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29475304 Restaurant Operations Management

29475304 Restaurant Operations Management

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RESTAURANT OPERATIONS MANAGEMENT PRINCIPLES and PRACTICES Jack D. Ninemeier David K. Hayes PART 1 RESTAURANT BASICS 1.

INTRODUCTION TO RESTAURANTS and THE RESTAURANT INDUSTRY EUROPEAN RESTAURANT HISTORY There is evidence that food was sold in public marketplaces seven-thousand years ago and historical accounts describe the banquets and feasts enjoyed by the ancient Greeks and Romans twenty-five hundred years ago. The oldest written recipes date from the fourth century B.C. in a cookbook written by Apicius. The earliest recorded cuisine, then is that of the ancient Romans. France with its haute cuisine, became a leader in fine dining by improving on many basic food preparation and service techniques that had been developed earlier in several European countries including Italy and Spain. Before the 1600s, just a few inns were available for travelers, who primarily traveled for trade and religious purposes; there was little travel for pleasure. In fact, the word ´travelµ comes from ´travailµ which means to toil at hard labor. In the mid-1700s, a Frenchman began selling soups, which he suggested were health restorers in an establishment called a restauer (French for ´to restoreµ). And the term restaurant was born. U.S. RESTAURANT HISTORY In the United States, an increasing number of taverns and inns became popular in cities during the early 1800s. As they grew in wealth and size communities began to support more extravagant and expensive eating out alter natives. American Plan : The hotel pricing structure in which some (or all) of a guest·s meals are included in the basic guest room rate. (Full -Board) Modified American Plan : Half-Board ( Zimmer mit Halbpension ) A la Carte (Menus): Menu pricing in which each meal component is sold (priced) individually. European Plan: The hotel pricing structure in which guests pay only for the meals they consume; food charges are not part of the basic room rate. ( accommodation only ² Zimmerpreis ohne Pension ) The secret of success: The secret of success in restaurant operation includes cleanliness excellent service and high-quality silverware/linen; most importantly; the food should be very good . The successful restaurant operators generally own their own farms to provide milk, butter, and eggs. In the 1950s, the McDonald·s restaurant chain began its rise to popularity. Other chains followed with specialties including fried chicken, roast beef sandwiches, fish, and pizza

Contract Management Company-operated (Noncommercial food services): A type of noncommercial foodservices operation in which the program is managed and operated by a company specializing in foodservices management. Self-operated (Noncommercial foodservices): A type of non-commercial foodservices operation in which the program is managed and operated by the organization·s own employees. clean premises. By the early 1980s American began to eat out more frequently. wines have dramatically increased in popularity and by the 1980s. also called institutional foodservices. quick service Before the 1970s. resort or shopping mall. Restaurants may have few or many seats. They may or may not serve alcoholic beverages in addition to food and may have extensive or limited menus. Noncommercial Operations (foodservices): Foodservice operations whose financial goal does not involve generating profits from the sale of food and beverage products. Since that time. One reason was demographics (more single and divorced persons and a growing proportion of working women).among many others. they may be free-standing or located within a hotel. some of the best California wines had excellent reputations and could successfully compete with their French counterparts. The Travel / Tourism Industry The travel / tourism industry identifies three major segments: hospitality transportation services destination alternatives Commercial Operations (foodservices): Foodservices offered in hotels and restaurants and other organizations whose primary financial goal involves generation of profits from the sale of food and beverage products. and low prices. many Americans did not drink wine at all: Many know little about the beverage and were reluctant to try it. WHAT IS A RESTAURANT ? A restaurant is a for-profit foodservice operation whose primary business involves the sale of food/beverage products to individuals and small groups of guests. Their advantage. . standardized menus.

Directing : Supervising the work of staff members. Issuing : the process of moving products from storage areas to the point of use (place of production) Preparing : The steps involved in getting an ingredient ready for cooking or serving. Controlling : Determining the extent to which the organization ´keeps on trackµ of . Storing: The process of holding products under optimal storage conditions until they are needed for production or use. Restaurants offer alternative service methods. Holding involves keeping hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Franchise: An arrangement whereby one party (the franchisor) allows the owner of the hospitality business (the franchisee) to use the franchisor·s logo. systems. Staffing: Finding the right people for the job. Coordinating: Arranging group efforts in an orderly manner. BASIC MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES Planning : Defining goals. Receiving : The transfer of ownership from a supplier to the hospitality operation which occurs when products are delivered. name. Franchisor: Those who own and manage the brand and sell the right to use the brand name to franchisees. Cooking: The application of heat to food to make the food more palatable and/or enjoyable for consumption. celery must be cleaned and chopped before being cooked in a stew or cleaned and sliced before use on an appetizer tray. They may also be quick-service properties with lower prices offering food served at a counter by a cashier. Restaurant (Independent ): Properties owned/operated by an entrepreneur which are not affiliated with a franchised or multiunit organization. also called a ´chainµ. establishing strategies to achieve them and designing ways to get work done. Holding: The task of maintaining food items at proper serving temperature after they are prepared. Restaurant (Multiunit): Properties which are affiliated with a franchise or other organization containing multiple (sometimes thousands) properties. For example. and resources in exchange for a fee.They may offer fine dining at high prices (gourmet food served by highly experienced service staff to guests seated at tables covered with tablecloths and set with the finest tableware. They may offer a theme to complement the dining area with modest tables/chairs and /or booths and counters. Organizing : Developing and grouping work tasks.

A job description indicates the tasks which a person working within a position must be able to perform. Staffing: Job descriptions and specifications should be developed for each position and should be kept current. ALTERNATIVE LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership style Bureaucratic Example of Leadership Approach Do it by the book Useful When standardized work (accounting. a job specification indicates the personal requirements judged necessary for someone to successfully complete the tasks required by a position. Orientation: The process of providing basic information about the hospitality operation which must be known by all employees in every department. By contrast. evaluation can identify issues (problems) which should be considered by additional planning. Positive discipline : Supervision activities designed to reinforce desired performance.achieving goals. Evaluating : Assessing the extent to which plans are attained . Negative Discipline : Supervision activities designed to correct undesired performance. for example) must be done Democratic Let·s figure it out together For experienced and motivated employees Laissez-faire Dictator (Autocratic) You figure it out Do it my way ! For consultants and subcontractors for new employees doing relatively simple tasks .

BASIC PLANNING TOOLS Planning tool Vision Example Vision: to be the restaurant of choice for social groups in the community Mission Mission statement: to meet needs of social groups by providing desired food/beverages and services at the prices which represent value for the guests.5%)is unexplainable and excessive.3 ² 35.8% . Step 5 Corrective actions must be evaluated to assure success 37. Step 2 Actual performance must be measured The income statement indicates that the actual food cost is 39. Step 4 Corrective actions to address variances between standards and actual performance must be implemented Decision-making (problem-solving) techniques are used to generate / select solution alternatives. Two tactics (improved purchasing and use of portion control procedures ) are implemented.8% (39.5% goal has been taken .3% Step 3 Variance between standards and actual performance must be assessed The variance of 3.STEPS IN THE CONTROL PROCESS Steps Step 1 Standards must be established Example The restaurant·s operating budget establishes a 35. further corrective actions will be planned and implemented. Long-Range Plan Long-Range Plan : to obtain 60% of all social group business in the community within five years. .5% food cost goal. a step towards the 35.

issued. Instead. However. We will review this system and illustrate how it can provide a practical approach to anticipating and preventing sanitation/related problems before they occur. inspected. they want to enjoy their meal and they have. CHAPTER 2 THE RESTAURANT MANAGER AND SANITATION When you buy an automobile. Marketing Plan Operating Budget Marketing plan : Strategies and tactics to increase social group revenues within the next 12 months. FOODBORNE ILLNESS: A sickness caused by consuming food which has been contaminated by microorganisms. assembled. In much the same way guests visiting your restaurant purchase a meal and expect it to be safe to eat and pleasant tasting (among other expectations). and served. for example. They. or physical hazards. produced. chemicals. in turn. you have little or no concern about the challenges confronted by the manufacturer as the auto was designed. put their health and well-being into the hands of the manager and his/her staff. As the purchaser. may have no concern for the challenges the restaurant manager faces as products are purchased stored. They must. and shipped to the point of sale (auto dealer). Operating Budget : Expected revenue generated from and costs associated with social group business. meet budget goals to satisfy their own boss and undertake ongoing marketing efforts to discover what their guests want and need. SANITATION IS CRITICAL Restaurant managers have many responsibilities. This chapter will explore what goes on ´behind the scenesµ to help assure that food is safe for human consumption. What is the best way to manage sanitation in a restaurant? The answer is to know and implement a system of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP). . literally. Then they must work to ´deliverµ product s/services that consistently meet previously determined quality and quantity standards.Business Plan Business Plan: to increase market share of all social group business in the community by 5% within the next 12 months. no responsibility is more important than the manager·s obligation to protect the health and well-being of the guests and staff members who consume the products which the restaurant serves. We·ll begin by explaining an obvious point that a concern for sanitation is critical. you expect it to get you ´from here to thereµ safely and without breakdown or other incident.

or is otherwise unfit to eat. is decomposed or produced under unsanitary conditions. RESTAURANT MANAGER Several sanitation concerns that directly involve the restaurant manager include: recognizing that sanitation / related problems pose an ever-present danger : The manager must have an attitude of concern (Problems can occur at my restaurant) learning about basic sanitation principles and practices training and supervising employees provide proper tools and equipment : Employees cannot. Those with even occasional problems will likely suffer reduced guest counts and lost revenues for many months or longer if serious problems become known to the public. WHOLESOME (FOOD): Food which is suitable for human consumption.Restaurants known to have continual sanitation-related problems can never be successful. ADULTERATED FOOD : Food that is unfit for human consumption because it contains filth. GRADING (FOOD PRODUCTS): An assessment of foods relative to pre-established quality standards. for example. MISBRANDED FOOD: Food that is packaged wit h false and/or misleading information on its label. INSPECTION (FOOD): Activities including the inspection of animals slaughtering conditions and meat processing facilities to assure that food being produced is fit for human consumption. monitor food temperatures while products are being held before service if accurate thermometers are not available. contains poisons or harmful substances. grading is optional for all food products. poorly monitored refrigeration equipment or inadequate capacities of existing refrigerator units create problems caused by the manager not by the staff members FOOD SERVICE ESTABLISHMENT INSPECTION SCORE WORKSHEET ADMINISTRATION FOOD TEMPERATURE FOOD SOURCE FOOD PROTECTION FACILITY DESIGN AND OTHER CRITICAL ITEMS PERSONAL HYGIENE AND OTHER FOOD PROTECTION How can restaurant employees show their concern about sanitation? consistently handle food in ways that incorporate basic sanitation concern . Likewise.

relatively small but potentially very dangerous number of microorganisms are pathogens.- - recognize and practice appropriate personal hygiene standards : a person·s ongoing health practices should include daily bathing. infected cuts on his / her hands. drinking. and watches. picking up items from the floor. examples of inappropriate on-job behavior include: y smoking / eating and chewing gum (unless on a break away from food) y wearing jewelry such as rings. Staff members can infect food by sneezing or coughing on food or when blood fluid or pus comes in contact with food. intestinal illnesses. For example . such as cleaning tables or floors. coffee. others help synthesize nutrients in our bodies. smoking. or other beverages (except in a covered container that is handled in a way to prevent contamination of the foods / work surfaces with which it comes in contact) An employee·s personal health can be a serious concern. most microorganisms are not harmful to humans. MICROORGANISMS: MICROORGANISMS : Living forms of life that are too small to be seen without magnification. PROPER AND FREQUENT HANDWASHING IS CRITICAL Effective hand-washing procedures can do much to reduce the possibility of foodborne illness because organisms are frequently transfer red to food from the hands of employees who handle the food. shigella spp and certain types of E. coughing. and even help clean up oil leaks in the ocean. Fortunately. eating. yogurt and beer). they are ´cleanµ when first . as an ingredient in some medicines. also called microbes. Fortunately. Staff members who have been diagnosed with illnesses caused by specific microorganisms (salmonella. (microorganisms on these items can contaminate foods when the jewelry comes in contact with foods) y Drinking water. for example. or using a handkerchief / tissue after performing any task that might contaminate hands. and washing hands as necessary poor personal habits can create serious hazards. In fact. Microorganisms are involved in the production of foods (for example. which are harmful to humans. typhus. plastic gloves are effective only until the first time they come in contact with soil or microorganisms. handling clearing supplies. bracelets. when a staff member reports to work with colds. Examples of times when hands should be washed include: y y y y y y y before reporting to work after using the restroom after taking a break before beginning food preparation after touching any part of the body after sneezing. many are beneficial to us.coli and hepatitis ) can be especially dangerous when working arou nd food. or arms. In fact. face. wearing clean clothes. and taking out the garbage Some food handlers mistakenly believe that using plastic gloves eliminates the potential to spread microorganisms.

the moisture available in fresh meats and poultry upon which microorganisms thrive. Others (anaerobic) cannot survive if oxygen is present. which is used in the manufacturing of many plastic gloves. Temperature: Some (psychrophilic) bacteria grow best at cold temperatures ( 0 ² 21 degree C). rather. Note: many persons have allergies to latex. Oxygen: some (aerobic) organisms require oxygen. By contrast.worn. However. for example. which is not usable to them. Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses are of all three types. These include: y y y y y moisture: moisture in a usable form must available for growth and reproduction. and which. Others (mesophilic) bacteria grow best at temperatures around that of the human body (37 degree C). they are just as contaminated as would be skin on an uncovered hand. they require certain conditions to remain alive. and like humans . often called ´germsµ CONDITIONS FOR OPTIMAL GROWTH Microorganisms are living forms of life. Acidity . Still others (facultative anaerobic) bacteria can grow regardless of whether oxygen is available. think about moisture in frozen meats and poultry. turn off water faucet with paper towel PATHOGENS: Microorganisms that are capable of causing disease. Note: Freezing products does not kill organisms in the food being frozen. THE ´RECIPEµ FOR EFFECTIVE HAND -WASHING Step 1 ² wet hand with hot running water Step 2 ² apply soap Step 3 ² lather soap by rubbing between hands (20 seconds minimum) Step 4 ² use a brush to clean under fingernails and between fingers Step 5 ² rinse hand thoroughly under hot running water Step 6 ² dry hand with a clean paper towel or hand dryer Step 7 ² if possible.60 degree C). therefore reduces (prevents) their growth while in frozen product. Time: Microorganisms can grow and reproduce quickly. Consider. Organisms that cause foodborne illnesses grow best at a temperature range of (5. after an employee handles money. it only prevents the organisms from growing and reproducing while the food is frozen. ties his / her shoes or scratches his / her face. Still other (thermophilic) microorganisms grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). You should consider purchasing latex-free gloves for your restaurant if these items will be used.

and seafood. y y y minimize time : food-handling procedures must minimize the time that microorganisms have to grow and reproduce. the temperature range of most potential concern for foodborne illness is (5 to 57 degree C). and those that are high in protein such as casserole dishes containing these item. Let·s look at these three factors more carefully. Many experts suggest that this time should be limited to four hours or less.y Food: most organisms like protein-rich foods. for example. AEROBIX MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms r equiring oxygen to live.----------------- MICROORGANISMS AND FOODBORNE ILLNESSES Food can become contaminated by microorganisms in one of two ways: y y y The presence of microorganisms: food infections The presence of toxins (poisons) in the food : food poisonings NOT ALL FOODBORNE ILLNESSES ARE FOOD POISONINGS . and beans. and rice. you have learned that those high in protein content are among the most potentially hazardous. such as meats. potatoes. FACULTATIVE ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live with or without oxygen present PSYCHROPHILIC BACTERIA : Those which grow best at cold temperatures MESAPHILIC BACTERIA : Those which grow best at temperatures around that of the human body THERMOPHILIC BACTERIA: Those which grow best at temperatures above (43 degree C). ANAEROBIC MICROORGANISMS: Microorganisms that can live only when oxygen is not present. Temperature danger zone: As you learned in the previous section. poultry. -------------------------- ---------------------------------------------. CONTROLLING GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS You have just learned that microorganisms causing foodborne illness require six elements for optimal growth and reproduction: y y y y y y Moisture Oxygen Time Temperature Acidity Food Of these. three are the most important: time. Potentially hazardous foods: While all foods are potentially hazardous. food and temperature.

the toxins they produced while living may remain harmful because the poison is not ´killedµ or inactivated by heat. guests eating it would eat only the first bite rather than the entire meal). or might even feel somewhat slimy (as in the case of fish or meat). it becomes necessary to focus their efforts on preventing rather than on detecti ng contaminated food. Most contaminated food does not have an unusual taste (if it did. food containing organisms causing food intoxications can be cooked to high temperature for a sufficient period of time to destroy the microorganisms in the food. The answer to the question above (how can you tell if food is contaminated?) is s imply. other foods. or feel.FOOD INFECTION: A foodborne illness caused by the presence of microorganisms in food FOOD POISONING: A foodborne illness cau sed by the presence of poisons (toxins) in the food which are produced by microorganisms SOME COMMON FOODBORNE ILLNESS Bacterial Intoxications (Poisonings) y y y y clostridium botulinum clostridium perfringens streptococcus aureus bacillus cereus Bacterial Infections y y y y y y salmonella Spp shigella vibrio Spp Escherichia coli Listeria monocytogenes Campylobacter jejuni Viral Infections y y Norwalk virus Hepatitis A HOW CAN YOU TELL IF FOOD IS CONTAMINATED ? Some foods that are safe to eat may smell. that are not safe to consume may have no unusual smell. Since restaurant managers do not have access to sophisticated testing methods required to detect the presence of microorganisms and / or their toxins. ´You cannotµ. can be cloudy. however. look. For example. Unfortunately. TACTICS TO PREVENT FOODBORNE ILLNESS Purchasing Receiving Storing . by contrast. Some contaminated foods do not even contain living microorganisms.

Some restaurants provide self-service salad bars and / or hot food counters and allow guests to help themselves to these or other items. A common practice of removing all items to be produced at the beginning of a shift for production during the shift is not a good one. it is necessary to consistently assure that the product is held above 57 degree C until it is served to guests. Utensils such as knifes and cutting boards and the work counters upon which they are used should be properly cleaned between food preparation tasks to prevent cross-contamination.8 degree C or below Dry storage foods 10 ² 21.8 degree C.- Production After Production Handling Managing leftovers Clean Up PUCHASING Refrigerated / frozen products need to be maintained within appropriate temperature ranges during transport from the supplier·s facility to the restaurant RECEIVING Refrigerated foods must be at a temperature below 5 degree C. Foods should never be stored near sanitizing. STORING Proper storage temperatures are: y y y Refrigerated storage 5 degree C or below Frozen food storage ²17. PRODUCTION Frozen foods should not be thawed at room temperature or left in a sink full of water overnight. or other chemicals. thaw as part of the cooking process thaw in a sink with cold running water Foods in production should be kept at room temperature for a minimal amount of time. AFTER-PRODUCTION HANDLING Some items such as proportioned steaks are served to guests immediately after production and the time within the temperature danger zone is minimal. If practical. There are three appropriate methods for thawing frozen foods: thaw in the refrigerator. Items should not be stored under water/sewer lines located overhead that can be a source of contamination. When this occurs. other items such as casserole dishes and sauces may be held for extensive time periods before service. frozen food must be at a temperature below 17. However. mold growth or other deterioration. Fruits and vegetables may be visibly inspected for decay . cleaning.1 degree C Food should be stored away from walls and at least six inches off the floors to allow for air circulation and for proper cleaning. Canned items can be randomly checked for bulges and dents along side seams and rims. chemicals should be stored in a different room to reduce still further misidentification and related problem. Raw food products should be stored beneath cooked / ready-to-eat foods. It is just as important to keep food .

Let·s define two terms: Cleaning and sanitizing. using ice baths. rinse and sanitizing cycles of specified water temperatures and durations. These include readying tableservice items and pots / pans for future use. microorganisms can grow and reproduce during the product·s cool down period. These machines have controlled wash.2 degree C) in mechanical dish or pot / pan washers and (73. Cleaning involves removing soil and residues of food from items being cleaned. . Sneeze Guard (Food services) : A see-through sold barrier used to protect foods in selfservice counter and other areas from guests who might otherwise cough or sneeze onto food. will not die after the product is frozen.9 degree C) in manual wash sinks Chemicals such as chlorine or quaternary ammonium compound-based chemicals in specified concentrations Dish and pot / pan washing machines range from single rack units to conveyor -type machines through which items to be washed can be continually fed. foods which do remain to be used at an other time must be quickly brought to a temperature below 5 degree C.being held in public areas at temperatures of 57 degree C or higher or at 5 degree C or below as it is for foods held in nonpublic areas of the kitchen. fixtures. and frequently stirring products in containers ( to relocate the warmer center-of-container product to the sides. and the organisms will continue to grow during the initial time that the product is being thawed. and top of the container to speed up heat dispersion). However. and equipment. After items have been cleaned they can then be sterilized by one of two methods: y y Use of heat (typically 82. By contrast. Tableware and Pots / Pans Numerous activities are necessary after products have been produced and served to guests. sanitizing involves eliminatin g disease-causing microorganisms that remain after cleaning. Most manual washing systems are designed to perform required tasks in a left-to-right sequence. Sanitizing (Foodservices) : The elimination of disease-causing microorganisms that remain after cleaning. (They will just be inactivated ). Cleaning (foodservices) : The removal of soil and residues of food from the items being cleaned. MANAGING LEFTOVER Accurate food production estimates will minimize the amount of leftovers that remain at the end of guest service. It is generally best to not freeze leftovers for late used. bottom. Tactics to do this include storing items in shallow containers. By contrast. manual dish wash and pot / pan washing sinks require at least three separate sinks for these purposes. CLEAN-UP Final tactics in the process to prevent foodborne illness relate to clean-up activities for tableware and pots/pans along with furniture.

They are then removed to the clean counter where they can drain and air dry before being or reused. OTHER SANITATION ISSUES Chemical Hazards Food can also be contaminated by chemicals. items are then placed in the rinse sink and finally. Residues may remain on these products when they reach the restaurant and proper washing is a ´mustµ. Hand-washing facilities must be conveniently located and continuall y stocked with liquid or powered soap. An approved chemical sanitizing solution can be swabbed or sprayed onto food-contact service. Toxins can be found in shellfish and mushrooms. in the sanitizing sink. and Equipment Equipment including that used for food production and service must be cleaned according to the manufacturer·s instructions. and areas should be allowed to air dry before further use. Some colorings in fruits and vegetables such as maraschino cherries may also cause illnesses/allergies. Fixtures.Items to be washed can be placed on the soiled dish counter and can then be scraped and rinsed before being placed in the wash sink. After cleaning with the proper detergent in the proper concentration. Pesticides are applied to many fruits and vegetables to protect them before harvest. or scouring pad and warm soapy water. Clean from the top-to-bottom (or from one side to another) and then rinse with fresh water and a clean cloth. Basic tactics include using a clean cloth. Another sanitation precaution: don·t towel-dry. Examples of manmade chemicals that cause foodborne illnesses. Drawing of Manual Dish and Pot / Pan Washing Sink 1 2 3 4 5 Soiled dish(pot/pan) counter with disposer in trough and overhead spray/rinse attachment Wash sink Rinse sink Sanitized sink Clean dish (pot/pan) counter Note: For illustration purposes only. not do drawn to scale Furniture. This principle becomes easier to implement when the clean counter is of sufficient size (length) to hold the number of items (racks) being washed at one time. . brush.

wood splinters (from toothpicks / skewers used in food production). and other areas where these pests can enter must be discovered and concealed. Food should be stored properly and garbage should be promptly removed from food preparation areas and should be kept covered until removal on a regularlyscheduled basis.Other chemicals including those used for facility and equipment cleaning and sanitizing sometimes get into /onto foods and can cause serious illness and even death. metal shavings (from can openers). and / or air curtains can help prevent the entry of flying insects. such as those made from cadmium or galvanized metals. Physical Hazards Foods can be contaminated with physical hazards which can cause illness. doors. rats and mice infestation. Physical hazards (foods): Foreign objects in food such as glassware and metal shavings that can cause illness and injury if they are consumed. An integrated pest management program (IPMP) is recommended which involves a five step effort of: y y y y y Inspection Identification Sanitation Application of pest management control procedures Evaluation of effectiveness with follow-up inspections . Proper housekee ping procedures can reduce problems of cockroaches. mice flies. Chemical poisonings can also occur if foods are stored / processed in inappropriate containers. All areas of the restaurant should be regularly cleaned and tight -fitting screens. Food handlers must process foods safely. and cockroaches. beans. carry disease -causing bacteria and can cause food contamination as they move about food preparation areas and onto food ingredients. injury and sometimes death. Examples of physical hazards include glass fragments (from glassware broken around food and / or in food preparation areas). and should not wear unnecessary jewelry which can be ´lostµ in food while it is being produced. and other grains. Cracks small holes. Pest Control Hazards Pests including rats. human hair labels from food containers and stones or rocks which may be found in bags of rice. Finally it is important to use a pest control program to eliminate those that have entered the restaurant. Storing cleaning items away from food products carefully labeling of items and using them according to the manufacturer·s instructions are among tactics to minimize risks from using these items. They to reducing problems caused by pests involves prevention. carefully inspect products being produced. Incoming foods / supplies should be checked at time of receiving for signs of infestation as should the restaurant·s own storage areas.

2. Many restaurant organizations have now adapted the system. The system was later adapted by food manufacturers who produced large quantities of food for distribution around the country and the world. would lack medical assistance desired in case of a foodborne illnes s. 3. STEPS IN THE HACCP SYSTEM 1. 4. Note: In this restaurant. Procedures specified in the HACCP program were initially developed for the US space program to protect astronauts who on their flights into outer space. Assess Hazards Identify critical control points (CCP·s) Define limits for each CCP Monitor CCP·s Implement corrective actions when critical limits are exceeded Establish record keeping system Verify success of HACCP System Hazard (food contamination): Microorganisms. Critical Control Points ( CCP ): Something that can be done in the movement of food from the times of receiving to service which will help prevent eliminate. 5. cooling. Of these. hot food holding and cold food holding) involve efforts to prevent or. 6.HACCP and THE MANAGEMENT OF SANITATION HACCP ( Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points ): A practical system using proper foodhandling procedures along with monitoring and record keeping to help assure that food is safe for consumption. or reduce hazards to persons consuming the food. HACCP emphasis is on anticipating and correctin g potential food safety problems before they occur rather than on taking corrective actions after a problem arises. Examples of CCP·s include cooking. . frozen ground beef is thawed as part of the storage (refrigeration) process. The HACCP system incorporates the basics of microbiology (the study of factors which help promote growth of microorganisms) and proper food handling procedures which incorporate these ´basicsµ into an on-going management and control system. 7. Fresh seafood and frozen ground beef become special concerns during the preparing step. at least to slow the rate of bacterial growth. and procedures are in place to assure that thawing is done properly. chemicals and physical objects which can contaminate a food product. The remaining three (cooling. They are potentially hazardous foods and are treated carefull y by production personnel trained to handle these products. reheating. and holding hot and cold products at the temperature which recognize the importance of the danger zone ( 5 to 60 degree C). Critical control points are steps or procedures in the food handling process whic h are used to control : y y y y Time Temperature Product acidity Receiving procedures relating to products including ready -to-eat foods if a subsequent step in production will not prevent a hazard. cooking and reheating relate to efforts to destroy harmful microorganisms.

Critical limit ( HACCP Program ): Boundaries (maximum/minimum limits) which define the extent to which a critical control point must be controlled to minimize risks of food borne illness. The casserole is baked and is then held at a temperature above 57 degree C until service. When reviewing the holding step. A cook on the serving line may check the internal temperature of a casserole dish every fifteen minutes. By contrast. our point is the need to determine all possible information relative to the alleged incident. . urge the guest to do so). Make careful notes of all conversations with the guests including the time of the conversations. Any product that remains at the end of the meal period is not reused. Casserole dishes containing the ground beef will need to be held at a temperature above 57 degree C until service as measured at frequent intervals by an accurate thermometer. Determine all possible information about the incident: what occurred ? what exactly was consumed ? What were the symptoms that suggest it might be food borne illness ? how long after visiting the restaurant did the illness symptoms occur? Were there other persons in your party ? did they become ill ? (i f a physician has not been contacted. MANAGING FOODBORNE ILLNESS INCIDENTS Let·s review the restaurant·s interaction with the guest(s): y y y Obtain information about the complainers (complainants) and the restaurant visit in question: gather information such as the complainants· name. Maintain records. you will note that fresh seafood is not a critical control point. frozen ground beef is an ingredient in a casserole dish. it is not held ! Fresh seafood fillets are only purchased for use as an entre. which is made using a batch-cooking process after which proper holding temperatures are required. and they are prepared to order for immediate service. Ground beef is removed from the refrigerator after thawing at the time it is to be added to the casserole dish. Holding temperature of a potentially hazardous food is below 60 degree C. It is held in a refrigerated unit in the work station until it is prepared for immediate service. and telephone number and the date and time of the visit to the restaurant.Concerns about fresh seafood during the preparing step include minimizing the time that the product is at room temperature during cleaning and portioning. Batch cooking: The preparation of food needed in large quantities in small volumes (batches) rather than all-at-once to maximize food quality by reducing holding times until service. address. Did you take leftovers home ? did you eat any other food between the time of your visit and the outbreak of the illness ? our list of questions can continue. Why ? In this property.

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