy guidelines for professional / ethical standards in the use of tests. 5. Further work on select scales / tests. B. Integration with HRD 1. Development of interview methodology around validated attributes (“Funnelling” technique). 2. Development of interview methodology around validated competencies. 3. Development of other assessment devices (group tasks, simulations, application forms, etc.) around validated competencies and attributes. 4. Extension to Assessment Centre methodology. An Overview Looking back, the project team felt it had arrived at an important insight through the project. Although competencies may be viewed as “intermediate” variables between the attributes (predictors) and job performance (criteria), competencies themselves need to be observable and measurable to have any practical value in human resource management. Further, competencies are, after all, behavioural characteristics of people – in certain specific behavioural contexts. Therefore it appears quite correct to regard a competency as an attribute, and the category called competencies as a sub-set of the general class called attributes. Following from this, the action implications also appear clear. In some situations of assessment, the competencies may be regarded as criterion measures, to be predicted by the assessment of attributes. In some other situations, the assessment of competencies (with or without the assessment of other attributes) may well be as predictors, with other performance-related indicators held as criterion measures. Viewed another way, the observations above suggest that the focus on competencies appears definitely relevant for staffing decisions. However, it may not be the sufficient condition. To ensure that on-job behaviours are predictable and relatively enduring, the task of attribute definition and assessment on sound psychometric lines appears unavoidable.
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