lado jafariZe

mogonebebi Canawerebi

Tbilisi 2004

pedagogis, mTargmnelis, mxatvrisa da sazogado moRvawis – lado (vladimer) malaqias-Ze jafariZis (1887-1981) winamdebare wignSi warmodgenilia araerTi didmniSvnelovani mogoneba da Canaweri XIX da XX saukuneebis gamoCenil qarTvel da ucxoel mweralTa, xelovnebisa da sazogado moRvaweTa Sesaxeb.

krebuli Seadgines daviT maWavarianma da SoTa xodaSnelma redaqtorebi prof. solomon xuciSvili

filologiis mecnierebaTa doqtori boris darCia gamomcemlobis redaqtorebi rusudan maxaTaZe da rusudan

yubaneiSvili
koreqtori nino svaniZe kompiuterze teqstis amkrefi daviT maWavariani damkabadonebeli zurab jafariZe skanireba ramaz jafariZisa

Semdgenlisagan
lado jafariZe gaxldaT Cemi babua (dedis mama). man SoTa xodaSnelTan erTad gamosacemad moamzada am wignis erTi nawili _ "memedbegis ambamde" (redaqtori prof. solomon xuciSvili). gardacvalebis Semdeg misi arqivis Seswavlis Sedegad gamovlinda sxva masalebic. krebuli waikiTxa da redaqtireba gaukeTa mecnier-filologma boris darCiam. madlobas vuxdi mwerals, baton rezi TvaraZes saintereso SeniSvnebisaTvis da baton ramaz kobalaZes sagulisxmo daxmarebisaTvis.

daviT maWavariani

lado jafariZe
vladimer jafariZe – pedagogi da sazogado moRvawe – daibada cnobili pedagogisa da Tavisi xalxis WeSmariti moamagis – malaqia jafariZis ojaxSi 1887 wlis 27 maiss, mTiani raWis sofel RarSi. malaqias mis garda kidev 5 vaJi hyavda. yvelaze umcrosi iyo saqveynod cnobili mxatvari uCa jafariZe. vladimeri amqveynad Tavis tyupiscal ZmasTan – grigolTan – erTad moevlina. tyupebi gansacvifreblad ara marto garegnulad hgavdnen erTimeores, aramed xasiaTiTac. raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobis dros akakisac unaxavs es ymawvilebi da maTiT moxibluls uTqvams: „ra uWirs im ers, romelsac

aseTi axalgazrdoba ezrdebao.“
sazogadoebriv saqmianobas Zmebma adre mohkides xeli. isini jer kidev mowafeobis dros dgamdnen patar-patara vodevilebs mezoblebisTvis, 1906 wels ki onSic moawyves warmodgena, Semdeg quTaisis gazeT „kolxidas“ redaqtoris mixeil jafariZis reJisorobiT dadges akakis „patara kaxi“. moskovis universitetis studentobis wlebi kidev ufro nayofieri gamodga Zmebis erovnuli moRvaweobisaTvis. lado da griSa aqtiurad ebmebian studentur cxovrebaSi, kerZod, qarTuli saTvistomos – e.w. „zemliaCestvos“ – saqmianobaSi. cdiloben SeZlebisdagvarad qarTuli kultura da literatura gaacnon ruseTis farTo wreebs. ilia WavWavaZis tragikuli sikvdilis Semdeg Zmebma xeli mohkides ilias ukvdavi prozauli nawarmoebebis rusulad Targmnas. mas male mohyva al.yazbegis e.w. mcire moTxrobebi (,,*liso” i drugie rasskazj), akakis „baSi-aCuki“ da sxva. Targmanebi gamomcemloba „polzaSi“ gamoica. Zmebs didi ltolva hqondaT saxviTi xelovnebisadmi. 1922 wels, rodesac saqarTvelos samxatvro akademia gaixsna, lado jafariZem swavla grafikis fakultetze daiwyo. masTan erTad swavlobdnen: vaxtang kotetiSvili (misi qaliSvilis naTlia), nikoloz kandelaki, elene axvlediani, irakli ToiZe da sxva cnobili mxatvrebi. ladom, marTalia, garemoebaTa gamo akademia mia-

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tova, magram mxatvris funji da fanqari arasodes gadaudvia gverdze. studentobis dros ladom da griSam Seqmnes im dros moskovSi mcxovrebi Cveni saxelovani kompozitoris dimitri arayiSvilis portreti. yvelaze metad ki maTi „SoTa rusTavelis portreti“ gaxmaurda. Zmebma geniosi poeti avTandilis msgavsi Wabukis saxiT warmoadgines, sruliad axali interpretaciiT. es portreti xSirad ibeWdeboda qarTul Jurnal-gazeTebSi. tyupebis mxatvrobis ZiriTadi Tema iyo Cveni didi erovnuli moRvaweebis portretebi: ilia, akaki, yazbegi, gogebaSvili da sxv. erTad, erTsulovnad eweodnen cxovrebis Wapans. isini mxolod sikvdilma daaSora – grigoli adre gardaicvala – 1953 wlis Semodgomaze 66 wlisa, vladimeri ki 1981 wlis 8 noembers, 94 wlisa. sikvdilic raRac gansakuTrebuli hqonda: batoni lado didi moyvaruli da uerTgulesi gulSematkivari iyo yvelaferi qarTulisa. is aRfrTovanebiT Sexvda 1981 wlis 13 maiss Tbilisis „dinamos“ mier fexburTSi evropis Tasebis mflobelTa Tasis mopovebas. ilxenda, sixaruls da kmayofilebas ver malavda... amayad daabijebda _ gulsruli, bednieri _ saxeze Suqmofenili da xvalindel saqarTvelos fiqrSi efereboda. imave 1981 wlis 8 noembers Tbilisis „dinamo“ moskovis romeliRac gunds xvdeboda, batoni lado TamaSs televiziiT adevnebda Tvals. pirvel taimSi Cveni gundi 0:1 agebda, taimis miwuruls Cvenma gundma TerTmetmetriani sajarimo dartyma ver gamoiyena. batonma ladom Tavi cudad igrZno da ganerviulebuli, taimebs Soris Sesvenebisas aResrula, TamaSi ki „dinamos“ gamarjvebiT damTavrda. rogorc xalxuri leqsi ambobs: „ar mokvda. RmerTTan wavida, Zma ari wilnayario.“ WeSmaritad! „ar aris mkvdari, vinc mokvdes da xalxs Seswiros dRenia mkvdrad igi Tqmula, visac aq saxeli ar darCenia!!.“ lado jafariZe – friad saintereso pirovneba, aqtiurad iyo Cabmuli yvelanair sazogadoebriv saqmianobaSi, rac ki samSoblos keTildReobas waadgeboda. amis dasturia misi mogonebebis krebulic, sadac mkiTxveli ufro farTod gaecnoba mis Rvawls, cxovrebas da SemoqmedebiT saqmianobas.

SoTa xodaSneli

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gogla leoniZe
dRes 1963 wlis 23 aprilia. mivyvebi rusTavelis Zeglidan vakisaken mimaval quCas da ai, literaturis institutis win gogla leoniZes vxedav; Tavis mxriv isic mamCnevs, mxiarulad mesalmeba da, mokiTxvis Semdeg, sayveduriT mommarTavs: _ rao, lado, isev damiviwye? ratom aRar mnaxulob? _ Senma rCeva-darigebam, mogonebebze vimuSavo, Zalian damafiqra; didxans vyoymanobdi da, ai, amas winaT gavbede da kalams xeli movkide, movxaze kidec raRac-raRacebi, gavakeTe Canawerebi. Zalian gamiWirda, magram TandaTan Sevdivar rolSi... _ mogonebebis wera didebuli saqmea, man axali cnobebi unda miawodos mkiTxvels da ara ise, rogorc erTma Cvenma nacnobma gaakeTa. Seni ar iyos, masac vTxove akaki wereTelze mogonebebi daewera. gavida xani, movida is kaci da, mogonebaTa magivrad, akakis Semoqmedebis kritikuli ganxilva momitana: akakis leqsi aseTi iyo da iseTio; me ki mogonebebi mindoda. akakis Semoqmedebas me imaze ukeTesad vicnob, is ki poetis pirovnebis momswre iyo da swored mogonebebi unda daewera, magram ar gamouvida... mogonebaSi unda aisaxos pirovnebis yofa da ara poezia. mere giliarovskis mixsenebs, romelsac Zalian emarjveboda yofiT sakiTxebze wera... yofaa mTavari, Cemo lado... moigone, rogor cxovrobda moskovSi qarTveli studentoba, ras akeTebda, ra awuxebda da sxva amgvari. gana cota rame ginaxavs cxovrebaSi? _ aki giTxari, raRac-raRacebi kidec movxaze-meTqi, _ veubnebi Zvirfas goglas da Rimil-RimiliT vSordebiT erTmaneTs... * es iyo 1963 wlis 14 ivniss. sajaro biblioTekis qveda darbazSi, sadac mecnier-muSakebi fusfuseben, isev Sevxvdi giorgi leoniZes. igi romeliRac Zvel gazeTSi firosmanze kiTxulobda werils; iqve axlos ijda osi poeti da dramaturgi ilia kavkazagi, igive kaCmazovi. orTaves naxvam didad gamaxara. samuSaos rom movrCiT, me da goglas erTad mogvixda biblioTekidan gamosvla; Sin wasayvanad giorgisaTvis manqaniT unda moekiTxaT, manqana jer ar Canda da Cvenc sakmao dro mogveca samusaifod. didxans videqiT sajaro biblioTekis kibeebze da vsaubrobdiT, vixsenebdiT Zvels, warsul ambebs, barisas Tu mTisas, mavansa da mavans, Cvens pirvel Sexvedras gazeT „saqarTvelos“ redaqciaSi moskovis quCaze, sadac jer kidev axalgazrda poetma daiwyo muSaoba da sadac me da griSa gavecaniT. goglas maSin wver-ulvaSi arc ki etyoboda, mTlad pirtitveli iyo, lamazi da Tvaltanadi. ambobdnen, damwyebi poetia, magram sityvas mSvenivrad imorCilebso. misi maSindeli poetobisa me TiTqmis araferi maxsovs, samagierod, dRemde ar damviwyebia goglas Tavaziani da mokrZalebuli xasiaTi da erT-erTi werili, gazeT „saqarTveloSi“ rom iyo gamoqveynebuli g.leoniZis xelmoweriT. aba, maSin ras vifiqrebdi, rom is g.leoniZe didi gogla gaxdeboda. 5

sxvasTan erTad gavixseneT Cemi da griSas erToblivi namuSevari _ „rusTavelis portreti“, romelic swored imxanad iyo dabeWdili gazeT „saqarTvelos“ suraTebian damatebaSi. _ mec maxsovs, Sen da griSa sad da rodis gagicaniT. erTxel prospeqtze daginaxeT, sul erTnairad gecvaT da isedac ali-kvali iyaviT erTmaneTisa. viRacam miTxra: Zmebi jafariZeebi arian, „rusTavelis“ portreti rom daxates; ilia WavWavaZis „glaxis naambobic“ magaT Targmnes rusulad da moskovSi calke wignadac gamosceso... Tqven saxelovan moRvaweebad iyaviT cnobili... da mere ratom miuSviT xeli yvelafers?.. aRarc TargmniT, aRarc xatavT... gardasulze mogonebebis weras raRa udgas win... amas winaTac giTxari, vici, wera SegiZlia; madloba RmerTs, mosagonari bevri gaqvs. Sen da griSa xom moskovis SuagulSi trialebdiT. jer marto Sens tyup Zmaze rom dawero raime, sawigne masalad isic geyofa! axla sxvebze?! oRond Sen rame dawere da misi gamocema Cemzed iyos, _ damaimeda goglam... ai, swored maSin gadavwyvite, kalami ameRo da weras Sevdgomodi. ramdeni ambis momswre viyavi da mTeli es codna, gamocdileba, Tavgadasavali saflavSi ratom unda wameRo? amas winaT daviwye kidec raRacebis wera, magram guli ver davude. goglas manqana igvianebda, arc Cven gveleoda sasaubro da am baasSi nacnobmac bevrma agviar-Cagviara. maT Soris iyo _ maSin Tbilisis maswavlebelTa saxlis literaturuli wris xelmZRvaneli, kargi kalmosani iuri CikvaiZe. iuri am wres savle abulaZis Semdeg Caudga saTaveSi da mec xSirad mixdeboda masTan muSaoba. iuric CaerTo Cvens saubarSi, ufro ki yurs gvigdebda. moxibluli iyo goglas mWevrmetyveli, lamazi qarTuliT. Tavad iuric Cinebulad flobda qarTul enas, apirebda sakandidato disertaciis dacvas vaJa-fSavelas sabavSvo nawarmoebebze da vTxove, ar gamoeparebina CemTvis disertaciis dacvis dRe... magram, samwuxarod, am bednier dRes ver moveswariT, _ iuri avtokatastrofas Seewira... . goglas rCeva-darigebam Zalian damafiqra. marTlac, ratom arafers vwer an ratom ar vxatav? dae, nu daibeWdeba, dae, ujraSi eyaros, Sinaurebi xom mainc waikiTxaven da raRac axals gaigeben. gogla ukve meramdened mirCevs weras, me ki yurad ar viReb mis Txovnas, amieridan ki... maS, ase, gadawyda: viwyeb mogonebebze muSaobas!... is oriode mogoneba, rac daviwye, dasawyisi iyos Cemi namdvili, dauRalavi SemoqmedebiTi literaturuli muSaobisa. im saRamos saxlSi goglas manqaniT mivedi... . 1964 wlis 24 maisi iyo. rusTavelis Zegls gavcdi, javaxiSvilis quCis TavdaRmarTs mivuaxlovdi da is iyo, gabaSvilis quCisaken unda gadamexvia, sadac me vcxovrob, rom moulodnelad javaxiSvilis quCaze momaval manqanas movkari Tvali da isic SevamCnie, rom sarkmlidan viRac mamakacma damiqnia xeli. kargad davakvirdi da gogla leoniZe vicani. igi Tavis manqanaSi ijda da mec 6

mepatiJeboda. karebi gamovaRe da savarZelze movTavsdi. goglam mis gverdiT myof qalize mimiTiTa: _ es balmontis qaliSvilia, lado, icnobdeT erTmaneTs. Cven kavSirgabmulobis saxlSi gvaqvs saqme da cota gveCqareba, magram mainc minda gTxovo raime mogonebis dawera balmontze. vici, Sen mas Sexvedrixar TbilisSi. dagviwere yvelaferi _ sad da ra pirobebSi Sexvdi; mokled, rac gagaxsendes, gulSi araferi daitovo... _ bevri mainca da mainc araferi maxsovs, balmonts pirvelad me da Cemi Zma grigol diasamiZis kabinetSi SevxvdiT, Semdeg ki qarTul klubSi, magram uSualod romel kabinetSi, es ukve aRar maxsovs. is maSin iq kiTxulobda Tavis Targmans „vite“-dan... _ me, albaT, isev male Camoval TbilisSi da imedi maqvs, rac gagaxsendebaT, imas mainc damiwerT mamaCemze, _ mTxova balmontis qaliSvilma. Txovnaze uari ar miTqvams... am pirobiT davSordiT erTmaneTs da imedi maqvs, Cems danapirebs pirnaTlad Sevasruleb.

Cemi megobrebi da xelisSemwyobni, Cemi „mogonebebis“ weris Sefebi!
10. VIII. 78. ukve Tveze metia aRaraferi damiweria, dasaweri ki bevri maqvs, uyma! xalisi aRara maqvs da imitom. imis magier, rom 90 wels gadacilebuli adamiani gaamxnevon da waaxalison, piriqiT, xaliss mikargaven, TiTqos Tavis gasarTobad gamogonil rameebs vwerde. ai, Tundac, Cemi werili vaxuSti bagrationze! SarSan (1977) noemberSi gavagzavne „literaturuli saqarTvelos“ redaqciaSi da beWdaven Tu ara, dRemde pasuxic ki ar maRirses. arada, werili sainteresoa Cveni kulturis istoriis TvalsazrisiT. aseve, Cemi mogoneba i. griSaSvilze ukve ori weliwadia „mnaTobSi“ devs, da sxvac mravali. yvelaferi, rac dabeWdili maqvs, sul SoTas damsaxurebaa da Tu marTla odesme Cemi mogonebebi vismes daainteresebs da gamoadgeba, me ki ara, SoTa xodaSnels unda umadlodes. TviT is pirveli Cemi mogoneba („l. tolstois“ Semdeg), romelic „ciskarSi“ daibeWda 1973 wels „maiakovskebis ojaxze“, _ SoTam damaZala. werili metad sainteresoa, radgan me da griSa axlos viyaviT im ojaxTan da bevri ramec vicodiT maTi. „Ruki opuskahts%“ – rom ityvian, iseT gunebaze vdgebi xolme, magram SoTa ar meSveba, marwmunebs, „mogonebebze“ ukeTess ras dawero. SoTam ase damawerina mogoneba „cisferyanwelebze“. gadamekida, dawereT uTuodo, radgan maTze amdeni ram vis ecodinebao. sxva rom araferi, am ambebis momswre cocxali TiTqmis aRaravinaa da a.S. davwere Tu ara, maSinve Jurnal „kritikas“ wauRo. iq Zalian moswonebodaT da pirvelsave Tavisufal nomerSi dabeWdes. damawerina agreTve sarkizov-serazinTan Cemi megobrobis ambavi da Cemi didi rolis Sesaxeb Tbilisis sajaro biblioTe7

kisaTvis misi unikaluri bukinisturi wignebis gamogzavnaSi. „eseni sarkizovma ki ara, Tqven gamougzavneTo“ da, marTlac, me rom ara, sarkizovi Tbilisis biblioTekas wignebs aRar gamougzavnida, radgan erTxel ukve gaegzavna, roca wignebis ganawileba daiwyo sxvadasxva biblioTekebsa da muzeumebSi. magram amaze mogonebaSic maqvs moTxrobili da aq aRar gavimeoreb. SoTas daJinebiT daiwera Cemi drois moskovze, studentur „zemliaCestvoze“, i. griSaSvilze da sxva. rom davwerdi, is maSinve manqanaze gadaabeWdvinebda da mihqonda redaqciaSi. didi energiis kacia SoTa. muSaoba ar ezareba. gorkis saxelobis klubis literaturuli wris xelmZRvanelia da ganizraxa, Cems 90-e wlisTavTan dakavSirebiT klubSi Sexvedra moewyo. ramdeni Sroma gaswia misi organizebisaTvis da saqme gamarjvebiT daagvirgvina. vexvewebodi, – momeSviT, arc Rirsi var da arc survili maqvs-meTqi, magram vin mogeSva?! marTlac, Cinebulad Caatara, – "Na slavu". iSviaTi Sexvedra gamovida. foto-albomic kargi gaakeTa griSa JorJolianma, romelic misi natifi xelovnebis sxva namuSevrebTan erTad (uCas iubile!), ueWvelia, saukunod darCeba Cvens ojaxSi. erTi sityviT, didad davalebuli var am keTilSobili adamianisagan da mis amags ver gadavixdi, Tumca, mas rom hkiTxo, Cemi mogonebebi „Rirsia imisa“, rom misTvis energia ar daiSuros adamianma. didad davalebuli var agreTve ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis literaturuli gaerTianebis Tavmjdomaris ioseb pavliaSvilisagan, romelmac bevri ram gaakeTa imisaTvis, rom Cemi (da griSas) 85 wlisTavi ase brwyinvaled Caetarebina. iSviaTi adamiania, ukeTilSobilesi sulis patroni. aseve patiosani da sayvareli adamiania misi uaxloesi megobari da „gaerTianebis“ erT-erTi dedaboZi poeti ilia kavkazagi, osi poeti _ Cveni Zvirfasi javaxasi da gigos * diswuli. gulwrfeli siyvarulis gamo davalebuli var agreTve Cemi Zvirfasi „ori aiaqsisagan“, eseni arian tyupi Zmebi _ tariel da avTandil varTagavebi, SviliSvilebi cnobili literatorisa da kritikosis ipolite varTagavasi. iSviaTi qarTveli axalgazrdebi arian _ mSromelebi, patriotebi; Jurnalistebi, poetebi _ sazogadoebisaTvis sasargeblo axalgazrdebi.

mcire mogoneba onis skolasa da mis pedagogebze
maxsendeba Cemi mowafeobis xana. es iyo gasuli saukunis 90-iani wlebi „onis universitetSi“, rogorc xumrobiT uwodebdnen xolme maSin orklasian samazro saswavlebels, romelic erTaderTi iyo mTels maSindel raWaSi. xalxi maSinac didi gulmodginebiT miiswrafvoda ganaTlebisaken. orklasiani saswavleblis TeTrad mokiafe qviTkiris orsarTuliani Senoba magnitiviT izidavda mraval raWvel bavSvs, rogorc winsvlis sawindari.
*

Cveni mojamagireebi

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dRes, rodesac am skolaSi aRzrdil Cems Tanaklaselebs Sevxvdebi xolme, madlierebis grZnobiT vigonebT mas da Cvens dauviwyar maswavleblebs: mamaCems _ malaqia jafariZes, emelian TuTberiZes, nestor mindels, meliton gobeCiasa da sxva mravals, romlebmac, SesaniSnav codnasTan erTad, Rrmad Cagvinerges kacuri kacobisa da mSobliuri qveynis uangaro siyvarulis umaRlesi grZnobebi. skolis gamged mamaCemi muSaobda, romelic im drois kvalobaze saWiro da aucilebeli codniT iyo aRWurvili: damTavrebuli hqonda Tbilisis „amierkavkasiis samaswavleblo instituti“. mamaCemis Rvawli ganaTlebis dargSi arc farTo sazogadoebas gamorCenia mxedvelobidan. ase magaliTad, 1916 wels gazeTma „saxalxo saqmem“ calke werili miuZRvna mamaCemis pedagogiuri saqmianobis 35-e wlisTavs. aseve Tbilad moixsenies misi Rvawli Tbilisis gazeTebma 1924 wels, roca raWis mazris xelisuflebam zeimiT aRniSna malaqia jafariZis pedagogiuri moRvaweobis 45-e wlisTavi, amasTan dakavSirebiT mas iubile gadauxades. ai, swored am saswavlebelSi moRvawe aRmzrdelTa niWsa da maRal kvalifikacias unda vumadlodeT im codnasa da erudicias, rac maTma namowafarebma cxovrebis gzaze gamovavlineT. am maswavlebelTagan, cxadia, yvelas erTnairi codna da aRmzrdelobiTi unari ar gaaCnda, Tumca, mTeli mondomebiT iRvwodnen da mizansac sasikeTos aRwevdnen. amitom Cems adamianur movaleobad miviCnie, mcire mogoneba damewera maT Sesaxeb da amiT mSobliuri kuTxis istoriisaTvis oriode furceli Semematebina. dae, es iyos im Rirseul maswavlebelTa mimarT gamoTqmuli samadlobeli, romlebic karga xania wasulan am wuTisoflidan, magram maTi Rvawlis gamonaSuqi dResac gadadis Taobidan TaobaSi. Cven valdebulni varT, gvaxsovdes isini, vinaidan, ilia WavWavaZisa ar iyos, „vinc ori marcvali moiyvana iq, saca manamde marto erTi marcvali modioda, igi erTs udides samsaxurs uwevs kacobriobas“.

moskovi Cemi droisa. universiteti
rogorc TiTqmis yovel xandazmuls, mec gardasul dReTaTvis gonebis Tvalis gadavleba mCvevia. _ vah, droni, droni! – vityviT xolme dananebiT... radgan swored man Sva es cxovreba, romelic TavisTavad „aris mSobeli momavalisa“. ar damaviwydeba is bednieri wuTebi, roca quTaisis matarebeli mexuTe dilas moskovs miuaxlovda. es iyo 1906 wlis agvistos damlevi. momavali studentebi gulis fancqaliT velodiT qalaqis gamoCenas. da, rogorc ki viRacam moskovs Tvali hkida da xmamaRla warmoTqva misi saxeli, yvelani matareblis sarkmlebs mivawydiT.

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adriani dila iyo da mzis pirveli sxivebi uamravi eklesiis gumbaTebze irekleboda. pirvel rigSi ki maT Soris umaRlesis – macxovris eklesiis * oqroTi movarayebul saxuravze. vagzalze auarebeli komivoiaJori Semogvesia; TavianT sastumroebSi wayvanas gvTavazobdnen, Tan lamazad dabeWdil reklamis furclebs gvaCeCebdnen xelSi. bolos erTma maTganma Cvens Cemodnebs waavlo xeli da gagviZRva gareT, sadac misive sastumros kareta eloda. Sig batonebiviT CavsxediT da mivediT sastumroSi, romelic lubiankas moedanze fasadiT gadmoWimuliyo. sastumrom Tavisi sisufTaviT da koxta nomrebiT kargi STabeWdileba datova. nomrebi sakmaod Zviri iyo. ori adamiani – e.i. me da grigoli, romelmac CemTan erTad im wels quTaisis realuri saswavlebeli daamTavra, erT nomerSi dRe-Ramis ganmavlobaSi 80 kapiks vixdidiT. imave dRes orTaveni moskovis universitetSi wavediT, raTa iq Cveni Caricxvis ambavi gagvego. universitetis saswavlo nawili im dros moxovaias quCis erT Zvel SenobaSi iyo moTavsebuli. mokrZalebiT SevyurebdiT mravali ambisa da araerTi gamoCenili pirovnebis momswre Senobas, mis svetebs, gvxiblavda misi xuroTmoZRvreba; didi mowiwebiT avdiodiT mis kibeebze, romelzedac codnis wyurviliT anTebul araerT axalgazrdas aevlo Cvenze TiTqmis ori aseuli wliT adre. TiTqos maT Soris vxedavdiT sayvarel adamianebs: griboedovsa Tu lermontovs, gonCarovsa Tu belinskis, ogariovsa Tu gercens, pirogovsa Tu botkins da am SenobaSi aRzrdil sxva did ganmanaTleblebs, rusuli kulturis did maSuqebelT. _ Cvenc xom am wminda savanes movaSureT, _ veubnebodiT erTmaneTs me da griSa, _ da vin icis, raoden sulier sazrdos gviwiladebs. amas gansakuTrebuli grZnobiT ganicdida poeturad ganwyobili grigoli da mdumared misCereboda Zvelebur TaRebs da mis sidiadeSi TiTqmis gardasuli drois sunTqva esmoda. Cveni gvarebi universitetSi Caricxul studentTa saerTo siaSi amovikiTxeT, es didi bedniereba iyo. sastumroSi gaxarebulebi davbrundiT... Cveni sixaruli imiTac iyo gaorkecebuli, rom imave Senobis mrgval saaqto darbazSi, universitetis damaarsebelTa Soris, vaxuSti bagrationis saxelic amovikiTxeT. moskovSi maSin TiTqmis martoni viyaviT da imdenad Segvawuxa am garemoebam, rom qalaqis datoveba da Cveni sabuTebis xarkovSi gadatanac ki gadavwyviteT, sadac didZali nacnobi studenti gveguleboda. magram, Cvenda iRblad, bolos nacnobebic gamoCdnen da moskovidan wasvlaze fiqric gagviqra. eseni iyvnen Cveni quTaiseli mezoblebis maiakovskebis bavSvebi _ da-Zma olia da valodia; moskovis samxatvro saswavleblis studenti, SemdegSi saqarTvelos saxalxo mxatvari grigol mesxi (agreTve quTaisidan) da, rac mTavaria, Cveni saukeTeso amxanagi da megobari andria razmaZe. im weliwads man CvenTan erTad daamTavra quTaisis realuri saswavlebeli, mere moskovis universitetSi moewyo da axla binas eZebda. Cvenc swored am dros SevxvdiT mas.
*

dRes is eklesia ukve aRebulia. misi simaRle 100 metrs aRemateboda.

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samTavem universitetTan axlos erTad viqiraveT oTaxi, bolSaia nikitskaias (dRevaneli gercenis) quCaze, konservatoriis pirdapir, erT-erTi saxlis mesame sarTulze. binis patroni aRmoCnda universitetis axalgazrda privat-docenti gidulianovi, SemdegSi cnobili profesori. sami sulis miReba erT oTaxSi ar undoda, magram bolos dagveTanxma – kavkasielebi kargi xalxi xarTo. ai is didi oTaxic kavkasiel students ukaviao, _ gviTxra kmayofilebiT. im saRamosve gavicaniT Cveni kavkasieli mezobeli. igi metad simpaTiuri axalgazrda aRmoCnda, garegnobiT namdvili kavkasieli, warmosadegi vaJkaci. studenturi forma ecva da lamazi Savi TvalwarbiTa da patara Savi ulvaSebiT metad karg STabeWdilebas tovebda. gvarad ambarcumiani aRmoCnda, amazasp ivanes Ze. Cven mas amazasp ivanoviCs veZaxdiT da, rogorc ufrossa da gamocdil students, Cvens damrigeblad vTvlidiT. asec iyo sinamdvileSi. aranakleb yuradRebiT gveqceoda binis patroni gidulianovic da es ori adamiani gamoucdel studentebs mzrunvelobas ar gvaklebda. amazasp ivanes Ze gansakuTrebiT andria razmaZis pirovnebiT dainteresda, romelic metad gulmodgined mecadineobda, _ sul Tavis maTematikur wignebs ujda da sxvadasxva amocanebis amoxsnaze muSaobda. amazasps moswonda es mondomeba da brwyinvale momavals uqadda mas: _ iswavleT, megobrebo, _ gveubneboda igi, _ kavkasias sWirdeba ganaTlebuli xalxi da aba, he, Tu mieSvelebiT, Tu gaamarTlebT Tqveni mSoblebis imedebs! * * * moskovi imxanad ufro provinciul qalaqs hgavda, vidre pirvel sataxtos (pervoprestol>na%), rogorc mas uwodebdnen oficialurad. Zalian hgavda riazans, novgorods, yazansa da tulas, mxolod sididiTa da eklesiebis simravliT ganirCeoda maTgan. aTas eqvsasamde eklesias Tvlidnen iq (sorok sorokov). maTi zarebis rekva, gansakuTrebiT uqme dReebSi, pirdapir gamayruebeli iyo. moskovs „did sofelsac“ uwodebdnen, gansakuTrebiT peterburgelebi (hgavda kidec Tavisi viwro da moukirwylavi quCebiT). im dros asfalti ar arsebobda da quCebis safari riyis qva iyo. cudad igveboda da sicxeSi mudam mtveri idga, xolo avdarSi talaxdeboda. ase rom, „ukaloSod“ siaruli SeuZlebeli iyo, gansakuTrebiT centridan daSorebul quCebze. saxlebs xSirad nomrebi ar gaaCndaT da maT ufro patronebis gvarebiT agnebdnen. Cemi misamarTi ase iwereboda: „bolSaia nikitskaia, dom semenkoviCa“. „spiridonovka, dom elCinskova“ (aq erT dros cxovrobda maiakovskebis ojaxi). tidovis saxli, baxruSinis saxli da a.S. xSirad aseTi misamarTebic iyo: „Arbat. Dom cerkvi sv%togo Nikolj Bogo%vlinskogo“. Dom greqeskogo podvor>%“ da sxva amgvari. es uzarmazari qalaqi Tavisi kontrastebiT gamoirCeoda. didi iyo sxvaoba mdidarsa da Raribs Soris; sruli ganukiTxaoba iyo qalaqis ganaSenianebis mxrivac. brwyinvale arqiteqturuli nagebobis gverdiT sul ubralo qoxi auSnoebda garemos. Cvens mezoblad bolSaia bronnaias quCaze erTsarTuliani xis patara saxli idga, TiTqmis mTel quCas ki 100-120 metris manZilze miuyveboda ezo, romelsac moZvelebuli SeuRebavi ficruli, alag11

alag gverdze wamoqceuli da Catexili Robe gasdevda. Calewil ficrebSi moCanda mouwyobeli kar-midamo Tavisi patar-patara sameurneo nagebobebiT, dabmuli ZaRliTa da oriode mofusfuse adamianiT. am qoxmaxebs ulmoblad awvebodnen mdidarTa sasaxleebi, gadaylapvasa da mospobas rom uqadda TviTeul maTgans. maTi gaxseneba CemSi xan siamovnebas, xanac did sevdas iwvevs xolme. me miyvars yvelaferi is da maT Sesaxeb yoveli Selamazebisa da retuSis gareSe minda movuTxro mkiTxvels. an, Tu gnebavT, moskovis maSindeli transporti – erTi mxriv, mdidari „lixaCebi“, xolo meore mxriv, ubralo „vankebi“. ase eZaxdnen meetleebs, romlebic erTcxeniani ekipaJebiT moTminebiT idgnen birJaze da muStars elodnen, Tundac sul raRac samSaurian muStars, xSirad orSauriansac ki, imdenad gaWirvebulad cxovrobdnen. _ Izvo\ik!– davuZaxebdiT xolme aseT vankas da igrialebdnen erTis magier yvela iq mdgomi vankebi. _ Po[aluyte, barin, po[aluyte, svezu! Kuda prika[ete? _ Zamoskvoreqie. _ Poltinnik, barin, poltinnik! Daleko! mogvdevdnen, ar gveSvebodnen manam, sanam ar aviyvandiT. paltinnikidan (50kap) TandaTan „dvugrivennjy“-mde (20kap) da xSirad „p%tialtjnnjy“-mdec (15kap) Camovidodnen. „grivennik“-sac (10kap) xSirad dagvjerebian; tramvais uwevdnen metoqeobas is sacodavebi! da raxan tramvai vaxseneT, barem imasac davumateb, rom es eleqtrotransporti mxolod erT xazze dadioda moskovSi – e.w. „bulvarTa wreze“. qalaqis danarCen nawilSi, yvela quCaze cxeniani tramvai, anu „konka“ gvemsaxureboda. Sig ori cxeni iyo Sebmuli da xSirad orsarTulianic gaxldaT: qvemoT daxurul salonSi mgzavrobis bileTi 5 kapiki Rirda, zemoTa gadauxurav monakveTSi – 3 kapiki: studentebi, rasakvirvelia, ufro zemo sarTulis muStrebi viyaviT, Tundac wvima da TqeSi yofiliyo. moskovis quCebi maincdamainc ver daikvexnidnen Tavisi brwyinvalebiTa da sisufTaviT, TiTqmis erTnairad gamoimzireboda yvela, gamonaklisi tveris (dRevandeli gorkis) quCa da ufro ki „kuznecki mosti“ gaxldaT, sadac maRaziebi da vitrinebi marTlac evropul yaidaze iyo gaformebuli da xalxic ufro iqaurobas etaneboda; tveris quCas eliseevis brwyinvale maRaziiT icnobdnen, romelSic kafe iyo da iq iSviaTi ostatobiT gamomcxvari ugemrielesi „kalaCebi“ iyideboda. samagierod, tveris quCidan sul raRac oriode wuTis savalze da isic kremlis maxloblad gansacvifrebeli usufTaoba sufevda. aq iyo cnobili „oxotni riad“ (sanovagis bazari), romelsac Sua qalaqSi Tvaluwvdeneli adgili ekava da Tavisi usufTaobiT, pirdapir, haers wamlavda. mis gverdiT SesaniSnavi Senobebi idga, maT Soris pirveli iyo e.w. keTilSobilTa sakrebulo (“blagorodnoe sobranie“ _ dRes profkavSirTa svetebiani sasaxle). usufTaobiT aranakleb iyo cnobili aseve qalaqis SuagulSi mdebare „zariadie“ _ Tavisi viwro ugegmo SukebiT, sadac TavianT duqnebSi fulis mogebiT gatacebuli pirebi buzebiviT ireodnen. sxvadasxva saqonels mamasisxlad yiddnen da, cxadia, sisufTavisaTvis arc ecalaT.

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sxvafriv moskovi iSviaTi qalaqi iyo, cnobili Tavisi jansaRi haeriT da gansakuTrebiT sufTa da gemrieli ankara civi wyliT. restornebsa da mdidarTa sxva saqeifo Tu drois satarebel dawesebulebebs, qalaqgareT moeyaraT Tavi, magaliTad „iar“-s boSaTa momRerlebiT gaeTqva saxeli. isini CvenisTana studentebisaTvis miuwvdomeli iyo. amitom maTs „avan-Cavanze“verc verafers getyviT, garda imisa, rom Tavqeifa vaWrebi pirdapir oqroebs ayridnen Tavze iqaur momReral boSebs da „SampanurSi abanavebdnen“, maTi gulis mogebisaTvis arafers zogavdnen. vin ar icoda, agreTve, maSindel mdidarTa „Wirokiy razmax. Sileqa!“ universitetSic xSirad modiodnen aseTi „razmaxistebi“, roca gaigebdnen, rom swavlis fulis SeutanlobisaTvis studentebs ricxaveno da saproreqtoroSi mitanili fulis simravliT yvelas akvirvebdnen: aTiaTasobiT maneTs tovebdnen studentTa swavlis gadasaxadisagan ganTavisuflebis mizniT. roca gvarsa Tu vinaobas hkiTxavdnen, bevri maTgani xels Caiqnevda xolme da upasuxebda: gvari ra saWiroa, CawereT „ucnobi pirisagan“. advilad naSovn fuls aseve advilad Seeleodnen xolme. kidev kargi, rom es fuli keTili saqmisaTvis mainc ixarjeboda. magram qarTveli studentebi moskovSi maincdamainc gaWirvebulni ar iyvnen. raki maSindel moskovs ufro Zvir qalaqad icnobdnen, amitom iq met-naklebad uzrunvelyofili studentebi Cadiodnen, (maT Soris iyvnen daviT sarajiSvilis, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis, TavadaznaurTa da sxvaTa saxelobis stipendiantebic), romelTac 15 maneTidan 50 maneTamde raodenobis Tanxa hqondaT. es imis mixedviT, Tu vin an ra dawesebuleba aZlevda maT stipendias. stipendiebi kavkasiis saswavlo olqsac sakmarisad hqonda, magram es Tanxa gankuTvnili iyo mxolod odesasa Tu xarkovSi myofi studentebisaTvis. iyvnen SeZlebuli ojaxis Svilebic. magaliTad, davasaxelebdi Tbilisidan Camosul oTx Zma foraqiSvils, romelTagan TiToeuli xuT-xuT Tumans iRebda saxlidan. cnobili baqoeli navTis mrewvelis manTaSevis Svils TveSi 100 maneTi hqonda da es didi fuli iyo maSin. amitom me ar maxsovs, rom moskovSi myof romelime qarTvel students gansakuTrebuli materialuri gaWirveba hqonoda. qarTul presaSi qarTvel studentTa SimSilobis, usaxsrobisa Tu avadmyofobis Taobaze arasodes araviTari masala ar gamoqveynebula. aseTi SemTxvevebi ukve istoriis kuTvnilebas warmoadgenda, radgan axalgazrdebs gamouCndnen mzrunveli adamianebi, Rarib studentTa damxmare komitetebi, romlebic saWiro zomebs iRebdnen gaWirvebaSi myofi studentebis dasaxmareblad. maTi xelSewyobiT students SeeZlo gaTavisuflebuliyo swavlis fulis gadasaxadisagan, ufasod eWama komitetis mier daarsebul sasadiloSi, imave komitetis fondidan mieRo Tbili zamTris tansacmeli, palto, kostiumi; rasakvirvelia, nacvami da Semowiruli, magram mainc iseTi, romelic araviTar SemTxvevaSi ar Selaxavda axalgazrdis Tavmoyvareobas. repetitorobasac eweodnen, amis Sesaxeb xSirad naxavdiT gancxadebebs studentTa sasadilos kedlebze; SeiZleboda droebiT samuSaoze gaformebac da sakmao moTxovnac iyo xolme. arsebobda 13

Rarib studentTa ufaso saerTo sacxovrebeli. aseTi gaxldaT, magaliTad, vinme liapinis samsarTuliani saxli petrovkaze, sadac studentebs ara marto ufaso binebi, kvebac metad SeRavaTian fasebSi hqondaT da amitom gaWirvebuli axalgazrdisaTvis es pirdapir „miswreba“ iyo. iq iseTi studentebi cxovrobdnen, romelnic saxlidan veraviTar daxmarebas ver Rebulobdnen da iZulebulni iyvnen Tavi „liapinkaSi“ SeefarebinaT. maT Soris SemiZlia davasaxelo samxatvro saswavleblis studentebi grigol mesxi, aleqsandre cimakuriZe. rogorc maxsovs, es studentebi maincdamainc ar emdurodnen TavianT cxovrebas „liapinkaSi“ da saSualeba hqondaT guldamSvidebiT dawafebodnen codnas. iq mcxovreb studentebs sxva SeRavaTebic hqondaT: ufasod SeeZloT TeatrebSi wasvla, oRond organizebulad, jgufebad, siis mixedviT. es dadasturebuli unda yofiliyo administraciis warmomadgenlis mier. grigol mesxi, SeiZleba iTqvas, saRamos ar gamotovebda, rom saTanado sia ar Seedgina da Cvenc ar waveyvaneT did TeatrSi romelime saopero warmodgenaze, an mcireSi, ufro ki, korSis da nezlobinis TeatrebSi. grigol mesxi, liapinkis administraciis daxmarebiT, studentTaTvis eqskursiebsac awyobda moskovidan Tbilissa da quTaisSi, riTac saSualebas aZlevda axalgazrdebs SeRavaTian fasebSi „komfortabelurad“ emogzauraT calke saeqskursio vagoniT. Zmebi liapinebi didi qonebis patronebi iyvnen, orTave ucolSvilo da qvelmoqmedi. tambovis guberniidan Camosuli uswavleli glexebi imdenad gamdidrdnen, rom petrovkaze sasaxle aiSenes da saucxood moawyves. iqve meore sasaxle aaSenes Raribi studentebisaTvis da, rogorc vTqviT, daxmarebas uwevdnen maT. Zalian miyvarda kremlSi siaruli. kremli da tretiakovis samxatvro galerea _ ai, is adgilebi, sadac SeiZleboda kulturulad dasveneba da datkboba, sulierad amaRleba. kremli igive uzarmazari muzeumi iyo „Ria cis qveS“. uSesaniSnavesi kulturuli Zeglebi, monastrebi, taZrebi, sasaxleebi, sajabadro, istoriuli muzeumi da mravali sxva. marto „ivane didis“ samrekloze asvla rad Rirda, saidanac mTel moskovs gadaxedavda kaci. samreklo macxovris eklesiis Semdeg TiTqmis yvelaze maRali Senoba iyo maSindel moskovSi, jvriT 98 metrs aRwevda, ujvrod – 90 metrs. igi aSenebulia boris godunovis mier 1600 wels didi SimSilobis dros da 33 zars itevs, romelTagan yvelaze mZime 4000 fuTs, e.i. 64 tonas iwonis. „ivane didis“ samreklosTan miwaze devs uzarmazari zarebis mefe, romelic me-18 saukuneSia Camosxmuli da 10000 fuTs, e.i. daaxloebiT 162 tonas iwonis. iqvea me-16 saukuneSi Camosxmuli mefe zarbazani, romlis TiTo Wurvi 2 tonas aRwevs. cxadia, arc zarebis mefe da arc mefe zarbazani araferSi gamosadegni ar arian. dabadebidanve „invalidebi“ _ samSvenisebs warmoadgenen. am garemoebam, rogorc cnobilia, imdroindel enamaxvilT sxartad aTqmtvina: “V Rosii qto ni car>, to invalid“. uamrav samlocveloTa Soris Tavisi simdidriT gamoirCeoda me-14 saukunis miZinebis (Uspenskiy) taZari, sadac mravali oqro-vercxli da unikaluri saeklesio nivTi inaxeboda. oficialuri monacemebiT, marto napoleonis jarebma iqidan 325 fuTi vercxli da 18 fuTi oqro amoiRes. 14

Zvel sakrebulo taZrebs oqro-vercxliT arc axali – 1840 wels aSenebuli macxovris eklesia Camouardeboda, romelic preCestenkaze idga, simaRliT jvarTan erTad 105 metrs aRwevda da agebuli iyo napoleonis jarebisagan moskovis gaTavisuflebis samaxsovrod, igi 15 milioni maneTi daujda mTavrobas; samlocvelo erTdroulad 10000 adamians itevda; misi uzarmazari gumbaTebis mooqroebaze, imave cnobis mixedviT, 26 fuTi oqro daixarja, mitomac ase lamazad brwyinavda mzeze. erTi sityviT, misi yovelmxrivi SemkobisaTvis mefis mTavrobas Tavi ar dauzogavs. Zvirfasi porfiriTa da marmariloTi mopirkeTebuli Senoba saxelovani mxatvrebis namuSevrebma aavses. aRsaniSnavia is garemoebac, rom eklesiis yvela kari brinjaosagan iyo Camosxmuli, romelTagan erT-erTi maTgani 800 fuTs iwonida. istoriul Senobebs Soris yvelaze ufro saintereso sanaxavi iyo e.w. „Granovita% palata“, romelic jer kidev ivane mesamem aago me-15 saukuneSi da gankuTvnili iyo ucxoeli elCebis misaRebad, agreTve, mefeebis sazeimo sufris gasaSlelad. cnobilia, rom qarTveli batoniSvili (SemdegSi erekle pirveli), romelsac ruseTSi nikolai davidoviCs eZaxdnen, moskovSi Casvlisas, 1654 wlis 1 ianvars, mefe aleqsi mixeilis Zem „granovitaia palataSi“ miiRo didi zar-zeimiT da amasTanave sazeimo sadilic gaumarTa mTeli Tavisi amaliT. erTi sityviT, moskovSi araerTi didebuli, istoriuli Zeglia da roca maT vixseneb, uneburad magondeba saqarTvelos iavarqmnili Zeglebi, mterTan gauTavebel brZolebSi rom nadgurdeboda, sanaxevrod dangreuli cixe-taZrebi. sasaxleebidan TiTqmis verc erTi ver gadaurCa mrisxane warsuls, samoqalaqo nagebobis Tundac erTi patara nimuSic ki. swored aseTi fiqrebi amiyoliebdnen xolme moskovSi, roca kremlis grandiozul xedebs Sevyurebdi. zemoTac vTqvi, rom moskovs Zvelad ormocjer ormoci eklesiis qalaqs („Sorok sorokov“) uwodebdnen. cxadia, es marTlac ase iyo da ra saocari unda yofiliyo amdeni zaris gamayruebeli guguni. me momismenia moskovis TiTqmis yvela zaris erTdrouli guguni. es iyo 1913 wlis zafxuls, roca romanovebis dinastiis 300 wlisTavis dResaswaulze mefe Camovida moskovSi. zarebis rekva manamde ar Senelebula, vidre kremlSi mefis misvlis ceremonia ar damTavrda. rusi glexebi Tu wvrili xelosnebi TavianTi ojaxebiT marto eklesiaSi ki ara, mis gareTac loculobdnen xolme. me araerTxel minaxavs moskovSi karetiT mimavali romelime sasuliero piri, romelsac karetaSi didi zomis xati esvena. sakmarisi iyo xatis danaxva, rom quCaSi mimavalni, qali Tu kaci, muxlebze ecemodnen da manamde iwerdnen pirjvars, vidre kareta Tvals ar moefareboda. peterburgisagan gansxvavebiT, moskovi _ namdvili rusuli, magram ucxoelebiT savse qalaqi iyo. cxovreba evropul yaidaze iyo awyobili. uqme dReebSi eklesiebSi dilidanve rom atydeboda zarebis guguni, xolo qvafenilze etlebis rkinis salteebiani borblebisa da gansakuTrebiT ki uresoro urmebis rixini (rezinis Sine15

bi is-is iyo Semodioda xmarebaSi da amdenad iSviaTobas warmoadgenda), yurTasmena aRar iyo. amas emateboda gamyidvelTa SeZaxilic: “$bloki moqenje! Arbuzj, arbuzj!“ an Zvelmanebis myidvel yazanelTa dausrulebeli yvirili: “stari veSC pakupaim!“ aseT dros kacs sarkmeli unda daexura. axla oriode sityviT, Tu rogor cxovrobda saSualo SeZlebis studenti moskovSi. rogorc ukve vwerdi, Raribi qarTveli studenti moskovSi me ar meguleboda, vinaidan iq cotad Tu bevrad SeZlebuli ojaxis Svilebi Camodiodnen. Tu romelime maTgani 20-25 maneTze naklebs iRebda, is ufasod sadilobda studentur sasadiloSi. saWiro iyo mxolod saTanado gancxadebis Setana komitetSi. TveSi sadili 6 maneTi Rirda, e.i. TiTo ulufa 20 kapiki. sadili Cinebuli gaxldaT: pirveli uTuod xorciT iyo damzadebuli, romelic SeiZleboda ganmeorebiTac mogeTxovaT, meorec aseve xorceuli iyo, Tanac imdeni, rom zogi verc ereoda. Rarib studentTa damxmare sazogadoebas sasadilos saqmeebis warmarTvisaTvis specialuri komiteti hyavda arCeuli da, SeiZleba iTqvas, komiteti am saqmes kargad arTmevda Tavs. amgvarad, sadili students TveSi 6 maneTi ujdeboda, xolo daqiravebul oTaxTan erTad sul _ 16-18 maneTi, sxva saWmel-sasmelsa da transports ki dasWirdeboda 5-6 maneTi. ra Tqma unda, gaWirvebiT, magram 25 maneTi mainc sakmarisi iyo. me da Cemi Zma erTdroulad 50 maneTs viRebdiT da savsebiT gvyofnida. oTaxSi 20 maneTze meti ar ixarjeboda, zogjer naklebic ki – 17-18 maneTi. amitom zamTris susxSi sadils xSirad saxlSive viRebdiT, an iqve mis axlos; amas Sinaur sadils eZaxdnen, sufTa erboze mzaddeboda; samagierod, TveSi 7 maneTi jdeboda. dilis sauzme CaiT iwyeboda. „samovari“, dila-saRamos, oTaxis qiraSi Sedioda, oRond mosamsaxurisTvis „saCuqrad“ 50 an 75 kapiki unda migveca TveSi. karaqi, puri, Saqari da zeTi calke xarji iyo, isic kapikebi... gazeTi im dros 3 kapiki Rirda da Tu fulze mwyralad viyaviT, erTi maTgani _ ’’Russkoe slovo’’ sruliad sakmarisi iyo saqveyno ambebis gasagebad; Tumca, xSirad am xarjisaganac vikavebdiT Tavs. Tu ara da, piriqiT, „Russkie vedomosti“-sac SeviZendiT. mas _ werilTa seriozuli xasiaTis gamo _ profesorebis gazeTs uwodebdnen. gvqonda kidev erTi patara xarjic – Sveicars yovelTviurad vaZlevdiT 75 kapiks, raTa telefonze daveZaxeT xolme, rodesac amas saWiroeba moiTxovda. telefoni maSin arc ise xSiri iyo, magram „SveicarskaiaSi“ igi TiTqmis yvelgan idga. ase rom, 25 maneTi erTi studentisaTvis, yvela xarjis dasafaravad, sruliad sakmarisi iyo. xolo Tu es ar hyofnida, SeeZlo raime samuSaoze mowyobiliyo. magaliTad, erTi Cveni amxanagi, gvarad barnabiSvili, romeliRac eklesiaSi medaviTned muSaobda. saqme bevri ar hqonda, ufro uqme dReebSi iyo dakavebuli. jamagiri kargi iyo da arc swavlaSi eSleboda xeli. yvelaze ioli iyo repetitoroba da amas studentoba xSirad mimarTavda xolme. mec araerTxel mqonia SemTxveva merepetitora. erTxel qalaqis sammarTveloSiac mogvixda muSaoba saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi mowyobili arCevnebis dros. ojaxebSi daviarebodiT da amomrCevelTa anketebs vavsebdiT. bevri kargi ojaxi gavicaniT maSin. 16

male moskovSi me da grigols ori umcrosi Zma – valeriani da aleqsandrec SemogvierTda. Tumca arseboba ar gviWirda, mainc vmuSaobdiT did saopero TeatrSi. axalgazrdebs ufro Sesaxedaobis mixedviT arCevdnen. Cven ZiriTadad masiur scenebSi viRebdiT monawileobas da Tanac iseT did momRerlebTan, rogorebic iyvnen Saliapini, sobinovi, neJdanova da sxvebi. scenis administratorad muSaobda poloneli grafi kamarovski, axovani vaJkaci, mas Tbilisis operaSi emuSavna da namdvil siamovnebas hgvrida CvenTan Tavisi „damtvreuli“ qarTuliT gamosaubreba. Cven rolebSiac viyaviT xolme dakavebuli da amitom repeticiebzec xSirad gveZaxdnen; amisTvis yovel misvlaze 50 kapiki gveZleoda, xolo speqtaklSi monawileobisaTvis – TiTo maneTi, amiT Tvis ganmavlobaSi kargi honorari grovdeboda – 20 maneTze meti. es ukve didi SeRavaTi iyo CvenTvis. Tanac, rogorc maswavleblis Svilebs, swavlis fulis gadaxda ar gvevaleboda. qarTveli studentebidan TiTqmis aT kacamde viyaviT did TeatrSi dakavebuli da yvelas kargi urTierToba gvqonda iqaur msaxiobebTan, gansakuTrebiT Cems Zmas valerians – samedicino fakultetis students. mas Zalian emarjveboda Tbilisuri anekdotebis moyola, rac metad amxiarulebda msaxiobebs, maT Soris kamarovskisac. amitom valeriani sakmaod popularuli iyo maT Soris, xolo, roca opera „xovanSCinaSi“ Saliapini ivane mrisxanes rolSi TxuTmetiode cxenosnis TanxlebiT scenaze Semodioda xolme, masTan yvelaze ufro axlos valeriani idga. didi momRerali gverdidan ar iSorebda Cems Zmas. cxeni Tu damifrTxa, valeriani yvelaze saimedoa CemTviso, xSirad ityoda xolme is. valerianis ojaxSi dResac sapatio adgilze hkidia Saliapinis fotosuraTi misive warweriT: “Valerianu Malakieviqu D[aparidze na dobroe vospominanie o scene Bol>wogo teatra Moskvj. F.Wal%pin. 28. 12. 1914 g.“ Cveni Cveulebrivi, studenturi dRe moskovSi aseTi gaxldaT: diliT adre mosamsaxure qali cxel samovars Semogvitanda, Semdeg sanovagis maRaziebs moirbenda, romlebic imave SenobaSi, an iqve axlos mdebareobda. da 5 kapikad Rirebul cxel „kalaCebs“, karaqs, rZes da yvels moitanda. visauzmebdiT da mivdiodiT leqciebze profesorebis: manuilovis, muromcevis, ozerovis, barovois, pozniSevis, kassosa da trubeckois _ mosasmenad (iuridiuli fakulteti); xSirad filologiis fakultetzec vusmendiT gamoCenil leqtorebs: kliuCevskis, xvostovs, rozanovs, sakulins da Celpanovs, lebedevs – fizikis, xolo timiriazevs, kablukovsa da vernadskis – sabunebismetyvelo fakultetze. nasadilevs rumiancevis (axlandeli sajaro) biblioTekaSi vagrZelebdiT mecadineobas. saRamos, TeatrSi erToblivi daswreba Tu ar iyo dagegmili, erT-erT gaSinaurebul ojaxs, an amxanags vestumrebodiT xolme... Tu arada, ufro xSirad saxlSi gvixdeboda yofna, radgan Cveni bina gansakuTrebuli popularobiT sargeblobda mTel studentobaSi. mas „Stabkvartiras“ eZaxdnen. modiodnen amxanagebi, vsaubrobdiT, vkamaTobdiT. diasaxliss aocebda amdeni axalgazrdis Tavyriloba, gansakuTrebiT Cveni xmamaRali kamaTi. Tu romelime qarTveli Camovidoda moskovSi da vinmes naxvas moisurvebda, uTuod CvenTan gamogzavnidnen – jafariZeebTan midiT, iq yvelafers gaigebT da gaerkveviTo. 17

erTxel Tbilisidan werili momivida – migzavnida saSa abaSeli, maSin jer kidev damwyebi poeti. matyobinebda: moskovSi movdivar swavlis gasagrZeleblad, ar vicnob arc qalaqs da arc mandaur Zexorciels, amitom gTxovT damexmaroT da ramdenime dRe Tqvens binaze mimiRoTo. saSa male Camovida moskovSi da mTeli weliwadi cxovrobda CemTan, mere peterburgs gaemgzavra. amiT is minda vTqva, rom moskovSi qarTvel studentobas erTmaneTTan mWidro, megobruli urTierToba gvqonda. roca saWiro iyo, daxmarebasac vuwevdiT erTmaneTs, xolo, rodesac vSordebodiT, „sadarbazo baraTiT“ mainc SevaxsenebdiT Tavs. sadarbazo baraTebi im dros pirdapir moda iyo. baraTze ewera moqalaqis saxeli, gvari da tituli. magaliTad: „vladimer malaqias Ze jafariZe, moskovis saimperatoro universitetis studenti“. Tu mas megobars gaugzavnidi axal weliwads, aRdgomas an sxva dReebSi, es milocvas niSnavda, TiTqos piradad misuliyavi misalocad. moskovSi erTi avTandilovi iyo – kargi, mSromeli kaci, Tbiliseli. sadRac umniSvnelo Tanamdebobaze msaxurobda. magram sadarbazo baraTi mainc hqonda. rogorc Cans, sadarbazo baraTze Tavisi Tanamdeboba aRniSvnis Rirsad ar CaTvala. magram mis magier raRac xom unda daewera da dawera kidec: saxeli, mamis saxeli, gvari da qvemoT: „Plem%nnik kn%z% Argutinskogo.“ es ambavi maSin bevrs saxumarod da sasacilod hqonda gadaqceuli, magram aseTi iyo imdroindeli moda da modis Wirveuloba ki, mogexsenebaT, TiTqmis versad veravis aucilebia Tavidan. dResac sasiamovnod vixseneb moskovSi vaso kandelakis qorwils. man jer kidev studentma jvari daiwera erT mSvenier rus qaliSvilze. qorwili Cvenma kargma megobarma jibilo lorTqifaniZem mouwyo Tavis ojaxSi _ zvenigorodis mazris erT-erT sofelSi. „mayrebad“ me da griSac viyaviT da Zalian kargi droc gavatareT. eklesiidan marxilebiT davbrundiT. gzad did TovlSi xan erTi, xan meore marxili brundeboda da saerTo mxiarulebas bolo ar uCanda. stumrebs Soris Cveni sayvareli msaxiobi lado mesxiSvilic iyo colsa da orive qaliSvilTan erTad. maxsovs qsenia lorTqifaniZis jvriswerac student kulikovTan. me da griSa iqac mayrebad viyaviT, Tumca namdvili qorwili arc ki yofila. eklesiidan yvela pirdapir saxlSi wavida, radgan nefe-dedofals „mayrebis“ dapatiJebis saSualeba ar hqonda. maxsovs revoluciurad ganwyobili da mexiviT mgrgvinavi gabo xundaZe. Tbilad vixseneb brwyinvale qarTvel patriotebs saingilodan: vano papiaSvils da giorgi gamxaraSvils; damwyeb mwerlebs, maSin sul axalgazrda studentebs – tician tabiZesa da sergo kldiaSvils, iliko qurxulsa da vaso beJaniSvils, daTiko da ermile lobJaniZeebsa da bevr kidev sxvas. vin moTvlis, ramdeni amxanagi, megobari da nacnobi damrCa aq mouxseniebeli. Tavs ise vgrZnob, TiTqos danaSauli Camedinos maT winaSe. magram mainc minda aucileblad gavixseno Cemi erTi megobari kosta maisuraZe. moskovSi Cemsobas sporti metad ganuviTarebeli iyo da misi erTaderTi saxeoba, rac xalxs izidavda, franguli Widaoba iyo, romelsac vinme ivan lebedevi meTaurobda. misi sqeli da dakunT18

uli sxeuli imas amtkicebda, rom odesRac TviTonac, maSin ukve xanSi Sesuli mamakaci, am dargis mimdevari iyo. mis mier mowyobil CempionatSi moWidaveebi evropisa da aziis qveynebidanac ki Camodiodnen. maT Soris saxelganTqmuli iaponeli moWidave sirakiki iyo. 1908-1910 wlebSi, Tu cota mogvianebiT, mis CempionatSi monawileobda Tbiliseli cnobili sportsmeni kosta maisuraZe. kosta raWis mazris sofel cxmoridan iyo. siWabukeSi TbilisSi Camosul ymawvils mzareuloba Seeswavla da im dargSi muSaobda kidec. magram SemdegSi sports gahyva. jer qarTuli, mere ki franguli Widaoba dauwyia (axla rom klasikurs uwodeben). kosta didi warmatebiT gamodioda. kargi monacemebic hqonda. saSualo tanis mxarbeWiani, mkerdganieri vaJkaci iyo, ZalRonec mosdevda da Widaobis teqnikac kargad aeTvisebina. amitom saWidao xaliCaze misi gamosvlebi sasiamovno sanaxavi iyo da mayurebelsac sxva ra unda! sxvaTa Soris, garegnobac metad mimzidveli hqonda; qarTvel studenobas Zalian uyvarda misi Widaoba da xSiradac eswreboda lebedevis mier mowyobil Cempionatebs. kosta erT-erTi wamyvani moWidave gaxldaT, xalxic misdami didi pativiscemiT iyo ganmsWvaluli. me da griSa axlos vicnobdiT kostas da, bunebrivia, mis gamosvlebs ar vacdendiT. es Zalian axalisebda da guladobasac hmatebda. Teatri „akvariumi“ sadovaia-kudrinskaiaze, sadac warmodgenebis Semdeg Cempionati mimdinareobda, savse iyo Widaobis moyvarulebiT. kostas garda, am CempionatSi sxva popularuli moWidaveebic xSirad monawileobdnen, maT Soris evropidan Camosuli Svarci, iaponeli sirakiki, rusebi: zaikini, poddubni da sxva. erTxel, roca kostam evropidan Camosul romeliRac saxelganTqmul falavanTan gaimarjva, xalxma taSiT kinaRam Teatri daangria. am dros viRacam SesZaxa: „Lezginku, Kost%!..“ da, marTlac, kostam lamazad da warmtacad Camouara Taviseburad. saxe ucinoda, Savi ulvaSebi maRla aeprixa, xalxis aRtaceba marTlac gulwrfeli iyo. bolo dros kostas msoflio Cempionis titulic hqonda mikuTvnebuli. afiSebze mis gvarTan „Qempion mira“ ewera da amis gamo Cvens siamayes sazRvari ar hqonda. lamazi kaci iyo kosta. yovelTvis sufTa da lamazad Sekerili kostumi ecva, xandaxan Coxa-axaluxSic iyo gamowyobili. sul axalgazrda gardaicvala 1919 wels e.w. „ispankiT“... * * * 1906 wels, reaqciis periodSi, universitetis studentobas ukve aRar hqonda krebebis mowyobis ufleba, miT ufro gaficvisa. erTaderTi, rac ar aikrZala, es saTvistomoebi gaxldaT. arsebobda iseTi organizaciac, romelic am saTvistomoebs aerTianebda universitetis farglebSi. hoda, ai, erT dRes, am gaerTianebam, ar maxsovs ra sakiTxis irgvliv an ra mizeziT, saswrafod studentTa kreba gamoacxada. Tavs rom policia ar dagvsxmoda, reqtorma studentebs daSla sTxova, magram amaod. marTlac, sul raRac naxevar saaTSi policiam alya Semoartya universitets da Cvens auditoriaSic gamoCnda. iuridiuli fakultetis #2 didi auditoria studentebiT iyo savse. amitom yvela monawilis dapatimreba SeuZlebeli Canda, ris gamoc 50-mde studenti, viTom krebis prezidiumi da aqtivis19

tebi, oTaxSi Cagvketes, danarCeni ki universitetis Senobidan garekes. im dRes leqciebi, ra Tqma unda, aRar Catarebula. dakavebuli studentebi, imis Semdeg, rac sabuTebis mixedviT Cveni piradoba daadastures da misamarTebic Caiweres, romeliRac policiur nawilSi wagviyvanes, erTxans gagvaCeres da bolos saxlebSic gamogvistumres. es iyo 1907 Tu 1908 wlis zamTari. amis Semdeg aT dResac ar gaevlo, rom binaze policielma momakiTxa da rogorc moskovis universitetSi nebadaurTveli krebis monawiles, administraciuli wesiT, TxuTmetdRiani patimrobis ganaCeni gamomicxada. es brZaneba yvela „eWvmitanilze“ yofila gacemuli. winadadeba momca, wavyolodi sapatimroSi. raRa unda meTqva. misi nebarTviT, oriode sakiTxavi wigni da erTi saxatavi albomi aviRe da ukan gavyevi. griSas patara werili davutove momxdari ambis Sesaxeb da vTxove, nurc idardeb da nurc momZebni, wvalebad ar eRireba-meTqi. mimiyvanes sapatimros ufrosTan, romelic farTo kabinetSi ijda da im siciveSi cxel Cais miirTmevda. msuqani kaci iyo, „tolstiaks“ eZaxdnen. Cemda gasaocrad, metad Tbilad Semxvda, TiTqos misi didi xnis unaxavi axlobeli vyofiliyavi da ara ucnobi axalgazrda da isic patimari. _ aha, kidev moiyvaneT studenti? _ ikiTxa man da TanagrZnobiT Semomxeda. Canda, naoficrali iyo, Tvinieri, bunCula, uboroto moxuci. _ mesame kameraSi missave amxanagebTan moaTavseT batoni studenti, _ brZana man da policielic, didi derefnis gavlis mere, erT mozrdil darbazSi SemiZRva, sadac ukve ijda im krebis monawile ori rusi studenti. me maT pirvelad vxedavdi: erTi maTgani maTematikosi iyo, maRali da grZelTmiani; ubralo pijaki da maRalyeliani Ceqmebi ecva. Zalian uyvarda fanjaraSi cqera; taburetze saaTobiT Semdgari Soreul sivrces an sapatimros ezos gahyurebda. meore axalgazrda, romelic studentur formaSi iyo koxtad gamowyobili, filologi gamodga. is sul loginze iwva da erTTavad Sinidan motanil wignebs kiTxulobda. rom giTxraT, Zalian gamiWirda sapatimroSi yofna–meTqi, ar viqnebi marTali: mSvenivrad verTobodiT saubrebiT, anekdotebiT, wignebis kiTxviT. dReSi rom samjer karebs gaaRebdnen da saWmel-sasmels Semogvitandnen, esec Cveni erTgvari garToba da drois mokvla iyo. mec miveCvie sarkmelSi cqeras: taburetze Semdgari, didxans mivCerebodi sapatimros TovliT dafarul ezos, sadac Tbilad Cacmuli Tofiani policielebi daiarebodnen: axlad mosuli karetidan patimrebi gadmohyavdaT an, piriqiT, cixidan mihyavdaT sadRac. me Cems albomSi bevri ram iseTi movxaze, axla rom davxedav xolme, naTlad warmomidgeba iq yofnis dReebi. mxolod erT rameze mwydeba guli, _ arc erTze TariRi ar damiweria da amitom zustad ar vici, cxraas Svidi weli iyo, Tu cxraas rva. es ki danamdvilebiT miweria: „V thr>me Arbatskoy 1 qasti,“ an „Arbatskiy policeyskiy dom“, da sxv. Canaxati fanqriTaa ubralod moxazuli, magram CemTvis esec bevris mTqmelia. TxuTmeti dRis ganmavlobaSi arc aravin gauyvaniaT Cveni kameridan da arc aravin SemouyvaniaT. samiveni erTad gagvaTavisufles. Cemma gaTavisuflebam qarTul saTvistomoSi didi furori 20

moaxdina. TiTqos raRac araCveulebrivi gmiroba Camedinos, an didi xnis patimrobidan davbrunebuliyavi nacem-nawvalebi. luba da kato gociriZeebi pirvelebi moiWrnen Cvens binaze da ise gaxarebulebi iyvnen, TiTqos saiqiodan davbrunebuliyav. andro razmaZe, avetik martirosovi, miSa Tuxareli, griSa cxakaia, daTiko gagua da, ra vici, vin ar movida Cem sanaxavad! didxans meyo Cemi patimrobis ambavi sulis sazrdod, salaparakod da mosayolad. amiT vamTavreb Cemi drois moskovze saubars. 1914 wlidan fexi ar damedga iq da, roca 1956 wels mivlinebiT Cavedi, gamaoca misma Tanamedrove iersaxem, gansakuTrebiT axalma universitetma, romlis Sedareba arc ki SeiZleba maSindel universitetTan. me mainc siyvaruliT vigoneb Cemi drois moskovs, mis Zvel saxlebs, Sabolovkasa da iakimankas, boJedomkasa da tagankas, ostapenkasa da volxonkas, xamovniksa da presnas... romeli erTi CamovTvalo... es saxelebi axlac tkbilad Camesmis yurSi, rogorc gardasul dReTa dauviwyari mogoneba.

moskovis qarTuli saTvistomo
Cemi studentobis dros, revoluciamdel ruseTSi axalgazrdebs Soris didi saxeliT sargeblobda studenturi organizacia „saTvistomo“, romelic yvela eris studentTa enaze „Zeml%qestvo“-s saxelwodebiT iyo cnobili. es organizacia Tavs uyrida da aerTianebda ruseTis sxvadasxva kuTxidan sauniversiteto qalaqSi Camosul axalgazrdebs, Tvistom (zeml%ki) TanamemamuleebTan daaxlovebis, urTierTobis, kulturuli da materialuri daxmarebis mizniT. moskovis universitetSi „zemliaCestvoebi“ ufro im qalaqebis mixedviT iyo Camoyalibebuli, sadac axalgazrdobas damTavrebuli hqonda gimnaziebi, xolo aseTi gimnaziebi im dros mxolod did sagubernio qalaqebSi arsebobda. amitom saTvistomoebic im qalaqebis saxelwodebebiT iyo organizebuli: R%zanskoe zeml%qestvo, Orlovskoe, Tverskoe, Tambovskoe da a.S. erT dros „Tiflisskoe zeml%qestvo“-c arsebobda, sadac gaerTianebulni iyvnen Tbilisis gimnaziis kursdamTavrebuli rusi da sxva erovnebis warmomadgenlebi. qarTvelebi ki ganurCevlad imisa, Tu romeli qalaqis gimnaziidan iyvnen Camosulni, erTiandebodnen erovnul organizaciaSi, romelsac “Gruzinskoe zeml%qestvo” ewodeboda. Tbilisis saTvistomos am saxelwodebiT didxans ar uarsebia. rogorc maxsovs, male „Kavkazskoe zeml%qestvo“-s saxeliT gaerTianda. amiT Tavis organizacias meti Zala da Rone Semata, asparezi gaufarTova. am saTvistomoSi kavkasiis mTeli rigi qalaqebis yofili gimnazielebi iyridnen Tavs. moskovis universitetSi kulturulad Tu materialurad yvelaze Ronieri qarTuli saTvistomo iyo, sadac marto qarTvelebi iyvnen gaerTianebulni, ganurCevlad imisa, Tu romeli qalaqis gimnaziidan iyvnen Camosulni – mxolod im pirobiT, rom maT aucileblad qarTuli ena unda scodnodaT, radgan mis ucodinarobas xeli ar unda SeeSala erovnul saTvistomoSi maTi saqmianobisaTvis. 21

qarTvelebi, romlebmac qarTuli ena ar icodnen umetes wilad imis gamo, rom dabadebulni da aRzrdilni saqarTelos farglebs gareT iyvnen, kavkasiis saTvistomoSi erTiandebodnen; maT CvenTan TiTqmis araviTari urTierToba ar hqondaT, amitom arc ki vicnobdiT erTimeores. magaliTad, Cveni erovnuli geologiis erT-erTi fuZemdebeli da didi moamage akademikosi aleqsandre TvalWreliZe, romelic Cems dros moskovis universitetSi swavlobda, me mxolod meoTxe kursze gavicani da isic SemTxveviT. man qarTuli ena srulebiT ar icoda. fizika-maTematikis fakultetze fizikis did auditoriaSi profesor umovis leqciaze iuridiuli fakultetis ramdenime studenti viyaviT. umovi iSviaTi leqtori gaxldaT da cdebsac sainteresod atarebda; amitom xSirad vismendiT mis leqcias. es maSin daSvebuli iyo da studentebi Tavisuflad eswrebodnen yvela leqcias universitetis nebismier fakultetze. roca leqcia damTavrda da studentebi ezoSi gamovidnen, erTma studentma siiT ramdenime amxanagis gvari amoikiTxa da maT Soris „TvalWreliZe“. ucbad SevCerdi, radgan es gvari moskovSi pirvelad mesmoda, iqaur qarTvelobas ki ukve ramdenime weliwadi iyo, rac vicnobdi. vin unda yofiliyo es TvalWreliZe, verafriT ver gavixsene, amitom vikiTxe: romeli brZandebiT TvalWreliZe-meTqi? _ TvalWreliZes kiTxulobT? – warsdga Cem win erTi rusi studenti, _ me gaxlavarT, xom araferi gnebavT? Tvals ar vujerebdi: es iyo tipiuri rusi studenti qera TmiT, mSvidi, cisferi da metad sandomiani TvalebiT, oqrosCarCoiani saTvaliT. mis saxes axlad amosuli wver-ulvaSi kidev ufro mimzidvels xdida. Cven gamovelaparakeT erTmaneTs; me didi interesi gamoviCine misdami, rac mas Zalze esiamovna. igi aRmoCnda TvalWreliZeTa cnobili ojaxis warmomadgeneli raWis mazris sofel caxidan, im dros sakmaod saxelmoxveWili poetis parmen caxelis Zmiswuli. studenti TvalWreliZe CrdiloeT kavkasiis erT-erT qalaqSi yofila dabadebuli da aRzrdili, sadac mamamisi msaxurobda Turme; amitom erTi Reri qarTulic ar icoda, miT ufro, rom dedac iqauri rusi hyolia. aleqsandre TvalWreliZe geologias swavlobda da Rirseul studentad iTvleboda. masac guliT surda qarTvelebTan daaxloeba. stavropolidan Camosuli studenti aravis ar icnobda, radgan kavkasiis saTvistomoSi qarTveli TiTqmis aravin iyo. im dRidan aleqsandre TvalWreliZes xSirad vxvdebodi da vmegobrobdiT kidec. es megobroba kidev ufro ganmtkicda TbilisSi, sadac igi moRvaweobda da daaarsa mineraluri nedleulis instituti. al. TvalWreliZes raWaSiac xSirad vxvdebodi, sadac sofel RebTan mTebSi, did geologiur saqmeebs xelmZRvanelobda. patriotma kacma energiulad mohkida xeli qarTuli enis Seswavlas, magram qarTulad mainc ver alaparakda... CvenTan araqarTuli warmoSobis studentebic iyvnen, magram maT ucxo Tesl-tomobisa ukve aRaraferi etyobodaT, qarTvelobdnen da pativs miagebdnen qarTul miwas. zogierTi maTgani dediT qarTvelic ki iyo, zogs mxolod gvari SerCenoda araqarTuli. 22

aseTebi iyvnen quTaisis mkvidrni: fridrix gerardi, vano matiuxovi, vano misenko, fedia Cudecki, ruben auStrovi, franguliani, amiragovi da alaverdovi; Tbiliselni: krupenikovi miSa, sandro Saligini, polumordvinovi da sxvebi... amis gamo saTvistomoSi mudam erovnulTan Sezrdili internacionaluri suliskveTeba sufevda, romelic did rols asrulebda axalgazrdobis sulier da zneobriv davaJkacebaSi. iq studentebi erT ojaxad cxovrobdnen, sadac erovnulsa da sarwmunoebriv sxvadasxvaobas raime mniSvneloba ar eniWeboda. es sinamdvileSi asec unda yofiliyo, radgan saTvistomos erT-erTi ZiriTadi mizani erTmaneTisadmi materialuri daxmareba da pativiscema iyo, rasac sulieri urTierTobis damyarebac mosdevda Tan. rodesac pirvelad saTvistomos krebaze mivedi, Tvalebi amiWrelda amdeni qarTveli studentis erTad danaxviT. yvela iseTi lamazi da axovani iyo, gegonebodaT, sagangebod arian SerCeulnio. maT umetesobas saxes wver-ulvaSi umSvenebda. ise wynarad isxdnen krebaze, TiTqos ucxo da sapatio ojaxSi misuliyvnen stumrad, Tanac darbaislurad baasobdnen zafxulSi gatarebul dReebze. magram ai, erTxel rogor aenTo es dinji krebuli, roca saqme erovnul sims Seexo da haerSi misi mtkivneuli JRera gaisma. sakiTxi exeboda saTvistomos saxelis Secvlas, rac TiTqos imiT iyo nakarnaxevi, rom „qarTuli saTvistomo“ studentTa organizacias erovnulad zRudavda da xels uSlida qarTuli enis armcodne an araqarTveli studentis Cvens wreSi Semosvlas, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas gimnazia saqarTveloSi daemTavrebina da qarTvel studentebTan surda muSaoba. am sakiTxis irgvliv didi dava atyda. saqme isaa, rom im dros yovelive „erovnuli“ „revoluciisa“ Tu „proletarulisaTvis“ xelis SemSlelad iTvleboda, amitom bevri cdilobda erovnuli sakiTxebisadmi mtrulad Tu ara, nihilisturad mainc yofiliyo ganwyobili. am ultramemarcxeneebs xsenebul sakiTxSi liderobdnen Zveli studentebi: evgeni gegeWkori _ SemdegSi ultranacionalisti, menSevikuri mTavrobis sagareo saqmeTa ministri; giorgi koniaSvili – SemdegSi maTematikis maswavlebeli, SesaniSnavi adamiani da kargi qarTveli; andro tatiSvili, gizo anjafariZe, v.nemsaZe, samson wuwunava, sio WanturiSvili da sxvebi. magram krebis umravlesobam mxari ar dauWira maT. gansakuTrebiT cxared SeebrZola maT studenti silovan gabunia, romelic amtkicebda, rom araqarTvelTa masiuri gaerTianeba qarTul saTvistomoSi marto im mosazrebiT, rom maT gimnaziebi saqarTveloSi daemTavrebinaT, mizanSewonili ar iyo da xels SeuSlida saTvistomos muSaobas wminda erovnul, kulturul-saganmanaTleblo da ideur-politikur sakiTxebSi, studentTa erovnul niadagze gaerTianebas da maTi erovnuli sakiTxebiT dainteresebas. saTvistomo dakargavda Tavis erovnul saxes da mTlad gaiTqvifeboda, rac aravisTvis ar iyo saWiro, miT ufro saziano iqneboda qarTvelTaTvis. silovan gabunias mxari dauWires studentebma, romlebmac mZafri kritikiT gailaSqres antierovnuli sakiTxebis winaaRmdeg. maT Soris iyvnen giorgi Jordania, giorgi foraqiSvili, severian RoRoberiZe da sxvebi. 23

erTi sityviT, winadadeba ar gavida da saTvistomo kvlav imave saxelwodebiT darCa. silovan gabunia kolorituli figura iyo moskovis qarTvel studentTa Soris. im wels, roca me moskovSi Cavedi, silovani ukve Zveli studenti gaxldaT. 1902 wels, quTaisis gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg, is moskovis universitetis iuridiul fakultetze Sesuliyo, magram kursis damTavrebaze sulac ar zrunavda, imdenad iyo dakavebuli qarTuli saTvistomos sazogadoebrivi saqmianobiTa da studentTa saerTo revoluciuri muSaobiT. is amasTanave „moskovis qarTuli sazogadoebis“ aqtiuri wevri, mraval wamowyebaTa sulisCamdgmel-xelmZRvanelic iyo, amitom universitetSi gamocdebis CabarebisaTvis ar ecala. aq mas xels uwyobda universitetSi im dros arsebuli swavlis e.w. „predmetna%“ sistema: studenti Caewereboda leqciebze, rac aucileblad unda moesmina wlis ganmavlobaSi, magram daeswreboda Tu ara am leqciebs, es misi saqme iyo, mTavaria, gamocdebi da koloqviumebi Caebarebina am sagnebSi. gamocdis vadebic studentis survilze iyo damokidebuli da ise gaepareboda xolme dro, sagnebis Cabareba Zalauneburad unda gadaedo. warmoidgineT, arc amisaTvis mogTxovdnen pasuxs, radgan kursidan kursze gadasvla ar xdeboda; mxolod im leqciebis mosmena iyo saWiro, romelic saerTo kurss Seadgenda, ufro ki leqciebis Cawera; es leqciebi ise iyo ganawilebuli, rom students oTxi wlis ganmavlobaSi SeeZlo maTi mosmena _ yovel weliwads garkveuli raodenobis saaTebi. Tu sxvadasxva mosazrebiT nakleb leqcias Caiwerdi, amazec aravin mogTxovda pasuxs, magram kursis damTavrebisaTvis oTxi weliwadi ukve aRar geyofoda. iyo iseTi SemTxvevebic, rodesac studentebi, piriqiT, _ 4 welze ufro adre amTavrebdnen universitets. ase moiqca, magaliTad, Cemi umcrosi Zma aleqsandre, romelic 1913 wels Cavida moskovs, sami wlis ganmavlobaSi iuridiul fakultetze Caabara yvela savaldebulo sakurso sagani, 1916 wels ki saxelmwifo gamocdebic moaTava. oRond saxelmwifo gamocdebis Cabarebis uflebis misaRebad peterburgSi ganaTlebis ministrTan daWirda wasvla. esec savsebiT Tqvens nebaze iyo damokidebuli da amis gamo aravin ar dagiwyebdaT davas. SegeZloT Tund aTi weliwadic darCeniliyaviT universitetSi, Tuki wesierad gadaixdidiT swavlis fuls, romelic weliwadSi as maneTs Seadgenda. magam verc es garemoeba aSinebda students, radgan is xSirad Tavisufldeboda gadasaxadidan, Tu saTanado gancxadebas Seitanda „studentTa damxmare komitetSi“ an TviT universitetis reqtoratSi da Tan qarTuli saTvistomos Suamavlobasac daixmarda, reqtoratSi ki yovel Soba-axalwels zogierT moskovel bobola vaWars aTasobiT da xSirad aTiaTasobiTac mohqonda Semowiruloba „Rarib studentTa swavlis fulisagan gasaTavisufleblad (,,ot neizvestnjx“). me ar maxsovs, rom romelime qarTveli studenti swavlis fulis Seutanlobis gamo universitetis gareT darCeniliyo. uTuod am mizezis gamo darCa silovani universitetSi ase didxans. mxolod 1910 wels SeZlo misi damTavreba da didad guldawyvetilma datova moskovi, romelsac ase mieCvia mTeli rva wlis ganmavlobaSi. 24

silovani didi demokrati iyo: mTeli guliTa da suliT, siyvaruliTa da mondomebiT exmareboda axalgazrda studentobas. da am daxmarebas Tavis sulier moTxovnilebad da patriotul movaleobad miiCnevda. 1908 wels, akakis winasaiubileo dReebSi, qarTulma saTvistomom, poetis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis gaSuqebis mizniT, sagangebo literaturuli saRamos mowyoba ganizraxa. amasTanave saWirod cno mgosnis leqsTa krebulis rusul enaze gamocema, romelic adre dabeWdili ki iyo, magram ukve bibliogrfiul iSviaTobas warmoadgenda. rogorc movelodiT, am sakiTxis mogvareba saTvistomom silovan gabunias miando. silovanma am saqmeSi me da Cemi Zmac Cagvaba da, miuxedavad Cveni mravali mcdelobisa, sxvadasxva Jurnal-gazeTebidan mxolod aTiode leqsis moZieba Tu SevZeliT. wignis gamosacemad ki es namdvilad ar kmaroda. silovanma saWirod miiCnia me da griSas akakis rusulad uTargmneli leqsebis bwkaredebi gagvekeTebina, raTa mere romelime rusi poetisTvis gveTargmninebina. male am davalebis mosagvareblad, silovanTan erTad, stoleSnikovis SesaxvevSi, saerTo megobars _ vladimer aleqsis Ze giliarovskis ojaxSi vewvieT. vladimer aleqsis Ze – SesaniSnavi adamiani, poeti, Jurnalisti, sportsmeni, didad popularuli gaxldaT moskovelTa Soris. maspinZlis meuRle da im dros qalTa gimnaziis mowafe – maTi erTaderTi qaliSvili nadeJda giliarovskaia gulRiad Segvxvdnen, gagvimaspinZldnen. vladimerma did pativiscemad CaTvala Cveni Txovna, eTargmna akakis leqsebi da amis gamo didi madlobac uTxra Tavis Zvel megobars silovans. akakis is icnobda, rogorc did poetsa da qarTveli eris erT-erT TvalsaCino moRvawes. ramdenime leqsi Targmnes vladimerma da misma qaliSvilma nadeJdam, maT Soris „saidumlo baraTi“, „sanam viyav axalgazrda“, „Tavo Cemo“, „naxevari cxovrebis gza gavlie“ da sxva, rac silovanma akakis ukve Sekrebil leqsebs miumata da momavali wignis maketic gaakeTa. giliarovskebTan orjer-samjer kidev dagvWirda Sevla, rom mTargmnelebs Cvengan qarTuli originalis musikaluri JReradoba moesminaT, raTa ritmi SeedarebinaT maT mier Targmnili masalisaTvis. Semdeg saTvistomom miiRo momavali wignis saWiro masala, romelsac daerTo prof. al.xaxanaSvilis mSvenieri winasityvaoba da akakis saRamosaTvis wignic ukve mzad iyo. raRac iRblad im wignis erTi egzempliari dRemde SemomrCa. is axla bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgens. amitom zogierTi damatebiTi cnoba kidev minda mogawodoT mis Sesaxeb: wignis zomaa 20x15 sm. ydaze asea dabeWdili: „Gruzinskiy po+t kn.Akakiy Cereteli. Izbrannje stixotvoreni% v perevode russkix po+tov. ( K p%tides%tiletih literaturnoy de%tel>nosti). S predisloviem A.S. Xaxanova. Izdanie studentov-gruzin v Moskve, N 1, Moskva, 1908 g.“ wignSi moTavsebulia akakis portreti da 19 leqsi. rogorc zemoT vwerdi, Svidi giliarovskebis mier aris Targmnili. saTvistomos gamgeobam specialuri dadgenilebiT madloba gamoucxada silovan gabunias davalebis brwyinvaled SesrulebisaTvis. akakis iubile moskovSi imave saTvistomos mier grandiozulad Catarda. vityvi mxolod imas, rom igi Sedga universitetis 25

did saaqto darbazSi, romelic saucxood, sadResaswaulod iyo morTuli, kedels akakis didi suraTi amSvenebda. saTvistomo Seecada zeimisaTvis meti brwyinvaleba mieniWebina, risTvisac saRamoze dasaswrebad didZali xalxi moiwvia, umTavresad mwerlebi da TvalsaCino sazogado moRvaweni. literaturuli saRamos Tavmjdomared taSis grialSi erTxmad airCies moskovis universitetis profesori p.n.sakulini, metad popularuli leqtori da rusuli literaturis didi specialisti. man vrceli sityva warmoTqva qarTveli poetis udidesi mniSvnelobis Sesaxeb rogorc misi eris, aseve, sazogadod, kulturis istoriaSi. aseve vrceli moxsenebiT gamovida prof. al.xaxanaSvili, Semdeg kompozitori dimitri arayiSvili. saRamoze mxurvale sityvebi warmoTqves aqtiurma studentebmac: kote faniaSvilma, siko vaCnaZem, grigol cxakaiam, giorgi Jordaniam da sxvebma. iyo misaloci depeSebic, maT Soris universitetis reqtoris a.a.manuilovisa. saRamo Cveulebriv koncertiT damTavrda. mReroda qarTuli gundic, romelsac lotbarobda studenti dimitri mgalobliSvili. studentma iliko abaSiZem Celoze Seasrula qarTuli romansebi. waikiTxes akakis leqsebi rogorc qarTul, ise rusul enebze. erTi sityviT, akakis iubile metad gulTbilad da Cinebulad Catarda. iubilars saTvistomos mTeli qarTveli studentobisa da damswre rusi sazogadoebis saxeliT misaloci depeSa gaegzavna, romelsac profesori sakulini awerda xels. meore dRes, akakis saiubileo saRamo ukve moskovis „saliteraturo-samxatvro wreSi“ gaimarTa, romelsac al.sumbaTaSvil-iuJini da poeti valeri briusovi meTaurobdnen. aqac didi iyo sazeimo ganwyoba, magram es Cveni saTvistomos muSaobas ar Seexeba da amitom aq aRar SevCerdebi. aRvniSne ukve, rom saTvistomoebi universitetSi pirvel rigSi studentTa materialuri daxmarebis saqmes emsaxurebodnen da maTi umravlesoba mxarisa Tu qalaqis mixedviT iyo organizebuli. qarTuli saTvistomo ki erovnulobis niSniT iyo Seqmnili, ris gamoc is erTgvari warmomadgenelic iyo Tavisi erisa rogorc universitetis farglebSi, ise mis gareT. Tu erovnuli interesebi ukarnaxebda, saTvistomo xSirad exmaureboda universitetis gareT mimdinare kulturul, politikur Tu sazogadoebrivi mniSvnelobis movlenebs da saTanado monawileobasac iRebda. am mimarTebiT Cvens saTvistomos araerTi mniSvnelovani RonisZieba Cautarebia, sadac mec vmonawileobdi. marto is rad Rirs, rom saTvistomom 1910 wlis Semodgomis yinvian dReebSi genialuri mwerlisa da didi meamboxis lev tolstois dakrZalvis ceremonialSi miiRo monawileoba. 1907 wels moskovSi Catarda gamoCenili msaxiobisa da mwerlis aleqsandre sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis Teatraluri moRvaweobis 25 wlis iubile. saTvistomo farTod gamoexmaura am movlenas, specialur sxdomaze erTxmad daadgina iubileze delegaciis gagzavna da iubilarisaTvis adresis mirTmeva. vinaidan delegatebi speqtakls unda daswrebodnen, xolo bileTebis raodenoba SezRuduli iyo, delegaciaSi mxolod sami wevri agvirCies – me, Cemi Zma griSa da Zveli studenti severian RoRoberZe.

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mcire Teatri, rom ityvian, xalxiT iyo „gajejgili“. midioda „otelo“, romelsac TamaSobda iubilari, dezdemonas rols ki cnobili msaxiobi qali – gzovskaia asrulebda. milocvebi pirveli Tu meore moqmedebis Semdeg daiwyo. farda rom aixada, mayurebels iSviaTi suraTi warmoudga. Teatris mTeli Semadgenloba scenaze gamofeniliyo, zogi grimiT, zogi ugrimod. a.i.sumbaTaSvil-iuJini otelos grimiT gaxldaT. iyo dausrulebeli taSi. delegacia delegacias cvlida. sityvebs bolo ar uCanda. mihqondaT saCuqrebi. visgan ar modioda molocva! cnobilma frangma moqandakem rodenma Tavisi namuSevari gamougzavna, lev tolstoim – TxzulebaTa krebuli, romelsac madlieri iubilari mowiwebiT eambora. saqarTvelos delegacias qulajaSi gamowyobili msaxiobi kote mesxi meTaurobda. didi ovacia gamoiwvia misma sityvam. man kargad waikiTxa erT-erTi rusi poetis leqsi, sakuTari sityva ki ase daasrula: „...Pust> nikto ne ska[et, qto tj izmenil rodnoy scene, ibo tvo% „Izmena“ isklhqaet vs%kuh izmenu!...“ grigaliviT moswyda taSi darbazs... Cveni gamosvlac mSvenivrad dasrulda. severianem mTeli gznebiT waikiTxa sakmaod mozrdili adresi Cveni saTvistomosi. me da griSa erTnair Coxa-axaluxSi gamowyobilni aqeT-iqiT vedeqiT mas. darbazi gakvirvebiT mogvCereboda sameuls, romelTagan ori mTlad erTnairi iyo, mesame ki _ studentur serTukSi gamowyobili axovani axalgazrda, romlis lamaz saxes Ria wablisferi wver-ulvaSi amSvenebda. taSis griali Cvenc uxvad gvergo da didxans ar cxreboda igi. yvelgan qarTvel studentTa saTvistomos qeba ismoda. Canda, kargi STabeWdileba movaxdineT mayurebelze. gazeTebi farTod gamoexmaurnen a.sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis iubiles; erT-erT maTganSi aseTi megobruli SarJic iyo moTavsebuli: uzarmazari iuJini – otelos rolSi da CitiviT frTxiala patara gzovskaia – dezdemonas rolSi. SarJis teqsti daaxloebiT aseTi iyo: „Otello H[ina, ili wawljk iz Gzovskoy“. „SaSlikis“ Tema mxatvars SeiZleba imanac ukarnaxa, rom iuJinis „iubile“ im Rames gagrZelda demetraZis restoranSi, sadac saqarTvelodan Camosulma delegatebma, da gansakuTrebiT kote mesxma, pirdapir moxibles am did banketze myofi sazogadoeba. mcire Teatris cnobilma msaxiobma k.ribakovma yvelas misamarTiT gaixumra: dReidan me konstantin ribakovi aRara var, yvelam kote TevzaZe miwodeTo... al.sumbaTaSvil-iuJini didi popularobiT sargeblobda moskovSi. garda imisa, rom mcire Teatris wamyvani msaxiobi da cnobili mwerali-dramaturgi iyo, iSviaTi garegnobis axovani vaJkaci da namdvili mWevrmetyvelic gaxldaT. erTxel, ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedebisadmi miZRvnil saRamoze man metad amaRelvebeli sityva warmoTqva, da mere leqsic daayola: „S tex por, kak % polhbil, o Gruzi% rodna%“. es imdenad grZnobiT iyo naTqvami, rom cremlebi moadga da Cvenc Zalze agvaRelva. qarTuli zereled icoda da, miuxedavad imisa, rom gimnazia TbilisSi hqonda damTavrebuli, laparaki ar exerxeboda. maxsovs, ninoobis sadResaswaulo banketze, sadac qarTveloba iyo TavSeyrili da studentebic veswrebodiT, sTxoves qarTulad warmoeT27

qva sityva, daiwyo kidec, magram azrebis gamoTqma imdenad uWirda, rom bodiSi moixada da isev rusulze gadavida. Zalian uyvarda rusulad Targmnili qarTuli leqsebis kiTxva. isic maxsovs, Tu ra iSviaTi grZnobiT waikiTxa akakis „Uljbka“, („Kogda % okru[en... “). aseTive aqtiuri monawileoba miiRo qarTulma saTvistomom moskovis samxatvro Teatris 10 wlisTavisadmi miZRvnil saiubileo saRamoSi 1908 wels. adresis Sedgena saTvistomom studentebs – silovan gabunias da mixeil daviTaSvils daavala, rac orTavem droulad da kargad Seasrula. silovani mSvenieri mWermetyveli gaxldaT da amasTanave rusul enasac Cinebulad flobda, emarjveboda sityvis warmoTqma, galamazeba. magram male maT TavianTi gamosvlis leqsad Camoyalibeba moindomes da sakuTar Tavs rom ver endvnen, daxmarebisaTvis isev Cvens megobar poet qals nadeJda vladimeris asul giliarovskaias mimarTes. leqsi marTlac kargi gamovida. igi sul xuTi strofisagan Sedgeboda da saTaurad aseTi sityvebi hqonda: „Ot Moskovskogo Gruzinskogo studenqeskogo zeml%qestva. Moskovskomu Xudo[estvennomu teatru po povodu 10-letnego hbile%. 14 okt%br% 1908 goda. Mj – deti Gruzii dalekoy Ot vsey duwi prinosim Vam Poklon poqtitel>njy, glubokiy Iskusstva slavnogo [recam. Vj xram vozdvigli soverwennjy, Vj [izn> na scenu prinesli, I novjy [ertvennik sv%\ennjy Rukoh smeloh za[gli. I verim mj, - tot fakel %snjy, Qto %rko zdes>, v Moskve gorit. Naw hg svobodnjy, hg prekrasnjy Otqiznu nawu ozarit. Cvetu\ey Gruzii dolinj, Almazj cepi snegovoy Blest%\ix lednikov ravninj Bezdonnjx propastey pokoy. Potoki burnje, obvalj, Orlov zaoblaqnjx priht, Tuman sedoy, sedje gorj Vam qerez nas poklon svoy wlht. “ es leqsi TviTon mixeil daviTaSvilma gadmomca jer kidev 30-ian wlebSi. igi misive xeliT iyo dawerili da patara SeniSvnebic erTvoda imis Taobaze, Tu vin Seadgina es leqsi da vin waikiTxa iubileze. mixeili gardacvalebamde TbilisSi, saavadmyofoSi, mTavar eqimad muSaobda. Semonaxuli mqonda kote mesxis mier sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis iubileze warmoTqmuli leqsic, magram, samwuxarod, veRar vipove. is leqsi didi mowonebiT sargeblobda Cvens studentobaSi da, merec, araerTxel miumarTavT misTvis sxvadasxva saWiroebis dros. erTxel, 1916 wels, roca foTSi vmuSaobdi, aseTi depeSa momivida: „Telegrafiruy stixotvorenie hbiley Sumbatova. Po krayney mere kuplet Revnu%. Silovan“. es silovan gabunias depeSa iyo Tbilisidan, sadac igi imave mondomebiT ganagrZobda sasargeblo moRvaweobas da, albaT, raR28

ac saqmeze dasWirda aRniSnuli leqsi. mec siamovnebiT vudepeSe leqsis is striqonebi, rac zepirad maxsovda. silovani Tbilisis erT-erT advokaturaSi muSaobda da did daxmarebas uwevda misi kuTxidan Camosul glexebs sasamarTlos saqmeebSi. gardaicvala 40-ian wlebSi ise, rom daojaxebac ver moaswro. piradi saqmisaTvis ver moicala am yovlad uangaro adamianma; kupleti, romelsac is moiTxovda, mxolod nawilobriv maxsovs: „I Gruzi%, lhb%, revnu%, wlet privet.“ qarTuli saTvistomos mier iubileze gagzavnil delegaciaSi sami studenti SevdiodiT: daviT gagua, akaki faRava da me. leqsi daviT gaguam waikiTxa da SesaniSnavadac, magram imis gamo, rom Cvenamde sul raRac naxevari saaTis win Teatrs Saliapinma miuloca da umRera, TiTqos Cven raRa unda gamovCeniliyaviT. Tumca, miuxedavad amisa, leqsis lamazma Sinaarsma moxibla msmenelebi da namdvili furori movaxdineT, rasac adasturebda gazeT „Utro Rossii“-is saiubileo reportaJSi moTavsebuli lamazi „komplimenti“: „Studentj-gruzinj, _ ewera iq, _ prislali delegacih iz prekrasnjx predstaviteley svoey prekrasnoy nacii.“ es, ra Tqma unda, sasixarulo iyo studentebisaTvis da Cvenc vcdilobdiT kidev ufro gagveTqva saqarTvelosaTvis saxeli. speqtaklis damTavrebis Semdeg migviwvies kabareSi romelsac „letuCaia miS“ ewodeboda. is, mgoni, imave samxatvro Teatrs ekuTvnoda. saRamo Zalze mxiarulad Catarda. igi mihyavda imave Teatris metad niWier msaxiobs–balievs, warmoSobiT vgoneb Tbilisel somexs, SesaniSnavi garegnobisa da maxvili enis patrons. yoveli misi sityva did mxiarulebasa da xarxars iwvevda. litveli poeti da literatori baltruSaitisi patara leqsiT gamovida da mxurvale taSic daimsaxura. sufrasTan rom ijda, balievma xmamaRla mogvmarTa: “Dorogie gosti, ne stesn%ytes>, baltruwaytes> na zdorov>e!“.. baltruSaitisi moridebuli da morcxvi axalgazrda iyo da, roca misi gvari saxumarod gamoiyenes, man kidev ufro daircxvina. amgvarad, Cveni saTvistomo moskovis universitetSi saqarTvelos „sruluflebian elCs“ warmoadgenda. igi ar hgavda „qarTvelTa sazogadoebas“, romlis wevrebi ukve swavladamTavrebulni da muSaobaSi Cabmulni iyvnen. qarTuli saTvistomo mSobliuri mzrunvelobis erTgvar madlsac gvaziarebda da gvaswavlida sakuTari eris siyvaruls, sxva xalxTa pativiscemasac gvinergavda, akakis leqsis striqonebisa ar iyos: „Cemi xatia samSoblo, saxate – mTeli qveyana“. es gvmatebda sulier simaRles, sidarbaislesa da keTilSobilebas. amitomac qarTvelis saxels TvalisCiniviT vufrTxildebodiT da vcdilobdiT ucxo xalxSi da qveyanaSi ar SegvebRala Cveni eris avtoriteti da Rirseba. me da Cemma Zmam qarTuli mxatvruli prozis nimuSebis Targmna rom gadavwyviteT, raRac idumali biZgi saTvistomodanac modioda. marto is rad Rirda, rom saTvistomo studentTa Soris namdvil megobrul urTierTobas da Zmur kavSirs ganamtkicebda, qmnida erTsulovan ojaxs. rasakvirvelia gamonaklisis saxiT erTeuli „Cavardnebic“ iyo xolme. erTxel saTvistomos krebaze (ar maxsovs ra sakiTxis gamo) silovan gabuniasa da Salva mesxiSvils Soris „magari Setakeba“ moxda. silovanma duelSi gamoiw29

via Salva, Zlivs daaSoSmines isini. maxsovs, karikaturac davxate am Temaze. krebis Tavmjdomare leo naTaZe iyo. saTvistomo qarTul saRamo-koncertebsac marTavda, romelic Semosavlis wyaroc iyo da erovnuli Seferilobis Cveni SesaZleblobebis, unaris, niWis demonstrirebac. 1906 wels, roca me moskovSi Cavedi, saTvistomom ukve ricxviT ocdameore „tradiciuli qarTuli saRamo“ moawyo. saRamo al. sumbaTaSvil-iuJinis saxeliT imarTeboda: „XXII tradicionnjy gruzinskiy veqer ustraivaemjy kn.Sumbatovjm-H[injm vo vsex zalax Blagorodnogo Sobrani%“ _ gvauwyebda afiSa. bileTebi ucbad saRdeboda, romlis nawili sapatio pirTaTvis inaxeboda. am bileTebs mosawvev baraTebTan erTad gansakuTrebulad pativsacem profesorebs mivutandiT xolme: reqtor manuilovs, proreqtorebs: menzbirs, kliuCevskis, umovs, lebedevs, kablukovsa da a.S. agreTve qalaqis Tavs da bobola komersantebs, romlebic did pativad miiCnevdnen „Tavad sumbatov-iuJinis“ mier mirTmeul mosawvev baraTs da xSirad did fulsac iZleodnen xolme. es iyo maTi wvlili qarTvel studentTa daxmarebis fondisaTvis. TviTon al.sumbaTaSvil-iuJins, miuxedavad imisa, rom saRamos momwyobi iyo, saTvistomos salaroSi Tavis mxriv yovelTvis Semohqonda 100 maneTi. imave 1906 wlis koncertze T.i.Saliapinsac vTxoveT monawileoba da, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas Zalze ar uyvarda saqvelmoqmedo saRamoebze gamosvla, mainc dagvTanxmda da, roca afiSaze misi saxeli ixiles, zRva xalxi mogvawyda. maSin saerTo Semosavalma Svidi aTasamde miaRwia. marTalia, gasavalic didi iyo, magram salaroSi Tanxa imdeni darCa, ramdenic manamde, Turme, arasdros yofila. qarTuli saRamoebi didi zeimisa da aRfrTovanebis viTarebaSi tardeboda. auarebeli xalxi eswreboda da mudam karg STabeWdilebas tovebda. „keTilSobilTa sakrebulos“ (dRes profkavSirebis svetebiani saxli) vrceli da feSenebeluri darbazebi savse iyo eleganturi adamianebiT. scenaze gamodiodnen cnobili msaxiobebi, qarTvel studentTa TviTmoqmed momReralTa gundebi. damswreni ecnobodnen qarTul samyaros, da, rac mTavria, qarTvel studentebs, romlebic amarTlebdnen im karg STabeWdilebas, rac maTze hqondaT. Cvenc vecnobodiT iq mosul rus axalgazrdebs da Cvens urTierTdamokidebulebaSi mtkicdeboda namdvili megobrobis grZnoba. es saRamoebi imiTac iyo aRsaniSnavi, rom Tavs uyrida moskovis mTel qarTvelobas: muSa iyo is Tu inteligenti, moswavle Tu mosamsaxure, isini xvdebodnen Tanamemamule studentebs, amyarebdnen maTTan megobrul, Zmur da saqmian kavSirs. qarTul saRamoebze araerTxel minaxavs xanSi Sesuli mamakaci jibilo lorTqifaniZe, romelic mouravad muSaobda moskovis axlos zvenigorodis mazraSi, sadac olRa gruzinskaias iqaur mamulebs ganagebda. ar SeiZleboda dahkleboda igi qarTul saRamoebs da ar daemSvenebina Tavisi iSviaTi garegnobiTa da Zveli qarTuli yurTmajebiani Coxa-axaluxiT. iSviaTi Sesaxedaobis vaJkaci iyo, maRali, mxarbeWiani, tanwerweta da lamazi, wablisferi, WaRaraSereuli wver-ulvaSiTa da swori, mimzidveli klasikuri saxis nakvTebiT. am kacs erTi nakli hqonda: 25 weli cxovrobda 30

ruseTSi da xeiriani rusuli laparaki ver eswavla, iseTi, rogoric mis aristokratul garegnobas Seefereboda. ra kargi iqneboda, jibilo, munji rom yofiliyavi, _ uTxra erTxel xumrobiT misma erTma megobarma amis gamo. erTi iSviaTi qarTvelic maxsovs Cvens saRamoze. ar vici, ra mizeziT, an ra mizniT iyo igi moskovSi Camosuli, magram xalxis gaocebas sazRvari ar hqonda, roca es namdvili goliaTi dainaxa. jibilosTan ver movidoda, magram sxvafriv iSviaTi vaJkaci iyo. xalxSi rom davinaxe, megona, mxrebze ayvanili mohyavT-meTqi. es leCxumeli aznauri vaRuria Ciqovani iyo. imave qarTul saRamoze sxva ucnob qarTvelTa Soris me da griSam erTi axalgazrda oficeri arsen lomaZec gavicaniT. igi lamazi, SavTvalwarba da moxdenili tanis axalgazrda iyo, ulanTa oficris forma kidev ufro alamazebda da amSvenebda mas. ramdenime xnis Semdeg arseni me da griSas Sin gvewvia da qorwilSi dagvpatiJa. dapatiJebulTa Soris prof. al.xaxanaSvilic gaxldaT. daTqmul dros samiveni erTad mivediT da kargi droc gavatareT. arsenma SesaniSnavi megobari SeiZina, germaneli bartelsis qali, romelic garegnobiTa da maRali suliT pirwavardnili faustis gretheni iyo. saxelad margarita erqva. mamamisi iohan bartelsi sul axalgazrda Camosuliyo germaniidan da rogorc pur-funTuSeulis karg mcxobels, didi qonebac SeeZina. presniaze volkovis SesaxvevSi sakuTari saxli hqonda, ori qaliSvili da erTi vaJi hyavda. bartelss sakonditro did Semosavals aZlevda da SesaniSnavad cxovrobda. sakonditro moTavsebuli iyo nikitskaias quCaze tveris bulvaris gadasakveTTan da maRalxarisxiani da metad gemrieli namcxvrebis wyalobiT momxmarebelTa Soris didi popularobiT sargeblobda. sakonditros marTavda bartelsis ufrosi qaliSvili klara, romelic Tavisi ojaxiT iqve meore sarTulze cxovrobda. me da Cemi Zma xSiri stumrebi viyaviT am ojaxSi da erTi dRec rom ar mivsuliyaviT, ueWvelad Semogvexmianebodnen da mogvikiTxavdnen xolme. tkbilad cxovrobda ojaxi da yvela bedis madlieri iyo, magram daiwyo pirveli msoflio omi da bartelsebis bedic ukuRma datrialda. rogorc germanelebi, omis pirvelsave dReebSi daarbies da warmoebac waarTves. revoluciis Semdeg arsen lomaZec col-SviliT dabrunda saqarTveloSi, samxedro samsaxurs Tavi daaneba da samoqalaqo saqmianobaSi Caeba. aq mas axlo naTesavebi hyavda da, pirvel yovlisa, SesaniSnavi mSromeli Zmebi _ Tu ar vcdebi, rva Tu aTi Zma, romelTagan erTi amerikaSic ki iyo namyofi. me TiTqmis yvelas vicnobdi, puSkinis quCaze muSaobdnen rkineulobis maRaziaSi da iSviaTi Zmoba hqondaT. guriaSic erTad cxovrobda yvela. me isini arsenis saSualebiT gavicani da kmayofilic viyavi aseTi kargi adamianebis gacnobiT da megobrobiT. bartelsi mamac ewvia Svilebs TbilisSi da aqve gardaicvala 30-ian wlebSi. arseni da margarita siamtkbilobiT cxovrobdnen da kargi ojaxic Seqmnes. maTi Svilebidan vaJi cnobili maTematikosia, Tbilisis universitetis profesori. qarTuli saRamoebi moskovSi, tradiciulad studentobisaTvis yovelwliurad rom ewyoboda, sakoncerto programebis nairferobiT gamoirCeoda. me maTze aRar SevCerdebi. vaxseneb mxolod erT sakmaod mniSvnelovan RonisZiebas, romelic 1913 wels gazaf31

xulze ordinkaze Caatara saTvistomom „maswavleblis saxlis“ did darbazSi. es iyo samganyofilebiani qarTuli speqtakli. pirvelSi Catarda d.kldiaSvilis „darispanis gasaWiri,“ meoreSi – „ubeduri dRe,“ anu vodevili erT moqmedebad, xolo mesameSi daidga divertismenti. mniSvnelovani RonisZieba imitom vuwode am saRamos, rom qarTuli piesebi qarTul enazeve daidga da msaxiobebic qarTvelebi iyvnen. darispanis rols TamaSobda valerian SalikaSvili, karoJnas – natalia javaxiSvili, osikos – iuza zardaliSvili. warmodgenaSi Cveni studentebic monawileobdnen: luba bregvaZe, margarita dundua, aneta amiragova da sxva. divertismentSiac aseve studentebi gamodiodnen: Tamar abaSiZe, nino sayvareliZe – qarTuli romansebi, giorgi qarcivaZe – oTar-begis aria opera „Ralatidan“ da a.S. cekvebsac qarTveli diriJorobda _ maswavlebeli iason roiniSvili. es metad saintereso iyo da didi aRtacebac gamoiwvia moskovel qarTvelebSi, miT ufro, rom rusuli sazogadoebidanac bevri daeswro da gaecno qarTul kulturas. amiT erTgvari propaganda eweoda Cvens xelovnebas. moskovis universitetSi qarTuli saTvistomo, rogorc erovnuli organizacia, erTgvari parlamentis rols asrulebda qarTvel studentTa cxovrebaSi. amitom Cveni saTvistomos krebebze rusi studentebic xSirad isxdnen xolme da usmendnen qarTvel studentTa brwyinvale gamosvlebs. saTvistomos krebebi ZiriTadad rusul enaze mimdinareobda, magram gamosvlebi qarTul enazedac iyo. sakiTxebi umravles SemTxvevaSi mSvidobian viTarebaSi ixileboda, wynarad, auRelveblad. maxsovs, mxolod erTxel gawyda moTminebis Zafi. es iyo 1907-1908 wlebSi, roca saTvistomoSi prof. al.xaxanaSvilis sakiTxi irCeoda. profesorma 1906 wels Tavis kaTedraze lazarevis saxelobis aRmosavlur enaTa institutSi Jandarmeriis mier gadasaTargmnad gamogzavnili „Kavkazska% dru[ina“-s wevrTa werilebi miiRo. es wevrebi dapatimrebulni iyvnen. profesorma xaxanaSvilma, rogorc qarTuli enis kaTedris gamgem, miiRo werilebi, radgan oficialur momarTvaze uari ver Tqva da arc hqonda amis ufleba. prof. xaxanaSvili metad pativsacemi pirovneba, patrioti da Rirseuli moqalaqe iyo, magram saTvistomom mainc ar daindo da aRniSnuli sakiTxis gamo pasuxi mosTxova. es ambavi saTvistomos principulobaze da mis keTilsindisierebaze metyvelebda, mas ar surda, rom qarTveli mecnierisa da moRvawis sufTa saxels Tundac iotisodena Cirqi moscxeboda JandarmeriasTan urTierTobis gamo, Tundac igi oficialuri da samsaxureobrivi yofiliyo. es sakiTxi karga xans irCeoda saTvistomoSi da aRar maxsovs, riT damTvrda. ai, swored am sakiTxma gayo studentoba or jgufad da unda genaxaT, axalgazrda oratorebi ra brwyinvaled, ra mWevrmetyvelurad gamodiodnen! ara mgonia, zogierT parlementSi ufro lamazsa da Sinaarsian gamosvlebs hqonoda adgili. arasodes damaviwydeba maSindeli cxare kamaTi, Seupovari, Tavdadebuli da gulwrfeli brZola. studentebi: silovan gabunia, Salva mesxiSvili, grigol cxakaia, kote faniaSvili, giorgi Jordania, giorgi koniaSvili, sergo danelia, aleqsandre kvitaiSvili da sxvebi kaTedraze erTimeores cvlidnen, erTmaneTze 32

brwyinvale da Seupovrebi iyvnen! marTlac, raoden maRali, spetaki da keTilSobiluri suli trialebda im dros qarTvel studentTa Soris. auditoriis ukana merxebze isxdnen da oratorebs gulmodgined usmendnen universitetis TanamSromlebi da rusi studentebi. miuxedavad gadaRlilobisa, saTvistomos krebebze arasodes irRveoda parlamenturi wesrigi. mRelvarebam mxolod kidev erTxel ifeTqa silovanis istoriis Semdeg da imgvari simZafriT, rom studentma aleqsandre kvitaiSvilma duelSi gamoiwvia erTerTi studenti. atyda qalTa gniasi da Zlivs daaSoSmines moqiSpeni. es iyo saTvistomos krebis meore didi mRelvareba, rac Cems dros moxda moskovSi. saTvistomo, cxadia, aqtiurad Caeba 1905 wlis SeiaraRebul gamosvlebSi, rac imaSi gamoixata, rom misi mTeli Semadgenloba dadga barikadebze. qarTvelma studentebma Camoayalibes e.w. „Kavkazska% dru[ina“-s ori razmi: erTi – vaso arabiZis, xolo meore _ student valerian jafariZis meTaurobiT. 1906 wels, rodesac pirvelad Cavedi moskovis universitetSi, ukve reaqciis periodi iyo da razmi, ra Tqma unda, aRar arsebobda, magram ori-sami kaci mainc moqmedebda. eseni iyvnen studentebi: nika kandelaki, noe cincaZe da kananovi, romlebic gaasamarTla moskovis sasamarTlo palatam. braldebulT umniSvnelo sasjeli gamoutanes da, Cvenda sasixarulod, darbazSive gaaTavisufles. 1905 wlis mRelvare dReebis koSmari yvelam icoda moskovSi. misi monawile qarTveli studentebi saTvistomos Rirseuli warmomadgenlebi iyvnen: vaso arabiZe, valerian jafariZe, Tedo kapanaZe, gizo anjafariZe, vaso da nika kandelakebi, alioSa da samson wuwunavebi, pavle mesxi, kote dandurovi, mixeil arjevaniZe da sxva. isini SemdegSiac erTgulad iRvwodnen qveynis samsaxurSi. qarTvel studentTa saTvistomos wevrTa uangaro moRvaweoba sazogadoebriv sarbielze revoluciamdel ruseTSi Tavmosawoni, Seumcdari moqmedebebiT amdidrebs Cveni inteligenciis saxelovan istorias.

rac Cemi TvaliT minaxavs
qarTul mecnierul literaturaSi karga xania WeSmaritebadaa miCneuli is, rom didi qarTveli geografi da mecnieri vaxuSti batoniSvili moskovis universitetis erT-erTi damaarsebelTagania. amis utyuari dasturia v.gabaSvilis narkvevi „vaxuSti bagrationi“ (Tbilisi, 1969 w.), moskovis universitetis revoluciamdel studentTa zepiri gancxadebebi da, sulac, Cemi sakuTari TvaliT nanaxi dafa. 1906 wels me da Cemi tyupiscali grigol jafariZe moskovis universitetis reqtorTan erT-erTi morigi audienciis dros universitetis Zveli Senobis saaqto darbazSi movxvdiT, sadac is student axalgazrdobas Rebulobda. me da Cems Zmas, vidre re33

qtorTan sasaubrod SevidodiT, saSualeba mogveca es mrgvali, mdidrulad gaformebuli darbazi dagveTvalierebina. reqtori am dros adre misul studentebs esaubreboda. erT adgilze, kedelTan sul axlos, myar kvarcxlbekze dadgmul marmarlos dafas movkari Tvali. davinteresdi, davakvirdi da... iq grafikuli Wris TvalsazrisiT lamazad gaformebuli – oqros varayiTa da arSiiT damSvenebuli universitetis damaarsebelTa saxelebi iyo oqros asoebiT amoWrili. Sevavle Tvali Tu ara dafaze amoWril saxelebs, maSinve TvalSi meca: “Gruzinskiy careviq Vaxuwti Vaxtangeeviq“. moulodnelobisagan ise davibeni, erTxans Tvalebs ar vujerebdi... kidev ufro axlos mivedi, kidev wavikiTxe – erTxel, aTjer da... roca davrwmundi, rom es namdvilad vaxuSti batoniSvili iyo da ara sxva, saswrafod Cems Zmas vuxme. is Cemze metad aRafrTovana am siurprizma, mklavSi xeli CamWida da sixarulisagan lamis xmamaRla Sehyvira: _ xedav... vaxuSti vaxtangeeviCi... vaxuSti batoniSvili! magram ratom „vaxtangeeviCi“ da ara „vaxtangoviCi“... ha, ras ityvi, lado? saxelis amnairad warmoebul formas, rasakvirvelia, mec vxedavdi da mwyinda, rom „vaxtangoviCis“ magier dafas „vaxtangeeviCi“ ewera. magram gaxarebulni imiT, rom Cven – raWis Soreuli soflidan Camosulma qarTvelma studentma Zmebma, aseTi ram „aRmovaCineT“, amgvar lafsuss arad dagidevdiT im wuTSi da manam vakvirdebodiT marmarilosvarayian memorialur dafas, vidre, bolos da bolos, rigis mixedviT, reqtorTan ar SevediT sasaubrod. moskovis universitetis damaarsebelTa Soris, vaxuSti batoniSvilis garda, araerTi pirovnebis gvari da saxeli iyo amoWrili, magram isini ar damamaxsovrda. mxolod bundovnad aRmebeWda graf Suvalovis saxeli, romelic dafis boloSi ewera. amis Semdeg didma drom ganvlo, TiTqmis 70 welma da, ai, Jurnal „ciskris“ 1977 wlis ivlisis nomerSi valerian maWaraZis werils vkiTxulob: „moskovis universitetis daarsebaSi qarTvelTa monawileobis sakiTxisaTvis“. cxadia, werilma saTaurSive miipyro Cemi yuradReba. vifiqre, aq saqmis Rrma codniT, istorikosis maxvili TvaliT iqneba-meTqi axsnili is, rac bundovnad vicodi an saerTod ar vicodi da kiTxvas Sevudeqi. werili Tavidan bolomdis ramdenjerme gadavikiTxe da aRmoCnda, rom igi ZiriTadad vaxuSti batoniSvilis pirovnebas exeboda, romelsac, avtoris azriT, Turme araviTari wvlili ar miuZRoda moskovis universitetis daarsebis saqmeSi. am niadagze avtori cdilobda mkvlevar v.gabaSvilis didad sayuradRebo wignis („vaxuSti bagrationi“) srul ignorirebas. qarTuli kulturis istoriisa da, saerTod, Cveni xalxisaTvis imdenad mniSvnelovania es sakiTxi, rom am werilis upasuxod datoveba dauSveblad miviCnie, amitom Cemi Tavi movaledac ki CavTvale, xma amemaRlebina da amiT, rogorc ityvian, meTqva SeubRalavi, obieqturi simarTle, mimego „keisrisaTvis _ keisrisa“. 90 wlis kacs mimZims wera, magram, ra vqna, dumili ar SemiZlia. amgvari ram rogor davtovo upasuxod! pativcemuli valerian maWaraZe uaryofs moskovis universitetis daarsebis saSviliSvilo saqmeSi vaxuSti batoniSvilis mo34

nawileobis saamayo faqts. igi am versias dausabuTeblad Tvlis da imasac ambobs, TiTqos v.gabaSvili dayrdnobia araseriozul masalebs, kerZod, korespondentTa werilebs da Zvel studentTa pirad gancxadebebs. v.maWaraZis azriT, vaxuSti bagrationi ar warmoadgenda iseT figuras, romelic mxarSi amoudgeboda lomonosovs politikur mowinaaRmdegeebTan brZolaSi – es erTi. meore, _ moskovis universitetis profili maSin iseTi iyo, rom vaxuStis ar SeeZlo monawileoba mieRo iq, rogorc profesors; mesamec, vaxuStis materialuri mdgomareoba imdenad unugeSo iyo, rom mas ar ZaluZda raime Tanxis gaReba universitetis daarsebis fondisaTvis. maSasadame, aqedan gamomdinare, is verc am saswavlo keris wevr-damfuZnebelTa siaSi da verc memorialur dafaze moxvdeboda. gamodis, rom vaxuSti bagrationis pirovnebis dacvis yvela gza mogviWra valerian maWaraZem. mxolod is unda davijeroT, virwmunoT, rasac is ase daJinebiT amtkicebs. avtori memorialuri dafis saerTod arsebobasac ki uaryofs; sxvas rom yvelafers Tavi davaneboT, is namdvilad arsebobda da Tavisi TvaliT unaxavT amave universitetis kursdamTavrebulebs: Cito kapanaZes, lado jafariZes, aleqsandre javaxiSvils (SemdgomSi akademikoss) da amis Sesaxeb v.gabaSvilis werilSic naTlad da garkveviTaa naTqvami. waikiTxavs romelime qarTvelTmoZule v.maWaraZis am werils da siamovnebiT miiCnevs sinamdviled, irwmunebs amas. mereda, vis Wirdeba faqtebis ase gayalbeba, im Rvawlis ignorireba, did winapars – vaxuSti batoniSvils – universitetis daarsebis saqmeSi rom miuZRvis? didi xania ar vyofilvar aRniSnul universitetSi da ar vici, kidev arsebobs Tu ara es dafa, – magram Tu aRar arsebobs, unda vivaraudoT, rom is ganzrax aris ganadgurebuli. asea Tu ise, memorialuri dafa moskovis universitetSi namdvilad arsebobda. is Cemi TvaliT minaxavs. yvelafer amas me vacxadeb da vadastureb mTeli pasuxismgeblobiT Cemi sindisis, samSoblos winaSe. amas me mavalebs mxolod samarTlianobis grZnoba, moqalaqeobrivi maRali Segneba da ara crupatriotoba. imasac aRvniSnav, rom xsenebuli dafis naxvam Cemze da, rasakvirvelia, Cems Zmazec, iseTi waruSleli kvali datova, rom TanakurselebTan da ufrosi Taobis studentebTan, agreTve – profesor-maswavleblebTan Sexvedrisas, sul amaze vlaparakobdi. ase gansajeT, mSoblebsac da TviT umcros Zmebsac ki mivwereT saqarTveloSi amis Taobaze. mokled, ar SeiZleboda am saamayo faqtis sasxvaTaSorisod miCneva da Cvenc xmamaRla vacxadebdiT mas. moskovis universitetSi swavlis periodi yvelaze ubednieresi monakveTia Cems cxovrebaSi. vamTavreb ra Cems werils, minda madlobac ki gadavuxado pativcemul valerian maWaraZes iqneb uneblieT WeSmaritebis gayalbebisaTvis, ramac 90 wels gadacilebul adamians saSualeba momca naTeli momefina am erT dros eWvSeutaneli faqtisaTvis. rameTu es aris erovnuli saqme, romlis damaxinjebasac STamomavloba ar gvapatiebs. minda davarwmuno Jurnal „ciskris“ redaqcia, rom, aseTi, TiTqosda, yovelmxriv dadasturebuli faqtis uaryo35

fisas meti sifrTxilis gamoCena marTebs. zogi, rac ar gaukeTebia, imas iCemebs da Cven ra gvemarTeba! Tu Cveni mowinaaRmdegea, aSkarad tendenciuri cru mowmisaTvisac ki yvela gza xsnilia. sapirispiro azri cxraklitulSi iketeba. me araviTari mizani ar mamoZravebs, garda simarTlisa da WeSmaritebis dadgenisa. am sakiTxze yvelas Segvtkiva guli da, rogorc am faqtis cocxalma mxilvelma, minda daxmareba gavuwio momaval mkvlevarT. vwuxvar, rom gamoucdelma axalgazrdam ver gaviTvaliswine memorialuri dafis mniSvneloba, ar gadavwere mTeli is teqsti, dafaze rom ewera da ar Semovunaxe STamomavlobas. amnairad, sakiTxi vaxuSti bagrationis wvlilis Sesaxeb moskovis universitetis daarsebis saqmeSi usafuZvlo ki ara, piriqiT, savsebiT dasabuTebulia da faqtebiT ganmtkicebuli. erTi cocxali mowme xom mec var amisa, me, vinc es-esaa 90 wels gadavabije. es is asakia, rodesac adamians tyuilic ki daejerebao.magram tyuili ra sakadrisia, imave dafis oqros Suqi dResac minaTebs gzas da Cems azrs, gonebas Tu sindiss simarTlisa da WeSmaritebis saqadageblad moZRvravs.

lev tolstois dakrZalvaze
sruli naxevari saukunea mas Semdeg, rac me da Cemma Zmam grigolma monawileoba miviReT lev tolstois dakrZalvaSi. Cemi mexsierebidan ormocdaaTma welmac ver waSala es dauviwyari ambavi. dResac guSindeliviT maxsovs yvelaferi. im xanebSi me da grigoli moskovis universitetSi vswavlobdiT. mowadinebuli viyaviT, raRac iseTi ram gagvekeTebina, rac xels Seuwyobda Cveni didi kulturis popularizacias. am mizniT vTargmneT qarTvel mweralTa rigi Txzulebebi da gamoveciT kidec. dRes aseTi ram Cveulebriv saqmed gveCveneba, magram im dros es mxolod erTeul gulSematkivarTa kerZo iniciativaze iyo damokidebuli. mefis xelisuflebis erovnuli politika aseT enTuziastebs aTasgvar dabrkolebas uqmnida da yovelmxriv uxSobda gzas. Cveni Targmnili wignebi maSindeli imperiis mraval kuTxeSi gavugzavneT bevr nacnobsa da megobars. bolos vifiqreT, ilia WavWavaZis „glaxis naambobi“, romelic aseve gamoqveynebuli gvqonda calke wignakad, didi rusi mwerlis lev tolstoisTvisac migverTmia. darwmunebuli viyaviT, rom tolstoi, romelsac „ruseTis sindiss“ uwodebdnen, icnobda i.WavWavaZes, rogorc saxelovan qarTvel mweralsa da did sazogado moRvawes, saxelmwifo sabWos erT-erT popularul wevrs, romelmac 1907 wels mowameobrivi gvirgvini daidga. gadavwyviteT piradad vxlebodiT did mwerals iasnaia polianaSi da, Tundac ramdenime wuTiT, dagveinteresebina qarTuli kulturis sakiTxebiT. oriode sityvac gveTqva mis awmyosa da warsulze, tolstois yoveli sityva ki dawvrilebiT Cagvewera da 36

qarTuli sazogadoebis yuramde migvetana. mTel msoflioSi cnobilia, Tu rogor afasebdnen da ra did angariSs uwevdnen im dros tolstois TiToeul sityvas. maSin araferi vicodiT tolstois megobruli damokidebulebis Sesaxeb mweral ilia nakaSiZesTan, samagierod, misi biografiidan gvaxsovda, rom is axalgazrdobaSi erTxans TbilisSi cxovrobda, mogvianebiT ki guruli glexebis 1906 wlis revoluciur gamosvlebsac gamoexmaura. Cven es saqme miT ufro WkuaSi gvijdeboda, rom msgavsi magaliTebi mwerlis cxovrebaSi araerTi iyo. tolstoisTan mravali mnaxveli midioda, gansakuTrebiT e.w. „tolstoelebi“, da bevri maTgani mizansac aRwevda – mwerals piradad xvdebodnen da esaubrebodnen. bolos, Cven gvqonda erTi kargi magaliTi moskoveli Tanakurseli amxanagis student aleqsandre cagareiSvilisa, romelmac iasnaia polianaSi imogzaura da moinaxula didi mwerali. me da Cemi Zma winaswar vawyobdiT gegmebs: rogor mivsuliyaviT „polianaSi“, rogor warvdgomodiT did mwerals da gangvecvifrebina igi Cveni araCveulebrivi fizikuri msgavsebiT. Cven, marTlac, Zalian vgavdiT erTmaneTs da araTu moskovSi, ase gasinjeT, xSirad Sinaurebs, mSoblebsac ki veSlebodiT da ra gasakviri iqneboda, Tu didi mwerali da fsiqologi, romelsac Tavisi xangrZlivi sicocxlis manZilze bevri ram enaxa, SesaZlebelia, namdvilad dainteresebuliyo CveniT da ojaxis wevrebisaTvisac ki warvedgineT. erTi sityviT, mtkiced gvqonda gadawyvetili tolstoisTan Casvla da xelsayrel wuTs velodiT, rom Cveni ganzraxva sisruleSi mogveyvana. da ai, swored im xanebSi moskovis gazeTebma dabeWdes sensaciuri ambavi, rom lev nikolozis Ze 28 oqtombers diliT adre saxlidan gavida da ukan aRar dabrunebula. Tan meuRlis saxelze baraTi dautovebia, nu momZebniT... radgan, erTxel da samudamod, ganmartoebuli cxovreba gadavwyviteo. SeiZra mTeli ruseTi. am ambavs moskovi Rrmad ganicdida. msoflios gadaswvda tolstois Sinidan wasvlisa da misi dakargvis ambavi. axmaurdnen gazeTebi; yvelas mxolod es ucnauri gauCinareba ekera pirze. aRmoCnda, rom ramdenime dRis mgzavrobis Semdeg avadmyofi tolstoi astapovoSi CamousvamT matareblidan da momakvdavi moxuci rkinigzis sadguris ufrosis binaSi mouTavsebiaT. patara sadguri astapovo, romlis arseboba bevrs arc gaegona, myis kulturuli kacobriobis yuradRebis centrSi moeqca. yvela astapovos gaiZaxoda da avadmyofi geniosis bedze fiqrobda... bolos, 7 noembers gazeTebma mkiTxvelebs samgloviaro ambavi auwyes: „dilis 6 saaTze lev nikolozis Ze mSvidad gardaicvalao“. momxdari viTarebis gamo moskovis yvela gazeTma Savi samgloviaro arSiebiT damatebiTi furclebi dabeWda, sadac didi mwerlis ukanasknel dReebsa da wuTebze iyo moTxrobili. im dRes Teatrebma warmodgenebi Sewyvites; daiketa, agreTve, bevri sazogadoebrivi dawesebuleba da saswavlebeli. universitetis studentobam dilidanve aseTi gancxadeba gamoakra: ,,iasnaia polianaSi mivdivarT yvelani da visac survili gaqvT, dResve siebSi CaewereTo.“ saxeldaxelod mowveul krebaze axalgazrdebma gada37

wyvites, ra saxe da mimarTuleba miecaT am erovnuli glovisaTvis. qalaqis mTeli policia fexze dadga. saRamos 10 saaTze ramdenime aTasma studentma kurskis rkinigzis sadgurze moviyareT Tavi. darbazebsa da moedanze teva aRaraa. policielebi studentobas gzas uketaven, raTa ase bevrni ki ara, nawil-nawil gauSvan iasnaia polianaSi. TviT „gradonaCalnikis“ TanaSemwe polkovniki modlic ki aqaa da yvelanairad cdilobs mRelvare axalgazrdobis daSoSminebas. matareblis gasvlamde ki sul cota dro rCeba. irgvliv raRac saSineli zedaxora da oromtrialia... didi wvalebis mere me da griSa im satvirTo vagonSi movxvdiT, riTac, Cveulebriv, saqoneli da cxenebi gadahyavT xolme. aTasze meti Wabuki da qaliSvili gaWedila ociode aseT vagonSi... arc sinaTle, arc dasajdomi adgilebi, mxolod stearinis sanTeli Tu bJutavs aqa-iq; skamebis magier, xis ganieri taxtia kedlis erTi bolodan meoremde. magram axalgazrdoba iseTi TavdaviwyebiT mieSureba didi mwerlis dakrZalvaze, rom srulebiT aRar Civis am mdgomareobas, oRond ki Tavis droze CaaRwios daniSnul adgils. rogorc iqna, gaTenebisas CavediT sadgur kozlovo-zasekaSi, romelic dRes iasnaia polianas saxels atarebs. aq unda davxvdeT astapovodan wamosul matarebels, romliTac micvalebuli unda Camoasvenon. civa. miwa naadrevi TovliTaa dafaruli... gvezareba gareT gamosvla, magram baqans gadaRma cecxli guzguzebs, Cvenc iqiT miveSurebiT da momlodine xalxs vuerTdebiT. es iasnopolianeli glexebi arian; isini soflidan urmebiT Camosulan, raTa sayvareli maswavleblis cxedars ukanaskneli pativi miagon. maT transparanti uWiravT aseTi gulisamaCuyebeli warweriT: “Lev Nikolaeviq! Pam%t> o tvoem dobre ne umret sredi nas, osirotevwix krest>%n $snoy Pol%nj.“ aq arian tolstois ojaxis wevrebic, romelTac, raRac mizeziT, astapovoSi wasvla ver mouswriaT. ai, matarebelic Semodis sadgurSi da ubralo sabargo vagonidan gadmoaqvT daxuruli kubo... aqedan iasnaia polianamde kubo ukve studentebs migvaqvs. daRlil Zmebs xSirad Tbiliseli studentebi _ momavali eqimi meburnuTovi da aseve momavali agronomi nikita barxudarovi gvenacvlebian. iSviaTad, iasnopolianeli glexebic... Cvens yuradRebas is garemoeba ipyrobs, rom im drois wesisamebr kubos saxuravze jvari ara aqvs gamosaxuli, gvirgvinebic urmebiT moaqvT da ara xeliT. ucxoeli fotografebi da kinooperatorebi „leikebiTa“ da kinoaparatebiT wamdauwum iReben dakrZalvis scenebs... meore Tu mesame dRes moskovis ramdenime ekranze ukve uCvenebda iasnaia polianaSi gadaRebul kadrebs. gaxarebuli davrCi, roca tolstois ojaxis wevrebTan erTad sakuTari Tavi da Cemi Zma griSa vixile. ase gasinjeT, quTaisis „sinematografiaSic“ vunaxivarT Zmebi Cvens nacnob-megobrebs, rac mxurvale werilebiT gvacnobes moskovSi. kino im dros sul axali xili, ucxo da iSviaTi ram iyo... 38

iasnaia polianamde samkilometriani soflis ubralo Saragza miuyveba. Zalian gviWirs cxenebis floqvebiTa da urmis TvlebiT daRarul, noembris susxiT gaslipul, Tovlian gzaze fexis “mokideba”, gansakuTrebiT, kubosTvis mxarSedgmulebs. kubos mohyvebian tolstois uaxloesi adamianebi: meuRle sofio andreis asuli, vaJiSvilebi: sergei, andrei, lev, mixeili; qaliSvilebi: tatiana da aleqsandra. aqve modis eqimi makovski, romelic saxlidan wasvlis dRidan gardacvalebamde Tan axlda gansvenebuls. ager urmebs motanili oriode gvirgvinic moaqvT aseTi warweriT: „dauviwyar qomags da mrCevels Cvens gaWirvebaSi l.n.tolstois,“ „mezobeli soflebis glexobisagan“ da sxva. procesias Soriaxlos cxenosani policielebic mohyvebian... gamoCnda iasnaia polianac... patar-patara da CaliT daxurul glexur qoxebs Suaze ganieri quCa Caudis; axlos saxnavi miwebi da dausrulebeli naZvnari itacebs Tvals... ager tolstois qvis orsarTuliani saxlic gamoCnda, romelsac irgvliv didi galavani artyia. procesia wuTiT mwerlis kar-midamos did WiSkarTan Sedga. aqeT-iqiT ori mozrdili da aseve TeTrad SeRebili mrgvali koSkura dgas, Zvelad darajebis TavSesafrad rom iyenebdnen. saxls garSemo uzarmazari ezo da parki akravs. parkis did guburaSi gedebi da saseirno navebi moCanan. ukan uRrani tye gadaWimula... tolstois es simdidre mZime tvirTad awva da gadawyvetili hqonda glexebisaTvis gadaeca, magram col-Svilis did winaaRmdegobas waawyda da ganzraxva Seusrulebeli daurCa. „am WiSkarTan didi mwerlis kar-midamoSi Sesvlis win, vin icis, ramdeni guli aZgerebula mowiwebiT... “ _ vfiqrob CemTvis da Tan Tvalwin mexatebian turgenevi, gonCarovi, Cexovi, gorki, tolstois megobari _ didi mxatvari repini da mravali sxva... aqedan saxlisaken aryis xeTa grZeli xeivani miuyveba, romlis garSemo didi parki, yana da xexilis baRia gadaWimuli. TeTri gedebi guburis kriala zedapirs kortnian, niavisagan aSrialebul talRebze patara navebi irwevian... Rrubliani dRea, magram dilis susxi mainc igrZnoba da vcdilobT wayinuli fexebi miwaze bakuniT cotaTi mainc SeviTboT. romeliRac CvenTaganma erT xeze ciyvi SeamCnia da yvelas yuradReba iqiT miapyro. pawia cxoveli sulac ar grZnobda yinvas, Tavisi didi kudiT totidan totze xtoda da wina TaTebiT saWmels Seeqceoda. vdgavarT da vucdiT Cvens rigs, raTa bolos da bolos saxlSi SevideT da am samudamo damSvidobebis Jams Zvirfas cxedars Tayvani vceT. saxlis ukana ezoSi didi msxviltaniani Tela moCans, romlisTvisac irgvliv ficruli skamebi SemouvliaT. aq Sori gziT mosuli glexebi isvenebdnen Turme da did moamages Txovnisa da rCeva-darigebisaTvis elodnen. ezoSi SinaurTa fusfusia. marcxniv patara Senobidan sinaTle moCans da xandaxan niavs cxeli puris sasiamovno surneli moaqvs. Sinamosamsaxure qalebi gobebiT Tu vedroebiT darbian da fusfuseben. me naklebad vxedav moskovidan Tu peterburgidan Camosul inteligencias. es, uTuod, policiis damsaxurebaa. mxolod ram39

denime mwerals CamouRwevia moskovidan avtomobiliT, rac maSin did iSviaTobas warmoadgenda. maT Soris iyvnen Cveni Tanamemamule al.sumbaTaSvil-iuJini da poeti valeri briusovi. xalxis rigi TandaTan uaxlovdeba saxls. rogorc iqna, SevdivarT oTaxSi, pirvel sarTulze, sadac mwerali asvenia. aq yvarebia mwerals muSaoba, am TaRian oTaxSi Seuqmnia Tavisi ukvdavi qmnilebebi, maT Soris „omi da mSvidoba.“ kubos gverdiT micvalebulis axloblebi dganan: coli, Svilebi da megobrebi. aqve dgas Cemi Zma grigoli. me gamoveyavi xalxis rigs da kubosTan Zmis gverdiT davdeqi. tolstois Svilebi mogvCerebian da Cveni iSviaTi msgavsebis gamo erTmaneTs eCurCulebian. _ kolegav, Tqvenze laparakoben, _ CamCurCulebs megobari studenti da tolstois ojaxis wevrebs akvirdeba, TiTqos maTi moZraobisa da xasiaTis Seswavla surs. aseT dros gamolaparakeba uxerxulia, amitom Semosul xalxs gzas vuTmobT da uneburad ukana rigebisken miviwevT. me vsargeblob xalxis simravliT, jibidan ubis wignaks viReb da fanqriT mwerlis saxis Caxatvas viwyeb. xels aravin miSlis. SemiZlia mTeli saaTi vxato. vakeTeb ramdenime variants. es wignaki didxans dakarguli megona, vidre sruliad SemTxveviT ar aRmovaCine Cems qaRaldebSi. 1978 wels, tolstois dabadebis 150 wlisTavTan dakavSirebiT, mxatvarma avTandil varTagavam gamomarTva da Cems mogonebasTan erTad pirvelad dabeWda almanax „saunjeSi.“ tolstois Svilebi ukve xanSi Sesulebi arian. vaJebi garegnobiT mamas hgvanan, gansakuTrebiT – sergei. tatiana susti agebulebis qalia da daRlilobis gamo xSirad isvenebs. misi da – aleqsandra ufro Caskvnilia, pirbutayi, amSvenebs mokled SekreWili Savi Tma. magram yvelaze avadmyofurad tolstois meuRle – sofio andrias asuli gamoiyureba... kubo Tavaxdili dgas. did mwerals, TiTqos sZinavso, xelebi gulze aqvs dakrefili; tanT Talxi xalaTi „tolstovka“ acvia. kuboSi cotaodeni yvavilebic devs... davCerebivar Zvirfas saxes, mkerdze dayril mis ganier wvers, WaRara, dafanCul warbebs da vcdilob, es yvelaferi kargad davimaxsovro, samudamod CavibeWdo gonebaSi. ai, esaa lev tolstoi – genialuri moazrovne, yoveli adamianisaTvis Zvirfasi mwerali, ruseTis monarqiis, batonymobisa da saxelmwifo politikis Seurigebeli mteri. davyureb Zvirfas saxes da magondeba mwerlis „bavSvoba da yrmoba“,araerTxel rom auRelvebia Cemi norCi guli; magondeba misi „haji-murati“, romlis mTavari gmiris vaJkacuri sikvdili aleqsandre yazbegis gmirTa sikvdils gvagonebs. ramdenime saaTis Semdeg, rodesac xalxis mdinareba Sewyda, Svilebsa da axloblebs kubo ukana oTaxidan ezoSi gamoaqvT, saidanac gza pirdapir tyisken midis. am tyis patara borcvze momzadebulia mwerlis samudamo gansasvenebeli. es adgili aurCevia Tavad lev nikolozis Zes. aq uyvarda mas dasveneba da fiqri; siymawvilisas Turme aq TamaSobda Tavis Zma nikolenkasTan erTad; bavSvebs aq gadauwyvetiaT sikeTisaTvis Rvwa da niSnad amisa, xsenebul adgilze patara warweriani joxic CausvamT. 40

_ barem iq damasaflaveT, sadac erT dros Cven, bavSvebma, warweriani joxi davarWveT. es iqneba Cemi Zmis nikolenkas samaxsovroc, – uTqvams lev nikolozis Zes axloblebisaTvis. da ai, misi danabarebi asrulda... kubo karebSi gamoCnda da ezoSi mdgomi xalxi muxlebze daemxo. Wirisuflebi axlos moyvebian cxedars da studentobas didi TavazianobiT gvekidebian, cdiloben xSirad Segvenacvlon. anazdad qudi xelidan mivardeba da es-esaa fexebiT unda gadaTqeron, magram tolstois vaJi sergei, maRali, brge, grZeli WaRara wveriT damSvenebuli, Cem gverdiT rom moabijebs, ixreba, quds iRebs da manamde moaqvs, vidre sxva ar Semenacvleba. me madlobas vuxdi sergeis da moridebiT varTmev quds... ukve binddeba... procesia Ria saflavTan Cerdeba da male WirisufalTa gamoTxovebac mTavrdeba. kubos saflavSi uSveben da yvelani muxlebze vemxobiT. gaismis „saukuno xseneba“, romlis SeZaxilSi Cvenc vmonawileobT. mere irgvliv samariseburi siCume isadgurebs. mxolod policielTa cxenebis lagamTa JRaruni Tu arRvevs am dumils. axlos mosuli, CamoqveiTebuli policielebi gverdiT udganan TavianT cxenebs. erTi mWeqare SeZaxili: ”Na koleni, polici%!” da isinic iZulebulni xdebian, uyoymanod daiCoqon tolstois saflavTan. am mWeqare da mbrZanebluri gankargulebis gamcemi Cveni amxanagi, studenti lazare SurRaiaa... procesiis dasasruls tolstois erT-erTi megobari, samxatvro Teatris reJisori sulerJicki xmamaRali SeZaxiliT ambobs mgznebare sityvas... xalxi TandaTan iSleba da tolstois saflavi oblad rCeba. fizikurad daRlilni, magram sulierad amRlebulni mivabijebT me da Cemi Zma kozlovo-zasekas rkinigzis sadgurisaken marxilebiTa da urmis TvlebiT daRarul Tovlian gzaze, romelic saRamos susxs kidev ufro mouyinavs... es garegnulad TiTqos ubralo, magram Rrma SinaarsiT savse sanaxaoba – mRelvare studentebiT, gulCaTxrobili glexebiTa da daCoqili policielebiT ukvdavi meamboxis saflavis win – Cvens warmodgenaSi didi ganaxlebis dasawyisis StabeWdilebas tovebda... „me uarvyavi eklesia da aRar vasruleb mis araviTar wesebs... anderZs vtoveb, rom roca movkvdebi, ar mouSvaT CemTan eklesiis arc erTi msaxuri da Cemi gvami gaitanon saxlidan rac SeiZleba male yovelgvari locvebisa da kurTxevis gareSe...“ _ werda didi mwerali sinodis misamarTiT, roca gaigo eklesiidan misi gandevnis ambavi. saxelganTqmuli mwerlis aseTi dasaflaveba pirveli magaliTi, pirveli samoqalaqo dasaflaveba iyo yovelgvari saeklesio wesebis gareSe. ubralo da mainc diadi!... ukve Tendeboda, rodesac Cven isev im „saxelovani“ matarebliT davbrundiT moskovSi. baqanze SevxvdiT CvensaviT dasaflavebaze myof ali arseniSvils, aleqsandre cagareiSvils, irakli lekiSvilsa da sxvebs. Cemma Zmam grigolma moskovSi dabrunebisTanave Caiwera Tavisi STabeWdilebani da TbilisSi gamosaqveyneblad gamogzavna. cas vewieT sixaruliT, roca gazeTSi grigolis mozrdili werili 41

vixileT. igi profesorma al.xaxanaSvilma leqciis dawyebis win gadmogvca. es grigolis pirveli nabeWdi nakalmari iyo. dResac mowiwebiT vinaxav am gazeTs, 1910 wlis 24 noembris ricxviT rom aris daTariRebuli. igi cocxlad magonebs gardasul dReebs, Cems Zmas da im axalgazrdul gatacebas, ramac Cven yovelgvari dabrkoleba gadagvalaxvina, iasnaia polianSi Cagviyvana da amiT ukvdavi mwerlis dasaflavebis monawileni gagvxada. tolstois dasaflavebaze Cveni monawileoba yvelas didxans aocebda da ukvirdaT, rogor movaxerxeT iq Casvla, rac uamrav siZnelesTan iyo dakavSirebuli. amis gamo megobrebi dResac „istoriul pirs“ meZaxian xolme. _ Xoronil Tolstogo! _ gaacno erTxel Cemi Tavi erTma megobarma Jurnalistebs. vkiTxulob am gazeTs da TiTqos axlac Camesmis dauviwyari mwerlisadmi mimarTuli madlieri xalxis maSindeli sityvebi: “dae, msubuqi iyos SenTvis is miwa, romlis wuxili gaRelvebdao“. amas winaT, Turme, morigi sixarulis mowme unda gavmxdariyavi: Jurnal „Ogonek“-Si erT-erT Zvel fotosuraTze, romelic lev tolstois dakrZalvis dauviwyar wuTebs asaxavs, Cemi da Cemi Zmis gamosaxulebac vixile. Cven, studentur tansacmelSi gamowyobili axalgazrdebi, samudamo gansasveneblisaken mivacilebT didi mwerlis cxedars... guliT mewada, samaxsovrod am Jurnalis ramdenime cali mqonoda. da amisaTvis redaqcias TxovniT mivmarTe. ramdenime xnis Semdeg, marTlac, miviRe „Ogonek“-is ori egzempliari, risTvisac udides madlobas vwirav Jurnalis yvela TanamSromels. me ki am faqtma TiTqos siWabuke damibruna da dauviwyar dReTa yvaviloba magrZnobina.

andria razmaZe
Tbilisis universitetis profesori, saxelovani maTematikosi andria razmaZe studentobis periodSi Cemi Zmis griSas erT-erTi uaxloesi megobari iyo. 1903 Tu 1904 weli iyo. me da Cemi Zma quTaisis realuri saswavleblis mexuTe klasis mowafeebi viyaviT. mamaCemi, romelic im dros quTaisis samoqalaqo saswavlebelSi muSaobda, bevr saintereso ambavs yveboda Tavisi saqmianobis, maswavlebelTa Tu moswavleTa Sesaxeb. da, ai, erT-erTi aseTi saubris dros man andria razmaZec axsena, romelic gulmodgined mecadineobda skolaSi da Turme maTematikur sagnebSi gansakuTrebul niWs amJRavnebda. sxvaTa Soris, razmaZeebi raWaSi, sofel wmendaurSi cxovrobden. isini metad Raribebi iyvnen, magram gamoirCeodnen didi SromismoyvareobiT, Tumca swavla-ganaTlebas TiTqmis ar etanebodnen. diax, mama aqebda mas da ambobda, rom, Tu ekonomikurma mdgomareobam ar SeuSala xeli da swavlas Tavi ar daaneba, uTuod gamoCenili pirovneba dadgebao. rodesac meeqvse klasSi gadavediT, swored maSin gavigeT, rom samoqalaqo saswavleblidan realur saswavlebelSi gadmovida da misaRebi gamocdebi daiWira mamaCemis yofilma Segirdma 42

andria razmaZem. miuxedavad imisa, rom Cvenze ori wliT umcrosi gaxldaT, mainc didad davmegobrdiT da davuaxlovdiT erTmaneTs. andria guliT xarobda misi sayvareli maswavleblis Svilebis gacnobiT, maswavleblisa, romelic mudam mSobliur mzrunvelobas uwevda mas. 1906 wlis ivnisSi davamTavreT sawavlebeli da maSinve moskovSi gavemgzavreT. roca Casvlis pirvelsave dReebSi universitetis kancelariaSi mivediT da Cveni gancxadebebis beds vecnobodiT, moulodnelad andria razmaZes SevefeTeT, maTematikur fakultetze Seetana sabuTebi da masac pasuxis gageba undoda. am ambavma didad gagvaxara, miT ufro, rom amden xalxSi jer kidev aravis vicnobdiT maSin, roca quTaisSi ganebivrebulebi viyaviT nacnob-megobrebiT, naTesavebiT da maT yovel nabijze vxvdebodiT. SeuZlebelia im sixarulis gadmocema, rac maSin vigrZeniT... am sixaruls Cveulebrivi sityvebiT ver gadmoscems adamiani. meoTxe klasis moswavlem andria razmaZem mexuTe klasis gamotovebiT pirdapir meeqvseSi daiWira gamocdebi da amiT erTi weli moigo, magram meeqvse klasis Semdeg meSvidec gamoatovebines da pirdapir atestatis gamocdebi Caabarebines. es yvelaferi misi didi niWis wyalobiT moxda. gavigeT Tu ara Cveni universitetSi Caricxvis ambavi, maSinve gadavwyviteT, rom bina erTad dagveqiravebina. bevri siaruli ar dagvWirvebia da iqve universitetis axlos _ bolSaia nikitovkaze (dRes gercenis quCa) semenkoviCis eqvssarTulian saxlSi davbinavdiT. binis patroni metad keTili da saTno axalgazrda aRmoCnda. mas ukve miRebuli hqonda docentis samecniero xarisxi da moskovis universitetSi msaxurobda, binac axlad daekavebina da zedmeti farTobi, daaxloebiT 20 kv.m. Cven mogvaqirava. sami studentisaTvis es sruliad sakmarisi iyo, Tanac TveSi 14 maneTs vixdidiT. binis patronis gvari gidulinovi gaxldaT; igi SemdegSi imave universitetis profesori gaxda da iuridiuli fakultetis dekanis Tanamdeboba daikava. Cvenc metad kmayofilni davrCiT rogorc binis siaxloviT, ise misi patronisa da sxva mdgmurTa sikeTiT. nikitskaias quCaze erTi weliwadi vicxovreT mxolod. namdvilad karg garemoSi viyaviT. xSirad davdiodiT xolme koncertebze iqve, konservatoriaSi. stumari arc Cvens saxls aklda; gansakuTrebiT xSirad modiodnen Cveni quTaiseli amxanagebi, visTan erTadac davamTavreT realuri saswavlebeli. eseni iyvnen: ter-martirosiani da ruben auStovi, iaSa alaverdovi, aleqsandre badriZe Tbilisis gimnaziidan, agreTve ori rusi maTematikosi, romelTagan erTis gvari CiJovi iyo, meorisa ki aRar damamaxsovrda... vin icis, iqneb is dRes gamoCenili maTematikosia!... andria razmaZe gatacebiT mecadineobda maTematikur sagnebSi da amasTan erTad inglisur da, mgoni, italiur enebsac eufleboda. erTxel, rodesac vkiTxe – ase ratom itvirTav Tavs-meTqi, man mipasuxa, _ CemTvis araa Zneli, radgan maTematikuri ena yvelgan erTia: punqtiri yvelgan punqtiria, aseve sinusic da kosinusic, es ki Zalian miadvilebs Sromaso. 43

andro mudam gveubneboda, _ wamodiT, andreevis leqcias mogasmeninebT da maSin naxavT, rogori sainteresoa maTematikao. andro sul mis xsenebaSi iyo. axsenebda agreTve cesarskis gvarsac, romelic astronomiis kurss kiTxulobda. danarCen leqtorTa gvarebs ukve veRar vixseneb. erTxel andros profesor umovis leqciaze wavyevi, romelic fizikas aswavlida. igi SesaniSnavi aRnagobis adamiani iyo, maRali, WaRara wver-ulvaSiTa da sqeli, ukan gadavarcxnili TmiT. mokled, marto gonebiT ki ara, garegnobiTac namdvili mecnieri iyo. fizikis Teoriuli nawilis garda, me ufro cdebi mainteresebda; amisaTvis profesors sagangebo TanamSromeli hyavda, erTi maRal-maRali, metad ubralo adamiani da bavSvobidan Tavis saqmeSi daxelovnebuli imdenad, rom leqciebsac ki ukiTxavda studentebs... aqebdnen profesor lebedevsac, magram me ufro umovis pirovnebam damainteresa. im pirveli wlis Semdeg andro razmaZes Zalian iSviaTad vxvdebodi, radgan igi sxvagan gadavida sacxovreblad. „zemliaCestvoSi“ Tu Semoivlida xandaxan qarTul saRamoze dasaswrebad, Torem sxvagan TiTqmis aRarc vxvdebodiT erTmaneTs. tyuilad drois kargvas erideboda, mudam saxlSi ijda da muSaobda. arc is vici, sad an visTan cxovrobda, mxolod is vici, rom moskovis universiteti zustad oTx weliwadSi daamTavra da samsaxuric sadRac ruseTSi daiwyo, mgoni, qalTa gimnaziis maswavleblad. qalebTan ki Zalian moridebuli iyo. 1919 wlidan andros ukve TbilisSi vxvdebodi. maSin mec TbilisSi davsaxldi da samsaxuric daviwye. aRar maxsovs, Tu ra pirobebSi Sevxvdi Tavdapirvelad; ramdenjerme TviTonac minaxula, erTxel ki me da griSa sagangebod wagviyvana TavisTan meliqiSvilis quCaze. es iyo sastumro „saqarTvelos“ pirdapir, kuTxis erT saxlSi, romlis nomeri dRes ukve aRar maxsovs. lamazad mowyobili patara, magram koxta bina meore sarTulze iyo, masTan erTad cxovrobdnen deda da ori da – elene da maro, saxiT ali-kvali TavianTi RviZli Zmisa. andros ki metad simpaTiuri saxe hqonda, lamazi da mimzidveli. tanad maRali iyo, Txeli da Camosxmuli. laparakic Zalian daxvewili hqonda da cdilobda qarTulad sworad da gamarTulad esaubra. rogorc Cans, leqciebis kiTxvam uaRresad dauxvewa metyveleba. magram mainc rusulad saubari ufro emarjveboda. Zalian uyvarda mxatvruli literatura da filosofia, koxtad da moxdenilad Cacma. am metad Tavazian da keTilSobilur bunebasTan erTad, metad ficxic iyo. saubris dros Tu SemTxveviT raime sawyens etyodiT, ucbad ifeTqebda, magram, sazogadod, gulis mosvla ar sCveoda. ratomRac sakuTari saxeli ar mowonda da xSirad andrias magier androniks werda, magram male amasac mianeba Tavi. xeli araCveulebrivad lamazi hqonda da roca dafaze raimes werda, gegonebodaT, xatavso. me SemomrCa andros orad ori namuSevari, romelTagan erTi frangul, meore ki germanul enebzea dawerili. asoebi margalitebiviTaa Camosxmuli: „Cems megobars lado jafariZes avtorisagan. tfilisi. 17.4.22 w.“ amaTgan pirvelia „tfilisis universite44

tis moambe #1“. marTalia, es CemTvis gaugebari sagania, magram mainc siamovnebiT vaTvaliereb xolme. andrias meore naSromi calke amonabeWdia berlinis 1921 wlis Jurnalidan... guldasawyveti is iyo, rom andrias, maTematikis garda, sxva araferi axsovda. Cven vamCnevdiT amas, xSirad vexumrebodiT xolme da bevrsac vicinodiT. erT diliT, Cai rom davlieT da mosamsaxure qalma Cveni oTaxidan samovaric ki gaitana, andriam frangul da germanul wignebs mohkida xeli da seriozuli kiloTi gvkiTxa: - megobrebo, Cai Tu davlieT?... axla xom universitetSi wasvlis droao... Cven sicili wagvskda da SevaxseneT, rom Cai ukve daleuli gvqonda: _ rogor, aRar gaxsovs? _ vkiTxeT Cven. _ ah, ara, ar maxsovs, _ gadaWriT gvipasuxa man, magram mere dafiqrda, yvelaferi gaixsena da Tavadac bevri icina. es iyo da es, wamoavlo xeli wignebs da saCqarod gaiqca universitetSi. erTxel isev gvkiTxa: _ Cai Tu davlieT, megobrebo? miuxedavad imisa, rom adre iyo, Cven mainc gangeb vupasuxeT: _ ra Tqma unda, davlieT, gana aRar gaxsovs? _ maSin ratom var aseTi mSieri? – ikiTxa man. am dros karic gaiRo da qalic gamoCnda moTuxTuxe samovariT xelSi. maSin mixvda andro, rom vexumrebodiT. andros mistikur-astraluri ambebisac sjeroda. namdvilad swamda Tu Cven gvaCvenebda Tavs, amas danamdvilebiT ver vityvi, magram erTxel abasTumanSi Cvens ojaxSi „sulis gamoZaxebac“ iTava da amisaTvis qalebs sagangebod magidac moatanina. me iq ar viyavi da am seansis Sesaxeb Cemma meuRlem miambo. yvelani cariel magidas Semousxdnen Turme da magidaze xelebi daawyves, androm ki Cumad puSkinis ”gamoZaxebis” procesi daiwyo... suli Tu „movidoda“, magida unda amoZravebuliyo da es iqneboda „puSkinis mosvlis“ niSani. magram, miuxedavad mravali cdisa, magida mainc ar ganZreula. roca cdis uSedegobis gamo damswreebma sicili atexes, andro ganawyenebula da uTqvams: _ es albaT imitom, rom Tqven araseriozulad moekideT cdaso da maSinve Tavi daunebebia morigi seansisaTvis. guSindeliviT maxsovs is mware dRe, roca gavige andros avadmyofoba, xolo Semdeg misi gardacvalebis ambavi. TiTqos RviZli Zma momkvdomodes, ise ganvicade. igi universitetidan gamoasvenes da am ceremonias uamravi xalxi daeswro. iTqva bevri gulisamaCuyebeli da mgZnobiare sityva, aRiniSna, rom andros sikvdili didi danaklisia qarTuli maTematikuri mecnierebisaTvis, rom 39 wlis asakSi mecnierebi mxolod iwyeben gafurCqvnas da sxv. daasaflaves igi didubis mweralTa da sazogado moRvaweTa panTeonSi.

maiakovskebis ojaxi
maiakovskebis ojaxi mudam gamoirCeoda Tavisi keTilSobilebiTa da adamianuri RirsebebiT. maTi ojaxis wevrebs saqarTvelo Tavis samSoblod miaCndaT da zogierTi maTgani, mgoni, qarTvelobda kidec. 45

es mogoneba maiakovskebis ojaxze 1903 wlidan iwyeba. Cveni ojaxi im dros quTaisSi cxovrobda, sadac mamaCemi – malaqia jafariZe – samoqalaqo saswavlebelSi msaxurobda. es saswavlebeli rionis marjvena mxares, geguTis quCis erT patara SesaxvevSi iyo, binac im midamoebSi gvqonda. maiakovskebis ojaxic aRniSnul ubanSi cxovrobda. olia da valodia gimnaziaSi geguTis quCiT dadiodnen da amitom yovel diliT vxvdebodiT erTmaneTs. valodia da Cemi umcrosi Zma aleqsandre tolebi iyvnen, klasikur gimnaziaSi erTad swavlobdnen da dilaobiT saswavlebelSiac erTad uxdebodaT siaruli. Zneli iyo formaSi gamowyobili biWunebis erTmaneTisagan garCeva, magram valodia Tavisi aRnagobiT, didroni, Savi, azriani TvalebiT da cocxali saxiT yvelasagan gamoirCeoda. da-Zma am mxriv Zalian hgavda erTmaneTs, orTave ki _ mamas, brge tanis, sandomiani saxis vaJkacs, romelsac kidev ufro amSvenebda wablisferi mogrZo wveri, Cvenebur, qarTul iers rom aZlevda. masac xSirad vxvdebodiT geguTis quCaze da yoveli Sexvedrisas mowiwebiT vuxdidiT xolme quds. maiakovskebis mama baRdadSi muSaobda, magram xSirad Camodioda quTaisSi Tavisi col-Svilis sanaxavad. mas, iseve rogorc mTel ojaxs, Zalze kargi damokidebuleba hqonda mezoblebTan, amitom yvelasaTvis sayvareli da pativsacemi adamiani iyo. yovel Camosvlaze mamaCems xvdeboda xolme. araerTxel vyofilvar maTi gulTbili saubris mowme. Cveni patara megobrebis mamisadmi kidev imitom viyaviT keTilad ganwyobilni, rom man qarTuli ena Cinebulad icoda. 1905 wels mamaCemi erevnis guberniaSi rom gadaiyvanes saswavleblis inspeqtorad, Zmebi rionis marcxena napirze gadavediT sacxovreblad da amiT ufro davuaxlovdiT Cvens realur saswavlebels, samagierod, ufro iSviaTad vxvdebodiT maiakovskebis bavSvebs, ufro ki _ demonstraciebis dros. im xanebSi quTaisSi moswavleTa gamosvlebic iyo. sxvadasxva saswavleblis bavSvebi darazmulni daiarebodnen qalaqis quCebSi da „marseliozasa“ da sxva revoluciur simRerebs mRerodnen. valodia maiakovski moswavleTagan mudam gamoirCeoda Tavisi mgznebare sityvebiTa da im adreuli leqsebiT, romlebSiac ukve Canda momavali mgosnis maRalniWiereba. gamosvlebSi mxurvaled monawileobda misi da oliac. da-Zmas ise vuyurebdi, rogorc axloblebsa da megobrebs; amitomac ase Rrmad CamrCa mexsierebaSi maTi saxe. Cven marto quCaSi ki ara, quTaisis TeatrSiac vxvdebodiT erTmaneTs. lado mesxiSvilis mier dadgmuli speqtaklebi sulierad enaTesaveboda valodias boboqar bunebas. ganvlo xanma, droebiT Cawynarda gaficvebi, gamosvlebi da axalgazrdebic merxebs davubrundiT. xolo 1906 wels me da Cemma Zmam grigolma davamTavreT quTaisis realuri saswavlebeli da moskovs gavemgzavreT universitetSi swavlis gasagrZeleblad. moskovSi ucnob adamianTa Soris cxovrebam sevda mogvgvara. quTaisis Semdeg oblad vgrZnobdiT Tavs. iq xom yovel nabijze megobari Tu ara, nacnobi mainc gvxvdeboda xolme. magram erT dRes bronnaias quCaze moulodnelad nacnobi saxeebi davinaxeT. 46

_ es xom Cveni quTaislebi arian! – wamoviZaxeT gaxarebulebma da didi xniT daSorebuli ZmebiviT gadavexvieT erTmaneTs. eseni iyvnen Cveni bavSvobis megobrebi da-Zma olia da valodia maiakovskebi. Znelia kacma warmoidginos is didi sixaruli, quTaisel megobrebTan aseTi moulodneli Sexvedris dros rom ganvicadeT, miT ufro ucnob zRva xalxSi. Cvenda moulodnelad, gavigeT maiakovskebis mamis daRupvis ambavi. am mizeziT ojaxs samudamod daetovebina quTaisi da moskovSi gadmosaxlebuliyo, sadac swavlobda da cxovrobda ojaxis ufrosi qaliSvili liudmila. marTalia, guli dagvwyvita SesaniSnavi adamianis dakargvam, magram amave dros sixaruli vigrZeniT imis gamo, rom Turme martoni ar vyofilvarT ucxo qalaqSi, mokeTeni aqac gvyolia. im saRamosve movnaxeT elCinskis saxli spiridonovkaze, sadac CvenTvis Zvirfasi ojaxi iyo dabinavebuli da sayvarel TanamemamuleebTan Tavi ise vigrZeniT, rogorc mSobliur saxlSi. ojaxis dedas, _ aleqsandra aleqsis asuls, jer kidev ar gaqroboda im didi mwuxarebis kvali, romelic Zvirfasi adamianis dakargvam gamoiwvia masSi, magram dagvinaxa Tu ara quTaislebi, naRvliani Tvalebi gaubrwyinda da saxeze sixaruli moefina. Zalze Tbilad Segvxvda, Cvenebi moikiTxa, tkbilad gagviba saubari, igonebda yovelgvar wvrilmans, rac ki quTaisTan iyo dakavSirebuli. _ droebiT martooba nu daganaRvlianebT, biWebo, _ gviTxra aleqsandra aleqsis asulma, _ male gaiCenT megobrebs, Cvenc aqa varT. Cemi Svilebic mowyenilebi arian, mSobliuri mxare enatrebaT, gansakuTrebiT valodias, sul baRdadze ocnebobs, magram ra vqnaT, gaivlis dro da mieCveviT aqaurobas. am sityvebma sevdisa da sulieri oblobis grZnoba maSinve waSala Cvens sulSi. mas mere didma drom ganvlo, bevrma wyalma Caiara, welTa bevri aTeulic damrCa ukan. vfurclav Cems sayvarel wignebs; gansakuTrebuli mowiwebiT vCerdebi xolme liudmila maiakovskaias mier sakuTar ojaxze daweril wignze, romlis Tavfurcels avtoris lamazi xeliT aseTi warwera amSvenebs: „Cveni ojaxis Zvirfas megobars studenturi wlebidan _ lado jafariZes im wlebis mcire nakveTi Cemi aRweriT. liudmila maiakovskaia.“ vfurclav aRniSnul wigns da Cemi Tavi isev maiakovskebis ojaxSi mgonia. madlierebis grZnobiT vixseneb im Sexvedras, romlis wyalobiT me da Cemi Zma moskovSi davrCiT, xolo, mere, TandaTan ara Tu SevegueT moskovsa da studentur cxovrebas, sul male qarTvel studentTa saTvistomos aqtiuri wevrebic gavxdiT da monawileobas vRebulobdiT mis yvela RonisZiebaSi. am saTvistomosTan dakavSirebuli Cveni saqmianoba mudam keTiladaa gasaxsenebeli. orive Zmas bevrjer gagvxsenebia Cveni pirveli Znelbedobis dReebi moskovSi da maiakovskebis sasikeTo gavlena Cvens cxovrebaze, gavlena, romelmac moskovi Cvens Sobliur qalaqad aqcia. aseve mSobliur qalaqad iqca moskovi maiakovskebis ojaxisTvisac. maTi Cemdami siyvarulis naTeli dadasturebaa olRa maiakovskaias mier qalaq Cilgopolidan 1941 wlis oqtomberSi gamogzavnili Tbili werili. am qalaqSi olRa droebiT imyofeboda meore msoflio omis dros. ai, xsenebuli werilic: 47

„guliTadi salami lados! – mwerda igi, _ miviRe Tqveni Ria

baraTi da Zalian amaRelva Tqvenma yuradRebam. adgili aq, marTalia, lamazi da warmtacia, magram amJamad qveynierebaze Cveni moskovisTana araferi araa. Cemi fiqri da goneba mas dastrialebs. Zalian vwuxvarT, aseT dros TbilisSi rom ar CamovediT, magram, sadac ar unda viyo, Cemi ocnebaa, rac SeiZleba male davbrunde mSobliur moskovSi. salami Tqvens ojaxs da griSas. iyaviT kargad. olia.“ sityva „olia“ mas qarTulad aqvs dawerili, Tanac frCxilebSi aseTi minaweric gaukeTebia: „jer kidev maxsovs, Tu rogor iwereba Cemi saxeli.“
marTalia, drom feri daukarga melniT Sesrulebul pwkarebs, magram dauviwyari megobris naTeli suli, romelic Sig uxilavad trialebs, isev ise cocxlobs Cems mexsierebaSi. 1907 wlis Semodgomaze universitetis saTvistomos krebaze Tavzardamcemi ambavi gavigeT: veragulad moeklaT Cveni eris didi moamage ilia WavWavaZe. es cnoba mTel universitets moedo da qarTvel studentebSi didi mwuxareba gamoiwvia. Cvenma saTvistomom gansakuTrebuli saRamo moawyo, xolo ramdenime dRis Semdeg aseTive saRamo, mxolod ufro Rrmad gaazrebuli programiT, moskovis eTnografiulma sazogadoebamac gamarTa. qarTvelma studentebma gadavwyviteT, rac SeiZleba, meti nacnob-megobari wagveyvana am saRamoze da Cveni erovnuli kulturisaTvis propaganda gagvewia. guli dagvwyda, rodesac zogierTma maTganma friad gaioca es ambavi, radgan ar egonaT, rom qarTvelebs hyavdaT mwerlebi da hqondaT damwerloba. mizezi is gaxldaT, rom mefis ruseTis pirobebSi „inorodcebis“, e.i. ararus xalxTa literatura ar iTargmneboda rusul enaze da, maSasadame, arc arsebobda. xsenebul saRamoze olia maiakovskaiac movida da amxanagebic moiyvana, romlebsac gatacebiT uyveboda saqarTvelos Sesaxeb da ganmartebebs aZlevda saintereso moxsenebis irgvliv. saerTod, olia maiakovskaias Zalian uyvarda iseT krebebze siaruli, sadac SeiZleboda Sexvedroda Tavis Tanamemamuleebs, uyvarda e.w. „qarTul saRamoebSi“ monawileobis miReba. es saRamoebi Tavisi originalobisa da erovnuli koloritis gamo, sakmao popularobiT sargeblobda moskovSi. am „saRamoebis“ xSiri stumari valodiac iyo. ai, Cemi Zmis grigolisadmi moskovidan gamogzavnili olia maiakovskaias werili, romelSic „qarTul saRamoebs“ igonebs:

„gulwrfeli salami griSas! metad gavixare Tqveni werilis miRebiT; man Soreuli axalgazrdoba gamaxsena, roca valodia iyo da masTan erTad „qarTul saRamoebze“ davdiodiT, magram cxovreba Zalian gamoicvala. didi survili maqvs Camovide samSobloSi, magram es yvelaferi metad rTulia da ar vici, rodis movaxerxeb amas. Tu moskovSi moxvdiT, aucileblad modiT CvenTan Tqven da lado. cxovreba midis, magram Zveli megobrebi ar iviwyeben erTmaneTs, da es metad sasiamovnoa. gisurvebT yovelive kargs. dedam da liudam mogikiTxes, salami lados da yvela Tqvenebs. mudam maxsovxarT. olia.“
eTnografiuli sazogadoebis mier Catarebulma saRamom mniSvnelovani biZgi misca Cvens Zvel ganzraxvas, rusuli farTo sazogadoebisaTvis qarTuli kultura da, kerZod, ilia WavWavaZis Semoqmedeba gagvecno. 48

maiakovskebTan SeviareT. mTeli ojaxi sixaruliT Semogvegeba me da grigols. Segvxvdnen rogorc didi xnis unaxav, sasurvel stumrebs. valodia ufro davaJkacebuliyo. xma daboxeboda. Cvenda sasiamovnod, iqve dagvxvda Cveni Zveli quTaiseli megobari da cnobili revolucioneri kola (isidore) morCaZe, moskovis 1905 wlis ajanyebis aqtiuri monawile. mTeli is saRamo quTaissa da saqarTveloze iyo saubari. gamoiTqva azric, rom, rac SeiZleba srulyofilad gagvecno rusi mkiTxvelisaTvis qarTuli literaturis nimuSebi. maiakovskebis ojaxi mxurvaled gamoexmaura gadawyvetilebas da daxmarebac aRgviTqva, gansakuTrebiT aqtiurobdnen olia da valodia. ramdenime xnis Semdeg me da Cemma Zmam grigolma vTargmneT ilia WavWavaZis „glaxis naambobi“, romelic profesor aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis daxmarebiT, misi redaqciiTa da winasityvaobiT dabeWda gamomcemloba „polzam“. wigni rom gamoqveynda da garekanze rusulad warwerili „ilia WavWavaZe“ wavikiTxeT, Cvens sixaruls sazRvari ar hqonda. maiakovskebma pirvelebma gaiziares Cveni sixaruli da es savsebiT gasagebia, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom es iyo pirveli nabiji an, ukeT rom vTqvaT, qarTuli mwerlobis sagzuri did sarbielze gasasvlelad. gavida ramdenime weli da universitetis damTavrebisTanave saqarTveloSi davbrundi. male rus poetTa Soris maiakovskis gvaric gaxmaurda, da raoden didi gaxldaT Cemi sixaruli, rodesac gavige, rom es Cveni valodia maiakovski iyo, Cemi Tanamemamule da siyrmis megobari, visac mudam gulwrfelad uyvarda saqarTvelo, mSobliuri baRdadi da romelic ambobda: “Cemi samSoblo sofeli baRdadia,

quTaisis gubernia, saqarTvelo.“
quTaisma gansakuTrebuli roli iTamaSa maiakovskebisa da, uSualod, vladimeris sulieri cxovrebis CamoyalibebaSi. im dros quTaisSi didi akaki imyofeboda, romlis mebrZoli poezia udides zegavlenas axdenda axalgazrdobaze da maT soris, ueWvelia, valodiazec. „gmirebs daeZebs, uyivis Cemi dafi da naRara.“ ase rom, didi poetis Semoqmedebam dasabami „baRdadis caTa qveS“ cxraasiani wlebis quTaisSi hpova, xolo Semdeg, misi poeturi niWi sabolood moskovSi gaRvivda da gaifurCqna. amave azrisa iyo poetis da liudmilac. igi ambobda: Cemi Zmis zogierT biografs ratomRac aviwydeba misi SemoqmedebiTi da, saerTod, biografiis uSualo kavSiri kavkasiasTan; me ki vamtkiceb, rom kavkasia da, kerZod, saqarTvelo, quTaisi, misTvis yvelaferi iyo. man igive azri gaimeora 30-ian wlebSi misi deidaSvilis vera agaCova-naneiSvilis binaze TbilisSi, rodesac me da miqel patariZem vinaxuleT liudmila. amave azrs aviTarebda mwerali g.v.bebuTovi wignSi: „maiakovskis mowafeobis wlebi da pedagogi vs.i.kapanaZe.“ aRsaniSnavia maiakovskebis didi siyvaruli qarTuli enisadmi. me ukve vTqvi, rom maT ojaxSi Cinebulad laparakobdnen qarTulad, gansakuTrebiT – vladimeri, romelmac bolomde Semoinaxa es codna. igi pativs miagebda Tavis axlo megobrebs vaso kandelaksa da kola morCaZes, rom aRaraferi vTqva sxva megobrebze. Zalian uyvarda irodion evdoSvilis leqsi: „megobrebo, win, win 49

gaswiT!“ amasTan, mSvenivrad waumRerebda xolme cnobil romanss „mxolod Sen erTs“... Cemi Zma grigoli universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg xSirad imyofeboda moskovSi da yovelTvis moinaxulebda xolme maiakovskebis ojaxs. TbilisSi dabrunebuli ki siamayiT miambobda valodias arnaxul warmatebebze. 1930 wels, rodesac misi moulodneli gardacvalebis ambavi gavigeT, Tavzari dagveca da ise ganvicadeT, rogorc SeiZleba kacma yvelaze axlobeli adamianis dakargva ganicados. ukanasknelad vladimer maiakovski TbilisSi 1929 wlis gazafxulze vnaxe: uecrad tramvaidan davinaxe igi. yavisferkostumiani, brge da axovani vaJkaci farTo nabijebiT modioda quCaSi; gverdiT qarTvel poetTa jgufi miyveboda. marTalia, didi xnis unaxavi myavda, magram mainc vicani. im dRes masTan misvla damagvianda, xolo meore dRes moskovSi gamaswro. vladimeri iSviaTi enamaxvili iyo da eqspromtebic moxdenili icoda; cnobilia misi mimarTva valerian guniasadmi baqoSi gamarTul erT-erT banketze 1927 wels, romelic „saliteraturo gazeTSi“ daibeWda 1933 wlis 31 oqtombers. moviyvan nawyvets: I teper> v dali ot Vas Visurvebdi vkopilikav tkventan ertad, Kak s bratom brat. Xotelos> vnov> i v glaz i v brov> Delit> i lasku i lhbov>, I posme%t>s%, i pobalagurit>, Kvlav mogvelxina gvinit da purit, Maglari gvesva kancit da qurit. TbilisSi Camosvlisas maiakovskebi Cerdebodnen leninis * quCis erT patara SesaxvevSi, sadac cxovrobdnen agaCovebi: aleqsandra aleqsis asulis da mariami da misi Svilebi vera da konstantine. me da grigoli xSirad viyaviT agaCovebis ojaxSi, anu, rogorc xSirad vambobdiT, „maiakovskebis filialSi“, metadre ki maSin, roca olia Camovidoda xolme moskovidan. aseT dros agaCovebis ojaxSi bevri quTaiseli megobari viyridiT Tavs: me da grigoli, kolau nadiraZe, vaso kandelaki, kako marusiZe, miqel patariZe, kola morCaZe da sxvebi. bevrs vsaubrobdiT, vigonebdiT quTaisSi gatarebul dReebs, vseirnobdiT Tbilisis quCebSi. olRa qarTul laparaks eZaleboda, radgan es yvelaferi bavSvobas agonebda, Tanac xSir-xSirad gvekiTxeboda, Tu rogor axerxebda qarTulad laparaks an ra Secdomebs uSvebda. olRa aRnagobiT Zalian hgavda Tavis goliaT Zmas, iseTive tanmaRali iyo, iseTive cocxali da metyveli Savi Tvalebi hqonda. igi sul axalgazda gardaicvala moskovSi gulis avadmyofobiT 1949 wlis gazafxulze. moviyvan erT amonawers Cemi Zmis grigolis 1949 wlis 5 ivniss mowerili werilidan: „...dRes ki orTaveni (kola morCaZesTan

erTad) maiakovskebTan viyaviT da es aris davbrundiT saxlSi. Zalian gulTbilad Segvxvdnen. aq arian aleqsandra aleqsis asuli, liuda da vera agaCova. Cveni pirveli sityva, ra Tqma unda, olias gaxseneba iyo: rogor uyvarda gansvenebuls Tqveni mogoneba, orive
*

axlandeli g.kostavas quCa

50

Zmis gaxseneba, rom ver garCevdiT da gekiTxebodiT, romeli griSa xar da romeli ladoo. raoden aRfrTovanebiT laparakobda saqarTveloze! – igonebdnen liuda da dedamisi. saaTis Svididan Tormetamde Cveni cocxali saubari am Temaze ar Sewyvetila.“
aleqsandra aleqseevna metad keTili adamiani iyo, gulTbili da stumarTmoyvare. dRe da Rame gaerTianebuli hqonda Svilebis movlasa da samsaxurSi. pensias iRebda, magram ojaxs ar yofnida da xelmokled cxovrobda. sicocxlis bolo wlebSi SesaniSnavi mogoneba dawera Svilze „vladimer maiakovskis bavSvoba da yrmoba,“ romelic sabavSvo gamomcemlobam gamosca moskovSi 1959 wels. maiakovskebis ojaxis gulTbili damokidebuleba Cvendami, didi siyvaruli saqarTvelosadmi naTlad Cans Tundac im werilSi, romelic liudmila vladimeris asulma daurTo CemTvis gamogzavnil Tavis wigns, moskovSi rom daibeWda da romelic vladimer maiakovskis cxovrebasa da Semoqmedebas Seexeba. „Cveni ojaxis

didi xnis megobars Zvirfas lado jafariZes, saqarTvelosa da moskovSi Cveni Sexvedrebis keTilad mosagoneblad. siyvaruliTa da salmiT liudmila maiakovskaia, moskovi, 1966 wlis 26 agvisto.“
es wigni, iseve rogorc yvela misi naweri, sainteresod aRwers maiakovskebis ojaxsa da mis cxovrebas baRdadsa da quTaisSi, savsea Cveni qveynis amsaxveli lamazi ilustraciebiT. amiT minda movaTavo Cemi mcire mogoneba. 1964 wlis gazafxulze gardaicvala aleqsandra aleqsis asuli, maiakovskebis deda, xolo 1972 wlis Semodgomaze 88 wlisa sicocxles gamoeTxova maiakovskebis ojaxis ukanaskneli warmomadgenelic – liudmila vladimeris asuli maiakovskaia. liudmila energiuli, Sromismoyvare da Tavmdabali adamiani iyo. rodesac 1906 wels mis ojaxs ubedureba ewvia da marCenali mama daeRupa, umweod da usaxsrod darCenili ojaxis patronoba man, gamoucdelma studentma ido Tavs. deda mcirewlovani bavSvebiT quTaisidan moskovSi gadaiyvana da wlebis manZilze misi erTaderTi mzrunveli da msaxuri iyo. xolo roca 1930 wels Zmac daeRupa, misi literaturuli memkvidreobis Tavgamodebuli meurve Seiqna da SesaniSnavi wignebic dawera Tavis ojaxsa da Zmaze, romlebsac vladimer maiakovskis mkvlevari gverds ver auvlis.

Sexvedra kote marjaniSvilTan moskovSi
es iyo 1909 wels, roca kote marjaniSvili moskovSi nezlobinis TeatrSi reJisorobda da l.andreevis „Savi niRbebis“ dadgmiT iyo dakavebuli. leonid andreevis es piesa erTi ulamazesTagania mwerlis SemoqmedebaSi da Tavisi daxvewili ostatobiT namdvil poemas mogvagonebs. amis gamo man didi gamoxmaureba pova maSindel rusul literaturul da Teatralur wreebSi. „Savi niRbebis“ personaJebi metwilad usityvod moqmedeben da scenis daxelovnebul ostatebs ar saWiroeben. amitom Tavisufal msaxiobTa simciris gamo Tu sxva raRac mosazrebiT, piesis damdgmelma reJisorma kote marjaniSvilma am rolebze aTi qarT51

veli studenti migviwvia, maT Soris: me, Cemi Zma grigoli, vano mWedliZe, mixeil Tuxareli, grigol cxakaia, daviT gagua, vaso SaraSiZe, grigol laRiZe da sxv. qarTvel axalgazrdebs metad sasiamovnod dagvrCa Tanamemamulesa da gamoCenil Teatralur moRvawesTan pirispir Sexvedra, miT ufro, rom mas pirvelad vxedavdi; piradad me kote marjaniSvilis namdvili Tayvanismcemeli gavxdi. kotes esoden didi saxeli da popularoba mudam aRfrTovanebas iwvevda CemSi. TeatrSi samuSaod misuli, mokrZalebiT vusmendi mis yovel sityvas da Tayvans vcemdi didi xelovanis mimzidvelsa da metyvel saxes. Tbilad migviRo kote marjaniSvilma Tanamemamuleni, magram aranaklebi siTbo gvagrZnobines iqaurma msaxiobebmac, rodesac scenaze maTTvis sayvareli reJisoris Tvistomi qarTveli studentebi gvixiles. yvelaferma aman, cxadia, kargi ganwyobileba Segviqmna da siTamame Segvmata, magram saocreba is iyo, rom TeatrSi CvenTvis uCveulo disciplina sufevda... Cveulebrivi repeticiis dRe iyo. muSavdeboda pirveli moqmedebis mesame suraTis masobrivi scena da Cvenc, sxva msaxiobebTan erTad, scenaze videqiT. reJisori repeticias parteridan xelmZRvanelobda, Tanac ratomRac nerviulobda da erTsa da imaves gvameorebinebda... _ ar varga!... xelmeored!... daviqanceT! – malimal gaiZaxoda kote. da ai, roca „Savi niRbebi“ buxarTan iyrian Tavs da gaismis maTi sityvebi: _ gvciva!... gvciva!... _ erTma msaxiobma qalma sapirispiro wamoiZaxa: _ mcxela!... erTbaSad gafuWda xumrobis ganwyobileba da qalebs feri daekargaT, SekrTnen mosalodneli mrisxanebis SiSiT. _ vis cxela mand? – Sehyvira reJisorma parterSi da muSti ise magrad daartya patara magidas, rom yvelani SiSma agvitana. mere uecrad adgilidan mowyda da scenisken gamoemarTa. _ vis cxela aq? – isev gaimeora kotem, roca maRla amovida da Savi Tvalebi daabriala. gaqvavebuli videqiT da velodiT, Tu ra unda momxdariyo; risxva ki garduvali Canda, radgan did ostats aseT SemTxvevaSi xumroba ar uyvarda; magram hoi, sakvirvelebav! Rrublebma gadaiara da yvelaferi kargad damTavrda. qalebs Turme scodniaT aRelvebuli kotes damSvidebis uebari saSualeba: isini siyvaruliT Semoexvivnen sayvarel maswavlebels da bodiSiT, sinanuliT da tkbili sityviT uecrad daacxres misi mrisxaneba. reJisorma scenis daRlil muSakebs apatia es Secodeba da isev Tavis sameTauro adgilas dabrunda. yvelas gulze mogveSva da Tavisuflad amovisunTqeT. ramdenime wuTis Semdeg yvelaferi isev Tavidan daiwyo, TiTqos arc araferi momxdariyos, mxolod im msaxiob qals kidev karga xans etyoboda SiSis nakvalevi da saxeze sanTlis feri edo. _ madloba RmerTs, agvcda qariSxali!... – momibrunda erTi xnieri msaxiobi, roca muSaoba damTavrda da msaxiobebma nel-nela iwyes daSla, _ qarTvelebi gulficxni xarT, magram uboro52

toni. me micxovria TbilisSi da kargad vicnob Tqveni xalxis xasiaTs... _ ficxia Cveni reJisori, magram samarTliani, kacs tyuilubralod ar gawiravs, _ gamoexmaura meore... didxans vugdebdi yurs maT da axalgazrda qarTvel students mixaroda, rom Cveni Tanamemamule, didi Teatraluri moRvawe kote marjaniSvili ase uyvardaT da afasebdnen...

i.WavWavaZisa da al.yazbegis TxzulebaTa Targmanis istoriisaTvis
rogorc cnobilia, al.yazbegis moTxroba „eliso“ araerTxel Targmnila da gamocemula rusul enaze rogorc calkeul wignakebad, ise mwerlis sxva moTxrobebTan erTad mis TxzulebaTa saerTo krebulSi. am ukanasknels ganekuTvneba „universaluri biblioTekis“ seriiT (# 401) moskovSi gamomcemloba „polzas“ mier jer kidev revoluciamde dabeWdili „*liso i drugie rasskazj“. yviTel garekanSi lamazad Casmuli patara wignaki, romlis zoma 15 X 10 sm. iyo, imave seriiT gamocemul sxva mraval wignakebTan erTad, Tavis droze uamrav mkiTxvels izidavda. misi satitulo furclis mTliani warwera aseTia: A.Kazbek. *liso i drugie rasskazj. Perevod s gruzinskogo G. i V.D[afari pod redakciey i s predisloviem A.S.Xaxanova. Knigoizdatel>stvo „Pol>za“. Moskva. gamocemis weli, marTalia, wignze aRniSnuli araa, radgan aseTi ram im dros ratomRac aucileblad ar iyo miCneuli, magram me, rogorc erT-erTma mTargmnelma, danamdvilebiT vici, rom wigni dabeWdilia moskovSi 1911 wels. misi Targmnisa da gamocemis mokle istoria, vfiqrob, moklebuli ar unda iyos sazogadoebriv interess... cxraasian wlebSi rusi sazogadoeba naklebad erkveoda qarTuli kulturis sakiTxebSi da warmodgenac ki ar hqonda, Cven Tu aseTi mdidruli da uZvelesi anbanis patronebi viyaviT. me aRarafers vambob rusTavelis, ilias, akakis, vaJasa da sxvaTa Sesaxeb, romelTa Semoqmedebas isini saerTod ar icnobdnen. yvelafer amas Cven Zalze mtkivneulad ganvicdidiT. am didi xarvezis Sesavsebad me da griSam gadavwviteT gveTargmna qarTuli mwerlobis zogierTi nimuSi da maT Soris „glaxis naambobi“. profesorma aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma, romelic sakmaod miRebuli iyo iqaur inteligenciaSi, aRfrTovanebiT moismina Cveni ganzraxva da dagvpirda saTanado daxmarebas imaSi, rac beWdvis sirTuleebTan iyo dakavSirebuli. am mizniT SeuTanxmda kidec gamomcemloba „polzas“ xelmZRvanelobas. es gamomcemloba kerZo amxanagobas ekuTvnoda, igi „universaluri biblioTekis“ seriiT Targmnida da rusul enaze uSvebda lamazad gaformebul ucxouri mxatvruli literaturis nimuSebs, romelTa SeZena yvelasaTvis SesaZlebeli iyo xelmisawvdomi fasebis gamo. amitom iqauri wignebi metad popularuli iyo, gansakuTrebiT, axalgazrda mkiTxvelTa Soris... 53

imis Semdeg, rac „glaxis naambobis“ Sinaarss gaecvnen, „polzis“ redaqciis TanamSromlebma me da Cems Zmas iSviaTi Sexvedra mogviwyves. am patara moTxrobam pirdapir furori moaxdina; gansakuTrebiT aRtacebuli iyo gamomcemlobis mTavari redaqtori n.bronSteini, romelic Tavis mxriv italiuri mwerlobis saukeTeso nimuSebs Targmnida. man sxva qarTuli moTxrobebis mitanac gvTxova, raTa isini, mowonebis SemTxvevaSi, gveTargmna da gamosacemad mogvemzadebina. aseTma keTilma damokidebulebam didad wagvaxalisa da sul male bronSteins al.yazbegis moTxrobebi: „elberdi“, „fati“, „cicka“ da sxv. warvudgineT, romlebic aseve aRfrTovanebiT miiRes. gavida raRac xani. erT dRes redaqciidan werili miviReT: me da Cems Zmas iq misvlas gvTxovdnen. _ sacenzuro komiteti uars gveubneba Tqveni meore wignakis gamocemaze, - aRSfoTebiT gviTxra bronSteinma, - gansakuTrebiT „elberdis“ dabeWdvaze... gviSveleT, axlgazrdebo, axlave waiReT komitetSi qarTuli dedani da daarwmuneT cenzori, rom is nebadarTulia... vah, vah, vah, vah!... SeiZleba ar daibeWdos aseTi mSvenieri moTxroba?! – Cioda igi da Tan „elberdis“ ukve Sekrul gverdebs nerviulad furclavda, _ amis amoReba pirdapir wignis daRupva iqneba... komitetSi imave dRes mivediT, nebarTvaze Cvenc civi uari gviTxres. verc qarTulma dedanma (al.yazbegis erTtomeulma) Secvala cenzoris gadawyvetileba (erTtomeuls xom Tan erTvoda misi gamocemis nebarTva!). _ es sqeli wigni, _ gvipasuxa man, _ gansazRvruli raodenobiT ibeWdeba da mkiTxvelic sxva hyavs. „polzas“ gamocemebi ki masobrivia da didi tiraJiT vrceldeba muSebsa da studentebs Soris. rogor SeiZleba aseTi nawarmoebis gamocema?! man magidis ujra gamoaRo, „elberdis“ wiTeli melniT aWrelebuli gverdebi amoalaga da saTiTaod dauwyo furcvla. meti ra gza iyo: araviTari Txovna ar gavidoda masTan da Cvenc iZulebulni gavxdiT, akrZaluli „elberdis“ nacvlad gamomcemlobaSi misi moculobis sxva moTxroba migvetana, raTa ukve dasabeWdad gamzadebul „cickasa“ da „fatisTan“ erTad erT wignakSi moTavsebuliyo da gverdebi Segvevso. Tanac dro ar iTmenda. am mZime mdgomareobidan isev Cvenma moamage profesorma aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma gamogviyvana. man saCqarod gamoZebna Tavis did arqivSi Semonaxuli Zveli rusuli Jurnalebi, romlebSiac nawyvetebad iyo dabeWdili mis mier odesRac Targmnili al.yazbegis „eliso“. es nawarmoebi savsebiT gamodgeboda „elberdis“ magier, magram savalalo is iyo, rom Jurnalis yvela nomeri ver moinaxa, moTxrobis teqsts mesame Tavi aklda, romlis Targmnac Cveni saerTo amxanagis giorgi Jordanias meuRles q-n ninos eTxova. isini Cven mezoblad cxovrobdnen da al.xaxanaSvilTanac megobrobdnen. magram sabolood ise gamovida, TiTqos erT patara wignaks erTdroulad oTxi mTargmneli hyavda, romelTa gvarebi aRniSnuli unda yofiliyo satitulo furcelze, es ki gamomcemlobas mizanSeuwonlad miaCnda. 54

amitom al.xaxanaSvilma, rogorc am saerTo Targmanis redaqtorma da misi winasityvaobis avtorma, Tavisi gvari waSala. amgvarad, aSkaraa, rom yazbegis „eliso“ pirvelad al.xaxanaSvils uTargmnia, SesaZloa, studentobis drosac ki. Jurnalis saxelwodeba, romlis nomrebSiac misi Targmani iyo moTavsebuli, samwuxarod, aRar maxsovs; verc welsa da Tveebs vixseneb. dRes es wigni, il.WavWavaZis „glaxis naambobTan“ da akakis „baSi-aCukTan“ erTad, bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgens da sul ramdenime calia daculi Tbilisis marqsis * sax. respublikur, i.griSaSvilis saxelobisa da inJiner n.i.kvezereli-kopaZis mdidar saojaxo biblioTekebSi; SesaZlebelia, universitetSiac inaxebodes. mec maqvs erTaderTi cali, romelic i.griSaSvilma misaxsovra 50-an wlebSi da mas Tvalis CiniviT vufrTxildebi... piradad Cveni egzempliarebidan, 30 calis raodenobiT rom miviReT wignis gamosvlisas, arc erTi aRar SemogvrCa. isini nacnob-megobarTa Soris davarigeT, rogorc Zvirfasi saCuqari. es asec iyo sinamdvileSi, radgan rusul enaze dastambuli qarTuli nawarmoebi im dros iSviaTobas warmoadgenda da amitom masze didi moTxovnileba iyo. dRes aseTi ram Cveulebrivi movlenaa: qarTuli wignebi didi raodenobiT ibeWdeba rusul enaze, Tavi rom davaneboT sxvadasxva xalxTa enebze gamoqveynebul qarTul gamocemebs. ar damaviwydeba is gulTbili Sexvedrebi, „glaxis naambobis“ dabeWdvis Semdeg ardadegebze TbilisSi Camosulebs rom gvxvda wilad. qarTul da rusul redaqciebSi me da Cems Zmas, pirdapir, pativiscemiTa da siyvaruliT gvxvdebodnen. maSin gavicaniT dauviwyari adamianebi: parTen goTua, grigol diasamiZe, sandro yanCeli, Sio aragvispireli, Sio mRvimeli, giorgi amirejibi, ovanes Tumaniani, samson fircxalava da kidev bevri sxva, romlebic did kmayofilebas gamoTqvamdnen im keTili saqmis gamo. marTlac, es ar iyo umniSvnelo ram, radgan „universaluri biblioTekis“ gamomcemloba „polza“ didi raodenobiT uSvebda aseT wignebs da maT mTel ruseTSi avrcelebda. ise gamovida, rom qarTuli wigni pirvelad aRebda rusulenovan ojaxTa kars da Rirseul adgils iWerda sayvareli wignebis gverdiT. marTlac, „glaxis naambobis“ gamoqveynebas didi warmateba xvda wilad da ori Tu sami wlis ganmavlobaSi samjer daibeWda. aseve orjer daibeWda al.yazbegis „elisoc“. Cems ojaxSi swored am gamocemis erTaderTi nimuSia Semonaxuli. is mxurvale madloba qarTveli sazogadoebisagan aseve ekuTvnoda iseT uangaro moRvawes, rogoric prof. al.xaxanaSvili gaxldaT. zemoT moviyvane „elisos“ satitulo furclis amonaweri, sadac mTargmnelad nino Jordania aris moxseniebuli da ara al.xaxanaSvili, radgan aseTi iyo misi survili. rac Seexeba Cven mier Targmnil „elberds“, romelic „cickasa“ da „fatisTan“ erTad am wignakSi unda gamoqveynebuliyo, misi anabeWdebi didxans SerCaT „polzas“ redaqciaSi da araerT iq
*

amJamad i.WavWavaZis sax. respublikuri biblioTeka.

55

moxvedril mkiTxvels aRelvebda Tavisi mxatvruli RirsebiTa da siuJetis simZafriT. redaqciaSi TiTo-TiTo cali me da Cems Zmasac gvisaxsovres, magram droTa ganmavlobaSi uamrav nacnob-megobrebSi xelidan xelSi „siarulis“ gamo ukvalod daikarga. magram is uTuod iqneba sadRac, SesaZloa, „sacenzuro komitetSi,“ romelic ase gaafTrebiT icavda mefis TviTmpyrobelur ideologias. ai, am sacenzuro komitetis „centrarqivSi“ iqneba igi daculi da, vfiqrob, moinaxeba kidec... amas winaT Zveli gazeTis „zakavkazies“ 1911 wlis 18 oqtombris „qronikis“ ganyofilebaSi SemTxveviT wavawydi cnobas saTauriT: „al.yazbegis Txzuleba da rusuli cenzura“, romelSiac naTqvamia, rom ,,moskovis cenzuram gavrcelebis neba ar misca al. yazbegis wignakebad dabeWdil moTxrobebs, miuxedavad imisa, rom Targmani Sesrulebulia cenzuris mier nebadarTuli qarTuli gamocemidano“... marTalia, „elberdma“ saWiro sagzuri ver miiRo mkiTxvelTa gulebisaken da mkacrad aikrZala cenzurisagan, magram, samagierod, „elisom“ pova Tavisi gza da kidev erTxel aaRelva rusi mkiTxveli im zneobrivi simaRliT da siwmindiT, riTac ganmsWvalulia al.yazbegis yvela moTxroba.

yvelaferi xalxs misca...
cnobilma mecnierma, aRmosavleTmcodnem aleqsandre solomonis Ze xaxanaSvilma mTeli cxovreba sayvareli samSoblos kulturis, istoriis Seswavlas miuZRvna da didi Zalisxmeva moandoma maT popularizacias Tavisi samSoblos gareT, ZiriTadad ki, rusuli sazogadoebis farTo wreebSi. saqarTvelos istoriisa da literaturis sakiTxebis damuSavebisas man pirvelma gamoiyena evropuli mecnierebis meTodebi. swored is iyo qarTuli literaturis zepiri da werilobiTi Zeglebis pirveli mkvlevari. misi kapitaluri naSromi, oTxtomeuli, “qarTuli sityvierebis istoriis narkvevebi” (“Oqerki po istorii gruzinskoy slovesnosti”), romelic moskovis universitetTan arsebulma istoriisa da ruseTis siZveleTa saimperatoro sazogadoebam gamosca, warmoadgens qarTuli literaturis zepiri da werilobiTi Zeglebis mimoxilvas uZvelesi droidan XX saukunis dasawyisamde. is yvelasaTvis samagido wignad miiCneva, vinc mcired mainc dainteresebula qarTveli xalxis warsuliT da misi kulturiT. aleqsandre xaxanaSvili daibada gorSi, daamTavra Tbilisis vaJTa pirveli gimnazia, Semdeg friadebiT daasrula moskovis universitetis istoriul-filologiuri fakulteti, sadac 1900 wlidan, rogorc privat-docenti, leqciebs kiTxulobda qarTuli istoriisa da literaturis sakiTxebze. ukve misma pirvelive nabeWdma Sromebma “xalxuri poeziis kvali qarTul matianeSi” (“Sledj narodnoy po+zii v gruzinskoy letopisi”) da ,,batonymoba saqarTveloSi ruseTTan mis mierTebamde" (,,Krepostnoe pravo v Gruzii do prisoedineni% ee k Rosii”) dagvarwmuna mis WeSmarit mowodeba56

Si da is profesorebis geries, vinogradovis, kliuCevskis, mileris erT-erT saukeTeso mowafed warmogvidga. Tavisi xanmokle sicocxlis (1864-1912) manZilze aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma Seqmna 180-ze meti naSromi literaturis, istoriis, arqeologiis, pedagogikis, eTnografiis da a.S. sakiTxebze. akademikos ivane javaxiSvilis azriT, “moskovSi aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis samecniero Sromis Sedegad rusul sazogadoebas SesaZlebloba mieca,YTavisuflad garkveuliyo qarTuli kulturis sakiTxebSi. saimedod gamyarda is safuZveli, romelic misma didebulma winamorbedebma Cayares _ ufliswulma vaxuStim, mefe vaxtangma, profesorma serebriakovma (oqromWedliSvili) da sxvebma. es is samecniero skolaa, romelic moskovSi Caisaxa da Tavis momaval moRvaweebs elodeba, rogorc es qarTuli samecniero azris uZveles centrebSi _ palestinaSi, sinas mTaze da aTonSi iyo”. aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis moRvaweobis periodSi peterburgSi kavkasiologiis sarbielze meore didi swavluli _ profesori niko mari moRvaweobda. cnobilia, rom aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma, pirvelma qarTvel mecnierTa Soris, SeuRo samecniero taZris kari qarTvelologias, rogorc konkretul mecnierebas. swored am orma didma mecnierma Seuqmna rusuli sazogadoebis farTo wreebs warmodgena Cveni da mTeli kavkasiis xalxis kulturasa da istoriaze. maT saerTaSoriso asparezzec gaitanes qarTuli kultura. profesor aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis saxeli CemTvis pirvelad cnobili gaxda 1905-1906 wlebSi quTaisis realuri saswavleblis maRal klasebSi swavlis dros, misi im droisaTvis Zalian popularuli “narkvevebis” wyalobiT. maT TavdaviwyebiT kiTxulobda erovnul-revoluciuri grigaliT moculi axalgazrdoba. am naSromis wakiTxva da safuZvliani Seswavla yoveli moswavle axalgazrdis Rirsebad iTvleboda. amis Semdeg ra gasakviria, rom gastudentebulma orma Zmam _ me da grigolma _ 1906 wlis Semodgomaze moskovSi pirvelad Casvlisas Cvens movaleobad CavTvaleT mivsuliyaviT Tanamemamule profesorTan, mTeli quTaisis axalgazrdobis didi pativiscema gamogvecxadebina “qarTuli sityvierebis istoriis narkvevebis” avtorisaTvis da gveambna misi mSobliuri saqarTvelos am kuTxis yofis Sesaxeb. Cveni stumrobiT profesori Zalian kmayofili darCa, gvTxova, momavalSic vwveodiT, miT umetes, rom bina mis mezoblad gvqonda daqiravebuli. iqidan moyolebuli, Cven xSirad daviarebodiT Zvirfas maswavlebelTan. vxvdebodiT, agreTve, universitetSi mis leqciebze kavkasiologiaSi. me cocxlad maxsovs aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis mimzidveli garegnoba, misi gamxdari, patara tanis odnav moxrili figura, simpaTiuri, madlmofenili saxe Savi wveriT, ukan gadavarcxnili sqeli TmiT, kupriviT Savi metyveli TvalebiT, romlebic saTvalis oqros CarCodan imzirebodnen. briusovis SesaxvevSi profesori sadad cxovrobda, bolSaia nikitskaiasa da tverskaias Soris (amJamad gercenisa da gorkis quCebi), “ruskie vedomostis” redaqciis maxloblad. misi bina mesame sarTulze wignebiT savse ori didi oTaxisagan Sedgeboda. 57

saerTod, masTan Sesvlisas SeamCnevdiT, rom mTel mis avladidebas mxolod didi biblioTeka Seadgenda. aleqsandre xaxanaSvili kavkasiis didi patrioti da yvela erovnebis progresul ZalTa gaerTianebis uryevi momxre iyo. man Tavisi mdidari biblioTeka, gansakuTrebiT, kavkasiologiaze gamocemuli friad iSviaTi wignebi lazarevis aRmosavluri enebis instituts uanderZa (axla is erevanSia). aleqsandre xaxanaSvili araCveulebrivad Sromismoyvare adamiani iyo: lazarevis aRmosavluri enebis institutSi leqciebs saqarTvelos istoriasa da literaturaze kiTxulobda, moskovis universitetSi ki, garda amisa, kavkasiologiaSic. iyo rusuli sityvierebis pedagogi moskovis uZveles saswavlo dawesebulebaSi _ qalTa pirvel gimnaziaSi; is iricxeboda agreTve gazeT “ruskie vedomostis” redaqciis wevrad, TanamSromlobda JurnalebSi “ruskaia misl”, “vestnik evropi”, “vestnik vsemirnoi istorii”, “etnografiCeskoe obozrenie” da sxva, werda agreTve statiebs kavkasiasa da mis moRvaweebze brokhauzisa da efronis “enciklopediur leqsikonSi”. xaxanaSvili uyuradRebod arc qarTul Jurnal-gazeTebs tovebda, romlebSic Tavis statiebs aTavsebda. mas uwignod ver naxavdiT. morigi samecniero naSromis wera misi yoveldRiuri saqmianoba gaxldaT, romelsac seriozuli sababis gareSe ar miatovebda. igi didi Sinayuda iyo da saRamoobiT arsad gavidoda, Tu ara raime samecniero sxdoma an warmodgena TeatrSi. xaxanaSvils megobrebTanac ki ar uyvarda saqeifod siaruli. amitom Cven friad gakvirvebulni davrCiT, roca CvenTan binaze a.lomaZem Semoiara Tavis qorwilze misapatiJeblad, gagvafrTxila, rom iq profesori xaxanaSvilic iqneboda, mTxova gzad masTan Semevlo da qorwilSi mimeyvana. rogorc Semdgom SevityveT, qorwilze daswrebaze Zalian Znelad miucia Tanxmoba, mxolod mas Semdeg, rac gaigo, rom Cvenc viqnebodiT. Cven xaxanaSvili gansakuTrebiT gvendoboda. stumrad bevri xalxi iyo, gansakuTrebiT qaliSvilebi, romlebic “axalgazrda mimzidvel swavluls exveodnen” (Tanac ucolos!). iq didi mxiaruleba sufevda, magram xaxanaSvili yvelafris mimarT gulgrili iyo. is sufrasTan Cven gverdiT ijda, ar Wamda, ar svamda da mxolod mdumared akvirdeboda stumrebs. qeif-nadimebs miuCveveli, cxadia, aseT xmaurian sazogadoebaSi Tavs ucxod grZnobda, guli saxlisaken, Cveuli samuSaosaken miuwevda da, marTlac, rogorc ki etiketiT SesaZleblad miiCnia, maSinve wavida. amiT imis Tqma ar minda, rom profesori xaxanaSvili anaqoretad * cxovrobda da sazogadoebas gaurboda; magram mas mxolod axloblebTan SeeZlo yofna, isic, SeZlebisdagvarad, saqmian viTarebaSi. ar sCveoda samuSaos mowyveta, magram, aucileblobis SemTxvevaSi, Tu saWiro iyo vinmesTvis saqmiani daxmareba, gansakuTrebiT, moswavle axalgazrdobisaTvis, is gulwrfelad mzad iyo, Seewira misTvis ZviradRirebuli dro. leqciebze Zalian TavdaWerili iyo, Tavis kurss gatacebiT kiTxulobda. studentebis mimarT yovelTvis keTilganwyobils, arasodes dascdeboda mkvaxe sityva.
*

anaqoreti (berZn.) _ gandegili, meudabnoe.

58

misi gulisxmiereba xom yovelgvar zRvars scildeboda nebismieri kulturuli wamowyebis mimarT, gansakuTrebiT, Tu is saqarTvelos da mis kulturas exeboda. kidev erTi saintereso faqti. 1910 wels, Cemi da Cemi Zmis grigolis iasnaia polianadan dabrunebis Semdeg, grigolma studentTa literaturuli wris sxdomaze Tavis STabeWdilebaTa Sesaxeb moxseneba waikiTxa. roca es aleqsandre xaxanaSvilma Seityo, friad kmayofilma griSas naSromiT, is Tavisi sarekomendacio baraTiT dauyovnebliv gaugzavna Tbilisis gazeT “zakavkazies” redaqcias. rogori iyo Cveni da Cveni yvela kolega-axloblis sixaruli, roca garkveuli drois Semdeg batonma profesorma gadmogvca gazeTi “zakavkazie”, sadac griSas werili iyo dabeWdili. es axalgazrduli sixaruli dauviwyaria! aseTi sasiamovno siurpriziT waxalisebulma Cemma Zmam xaxanaSvils Tavisi meore naSromi aCvena, isic studentur wreSi wakiTxuli _ “daviT guramiSvili da qarTvelTa dasaxleba malorosiaSi”, romelic agreTve gazeT “zakavkazieSi” daibeWda or gverdze. 1912 wels me da grigolma davamTavreT Cveni Ziebani SoTa rusTavelis portretisa, romelic tradiciuli wveris gareSe davxateT. cxadia, raki ar vicodiT, ramdenad daakmayofilebda Cveni interpretacia genialuri poetis TayvanismcemelTa farTo wreebs, didxans vikavebdiT Tavs misi gamoqveynebisagan, Tumca bevri Cveni megobari moskovSi da im dros cnobili mxatvari g.b. iakulovic ki gviqebdnen namuSevars. aleqsandre xaxanaSvilic, agreTve, kmayofili darCa portretiT. sxvaTa Soris, man isic aRniSna, rom dRes ukve tradiciuli wveri saqarTveloSi mogvianebiT, dekadansis periodSi sparseTis gavleniT damkvidrda; da amdenad, rusTaveli wvers albaT ar atarebdao. poetis Tavdapirveli portreti, romelic safuZvlad daedo Semdgom mis tradiciul wverian portretebs, Seqmnili iyo ucnobi avtoris mier (albaT beris) swored dekadansis epoqaSi, roca wveri mamakacis saxis ganuyrel atributad miiCneoda. rogorc cnobilia, aleqsandre xaxanaSvili bavSvobidan susti janmrTelobiT gamoirCeoda. bolo wlebSi, gansakuTrebiT 1908 wlidan, is ukve Tavs Zalian cudad grZnobda. amitom me da Cemi Zma xSirad vaxsenebdiT Cveni mSobliuri kuTxis gamajansaRebeli klimatis gansakuTrebulobas, vTxovdiT, zafxulSi CvenTan, raWaSi daesvena (marTalia, maSin Sovis xsenebac ar iyo, magram iyo uwera da sxva). batonma aleqsandrem CvenTan Camosvla 1911 wlis zafxulSi gadawyvita, mogvwera kidec, magram danapirebis Sesruleba veRar SeZlo. Cveni maswavleblis da megobris akuratulad daweril baraTs me axlac vinaxav, rogorc Zvirfas reliqvias. 1912 wlis gazafxulze, zafxulis ardadegebze moskovidan wamosvlis win, me, Cemma Zmam da kidev ramdenime studentma Cvens Zvirfas profesorTan erTad fotosuraTi gadaviReT. imave wlis zafxulSi ki igi aResrula. aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis gardacvalebis wlisTavze, moskovis sinoduri saswavleblis did darbazSi, bolSaia nikitskaiaze, sadac mravlad iyvnen misi aRzrdilni da Tayvanismcemelni, Catarda gamoCenili mecnieris xsovnisadmi miZRvnili “qarTuli mecnierebis, literaturisa da xelovnebis sazogadoebis” Ria sxdoma, romelsac kompozitori dimitri arayiSvili xelmZRvanelobda. 59

moxsenebebiT gamovidnen: profesorebi ianCuki, krimovi, durnovo, dimitri arayiSvili, Cemi Zma grigoli (“aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, rogorc qarTuli literaturis istorikosi”) da me (“aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis pirovnebis daxasiaTebisaTvis”). popularuli mecnieris, sazogado moRvawis, istorikosis, filologis, eTnografis, kavkasiologisa da, saerTod, enciklopediuri codnis mqone sayvareli adamianis sikvdilma didi tkivili miayena saqarTvelos yoveli kuTxis mcxovrebT. gazeTebi da Jurnalebi erTsulovnad aRniSnavdnen did, aunazRaurebel danakliss. ,,aleqsandre xaxanaSvili yovelnairad Seecada bunebisagan boZebuli niWi da unari ganeviTarebina da mowiwebiT daedo igi samSoblosa da mTeli kacobriobis keTildReobis samsxverploze, _ werda gazeTi “Temi”, _ is erTgulad emsaxureboda Tavisi qveynis kulturis aRorZinebis saqmes, mas miuZRvna mTeli Tavisi axalgazrduli Zala da energia. gansvenebulma mSobliur qveyanas Seswira yvelaferi, rac ebada. profesor xaxanaSvilis saxeli damsaxurebulad daiWers sapatio adgils im saxelebs Soris, romlebmac samudamod daimkvidres adgili Cveni xalxis gulebSi”. didebuli akaki wereTeli, romelic imxanad CvenTan, raWaleCxumSi stumrobda, friad daanaRvliana axalgazrda mecnieris dakargvam, romelmac ver moaswro Tavisi bolo sityvis Tqma mecnierebaSi; akakim gulistkiviliT, grZnobiT gamsWvaluli sityviT mimarTa xalxs da aRniSna: ,,marTalia, garemoebebma ganusazRvres gansvenebul profesors samSoblodan moSorebiT cxovreba, magram is iqidanac axerxebda Tavisi niWi da SesaZlebloba CvenTvis Semoewira. is kelaptariviT iwvoda da CrdiloeTidan mecnierebis SuqiT unaTebda mSobel qveyanas. aseTi adamiani ar kvdeba, is mudam icocxlebs mis gamomzrdel xalxTan erTad”, _ daamTavra sityva poetma. marTlac, Tavdadebuli muSakis da mecnieris, saqarTvelos mgznebare patriotis, kavkasiis yvela eris progresuli Zalebis gaerTianebis mgznebare qomagis, Cvens qveyanaSi mecnieruli azris ganviTarebis saqmeSi didi wvlilis Semtanis, profesor aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis xsovna dResac cocxalia.

Sexvedra anatol fransTan
did frang mweral anatol fransTan Sexvedras ufro uecar SefeTebas vuwodeb da mexsierebaSi axlac sasoebiT vinaxav am faqts, rogorc Cemi siWabukis erT-erT ulamazes epizods. SemTxveva iSviaTi da metad sainteresoa, Tumca cota xmamaRla kia naTqvami „Cemi Sexvedra anatol fransTan“ da vSiSob, am TiTqos daujerebelma faqtma, romelmac maSin didi siamaye ganmacdevina, erTgvari gamonagonis STabeWdileba ar Seuqmnas mkiTxvels. magram is, rasac axla mogaxsenebT, Tavidan bolomde sruli WeSmaritebaa. 60

1913 wlis zafxuli idga, me jer kidev Cems studentur binaSi vcxovrobdi. im zafxuls raRac saqmeze Sevyovndi moskovSi; Cemi Zma griSa ukve wamosuli iyo zafxulis ardadegebze. kvira dRe iyo. Sin vijeqi da msaxuris mier samovarTan erTad Semotanil dilis gazeTebs vaTvalierebdi. uceb, axali ambebis rubrikaSi Tvali movkari cnobas, rom im dRes dilis matarebliT samSobloSi miemgzavreboda frangi mwerali anatol fransi, romelic Turme moskovSi yofiliyo stumrad. _ anatol fransi?!... – gancvifrebisagan zeze wamoviWeri. am did mwerals, did humanists, safrangeTis akademiis wevrs da nobelis premiis laureats Rrma pativs vcemdi mudam. myis Tvalwin damidga masTan erTad frang mweralTa mTeli pleada – viqtor hiugo, floberi, balzaki, emil zola da yvela isini, msoflios rom anaTeben TavianTi ukvdavi SemoqmedebiT. RmerTo Cemo, rogor moxda, rom anatol fransi moskovSi yofila da amis Taobaze gazeTebi arafers iuwyebodnen! rogorc mwerali da moazrovne, is didi figura gaxldaT imdroindel evropaSi da didi saxelic hqonda mTel kulturul msoflioSi. tyuilad ki ar wers konstantine gamsaxurdia 1924 wliT daTariRebul werilSi, romelic anatol fransis gardacvalebisadmia miZRvnili da Setanilia misi Txzulebebis me-6 tomSi: „anatol fransi ukanaskneli iyo did kacTa Soris, romelnic adamians acvifreben TavianTi universaluri mravalmxrivobiT“ da rom igi „renesansis yalibis mweralia, poeti, novelisti, kritikosi, istorikosi...“ bunebis did katastrofas adarebs didi qarTveli mwerali anatol fransis gardacvalebas: _ „SemcxadebeliviT daiwivla radiom da ramdenime wuTSi mTeli kulturuli kacobrioba SeSfoTda am katastrofisagan.“ im dros, romelzedac me mogaxsenebT, anatol fransi progresulad moazrovneTa Soris ufro iyo popularuli da vfiqrob, albaT, amis gamo Caiara uxmaurod misma moskovSi stumrobam da masTan Sexvedrebma. mokled, wavikiTxe Tu ara gazeTSi, rom anatol fransi dilis matarebliT miemgzavreboda samSobloSi, sulma wamZlia da am Zvirfasi adamianis sanaxavad wavedi. bednierad vigrZnobdi Tavs, Tavisuflebismoyvare safrangeTis es didebuli mwerali Tundac Soridan rom menaxa!.. – cda bedis monaxevrea, unda wavide! maSinve Cems wignebSi saTuTad Semonaxuli matareblebis mimosvlis ganrigi movnaxe, davxede saaTs da davrwmundi, rom Tavisuflad SemeZlo mimeswro matareblisaTvis. mxolod simartove mawuxebda. tyupi Zmis gareSe arsad ar davdiodi da, miT ufro, aseT viTarebaSi. griSa rom CemTan yofiliyo, orTave ufro Tamamad SevxvdebodiT mwerals. mainc ar gavitexe ixtibari, mezobel oTaxSi myof or students Cemi ganzraxva gavuziare da rkinigzis sadgurze wayola vTxove. _ biWebo! – SevZaxe karis gaRebisTanave, _ gazeTidan gavige, rom moskovSi anatol fransi yofila stumrad, dRes diliT ki matarebliT parizSi miemgzavreba. Tu dro gaqvT, wavideT da gavaciloT. 61

– rao? anatol fransio?... mereda magisaTvis kargav dros?! ra axirebuli xalxi xarT es filologebi Tu istorikosebi... am ori axalgazrdidan igori maTematikosi iyo da sxva ram naklebad ainteresebda, magram arc momavali filologi valeri Sexvda Cems winadadebas aRtacebiT. _ anatol fransi didi mweralia, kolega, magram mas imdeni gamcilebeli eyoleba, rom mis naxvas verc moaxerxebT. dRes kviraa. darCiT da sokolnikebisaken gaviaroT. dajeqiT, jer adrea. vilaparakoT. magram me maTTan salaparakod ukve aRar mecala. saCqarod davixure qudi, rakiRa im dros uqudod quCaSi gasvla ar iyo „modaSi“ da burTiviT gavvardi tveris quCaze. riT mivsuliyavi vagzalze, rom ar damgvianeboda? „lixaCebs“ CemTvis ar ecalaT, „vankebi“ ki sandoni ar iyvnen, damagvianebdnen. mrCeboda erTaderTi: tramvai... aba sad iyo dRevandeli Cveni taqsi, an Tundac avtobusi da sazogadod iseTi swrafi transporti, rogoric dRes gvaqvs. erTiRa mrCeboda _ unda davlodebodi tramvais da asec moviqeci. gaCerebisaken aviRe gezi da davdeqi sxvebTan erTad puSkinis Zeglis maxloblad. tramvai im dros pirdapir midioda „strastnois“ – dRevandeli puSkinis moednis gavliT, sokolnikebidan tveris quCiT brestis – dRes belorusiis – vagzlamde, saidanac im dros evropis qalaqebisaken mimavali matareblebi gadiodnen. vdgavar gaCerebaze da sakmaod vRelav. TiTqos jibrze, ara da ar Cans nanatri tramvai. Tan fiqri mawvalebs _ Rirs Tu ara ase dagvianebiT sadgurze wasvla? egeb arc ki Rirdes! modi, isev sokolnikSi wavyvebi mezoblebs, es ufro Wkvianuri iqneba ... am dros mgzavrebiT „axorxlili“ tramvaic gamoCnda. jiqur aviWer gaWedili vagonis baqanze, rogorc ki rkinigzis sadgurze mivedi, saCqarod gadmovxti da SurduliviT gaveqane baqnisaken. matareblis gasvlamde wuTiRa rCeboda. is iyo rkinigzis sadguris baqanis bileTis SesaZenad salarosTan mivirbine, rom mesame zaric darekes. molarem zed cxvirwin momixura sarkmeli. Zalian Sevwuxdi _ pirdapir xelidan mecleboda didi mwerlis naxvis saSualeba, magram Tavs zeviT Zala ar iyo. rkinigzis sadguris baqnidan didZali xalxi brundeboda, romelTa umetesi nawili frangulad laparakobda. bednierad CavTvale isini, radgan ukve gaecilebinaT didi mwerali da axla Sin brundebodnen. me ki iRbali ara mqonia! ukan gamovbrundi da is iyo moedans mivaRwie, rom isev SevCerdi da kvlav baqnisaken movkurcxle. iq ukve sruli sicariele iyo. Zexorcieli ar WaWanebda. vxedav liandagebze raRac matarebeli dgas. iqve erTi konduqtori sastveniT raRac niSans aZlevs memanqanes... zari, marTalia, darekili iyo, magram matarebeli mainc ar iZroda adgilidan. zafxulis mziani dRe iyo, mgzavrebs sarkmlebi gaeRoT da gareT iyurebodnen. baqani maRali iyo da amis gamo kupeSi msxdomTac ki kargad vxedavdi. vagonis erT kupeSi or mgzavrs Sevavle Tvali. isini Ria sarkmelTan idgnen da saqmianad baasobdnen. metad eleganturad 62

da lamazad ecvaT. erTi maTgani TiTqos vicani da mravalmniSvnelovnad mivapyari mzera. _ vah, es xom anatol fransia?! – wamoviyvire Cemdauneburad, _ anatol fransia!... ruxi, axali kostumi ecva, romelic ise uxdeboda mis aristokratul figuras, rom sxvaTagan aSkarad gamoirCeoda. SekreWili Tma-wveriTa da maRali cxviriT daviT kldiaSvilis gmirs – imerel aznaurs – Camohgavda. _ diax, es anatol fransia, _ erTxel kidev gavimeore gulSi da nerviulad avwrialdi. Cemda iRblad anatolma Tvali momkra cariel baqanze kentad mosiarule axalgazrdas, „dagvianebul mayars“ da Tanamgzavrs raRac gadaulaparaka. amas arc movelodi da, cxadia, SevkrTi kidec, magram maSinve gabedulad gadavdgi nabiji, sarkmelTan mivedi da Tanamosaubreebs mdablad davukari Tavi. sul uvicad rom ar CaveTvale stumrebs, frangulad oriode winadadeba Sevakowiwe da mivmarTe: _ ra dasanania, rom frangulad ar vlaparakob! _ da maSinve gadavedi rusulze da movaxsene did stumars, rom erovnebiT qarTveli var, moskovis universitetis studenti. _ JorJien, _ gadaulaparaka man Tavis Tanamgzavrs. _ saqarTvelodan-meTqi, _ davumate rixianad. _ georgia, _ kidev gaimeora anatol fransma da Tavic damiqnia imis niSnad, rom man aRniSnuli qveyana kargad icoda. _ me Tqveni Semoqmedebis mxurvale Tayvanismcemeli var, _ ganvagrZe Cemi sityva, _ da roca Tqveni aq yofna gavige, gadavwyvite, aucileblad SegxvedrodiT da qarTveli studentebis saxeliT, romlebic aseve Tqveni gulmodgine mkiTxvelebi arian, gadmomeca uRrmesi pativiscema da siyvaruli. _ nu geSinia sikvdilisa, geSinodes sircxvilisa, _ mainc CamZaxoda Zveli andaza yurSi, radgan vSiSobdi, ar Sevrcxveniliyavi es Tavmoyvare ymawvili, magram imasac vgrZnobdi, rom yvelaferi rigze midioda. is iyo saqarTveloze unda meTqva oriode sityva, rom am dros isev gaisma sastvenis xma... _ eeh, ra dros mimuxTla! – gavifiqre gunebaSi, _ ra dros mimuxTla! – magram, gulaxdilad rom vTqva, mesiamovna kidec, radgan mRelvarebisa da daZabulobisagan gavTavisufldi. mwerals Rimili auTamaSda saxeze. vigrZeni, rom Cemi sityvebi esiamovna. man isev raRaca gadaulaparaka Tarjimans, romelmac Tavis mxriv gadmomca anatol fransis sityvebi: _ moxaruli var, moxaruli... gmadlobT! amasobaSi matarebelic daiZra. didma mweralma sarkmlidan megobrulad gamomiwoda marjvena da imave saamo RimiliT magrad CamomarTva xeli. matarebelma siCqares umata, magram anatol fransi marjvena xels mainc ar miSvebda; TiTqos didi xnis megobrebi vyofiliyaviT. _ mSvidobiT, mSvidobiT, dido xelovano! – vCurCulebdi me CemTvis da, vidre SemeZlo, gverdSi mivyvebodi daZrul matarebels. _ mSvidobiT, keTili mgzavroba!... 63

da roca matarebelma siCqare aiRo, erT adgilze gavCerdi da niSnad gulTbili gamoTxovebisa, manam vuqnevdi xels, vidre ukanaskneli vagoni Tvals ar miefara. yvelaferi kargad dasrulda. Sin dabrunebamde tveris bulvarSi gaseirneba gadavwyvite, raTa vinme nacnobi an megobari Semxvedroda da Cemi Tavgadasavali meambna. saamisod zedgamoWrili iyo puSkinis ZeglTan jdoma. gumanma ar mimtyuna. iq, marTlac, aRmoCnda Cveni ramdenime studenti, romlebic Zveli Taobis qarTvelebs Sexvedrodnen da maTTan saubrobdnen. isini grZel merxebze isxdnen Zeglis pirdapir. me jiqur miviWer maTTan da yvelaferi dawvrilebiT vuambe. _ anatol fransi? saidan sadao, wmindao sabao?... franss aq ra undoda? –gaioces maT. _ saqmec isaa, rom yofila da Cven ki WurSi visxediT Turme. mec xom dRes gavige da movaswari kidec misi gacileba! _ vxarobdi me. megobrebma Semaqes da kmayofilni darCnen, rom qarTveli studentebis saxeliTac mivesalme did frangs. _ yoCaR, ai, yoCaR! – gaiZaxodnen isini. _ es ubralo ambavi rodia, megobrebo. es SemTxveva, SesaZloa, anatol fransis dRiurSiac ki moxvdes! – Tqva ali arseniSvilma, romelmac oriode wuTis win, sanam me am ambavs vyvebodi, jer guliT icina, mere ki dananebiT warmoTqva: _ rogor vwuxvar, lado, rom diliTve ver Segxvdi! Torem mec uTuod wamovidodi! ra samwuxaroa, rom aseTi iSviaTi SemTxveva gavuSvi xelidan! iuridiuli fakultetis studenti ali arseniSvili mwerlobis didi trfiali iyo da moskovSi bevr Semoqmedsac piradad icnobda, zogierTs megobrobda kidec. karga xans visxediT grZel merxze puSkinis ZeglTan, vidre am saintereso laparakiT gulnajerebi sergo wereTeli Taviseburi sidinjiT ar wamoimarTa. sergo provizori iyo, ukve xanSi Sesuli, metad mimzidveli qarTveli, didi patrioti da eris moWirnaxule, amasTan, literaturisa da xelovnebis kargi mcodne. _ gmadlobT, axalgazrdebo, aseTi mSvenieri saubrisaTvis. axla ki droa, dagSordeT... _ Tqva man wasvlisas da daumata, _ Cvens Zvirfas lados es SesaniSnavi ambavi kidev didxans eyofa salaparakod. _ da saamayodac, batono sergo, saamayodac! anatol franss ase oilad quCaSi ver Sexvdebi, miT ufro salaparakod... es iSviaTi SemTxvevaa! unikaluri!... – gamoexmaura mas iaSa kupraZe, misi axalgazrda megobari, mere isic wamodga wasasvlelad. _ ra daudgromlebi xarT Zmebi jafariZeebi, _ gviTxra erTxel erTma megobarma, viTom xumrobiT, _ tolstois ambavi ar geyoT, axla anatol fransTan mogexalisaT Sexvedra?!... ufro dabali rangis xalxi ar gainteresebT Tu rogoraa Tqveni saqme... amis Tqma iyo da uceb metad sawyeni ram amomitivtivda gonebaSi, _ fransTan Sexvedrisas Tan rom ar mqonda ilia WavWavaZis „glaxis naambobi“. Torem me, rogorc mTargmneli, saCuqrad mivarTmevdi. igi dainteresdeboda wignis avtoriT, misi vinaobiT da, SesaZlebelia, franguladac ki eTargmna. ai, ra ver SevZeli im dRes me, misma qarTvelma gamcilebelma. 64

SemdgomSi, roca did mweralTan Cemi Sexvedra kidev ufro gaxmaurda, bevri mirCevda, gansakuTrebiT, Cemi Zma griSa, rom misTvis werili da Cveni Targmnili „glaxis naambobi“ gamegzavna, magram didi moridebulobis gamo, kadnierebad CavTvale da Tavi Sevikave. mere ki vinane, magram ukve gviani iyo. erTi sityviT, mec ise unda movqceuliyavi, rogorc griSa. man Tavis sayvarel norvegiel mwerals knut hamsuns gaugzavna werili da Tan „vefxistyaosnis“ erTi egzemplaric daurTo saCuqrad, risTvisac male pasuxi miiRo mwerlis SesaniSnav fotoportretTan da gulTbil warwerasTan erTad. griSam am portretis aslebi gadaiRo da erTi mec miboZa. es ukve misi didi warmateba iyo. Cven SegvZina knut hamsunis iSviaTi fotoportreti avtografiT, xolo „vefxistyaosanma“ qarTuli kulturis didi saxeli gaiyolia norvegiaSi. vin icis, iqneb aseTive Sedegi mohyoloda Cems werils da „glaxis naambobs“, anatol fransisaTvis rom gamegzavna, magram es yvelaferi ocnebaa da meti araferi. sinamdvile ki is gaxldaT, rac moxda da rac, Zvirfaso mkiTxvelo, SeZlebisdagvarad, Tqvenc _ giambeT.

Sexvedrebi kompozitor dimitri arayiSvilTan
dimitri arayiSvilTan TiTqmis naxevarsaukunovani megobroba makavSirebda. es dro grZeldeboda Cemi studentobis droidan dawyebuli, vidre kompozitoris gardacvalebamde, e.i. 1953 wlis CaTvliT. am xangrZlivi drois manZilze imdeni Rirssaxsovari ram aRnusxa Cemma gonebam, rom, vfiqrob, Rirs im gardasulis gaxseneba. minda imiT vinugeSo Tavi, rom arayiSvilis portreti ragind uxeirodac unda iyos dawerili, mainc ar iqneba sazogadoebisTvis interess moklebuli. • 1906 wlis gazafxulze me da griSam davamTavreT realuri saswavlebeli da ardadegebi mSobliur raWaSi gavatareT, Semodgomaze ki gamoveTxoveT Sinaurebs, ~naCvev baRebs~, davsxediT ezoSi Semosul orcxenian osur ~lineikaze~ da sayvarel adgilebTan ganSorebiT guldawyvetilni gavudeqiT ruseTis gzas. gaviareT uwera, Sovi, gadaviareT mamisonis Tvalwarmtaci uReltexili, ardonis xeoba, qarTvelebiT dasaxlebuli alagiri da mesame dRes kavkavSi CavediT. ramdenime dRis Semdeg ukve moskovSi, universitetis Zveli Senobis win videqiT; Tvals gvWrida misi maRali svetebi da Taviseburi xuroTmoZRvreba. mis rkinis kibeebze TiTqos vxedavdiT CvenTvis sayvareli griboedovis, lermontovis, belinskis, botkinis, ogariovis, gercenisa da sxvaTa saxeebs. male qarTuli saTvistomoc _ e.w. `zemliaCestvoc~ _ Seikriba da Cvenc iq aRmovCndiT. da ai, saTvistomos erT-erT krebaze 65

1906 wels pirvelad vnaxe dimitri arayiSvili. is studentTa krebaze qarTvelTa ufrosi Taobis zogierT warmomadgenelTan erTad mosuliyo da saerTo erovnul sakiTxebze baasobda, kerZod, morigi ~qarTuli saRamos~ warmodgenisa da iq qarTuli xalxuri simRerebis gamotanis Sesaxeb. igi gatacebiT laparakobda qarTul musikasa da simRerebze. misi gvari arakCievi iyo, saubris kiloc zedmiwevniT rusuli hqonda. yuradRebas ipyrobda misi mimzidveli da sandomiani saxe, mayvaliviT Savi Tvalebi da swori, saSualo zomis cxviri.. Savi, sqeli da ukan gadavarcxnili Tma da patara wver-ulvaSi TiTqos ufro mis qarTvelobaze metyvelebda. erTma studentma dimitris Sesaxeb miTxra, _ dimitri qarTvelia, gvaric qarTuli aqvs da, rac mTavaria, qarTuli musikis didi mcodne gaxlavTo. es CemTvis namdvili aRmoCena iyo, radgan qarTuli musikis mcodne im dros TiTqmis arc ki gvyavda; amitom dimitri imTaviTve iseT pirovnebad warmomidga, vinc qarTuli erovnuli kulturis siyvaruliT anTebuliyo da misi samsaxurisaTvis gadaedo Tavi. es man SemdegSi brwyinvaled daamtkica kidec da gamoCenil qarTvel kompozitorebTan _ meliton balanCivaZesa da zaqaria faliaSvilTan erTad qarTuli musikis aRmavlobas Sealia mTeli Tavisi Zala da energia. samSoblodan Soreul moskovSi gadaxvewilma qarTvelma axalgazrdebma gulwrfelad SeviyvareT es uangaro adamiani da es siyvaruli SemdegSi mtkice megobrobaSi gadaizarda. • dimitri 1873 wels Rarib qarTul ojaxSi qalaq kavkavSi (axlandel orjonikiZeSi) dabadebula, sadac mSobliuri qarTuli ena TiTqmis daviwyebodaT da Tavisi qveynis siyvarulis wyalobiT, mxolod suli TuRa hqondaT SerCenili. aTi wlis bavSvi farTlis patara savaWroSi miubarebiaT, saidanac mere sxvagan gadauyvaniaT xelobis Sesaswavlad. _ sad ar viyavi, ra xeloba ar movsinje, samzareuloSiac ki vimuSave mzareulis xelobis dasaufleblad, magram mZime gaWirvebidan mainc ver amovZveri, _ gviambobda dimitri arayiSvili, _ kviraobiT eklesiaSic ki vgalobdi oriode groSis gulisaTvis... • da ai, erT dRes Wabuks TiTqos ca gaexsna, rodesac qalaq armavirSi SemTxveviT Camosul qarTvel momReralTa gunds mousmina. am gunds cnobili lado aRniaSvili xelmZRvanelobda. im dRidan qarTuli xalxuri musikis Seswavla gadaeqca dimitri arayiSvils ocnebad. man gulmodgined mohkida xeli am WeSmaritad saSviliSvilo saqmes. erTxans iqaur musikalur wreebSi muSaobis Semdeg, pirdapir moskovs ewvia da 1894 wels musikalur-dramatul saswavlebelSi moewyo, romelic male brwyinvaled daamTavra. im dRidan moskovi dimitris meore samSoblod iqca; TiTqos xelmeored daibada igi, magram amjerad ukve qarTuli musikisaTvis. 66

• amgvarad, dimitri arayiSvili im dros gavicani, rodesac is jer kidev „arakCievi~ iyo, rac maSin, mogexsenebaT, Cveulebrivi ram gaxldaT ararus xalxTa garusebis mizniT, nacionalur gvarebs rusul yaidaze ukeTebdnen. ase, magaliTad: sumbaTov, Tulaev, baxutov, Ciliaev, cicianov da ase Semdeg. TviT vaJafSavelac ki _ razikaSvili, rogorc cnobilia, misi mowafeobis dros saklaso JurnalSi razikovad ewera. dimitri arayiSvilis am gziT gadakeTebuli gvaris gamo moskovel studentebs didxans egonaT, rom aleqsandre pirvelis cnobili favoriti, imdroindeli ruseTis faqtiuri diqtatori ultrareaqcioneri a.arakCievic qarTuli warmoSobisa iyo. am garemoebas isic uwyobda xels, rom a.arakCievis sofels novgorodis guberniaSi „gruzino~ erqva ratomRac. sinamdvileSi am Zvel rusul gvarsa da dimitri arayiSvilis gadakeTebul gvars _ arakCievs Soris araviTari saerTo ar arsebobda. dimitri arayiSvilma bavSvobidanve gaiTavisa qarTuli warmomavloba da miznad daisaxa Rrmad Seeswavla mSobliuri qarTuli ena da qarTveli erisaTvis Sesaferisi samsaxuri gaewia. es man moaxerxa kidec Tavisi SesaniSnavi musikiT. aRarafers vambob qarTul enaze, romelic mSvenivrad Seiswavla... dimitris mxolod mogvianebiT mieca saSualeba Tavisi gvari _ arakCievi _ pirvandel qarTul yaidaze gadaekeTebina da amiT mamapapeul samwysos dabruneboda. • 1907 wlis Semodgomaze, rodesac qarTveli studentoba morigi tradiciuli qarTuli saRamosaTvis emzadeboda, dimitrim momReralTa gundisaTvis Seumcdarad SearCia niWieri axalgazrdebi da mTeli mondomebiT Seudga muSaobas. tradiciuli qarTuli saRamoebi yovelwliurad tardeboda e.w. „keTilSobilTa sakrebulos~ vrcel darbazebSi (axlandeli profkavSirebis saxlis svetebian darbazebSi). qarTuli saRamoebi im dros, ise rogorc moskovsa da ruseTis sxva qalaqebSi, studentTa sasargeblod ewyoboda, saTvistomoebis materialuri bazis gasamagreblad; amasTanave, isini qarTuli kulturis _ simRerebis, cekvebis, Cacmulobis popularizaciisTvisac iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. Tan ecnobodnen qarTvel axalgazrdobas. amitom yoveli qarTveli dainteresebuli iyo, es saRamoebi Rirseulad waremarTa. rogorc vwerdi, qarTuli saRamoebi moskovSi aleqsandre ivanes Ze sumbaTaSvili-iuJinis saxels ukavSirdeboda da didZal xalxsac izidavda. dimitri arayiSvilma SesaniSnavad moamzada momReralTa gundi da Tavadve udiriJora kantantas mis mier ukve Cafiqrebuli da dawyebuli operidan: „Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~. am kantantam didi mowoneba daimsaxura damswre sazogadoebaSi, xolo qarTvelebs Cagvisaxa rwmena imisa, rom axlo momavalSi Cveni sakuTari erovnuli opera gveqneboda. 67

• wlebis ganmavlobaSi me da griSa davumegobrdiT dimitris, romelic, marTalia, asakiT Cvenze ufrosi iyo, magram Tavazianobis gamo arafers gvagrZnobinebda da ise megobrobda CvenTan, rogorc TanatolebTan. ojaxSiac xSirad davdiodiT masTan „presniaze~, sadac mas patara, SemoqmedebiTi muSaobisaTvis metad mouxerxebeli, bina ekava. materialuradac ver iyo uzrunvelyofili, magram bedis samduravi iSviaTad Tu dascdeboda: _ ver momixerxebia, kaco, erT xeirian binaSi gadavide da Cems sayvarel operas mivxedo. qarTvelebi musikaluri xalxi varT da Cvens did literaturasTan erTad, droa, sakuTari operebic gvqondes. da gveqneba kidec, ymawvilebo, sul male gveqneba. operaze muSaobasTan erTad dimitri arayiSvili moskovis saxalxo filarmoniaSi pedagogiur moRvaweobasac eweoda, Tan qarTul simRerebsac ar iviwyebda. am simRerebiT cxovrobda igi, maTi bediT suldgmulobda. wuTs ar gauSvebda xelidan maT gasacnobad, Sesaswavlad. amis gamo dimitris Cveni qveynis yvela kuTxe ainteresebda da studentebTanac niadag am sakiTxze saubrobda. Cvenc xSirad gvekiTxeboda xolme raWis cxovrebasa da iqaur xalxur simRerebze. 1908 wlis gazafxulze ki gamogvicxada, rom zafxulSi uTuod wamovidoda raWaSi, gaecnoboda da Caiwerda adgilobriv simRerebs, ise rogorc Cawerili hqonda qarTl-kaxuri, megruli da mdinare Tergis piras mcxovreb qarTvelTa simRerebi - Sesabamisad 1901, 1902 da 1904 wlebSi. am ambavma Zalian gagvaxara. sazafxulo ardadegebze raWaSi gamgzavrebis win xelaxla vinaxuleT Zvirfasi megobari da dawvrilebiT gavacaniT saekipaJo marSruti _ quTaisi_oni, romelic im dros erTaderTi iyo raWaSi asasvlelad. gza metad cudi gaxldaT, magram safosto masala e.w. ~troikebiT~ gadahqondaT da yoveli 17-20 kilometris Semdeg, axal sadgurebamde cxenebi icvlebodnen, magram calkeuli mgzavrisaTvis ufro xelsayreli iyo kerZo lineikebi, romlebic asockilometrian gzas quTaisidan onamde or dRes Tu dRenaxevars mainc andomebdnen. es imitom, rom gza metad mouwyobeli gaxldaT. igi viwro zolad gasdevda mdinare rionis napirs. SeuCvevel adamians SiSis zars scemda Rrma, kldovani xeobebi da ucnauri mosaxvevebi. vicodiT, rom Cveni Zvirfasi stumari aseT gzebze siaruls Cveuli ar iyo, amitom vafrTxilebdiT da winaswar vaCvevdiT mis siZneleebs. • marTlac, dimitri arayiSvili 1908 wlis zafxulSi raWaSi amobrZanda da Tavisi stumrobiT yvelani Zalian gagvaxara. me da griSa onSi SevegebeT, radgan winaswar viyaviT gafrTxilebulni. quTaisidan onSi amosvlas ori dRe mondomeboda da amitom, Zalian daRlili, mainc didad kmayofili iyo, rom survili Seisrula. Cveni Sexvedris sixarulma ki daRliloba mTlad gadaaviwya da is ori Tu sami kilometri onidan Cvens sofel Raramde 68

STabeWdilebebiT savse Cnevlad gamoiara.

kompozitorma •

CvenTan

saubarSi

Seum-

onSi dimitri arayiSvils Cveni saukeTeso momRerlebi gavacaniT, maT Soris cnobili sameulic: anton januaSvili, samson miqiaSvili da petre jafariZe, romelTa xmaSewyobil simRerebs mTel raWaSi gaeTqva saxeli. isini garegnuli silamaziTa da vaJkacobiTac gamoirCeodnen. lamaz sxeulSi lamazi sulis arsebobas es sameulic adasturebda. Cvenma sasiqadulo mweralma sergo kldiaSvilma „patara moTxroba~ miuZRvna am sam axalgazrda momRerals da isini moTxrobaSi „sami muSketeris~ saxiT warmogvidgina. kompozitors Zalian moewona maTi simRerebi, fonografzec gadaiRo sagangebod, magram „namdvili~ raWuli simRerebis Casawerad mainc adgilobrivi glexkacebisagan Semdgari gundis mosmena moisurva, rogorc ufro uSualo, Seulamazebeli da bunebrivi. im dros aseT momReralTa monaxva Zneli ar iyo, gansakuTrebiT `paraskeobas~, rodesac onSi bazrobaze raWis TiTqmis yoveli kuTxidan bevri sofleli iyrida Tavs. isini „qalaqSi~ saWiro saqmeebsac agvarebdnen da xalxsac naxulobdnen. marTlac, vis ar SexvdebodiT im dRes onSi, moxucsa da axalgazrdas, qalsa Tu kacs... amis gamo advili iyo momRerlis moZebna da masTan gasaubreba... • bolos da bolos, dimitri arayiSvilma mravali simRera Caiwera. mixeil jafariZem sofel xirxonisidan mezobeli glexebic mouyvana. sergo kldiaSvilis imave moTxrobaSi mixeili „miSagos~ prototipia. swored am kacma Caawerina dimitri arayiSvils maT mier saucxood naTqvami simRera _ „qvedrula adidebula~. Rebelma momRerlebma ki _ „dalie, Cemo batono~, Rarelebma _ „qriste aRdga, gvixarodes, madli maxarebelsao~ da a.S. saqmis Sesrulebas is gviadvilebda, rom yvelam kargad icoda, romel sofelSi vin mReroda ukeT da Cvenc am saukeTesoebs vstumrobdiT. Cveni glexebi siamovnebiT modiodnen, gansakuTrebiT ki imis Semdeg, rac gaiges, rom maT simRerebs `yuTSi iweren da inaxaven~. isini Tavisi cnobismoyvareobiTa da gulubryvilobiT xSirad acinebdnen dimitris. maxsovs, erTxel TavianTi simRera fonografze moismines da erTmaneTs pirdaRebulni ekiTxebodnen: nuTu am simReras marTla Cven vasrulebdiTo?.. yurebs ar ujerebdnen, rom es maTi niWis gamonaSuqi iyo, maTi sulis xma, sevda, tkivili. isini Tvals ar aSorebdnen fonografis lilvakis brunvas, saidanac maTi xmebi moismoda. Tumca edisonis gamogonili es aparati simReras bgeris daukargavad iwerda, cxadia, dRevandel Camwer aparatebTan Sedarebac ar SeiZleba. erTi kia, im droisTvis igi didi miRweva gaxldaT da misi meSveobiT araerTi xalxuri simRera gadaurCa daviwyebas Tu srul dakargvas. 69

dRes aravis aRar ukvirs Tanamedrove eleqtroakustikuri Camweri, magram im dros fonografic ki aRtacebasa da gaognebas iwvevda. TviT bevri ramis mnaxveli babuaCemic ki mwared Caafiqra iman, rom erT dRes kompozitorma Cawerili xalxuri simRerebi moasmenina. _ mamiCemis suli ar wamiwydeba, es naswavli xalxi sul gadarevs qveyanas! es ra gamougoniaT, Tqveni Wirime?!.. _ dananebiT da naRvlianad Tqva man. dimitrim simRerebis didi nawili onSi paraskeobas mosuli glexebisagan Caiwera, magram axlo soflebis movla da maTi adgilze mosmena mainc aucileblad miiCnia; wavediT kidec da unda genaxaT, rogori TavdadebiT muSaobda yvelgan! saqmes mxolod is arTulebda, rom dimitris mTis aRmarT-daRmarTebze siaruli Zalian uWirda. Cveni saxlis ukan, ferdobze „mJave wyali~ gadmoCuxCuxebs. gadavwyviteT, stumari iq agveyvana, wyalic daelia da, rac mTavaria, Tvali moevlo Sodis ulamazesi mTisaTvis, romelic vefxviviTaa gawolili cis dasasrulTan. aqedanve moCans mdinare Rarulas iSviaTi silamazis xeobac, magram dimitrim ferdobze asvla ver SeZlo da iZulebuli gavxdiT ukan davbrunebuliyaviT. _ ara var, kaco, am aRmarTebs Cveuli da verc im cicabosken vizam pirs, _ gveubneboda guldawyvetili stumari, _ rasac aqedan vxedav, CemTvis isic sakmarisia... dimitri arayiSvils gansakuTrebuli sixaruli mohgvara onSi misi moskoveli megobrebis moulodnelma Sexvedram. eseni iyvnen moskovis universitetis privatdocenti al. javaxiSvili, SemdegSi akademikosi, geografi da studenti vaxtang ciciSvili, aseve, studentebi mixeil Tuxareli da mixeil daviTaSvili. isini Cemi Zmis axlo megobrebic iyvnen da amitom maTi Sexvedra Cvenc Zalian gvesiamovna. es megobrebi raWaSi movlinebulni iyvnen adgilobriv xalxTa anTropologiuri gamokvlevisaTvis. saqmeebs rom morCa, dimitri megobrebTan erTad quTaisisaken gaemgzavra, iqedan ki moskovSi unda wasuliyo. dimitri arayiSvilma raWaSi ormociode simRera Caiwera Sesabamis teqstebTan erTad, romlebic Semdeg mTlianad gadaamuSava da Seitana Tavis wignSi: „Gruzinskoe narodnoe muzjkal>noe tvorqestvo~. am wignSi moTavsebulia mTel saqarTveloSi Segrovili 225 xalxuri simRera da teqsti. es wigni 1916 wels daibeWda moskovSi. mis Seqmnas kompozitorma didi Sroma moandoma. moskoveli asoTamwyobebi, romlebic qarTul anbanSi ver erkveodnen, teqsts mxolod mimgvanebiT awyobdnen, risTvisac dimitris sagangebo kaligrafiuli samuSaoebis Catareba dasWirda. igi Tavad uwerda zust qarTul asoebs, ufro ki uxatavda da amiT ostatebs muSaobas uadvilebda. TiTqmis yoveldRe dadioda stambaSi, Tvalyurs adevnebda asoTamwyobTa muSaobas, exmareboda asoebis moZebnaSi, raTa Zvirfasi wigni, SeZlebisdagvarad, uSecdomod dabeWdiliyo. sabolood wigni sakmaod mozrdili gamovida, radgan masSi Tavi moiyara rogorc aRmosavleT, ise dasavleT saqarTvelos xalxurma da agreTve Crdilo kavkasiaSi Cawerilma e.w. qarTveli kazakebis simRerebmac. 70

xalxuri leqsebis anu teqstebis rusulad Targmna ki dimitrim Cven, qarTvel studentebs mogvando. man Tavis patara binaSi dagvsxa: me da Cemi Zma grigoli, mixeil zandukeli, irakli amirejibi, mixeil daviTaSvili da Cvenc, rogorc SegveZlo, saqme bolomde miviyvaneT. roca wigni daibeWda, avtorma saTanado warweriT yvelas TiTo-TiTo cali gvisaCuqra. es Zvirfasi wigni dResac amSvenebs Cems mokrZalebul patara wignsacavs. 1910 wlis 4 noembers moskovis politeqnikuri muzeumis darbazSi eTnografiuli sazogadoebis sxdomaze dimitri arayiSvilma waikiTxa moxseneba, sadac daaxasiaTa maSindeli raWis patriarqaluri cxovreba da adgilobrivi simRerebi. aRniSna, rom isini metad harmoniulia, xasiaTdeba erTgvari simZimiT da enaTesaveba qarTl-kaxur simRerebso. _ raWa Znelad misadgomia, _ Tqva momxsenebelma, _ da amitom isev Zveleburad cxovrobs; mamapapuri tradiciebi jer kidev mtkicedaa SenarCunebuli iq da ojaxSi xSirad 40 da meti suli cxovrobs. raWuli simRerebi samxmiania, mZime, magram harmoniuli. man gamoTqva varaudi, rom raWulma simRerebma swored is elementebi Semogvinaxa, rac odesRac axasiaTebda aRmosavleT da dasavleT saqarTvelos simRerebs. dimitri arayiSvilis moxsenebis Sesaxeb Cemma Zmam grigolma „faiqomelis~ fsevdonimiT quTaisis gazeT „kutaiski listokSi~ (#202. 17.11.1910) dabeWda vrceli angariSi. • raWaSi yofnis dros dimitris ZiriTadad mamaCemi _ malaqia jafariZe exmareboda. me da griSa, rogorc yovel zafxuls, maSinac dakavebulni viyaviT dramatul warmodgenebSi monawileobiT. raWis Soreul soflebSi siaruli advili saqme rodi iyo, magram mamaCemica da dimitric siamovnebiT midiodnen yvelgan da iwerdnen uZvirfases xalxur simRerebs, romlebic dRes, SesaZloa, aRarc ki gvqonoda. mama TiTqmis erTi kviris ganmavlobaSi dahyveboda mas. SemdegSi dimitri gulTbilad igonebda mamasTan erTad raWis soflebSi gatarebul dReebs da am ambavs 1952 wels patara werilic miuZRvna. _ am mogonebiT Tavadac visiamovne da minda Tqvenc gasiamovnoT, Zmebo, _ gviTxra Zvirfasma megobarma da wasakiTxad gadmogvca mamaCemze dawerili mogoneba. amis Semdgom mamaCemma madlobis werili miiRo moskovis eTnografiuli sazogadoebisagan, sadac aRniSnuli iyo is wvlili, rac mamam miago im sazogadoebis wevrs dimitri arayiSvils _ „misi raWaSi mogzaurobis dros xalxuri simRerebis Sekrebisas keTili da uangaro daxmarebisaTvis“. samadlobeli werili dimitrisac gavacaniT, romelic amis Taobaze Turme xSirad saubrobda xolme Cvens moskovel TanakurselebTan da xumrobiT dasZenda: ~jafariZeebi orRobeSi dgamen warmodgenebs, rom soflad kulturas emsaxurono~. es xumroba CvenTvis marto Seqeba ki ara, waxalisebac iyo. 71

Cemi Zveli moskoveli amxanagebi dimitri mgalobliSvili da solomon erisTavi, romelTac megobruli urTierToba hqondaT dimitri arayiSvilTan, yovel Sexvedraze moigonebdnen xolme dimitris naxseneb „orRobes~. amgvarad, Cveni patara da uCinari moRvaweoba soflad dimitri arayiSvilma cnobili gaxada TviT moskovSiac ki da amiT TiTqos madloba miago speqtaklebis yvela monawiles, romlebmac mokrZalebuli wvlili Seitanes qarTuli Teatris ganviTarebis saqmeSi. dimitri arayiSvilis gacnobis pirvel wlebSi me da griSam erTad davxateT misi portreti, romelic bunebriv zomaze cota meti iyo. igi SevasruleT TeTr qaRaldze naxSiriT. am portretze dimitri odnav gverdzea mibrunebuli da Zalian Svenis wver-ulvaSi, axalgazrduli ieri da ukan gadavarcxnili gruza Tma. Tavze fetris farTofarflebiani qudi axuravs, xolo mxrebs lamazad mogdebuli pledi umSvenebs. es portreti moskovidan saqarTveloSi CamovitaneT da igi didxans amSvenebda Cvens binas, magram 1931 wels igi Cvenma megobarma, cnobilma xelovnebaTmcodnem daviT arseniSvilma Teatraluri muzeumisaTvis gvTxova, romelic im xanebSi man Tavad daaarsa. daviTs Cveni naxati gadaveciT, rogorc mciredi Sewiruloba. samwuxarod, mas Semdeg is namuSevari aRarc minaxavs. mxolod daviT arseniSvilis datovebuli xelwerili Tu Semaxsenebs xolme am namuSevars da metad vRondebi, radgan igi samudamod wavida Cemgan, Tumca saimedo adgilzea daculi da iq gacilebiT ufro saWiroa muzeumisTvisac da xalxisTvisac. ramdenime xnis Semdeg gulma mainc ar momiTmina da portreti zustad aRvadgine xelweriTac da imave zomiTac. kompozitoris Tavdapirveli portreti gazeT `saqarTvelos~ suraTebian damatebaSi 1916 wlis ivlisSi (#29) daibeWda.

dimitri arayiSvili mudam mousvenari da saqmis erTguli kaci iyo. moskovis qarTul sazogadoebaSi, romlis Seucvleli Tavmjdomare aleqsandre sumbaTaSvil-iuJini gaxldaT, is mTeli mondomebiT iRvwoda _ ivane TulaSvilTan, aleqsandre xaxanaSvilTan, aleqsandre javaxiSvilTan, mixeil zandukelTan, niko xoravasTan (eqimi) da sxvebTan erTad. dimitrim iq Camoayaliba „mecnierebis, xelovnebisa da literaturis qarTuli sazogadoeba.~ 1913 wlis gazafxulze man ganizraxa Caetarebina am sazogadoebis Ria sajaro sxdoma, sadac unda aReniSnaT prof. al. xaxanaSvilis gardacvalebis wlisTavi. amis gamo me da griSac gagvafrTxiles da gvTxoves, monawileoba migveRo im sxdomaze da sityvebi mogvemzadebina. Cven jer viuareT, radgan gamosvla gviwevda cnobil mecnierTa gverdiT da saerTod moskovis sazogadoebis winaSe, magram araviTarma uarma ar gaWra. male dimitrim mosawvevi baraTebi daabeWdvina, romelSic naCvenebi iyo mTeli saRamos programa da momxsenebelTa gvarebi, maT Soris _ Cvenic. meti ra gza iyo, moxsenebebi davwereT da gamosasvlelad movemzadeT. 72

1913 wlis martSi sinoduri saswavleblis did darbazSi sazogadoebis sajaro sxdoma Catarda (axlandel gercenis quCaze). momxseneblebi iyvnen: prof. n.i.ianCuki, prof. a.e.krimski, qarTuli eklesiis cnobili moamage n.n. durnovo, Cemi Zma grigoli, dimitri da me. didi darbazi savse iyo. blomad iyvnen lazarevis saxelobis aRmosavluri enebis institutis warmomadgenlebi, sadac ZiriTadad moRvaweobda gansvenebuli al. xaxanaSvili, kiTxulobda leqciebs da amave dros xelmZRvanelobda qarTvelologiis kaTedras. bevri stumari iyo qalTa pirveli gimnaziidanac, iq gansvenebuli profesori rusul sityvierebas aswavlida. maxsovs, ra didebulad gamovida dimitri arayiSvili. sxdomaze man aseTi moxseneba waikiTxa: „ramdenime sityva musikalur-eTnografiuli cnobebis Sesaxeb al. xaxanaSvilis SromebSi.~ dimitris Tavis gamosvlebSi sazogadod sCveoda Sinaarsis siRrmiseuli warmoCena. igi pirdapir daxelovnebuli iyo am saqmeSi. amasTan erTad, mas metad lamazi ena, diqcia da mdidari leqsika hqonda. grigolis moxsenebis saTauri aseTi gaxldaT _ „prof. al. xaxanaSvili, rogorc qarTuli literaturis istorikosi~, Cemi moxseneba ki ufro ubralod iyo dasaTaurebuli _ „prof. al. xaxanaSvili~. SemiZlia Tamamad da siamayiT vTqva, rom orTave moxsenebam gaamarTla Cveni didi megobris imedebi. madlobac ki davimsaxureT dimitrisgan, magram madloblebi Cven ufro unda vyofiliyaviT, radgan swored man Segvaguliana gamoucdeli studentebi da amiT farTo gza gagvixsna sazogadoebisaken. am sxdomis mosawvev baraTs, dimitris did da saSviliSvilo wignTan erTad, dRemde vinaxav sasoebiT. aseve siyvaruliT vinaxav mis Ria baraTs, romelic moskovidan 1916 wlis oqtomberSi erTi Cemi werilis pasuxad gamomigzavna. „Zvirfaso lado! _ mwers dauviwyari megobari, _ damnaSaved vgrZnob Tavs, rom aqamde pasuxi ver mogwere, magram xom ici, rogor Segvicvala omianobam mdgomareoba da agviria cxovreba...~ werilSi dimitri Tavis gulistkivils gamoTqvams imis gamo, rom bavSvebma qarTuli ena ar ician da verc vaswavli, imdenad araxelsayreli pirobebi maqvs cxovrebaSio. dimitris metad lamazi xelwera mZiviviTaa asxmuli. is ojaxSiac muyaiTi da gamrje pirovneba iyo. amaSi did daxmarebas uwevda sayvareli meuRle matrona gerasimes asuli – iSviaTi deda, ubadlo megobari da meojaxe, romelmac Cvens qveyanas eqvsi SesaniSnavi qal-vaJi aRuzarda. dimitri amasTanave Zveli tradiciebis moyvarulic gaxldaT, iSviaTi stumarTmoyvare da gulRia adamiani. maxsovs, 1910 wlis gazafxulze me da griSas moskovSi saqarTvelodan monatrebuli mSoblebi da patara Zma _ uCa gvewvivnen. dimitrim didad gaixara Tavisi yofili maspinZlebis xilviT, presniaze, Tavis binaze dagvpatiJa da mTeli dRe Tavs dagvtrialebda, gvarTobda iSviaTi musikiT, saubriT da amas imdenad gatacebiT akeTebda, rom mezobel oTaxSi violinoze momecadine Tavis patara vaJs _ sandrosac ki xSirad gasZaxebda xolme, xels nu gviSlio. me da uCa dResac kmayofilebiT vigonebT im ambavs. 73

Cven maSin bolSaia gruzinskaias raionSi vcxovrobdiT. da erTxel, rodesac presniasken mivdiodiT, moulodnelad Cvenken momavali avtomanqana SevamCnieT, rac maSin iSviaTi ram iyo moskovis quCebisTvisac ki. es Seuxedavi, TavRia, Tanac nela moxrigine manqana dRevandels rogor Seedreboda. Tumca ki erTcxeniani etlebis fonze mainc ucxo sanaxavi gaxldaT. Cemi mSoblebi pirvelad xedavdnen am axali modis transports. manqanaSi ori moxuci ijda; TiTqos garegnuli ieric erTnairi hqondaT: moSvebuli Tma-wveri, WaRara da qaTqaTa. Tavze farTofarfliani Calis qudebi exuraT; moaxlovda Tu ara manqana, griSam Sehyvira: _ lev tolstoi, mamaCemo, lev tolstoi, Sexede! marTlac, erTi maTgani lev tolstoi iyo, mis gverdiT mjdomi moxuci ki cnobili mecnieri, parizis pasteris institutis direqtori ilia meCnikovi gaxldaT, romelic im dros moskovs stumrobda da amis Sesaxeb TiTqmis mTelma moskovma icoda. sinanuliT gavayoleT Tvali am ucxo transports, magram am dros xelSi ayvanilma uCam morTo tirili: _ „CamajineT im uremSi~... ar cxreboda igi, _ „CamajineT, CamajineT...“ bolos da bolos Zlivs gavaCumeT uCa. dimitrisTan rom mivediT, TiTqmis mTeli dRe tolstoize da am axal avtomanqanaze vlaparakobdiT, magram dimitrisTvis ucxo ar yofila arc is manqana da arc ori didi adamianis xilva. tolstoi iqve samovnikebSi cxovrobda da dimitri arayiSvils araerTxel moukravs Tvali, rodesac igi manqaniT quCaSi gaivlida xolme. samagierod, mamaCemi veRar ikavebda mRelvarebas da, rogorc ki SemTxveva miecemoda, maSinve tolstoize Camoagdebda sityvas. erTi patara SemTxvevac minda gavixseno, uromlisodac Cemi mogoneba dimitri arayiSvilze srulyofili ar gamova. mgoni 1908 weli iyo. dimitrim erT koncertze migviwvia arbatze, saxalxo filarmoniaSi, sadac igi maswavleblobda kidec. wveulTa Soris viyaviT: me, griSa cxakaia, daTiko gagua da miSa Tuxareli. dimitri filarmoniaSi dagvxvda. masTan erTad iyvnen debi baxutaSvilebi, romlebic moskovis konservatoriaSi swavlobdnen, maTi Zma, aseve moskovis erT-erTi saswavleblis studenti da solomon erisTavi. darbazi savse iyo mayurebliT. dimitrisTan erTad scenaze movewyveT. adgilobriv SemsrulebelTa Semdeg dimitrim debi baxutaSvilebi miiwvia scenaze; amaTgan erTma imRera, meorem ki roialze daukra. amiT yvelaferi unda damTavrebuliyo, magram anazdad dimitrim moisurva, rom student solomon erisTavsac emRera rame. mas SesaniSnavi lirikuli tenori hqonda da xSirad gamodioda studentTa saRamoebze. solomonma mSvenivrad imRera romansi _ „Na xolmax Gruzii~ da didi STabeWdilebac moaxdina, miT ufro, rom garegnobac SesaniSnavi hqonda. darbazSi didxans grialebda taSi. am dros ucbad miSa Tuxarelma wamoiZaxa: _Avtora! _ da dimitrize miuTiTa. 74

_Avtora, avtora! _ ahyva mas darbazic. maSin studentebma cimcim aitaces kompozitori da rampasTan gaiyvanes. roca xalxma „avtori~ dainaxa, taSi pirdapir ovaciad gadaiqca. ar vici, es dimitris mokrZalebiT iyo gamowveuli Tu riT, magram is Tavis dakvrasac ki ver axerxebda. erTi-orjer gaqcevac ki scada, Tumca scenidan vin gauSvebda. igi tyvesaviT idga scenaze da ovacia mxolod maSin Sewyda, rodesac farda daeSva. _ Tqve yurumsaRebo, es ra miyaviT, is romansi Cemi ki ara, rimski-korsakovisa iyo... Turme „Na xolmax Gruzii~-s sityvebze, dimitris garda, rimski-korsakovsac hqonia romansi dawerili. am ambavs me da dimitri xSirad vigonebdiT xolme da bevrsac vicinodiT. 1918 wels dimitri arayiSvili moskovidan ojaxianad samudamod gadmosaxlda TbilisSi. xSirad vxvdebodiT erTmaneTs da siyvaruliT vigonebdiT moskovSi gatarebul arc Tu iol, magram romantikulsa da imedebiT aRsavse cxovrebas. cal-calke rom Segvxvdeboda me da griSas, uTuod gvkiTxavda: _ romeli xar, griSa Tu lado?.. magram erTadac rom gadagveyreboda, maSinac ver gvarCevda erTmaneTisagan da TiTqos sinanuliT gveubneboda: _ kaco, amdeni welia gicnobT, magram Tqveni garCeva mainc miWirs. netav, Tqveni mSoblebi Tu garCeven erTmaneTisagan? da roca movuyvebodiT Cveni msgavsebis gamo gamowvul kuriozebs, bevrs icinoda. miyvarda misi sicili, guliani, xmamaRli, sicocxliTa da xalisiT savse. da Tvalebze momdgar cremlebs TeTrad gaqaTqaTebuli cxvirsaxociT iwmendda. dimitri sacxovreblad erekles moedanze, SavTelis quCis dasawyisSi, yofili egzarxosis saxlis erT patara fligelSi moewyo. marTalia, didi darbazebi ar hqonia, magram mainc kmayofili iyo. misi WeSmaritad patriotuli suli didad xarobda, bolos da bolos, samSobloSi cxovrebas rom eRirsa. misma Svilebmac kargad iswavles qarTuli ena. mokled, kompozitoris winaSe cxovrebis naTeli perspeqtiva gadaiSala. is did SemoqmedebiT muSaobaSi Caeba da male araerTi musikaluri Janris nawarmoebi miuZRvna mSobliur qveyanas. daamTavra opera `Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~, romlis meore aqti _ nadimi Tamaris sasaxleSi _ jer kidev 1907 wels mogvasmenina moskovSi gamarTul qarTul saRamoze. 1919 wlis 5 Tebervals ukve damTavrebuli opera dadga Tbilisis operis scenaze. es dRe qarTuli erovnuli operis dabadebis dRedac iTvleba. qarTvelma xalxma Rirseulad daafasa erovnuli suliskveTebis opera da mis avtors tkbili hangebis mgosani uwoda. igi xelovnebis umaRles mwvervalebs daeufla. gaxda profesori da respublikis mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevri. meti raRa unda inatro kacma! 75

40-ian wlebSi man mravaloTaxiani bina miiRo gmirTa moedanze TerTmetsarTulian saxlSi da amiT sabolood gaimarjva ubinaobasTan dausrulebel WidilSi, rac mZime tvirTad awva mis mravalricxovan ojaxs. _ didebuli bina momces, kaco, iSviaTi, _ miTxra erT dRes dimitrim, _ magram qalaqis gareT aris... sanam SeveCveode, Zalian gamiWirdeba. marTlac, xsenebuli saxli im dros ukacriel adgilze idga, centridan Sors, magram gavida dro da es saxli TiTqmis qalaqis centrSi moeqca. ra ucbad icvleba dro, ra ucbad Sendeba qalaqi!.. • qarTul musikalur samyaroSi im dros namdvili yamiri iyo da am yamirze mxned miabijebda dimitri arayiSvili Tavisi mSvenieri qmnilebebiT. marto misi opera _ „Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~ _ rad Rirs, romlis warmateba gacilebiT didi iqneboda, uxeiro libreto rom ar uSlides xels. dimitri didad ganicdida am garemoebas da cdilobda daSvebuli Secdomis gamosworebas, magram ver iqna da Zveli libreto ver Secvala. drodadro icavda kidec mas. samwuxarod, me arasodes mikiTxavs am libretos warmoSobis istoria, magram unda vifiqroT, rom man igi amoiRo al. xaxanaSvilis samtomeulidan „Oqerki po istorii gruzinskoy slovesnosti~, romelic 1910 wels ukve gamocemuli iyo. legenda SoTa rusTavelze iq xalxur TqmulebebTan, apokrifebTan Tu Zvel zepir gadmocemebTan erTadaa dabeWdili da lamazi epizodebiT ipyrobs yuradRebas. aman moajadova kompozitori da Tavis operas daudo sarCulad. 1906 Tu 1907 wels erTi moqmedeba ukve mzad hqonda da qarTul saRamoze kompozitorma Tavad udiriJora. es iyo „Tamaris kavatina~ anu mejlisi Tamaris sasaxleSi SoTa rusTavelis pativsacemad. magram operis Sinaarsiis Semdgomma ganviTarebam scenaze abdul-arabi gamoiyvana, romelmac araTu xeli Seuwyo SoTas saxis kidev ufro gabrwyinebas, aramed, daCrdila kidec. SoTa negatiur saxed warmoaCina. operis namdvil gmirad ki SoTa rusTavelis mejinibe, viRac abdul-arabi, iqca. amgvarad, „Tqmuleba SoTa rusTavelze~ gadaiqca operad _ „Tqmuleba vinme abdul-arabze~, ramac, ra Tqma unda, guli aucrua mayurebels da operaze daswrebis xalisic daakargvina. es ki wlidan wlamde ufro da ufro SesamCnevi Seiqna. TandaTan gamoirkva, rom am SesaniSnav lirikul-dramatuli Janris operas, romelsac aRtacebaSi mohyavda xelovnebaTmcodneebi da mas qarTuli musikaluri kulturis siamayed Tvlidnen, Turme aseTi ususuri libreto hqonia. miuxedavad aTasgvari SekeTeba-Sesworebisa, libretos mainc SerCa gamousworebeli nakli, ramac ase SeuSala xeli operis warmatebas. dimitris didxans ar sjeroda es mware ambavi da ukvirda misi qmnilebis warumatebloba. erTxel, roca me da Cemi Zma griSa Cveulebisamebr vstumrobdiT kompozitors, saubari am operazedac Camovarda. 76

dimitris, cxadia, uyvarda Tavisi qmnileba da masze saubars araferi erCia. _ gaxsovs, dimitri, ra warmatebiT gaisma moskovSi ~qarTul saRamoze~ ~Tamaris kavatina~, ra sixaruli da imedebi moutana Cvens studentobas? _ laparaki wamoiwyo grigolma. kompozitors siamovnebis Rimilma gadauara saxeze. _ maxsovs, kaco, rogor ar maxsovs!... mereda, ra wvaleba gvWirdeboda im dawyevlil droSi, raTa patara ramec ki sajarod gamogvetana!... Zlivs movaxerxe im erTi kavatinis warmodgena da rogori aRtaceba gamoiwvia xalxSi!... magram dRes rom aRar idgmeba? _ SeniSna naRvlianad. _ eg araferia, mama, _ gamosZaxa meore oTaxidan dimitris qaliSvilma Tamarma, _ es imitomaa, rom xalxs ar akmayofilebs misi libreto. _ ratom, libreto riTia cudi? saubarSi axla me Caverie: _ Cemo Zvirfaso dimitri, libreto imiTaa cudi, rom masSi rusTavelis saxe Seuracxyofili da daCrdilulia viRac abdul-arabis gamo. _ Sen cdebi, lado, abdul-arabi ukve popularuli gaxda CvenSi, is ukve uyvars xalxs... _ SeiZleba uyvars, magram rusTavelze metad? – moridebiT Sevesityve kompozitors, raTa misi Tavmoyvareoba ar Semelaxa, _ musika SesaniSnavia, magram libretos sisustis gamo mayurebelma guli aicrua. _ kaco, es Tqmulebaa, xalxuri Tqmuleba... aq rusTavels ra Crdili unda miadges?... me vxedav, Tqvenc uaryofiTad uyurebT Cemi nawarmoebis gmirs. es didi Secdomaa, Zvirfaso megobrebo, didi Secdoma, _ rusulad warmoTqva man. aseTsave SeniSvnas aZlevdnen dimitris misi sxva megobrebic: giorgi Jordania, solomon erisTavi, dimitri mgalobliSvili da sxvebi. isini urCevdnen libretos an mniSvnelovan gadakeTebas an mTlianad Secvlas, magram es saqme advili ar iyo kompozitorisaTvis. man araerTxel gadaakeTebina xan visa da xan vis, poetsa Tu dramaturgs, bolos sandro SanSiaSvilsac mimarTa, magram gadakeTebulsac imdeni Zveli „codvebi~ SerCa, rom saerTo mowoneba mainc ver daimsaxura. da am misi „aqilevsis quslis~ gamo operam iseTi sapatio adgili ver daimkvidra scenaze, rogoric es mis musikalur Rirsebas ekadreba. miviwyebulia abdul-arabisa da gulCinas dueti, aseve, davluri da saTamaSo, _ qarTuli hangebis es uWknobi nimuSebi. kompozitorma gansakuTrebiT mwvaved libretos nakli 1931 wels igrZno, roca qarTuli xelovnebis dekadaze moskovSi misi opera ar waiRes. swored im dReebSi dimitris operis Teatris win Sevxvdi. garSemo qaliSvilebi exvivnen: iqve idgnen misi studentebi konservatoriidan. isini esiyvarulebodnen Zvirfas maswavlebels, xumrobdnen, laRobdnen, magram kompozitori mainc warbSekruli idga axalgazrdebs Soris. daminaxa Tu ara, maSinve Cemken gamoemarTa. 77

_ romeli xar, kaco, griSa Tu lado? vaglax, rom mudam aseTi SekiTxvebi mWirdeba TqvenTan, _ miTxra dimitrim Cveuli RimiliT da, roca Cemi vinaoba Seityo, isev warbi Seikra da daRonebulma miTxra: _ cud gunebaze var, lado, Cemi opera ar waiRes moskovSi! rogorc gadmomces, sul im oxeri libretos bralia, magram axla raRas vuSveli. metad daRonebuli var, Cemo megobaro, metad... axla davrwmundi, rom Secdoma davuSvi, roca am siuJets movkide xeli. Rirseuli misgan araferi gamova, _ Tqva kompozitorma da Tavi Cahkida, _ erTaderTi gamosavali isaa, rom libreto Zirfesvianad gadamuSavdes, _ Tqva man, saCqarod gamomeTxova da Sinisaken gaswia. mec gamifuWda guneba da fiqri momeZala: „marTalia, mayurebels siamovnebs rusTavelis scenaze naxva da isic Tamaris sasaxleSi, magram es bedniereba mxolod erTi moqmedebis manZilze grZeldeba. mTavari, rac sulis siRrmeSi rCeba mayurebels, esaa viRac abdul-arabi Tavisi qurduli siyvaruliT: „ra tkbilia siyvaruli!~ rusTaveli ki, piriqiT, Seuracxyofili da Sercxvenili rCeba, rogorc Zvelad ityodnen _ „qudmoxdili~, moralurad dacemuli. aseTi rusTaveli saintereso ar aris, ragind kargi musika axldes mas da kargi momRerali mRerodes. musika maSin xiblavs msmenels, Tu misi Sinaarsic musikasaviT momxiblavia. roca dimitris imdroindel sulier mdgomareobas vigoneb, pirdapir, mogonebis weris xalisi mekargeba. samagierod, siamovnebiT vixseneb misi dabadebis 80 wlisTavis iubiles, romelic Tbilisis operisa da baletis TeatrSi mouwyo qarTvelma xalxma. maxsovs, raoden gaxarebuli iyo madlieri da valmoxdili xelovani, vinac ase gaamdidra qarTuli musikaluri kultura. misma moskovelma megobrebma gadavwyviteT, calke sityviT gamovsuliyaviT saiubileo saRamoze, aRgveniSna misi Tavdadebuli muSaoba moskovSi qarTuli kulturis farTo propagandis saqmeSi, mokle adresic ki davwereT, magram „droSi ver Cagvties~ da amis gamo Cveni gamosvla ar moxerxda.

~Sen, Zvirfaso dimitri, TavdadebiT iRvwodi moskovSi da energias ar zogavdi, raTa qarTuli kultura da, kerZod, qarTveli xalxis musikaluri Semoqmedeba xelmisawvdomi gagexada imdroindeli rusuli mowinave sazogadoebis farTo fenebisaTvis, _ vwerdiT Cven im adresSi. _ Sen gamodiodi SesaniSnavi moxsenebebiT, beWdavdi wignebs, werilebs. kargad gvaxsovs, Tu rarig giWirda maSin, ra Zviri gijdeboda am tvirTis zidva, magram win mainc medgrad, TavdadebiTa da imedebiT savse miabijebdi. Sen mier Seqmnili tkbili qarTuli hangebi yoveldRiurad gaismis sivrceSi da SromiT daRlil guls usazRvro siamovnebas aniWebs“.
adress xels vawerdiT me, griSa, Cito kapanaZe, solomon erisTavi, seno wereTeli, grigol mesxi, mixeil Tuxareli, dimitri mgalobliSvili da daviT gagua. dRes amaTgan aRarc erTi aRar aris cocxali. iubile Zalze Tbilad Catarda. operis Teatri xalxiT iyo gaWedili. scenaze delegacias delegacia cvlida da yvela aRniSnavda sayvareli kompozitoris did damsaxurebas. 78

dimitri, marTalia, Relavda, magram mainc kargad gamoiyureboda. da es yvelaferi SesaniSnavad gamoxata Tavis samadlobelo sityvaSi: _ davberdi, magram ar davCaCanakdi, _ daiwyo man sadad da lamazad. uecrad mTel Teatrs taSi moswyda da ase grZeldeboda igi mTeli misi sityvis manZilze. iubilidan raRac oriode Tvis Semdeg, imave 1953 wels gardaicvala es didi adamiani. wavida igi fizikurad, magram sulierad mainc CvenTan darCa samudamod. TbilisSi, gmirTa moedanze, leninis quCis * 63 nomerSi, TerTmetsarTuliani saxlis sadarbazo karze aseTi Sinaarsis memorialuri dafaa gakruli: „am saxlSi 1939-1953 wlebSi cxovrobda gamoCenili qarTveli

kompozitori, akademikosi, saqarTvelos ssr saxalxo artisti dimitri arayiSvili.~
WeSmaritad bednier varskvlavze iyo dabadebuli dimitri arayiSvili. amqveynad samduravi araferi unda hqonoda. erT dros welSi siRaribiT gawyvetili biWuna, momReralTa gundSi muSaobas rom natrobda, Tavdadebuli SromiT gamoCenili kompozitori gaxda. dimitris mieniWa yvela sapatio tituli da es didi jildoebi Tu wodebani dauyvedreblad daimsaxura man. araferia amqveynad ufro maRali da Rirseuli!.. mis cxovrebas SeiZleba Tamamad ewodos: „ocneba, romelic Sesrulda, xolo Sesrulda igi brwyinvaled!..~

mcire mogoneba knut hamsunze
Cems ojaxSi mTel rig mweralTa da mxatvarTa samaxsovro fotoportretebs Soris Semonaxulia gamoCenili norvegieli mwerlis knut hamsunis fotosuraTic. igi miZRvnilia Cemi Zmis grigolisadmi da gamogzavnilia 1935 wels norvegiis patara qalaq norholmidan, sadac knut hamsunma Tavisi xangrZlivi cxovrebis ukanaskneli wlebi gaatara. saTanado warweriTa da mwerlis xelmoweriT damSvenebuli fotosuraTi warmoadgens pasuxs Cemi Zmis mier gagzavnil werilze. saqme is gaxlavT, rom moskovSi Cveni studentobis dros axalgazrdebi hamsunis SemoqmedebiT viyaviT gatacebulni, xolo Cemi Zma, pirdapir, mojadoebuli iyo misi nawerebiTa da cxovrebiseuli TavgadasavlebiT. amitom didxans fiqrobda misTvis werilis gagzavnas. da bolos, mogvianebiT, 1935 wels Seasrula kidec Tavisi ganzraxva. griSam, niSnad didi pativiscemisa, ~vefxistyaosnis~ qarTuli gamocemis erT-erTi nimuSic gaugzavna.

*

axlandeli kostavas quCa

79

me ki es ambavi aseve mogvianebiT minda gavixseno da davukavSiro igi knut hamsunis 120 wlisTavs... Cveni studentobis dros moskovSi, cxraasiani wlebis dasawyisSi, ZiriTadad ucxour literaturas vkiTxulobdiT, radgan rusul mwerlobas, rogorc sagimnazio kurss, zedmiwevniT kargad vicnobdiT, rom aRaraferi vTqvaT qarTul literaturaze. da ai, knut hamsunma daipyro Cveni suli da guli, misi „viqtoria~, „SimSili~, „misteriebi~ da sxv. TiTqmis yvelas TavsasTumalTan edo. Cemi Zma pirdapir „Camwvari~ iyo mis nawerebSi da mTxovda, Rirseuli werili gagvegzavna mwerlisaTvis, magulianebda da mirCevda Cvens msgavsebazec gvemcno oriod sityviT, raTa amis Sesaxeb raime daewera; is xom adamianis sulis siRrmeTa poetiao, _ meubneboda, magram me vvuarobdi, radgan mimaCnda, rom didi mwerali ver moiclida amden TayvanismcemelTa werilebis wasakiTxad. iyo Cvens Soris dausrulebeli azrTa gacvla-gamocvla, vidre ocdaaTian wlebSi griSam Tbilisidan piradad ar gaugzavna werili. norvegia, saidanac knut hamsunis Semoqmedeba msoflios mwerlobas moevlina, evropis ukidures CrdiloeTSi mdebare erTi patara qveyanaa sul raRac 3 milioni mosaxleobiT, magram didi kulturiTa da warsuliT. gansakuTrebiT cnobilia mxatvruli literaturiT da misi iseTi Rirseuli warmomadgenlebiT, rogorebic arian: biernstierne _ biernsoni, henrik ibseni Tavisi ganTqmuli dramebiT: „nora~, „eqimi Stokmani~, „brandi~, „moCvenebebi~ da mravali sxva. saqveynod cnobilia, aseve, didi kompozitori edvard grigi. am gamoCenil norvegielTa jgufs ekuTvnis maTive Tanamedrove knut hamsuni (1859-1952), magram gansxvaveba is gaxlavT, rom warmoSobiT hamsuni RaribTa wres ganekuTvneba da amitom Tavisi originaluri biografiiT ufro maqsim gorkis mogvagonebs. mas, gorkis msgavsad, Rirseuli saskolo ganaTleba ar miuRia, Tu ar gaviTvaliswinebT dawyebiTi skolis kurss, romelic man Tavis mSobliur sofelSi gaiara, xolo ufro didi ganaTleba uSualod cxovrebidan da wignebidan SeiZina. wignebs ki es swavlas mowyurebuli da mZime Sromisagan daRdasmuli glexi biWi rva wlis asakidan ewafeboda; aseT Wapan-wyvetaSi gaatara man Tavisi bavSvobis ulamazesi wlebi da ukve ToTxmeti wlis asakSi iZulebuli gaxda mSobliuri kera mietovebina da lukma-puris saSovnelad daewyo xetiali. romel qalaqsa Tu qveyanaSi ar yofila knut hamsuni, amerikaSic ki amoyo Tavi; sad ar imuSava, ras ar akeTebda; mojamagireobda, muSaobda fermerebTan, omnibusis konduqtorad, maRaziis noqris TanaSemwed da sxv. magram versad hpova verc materialuri uzrunvelyofa da verc sulieri kmayofileba. da ai, 1877 wels, Tvrameti wlis ymawvilma, sruliad moulodnelad xeli mohkida kalams da literaturul sarbielzec mosinja bedi. anazdeulad gamobrwyinvebuli SemoqmedebiTi niWis wyalobiT daiwyo moTxrobebisa Tu patar-patara sagazeTo werilebis wera, romelTac zogjer ubeWdavdnen kidec. aseT wvalebaSi icxovra ramdenime weliwads naxevrad mSieri literatoris cxovrebiT. 80

amerikaSi yofnis STabeWdilebebi erT mozrdil werilad Camoayaliba da male dabeWda kidec. man mkiTxvelTa farTo interesi gamoiwvia, magram gaWirvebas mainc ver daaRwia Tavi. bolos da bolos Tavisi tanjuli cxovrebis aRweras mohkida xeli. 1890 wels knut hamsunma erTad mouyara Tavi xsenebul nawerebs, Zirfesvianad gadaamuSava isini da erT did moTxrobad Camoayaliba, romelsac saTaurad „SimSili~ uwoda. aq ukve aSkarad gauRima bedma da naxevrad avtobiografiuli xasiaTisa da didi fsiqologiuri ostatobiT dawerili moTxrobebis wyalobiT knut hamsuni erTbaSad gaxda cnobili mTeli norvegiisaTvis, xolo Semdeg _ evropisTvisac. mxatvruli sityvis Tayvanismcemlebma misi saxiT uzarmazari da metad Taviseburi mwerali aRmoaCines. didi mwerlebi biernsoni, georg brandesi, henrik ibseni da sxvebi gaocebulni darCnen am „erTbaSad amoxeTqili niWis~ gamoCeniT, xolo misi moTxroba „SimSili~ yvelasTvis sayvarel nawarmoebad iqca. am qmnilebebma dasabami misces knut hamsunis uaRresad saintereso literaturul biografias. mkiTxvelebma male ixiles aseve maRalmxatvrulad dawerili momdevno moTxrobebi da romanebi: _ „viqtoria~, „pani~, `misteriebi~ da sxva, xolo 1917 wels gamodis knut hamsunis yvelaze didi romani, romelsac rusul TargmanSi „Sok Zemli~ ewodeba. me mas qarTul enaze pirobiTad „miwis madls~ vuwodebdi. es nawarmoebi miCneulia meoce saukunis msoflio literaturis erT-erT yvelaze monumentur epikur nawarmoebad, risTvisac knut hamsuns nobelis premia mieniWa. knut hamsunma 93 weli icocxla da am drois manZilze araerTi mxatvruli qmnileba SesZina msoflio mwerlobas. 1959 wels, misi dabadebis 100 wlisTavze, norvegiaSi gamoqveynebulma mwerlis TxzulebaTa saerTo moculobam 15 tomi Seadgina. mwerali bevrs muSaobda da mogzaurobda, ecnoboda sxvadasxva xalxTa cxovrebas; sxvaTa Soris, saqarTveloSic iyo, roca ruseTi da kavkasia moiara. es mogzauroba WeSmariti poeturi aRmafreniT dagvixata naSromSi „zRaprul qveyanaSi~. aqaa saqarTveloSi miRebuli STabeWdilebebic. amasTan, Cvens qveyanas miuZRvna drama „Tamar mefe~. es ori nawarmoebi ufro imiTaa CvenTvis saintereso, rom, Tu SeiZleba ase iTqvas, “qarTuli Tema” uSualo STabeWdilebebiTaa nasazrdoebi. „Tamar mefe~ sammoqmedebiani dramaa, magram istoriul sinamdvilesTan TiTqmis araferi akavSirebs. is ufro romantikuli Tzulebaa _ Seqmnili hamsunisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli xelweriT. is siyvarulisa da silamazis himns warmoadgens, Tumca misi zogierTi moqmedi piri istoriulia, maT Soris Tamaris Svilebi giorgi da rusudani, romlebic Tamars meore qmarTan _ daviT soslanTan hyavda da ara giorgi rusTan; daviTi ki nawarmoebSi, rogorc giorgi, isea moxseniebuli. Tavis did mogzaurobas hamsuni uZRvnis meore wigns _ „zRaprul qveyanaSi~, romelSiac gvawvdis SesaniSnav poetur sentenciebs. gzad mwerali moskovSi Cerdeba. is pirdapir gancvifrebulia am qalaqis originalobiTa da silamaziT: _ „sad ar vyofilvar, 81

qveynis romeli kuTxe ar minaxavs, magram arsad Semxvedria moskovis kremlis msgavsi silamaze. is pirdapir zRaprulia~! gakvirvebulia agreTve moskovis eklesiebis simravliTa da rusi xalxis gansakuTrebuli RvTismosaobiT. _ es slavianebi arian, _ vfiqrob me da mivCerebivar maT, - es momavali xalxia... aseT xalxs SeuZlia warmoSvas rusuli xasiaTis usazRvro da ukidegano literatura... Cven yvelas bevri dro dagvWirdeba, raTa SeveguoT da mivuaxlovdeT mas... moskovidan saqarTvelomde hamsuni jer kavkavSi Cerdeba (axlandeli orjonikiZe). saqarTvelos samxedro gziT Tbilisisaken miemgzavreba, aqedan ki STabeWdilebebiT savse gadahyurebs duSeTs, aragvsa da mxrebze kokebSedgmul qalebs. da bolos Tbilisic... _ esec Tbilisi, _ ambobs knut hamsuni, _ qalaqi, romelzedac ase xSirad werdnen rusi poetebi da sadac araerTi rusuli romanis moqmedeba iSleba. _ davaTvaliereT Tbilisi, _ ganagrZobs mwerali, _ da ar mogvewona igi, magram mis wiaRSi movnaxeT patara kuTxe, romelic Zalze originaluri gveCvena. xSirad vestumrebodiT xolme mas da iq yofniT vera vZRebodiT. es iyo qalaqis aziuri kvartali, romelsac raRac Taviseburi ieri da saxe hqonda. aq raRac sarTulebiani labirinTebia, kibeebi gadian saxlidan saxlamde, miwidan banebamde, TiTqos raRac sxva qveyanaao. da swored aseTi iSviaTi kuTxe garSemortymulia Tanamedrove vaWruli qalaqis xmauriT. _ Cemi sastumro „londonia~, _ ganagrZobs knut hamsuni da Tanac aseTi cnobebic moaqvs Tbilisze: _ qalaqSi 160 aTasi mcxovrebia amJamad (igulisxmeba gasuli saukunis bolo wlebi. l.j.). kacebi orjer metia qalebze. aq 70 enaze laparakoben... qalaqSi Semonaxulia qarTvel mefeTa sasaxle, romelic amJamad sapatimrodaa gadaqceuli. qalaqSi romeliRac rusi generlis erTi Zegli dgas (gulisxmobs voroncovis Zegls, romelic revoluciamde idga dRevandeli marqsis moedanze. l.j.). Sors, qalaqis Tavze gaSenebulia wminda daviTis monasteri. is dgas qarTvelebisaTvis wmindad miCneul „mTawmindaze~. monastris axlosaa griboedovis saflavi... Tbilisis Semdeg mwerali baqos swvevia: yvelaze ufro Seuxedavi qalaqia, _ ambobs igi, _ mtverSia gaxveuli adamianebic, cxovelebic da is oriode buCqic ki, romelic qalaqis parkSi SevamCnieT. irgvliv yvelaferi navTis suniTaa gaJRenTili, yovel nabijze dgas mazuTiT CaSavebuli konkebi da dRedaRam gauCerebliv guguneben miwis saburRavi manqanebi... samagierod, dasavleT saqarTveloSi, Tbilisidan baTumamde matarebliT mgzavrobam aseTi sityvebi aTqmevina mas: _ aq irgvliv iseTi mcenareulobaa da iseTi mdidaria buneba, romlis msgavsi arsad Semxvedria: tyeebi, gauvali tevrebi, kakali, muxa, Tela, wabli, Txili, ra gindaT, ar iyos aq yovel nabijze. Cven matareblis fanjridan xarbad mivCerebivarT yvelafer amas, am RvTivkurTxeul qveyanas, gvaocebs aseTi Tvalwarmtacoba da vumadliT beds, wyaloba rom ar mogviSala da am iSviaTi sanaxaobis Rirsi gagvxada. es adgili umSvenieresi kuTxea kavkasiaSi. xval Cven isev unda davbrundeT baqoSi, raTa iqidan 82

ukve aRmosavleTSi wavideT da davtovebT kidec am mxares, magram me is samudamod CamrCeba gulSi da misi xelaxali naxvis didi natvra yovelTvis mtkivneulad momawveba gulze, radgan me xom erTi imaTgani var, visac cxovrebaSi erTxel mainc rgebia „mtkvris wylis dalevis bedniereba.~ ai, is cotaodeni ram, rac knut hamsunis mogzaurobis STabeWdilebebze mindoda meTqva _ is gansakuTrebiT sainteresoa CvenTvis, radgan xsenebuli Txzulebebi maSindeli saqarTvelos suraTebsac gvixatavs. literaturaTmcodneTa saerTo azriT, knut hamsunma literaturaSi aRmoaCina siyvarulis axali, sul sxvagvari, manamde ucnobi mxareebi, axali saxeebi, axali gageba. misi lirikuli romani „viqtoria~ erT-erT umniSvnelovanes nawarmoebad iTvleba, imaT Soris rac ki siyvarulis Temaze dawerila XX saukunis msoflio literaturaSi. igi Targmnilia qarTul enaze cnobili mTargmnelis ilia aglaZis mier da nawil-nawil daibeWda erT-erT maSindel qarTul JurnalSi, Tu ar vcdebi, ocdaaTian wlebSi. hamsunis Txzulebebis ruseTSi _ da kerZod, Cemi drois moskovSi _ rusul enaze mTargmneli da gamomcemeli bevri iyo, magram Cven _ maSindeli studentoba _ am didi mwerlis nawerebs, iseve rogorc bevr sxvas, gvaziara erTma mSvenierma gamomcemlobam „polza~-m, romelic kerZo pirs v.antiksa da amxanagobas ekuTvnoda. is sagangebod ucxouri literaturis gamocemaze muSaobda da Targmnil wignebs „universaluri biblioTekis~ saxelwodebiT awvdida ruseTis farTo sazogadoebas. sxvaTa Soris, es is ,,polzaa” romelmac Cveni Targmnili „glaxis naambobi~, „baSi-aCuki~, yazbegis „eliso~ da sxva moTxrobebic gamoaqveyna. yoveli avtoris calkeul nawarmoebs „polza~ cal-calke, patara zomis, erTi formatis wignad da erTnairi gaformebiT beWdavda. TiToeuli wigni aTi kapiki Rirda da yvelas Tavisi nomeri hqonda, rac aadvilebda mis mikvlevas. Tu nawarmoebi didi moculobis iyo da erT nomerSi ar Tavsdeboda, „polza~ mainc erT wignad beWdavda, magram ori nomriT da fassac ormags - 20 kapiks adebda. aseTi wesiT iyo gamocemuli floberis „madam bovari~, dikensis „daviT koperfildi~, Sileris „yaCaRebi~ da bevri sxva. zogierTi misi gamoSvebuli wigni sam da oTxnomrianic ki iyo. ase gaacno `polzam~ Tavis mkiTxvels maSin CvenTvis jer kidev naklebad cnobil xalxTa mwerloba, aRaras vityvi didi qveynebis _ inglisis, safrangeTis, germaniisa da sxvaTa literaturaze. mokled, swored ”polzas” meSveobiT veziareT daniuri, belgiuri, Sveduri, norvegiuli, finuri literaturis nimuSebs. ase gavecaniT knut hamsunis Txzulebebsac. swrafad vrceldeboda „polzas~ mier gamocemuli es uamravi literatura ruseTis mTel teritoriaze, iyideboda maRaziebSic da rkinigzis sadgurebSi Jurnal-gazeTebisTvis gankuTvnil jixurebSic. romeli mgzavri ar SeiZenda ase iafsa da lamazad gamocemul wignaks? aseTi gamocemebi xSirad did tiraJs aRwevda da ramdenjerme ibeWdeboda, magram mkiTxvels mainc ar yofnida. maxsovs, samjer daibeWda Cveni Targmnili „glaxis naambobi~, mag83

ram mkiTxveli mainc uwignod darCa. bevri mas or-sam cals da metsac iZenda. rogorc ioseb griSaSvilis naambobidan vici, miuxedavad misi xelmokleobisa, poetma am wignis ramdenime cali SeiZina, xolo Zveli inteligenciis warmomadgenelma inJinerma niko kvezerelma-kopaZem peterburgSi aTi cali iyida. diax, TavdaviwyebiT vkiTxulobdiT knut hamsunis nawerebs, romelic adamianTa sulis moZraobis niuansebsa da saidumloebebs gvaziarebda da gvayvarebda kidec. o, ra brwyinvaled pasuxobdnen misi wignebi Cvens maSindel axalgazrdul ganwyobilebebs! raWaSi, mSobliur sofel RarSi, Cvens binaSi xativiT gamovkideT knut hamsunis didi portreti, romelic me da griSam naxSiriT SevasruleT. Cvenebic saTayvanebel mwerlad miiCnevdnen mas. mxolod patara uCa, maSin skolis cerodena moswavle, ver erkveoda mis vinaobaSi; magram gavida dro, gaizarda Cemi umcrosi Zma da manac mTeli arsebiT Seiyvara knut hamsunis Semoqmedeba. 1935 wels griSam xeli mohkida hamsunis erT-erTi Sedevris ~pan~-is qarTul enaze Targmnas. amasTan dakavSirebiT, bolos da bolos, gadawyvita werili gaegzavna sayvareli mwerlisaTvis, raTa axla mainc aesrulebina Tavisi didi xnis survili da miswera kidec. griSam mis mier rusulad dawerili baraTi Tavis erT universitetel megobars gadaaTargmnina germanul enaze, mere lamazi xeliT sufTad gadawera da frTxilad Cado konvertSi. werils Tan „vefxistyaosnis~ axali egzemplari daurTo da norvegiaSi gagzavna. griSas werili aseTi iyo: „uRrmesad pativcemulo dido xelovano batono hamsun! TiTqmis yoveldRe mixdeba me im sastumro „londonis~ win

gavla, romelSic Tqven gagitarebiaT ramdenime dRe TbilisSi yofnis dros da yoveli gavlisas cxovlad warmomidgeba xolme Tvalwin momentebi Tqveni dauviwyari mxatvruli personaJebis cxovrebidan; am dros me xSirad meufleba xolme survili gamogexmauroT aqedan da mogawodoT Cemi uguliTadesi, gulidan amoRebuli salami, dido hamsun _ sayvarelTa Soris usayvarleso poeto. minda gagaxsenoT Tbilisi da sazogadod saqarTvelo, romelsac Tqven jer kidev im dros uyvardiT, roca misi cis qveS daiarebodiT Soreuli norvegiidan Camosuli axalgazrda stumari. gulwrfeli siyvarulis niSnad am werilTan erTad saCuqrad gigzavniT qarTveli kacisaTvis yvelaze ufro sayvarel wigns _ XII saukunis didi qarTveli poetis _ rusTavelis poemas. daviwye Tqveni romanis „pan~-is Targmna da viTxov Tqvens nebarTvas am romanisa da sxva Tqveni nawerebis Targmnaze, romelTa Sesruleba uaxloes momavalSi maqvs ganzraxuli. Tqveni ramdenime nawarmoebi axmaurdeba saqarTveloSi, rogorc Tqveni poeziis ulamazesi nawyveti da uZvirfasesi reliqvia, agreTve, rogorc Tqveni salami Cvens Zvel rainds _ rusTavels, romelic saukuneebiT daSorebulia Cvengan.
84

minda mjerodes, rom me da Cems megobrebs gveRirseba saxsovrad miviRoT Tqveni romelime wigni an portreti. me mas waviReb sastumro „londonSi~ an mopirdapire baRSi da gavaxseneb odesRac Tqveni iq yofnis dReebs. icocxleT didxans da iyaviT janmrTelad, dido hamsun, da im mravalmilionian Tqvens mkiTxvelTa Soris, romelTac uyvarxarT da eyvarebiT mudam momavalSic, saukuneebis manZilze, gTxovT miguloT mec _ Tqveni erTguli pativismcemeli grigol jafariZe, romelic moelis Tqvengan Cemi werilisa da wignis miRebis raime damadasturebel niSans. kavkasia. Tbilisi. orbelianis quCa, 36. 1935 wlis noemberi.“
male griSam norvegiidan erTi mozrdili konverti miiRo da gulis fancqaliT gaxsna. igi madlobis aRmniSvneli oficialuri werili egona, rogoric ician xolme didma adamianebma aseT SemTxvevaSi, _ da ra gaxarebuli da frTaSesxmuli iyo, roca konvertSi mwerlis portreti aRmoCnda misive avtografiT. es iyo knut hamsunis mier germanul enaze dawerili da margalitis mZivebad asxmuli sityvebi: „grigol jafariZes madlobiT misi uTavazianesi werilisaTvis, norhelmi, 16 dekemberi, 1935, knut hamsuni~... Soreuli qveynidan miRebuli Zvirfasi nobaTi griSam Tavisi survilebis keTil dagvirgvinebad miiCnia. male am fotosuraTis asli CemTvisac gadaaRebina da saCuqrad gadmomca. ase gaCnda Cems ojaxSic didi norvegieli mwerlis portreti avtografiT, romelic Zalian bevr sasiamovno wuTs momagonebs da TiTqos siWabukesac ki mibrunebs xolme. griSas mier knut hamsunTan gagzavnili werili da „vefxistyaosani~, albaT, gamofenili iqneba mwerlis memorialur muzeumSi norvegiaSi.

Cemi scenismoyvareoba
am cota xnis winaT TbilisSi onidan sagastrolod Camovida adgilobrivi raionuli Teatri da marjaniSvilis saxelobis TeatrSi dadga Tavisi erT-erTi saukeTeso speqtakli. warmodgenas uamravi xalxi daeswro da mayurebelTa wridan araerTi aRfrTovanebuli sityvac warmoiTqva dasisa da misi xelmZRvanelobis misamarTiT. CvenSi raionuli Teatrebis mier TavianTi dadgmebis TbilisSi Camotanisa da Cvenebis kargi tradicia damyarda. cxadia, gemovnebian mayurebelTa farTo auditoriasTan Sexvedra didi stimulia maT wasaxaliseblad da pasuxismgeblobis grZnobis asamaRleblad. amasTan, izrdeba Teatris popularobac. vfiqrob, raionuli Teatrebis dRevandel moRvaweobasTan dakavSirebiT interess moklebuli ar iqneba mogaxsenoT maTi mdgomareoba Cemi axalgazrdobis dros. stacionaruli Teatri, Tbilisis gamoklebiT, maSin TiTqmis arsad ar arsebobda CvenSi. 85

TviT saqarTvelos guberniisa da olqis centrebi – quTaisi da baTumic ki ver daikvexnidnen TeatrisTvis Sesaferisi SenobebiT da, aba, onsa da mis msgavs dabebSi ra Teatri unda yofiliyo, an kidec rom yofiliyo, ra donis mxatvruli saxe unda hqonoda?! TviT iseT did qalaqsac ki, rogoric saqarTvelos sazRvao WiSkari foTi iyo, Teatris calke Senoba ar gaaCnda da roca raime warmodgenis dadgma an saRamos Catareba gvWirdeboda (me iq vmuSaobdi 1914 wlidan 1920 wlamde), sagangebod unda gveZia Sesaferisi Senoba. magram cxovreba Tavisi gziT midioda da Tavisas mainc ar iSlida. xalxis SegnebaSi izrdeboda ganaTlebis, winsvlisa da bedSavi yofis gaumjobesebis survili. ase, TandaTan Cndeboda imedismomcem scenis-moyvareTa jgufebi, romelnic patar-patara speqtaklebis dadgmiTac ki did saxalxo saqmes akeTebdnen. provincia ar iyo, scenis moyvareni rom ara hyoloda da avad Tu kargad, dgamdnen kidec im droisTvis Sesaferis da popularul piesebs. mSvenivrad Tqva Jurnal „Teatri da cxovrebis“ cnobilma redaqtorma ioseb imedaSvilma: „Tu vinmes SeuZlia Tqvas, revoluciis cecxls vaRvivebdi, TviTmpyrobelobas Zirs vuTxridi, wodebriv urTierTobas Tu sazogadoebriv usamarTlobas vaaSkaravebdi da Zveli weswyobilebis damxobas mTeli Cemi arsebiT vemsaxurebodio, es yvelaze Tamamad SeuZlia Tqvas xalxurma Teatrma“. da es gaxldaT sruli WeSmariteba! viqnebodiT ase aTi wlisani, me da griSam scena pirvelad rom vnaxeT onSi. mogvewona axalgazrdebis TamaSi da didi STabeWdilebiT aRvsilni davbrundiT Sin. es iyo daaxloebiT 1897-98 wlebSi. mere patarebma Cvens mSobliur RarSic vsinjeT „scenis“ warmodgena. erT zafxulis ardadegebze ki patara vodevilic davdgiT _ „sacole erTi saaTiT“, romelSic umcrosi Zmebic CavabiT da amiT sruliad SeumCnevlad scenismoyvareTa dasSi „SevdgiT fexi“. samsaxiobo saqmeSi ukve karga gawvrTniladac vgrZnobdiT Tavs, roca 1906 wlis zafxulis erT mSvenier dRes ojaxSi Cveni naTesavi, bavSvobis megobari griSa jafariZe movida da orive Zmas gvTxova masTan erTad migveRo monawileoba onSi warmodgenis dadgmaSi. im dros raWaSi aseTi ram iSviaTi movlena iyo. aTasSi erTxel Tu gavigonebdiT, rom onelma moswavle axalgazrdebma, SesaZlebelia igive adgilobrivma kulturtregerebma, warmodgena gamarTeso. es pirdapir dResaswauli iyo onelebisaTvis. pirveli aseTi dadgma onSi Zmebis – spiridon da arCil jafariZeebis iniciativiTa da monawileobiT moxda. spiridoni da arCili sofel velTeTidan iyvnen _ e.w. lomkaciSvilebi, moskovis universitetSi swavlobdnen da didi dafasebac hqondaT CvenSi, amitomac aravis gakvirvebia zafxulis erT mSvenier dRes maTgan onSi warmodgenis dadgma. scena mowyobili hqondaT onis orklasiani samazro saswavleblis SenobaSi, maSin saukeTeso rom iyo mTel mazraSi. am Senobas hqonda mozrdili saklaso oTaxebi, 86

romlebic im dros, sazafxulo ardadegebis gamo, Tavisufali iyo da savsebiT akmayofilebda maSindel moTxovnebs. dadges valerian gunias cnobili piesa „da-Zma“ da gansakuTrebuli STabeWdilebac moaxdines. warmateba kidev ufro didi iqneboda, marines Semsrulebeli qali rom hyolodaT. am rols vaJi asrulebda, rasakvirvelia, kacis xmiTa da ieriT, magram qalis samoselSi gamowyobili. im dros jer kidev ar iyvnen scenaze gamosvlis mosurne qalebi, jer kidev akldaT saamiso „gambedaoba“. aseTi xarvezebis gamosworeba mxolod SemdegSi moxerxda, roca scenimoyvareTa rigebSi Cadgnen adgilobrivi oneli axalgazrdebi – Zmebi ermile da giorgi lobJaniZeebi, romlebmac qalebis rolebis Semsruleblebad TavianTi debi gamoiyvanes: mariami (SemdgomSi, mweral mixeil mrevliSvilis deda), babuca da nino. es ukve gvariani ansambli iyo da xalxsac bevrs izidavda. Tanac, Zmebi scenas TavianT ezoSi Ria cis qveS awyobdnen, sadac xalxic bevri eteoda da moxerxebulic iyo. lobJaniZeebis da-ZmaTa ansamblma imdenad mniSvnelovani roli Seasrula adgilobrivi mayureblis aRzrdaSi, rom, roca zafxulSi raime mizeziT warmodgena ar Sedgeboda xolme, mayurebeli ukve „kulturul SimSils“ grZnobda da ukmayofilebas gamoTqvamda. swored am dros gimnazielma miSa jafariZem, romelsac quTaisSi ramdenime wlis swavlisa da TeatrSi xSiri siarulis gamo kargad Seeswavla scenis saqme, iTava onSi warmodgenebis gamarTva, raTa mowyurebuli xalxisaTvis sulieri sazrdo miewodebina. miSa jafariZe, ufro sworad miSago, rogorc mas megobrebi veZaxdiT Cveni sasiqadulo mwerlis sergo kldiaSvilis CaTvliT, aseve rom uwodebs mas Tavis SesaniSnav novelaSi „patara cxovreba“, sofel xirxonisidan iyo, raWaSi metad popularuli ojaxis – „didi svimonis“ ojaxis – Svili, metad fxiani da marjve, SemdgomSi quTaisis gazeTis „imereTis“ redaqtori. miSagom male mouyara Tavi axalgazrdebis jgufs da gvariani dasic Camoayaliba. im zafxuls jer onSi dadga ori piesa – „patara kaxi“, a.yazbegis „arsena“ da mere am piesebiT qvemo raWasac estumra. ambrolauri im dros arc ki arsebobda da Cven sofel xidikarSi, iqve xidTan axlos, TeatrisaTvis erTi orsarTuliani, im xanebSi Tavisufali Senoba davikaveT. miSagom Cveuli simarjviT ucbad moagvara saqmeebi, scenisa da darbazis mosawyobad maSinve iSova saWiro masala da xelosnebic. RmerTo Cemo, romeli Soreuli soflidan aRar Camovidnen warmodgenaze dasaswrebad _ bugeuli, jvarisa, xonWiori, nikorwminda da sxv. _ onidan artistebi Camosulan xidikarSio. axalgazrdebi sibneleSi kvariTa da kelaptrebiT inaTebdnen gzas da simRer-simReriT modiodnen xidikarisaken. kvirikewmindidan axalgazrda mezoblebTan erTad sagangebod Camovida studenti grigol mesxi. igi imdenad gaxarebuli iyo Cveni kulturuli RonisZiebebiT, rom scenazec ki gveaxla, gagvecno da speqtaklis dawyebis win xalxs aRfrTovanebuli sityviT mimarTa. man speqtaklis damdgmelebs xalxis saxeliT madloba gadauxada, mere ki mayureblebs mouwoda daewyoT Tanxis 87

Segroveba xidikarSi specialuri primitiuli fardulis asaSeneblad, sadac msgavsi warmodgenebi sistematurad gaimarTeboda. am winadadebas yvela aRtacebiT Sexvda. saamisod iqve saTanado komisiac airCies da maxsovs, am keTil saqmes gansakuTrebuli xalisiT sof. wkadisis mkvidrma, oficerma svimon enuqiZem mohkida xeli. erTi sityviT, im dros Cveni xalxi didad iyo mowyurebuli sulier sazrdos. dRes mTel raWaSi – onSiac da ambrolaurSiac _ fardulebi ki ara, profesional msaxiob-reJisorTa samoRvaweod sagangebod aSenebuli Teatrebi da kulturis saxlebi arsebobs. am saqmes moTaveobs iseTi xelmZRvaneli, rogoricaa xelovnebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, raWaSi metad popularuli giga jafariZe; onSi mas scenis qurums uwodeben da aqvT kidec amis safuZveli. aba, im dros sad iyo „SemoqmedebiTi tradiciebi“, sad iyo maswavlebeli da damrigebeli?! Cven TviTon viyaviT sakuTari Tavis mowafeca da maswavlebelic. cxadia, am pirobebSi Cvens TamaSs aklda saTanado ostatoba da gamocdileba. magram im dros mxatvruloba imdenad ar gvainteresebda, ramdenadac patriotuli sityvis gadasrola scenidan mayurebelTa gulebSi, maTSi mamuliSviluri grZnobebis gaRviveba. axla mogaxsenebT, ras erqva ,,aqtivi” miSa jafariZis enaze. es iyvnen axalgazrdebi, romlebsac, marTalia, scenaze TamaSi ar SeeZloT, magram sxva mxriv sasargebloni iyvnen Teatrisa da msaxiobTaTvis, dadiodnen mezoblebSi saWiro tansacmlis da sxva aucilebeli nivTebis saSovnelad, _ anu yvela, visac ki SeeZlo raime sargebloba moetana TeatrisaTvis, riTime daxmareboda mas. didsa da pataras saamayod miaCnda TeatrTan aseTi siaxlove. patara mowafeebic ki gvexmarebodnen da gvegzavnebodnen sxvadasxva saqmeebze; werdnen, xatavdnen. aseTebi iyvnen, Tundac – dRes Cvens sazogadoebaSi ukve kargad cnobili pirebi, moRvaweni – uCa jafariZe, Cemi Zma, sabWoTa kavSiris saxalxo mxatvari, akademikosi; dimitri janeliZe, Teatrmcodne, xelovnebis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori; gercel baazovi, SemdegSi cnobili mwerali da sxvebic. magram es sami erTmaneTTan Sezrdili mowafe-Tanaklaseli mainc sul sxva iyo _ namdvili enTuziastebi, dauzarelni. Tavs ar zogavdnen TeatrisaTvis, sazogado saqmisaTvis, nametnavad, patara dimitri. erTi sityviT, Cveni patara scenismoyvareTa dasi, garda imisa, rom speqtaklebs dgamda da amiT aRmzrdelobiTs muSaobas eweoda, karg magaliTs aZlevda axalgazrdobas. ramdenma maTganma miatova klubSi siaruli, sadac azartul TamaSobebSi iyvnen CaTreulni; Rvinis smac ki miatova zogierTma da Teatris TanamSromeli gaxda. onis maSindeli axalgazrdobis garToba klubSi siaruli da banqos TamaSi iyo, an e.w. „qeifi“ _ maTi janmrTelobis gamanadgurebeli da damRupveli. fulis wagebas vin Cioda, rac TavisTavad didad sazaralo da saziano ram iyo. es wageba-mogeba metad cud gzaze ayenebda axalgazrdebs. am mizeziT onSi araerTi adamiani gaubedurda... erTxelac, rogorc yovelTvis, banqos TamaSobdnen jer Tavis Sesaqcevad, me88

re mogeba-wagebazec da Tan imdenad azartulad, rom bevrma mTeli Tavisi axlad aRebuli xelfasi waago. erTi sityviT, yvela es wagebuli Tanxa erT bedniers daugrovda xelSi, mazraSi sul axlad gadmoyvanil sasamarTlos gamomZiebel russ, romlis gvari aRar maxsovs. onSi es ambavi Zalian gaxmaurda. mokled, gamomZiebelma didZali fuli moigo da Sin wavida. wagebulebi darCnen gawbilebulni, imedgacruebulni da sasowarkveTilni. ra eqnaT, ra unda eRonaT?! jer scades RvinoSi CaexrCoT javri, magram aman sul gaaxela isini da mTvralebma gadawyvites gamomZiebelisaTvis mogebuli fulis warTmeva. marTlac, ase qnes: tansacmeli gamoicvales, saxeze Cabalaxebi Semoixvies, ar gvicnoso, im kacs Sin Seucvivdnen da mogebuli Tanxa mTlianad waarTves. Tan icinodnen: „axla daitrabaxos, Tu biWia, Tavisi mogebao“. magram sicili naadrevi aRmoCnda: dazaralebuls erTi TavdamsxmelTagani misi araCveulebrivad lamazi TvalebiT ecno. meore dResve yvelani gamomZiebelTan miiyvanes da, raRa Tqma unda, daapatimres kidec, mere katorRaSi ukres Tavi. tusaRobaSi ori am ubedurTagani male gardaicvala. danarCenebma 1917 wlamde Zlivs miatanes da mxolod revoluciis talRam ixsna, magram katorRuli cxovrebiT jangatexilebs da daavadebulebs tuberkulozma maTac male mouRo bolo. mere ra kargi axalgazrdebi da ra kargi ojaxis Svilebi iyvnen! cudi araferi CaudeniaT cxovrebaSi, magram azartulma TamaSma da Rvinom am borotebisaken ubiZga maT. onSi warmodgenebis dadgmisaTvis daTa beruCaSvilis saxls viyenebdiT xolme, sadac erT dros samazro sasamarTlo iyo moTavsebuli da gvarianad mozrdili darbazic hqonda mayureblisaTvis. magram ufro xSirad saxeldaxelo Senobebsac vagebdiT, masalad advilad saSovar da iafad Rirebul lamfas (Txel ficars) viyenebdiT. ramdenime dReSi kvalificiuri xis ostatebisTvis Teatris Senobis ageba – saWiro skamebiTa da sceniT _ araviTar sirTules ar warmoadgenda. yvelafer amas sul advilad axerxebda dasis xelmZRvaneli miSa jafariZe. aseTi lamfis Senoba erTxel uweraSic avageT, roca iq erT zafxuls sagastrolod wavediT. Cveni stabiluri repertuari aseTi iyo: „patara kaxi“, „arsena“ – a.yazbegis, „da-Zma“ – v.guniasi, „qarTveli deda“, „xanuma“ – avqs.cagarelisa, „samSoblo“ da oriode kidev sxva; rusuladac vTamaSobdiT, magaliTad _ n.gogolis „SeSlilis werilebs“. amas kargad asrulebda Cveni dasis wevri viqtor eliava, onSi xazinis erT-erTi TanamSromeli, SemdegSi Tbilisis xazinis mmarTveli. warmovadgineT agreTve, a.n.Cexovis „daTvi“. sul repeticiebsa da saorganizacio saqmeebs viyaviT gadayolili. raki dasadgmelad xels romelime piesas movkidebdiT, sxva aRaraferi gvaxsovda, Sin Rame vbrundebodiT xolme. _ bavSvebo, bolos da bolos, saxlSiac gamoCndiT, ra saqme gaqvT aseTi gauTavebeli, sul erTTavad onSi rom xarT dilidan saRamomde? – gvsayvedurobdnen xolme mSoblebi. Teatri materialur daxmarebasac uwevda onis sazogadoebas. qalaqis baRSi, romelsac adgilobrivi macxovreblebi „bulvars“ 89

uwodebdnen, idga xis erTi patara oroTaxiani Senoba. erTi oTaxis oTxive kedeli savse iyo TaroebiTa da maTze dalagebuli wignebiT, meoreSi ki moTavsebuli iyo samkiTxvelo. iq idga skamebSemowyobili grZeli, Jurnal-gazeTebiT damSvenebuli magida, romelTanac sul xalxi ireoda. ai, swored, es „bulvari“ da is patara ori oTaxi Tavisi wignebiTa da Jurnal-gazeTebiT iqauri inteligenciisa da moswavle axalgazrdobis usayvarles adgilad iTvleboda. im dros Jurnal-gazeTebis gasayidi jixurebi jer kidev ar arsebobda. amitom erTaderTi „kulturuli“ dawesebuleba, sadac saqveyno ambebis gageba SeiZleboda, onis „samkiTxvelo“ gaxldaT. es Senoba agebuli iyo qalaqis (maSin – dabis) mmarTvelobis mier da mas ekuTvnoda biblioTekac da samkiTxveloc. mTeli es biblioTeka cxraasiani wlebis dasawyisSi qalaqs Semoswira kaxelma niko mrevliSvilma, sofel iyalTos mkvidrma, romelic didxans muSaobda onis sasamarTloSi da iq daojaxda kidec mariam lobJaniZeze. es qali didad ganaTlebuli da wignis moyvaruli adamiani iyo. nikom onidan wasvlisas es wignebi qalaqs im pirobiT dautova, rom iq sajaro biblioTeka daearsebinaT, raRa Tqma unda, saTanado Senobis agebis Semdgom. niko da mariami mSoblebi iyvnen cnobili mwerlis mixeil da profesor Saliko mrevliSvilebisa. da, ai, am biblioTeka-samkiTxvelosTvis Tanxis Sesawiradac vdgamdiT Cven warmodgenebs, amitom qalaqis mmarTveloba da xalxi yovelmxriv ufro meti xalisiT gviwyobda xels. dasSi viyaviT: xelmZRvaneli miSa (miSago) jafariZe, grigol dvali, vladimer grZeliZe (maswavlebeli), viqtor eliava (mosamsaxure), ivane (pasko) landia (mosamsaxure), sergo gamyreliZe (studenti), debi lobJaniZeebi, babuca, nino; me da Cemi Zma griSa. qvemo raWaSi, xidikarSi, Semogvematnen debi luba da kato gociriZeebi Tavisi umcrosi ZmiT akakiT, romelic maSin gimnazieli iyo _ SemdgomSi cnobili nevropaTologi, profesori, da maTi mezobeli valodia erisTavi _ raWis erisTavebis ukanaskneli warmomadgeneli, provizori, didi popularobiT rom sargeblobda Tavis sofelSi, roca revoluciis Semdeg Tavisi sayvareli barakoni datova da samuSaod TbilisSi Camovida, aqac aranaklebi siyvaruli da pativiscema daimsaxura. luba da kato gociriZeebi sul axalgazrdebi iyvnen da quTaisis eparqiul qalTa saswavlebelSi swavlobdnen, amasTan, did kulturul muSaobas eweodnen soflad da Cven gulwrfelad gvexmarebodnen warmodgenebis dros. erTxel uweraSi speqtaklis dasadgmelad miSago jafariZem lamfisagan saxeldaxelod lamazi Senoba aago. Senoba maSindeli uweris yvelaze TvalsaCino adgilze daidga _ eklesiis gverdiT mdebare sakmaod mozrdil ezoSi, romelic Tbilisis pirveli gimnaziis direqtors vano gamyreliZes ekuTvnoda da mwvaned bibinebda gzatkecilis gaswvriv, mquxare rionis maRal napirze. uweraSi dadgmuli speqtaklebidan maxsovs: „qarTveli deda“, „patara kaxi“ da yazbegis – „arsena“.

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im zafxuls uweraSi gansakuTrebiT bevri moagarake isvenebda da amitom Cveni speqtaklebic sul „anSlagebiT“ midioda. Tumca mayurebeli arc sxva dros gvaklda. 1912 wlis zafxuls didi mgosnis – akaki wereTlis raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobis molodinSi TiTqmis mTeli dasi mgosnis dasaxvedrad emzadeboda. zogi axal Coxa-axaluxs ikeravda, zogi lamaz iaraRs eZebda, zogi – cxens, zogi kidev – ras. magram umTavresi is gaxldaT, rom sagangebod vamzadebdiT mis „patara kaxs“, raTa kargi dadgmiT sapatio stumris guli gagvexarebina. poetis dasaxvedrad ufrosebic adgendnen TavianT gegmebs da saamisod specialuri komitetic iyo arCeuli. ase rom, yvela Tavisi saqmiT iyo dakavebuli... ai swored amis gamo, rodesac poeti da misi mravalricxovani amala ons estumra, damxvdurTa programa imdenad gadatvirTuli aRmoCnda sxvadasxva RonisZiebebiT, purmariliT, oficialuri SexvedrebiT, sityvebiT, simRerebiT, cekviTa da sxva gasarTobiT, rom speqtaklisaTvis dro veRar gamoinaxa. ase rom, im wlis zafxuli scenaze gamousvlelad gavatare mSobliur sofel RarSi da bolos seqtembris pirvel ricxvebSi wavedi lanCxuTSi, sadac saswavlo wlis dawyebasTan dakavSirebiT Cemi mSoblebi ukve Casuliyvnen patara uCasTan erTad. mamaCemi iq samoqalaqo saswavleblis gamged (inspeqtorad) muSaobda 1909 wlidan da Cvenc ise SeveCvieT iqaurobas, rom lanCxuTze ukeTesi adgili arsad gveguleboda. axlac ki, TiTqmis samoci wlis Semdeg, iseve miyvars is adgili da is xalxi, Tumca sadRa arian isini dRes? lanCxuTSi bevri kargi axalgazrda iyo da araerT maTganTan vmegobrobdi kidec, gansakuTrebiT, Cvens mezobel, mamaCemTan momuSave simReris axalgazrda maswavlebel kalenike JRentTan. xSirad vsaubrobdiT Teatrze, msaxiobebze. kalenike pirdapir „Camwvari“ iyo msaxiobobaSi da ar iqneboda, dadgmebSi monawileoba ar mieRo. lanCxuTelebic, saerTod, didi motrfialeni iyvnen speqtaklebisa, magram ra unda eRonaT, Tuki araviTari xelisSemwyobi piroba ar gaaCndaT. Cveni saubrebis Semdeg kalenikem piesis dadgmisaTvis daxmareba mTxova. me siamovnebiT daveTanxme da male man axalgazrda scenismoyvareTa wris Camoyalibebac moaxerxa. dasadgmelad avirCieT paolo mreTelis piesa „qristine“, egnate ninoSvilis amave saxelwodebis moTxrobis mixedviT. piesis dadgmisaTvis saWiro saorganizacio saqmeebis mogvareba, reJisoroba da saerTo xelmZRvaneloba TviTon kalenike JRentma ikisra. rolebic manve gaanawila da TavisTvis spiridon mciriSvilis roli airCia. tariel mklavaZis roli me momca, xolo raki qristines rolis Semsruleblad lanCxuTSi aravin aRmoCnda, kalenikem mis karg nacnobs, quTaisis dramatuli Teatris cnobil msaxiobs mariam mdivans miswera. man Tanxmoba SemouTvala da warmodgenis dRes Camovida kidec lanCxuTSi. warmodgena moewyo rkinigzis sadgurTan mdebare erT did SenobaSi, romlis sigrZe oci, xolo sigane aTi metri mainc iqneboda. igi raRac iRblad Tavisufali aRmoCnda da marjvedac moergo Cvens warmodgenas. 91

dadgmam Cinebulad Caiara da lanCxuTis sazogadoeba metad nasiamovnebi darCa, miT ufro, rom igi adgilobrivi ZalebiT iqna Catarebuli, rac imxanad lanCxuTSi metad iSviaTi ram gaxldaT. auarebeli xalxi sulganabuli usmenda piesas da aRtacebiT egebeboda TiToeul msaxiobs. yovelmxriv kargi iyo lanCxuTi, gansakuTrebiT ki _ iqauri xalxiT. yovel maTganSi egnate ninoSvilis romelime personaJs vxedavdi. sizmariviT gaqra im SesaniSnav kuTxeSi gatarebuli dReebi da uaRresad sanatrel mogonebebad CamrCa mexsierebaSi. raki scenaze da scenismoyvareobaze giyvebiT, barem Cems, moskovur ”Teatralur moRvaweobasac” gavixseneb. warmoidgineT, monawileoba mimiRia moskovis konservatoriaSi kompozitor balambergis mier dadgmul saopero speqtaklSi „demoni“, nezlobinis TeatrSi reJisor kote marjaniSvilis mier dadgmul leonid andreevis piesaSi „Savi niRbebi“ da bolos _ gind daijereT, gind ara _ bedad ”didi Teatris”, an rogorc mas uwodeben, „msoflio kulturis siamayis“ – „xelovnebis akademiis“ scenaze gamosvlac ki mxvda wilad. diax, mqonda es bedniereba da Tumca did rolebs ar vasrulebdi, samagierod, scenaze did msaxiobebTan – SaliapinTan, sobinovTan, neJdanovasTan da sxvebTan erTad vmdgarvar. es ki didi pativi da Rirsebaa. dResac saamayod maqvs Cemi studentobisdroindeli es ulamazesi xana – did TeatrSi muSaobis ori weli. iq rogor movxvdi? maSin Teatri statistebze konkurss acxadebda xolme, romlebic masiuri scenebisaTvis sWirdeboda. konkurss umetesad, studentoba eZaleboda, radgan es maT did dros ar arTmevda da Tanac scenaze saxelganTqmul msaxiobebTan erTad gamodiodnen. amasTan, Zalian xSirad evropis sxvadasxva qveynebidan gastroliorebic Camodiodnen da aba amas ra jobda? aseT speqtaklebze mosaxvedrad xalxi bileTebis saSovrad rigSi Rameebs aTevda, Cven ki statistis wignakiT TeatrSi Tavisuflad SevdiodiT, oRond marto scenaze da ara mayurebelTa darbazSi. garda amisa, am statistobisas saSualeba gveZleoda axlos gavcnobodiT msaxiobTa sazogadoebas da iq momuSave sxva pirebs. Tan, sxva sikeTesTan erTad, honorarsac viRebdiT. repeticiaze daswrebisaTvis 50 kapiks, xolo speqtaklSi monawileobisTvis erT maneTs gvaZlevdnen. ise rom, jamSi, Tve ar gavidoda, 20-25 maneTi ar migveRo. statistad Caricxva did TeatrSi arc ise advili iyo. specialuri Jiuri saaTobiT arCevda am saqmisaTvis gamosadeg mozRvavebul axalgazrdobas. yuradReba eqceoda umTavresad tanadobas, warmosadegobas, siarulis da, sazogadod, moZraobis kulturas. qarTveli studentebidan did TeatrSi TiTqmis aTamde kaci viyaviT da maT Soris me da griSac. es ki didad saxaliso iyo CvenTvis da saamayoc, vinaidan, rogorc zemoTac aRvniSne, scenaze gamosvla did msaxiobebTan erTad gvixdeboda da xSirad viyaviT maT sazogadoebaSi. 1913 wlidan did Teatrs kidev Semoemata statistTa axali nakadi da, maT Soris, im wels moskovis universitetSi Caricxu92

li Cveni ori Zma – valeriani da aleqsandre. marTalia, mamaCemi oTxive Zmas yovelTviurad gvigzavnida sakmao Tanxas, magram TeatrSi muSaobiT kidev ufro viadvilebdiT cxovrebas, amasTan droc cota gvexarjeboda. TiTqmis yoveldRiuri urTierTobis wyalobiT axlos gavecaniT, gavuSinaurdiT da davumegobrdiT didi Teatris msaxiobebsa da TanamSromlebs. es gansakuTrebiT Cems Zma valerianze iTqmis. valeriani samedicino fakultetis studenti iyo da xSirad, saWiroebisamebr, samedicino daxmarebas uwevda yvelas, ris gamoc TeatrSi sakmaod popularuli „eqimi“ gaxda; amas isic daerTo, rom valeriani metad enamaxvili iyo, Tbilisuri anekdotebiT arTobda msaxiobebs, maT Soris, yofil “Tbilisels” Teodor Saliapins, romelic kargad icnobda Tbiliss da Tbiliselebs. amitomac Saliapini Zalian daumegobrda valerians, miT ufro, roca opera „pskovitianka“ midioda. aq cxenze mjdomi valerian „boiarini“ mouSoreblad Tan axlda aseve cxenze amxedrebul ivane mrisxanes partiis Semsrulebel Saliapins. cxenosnebidan, romelnic mas axldnen scenaze, valeriani yvelaze ufro eimedeboda da gverdidan ar iSorebda. Saliapinma valerians Tavisi fotoportretic usaxsovra Tbili warweriT: „Valerianu Malakieviqu D[aparidze na dobroe vospominanie o scene Bol>wogo teatra. 1914 g. F.Wal%pin.“ es portreti axlac amSvenebs valerianis saojaxo fotogalereas da dRemde Tvalis CiniviT inaxaven. ori weliwadi davyavi didi Teatris scenaze da Tumca iq mxolod mdumare statistad „vmuSaobdi,“ mainc iq gatarebul dros didi siamovnebiTa da kmayofilebiT vixseneb Tundac imitom, rom Tavs savsebiT Sinaurulad vgrZnobdi am didi xelovnebis wminda taZarSi. zemoT moskovis konservatoria da nezlobinis Teatric vaxsene. am scenebze qarTvelma studentebma mxolod TiTo speqtaklSi miviReT monawileoba da orive maTgani tkbil mogonebebs miRvivebs. konservatoriaSi daidga kompozitor balambergis opera „demoni“, romlis Sinaarsic igivea, rac lermontovis cnobili poemisa, musika ki didad gansxvavdeba rubinSteinis operis „demonis“ musikisagan, romelsac karga xania SeCveulia Cveni msmeneli. qarTveli studentebi qoreografiul nawilSi viRebdiT monawileobas. repeticiebze Cven konservatoriis student qalebTan erTad gvavarjiSebdnen da iq sruliad SemTxveviT „aRmovaCineT“ erTi metad sandomiani da lamazi qarTveli qaliSvili, gvarad abulaZe, garusebuli Svili im ojaxisa, romelmac erTi sityvac ki ar icoda qarTuli. am ambavma guli matkina da axlac mtkivneulad ganvicdi, roca warmovidgen, Tu ramdeni qarTveli axalgazrdaa mowyvetili Tavis mSobliur qveyanas da albaT aRarc ki ainteresebs misi winaprebis ena, kultura da istoria. nezlobinis TeatrSi kote marjaniSvilma migviwvia, sadac igi reJisorobda. imxanad leonid andreevis piesa „Savi niRbebi“ dadga. usityvo rolebisaTvis TiTqmis TxuTmetamde studentma karga xans viareT repeticiebze.

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es repeticiebi arasodes damaviwydeba. specxalaTSi gamowyobili kote qurumiviT idga da araferi axsovda, Tavisi saqmis garda. 1914 wels foTSi daviwye muSaoba. es moxda didi qarTveli publicistis niko nikolaZis wardginebiT. niko im dros qalaqis Tavi gaxldaT. me amirCies adgilobrivi saurTierTo ndobis sazogadoebis gamgeobis Tavmjdomared da sul male mSvenivrad Sevegue iqaurobas. gavicani xalxi da isinic gamecvnen. iq, Cems ZiriTad movaleobasTan erTad, TandaTan davitvirTe sxva sazogadoebrivi saqmeebiTac. vmuSaobdi da, amasTan, vxelmZRvanelobdi dramatul sazogadoebas. maxsovs, ra gawvalebuli viyavi ubinaobis gamo; erTi ubralo fardulic ar gagvaCnda, drodadro repeticiebi mainc rom Cagvetarebina. amitom xSirad vawuxebdiT xolme kinoTeatr „kometas“ mepatrones baton nikolaiSvils darbazis saTxovnelad. „kometa“ im dros erTaderTi didi darbazi iyo foTSi. axali aSenebuli gaxldaT da xalxic Zalze etaneboda kinoseansebs, rogorc erTaderT gasarTobs. adgilic iSviaTi aerCia mis patrons – qalaqis centraluri adgili. warmodgenebis dasadgmelad ukeTess verafers vnaxavdiT da, cxadia, xSirad vawuxebdiT mas xan speqtaklis dasadgmelad, xan literaturuli saRamos an romelime gamoCenili piris leqciis Casatareblad. erTxel Salva nucubiZe moviwvieT quTaisidan, xolo Tbilisidan ioseb griSaSvili gvewvia. am saRamoebs didZali xalxi daeswro. maxsovs, avqsenti megreliZis winadadebiT, sufsaSiac warmovadgineT Cveni speqtakli. warmodgenaSi avqsentisTan erTad misi meuRle – „mimqralis“ fsevdonimiT cnobili poeti qali lidia megreliZec monawileobda. avqsenti im dros foTSi msaxurobda. piesa raRac saqvelmoqmedo mizniT davdgiT. rasakvirvelia, gviWirda saTanado Senobis uqonloba da axlac mikvirs, rogor axerxebda imodena qalaqi uTeatrod cxovrebas. albaT, am mxriv did miznebs isaxavda foTis imdroindeli mesveuri da moamage niko nikolaZe, magram Sesaferis dros eloda. bevri tkbili mogoneba SemomrCa im droidan, gansakuTrebiT ki valerian gunias iubileze Cemi da ioseb griSaSvilis gamosvla TbilisSi 1917 wels. Cemi axalgazrdobis is dauviwyari STabeWdilebani axlac guSindel dResaviT maxsovs. amas mTlianad foTis dramatul sazogadoebasa da foTelebs vumadli. scena!... amboben, vinc erTxel scenas eziareba, mas veRar daiviwyebso. onis patara scenidan didi Teatris did scenamde! ai, manZili!... manZili, marTlac, udidesia!... oi, ra auwoneli bedniereba mewvia axalgazrdobaSi! did TeatrSi erT Sexedvasac ki bednierebad Tvlis zogierTi, me ki iq SinauriviT viyavi karga xans. ukanasknelad momajadoebeli STabeWdileba Tbilisis operisa da baletis Teatris scenidan damrCa, rodesac 1968 wlis 19 94

ianvars Cemi Zmis uCas 60 wlisTavis saiubileo saRamoze sityviT momixda gamosvla meore ZmasTan _ daviTTan erTad. „Teatris mizania mayurebels mianiWos sixaruli, Sehmatos mxneoba“, _ ambobda didi kote marjaniSvili. me amas mudam vcdilobdi da mgoni vakeTebdi kidec.

maqsim gorki qalaq onSi
1903 wlis zafxuli idga. Cveni ojaxi ardadegebze mSobliur saxlSi, zemo raWis sofel RarSi isvenebda. sofeli Rari maSindeli mazris administraciul centrs _ ons _ 3 kilometriT iyo daSorebuli. oni patara, umniSvnelo, magram Tavisi mdebareobis wyalobiT sakmaod cnobili daba iyo. dRes oni qalaqia, raionuli centri. mamaCemi, malaqia jafariZe, imxanad maswavleblad quTaisSi muSaobda da Svilebsac iqaur gimnaziaSi gvaswavlida, magram mtkice Cveuleba hqonda, zafxulis ardadegebis dawyebisTanave mTeli ojaxiT raWaSi wasuliyo, sadac mas mouTmenlad elodnen mSoblebi da axloblebi, mamapapeuli sofluri saxli. Cven ki, bavSvebs, sayvareli bebia da babuas garda, xexiliT savse didi mwvane ezo, tye, mindori, veli da, rac mTavaria, SesaniSnavi sabanao civi da ankara mdinare Rarula gvizidavda. mdinare kvaJis mTidan moedineba da Cveni soflis bolos rions erTvis. amitom sofeli Tavisi yoveldRiuri da mousvenari cxovrebiT mimzidveli da sanatreli iyo. onSi iSviaTad Tu CavdiodiT; yidva arafrisa gvWirdeboda. zogjer Jurnal-gazeTebisaTvis mivakiTxavdiT fostas, mxolod kviraSi orjer rom amodioda quTaisidan. erTxel, saRamo Jams, roca mamaCemi yanidan dabrunda, dananebiT gviTxra: _ ai ramdeni dRea Tqven onSi ar CasulxarT da Turme rogori didi ambavi gamogvparvia: maqsim gorki yofila iq quTaisidan kavkavSi mimavalio. am sruliad moulodneli ambiT pirdapir gaocebulni davrCiT. ojaxSi imxanad xuTi Zma viyaviT; meeqvse Zma uCa mxolod sami wlis Semdeg, 1906-Si Semogvemata. _ gorki udavod didi mweralia, _ gadavulaparakeT erTmaneTs, _ misi wignebi xom mamaCvenis karadaSic awyvia... ramdeni ram gvaswavles am wignebma! marto qarTveli kacis _ erTi sawyali Saqro faTaZis ambavi rad Rirs, romlis saxelic Cven mwerlis moTxrobidan – „Cemi Tanamgzavri“ – amovikiTxeT. Tavisuflebisa da sinaTlisaken gorkis mowodebebi mudam gvxiblavda me da Cems Zmas. Cven maSin mexuTe Tu meeqvse klasis gimnazielebi viyaviT da sakmaod kargad verkveodiT mwerlobis sakiTxebSi; gansakuTrebiT kargad vicnobdiT rus klasikosebs. gorki, marTalia, axali Semosuli iyo literaturaSi, magram mainc gvizidavda. misi moTxrobebi azrsa da ganwyobilebas gviforiaqebda. 95

amitomac gadavwyviteT, rogorme SevxvedrodiT maqsim gorkis. meore dRes diliT, gamTeniis xans me da Cemi Zma xalisiT gavuyeviT Cveulebriv saurme gzas. ufro sworad, gza SevamokleT da bilikiTa Tu ubilikod, xetialis Semdeg, onSi amovyaviT Tavi. Tan waviReT mamis mier sagangebod CvenTvis nayidi fotokamera _ „kodaki“, romelic im dros iSviaTobas warmoadgenda. cxadia, es kamera dRevandelTan SedarebiT didi veraferi bedena iyo, magram misi saSualebiT bevri portreti da soflis xedi gadaviReT. axlac am fotoaparatiT sayvareli mwerlis portretis gadaReba gvqonda gadawyvetili. onSi im dros, msgavsad araerTi sxva patara qalaqisa Tu soflisa, erTgvari „sanaxSo“ iyo. Cvenc aq gavigeT, rom ,,gorki Tavisi megobrebiT es-esaa „lineikiT“ gavida uweris gziTao”. ra unda gveqna? nuTu Sin ise unda davbrunebuliyaviT, Soridan mainc ar gvexila sayvareli mwerali? sanaxSoze TavSeyrilebma gvirCies, dro ar dagvekarga, „lineikas“ gamovdgomodiT da xidis gaRma aRmarTiT gza gadagveWra. asec moviqeciT. magram, miuxedavad Cveni gulamovardnamde sirbilisa, mainc ver movaxerxeT davweodiT mgzavrebs da roca Zneli aRmarTi aviareT da fostis gzaze avediT, „lineika“ ukve grial-grialiT miuyveboda mamisonisaken mimaval Saras. Sig ramdenime mgzavri ijda, romelTa Sorisac naTlad gamoirCeoda gorkis maRali figura nabdis TeTri farTofarfliani qudiT, rogoric axuravT xolme zafxulobiT turistebs. man moixeda Cvenken da didxans mogvCereboda dakvirvebiT, sanam etli mosaxvevs ar miefara. Cven advilad SegveZlo gagveCerebina „lineika“, Tuki xels davuqnevdiT da gavZaxebdiT, magram es kadnierebad miviCnieT. davrCiT gawbilebulni. Sors, qvemodan, TiTqo nugeSis niSnad, aTas xmaze SemogvSxuoda giJmaJi rioni. ra STambeWdavi iyo im dros Cven irgvliv gaSlili sivrce, romelsac kavkasionis marad Tovliani qedi agvirgvinebda. ra kargi iqneboda, cota adre rom movsuliyaviT da am lamazi peizaJis fonze iSviaTi stumrisa da misi megobrebisTvis samaxsovro suraTi gadagveRo Cveni fotoaparatiT. ukan imedgacruebulni davbrundiT. onSi megobrebisa da nacnobebis gamokiTxvis Semdeg dawvrilebiT gavigeT gorkis iq yofnis ambavi. aleqsi maqsimes Ze onSi quTaisidan Tavis megobar konstantine petres Ze piatnickisTan erTad Camovida, romelic peterburgis erT-erTi gamomcemlobis „znanies“ xelmZRvaneli iyo. aqeT im ganzraxviT gamouvlia, rom osuri „lineika“ eSovna da gza kavkavamde ganegrZo. interesi hqonia oseTis samxedro gzas gascnoboda da amiT Tavisi didi xnis survili aesrulebina. mwerlis “Cveni gziT” wamosvla gasagebi gaxda, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT im garemoebas, rom erTaderTi saSualeba, romliTac mamisonis uReltexiliT kavkavSi gadasvla SeiZleboda im dros, „lineika“ iyo. misi Sovna ki mxolod onSi SeiZleboda, radgan tvirTi Crdilo kavkasiidan mxolod onamde gadmohqondaT. 96

amrigad, Crdilo oseTidan gadmosuli „lineikis“ bolo gaCerebis adgili oni iyo. mgzavrebmac icodnen es da amitom „gadaRma“ wasvlis msurvelebi onSi modiodnen. didi mweralic, eWvi araa, xsenebuli mizniT aRmoCnda Cvens qalaqSi. marTlac, am patara „lineikebs“ marjved SeeZloT daeZliaT iqauri viwro gzebi. aseTi ram ki am marSrutze xSiri iyo. sxvaTa Soris, mgzavrebs xSirad uxdebodaT CamoqveiTeba, rom cxenebisaTvis simZime SeemsubuqebinaT da TviTonac xifaTs ar gadahyrodnen. me, piradad, Cems tyup ZmasTan, grigolTan, erTad, xSirad mivlia am gziT. gimnaziis damTavrebis Semdeg, ruseTisaken swored am gziT da aseTi „lineikiT“ gavemgzavre. pirvelad mogvixda mgzavroba onidan kavkavamde. pirdapir gaocebuli viyavi ara marto gzis zRapruli silamaziT, aramed am patara etlis gamZleobiTa da im sruliad mouwyobel gzaze cxenebis simarjviTac. gzas ki, didis ambiT, „oseTis samxedro gza“ erqva. gza im pirobebSic Tu mainc inarCunebda Tavis funqcias da dasavleT saqarTvelosa da oseTs Sua mimosvla ar wydeboda, me vfiqrob, pirvel yovlisa, amas osi „melineikeebis“ unars unda vumadlodeT, maTi patara etlebisa da kunTmagari cxenebis iSviaT gamZleobas. maSasadame, gorkis ganzraxva hqonia ons stumreboda, rom kavkavSi samgzavro „lineika“ eSovna, Tanac, isic hqonia gagonili, rom iq (onSi) Ramis gasaTevs versad iSovida, Tu ara sadme ojaxSi. amaSi mas daxmareba gauwia misma keTilma megobarma, imxanad quTaisSi myofma, SemdgomSi baqos 26 komisarTagan erT-erTma _ alioSa jafariZem. mas Tavisi oneli naTesavisaTvis, SemdgomSi cnobili otolaringologis daviT jafariZisaTvis miewera, romelmac mwerali didi sixaruliT miiRo ojaxSi da onis axalgazrdobac gaacno. maqsim gorkis onSi didi pativiscemiT Sexvdnen da bolos vercxliT moWedili jixvis yanwebic aCuqes. onSi maqsim gorkim or dRes dahyo. maspinZlebma mTeli es dro erT did, daumTavrebel zeimad uqcies Zvirfas stumars. amas dResac igonebs Cemi megobari prokofi erisTavi, romelic uSualo monawile iyo aRniSnuli ambisa. am Sexvedra-dResaswaulis namdvili sulisCamdgmeli iyo maSin sul axalgazrda parmen gamyreliZe – SemdgomSi TvalsaCino iuristi da sazogado moRvawe, WiaTuris saeqsporto marganecis sazogadoebis („Cemos“) saqmeTa mmarTveli. literaturis didma moyvarulma parmen gamyreliZem saamayo stumars ara marto onSi gauwia maspinZloba, aramed oseTis sazRvramde – mamisonis uReltexilamdec – gaacila igi da metad kargi STabeWdilebac datova stumarze. es naTlad Cans didi mwerlis mier misTvis niJni novgorodidan gamogzavnil TxzulebaTa eqvstomeulis pirveli tomis satitulo furcelze Sesrulebuli warweridan: „Na pam%t> Parmenu Davidoviqu Gamkrelidze. Gluboko blagodarnjy za gostepriymstvo i lhbeznost>, M.Gorkiy. N. Novgorod. 5-go avgusta 1903 goda.“ maqsim gorkis es wignebi dResac inaxeba parmen gamyreliZis ojaxSi, rogorc Zvirfasi saojaxo reliqvia da axlandel mis mflobels simon parmenis Zes, Tbilisis universitetis docents, 97

ganzraxuli aqvs is TbilisSi axlad gaxsnil gorkis muzeums Seswiros. gorkis wignebTan erTad p.gamyreliZisaTvis Tavisi fotoportretic gamougzavnia, isic sakuTari warweriT. es portretic daamSvenebs gorkis saxelobis Tbilisis muzeumis eqsponatebs. gavida ramdenime weli. me da grigoli ukve moskovis universitetSi vswavlobdiT. gorkic albaT iqve sadRac axlos cxovrobda da amitom quCaSi xSirad SegvimCnevia fexiT mosiarule. da ai, erTxel saxelovani mwerali „Tavisufal TeatrSi“, anu rogorc mas xSirad uwodebdnen moskovelebi, „marjanovTan“ (radgan Teatris xelmZRvaneli cnobili reJisori kote marjaniSvili iyo) SevniSneT: is pirveli rigis rbil da Rrma savarZelSi ijda sapatio stumrebTan erTad da didi yuradRebiT misCereboda scenas. Cven visargebleT antraqtiT da aleqsi maqsimes ZesTan mivediT. gamovecnaureT. esiamovna, radgan qarTvelebisagan da saqarTvelodan bevri ram axsovda sasiamovno, movagoneT 1903 weli da misi onSi yofna. vuambeT agreTve, Tu ra amao gamodga maSin Cveni Tavgamodeba da maraToni, radgan bavSvebs ar gveyo gambedaoba, gagveCerebina misi etli. didma mweralma bevri icina, magram Tan sinanulic gamoTqva, rom ver gadaviReT is qalaq onisa da kavkasiis mTebis fonze. _ Tqven rom maSin gambedaoba gyofnodaT, megobrebo, _ gviTxra gorkim gamoTxovebisas da Tan qera ulvaSebSi saamod CaiRima, _ dRes erTi lamazi sabuTic gveqneboda xelT odesRac kavkasiis mTebSi oseTis samxedro gzaze Sexvedris mosagoneblad. Cveni sayvareli fotoaparati „kodaki“ dResac saTuTad inaxeba Cvens ojaxSi, rogorc im lamazi, magram uiRblo epizodis utyvi mowme.

akakisTan erTad raWa-leCxumSi
Cveni sayvareli mgosani akaki wereTeli pirvelad quTaisSi vnaxe, roca is 60 wlis vaJkaci iyo, me ki, gimnaziis mowafes, misi xilva ocnebad mqonda gadaqceuli. da mainc, bolos da bolos, 1912 wels, akakis raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobis dros, masTan pirispir Sexvedris bednierebac meRirsa. maSin mgosani ukve Warmagi moxuci brZandeboda. rogorc im istoriuli mogzaurobis monawilem, minda zogi ram gavixseno piradad akakisa da im sazeimo Sexvedrebis Sesaxebac, mgosans rom raWa-leCxumSi mouwyves da WeSmaritad saxalxo dResaswaulis xasiaTi miiRo. es, saerTod, cnobili ambavi gaxlavT, magram me Cemi TvaliT nanax ambebze giambobT Tqven, visac didi akaki TvaliT arasodes ginaxavT. daviwyeb imiT, Tu ra gafacicebiT vemzadebodiT didi Tu patara, axal Coxebs vikeravdiT. Cems patara Zmas uCasac ki, romelic maSin mxolod xuTi wlisa iyo, dedam sirmiT movlebuli mSvenieri qulaja Seukera... stumars onidan 12 kilometris daSorebiT, soris WalebSi davxvdiT. samasi cxenosani vegebebodiT sapatio stumarsa da mis TanmxlebT. pirveli etli, romelSiac akakis didebul saxes mov98

kariT Tvali, sxva etlebisagan gansxvavebiT, cocxali yvavilebiT iyo morTuli. vixileT Tu ara mgosani, maSinve xmamaRali vaSa SevZaxeT da am gundur Zaxils taSis grialic davurTeT Tan. man aRfrTovanebuli salmiTa da qudis moxdiT upasuxa Cvens sazeimo SeZaxils da roca SeniSna, rom sityviT mimarTavdnen, fexze wamodgoma scada, magram daRlili Canda da, xalxis TxovniT, isev etlis savarZelSi dabrZanda. sityvac qudmoxdilma da etlSi mjdarma moismina; iaraRSi Camsxdar cxenosnebs gvadevnebda Tvals. Canda, rom Relavda, radgan TvalebTan wamdauwum mihqonda cxvirsaxoci da cremls imSralebda. amis Semdeg mgosnisa da mis TanamgzavrTa etlebis ukan davewyveT da simReris guguniT avaTqaruneT cxenebi... iSviaTi sanaxavi gaxldaT onis misadgomTan aRmarTuli triumfaluri TaRi, romelic yvavilebiTa da lozungebiT iyo Semkuli. am TaRTan auarebel xalxs moeyara Tavi. qalaqis warmomadgenelma isev morigi misasalmebeli sityviT mimarTa mgosans. da, ai, am dros xalxis wiaRidan, rogorc wylis Wavlidan TeTri gedebi, amoimarTa TeTriT Semosili da TaigulebiT xeldamSvenebuli sami ulamazesi gogona; isini msubuqad gamoeyvnen xalxis talRas da, rogorc mgosnis muzebi, feriebiviT miegebnen mas, mere ki etlSi Causxdnen Zvirfas stumars. am ”muzebTan” dakavSirebiT minda mcirediT gadavuxvio mTavar saTqmels da Tqveni yuradReba maTze gadavitano. akakis sami poeturi muza, sami ulamazesi qaliSvili onis mowinave sazogadoebidan, erTad swavlobda quTaisis wminda ninos qalTa gimnaziaSi, romelic maT erTad daamTavres 1912 wlis zafxulSi... lena giorgobiani iyo ulamazesi ulamazesTa Soris; saTno da moridebuli ufrosebis mimarT, xolo amxanagebis wreSi – xalisiani da sicocxliT savse, gulRia da gulmxurvale. mas jer kidev saswavlebelSi eZaxdnen „RvTaebas“ da es epiTeti ara marto silamazis, iSviaTi garegnobisa da maRali adamianuri TvisebebisaTvis, aramed qaluri sinatifisa da momxibvlelobisaTvis, keTili qcevisa da yvelasadmi siyvaruliT savse da sufTa gulisaTvis SeerqmiaT misTvis. lena quTaisSi cnobili eqimis dimitri nazariSvilis qaliSvil isiasTan erTad izrdeboda. isiac mTel quTaisSi aseve saTno da momxibvleli gogona gaxldaT da orTave iqaur mowinave sazogadoebaSi trialebda. poetebi aRmerTebdnen maT. 1912-1913 wlebSi quTaisis imdroindel gazeTebSi lenasadmi miZRvnili araerTi leqsia dabeWdili; Tundac leqsi „fiordebis asuls“, romelic „oqros verZis“ 1913 wlis me-5 nomerSia gamoqveynebuli. aRarafers vityvi gamouqveynebel werilebze da paolo iaSvilis leqsze _ „meores“, isia nazariSvils rom eZRvneba. aseTi saTauri paolos leqss imitom hqonda, rom misi warmodgeniT „pirveli“ lena giorgobiani iyo. magram lena Zalze mokrZalebuli da kdemamosili gaxldaT da amden qebas yuradRebas ar aqcevda, TiTqos arc gaegonos da arc araferi smenodes. amitom iyo, rom mas arc erTi gazeTi ar Seunaxavs, romlebSiac misdami miZRvnili leqsebia dabeWdili. 99

im dros jer kidev axalgazrda poetma leli jafariZem moiwadina yvela am leqsTa Sekreba da erT wignad gamoqveyneba, raTa igi saCuqrad mierTmia adresatisaTvis, magram lenam Sors daiWira da yuric ar aTxova lelis survils... lena cekvisTvis iyo dabadebuli. marTlac iSviaTi momxibvlelobiT asrulebda rogorc evropul, ise qarTul cekvebs, prizic ki miiRo „naurulis“ cekvisaTvis 1913 wels quTaisis klubSi. „Kutaisskiy listok“-mac aRniSna: „V konce bjla ispolnena naurska% lezginka Lenoy Giorgobiani“. raWa-leCxumSi lenas Sexvedra did akakisTan pirveli da ukanaskneli ar yofila; quTaisSi mas kidev eloda mTel saRamos mgosnis gverdiT yofna. lenas gasaocrad, akakim Tavad icno misi erT-erTi muza, gamoelaparaka da darbazSi vano sarajiSvilsac ki gaacno, romelic im saRamos koncertze gamodioda. es dauviwyari Sexvedra lena giorgobians _ igive Cems meuRles _ aRwerili aqvs erT mcire mogonebaSi da remingtonze gadabeWdili Cvens ojaxSi inaxeba. lenas SemdgomSiac kargad icnobdnen qarTul sazogadoebaSi... mas moxucebulobamde ar daukargavs momxibvleloba da iSviaTi adamianuri Tvisebebi... naTqvamia „colis qeba ra rigiao“ da mec aq minda davusva wertili... akakis meore muza – nadia CikvaiZe – lenas deidaSvili, eqim CikvaiZis qaliSvili, Cemma Zmam griSam iTxova. xolo mesame muza – Tamar gelovani – eqim aslan gelovanis qaliSvili da SemdegSi poet lado gegeWkoris meuRle, msaxiobi Zmebis merab da gogi gegeWkorebis deda gaxldaT. ai, is sami TeTri poeturi muza, romlebic gverds umSvenebdnen akakis raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobis dros... etlis gverdiTa safexurebze me da Cemi Zma grigoli davdeqiT, ori erTnairi qandakeba da erTnairad morTul-mokazmulni. amis Semdeg etlic daiZra, magram ris vai-vaglaxiT miiwevda xalxiT gaWedil quCaSi da, roca gaSlil mindorze aRmovCndiT, SekrebilTa iseTi sixarulis yiJina da vaSas Zaxili gaisma, rom cxenebi dafrTxnen da Zlivs Seakaves isini. paraskevi iyo, adgilobrivi bazrobis dRe, rac Zalauneburad xels uwyobda xalxis simravles; gegonebodaT, mTel raWas aq mouyria Tavio. daviT gociriZis saxli, romelic stumris misaRebad iyo gaTvaliswinebuli, Zvirfas sazogadoebas aevso; ezoSi ferxuli moewyoT da didebuli simRerebiT atkbobdnen yurTasmenas. sami dRe dahyo akakim onSi da am xnis manZilze gverdidan ar movSorebivarT, sul Tavs vevlebodiT, SevcqerodiT mas da vxarobdiT misi imeruli kiloTi Sezavebuli qarTuliT, xumrobebiTa da moswrebuli sityviT. rac unda Rrma azris Semcveli yofiliyo misi sityva akaki sadad da martivad gadmoscemda, Tanac xmis yoveli awevisa da dawevis gareSe. misi saubari Tanabari, mSvidi da wynari iyo, rac Zalian Svenoda akakis olimpiur Sesaxedaobas, mis sidinjesa Tu sidarbaisles. 100

xma didi ar hqonda, rogorc es mgosnis goliaTur sxeuls Seefereboda, magram tkbili, sasiamovno da odnav maRali toni uTuod Svenoda mis saSualo siZlieris tembrs. mgosnis xmadabali sityvebic ki mkafiod da garkveviT ismoda. yovelmxriv Semkuli iyo Cveni mgosani. mis RvTiur saxes TiTqos idumali Saravandedi mosavda. erTi sityviT, bednier varskvlavze dabadebulio, rom ityvian, swored is iyo... akakis warmosadegoba da mefuri sidiade bunebrivad iwvevda xalxis mowiwebasa da Tayvaniscemas. ar darCenila raWa-leCxumis arc erTi gzajvaredini, rom Soreuli soflebidan Camosuli xalxiT ar yofiliyo savse. qali Tu kaci, moxuci Tu axalgazrda – yvela iq iyo; yvelas undoda misi danaxva, yvela xarobda; mis danaxvaze qudebs maRla isrodnen. ai, siyvaruli, ai, namdvili, WeSmariti siyvaruli!... cnobilia, rom 1908 wels, akakis iubilis dReebSi, quTaisis axalgazrdobam mgosnis etlidan cxenebi gamouSva da Sig Tavad Seeba... Tu ara aseTi siyvaruli, maS, ram aiZula ubralo sofleli adamianebi, saxl-kari mietovebinaT da bilik-bilik erbinaT tyeebsa da velebze, raTa „foStis gzaze“ mieswroT da sakuTari TvaliT exilaT poeti, romlis leqsebi, miuxedavad wera-kiTxvis ucodinrobisa, bevrma maTganma zepirad icoda. cxadia, mgosanic didad gaxarebuli iyo. _ gana SeiZleba Cemi aRtacebis gadmocema? – Tqva man mogzaurobidan dabrunebis Semdeg, _ an aRwera yvelafer imisa, rac me vnaxe da ganvicade?... iseTi aRfrTovaneba sufevda yvelgan, rom Tavi sizmarSi megona... amitom arc ki gamkvirvebia, rodesac Sqmeridan, bajixevidan, Rebidan Tu Wioradan Camosul farajian moxucebs vxedavdi. Cems SekiTxvaze erTma maTganma isic ki miTxra, _ akakis leqsebi rogor ar vici? gana man ara Tqva, „gmirebs deeZebs, uyivis Cemi dafi da naRara“, magram kargad maxsovs, rom „naRaras“ nacvlad „neRera” Tqva... „neRera deeZebso“, – imeruli kiloTi mipasuxa man. etyoba, kiTxva ar icoda da Taviseburi variantiT warmoTqvamda akakis leqss... mgosans gansakuTrebiT moswonda raWuli simRerebi, ufro ki, „maRla mTas modga“, „qriste aRdga“, „TvalJuJuna“ da sxv. romelTac moxucebi didi gatacebiT, mRerodnen ferxulSi, amasTan, akvirdeboda maT Tavisebur cekvebs, xSirad saubrobda maTTan. akaki sufris TavSi „RmerTiviT“ ijda da yuradRebiT usmenda saubars. Rvinos Zalze Zunwad svamda, TiTqmis arc ki ekareboda, miuxedavad imisa, rom sufras uxvad amSvenebdnen xvanWkaridan motanili ugemrielesi aleqsandrouliT savse doqebi da vercxlis yelsalamura surebi. maspinZlebs gaegoT, rom akakis arc sxvisgan moswonda Rvinis sma da Troba, miT ufro, gadaWarbebuli, da amitom yvela frTxilobda, _ TavdaWerilad svamdnen, raTa mgosani ar SeewuxebinaT. roca sityvaSi gamosulebi mis Semoqmedebasa da samSoblos siyvarulze laparakobdnen, akakis grZnoba ereoda da cremlebs ver faravda. Tavad ki iSviaTad axsenebda sakuTar leqsebs da did mokrZalebasac iCenda maTi Sefasebisas. 101

_ me gmiri ara var, _ Tqva erTxel, roca mas erovnuli gmiri uwodes, _ me mxolod misi winamorbedi gaxlavarT da Rirsi ar viqnebi „xamli Sevxsna ferxTa misTao“. guliT xarobda, imden xalxs rom xedavda Tavis garSemo da mis mefur saxes ufro meti brwyinvaleba emateboda. sufraze mudam sityvebis korianteli idga, gulwrfeli da gulidan amosuli, magram Seatyobdnen Tu ara, mgosani Tavad apirebs sityvis warmoTqmaso, imwamsve samariseburi siCume Camovardeboda xolme... da iwyeboda mgosnis tkbili, amaRelvebeli, gulsmosaxvedri da momxibvleli saubari. roca akaki wamoimarTeboda xolme sufris TavSi, gegonebodaT, mTa wamomdgarao; raRac Taviseburi iyo, gansakuTrebuli da gamorCeuli. rac unda zRva xalxSi mdgariyo, mainc TvalSi gecemodaT misi impozanturi figura da RirsebiT aRsavse saxe. 1913 wels moskovSi adgilobriv mwerlebsa da sazogadoebasTan Sexvedris dros akakis gamoCenisTanave mTeli darbazi fexze wamodga, xolo uxucesi rusi mwerali boborikini, rogorc RvTaebas, ise emTxvia xelze. 72 wlis iyo akaki, raWa-leCxumSi rom imogzaura da, Tumca misi neli siaruli poetis xandazmulobas amJRavnebda, mis Sexedvas mainc araferi sjobda. gruza TmiTa da Cawikwikebuli TeTri kbilebiT bevr axalgazrdas araTu tols daudebda, albaT, ajobebda kidec. danamdvilebiT ambobdnen da mogonebebic adastureben imas, rom, miuxedavad asakisa, mgosani Txilsa da kakals ise ar SeWamda, Tavad Tu ar gatexda sakuTari kbiliTo... _ nayofs ra gemo aqvs, Tavad Tu ar daamtvrie naWuWio, _ ityoda Turme sufraze. Svenoda mgosans kargi sityvac da moxdenili xumrobac, sicilica da Tvalze momdgari cremlic, _ saqarTvelos xsenebis dros rom gadmocvivdeboda xolme TvalTa kiloebze. _ akakis bevri gataceba hqonia, magram namdvili siyvaruliT mxolod misi saTayvanebeli samSoblo uyvarda, _ ambobs ilia zurabiSvili Tavis mogonebaSi poetis Sesaxeb. _ moskovSi Cemi studentobis dros araerT saxelovan pirTan, Rirseul adamianTan da sulierad maRal Tu fizikurad Semkul pirovnebasTan mqonia Sexvedra, romelTa Soris bevri SesaniSnavi garegnobisac yofila, magram iseTi STambeWdavi Sesaxedaobis, rogorisac Cveni saxelovani poeti iyo, marTla olimpiuri da zeSTagonebuli, me aravin maxsovs, aravin Semxvedria. miuxedavad amisa, didi mgosani iseTi mokrZalebuli, Tavmdabali da moridebuli iyo, ise ubralod eWira Tavi da ise esaubreboda yvelas, gegonebodaT, maTi didi xnis megobari an axlobeliao. Tu Cven vaWarbebdiT an vaWarbebT akakis Sefasebis dros, sxvebic xom ase eTayvanebodnen mas! amisaTvis marto moskovisa Tu peterburgis SexvedraTa gaxsenebac ikmarebda. Tavi rom davaneboT im udides STabeWdilebas, rac man safrangeTSi moaxdina 1909 wels. amas iuwyeba erT-erTi maSindeli Jurnali, me ki amis Taobaze (18.9.60) gazeT „komunistis“furclebze wavikiTxe. werilis avtori, pirvel yovlisa, poetis garegnul silamazesa da axovanebas aRwers da bolos daaskvnis: 102

_ „gasuli wlis 20 dekembers saqarTvelom izeima akaki were-

Tlis iubile. es iyo mTeli eris aRtacebul grZnobaTa gamomJRavneba, iseTi, romelsac arc erTi poeti ar Rirsebia, garda, SesaZloa, viqtor hiugosi. 240 deputatze meti warudga mas, raTa poetisaTvis gamoexata TanamemamuleTa da msoflio mweralTa siyvaruli da pativiscema. qveynierebis yvela kuTxidan mouvida depeSebi, Jurnal-gazeTebma Sewyvites sxva masalebis beWdva da mxolod didi poetisadmi miZRvnil masalebs aqveynebdnen. TviT moskovisa da peterburgis presam akaki wereTeli iseTi didebiT Semosa, rasac didi tolstoic ki ar Rirsebia. saxalxo zeimi, _ dasZens gazeTi, _ ramdenime Tves gagrZelda...“
aseTi aRtacebiT werda franguli gazeTi akaki wereTelze Cveni saukunis dasawyisSi da ase gadmoeca es ambavi istorias... bednierad vTvli Tavs, rom gangebam ase axlos damakavSira Cveni eris sasiqadulo SvilTan. videqi mis gverdiT da mesmoda misi mRelvare sunTqva, romelic sixarulisagan mkerdSi veRar eteoda. vismendi akakis mxurvale sityvebs da vxedavdi cremlebs, gulidan rom amoduRdebodnen da wamwamebze usxdebodnen patara margalitebad... xolo roca mgosani quTaisSi dabrunda, TiTqos mTeli raWaleCxumi erTianad dacarielda, TiTqos erTbaSad davobldiT yvelani. imave wels me da griSam vTargmneT da moskovSi gamoveciT akakis „baSi-aCuki“ da amasTanave misi portretis daxatvac moviwadineT, romelic mxolod 1917 wels piradad me davasrule. akaki, natur alur zomaze didi, profilSi davxate da darbazSi mowiwebiT davkide. es portreti ara marto maxarebs, aramed warsulis siRrmeebsac minaTebs. akaki wereTeli marto Semoqmedi ki ara, sulieri moZRvari da winamZRolic iyo da aseTad darCeba igi momavali TaobebisTvisac.

foTis periodi
moskovis universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg, 1914 wels samSobloSi im dros davbrundi, rodesac pirveli imperialisturi omi ukve mZvinvarebda. magram brZolis cecxli uSualod im adgilebs mosdeboda, sadac ruseT-germaniis jarebi erkineboda erTmaneTs. zurgis mosaxleoba ki Zveleburad ganagrZobda cxovrebas da ver grZnobda mis garSemo atexil saSinelebas. muSaoba da ojaxuri cxovreba qalaq foTSi mec swored maSin momixda. da, miuxedavad imisa, rom mas Semdeg 65 weliwadze metia gasuli, yvelaferi Zveleburad maxsovs. axlac Tvalwin midgas imdroindeli Cemi moRvaweobis dauviwyari suraTebi, Sexvedrebi sazogadoebis gamoCenil warmomadgenlebTan, rigiT adamianebTan da sxv. 103

marto imis gaxseneba rad Rirs, rom iseT did savaWro centrSi, rogoric imdroindeli foTi iyo, araviTari kulturuli gasarTobi ar arsebobda, maT Soris arc Teatri, arc raime klubis msgavsi, arc raime sakrebulo. garTobis erTaderT keras, rogorc ukve aRvniSne, moqalaqe nikolaiSvilis kerZo mozrdili Senoba, saxelwodebiT „kometa“ warmoadgenda, sadac is xSirad uCvenebda kinosuraTebs. „kometas“ iseTi didi darbazi hqonda, rom iq Tavisuflad SeiZleboda speqtaklebic gamarTuliyo, leqciebic mogvesmina da sasurvel stumrebsac – xelovani iqneboda is Tu mecnieri – sakadrisad davxvedrodiT. ase iyo Tu ise, Teatris uqonloba mainc sagrZnobi iyo. amitomac iseTi scenismoyvareebic, rogorebic iyvnen nuca norakiZe, stefane xaraziSvili, noe JRenti, emelian nodia da sxvebi, mouTmenlad elodnen im dRes, rodesac „kometis“ mepatrone mowyalebas gaiRebda da ramdenime dRiT Tavis kuTvnil Senobas maT dauTmobda. gulaxdilad rom vTqvaT, foTis imdroindel mosaxleobas hqonda imis materialuri SesaZlebloba, rom Teatris asagebad saWiro Tanxa Seegrovebina, magram ar arsebobda saerTo iniciativa, saqmis siyvaruli da mondomeba miuxedavad imisa, rom xalxi Teatrebs da amisTana gasarTobebs didad etaneboda. foTSi 1914 wels Cavedi. es iyo Cemi pirveli Sexvedra am lamaz zRvispira qalaqTan. manamde ki mas Jurnal-gazeTebidan an wignebidan vicnobdi, ufro ki mweral giorgi wereTlis romanis – „pirveli nabijis“ furclebidan, sadac ase SesaniSnavadaa daxatuli imdroindeli qarTveli burJua, misi cxovreba, romanis calkeuli gmirebi – eremia warba, baxva fulava da sxv. romelTa Tavgadasavali foTis imdroindeli cxovrebis fonze iSleba. da ai, foTis sazogadoebisaTvis sruliad ucnobi axalgazrda saurTierTo sazogadoebis, igive saurTierTo bankis Tavmjdomared amirCies didi samocianelis, publicistisa da sazogado moRvawis, qalaqis sabWos Tavmjdomaris niko nikolaZis winadadebiT. amis gamo, me didi pasuxisgeblobiT movekide saqmes da mTeli axalgazrduli energiiT Sevudeqi muSaobas. magram manamde jer sakiTxis sabolood gasarkvevad sofel did jixaiSSi niko nikolaZesTan Cavedi. saqme is iyo, rom im periodSi ojaxs movekide, coli SevirTe da axlobel-naTesavebi daJinebiT mTxovdnen foTSi wasvlis ganzraxvaze xeli ameRo, raTa iq raime sens, kerZod, malarias ar gadavyrodi, romelic im dros ase iyo gavrcelebuli foTSi. batonma nikom Sematyo uguneboba da arc gakvirvebia, magram man imdeni ilaparaka am Woris usafuZvlobaze, ise mWevrmetyvelurad, ise damajereblad, rom eWvis burusi maSinve gamifanta da damiTanxma muSaobis dawyebaze. aRfrTovanebuli davbrundi Sin – TbilisSi ojaxis wevrebs yvelaferi vuambe, saqme SevuTanxme da meore dResve foTSi gavemgzavre. aqve minda visargeblo SemTxveviT da oriode sityviT Sevexo TviT niko nikolaZis pirovnebasac, romelmac ase momxibla da mamaSviluri daxmarebis xeli gamomiwoda; Sevexo did jixaiSSi mis samoTxisdar ezo-karmidamos, saxls da sxvasac. 104

marTlac, originaluri gegmiT iyo aSenebuli xexilis tevrSi Cafluli misi veeba saxli, romelic evropul feSenebelur vilas mogagonebdaT. xexilis garda, mas dekoratiuli xeebiTa da yvavilnariT daemSvenebina ezo-karmidamo da ise movlili hqonda, rom ityvian _ av Tvals ar daenaxveboda. aRfrTovanebuli davrCi, roca aseTi silamaze vnaxe. batoni niko ZiriTadad aq, am sofelSi cxovrobda da foTSi iSviaTad Camodioda, mxolod maSin, roca amas qalaqis saWiroeba moiTxovda. damSvidobebis win bevri melaparaka Cemi momavali muSaobis Sesaxeb. damarwmuna, rom bankSi muSaoba seriozuli saqme iyo, rac gansakuTrebul moTminebas, windaxedulobasa da SorsmWvretelobas moiTxovda. _ mouareT da gaufrTxildiT mis saxes, prestiJs, raTa xalxSi da sakredito dawesebulebebSi ndoba ar dakargos, Tu gindaT, rom saqme Cinebulad midiodes. banki da qali erTi da igivea: ndobaa maTi siwmindisa da urTierTobis warmmarTveli niSani. da Tu maT es ndoba dakarges, morCa yoveli: samudamod SebRalulia saxeli misi. foTSi batoni niko koSkSi cxovrobda, romelSic sxva sikeTesTan erTad, iSviaTi biblioTekac hqonda. am biblioTekas is TvalisCiniviT uvlida. zepirad icoda, saxlis romel sarTulze, romel oTaxSi an romel Taroze ra wigni ido, ris wyalobiTac, maT ZebnaSi amaod ar kargavda dros. erTxel bankis garSemo raRac sakiTxis gamo masTan, rogorc qalaqis sabWos TavmjdomaresTan, koSkSi mivedi. SeuZlod iyo, iwva, Tumca ramdenime inJineri mainc mieRo da saqmianad saubrobdnen melioraciis sakiTxebis garSemo. inJinrebs misgan rCeva-darigeba esaWiroebodaT. am sakiTxis garSemo maspinZels raRac wigni dasWirda da me mommarTa: _ batono vladimer, Tu ar damzardebiT, ama da am sarTulze, ama da am oTaxSi, ama da am adgilze da ama da am Taroze ama da am saxelwodebis wigni iqneba, airbineT da CamomitaneT. marTlac, avedi Tu ara biblioTekaSi saxlis zemo sarTulze, wigni ise swrafad movnaxe, Zebna arc ki damWirvebia. diax, iSviaTi pirovneba iyo es didi adamiani _ eris didi moWirnaxule. araCveulebrivad organizebuli, windaxeduli da sazriani, erudirebuli, yvela dargSi gamocdili da gamobrZmedili, metadre ki _ ekonomikis sakiTxebSi. qalaqi foTi misi gamocdilebisa da gamWriaxobis wyalobiTaa dagegmili da gaSenebuli. Tu dRes es qalaqi arqiteqturulad ase lamazad gamoiyureba da agre rigad xiblavs mnaxvelTa Tvals, es, pirvel yovlisa, misi damsaxurebaa. tyuilad rodi uwodeben maSindel foTs „nikopols“. urigo ar iqneba, Tu vityviT imasac, rom am adamians Cacma-daxurvac lazaTiani da moxdenili uyvarda. rac unda sicxe yofiliyo, metwilad ruxi feris pijaks da Jilets icvamda. erTi sityviT, amgvari Cacmulobis wyalobiT ise gamoiyureboda, Tvrameti wlis Wabuki gegonebodaT. Sav pijaks ufro saparadod xmarobda, Tumca saamisod grZelkalTiani serTukic hqonda. Tavze mudam Sliapa exura da 105

misalmebisas energiulad moixdida, dabla daswevda da roca Semxvedrs karga manZilze daSordeboda an masTan saubars gaabamda, mxolod maSin daixuravda xolme. niko nikolaZe – es namdvili eris Svili da olimpieli, mSobliur enasaviT flobda frangul da rusul enebs. laparakobda inglisuradac, magram SedarebiT sustad. Jurnal-gazeTebsac Rebulobda londonidan (erT Jurnals amerikidanac), kiTxulobda, Tavis azrs gamoTqvamda wakiTxulis irgvliv, laparaks ki am enaze erideboda, ris mizezsac axlave mogaxsenebT. erTxel bankis saqmeebze kvlav vestumre koSkSi. is romeliRac Tavisi sagazeTo werilis beWdviT iyo garTuli patara sabeWd manqanaze. magidaze axlad miRebuli ucxouri da rusul-qarTuli Jurnal-gazeTebi ewyo. erT-erTi maTgani niu-iorkidanac mieRo, gadaeTvalierebina da gadaSlili edo magidaze. damainteresa am gazeTma. xelSi aviRe da Tvali gadavavle – teqnikuri xasiaTisa iyo. Tvalierebas rom movrCi, baton nikos vkiTxe: _ inglisuradac ise Tavisuflad laparakobT, rogorc frangulad? _ Tavisuflad ki vkiTxulob, magram laparaki miWirso, _ mere mizezic daayola, _ inglisuri ena parizSi Seviswavle, maSin jer kidev axalgazrda viyavi. parizidan londonSi unda wavsuliyavi uaqcento metyvelebis dasaufleblad, Cvevebisa da praqtikis misaRebad. eSmakad erTi frangi gogona gavicani, aRar momeSva, Tan mdevda da, ase gasinjeT, londonSiac ki wamomyva. mTeli dro inglisSi ise davyavi, es gogonac Tan maxlda da roca parizSi davbrundi, inglisuri enis praqtika gvedze damrCenodao, _ RimiliT, Tumca sinanuliT moigona es ambavi da daamata: „es ver momivida kargado“. masTan roca ar unda mivsuliyavi, mudam saqmiT iyo dakavebuli, werda, kiTxulobda, aanalizebda wakiTxuls. amis gamo sul vcdilobdi, bevri dro ar wamerTmia da maleve gamoveTxovebodi xolme. Tavisufal dros araCveulebrivi mosaubre iyo. axlo megobroba akavSirebda eqim konstantine miqaberiZis ojaxTan, sadac xSirad daiareboda. iq batoni niko gansakuTrebiT enawyliani, sityvamoswrebuli da laRi gaxldaT, sazogadoebaSi ki – saocrad dinji da TavdaWerili. aqeT-iqiT xSiri siaruli ar sCveoda, Zalze moridebuli brZandeboda. erTxel quTaiseli daviT niJaraZis binaze mivediT da bevric visaubreT, magram meored iq misuli aRar minaxavs. arada, maSin megobar-nacnobTa Soris misvla-mosvla Zalze xSiri iyo, radganac sxva kulturuli gasarTobi ar arsebobda da dros metwilad saubrebSi vatarebdiT. erTxel gavkadnierdi da bavSvis monaTvla vTxove. binaze mewvia, rasakvirvelia, bavSvic monaTla da amiT daminaTesavda kidec. araferi jobda im dRes mis Sexedvas. RmerTiviT ijda magidasTan – lamazi, axovani, sityvaZunwi da seriozuli. is ufro 106

usmenda, vidre laparakobda. samocdaaT wels gadacilebuli iyo, magram bevrad axalgazrdulad gamoiyureboda. yvela mas misCereboda. „zRva SemoRobao“, – ambobdnen foTSi am adamianze, roca man gemebis misadgomad zRvis piras grZeli rkinis moajiri gaakeTa. qalTa sazogadoebaSi metismetad enawyliani da enamoswrebuli iyo. aseTi gaxldaT Cemi vaJis naTlobis dResac. _ nikolai iakovleviC, _ siciliT mimarTes mandilosnebma, _ rogor axalgazrdulad, Wabukurad gamoiyurebiT... ra aris amis umTavresi mizezi? _ es, batonebo, Cemi saidumloebaa, _ siciliTve upasuxa man, _ momabareT cota xniT Tqveni qmrebi da me maT vaswavli, rogor SeinarCunon axalgazrdoba da siWabuke Tvisi. _ gviTxari, gviTxari, batono niko, ra aris magis wamali? _ dainteresden qalebi. _ rac SeiZleba meti dro ataron qalebSi, _ iyo oqropiris pasuxi. Tu rogori miRebuli iyo sazogadoebaSi da rad fasobda misi sityva da azri, amis Sesaxeb momdevno mogonebaSi mogaxsenebT. aseTi pirovneba sruliad umniSvnelo saqmis gamo mefis damqaSebma erTxel pasuxisgebaSic misces. procesi quTaisSi mimdinareobda. sasamarTlos sxdomis dros fanqriT bloknotSi Canaxatebs vakeTebdi. maT Soris arian „braldebuli“ niko nikolaZe da veqili kapapCevski. dRes es bloknoti Cems arqivSi inaxeba. ise ar gadavSli im bloknots, rom sinanuliT an, piriqiT, sixaruliT ar movigono is wlebi, romlebmac me aseT did pirovnebasTan Sexvedrebi da urTierToba marguna bedad. diax, didi pirovneba iyo niko nikolaZe da megobrobac did adamianebTan akavSirebda. maT Soris aRsaniSnavia CerniSevski, bakunini, mixailovski, pleSCeevi, uspenski, gerceni, ogariovi, viqtor hiugo, pol lafargi, alfons dode, lui blaz, gambeta da sxv. politikur asparezzec mniSvnelovan pirovnebaTa gverdiT gamodioda. TanamSromlobda Jurnal „kolokolSi“ da im dros gamomaval mraval sxva periodul gamocemebSi. roca aseTi brwyinvale moqalaqe da mamuliSvili gardaicvala, sazogadoebam gulwrfelad daitira, imdroindelma presam Sesaferisi qeba-didebiT aRniSna misi didi damsaxureba eris winaSe. analogiuri nekrologi n.nikolaZis gardacvalebis gamo dabeWda teqnikurma sazogadoebamac. sabednierod, Cems arqivs SemorCa am nekrologis teqsti. romelic aq momyavs Seumokleblad: „Pravlenie Texniqeskogo Ob\estva Gruzii ob]%vl%et, qto 1 aprel% s.g. posle 70-letney neustannoy rabotj skonqals% zaslu[ennjy ob\estvennjy de%tel>: glavnjy iniciator i uqastnik postroyki [el.dor.linii Poti-Tiflis, organizator Tkibul>skix kopey i postroyki Tkibul>skoy [el.dor.vetki, odin iz glavnjx de%teley po Qiaturskoy margancevoy promjwlennosti i postroyke Qiaturskoy vetki, iniciator postroyki Tiflisskogo i Bakinskogo vodoprovodov, bli[aywiy uqastnik i rukovoditel> sooru[eni% nefteprovoda Baku-Batum, bli[aywiy uqastnik i rukovoditel> dela razviti% nefte+ksporta i neft%noy promjwlennosti Bakinskogo rayona, sozdatel> 107

i stroitel>, pobornik i de%tel> +lektrofikacii Gruzii i Kavkaza, krupnjy specialist i iniciativna% sila po mnogim drugim texniko-+konomiqeskim voprosam Gruzii, Zakavkaz>% i Rossii, poqetnjy qlen Texniqeskogo Ob\estva Gruzii, Nikolay $kovleviq Nikoladze.“ isev foTis Sesaxeb. rogorc iTqva, aq, am qalaqSi, samsaxurebrivi mizniT 1914 wels Cavedi da 1919 wlamde vimsaxure. am xnis ganmavlobaSi saSualeba mqonda kargad gavcnobodi mas da Semeswavla Zirfesvianad. umeteswilad mis arqiteqturas, quCebs da kerZo baRebs, skverebs... xalxs, sazogadoebas vakvirdebodi. davabijebdi mis quCebSi da uneburad maxsendeboda diuma da misi „kavkasia“, roca man, am wignis mixedviT, naviT „foTis naxevarkunZuls“ miaRwia rionis gziT da iq sxvebTan erTad muxlebamde lafSi aRmoCnda. „me TavCaqindruli gavemarTe qalaqisaken, romelic aTi-TxuTmeti saxlisagan Sedgeboda“, – aRniSnavs am wignSi sinanuliT. es, rasakvirvelia, diumas dros iyo, gasuli saukunis Sua xanebSi, magram Cems dros qalaqi foTi ukve qalaqad iyo Camoyalibebuli. teritoriiTac sakmaod didi iyo. maRaziebi, daxuruli bazari, saqalaqo da saxelmwifo dawesebulebebi da uzarmazri baRi qalaqis centrSi. baRSi idga uZvelesi koSki, romlis gadakeTebul interierSi bina daedo niko nikolaZes. qalaqis ganapira ubnebi soflebidan Camosuli portSi momuSave ojaxebiT iyo dasaxlebuli da soflebs ufro waagavda. amitomac maT ganier da swor quCebSi bevrgan Zroxa da sxva pirutyvic balaxobda. centrSi iyo moTavsebuli Cveni bankis Senobac – guriis quCis dasawyisSi, xazinis pirdapir, erTsarTulian mzian SenobaSi. CemTan erTad bankSi muSaobdnen Zveli da Tavdadebuli muSakebi – Tadeoz keSelava da vano didia, iSviaTi bunebis adamianebi. aqve iyvnen vladimer kaWarava, miSa esakia, farina kobalaZe, pavle xoWolava da sxvebi. qalaqis sabWos Tavmjdomare, rogorc iTqva, iyo niko nikolaZe. xalxSi didi siyvaruliTa da pativiscemiT sargeblobdnen eqimebi konstantine miqaberiZe, a.xoWolava, s.osiZe, k.Telia, al.mdivani, lev.zodelava, Jvaniebi da sxvebi. mimaCnia, rom maT Sesaxebac unda vTqva ramdenime sityva, radganac isini Rirsni arian, STamomavlobam icodes maTi saxelebi. qalaqis Tavis moadgile iyo SesaniSnavi moqalaqe da umwikvlo adamiani g.tyemalaZe. foTis maSindeli qalaqis transports warmoadgenda „konka“, romelSic erTi cxeni eba da qalaqis centridan navsadguramde xidis gavliT midioda. am transports didi jafa ar adga, xalxi didad ar awuxebda, radganac qalaqSi bevri iyo kerZo faetoni. mgzavrobis Rirebulebac Zalze iafi iyo _ 20-25 kapiki TiToeul mgzavrze. maxsovs, rionis adidebisa Tu raRac stiqiuri movlenis gamo, quCebSi brtyelZiriani navebiTac davdiodiT xolme. foTSi sacxovreblad kosta Telias ojaxSi davide bina. diasaxlisi babo _ jojuas qali, iSviaTi gamrje adamiani, saTno da keTili _ erT ganier da naTel oTaxSi, romelic kargi avejiT iyo gawyobili, 10 maneTs maxdevinebda TveSi. oTaxsac es qali 108

alagebda, 18 maneTad saWmelsac mimzadebda. meniuSi kargi Rvino da sacivic Sedioda. maRaziebi savse iyo sanovagiT. gansakuTrebiT Warbobda Tevzeuli, axali daWerili kefali. Tadeoz keSelava ise ar dajdeboda sufrasTan, zuTxi da Samfurze Semwvari cxeli mwvadi Tu ar iqneboda blomad. daqiravebul binaSi didxans ar gagrZelebula Cemi cxovreba, male iurist evgeni gabunias qvis saxli viyide, romelic svaneTis quCaze mdebareobda. bina metad moxerxebuli da sacxovreblad kargi iyo, naTeli, mziani. veqili gabunia TbilisSi gadasaxlebuliyo, saxli saxelmwifo bankSi daegiravebina da aRar gamoesyida. amitom Zalze iafad SeviZine, sul raRac samas maneTad. amrigad, ase gavxdi foTis moqalaqe. am faqtze erTxel niko nikolaZem miTxra: Sen foTis mkvidroba ufro SegSvenis, vidre sadRac migdebul, daqiravebul kuTxeSi cxovrebao. Tavad gansaje, aba ras hgavda is bina, es arc Sen da arc bankis avtoritets ar Sehferoda, TqvenTvis saWiroa uZravi qoneba, anu saxli. TanxiT Cvenc dagexmarebiT, remontsac advilad gaakeTebT da saqme aewyobao. es asec moxda. saxli sul male gavaremonteT da, ase gansajeT, Cqara telefonic ki damidges. amiT isedac sayvareli qalaqi kidev ufro Semiyvarda. mada WamaSi modiso, da mec, am andazisa ar iyos, xeli mivyavi cxovrebisaTvis aucilebeli qonebis SeZenas. rakiRa saxli vargisi iyo da mtkice saZirkvelzec idga, axla sakuTari etlis SeZenisaTvisac daviwye zrunva. sul male karg cxenTan erTad orTvala etlic viyide, cxenis momvlelic SevarCie da cxen-etli mas Cavabare. mere ki cxen-etlTa Sejibrebanic movawyveT guriis quCaze da mis gagrZelebaze – malTayvamde. ase verTobodi xolme samuSaosagan Tavisufal dros da didadac momwonda garTobis es saxeoba. cxadia, manqana aravis gvqonia. es iyo 1917 wels. revoluciurad ganwyobilma jariskacebma miatoves osmaleTis fronti da saxlebisaken qnes piri. portSi blomad ireodnen isini da Tan frontidan wamoRebul nivTebs muqTad yiddnen. erTxel cxenis sayidlad megobrebma mec wamiyvanes. TviTonac iyides da mec mayidvines kargi iorRa cxeni raRac 500 maneTad. imave „talkuCkaze“ viyide, agreTve, patara kvici, romelic soflad Cems aTi wlis Zmas uCas gavugzavne. blomad SeviZine agreTve erbo, radganac jariskacebi mudariTa Tu TiTqmis ZaliT gvaCeCebdnen yvelafers, rakiRa gasayidi bevri iyo, myidveli ki cota. _ waiReT, waiReT iafad, xeli dagvicaleTo, _ gvemudarebodnen isini. Cveni qalaqis maSindeli inteligenciis warmomadgenlebs keTili urTierToba hqondaT erTmaneTSi. magram erTxel mainc moxda gaugebroba, kerZod, foTis gimnaziis kursdamTavrebul mixeil sabaxtaraSvilsa da gimnaziis direqtors Soris. Cxubi da dava sul ubralo rameze daiwyo: 109

vaJTa gimnaziis direqtorma iagulovma, romelic am saswavleblis didi moamage da mzrunveli iyo, erTxel qalaqis sabWodan TavisTan migviwvia, rogorc qalaqis warmomadgenelTa komiteti. erT dRes dagviZaxa kidec sxdomaze, sadac pedagogiuri sabWos wevri maswavleblebic gveswrebodnen. am komitetSi TxuTmetiode kaci SevdiodiT. roca Tavmjdomarisa da mdivnis arCevaze midga saqme, direqtorma saTiTaod mogvmarTa TxovniT – erT-erT Cvengans mdivnis movaleoba etvirTa, magram „mouclelobis mizeziT“ yvelam iuara. Sewuxda direqtori da rakiRa darwmunda, rom Txovna ar gaudioda, naRvlianad warmoTqva: Gospoda, v konce koncov pridets% obratit>s% s pros>boy k Mixailu Aleksandroviqu, _ da mzera mixeil sabaxtaraSvilze gadaitana. _ rogor Tu v konce koncov, _ zeze wamoiWra aRSfoTebuli mixeili. _ maS, me ukanaskneli vyofilvar aq? ha?! iagulovs qaRaldis feri daedo. Zalian Sewuxda... Cven ki mixeils vawynarebdiT da bodiSs vuxdidiT direqtoris magier. magram araferma gaWra – gagulisebulma darbazi datova da wavida. gvegona, amiT damTavrdeboda yvelaferi, magram es ase ar moxda. mixeil sabaxtaraSvilma „Seuracxmyofels“ sasamarTloSi uCivla. momCivanma aRniSnuli gimnazia ramdenime wlis win daamTavra da, rogorc ambobdnen, iagulovTan adrec ver yofila karg damokidebulebaSi. swored amitom ifiqra, direqtorma Zveli SuRli gaixsena da damcinao. mosamarTled foTSi metad patiosani da umwikvlo adamiani ugrenoviCi iyo. saqme mas unda gaerCia. mixeil sabaxtaraSvilic iuristi, daxelovnebuli veqili gaxldaT da wesiT, ar unda dasWirveboda advokati, magram mTels guberniaSi aRiarebuli quTaiseli nafici veqili meqi faRava mainc Camoiyvana. yvela gaakvirva mixeilis amgvarma saqcielma: ra saWiro iyo aseTi patara saqmisaTvis amxela kacis Sewuxebao, _ ambobdnen. sasamarTlom xalxis naxevaric ver daitia. yvelas ainteresebda am saqmis arsi da, rac mTavaria, saxelganTqmuli iuristis meqi faRavas gamosvla. magram moxda ise, rom sxdoma didxans ar gagrZelebula da sul male Sewyda. saqme is iyo, rom meqi faRava sasamarTloze Zalian mkvaxed gamovida, rac, rasakvirvelia, mosamarTles ar moewona. man SeniSvna misca advokats da Tanac gaafrTxila. es sagubernio qalaqidan Camosulma stumarma iukadrisa da sityva Seubruna, gagulisebulma mosamarTlem mas darbazi daatovebina. darbazidan gaZevebuli veqili procesze aRar dabrunebula, Tumca mere bevri eZebes, magram amaod... rogor damTavrda es saqme, ar maxsovs, magram mixeil sabaxtaraSvili, mgoni, male darwmunda Tavis uniadago gaficxebaSi da mianeba Tavi. miuxedavad imisa, rom Teatris Senoba ar gvqonda, foTSi kulturuli cxovreba, ase Tu ise, Tavisi gziT midioda. erTxans me iq dramatuli sazogadoebis Tavmjdomarec viyavi da xangamoSvebiT warmodgenebsac vdgamdiT imave „kometas“ darbazSi. erTxel meuRlesTan erTad avqsenti megreliZemac miiRo monawileoba erT-erT speqtaklSi da – misive iniciativiT, sufsaSic 110

CavediT am warmodgenis saCveneblad. movawyveT didi akakis xsovnis saRamo da misive „patara kaxic“ davdgiT; dramatuli sazogadoebis saxeliT daveswariT valerian gunias iubiles TbilisSi da saTanado misalmebiTac gamovediT; daveswariT agreTve akaki wereTlisa da ir.evdoSvilis dakrZalvebs. Semdeg Jurnalistur moRvaweobasac movkideT xeli: gamovuSviT gazeTi – yovelkvireuli organo „amxanagi“. gamovida gazeTis mxolod xuTi nomeri, romelic dRes bibliografiuli iSviaTobaa. Tu ar vcdebi, wesiT misi calebi unda moiZebnebodes sajaro da universitetis biblioTekebSi, agreTve, TviTon foTSi. maxsovs, ioseb griSaSvilsac gamovugzavneT misive werilobiTi TxovniT da mikvirs, rom mis biblioTekaSi es nomeri ar aRmoCnda. griSaSvilis es werili dResac inaxeba Cems ojaxur arqivSi. mec mqonda am gazeTis nomrebi, magram cnobismoyvareTa xelidan xelSi ,,brunvis” dros, samwuxarod, daikarga. siamayiT unda iTqvas, rom foTeli inteligenciisaTvis Jurnal-gazeTebis jixuri imdenad sayvareli da aucilebeli ram gaxldaT, rom umisod erTi dRec ar SegveZlo gaZleba. dauviwyaria jixurSi momuSave vaso qadeiSvilisa da simon oragveliZis saxelebi. qarTuli wignis am didi motrfialeebis mecadineobiT jixurebSi mudam ewyo mravali dasaxelebis wigni, Jurnal-gazeTebi, sxva saxis perioduli gamocemebi, rasac Cven xarbad vetanebodiT. qalaqis centrSi erT-erT mTavar quCaze, bulvaris pirze moTavsebuli jixuri iyo Cveni klubic da gasarTobic. mis pirdapir, guriis quCis kuTxeSi mdebare restorani „makedonia“ ki – imaTTvis, visac uyvarda nardi, yava da sxva amgvari gasarTobi. isini isxdnen restornis ganier darbazSi an restornis gareT pirdapir trotuarze da TamaSobdnen nards, svamdnen yavas. ufro ki oxunjobiT da enamoswrebulobiT irTobdnen Tavs. diax, CemTvis sayvareli qalaqi iyo foTi, iqauri megobrebi, Cemi saxli da kari. verasodes vifiqrebdi, Tu aqedan odesme samuSaod sxvagan gadavidodi. magram im droisaTvis wamoWrilma lozungma _ „Tbilisisaken qarTvelebi!“ – mec macduna da qarTlis gulisaken maqnevina piri. a.iagulovis Semdeg foTis vaJTa gimnaziis direqtorad miiwvies maSin sruliad axalgazrda pedagogi sergi danelia – erT dros Tbilisis universitetis profesori, Cemi megobari moskovis universitetidan. mas kargad axsovda Cemi enTuziazmi da dauzareli saqmianoba studentur literaturul wreebSi da amitom gimnaziaSi qarTuli ena-literaturis maswavlebloba SemomTavaza. arasodes damaviwydeba gimnazielTa didi sixaruli da aRtaceba qarTuli literaturis kursis SemoRebasTan dakavSirebiT, rac didi movlena iyo ara mxolod foTeli sazogadoebis cxovrebaSi... foTis gimnazia is didi saswavlo kera iyo, romelmac araerTi gamoCenili moRvawe aRuzarda samSoblos, maT Soris minda davasaxelo: akademikosebi nikoloz anTelava, Salva amiranaSvili, egnate fifia, aleqsandre baramiZe, profesorebi – iase cincaZe, vladimer zambaxiZe, vladimer comaia, saxalxo mxatvari apolon quTaTelaZe – sxvani da sxvani. maTi saxelebiT mudam 111

iamayebs Cveni qveyana. da mec uzomod kmayofili var, rom moRvaweoba momixda im ubrwyinvales saswavlo dawesebulebaSi, romlis daarsebis erT-erTi iniciatori naTliT mosili niko nikolaZe gaxldaT.

TaTbirze mefisnacvalTan
erTxel CemTan niko nikolaZis msaxuri movida da gadmomca misi Txovna, erTi metad aucilebeli da mniSvnelovani saqmis gamo masTan mivsuliyavi. aRniSnul saqmeze Tbilisidan sagangebod Camosuliyo spiridon kedia. me mivatove Cemi saqmeebi da koSkSi wavedi. es iyo 1916 wlis damdegi. kabinetSi nikosTan erTad spiridon kediac damxvda, romelsac manamdec kargad vicnobdi. _ batono vladimer, Tbilisidan metad mniSvnelovani sazogadoebrivi saqmis gamo batoni spiridonia Camosuli, _ misvlisTanave mommarTa batonma nikom, _ da rac Cvenzea damokidebuli, aucileblad unda gavakeToT. Turme saqme SemdegSi iyo: mefisnacvals kavkasiaSi erobis SemoReba gadauwyvetia da im daskvnamde misula, rom es sakiTxi TviT adgilobriv warmomadgenlebs unda gadaewyvitaT. TaTbirze miwveulni iyvnen gubernatorebi, TavadaznaurTa winamZRolebi da marSlebi, sasuliero wodebaTa umaRlesi warmomadgenlebi, qalaqis warCinebulni, sabirJo komitetis Tavmjdomareebi, vaWarTa da mrewvelTa msgavsi SenaerTebis xelmZRvanelebi, sazogadoebaTa deputatebi. saWiro iyo TaTbirze umetesad qarTvelTa mowveva. amas Cveni meTaurebic cdilobdnen. vinaidan qalaqis Tavebis siaSi maTi foTeli kolega ar moxvedriliyo, TaTbirze erTi xma gvakldeboda. saWiro gaxda raRac formis gamonaxva da magieri deputatis moyvana. spiridon kediac am mizeziT iyo foTSi Camosuli. batonma nikom gonebis TvaliT gadaxeda foTis sazogadoebriv cxovrebas da iq e.w. sabirJo komiteti gamoarCia. komitets formalurad didi uflebebi eniWeboda, radgan erTad aerTianebda adgilobriv vaWrobasa da mrewvelobas. es ki uTuod mniSvnelovani Zala iyo. aseTi komitetebi ufro did qalaqebSi _ TbilisSi, baTumSi, novorosiiskSi moqmedebdnen da Rirseul saqmeebsac akeTebdnen. niko nikolaZis iniciativiT, foTSic daarsda msgavsi komiteti, romlis Tavmjdomareebad mudam kargi saxelis mqone mrewvelebs irCevdnen. 1914 wels, roca me foTis adgilobrivi bankis Tavmjdomared daviwye muSaoba, batoni niko gamendo, rom male Catardeboda foTis sabirJo komitetis wevrTa saerTo kreba, romlis Tavmjdomaredac Cemi arCeva gadaewyvita. Tan gamafrTxila, rom saTanadod movmzadebuliyavi, raTa yrilobis dros, komitetis muSaobasTan dakavSirebiT, saqmis arsSi safuZvlianad gavrkveuliyavi. raRa bevri gavagrZelo _ Catarda yriloba da komitetis Tavmjdomaredac amirCies. sabirJo komitetis baza imave saurTierTo ndobis bankis binaSive movawyve da gamogzavnili werilebi sul iq modioda. magram sabirJo komitetSi dasamuSavebeli sakiTxebi aTasSi erTxel 112

Tu gamoCndeboda. gamgeobis komitetis wevrebad ufro foTis msxvili vaWrebi da mrewvelebi iTvlebodnen, romlebic sabirJo sazogadoebis wevrTa mier iyvnen arCeulni. me araerTxel mimimarTavs baton nikosaTvis imis Taobaze, rom sabirJo komitetis funqciebi xSirad bankis zogierT funqciebs emTxveoda, es ki zedmetad meCveneboda. maSin batoni niko gakvirvebuli metyoda xolme: _ ras giSlis, batono, bankic iyos da isic. mas didi uflebebi aqvs Cvens „JamTa siaveSi“ da dagvWirdeba misi gamoyenebac. marTlac, Tu sadme sazogadoebis warmomadgenloba iyo saWiro, qalaqis Tavis mere sabirJo komitetis Tavmjdomares pirvel rigSi mouwodebdnen xolme. es saSualebas maZlevda iseT dawesebulebaTa TaTbirebSi mimeRo monawileoba, romlebic sxva dros miuwvdomeli iqneboda CemTvis. batonma nikom damavala depeSis teqstis Sedgena mefis nacvlis kancelariis direqtoris saxelze da unda meTxova Cemi TaTbirze gamoZaxeba. depeSis SedgenaSi TviTonac damexmara. Cems sabuTebSi axlac inaxeba bloknoti Cveni erToblivad Sedgenili teqstiT, romlis didi nawili batoni nikos xeliTaa dawerili. meore dResve movida dadebiTi pasuxi. me TaTbirze miwvevdnen. aman didi kmayofileba gamoiwvia Cvens sazogadoebaSi. quTaisis gazeTmac ki saWirod miiCnia am ambebis qronikaSi dabeWdva. TbilisSi Casulma Zlivs viSove sastumro. davbinavdi rusTavelis (maSindeli golovinis) gamzirze axlandeli kulturis saministros SenobaSi. sastumros, mgoni, „pale roiali“ erqva; igi viRac sxirtlaZes ekuTvnoda. raki mesame welia omi mimdinareobda da ekonomikac sakmaod „SenjRreuli“ iyo, nomerSi 4 maneTs Tu metsac maxdevinebdnen; es maSin did Tanxad iTvleboda. meore dRes sagangebod Cavicvi „vizitka“ da sasaxleSi (SemdegSi pionerTa sasaxle) wavedi. SenobasTan misuls SemefeTnen soxumis qalaqis Tavi niko TavdgiriZe da WiaTuris marganecis mrewvelTa sabWos Tavmjdomaris moadgile, cnobili literatori da kritikosi kita abaSiZe. didad mesiamovna maTi danaxva. mivxvdi, rom deputatebad iqnebodnen TaTbirze. magram maTac aranakleb gaexardaT Cemi naxva. _ jer adrea, zustad 11 saaTisaTvis unda movideT, _ gamafrTxiles maT, _ am „vizitkiT“ ar moxvide, Torem ar SegiSveben; saWiroa fraki an serTuki mainc. gafrTxilebisaTvis madlobeli davrCi. maSinve ukan gamovbrundi Sesaferisi tansacmlis saSovnelad. Sorsac ar damWirvebia wasvla: iqve qaSueTis eklesiis pirdapir mza tansacmlis maRazia iyo. Sevedi maRaziaSi da viqirave SesaniSnavi serTuki. sasaxleSi SemsvlelTaTvis e.w. CrdiloeTis kari iyo gaTvaliswinebuli; meore, e.w. samxreTis karTan mudam guSagi idga, radgan aRniSnuli Sesasvleli mefisnacvlis, misi ojaxis wevrebisa da stumrebisaTvis iyo gamiznuli. daniSnul dros deputatTa jgufi didi darbazis win sasaxlis marmarilos ganier kibeebze gamoCnda. meore sarTulze, meuRliTurT, xmliT damSvenebuli mefisnacvali nikoloz nikolozis Ze idga. Cven saTiTaod mivyvebodiT erTimeores. maspinZlebi xels gvarTmevdnen da im darbazSi gviwvevdnen, romelsac Semd113

gom menSevikuri xelisuflebis dros parlamentis sxdomaTaTvis iyenebdnen. im diliT, anu 1916 wlis 26 aprils, sxdoma ar Semdgara, mxolod sauzmeze migviwvies. sxdomis darbazSi TaTbiris 150 wevrisaTvis sufra iyo gawyobili. yvelani dabeWdili siebis mixedviT visxediT. siebi TefSebze elaga. me kita abaSiZesa da parTen goTuas Soris movxvdi. orTaves kargad vicnobdi da amitom sufris damTavrebamde ar Segviwyvetia tkbili maslaaTi. sufris TavSi mefisnacvali da misi TanaSemwe Tavadi orlovi isxdnen; Semdeg senatorebi, gubernatorebi, Tavad-aznaurTa winamZRolebi, didi sasuliero pirni, maT Soris – kalistrate cincaZe (SemdegSi sruliad saqarTvelos kaTalikos-patriarqi), somexTa da musulmanTa meTaurni, kooperaciis, vaWroba-mrewvelobisa da kulturul-saganmanaTleblo dawesebulebaTa xelmZRvanelebi. foTis qalaqis Tavi niko nikolaZe TaTbirze mowveuli ar yofila; mis movaleobas im dros iuristi galaqtion tyemalaZe asrulebda. minda aq moviyvano im zemoxsenebuli depeSis teqsti, romelic baton nikos karnaxiT davwere da TbilisSi gavagzavne: Tiflis. V Kancel%rih Namestnika EIV na Kavkaze. Po pronikwim v peqat> svedeni%m na sove\anie po vvedenih zemstva na Kavkaze, otkrjvaemoe 26 aprel% pod predsedatel>stvom Ego Imperatorskogo Vjsoqestva Namestnika Kavkazskogo, priglawenj predstaviteli Zakavkazskix Bir[evjx komitetov krome Potiyskogo. Me[du tem rayon poslednego zainteresovan v rewenii +togo voprosa i ne imeet na sove\anii nikakogo golosa; tak kak ne priglawen na sove\anie i i.d. Potiyskogo Gorodskogo Golovj. Po+tomu Potiyskiy Bir[evoy Komitet imeet qest> pokorneywe prosit> Kancel%rih, isxodotaystvovat> blagosklonnoe razrewenie EIV Namestnika Kavkazskogo na vjzov v sove\anie predstavitel% Potiyskogo Bir[evogo Komiteta. Predsedatel> D[aparidze, Sekretar> Kaqarava. rodesac stumrebi TavTavianT adgilebze dasxdnen, mefisnacvalma, romelic Txeli, kargi aRnagobisa da vaJkacuri Sesaxedaobis WaRara mamakaci iyo, damswreT winadadebiT mimarTa – gagvegzavna misasalmebeli depeSa „misi imperatorobiTi udidebulesobisaTvis“. minda moviyvano is sityvebi maSindeli oficialuri eniT, raTa ukeT warmovidginoT erTgvarad Savrazmuli suraTi. mogexsenebaT, rom yovel Sinaarss Tavisi formac aqvs: Predstaviteli vsex narodnostey Zakavkazi%... _ pros%t povergnut> k stopam Vawego Imperatorskogo Veliqestva vooduwevl%h\ie ix iskrenneywie quvstva vernopoddanniqeskoy predannosti i lhbvi, da sxva aseTebi. ... Slova telegrammj i req> Avgusteywego predstavitel% Sove\ani% bjli pokrjtj vostor[ennjm ura vsex uqastnikov Sove\ani%... da ase, amisTana brtyel-brtyeli sityvebi, magram me danamdvilebiT vityodi, rom „daleko ne vsex“; – „uras“ mxolod „Cinovnikebi“ iZaxdnen da isic ufro didi Tanamdebobis mqoneni: gubernatorebi, generlebi, mefisnacvlis sabWos wevrebi da sxvadasxva tituliani „sovetnikebi“. sazogadoebaTa warmomadgenlebi ki TavSekavebulad isxdnen da am aRtyinebaSi, rasakvirvelia, monawileobas ar iRebdnen, Tumca arc TavianT suliskveTebas amJRavneb114

dnen da, miT umetes, demonstraciul xasiaTs ver miscemdnen mas. es uazroba iqneboda. rogorc ki oficialuri „Rreoba“ gaTavda, TaTbiris monawileni sasaxlis baRSi migviwvies, romelic, cxadia, daculi iyo da, mefisnacvlis sabWos wevrTa garda, ucxo veravin Sevidoda. iq Tavisi didi fotoaparatiT dagvxvda cnobili Tbiliseli fotografi kozaki da mefisnacvalTan erTad TaTbiris monawileTa saerTo suraTi gadaiRo. es suraTi 1922 wels movspe, radgan meSinoda, aseT sazogadoebaSi aravis venaxe. saRamo xans gaixsna TaTbiris pirveli plenaruli sxdoma, sadac mefisnacvalma, anu im dRes igive Tavmjdomarem, warmoTqva dRis Sesaferisi sityva. mas oficialuri sityvebiT upasuxes Tbilisis guberniis TavadaznaurTa winamZRolma Tavadma kote afxazma da Tbilisis qalaqis Tavma a.i.xatisovma. sakiTxTa gansaxilvelad airCies 4 seqcia TavianTi TavmjdomareebiTa da mdivnebiT. pirvel seqcias Tavmjdomareobda kote afxazi; mdivnobdnen baTumis sabirJo komitetis Tavmjdomare, budu mdivnis Zma – simon mdivani da iason afaqiZe. meore seqcias Tavmjdomareobda quTaisis guberniis TavadaznaurTa winamZRoli Tavadi niJaraZe da baqoeli TofCibaSevi, xolo samdivno saqmeebs vawarmoebdiT me da Cemi skolis amxanagi quTaisis realuri saswavleblidan aleqsandre asaTiani, agreTve, vasil rcxilaZe. me TiTqmis yvelaze axalgazrda viyavi TaTbiris monawileTa Soris. mefis reJimisaTvis es bolo TaTbiri gaxldaT da amitomac ase dawvrilebiT vigoneb yovelives, sakuTari TvaliT nanaxs. TaTbirze qarTvel Tavad-aznaurTa warmomadgenlebs Rirseulad eWiraT Tavi. gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda Tbilisis guberniis, anu igive aRmosavleT saqarTvelos, Tavad-aznaurTa winamZRoli kote afxazi. is Tavdadebuli, farTo ganaTlebis, keTilSobili adamiani da mSobliuri qveynis erTi burjTagani da didi sazogado moRvawe iyo. mis gamosvlebs TaTbirze yvela udidesi yuradRebiT usmenda. didebuli garegnobiT gamoirCeoda agreTve daviT niJaraZec. ecva qarTuli Coxa da zed polkovnikis samxreebi ekeTa. warmosadegi da rixiani vaJkaci iyo, cota amayi. qalaqSi fexiT mosiarule aravis unaxavs, mudam etliT dagrialebda. mamulebi, marTalia, Semoxarjvoda, magram guls mainc ar itexda. erTxel, quTaisSi, me da batoni niko Tavad-aznaurTa deputatebis sakrebuloSi movxvdiT. daviT niJaraZem ocdaaTamde kaci migviwvia Tavis saxlSi, geguTis quCaze. me gamakvirva ara SesaniSnavma saxlma da baRma, aramed mdidrulma sufram da TeTr xelTaTmanebSi gamowyobil fareSTa momsaxurebam. roca daviTi faetoniT eklesiaSi Cagrialdeboda xolme, mTeli iq myofni locavdnen im ers, romelsac SeeZlo, amdeni tanjvis Semdeg, kidev warmoeSva aseTi vaJkaci. vsargeblob SemTxveviT da minda dagisaxeloT is wigni, romelic im wels dabeWda mefisnacvlis kancelariam: „Materialj po voprosu o vvedenii zemskix uqre[deniy v Zakavkaz>e. Trudj Kraevogo sove\ani% 26 aprel% 1916 g. T.1, qast> perva%. {urnalj plenarnjx i sekcionnjx zasedaniy. Tiflis, 1916 g.“ 115

zemoT dasaxelebul pirTa garda, TaTbirze iyvnen: marSali d.ColoyaSvili, warmosadegi garegnobiT cnobili oTar dadeSqeliani, giorgi da konstantine TumaniSvilebi, gurieli, kowia erisTavi, petre wulukiZe da elisabed wereTlis vaJi petia wereTeli. yvela eseni TavianTi mazrebis Tavad-aznaurTa marSlebi iyvnen; parTen goTua cnobili sazogado moRvawe gaxldaT; giorgi lasxiSvili – social-federalistTa lideri da gazeT „cnobis furclis“ redaqtori; iliko Ciqovani – quTaisis qalaqis Tavi; evgeni krinicki (daraxveliZe) – baTumis qalaqis Tavi; giorgi Juruli – SemdegSi finansTa ministri saqarTvelos demokratiul mTavrobaSi; filipe gogiCaiSvili – SemdegSi profesori; solomon miqelaZe – veqili da quTaiseli sazogado moRvawe; Cemi megobari moskovidan, agronomi da qarTveli patrioti – giorgi gamxaraSvili, saingiloze dawerili wignis avtori; cnobili literatori iona meunargia; cnobili kooperatori kowia kandelaki, vasil rcxilaZe, spiridon virsalaZe da sxvani. amaTgan zogs manamde vicnobdi, zogic TaTbiris msvlelobaSi gavicani. iqve gavicani Cveni mowinaaRmdegeni, magram TavianTi qveynebis patriotebi: Tbilisis qalaqis Tavi al.iv.xatisovi, isak markis Ze doluxanovi, baqoeli qristefore vermiSevi, ali mahadan beg TofCibaSevi, xan xoiski da kidev mravali sxva. or maTgans, quTaisis gubernator guloviCsa da baqos gubernator potulovs, adrec vicnobdi. vicnobdi agreTve zemoxsenebuli oTar dadeSqelianis Zmas – jansuR (giorgi) Tengizis Zesac, romelic im dros daRestnis gubernatori iyo _ ulamazesi qeraTmiani vaJkaci, axovani, keTilSobili da metad Tavaziani. me is jer kidev bavSvobidan maxsovda, roca igi raWis mazris ufrosad muSaobda. maSin axalgazrda gaxldaT, axla ki gadaRlili momeCvena, magram es gasakviri arc iyo, radgan im avadsaxsenebel imperialistur omSi man ori vaJkacis dakargviT gamowveuli ubedureba iwvnia. TaTbiris muSaoba ufro seqciebSi mimdinareobda. unda genaxaT, rogor cxarobdnen kamaTSi gamosuli oratorebi, roca isini erobis ama Tu im formebis SemoRebaze davobdnen. qarTvelTagan yvelaze ufro cxared da ufro xSiradac soxumis qalaqis Tavi niko TavdgiriZe gamodioda. aseve, mxned da vaJkacurad icavdnen TavianT poziciebs giorgi lasxiSvili, parTen goTua, quTaisis qalaqis Tavi iliko Ciqovani, eqimi spiridon virsalaZe, oqropirad wodebuli kita abaSiZe, iason afaqiZe, giorgi Juruli, mixeil maCabeli, gazeT „zakavkazies“ redaqtori konstantine TumaniSvili, Tbilisis mazris marSali dimitri ColoyaSvili, agronomi yazaxaSvili, ingilo giorgi gamxaraSvili da sxvebi; ufro iSviaTad gamodiodnen: cnobili literatori iona meunargia, baTumis qalaqis Tavi evgeni krinicki, igive daraxveliZe; agreTve konstantine kandelaki, veqili ivane zurabiSvili. es ukanaskneli metad warmosadegi vaJkaci gaxldaT, mgoni, niko nikolaZis siZe iyo. danarCenebi kamaTSi ar gamosulan, mxolod kenWisyraSi monawileobdnen. kote afxazi ki Cveulebriv gamodioda xolme Tavisi dinji da saqmiani sityviT da bolos uRebda ama Tu im sadavo sakiTxs. brZolaSi aqtiurobda daviT niJaraZec, Tumca oratorobiT maincadamainc ar gamoirCeoda. igi mxolod erTxel gamovida Tav116

ad-aznaurTa saxeliT. Cvenebis poziciebi ekavaT ganjel da baqoel musulmanebs, romelTa TvalsaCino warmomadgenlebic iyvnen fatali xan xoiski da ali mahamad beg TofCibaSevi. somexTa mxriv pirvelebi iyvnen cnobili Tbiliseli veqili isak markis Ze doluxanovi da Tbilisis qalaqis Tavi xatisovi. orTave TavianTi oratorobiT iqcevdnen damswreTa yuradRebas. seqciebSi xSirad Semodioda xolme ama Tu im sakiTxebTan dakavSirebuli winadadebebi. erTxel mec movawere xeli kote afxazis, general giorgi yazbegis, kita abaSiZis, solomon miqelaZis, filipe gogiCaiSvilis, vasil demidovisa da sxvaTa xelmowerebis gverdiT. es iyo sabuTi, romelSiac aRZruli iyo zaqaTalis (saingilo) olqebSi saerobo dawesebulebaTa sakiTxebi. giorgi gamxaraSvilma winadadeba wamoayena, raTa Tbilisis guberniis saerobo erTeulSi SeetanaT saingilo, rogorc samazro erTeuli. es imiT iyo gamowveuli, rom zogierTi maTgani mxars uWerda saingilos calke erTeulad gamoyofas da, amgvarad, mis saqarTvelosagan mowyvetas. somexTa mxriv yuradRebas iqcevda Sua xnis inteligenti, ganaTlebuli sazogado moRvawe, erT dros Tbilisis Tavi, baqoeli qristefore vermiSevi. me pirvelad mixdeboda aseT did sazogadoebaSi yofna; amitom vcdilobdi, yvelaferi aRmebeWda gonebaSi da uyuradRebod araferi damrCenoda. gansakuTrebiT didi iyo TaTbiris monawileTa swrafva erovnuli saqmeebis mosagvareblad. didad vwuxdi, rom aseT dros iq ar imyofeboda niko nikolaZec, es „Cveni didi falavani“ – ilias sityvebiT rom davaxasiaTo, „mZime artileriiT“ SeWurvili adamiani, romelic sabolood anadgurebda Tavis mowinaRmdeges. niko imxanad mefis mTavrobis mier pasuxisgebaSi iyo micemuli da oficialurad qalaqis Tavic aRar iyo; is mxolod faqtiurad xelmZRvanelobda foTis qalaqis saqmes, formalurad ki mis movaleobas misi moadgile galaqtion tyemalaZe asrulebda. rom ara aseTi mdgomareoba, is uTuod daeswreboda am TaTbirs da Tavisi didi avtoritetiT bevr karg saqmes gaakeTebda. foTSi dabrunebulma yvelaferi dawvrilebiT vuambe baton nikos. rodesac Cveni deputatebis gamosvlebze vuyvebodi, mas Tvalebi ubrwyinavda, moswonda maTi erovnuli pozicia, magram aranaklebi qebiT ixseniebda maT mowinaaRmdegeebs: xatisovs, doluxanovs, vermiSevs, rogorc TavianTi eris erTgul guSagebs: _ batono, Wkvianebi arian, Tavisi xalxisaTvis muSaoben, moqmedeben, Tavs ar izogaven, momavals emsaxurebian; erTi sityviT, sazogado moRvaweebi arian. didi Tu patara, Tavisi qveynis patriotebi arian. Cvenc rom ase vibrZodeT, vin gagvtexda, vin gvajobebda ukeTesi momavlis aSenebaSi? Cveni xalxi niWieria, magram niWs swori gza unda, swori mimarTuleba; ai, maSin Sedegic sasurveli iqneba! Torem ras hgavs es: erTi alTas miiwevs, meore – balTas! Cven gaerTianeba gvWirdeba, erTi xelmZRvaneli gvinda. vnaxoT, egeba es eroba mainc mogveSvelos! Tuki misi SemoReba dascaldaT!... magram arc ise kargadaa awyobili Cveni politikuri cxovreba, rogorc gvarwmuneben xolme. magidaze qarTul da rusul Jurnal-gazeTebTan erTad, safrangeTidan, inglisidan da amerikidan miRebuli Jurnal-gazeTe117

bic ewyo. rogorc didi adamiani, niko ver eteoda viwro CarCoebSi da mas mTeli msoflios kulturuli ambebi ainteresebda. _ vnaxoT, rogor damTavrdeba es didi Sexla! sinaTles mainc mohfens Cvens cxovrebas!... vnaxoT, vnaxoT!... momavali gviCvenebs. is arc ise Sorsaa, rogorc zogierTs hgonia! – ambobda batoni niko darwmunebiT. hoda, kidev ufro sarwmuno da STambeWdavi xdeboda am didi moazrovnis naTqvami. mokrZalebiT vusmendi mis saubars da vcdilobdi, araferi gamomrCenoda... 72 wlis kaci axalgazrdulad gamoiyureboda; iSviaTad gamodioda gareT da roca gamodioda, salams veravin daaswrebda. aseTi iyo batoni niko nikolaZe – qarTveli xalxis erTguli da Rirseuli Svili.

irodion evdoSvili foTSi
meoce saukune axali dawyebuli iyo. mowafe viyavi, magram imdenad moCituli, rom axal TaobaSi wili medo. maSin revoluciis xana iyo da moswavleebic drois Sesaferi literaturiT vikvebebodiT. nabeWdi wignebi ar gvqonda da popularul nakalmars erTmaneTisagan viwerdiT. Cemi bavSvuri warmodgeniT bevri ram iyo saintereso revoluciur poeziaSi, magram yvelaze ufro irodion evdoSvilis leqsi „megobrebo, win, win gaswiT“ miyvarda. im viTarebaSi me ar meguleboda sxva leqsi, romelSic ase STamagoneblad da mgznebarebiT, ase sxartad yofiliyo gadmocemuli revoluciuri brZolisken mowodeba. unda aRiniSnos, rom imdroindeli qarTveli avtorebis nawerTa gamocemis saqme ver idga saTanado simaRleze. CvenSi mowinave ojaxebSi Tu naxavdiT ilias, akakis, vaJasa da yazbegis calkeul nawarmoebTa wignebs. maT erTad Tavmoyril naRvawTa gamocemebze ocnebac ar SegveZlo. ai, aseT pirobebSi ra imedi unda mqonoda, rom axalgazrda poetis evdoSvilis leqsebs calke wignad dabeWdils vnaxavdi, magram vnaxe da Tanac rusi mezoblis – ulianovskis ojaxSi. es iyo patara zomis Txeli wigni, iaffasiani gamocema, romlis garekanze poetis suraTi iyo moTavsebuli. ulianovskaias, moxucebul qvriv qals ori qaliSvili da erTi vaJi hyavda. zustad ar maxsovs, rusebi iyvnen Tu polonelebi, magram qarTulad kargad laparakobdnen da qarTul ojaxebTan megobruli urTierToba hqondaT. miSa ulianovski jer isev mowafe iyo, magram, rom ityvian, Tavdadebuli revolucioneri. man im mgznebare drois Sesaferisi bevri leqsi icoda zepirad, maT Soris qarTuli leqsi „megobrebo“. vTxove, gadamiwere-meTqi. _ me magis wignic maqvs, _ miTxra miSam. _ rogor, _ gavikvirve me. –evdoSvilis wigni gaqvs? _ ho, ginda, giCveno da gaTxovo kidec? miSa saCqarod Setrialda Sin da wigni gamoitana. didxans videqi xmaamouReblad da sixaruliT vfurclavdi am iSviaT gamocemas. 118

ramdeni xani gavida mas Semdeg da axlac mikvirs, rogor moxvda is iSviaTi wigni ulianovskebis ojaxSi im dros, roca bevrs misi naxvac ki natvrad hqonda gadaqceuli. evdoSvilis „megobrebo“ imdenad popularuli iyo, rom, rogorc ityvian, yvelas pirze ekera. quTaisis saswavleblis damTavrebisa da iqidan wasvlis Semdeg evdoSvilis leqsebis wigni me aRarsad Semxvedria. arc mis avtorze gamegona rame da cxovrebis pirobebis SecvlasTan dakavSirebiT yvelaferi TiTqos erTgvar daviwyebasac mieca. 1907 wlis Semodgomaze, wiwamuris tragediis dReebSi kvlav gaielva poetis TiTqmis miviwyebulma saxelma. is dReebi iyo, roca mTeli eri, saerTo risxviT Sekruli, jalaTebisadmi zizRiT aRvsiliyo. irodion evdoSvilic, romelic didi ilias erovnul ideebze iyo aRzrdili, mowinaveTa rigebSi vixileT: „visac unda,

is gaCumdes, me ar ZalmiZs moTmineba, TviT kalami braz-naRveliT aTrTolda da ileseba“, _ werda poeti.
imxanad moskovis universitetSi vswavlobdi da kargad maxsovs qarTveli studentebis erTsulovani aRSfoTeba da Tan is didi aRfrTovanebac, poet irodion evdoSvilis gulwrfeli, Tavdadebuli gamosvlebi rom iwvevda. im dReebSi poeti-tribuni, poeti-moqalaqe irodion evdoSvili kidev ufro metad amaRlda studentebis TvalSi, yvelgan masze iyo laparaki, mis leqsebs kiTxulobdnen. sagulisxmoa is garemoebac, rom Cvens saTvistomoSi iseTebic iyvnen, romlebsac srulebiT ar moswondaT poetis aseTi gamosvlebi. is amiT TiTqos proletarul motivebs uaryofda da nacionalistebis banakSi gadadioda. 1909 wels Tbilisis gazeT „zakavkazieSi“, romelic moskovSi mogvdioda, amovikiTxeT evdoSvilis Soreul CrdiloeTSi gadasaxlebis ambavi, rac Tbilisis gubernatoris gankargulebis safuZvelze momxdara. 1916 wlis gazafxuli idga. rogorc araerTxel mogaxseneT, maSin foTSi vmuSaobdi. da ai, erT dRes Cvens dawesebulebaSi gvewvia friad pativsacemi pirovneba _ niko TavdgiriZe, romelic im dros erT-erTi popularuli qarTveli sazogado moRvawe iyo. niko soxumSi cxovrobda da erTxans qalaqis Tavis metad sapatio Tanamdebobac ekava, im xanad ki soxumis saurTierTo kreditis sazogadoebaSi gamgeobis Tavmjdomare gaxldaT. Cvens dawesebulebebs saqmiani urTierToba hqondaT erTmaneTTan, ris gamoc n.TavdgiriZis mosvla ar gagvkvirvebia, magram saubrisas gamoirkva, rom igi Turme TbilisSi miemgzavreboda, sadac soxumidan avadmyofi poeti evdoSvili mihyavda. poet evdoSvilis xsenebaze yvela smenad gadaviqeciT. piradad me Zalze davinteresdi am ambiT, radgan, karga xani iyo, aRaraferi gamegona masze. gamoirkva, rom avadmyofi poeti bolo dros soxumSi mkurnalobda, magram misi janmrTeloba kidev ufro gauaresebuliyo da aucilebloba moiTxovda misTvis adgilis gamocvlas. TviTon avadmyofsac TbilisSi dabruneba uTxovia. poetis soxumidan TbilisSi wayvana n.TavdgiriZes ukisria, foTSi Camosvlisas man CvenTan Semoiara, megobrebic gvinaxula da sayvareli poetis ambavic Segvatyobina. 119

aqve minda aRvniSno, rom maSin soxumis centrTan damakavSirebeli rkinigza ar arsebobda (gaiyvanes 20-ian wlebSi). amitom soxumidan TbilisSi mimavali mgzavrebi jer foTSi unda Camosuliyvnen zRviT da mere iqidan TbilisSi matarebliT wasuliyvnen. Cveni soxumeli mgzavrebic ase moqculiyvnen da foTSi Camosulebi Tbilisis matarebels elodnen. poet evdoSvilis foTSi yofnis ambavi erTbaSad gavrcelda muSebsa da inteligentebs Soris. bevrma moindoma misi naxva, magram gemiT mgzavrobisagan avadmyofi Zalze dasustebuliyo da xalxis miRebis Tavi ar hqonda, amitom Cveni dawesebulebidan TavdgiriZes vagzalze ramdenime piriRa gavyeviT: me, gamgeobis wevri vano didia da qalaqis gamgeobaSi momuSave popularuli moRvawe _ cxraasxuTeli revolucioneri mixa esakia. _ Zvirfaso irodion, xedav, ramdeni megobrebi gyolia foTSi! – SesZaxa man Tavisi rixiani xmiT, roca vagzlis baqanze gavediT da iqve mdgari poetis sawols Tavs wavadeqiT. _ rogorc ki Seni aq yofnis ambavi gaiges, yvelam Seni monaxuleba moisurva, magram, rom vuTxari mgzavrobiT daRlili iyavi, Tavi Seikaves, Tumca TavianTi warmomadgenlebi mainc gamogzavnes. nikos xmaze skam-loginze mwoliare irodionma odnav wamoiwia da naRvliani Tvalebi gakvirvebiT SemogvanaTa, magram male isev milula. sulis kvnesa ismoda misi naRvliani saxidan da gamxdari sxeulidan. guli metkina da xmis amoRebis xalisic, rogorc yvelas, mec wamerTva. TviTmpyrobelobis cixeebsa da gadasaxlebebSi natanji da nawvalebi, WleqiT Sepyrobili, Ronemixdili poeti dauZlurebuli esvena sawolze da naRvliani TvalebiT xmaamouReblad misCereboda sivrces. gamaxsenda misi leqsidan aseTi striqoni – „me ferfliRa var cecxlze damwvar salamuridan.“ male matarebelic Camodga da avadmyofi vagonSi SeviyvaneT. iq rbil sawolze movaTavseT da erTxans mis axlos mdumared videqiT, mere isev uxmod da ulaparakod CamovediT baqanze. poetis naxvis msurvelebi mainc mosuliyvnen da baqanze moeyaraT Tavi. maT Soris iyvnen qalaqis sabWos deputatebi. videqiT daRvremilni da umweoni sayvareli poetis aseTi unugeSo mdgomareobis gamo. meore dRes me da vano didia foTSi Tbilisidan dabrunebul qalaqis Tavs, niko nikolaZes vestumreT da vuambeT evdoSvilis soxumidan foTSi gamovlis ambavi. batonma nikom sinanuli gamoTqva, rom, samwuxarod, im dRes foTSi ar imyofeboda da saSualeba ar mieca Sexvedroda avadmyof poetsa da niko TavdgiriZes. sul oriode kvira arc ki iyo gasuli, rom poetis gardacvalebis cnoba miviReT. dakrZalvaze Camosuli foTis delegaciis wevrTa Soris mec viyavi. qaSueTis eklesiis galavani da mosazRvre quCebi savse iyo xalxiT, maT Soris saqarTvelos sxvadasxva kuTxidan Camosuli delegaciebiT. bevri ram iTqva sazriani da gulSi Camwvdomi, magram Cemze gansakuTrebuli STabeWdileba datova mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis, cnobili eqimis ivane gomarTelis Sinaarsianma sityvam. man aRniSna, rom irodion evdoSvilma Tavis samSoblosa da mSromel xalxs marto Semoqmedeba ki ar miuZRvna, Tavisi jan120

mrTeloba da sicocxlec anacvala. mSobliuri qveynis bednierebisTvis sakuTari nebiT daidga mowameobrivi gvirgvinio. mSvenieri sityva Tqva qarTvel ebraelTa warmomadgenelma daviT baazovmac. mexsierebaSi am sityvis ramdenime fragmentiRa SemomrCa: „_ itireT irodion evdoSvili, xalxno da jamaaTno, oRond mxolod TvaliT da ara guliT, _ ambobda Sav tansacmelSi gamowyobili vaJkaci, ambobda ki ara, ufro mReroda, rogorc es Zvel bibliur oratorebs sCveodaT warsulSi. – itireT

TvaliT da ara guliT, rameTu igi gmiria da amieridan samudamod aris gabrwyinebuli xalxis gulSi ukvdavebis sxivebiT. guliT itireT mxolod is, vinc Tavis ers ganze gasdgomia...“
quCebSi didubis panTeonamde xSirad gvxvdebodnen jguf-jgufad mdgari axalgazrdebi, muSebi, inteligentebi, poetis damfaseblebi, romlebic mwuxare dumiliT uerTdebodnen procesias. Rrma STabeWdilebiT davbrundiT panTeonidan. meore dRes gazeT „zvirTis“ redaqciaSi Seviare da patara werili davtove poetis dakrZalvis gamo. werili sul male dabeWdes. im gazeTs didxans vinaxavdi, radgan saintereso bevri ram iyo mis furclebze da, maT Soris, haziras kargad mozrdili muxambazi: „wadi, wadi, nuRar moxval, Se oxero martis Tveo,“ ramdenime werili evdoSvilze da mis poeziaze, „arCil jorjaZis nawerebidan,“ „muSaTa cxovreba“ da sxva, magram Semdeg igi i.evdoSvilis saxl-muzeums gavugzavne saCuqrad. irodion evdoSvilma Tavisi SemoqmedebiT bevri ram axali SesZina Cvens literaturas. irodion evdoSvilis Rvawli Rirseulad daafasa Cvenma xalxma. mSobliuri literaturis istoriaSi mas sapatio adgili miuCina. poetis dasaflavebis meore dRes gazeT „zvirTis“ 1916 wlis 16 maisis nomerSi daibeWda Cemi werili: „ir.evdoSvilis dakrZalvaze“ (STabeWdilebani), romlis nawyvetebsac SemogTavazebT Cemi mogonebis dasasruls:

kvira. rva maisi. dilidan mSvenieri mziani, xalisiani dRe epireboda... qvaSveTis eklesiis galavani, romlis sivrce ukve xalxiT gaWediliyo, mowiwebiT moeloda mgosnis daxuWul TvalTa ukanasknel xilvas. warbebSekrulni SevediT me da erTi Cemi megobari galavanSi da xalxis Sav talRas SeverieT... ager zarebmac gul-sawvavad daiwkriales da... eklesiis siRrmidan Sav talRaTa qeCoze Jamisferi kuboc gamoCnda tivtiviT.. kubo... es sulis Semzaravi sityva! gulis mosaklavi sanaxaoba! irodionmac Tqva: „...Cavscqeri kuboso“-o, „Sig badri mTvare narnarebs, stkbeba“-o... sicocxliT gamwarebul mgosans am kubodan „satrfoc ki ealerseboda“ TiTqos... gamoCnda kubo, mas acremlebuli kvnesac mosdevda Tan. onel rabinis sityvam Rrma warsulSi gadamisrola, win TiTqo sul sxva suraTi gadamifina... samxreTi... papanaqeba sicxe... gadamwvari, oqrosfrad gamomyure, ufoTlo da ubalaxo qedebi da... iqve ki qvaze Semdgari, fexSiSveli, saxedamwvari da Tma-wver gabuwuli xalxis maswavlebeli, romelic aRgznebuli sityvebiT zRva xalxs cecxlur sityvebs esroda...
121

Sors ki... xSiri miwurebiT mofenili, Cafiqrebuli, daRvremili ebrauli qalaqi. rabin baazovis gulsaklavi sityvebiT, ierusalimi, beTlemi Tu nazareTi sevdiani sikaJiT iyo savse. is iyo mware kvnesa, viTa tirili babilonis mdinarisa pirs... mere isev tfilisi, isev quCa, isev zRva xalxi da amoZravebuls Sav talRaTa qeCoze kidev motivtive Jamisferi kubo. samaradiso dasvenebis adgils mieCqaroda irodionis ukve maradis dasvenebuli gvami. Tvalwin gadameSala is warsuli dro, rodesac mkveTri da gabeduli leqsi pirvelad esma Cems yurs... gamaxsenda bavSvoba, quTaisi, saswavlebeli, yvela is Cemi patara amxanagi, visTan erTadac Seviyvare irodionis naTeli poezia. „ megobrebo, win, win gaswiT, nu Sedrkeba Tqveni guli, de, mkerds sisxlis daRi aCndes da Subls oflis nakaduli!“ didubes rom mivuaxlovdiT, cam warbi Seikra. ca RrublebiT daifara da xalisiani dRe mwuxris JangiT Seimosa. qaric amovarda da xSiri xeebi aaxmaura. kubo saflavis pirze daasvenes. es is kuboa, romlidanac mgosans „satrfoc ealerseboda“. ai, sada hpova sicocxliT gamwarebulma Sveba! aqeTken mas xom TviT raRac ucnauri Zalac uxmobda: „vdgavar martoka, Cavcqeri kubos, Sig badri mTvare narnarebs, stkbeba, da am wyvdiadSi, am kaeSanSi satrfo kubodan mealerseba.“ misi Cangi mwuxared aJRerda: „satrfo kubodan mealersebao,“ da, vin uwyis, egeba guldatanjul mgosans misi xSir-mosaubre cis feriebi ukve aRarc ki umalavdnen aSkarad moaxloebuls kubos da... satrfos alersiT iwvevdnen mis suls... amitomac iyo, rom, rodesac oriode kviris win soxumidan tfiliss mimavali mgosani foTis sadgurze vixile, gulma daumalavad miTxra, rom mgosnis Tvalebs ukve saflavi Sehyvareboda: „miyvars saflavi: Cemi satrfoa, iq Cavasvene me siyvaruli“-o. da vigrZeni, rom mgosani aRarc malavda: „iq aris Cemi wmidaTa wmida, Cemi edemi da gazafxuli“-o. me ukve maSin Camoviwure cremli RawvTagan da „TvaliT vitire“ is, vinc iyo ara marto „mgosani“ da „mebrZoli“, romelic xalxis gulSi marad icocxlebs, aramed... mxolod da mxolod udrood damdnari da bevris mTqmelis SemZle guli, romlis saxeli amqveynad iyo: - irodioni!...

Jurnali „cisferi yanwebi“
mniSvnelovani movlena iyo CvenSi Jurnal „cisferi yanwebis“ gamosvla, romelmac mTeli epoqa Seqmna qarTul literatu122

raSi, rogorc dekadentur-simbolisturi ideebis pirvelma Semomtanma, medroSem da mqadagebelma. am Jurnalis istoria misi winamorbedis – „oqros verZis“ – gamoCenis Semdeg iwyeba. orive Jurnals hqonda erTi saTave, erTi sawyisi da mitomac arian erTnairad mimzidvelni da sainteresoni. am literaturuli mimdinareobis moTave poeti da tribuni paolo iaSvili iyo, qarTuli poeziis es momxiblavi raindi da laparakic, cxadia, paolo iaSviliT unda daviwyo. man didi Sromisa da rudunebis Sedegad gamouSva zemoxsenebuli ori literaturuli Jurnali _ „oqros verZi“ (1913 wels) da „cisferi yanwebi“ (1916 wels). man Tavi mouyara did literaturul Zalebs, yvelas, visac ki saamiso unari hqonda da aRelvebda qarTuli literaturis bedi. es Jurnalebi marTlac rom originaluri iyo rogorc Sesaxedavad, ise SinaarsiT; raRac axali, lamazi, TiTqos sayvareli adamianisaTvis saCuqrad gamzadebuli Zvirfasi nivTi. zomac _ kargi, qaRaldic _ maRali xarisxis, Sriftic _ uebro, ydebi – mxatvrulad gaformebuli. „cisferi yanwebi“ ori saRebaviT iyo dabeWdili. riTmebi wiTeli feriT iyo gamoyofili _ ise, rogorc es Zvelad qarTvelma kaligrafebma da wignis moyvarulma gamformeblebma icodnen. Semonaxuli maqvs am Jurnalebis TiTo egzemplari (orive nomeri), romelTac azizad vinaxav, vufrTxildebi, rogorc TvalisCins. es ufro imitom, rom isini redaqciis mier CemTvis iyo gankuTvnili, rogorc JurnalSi momuSave koleqtivis erT-erTi wevrisaTvis. es faqti aRniSnulic aris #1 Jurnalis egzemplarebze. TvalsaCino adgilze stamburad dabeWdilia „lado jafariZes“. qvemoT – Jurnalis gerbi, gamocemis adgili da TariRi: quTaisi, gazafxuli, CSiv, e.i. 1916 w. es siurprizi Jurnalis redaqciam da ufro Jurnalis erTaderTma Tavkacma paolo iaSvilma miuZRvna yvela monawiles: gr.robaqiZes, i.griSaSvils, g.tabiZes, v.gafrindaSvils, leli jafariZes da sxvebs, daaxloebiT TxuTmet kacs, _ SesaZloa, stambis muSakebsac, romlebmac didi pativi dasdes redaqtors Jurnalis xarisxianad da lamazad gaformebis saqmeSi. me, marTalia, leqsi an raime literaturuli masala aq ar damibeWdavs, magram is ki marguna bedma, rom Jurnalis erT-erTi mxatvari da gamformebeli vyofiliyavi. Jurnalis ydaze avtorTa saxelebis gamotana metad Svenoda gamocemas, raRac Tavisebur iers da originalobas hmatebda. aseTi yuradReba redaqciis mxriv JurnalSi monawile avtorebis mimarT iSviaTia. yovel SemTxvevaSi, Cvens droSi arsad Semxvedria. vfiqrob es redaqtor-gamomcemlis paolo iaSvilis maRali kulturis, taqtis, gemovnebisa da avtorTa dafasebis gamoxatulebaa. rac Seexeba Jurnalis meore nomers, aseTi warwera mas, saerTod, ar hqonia, da maxsovs, paolo Zalian swuxda amis gamo. ratom, risTvis? paolo amas raRac sapatio mizezs miawerda, romlis gamosworebac Semdeg SeuZlebeli Seiqna. es miTxra foTSi raRac saqmeze Camosulma poetma. swored maSin gadmomca Jurnalis axladgamosuli nomeri. 123

_ nu gewyineba, Cemo lado, rom am nomerze monawileTa gvarebi ver mivabeWdeT ise, rogorc es pirvel nomerze gvqonda gakeTebuli, magram ara uSavs – SemdegisaTvis es nakli gamoswordeba. am Sens kuTvnil nomerze ki, modi, Cems warweras davjerdeT da xeliT mivawer imas, rac stamburad unda dagvebeWda, _ Tqva man
da Jurnalis garekanze ase waawera: „lados, Cveni cisferi saxlis Zvirfas xuroTmoZRvars. paolo iaSvili.“ TariRi daviwynia. es dRes SevniSne! Jurnalis gerbis qveS ki mibeWdilia: quTaisi, zamTari, CSiv“. paolo iaSvilis aRniSnuli warwera kidev ufro amSvenebs Jurnalis am nomers da Cems TvalSi am egzemplars unikalur mniSvnelobas aniWebs. paolos mier Jurnali „cisferi yanwebi“ gansakuTrebuli mondomebiT iqna momzadebuli da gamoSvebuli. Jurnalma 1916 wlis dasawyisSi ixila dRis sinaTle. orive Jurnali _ rogorc „oqros verZi“, ise „cisferi yanwebi“ gamosacemad ise momzadda, rom paolo iaSvils am saqmeSi TiTqmis aravin daxmarebia. is Zalze Sromismoyvare iyo da am Sromas, azrs, energias mTlianad literaturas anacvalebda. gimnaziis wlebidan ase mosdgamda. sxvaTa Soris, is eqspromtis didi ostatic iyo. moviyvan erTi mandilosnis – qalbaton lenas mcire mogonebas. is qaliSvilobisas quTaisSi swavlobda. Turme erTxel mas ojaxSi mezobeli gimnazielebi swvevian, maT Soris paolo iaSvilic yofila. gazafxuli iyo da qaliSvilma Tavis ezoSi saxeldaxelod aluCa dakrifa da stumrebs miarTva. irgvliv buneba yvaoda da axalgazrda gimnaziel paoloSi poetma ifeTqa: „lxenaa, lxena!... – wamoiZaxa man Turme, _ frinvelTa stvena, aluCas gvawodebs Zvirfasi lena!“ am ambavs dResac siamovnebiT igonebs xolme qalbatoni lena. paolo rom gamaxsendeba, misi Sno, lazaTi da goliaTuri, vaJkacuri figura, yovelTvis Cveni poeziis namdvil raindad warmomidgeba. 1964 wels mec mergo pativi sxvebTan erTad monawileoba mimeRo paolos dabadebidan 70 wlisTavis aRsaniSnav saRamoze qalaq TbilisSi da erTxel kidev davrwmundi, Tu raoden ganuzomeli siyvaruliT sargeblobs igi Cvens droSi. saRamo Catarda mecnierebaTa akademiis darbazSi da didZali xalxic daeswro. moxsenebebiT da mogonebebiT gamovidnen Cveni cnobili mwerlebi da yvelani erTnairi siTboTi da siyvaruliT igonebdnen mas. darbazSi gamofenili iyo Cem mier specialurad im saRamosaTvis daxatuli paolos didi portreti. vis ar Sevxvdi iq Cveni mowinave sazogadoebidan Tu mwerlebidan, visTan ar vijere guli sasiamovno saubriT paolosa Tu mis uaxloes megobar ticianze. sxvaTa Soris, ticianis meuRle qalbatoni nino aq brZandeboda da isic gulaZgerebuli usmenda oratorebis mier Tqmul uaRresad Tbil, mravlismetyvel sityvebs da malulad iwmendda Tvalebze momdgar cremls. am saRamos mieZRvna saocrad Tbili sagazeTo informacia, romelic „veCerni Tbilisis“ imave wlis 15 ivnisis nomerSi daibeWda. paolo quTaisis klasikur gimnaziaSi Cemi umcrosi Zmis valerianis Tanaklaseli iyo, ris gamoc bevri ram gamegona mis niWsa 124

da unarze. amdenad, is imTaviTve momaval did mwerlad da literatorad mesaxeboda. Cemi es prognozic savsebiT gamarTlda maSin, roca gavigone, rom pavluSa iaSvilma (maSin jer kidev ar atarebda axal saxels – paolos) Jurnali „oqros verZi“ gamouSvao. igi gimnaziaSi swavlobda da literaturuli gamocdileba, raRa Tqma unda, saerTod ara hqonia. me da grigoli moskovSi vswavlobdiT im dros da moulodnelad Cveni umcrosi Zmebisagan _ valerianisa da aleqsandresagan quTaisidan sul cota xnis win gamocemuli „oqros verZis“ pirveli nomeri miviReT. gadavfurcleT da Jurnalis pirvel gverdze Cven mier Sesrulebuli rusTavelis portreti gveca TvalSi. sixaruliT cas vewieT – imdenad moulodneli iyo CvenTvis es siurprizi. maSinve Cvens amxanag-megobrebTan gavaqaneT da vaCveneT. yvelam gaiziara Cveni didi sixaruli. Jurnalis momdevno gverdi – rusTavelis portretis mere – eWira leqsebs, novelebs da sxva saxis literaturul masalas, gansakuTrebiT gamoirCeoda saredaqcio werili, romelSic Jurnalis gamocemis mizandasaxulobis Sesaxeb iyo saubari. Semdeg modioda patara werili rusTavelze, werili saqarTveloze da misi gacnobis mizniT, eqskursiebis mowyobis aucileblobaze; bolos, quTaisis sazogadoebrivi da literaturuli cxovrebis mimoxilvaiT mTavrdeboda. ase detalurad amas imitom vigoneb, rom igi dRes bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgens da axalgazrdobisaTvis miuwvdomelia (misi sul xuTi nomeri gamovida). samwuxarod, dRes ramdenime cali biblioTekaSi TuRaa Semonaxuli. danamdvilebiT vici, rom misi mTeli kompleqti (xuTive nomeri) daculia sajaro da saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis Tu griSaSvilis saxelobis biblioTekebSi. vfiqrob, Tbilisis universitetis biblioTekaSic moiZebneba igi. piradad me erT dros am Jurnalis yvela nomeri mqonda, magram TandaTan Semomefanta da damrCa mxolod pirveli nomeri. aq Jurnalis redaqtorad b.jaiania gamocxadebuli. es imitom, rom paolo im dros gimnaziaSi swavlobda da mowafis redaqtorad gamocxadeba ar SeiZleboda. beso jaiani quTaisSi saadgilmamulo bankSi muSaobda da paolos, rogorc axalgazrda literators, exmareboda. ai es iyo mizezi misi ,,garedaqtorebisa”. faqtiuri redaqtori paolo ki JurnalisaTvis saWiro yvela saqmeebs TviTon ganagebda. redaqciac Tavis saxlSi hqonda da ojaxic materialurad exmareboda. ufro ki mamamisi iyo xelgaSlili da am saqmis xelSemwyobi. mas ekuTvnoda kozakovis SesaxvevSi mdebare lamazi orsarTuliani saxli ganieri, mwvane da xexiliT savse ezoTi. raki „oqros verZze“ Camovagde sityva, barem aqve misi ukanaskneli (mexuTe) nomris Sinaarssac gagacnobT. mkiTxvelis yuradRebas im or leqsze SevaCereb, romelsac quTaisis maSindel sazogadoebaSi cnobil or ulamazes qaliSvils uZRvnian. erTi maTgania „fiordebis asuls“. igi gr.robaqiZes ekuTvnis: „me Soreuli var – ar vici arc dRe da arc Rame Cemi movlenis“. mas ori gverdi ukavia da TeTri leqsis saukeTeso nimuSs warmoadgens. xolo leqsi saTauriT _ ,,meores” _ ekuTvnis paolo iaSvils: ,,me msurs, yvelam gaigonos Seyvarebul mgosnis leqsi...” da esec siyvarulis umaRlesi grZnobiTaa gamTbari. 125

asea Tu ise, Jurnali „oqros verZi“ mxolod paolos mSoblebis xarjze gamodioda. roca erTxel amis Taobaze hkiTxes Turme paolos: _ samsaxurSi ara xar, xelfass ar iReb da ase xelgaSlilad riTi cxovrobo, paolos maSinve moswrebulad upasuxnia: „jerjerobiT jibos jibiTo“. paolo pirvelad quTaisSi vnaxe 1914 wels. is axali dabrunebuli iyo evropidan da TiTqos mTeli iqauri brwyinvaleba Tan Camoetana. Zalze Svenoda lamazi Savi, briala Tvalebi, sqeli qoCori, Wabukuri goliaTuri figura. amasTan, axalgazrda poetebs Soris mas ukve saxeli moexveWa. ise Semxvda, rogorc Zvel nacnobs da megobars, radgan kargad axsovda Cemi da Cemi Zmis mier daxatuli „rusTavelis“ portreti, Jurnal „oqros verZis“ pirvelsave nomerSi rom gadabeWda gazeT „Temidan“. „arwiviviT imzirebao“, ambobda is am portretze. axla oriode sityva imaze, Tu rogor moxvda rusTavelis es portreti gazeT „TemSi“. me da grigolma is 1912 wels studentobis dros davxateT da akaki wereTlis raWa-leCxumSi mogzaurobisas mis erT-erT mxlebels – gazeT „Temis“ redaqtors – grigol diasamiZes vaCuqeT. man is Tavisi gazeTis 1913 wlis 15 aprilis nomerSi moaTavsa. amis mere paolom suraTi Tavis „oqros verZSic“ gadabeWda. Turme imdenad moixibla Cveni erToblivi nawarmoebiT, rom, roca 1915 wels Tavisi morigi axali literaturul-mxatvruli Jurnalis („cisferi yanwebi“) gamocema ganizraxa, mxatvruli gaformeba me SemomTavaza. imxanad foTSi momuSaves quTaisSic xSirad mixdeboda Casvla da paolos valerian gafrindaSvilTan erTad iq vxvdebodi xolme. paolos meore axlo megobari tite tabiZe ki im dros studenti iyo da moskovSi swavlobda. werilebsac JurnalisaTvis paolos iqidan ugzavnida. me da grigoli ufrosebi viyaviT paolos jgufelebze, magram isini ise megobrobdnen CvenTan, rogorc TavianT tolebTan. Cvens am urTierTobas saTave rusTavelis portretma daudo. isini masSi raRac siaxles xedavdnen. siaxle ki umTavresi devizi iyo cisferyanwelebisa. unda aRiniSnos, rom im droisaTvis me da Cems Zmas mTargmnelebis saxelic gvqonda gavardnili, ramac, agreTve, Seuwyo xeli simbolistebTan Cvens megobrobas. erT mSvenier dRes sasurveli stumari paolo iaSvili foTSi gamomecxada. Zalze mesiamovna paolos danaxva. mas axlda valerian gafrindaSvili da, Tu ar vcdebi, ivane yifianic (poeti). am stumrobisas bevri vilaparakeT axali Jurnalis gamocemis irgvliv. paolom ki ar mTxova, pirdapir, damavala Jurnalis garekanis mxatvruli gaformeba. me vvuarobdi, magram Cemma uarma ar gaWra. aqve minda gavixseno erTi patara detalic, kerZod, rogor Sexvdnen isini pavle ingoroyvas Zmas – Tedos da raoden sasiamovno da cremlis momgvreli iyo es Sexvedra. paolo megobrebTan erTad qalaqs aTvalierebda. swored am dros Semogvxvda aborigeni Tedo ingoroyva, romelsac ZmasaviT gadaexvivnen da ise hkocnidnen, cremlic ki moeriaT. Tedo ingoroyvas qalaqis centrSi, iqve, sastumros SesasvlelTan, patara maRazia hqonda. xiliT vaWrobda da Tavsac am vaWrobiT irCenda. janmrTelobis mdgomareobis gamo mZime samu126

Saoze wasvla ar SeeZlo. Tedo foTSi pativiscemiT sargeblobda, rogorc wesieri moqalaqe da sayovelTaod cnobili mecnieris pavle ingoroyvas Zma. bolos da bolos, paolos daveTanxme Jurnalis gaformebis Taobaze da didi pasuxisgeblobis grZnobiT Sevudeqi davalebis Sesrulebas. isic vicodi, rogori siyvaruliT ekideboda saJurnalo masalas, rogor arCevda, amuSavebda, asworebda da mxolod saukeTesos beWdavda. mec, rasakvirvelia, pasuxismgeblobiT movekide mindobil saqmes, Jurnalis ydis ramdenime eskizi gavakeTe da bolos erTze SevCerdi. eskizze iyo Jurnalis saerTo saxelwodeba da Rerbi. namuSevari maSinve quTaisSi waviRe da paolos da mis jgufs vaCvene. yvelas moewona, gansakuTrebiT ki mis redaqtors – paolo iaSvils. man Rerbis Zvirfasi liTonisagan Camosxmac ki ganizraxa cisferyanwelTa ordenis wevrebisaTvis mkerdze misabnevad, magram Seasrula Tu ara es ganzraxva, dResac ar vici. „cisferi yanwebis“ pirveli nomeri 1916 wlis TebervalSi gamovida. es TariRi aRniSnuli maqvs Cemdami moZRvnili egzemplaris satitulo furcelze, romelic paolosaTvis Cveuli akuratulobiTa da sifaqiziTaa Sedgenili: zemoT, marcxniv, kuTxeSi Rerbia dabeWdili, igive emblema Jurnalisa, SuaSi – Sinaarsi. isic metad originaluri; marcxniv – avtorebia dasaxelebuli (awyobilia erT zomaze), xolo marjvniv – maTive nawarmoebebis saTaurebi. imdenad sainteresoa es Sinaarsi, rom guli ar miTmens, TanmimdevrobiT ise ar moviyvano, rogorc is JurnalSia dabeWdili: paolo iaSvili – pirveli Tqma. manifesti; mere leqsebia: gr.robaqiZe – ,,sirenas simRera;“ i.griSaSvili – ,,sZinavs dedofals;“ galaktion tabiZe – ,,mTawmindis mTvare.“ ,,lurja cxenebi;“ elene dariani – ,,uvertiura.“ ,,piramidebi;“ iv.yifiani – ,,soneti;“ v.gafrindaSvili – sami leqsi; tite tabiZe – „qaldeas qalaqebi“, paolo iaSvili – „paolo iaSvils“, n.lorTqifaniZe – ,,qal-vaJiani;“ leli jafariZe – ,,dResaswaulze;“ balmonti – ori leqsi; al.cirekiZe – ,,raindTa landebi;“ ar.WumbaZe – miniatura; akaki faRava – ,,Cemi survili;“ tite tabiZe – ,,cisferi yanwebiT;“ yda lado jafariZisa; redaqtori paolo iaSvili. iqve, rasakvirvelia, Cemi saxeli da gvaric iyo miwerili, rogorc mxatvrisa. „cisferi yanwebis“ sul ori nomeri gamovida, orive erTimeoreze lamazad dastambuli. qarTvelma mkiTxvelma wesiT da rigiT, pirdapir, xelixelsagogmanebi ganZi miiRo am Jurnalebis saxiT. magram... magram moxda piriqiT. moulodnelad, mkiTxvelTa didi nawili uaryofiTad gamoexmaura mas. ar moewonaT manifestis xmamaRali gancxadeba, gansakuTrebiT, misi sawyisi sityvebi: „saqarTvelos mgosnebs, yvela meocnebes, qarTvel xalxs“ da a.S. ar moewonaT misi „cisferi qadageba“ individualizmisa da kosmopolituri esTetizmisa; agreTve, erotiuli xasiaTis zogierTi leqsi manamde sruliad ucnobi poeti qalis – elene darianisa. mereda, vin iyo es elene dariani? saidan moxvda JurnalSi? amitom, gansakuTrebiT, ieriSi miitanes „yanwelTa“ jgufTan axlos mdgom pirebze, romelTa gvarebic „ianze“ mTavrdeboda: gordeziani, giorgobiani, devdariani. agreTve, visac elene erqva. er127

Ti sityviT, yvela amaT darianobas swamebdnen da maTze ilesavdnen kbilebs. _ Sen mainc gecodineba, kaco, _ mkiTxa erTma foTelma megobarma, _ axlosa xar yanwelebTan, Seni megobrebi arian. miTxari, Tu giyvarde, vinaa es elene dariani? erTma mandilosanma, Cemma axlobelma, metad pativcemuli ojaxs Svilma, pirdapir momaxala: _ Tqveni coli xom elene giorgobiania. yvela ambobs, swored isaa elene darianio da ratom malavT? aq xom cudi araferia? piriqiT, niWieri qali yofila da gaumarjos RmerTma. _ ras ambobT, qalbatono... rogor hkadrebT amas qalbaton elenes?! ris leqsi, ris poezia, sicocxleSi sityvac arasodes dauweria, miT ufro pornografiuli xasiaTisa... gagonila aseTi ram? – eqomagebodnen meoreni, romelTac kargad icodnen Cemi meuRlis xasiaTi da poeziisadmi misi damokidebuleba. da isev da isev grZeldeboda elene darianis Zieba. mxolod karga xnis Semdeg aexada farda am saidumlos da sazogadoebisaTvis naTeli Seiqna, rom poeti qalis _ elene darianis saxels TviT am Jurnalis redaqtori paolo iaSvili iyo amofarebuli. am garemoebam kidev ufro gaaRiziana opozicia. ar davmalav da, mec gadmomwvdnen: „rogor moxda, rom es yovlad patiosani adamiani maTSi gaeriao.“ aseT opozicionerTa risxvis erTaderTi mizezi is iyo, rom maT ver gauges qarTul literaturaSi evropidan SemoWril moduri literaturis siaxleTa mravalmxrivobas. am adamianTa azriT, „TavaSvebulma axalgazrdobam,“ e.i. cisferyanwelebma da maTma mimdevrebma fexqveS gaTeles saukuneebiT damkvidrebuli da ganmtkicebuli qarTuli klasikuri literaturis normebi da erotizmis mqadageblebad iqcnen. amave azrisa iyo im droisaTvis foTSi mcxovrebi guria-samegrelos episkoposi leonide (oqropiriZe) – SemdegSi saqarTvelos kaTalikosi – didad ganaTlebuli pirovneba, patrioti, qarTuli poeziisa da literaturis didi mcodne. „cisferi yanwebis“ gamosvlasTan dakavSirebiT man erTxel gulistkivili ver damala da masTan morigi stumrobis Jams miTxra: _ batono vladimer! didi interesiT wavikiTxe Cveni axalgazrdobis, Cveni axali poeziis warmomadgenelTa Jurnali „cisferi yanwebi“. Tqma ar unda, niWieri axalgazrdebi Canan, magram, Tqve dalocvilebo, Cvens sisxlsavse axalgazrdobas gana kidev gaRizianeba eWirveba? rogor kadrulobs pativcemuli Jurnali viRac elene darianis leqsebis gamoqveynebas? marTalia, rogorc Cans, niWieria es avtori, magram ra? miT uaresi, radgan ufro saSiSia sazogadoebisaTvis da, maSasadame, miT ufro miuRebeli. amasobaSi Jurnalis meore nomeric gamovida. „yviTel mtrebs“ _ asea dasaTaurebuli saredaqcio werili, romelic sakadriss miuzRavda „filisterebs“: – ,,mxecur yvirilSi gsurT CaaxrCoT Cveni Seuryeveli xmebi!“ – „viciT, kidev didxans iqneba Cven garSemo Tqveni sacodavi yvirili“ da a.S. Jurnali kvlav da kvlav sabrZolo poziciaze idga, magram toni mainc Serbilebuli iyo da naklebad gamaRizianebeli. niWier, damwyeb poetTa rigebs kidev ori axali saxeli Semoemata: ni128

koloz nadiraZe da grigol jafariZe TavianTi iSviaTi da maRalgemovnebiani lirikiT. cisferyanwelTa erT-erTi saRamo TbilisSi Catarda. me xelTa maqvs gazeT „zakavkazskaia reCis“ erTi nomeri, sadac swored am saRamos Sesaxeb aris laparaki. recenziidan irkveva, rom saRamos metad mSvid atmosferoSi Cauvlia – araviTari gaRizianeba da mowinaaRmdegeTa Tavdasxmebi. quTaisSi gamowveulma aurzaurma veraviTari gamoZaxili ver hpova TbilisSi. gazeTi qebiT ixseniebs gafrindaSvilis, agreTve, iaSvilisa da darianis leqsebs. qebisa da aRiarebis Rirsni sworedac isini iyvnen. marTalia, paolo iaSvili simbolizms da kosmopolitur esTetizmsac qadagebda, magram es ufro im dro-Jamis modisadmi gaRebuli xarki iyo. is WeSmariti patrioti iyo qarTuli kulturis, qarTuli leqsis ganaxlebisa; misi formisa da Sinaarsis gamdidrebisaTvis daucxromeli mebrZoli. man, rogorc poetma, es brZola axal literaturul mimdinareobas _ simbolizms daukavSira. etrfoda yvelafer axals, rac Sablons da rutinas upirispirdeboda. vfiqrob, zedmeti ar iqneba, Tu vityviT, rom paolo iaSvilis STagonebulma Semoqmedebam, am ori literaturul-mxatvruli Jurnalis gamocemam, iq dabeWdilma mravalma maRalxarisxovanma leqsma da rusTavelis im portretma, ris Sesaxebac ukve vilaparake, didi zegavlena moaxdina Cvens axalgazrdobaze. gansakuTrebuli interesi gamoiwvia rusTavelis portretma. magaliTad, Cems umcros Zmas uCas, jer kidev bavSvs, am suraTma aaRebina xelSi funji. amave portretma ubiZga mxatvrobisaken, agreTve, or saxelovan mxatvars – apolon quTaTelaZes da nikoloz kandelaks, romlebic Jurnalis gamocemis dros quTaisSi swavlobdnen. amis Taobaze maT araerTxel uTqvamT CemTan pirad saubrebSi. Tu ramdenad popularuli iyo rusTavelis aRniSnuli portreti, amaze is faqtic metyvelebs, rom 1924 wels Jurnalma „Teatri da cxovreba“ igi gaamravla da xelismomwerebs dauriga. xolo 40-ian wlebSi „saxelgamma“ is safosto baraTebis saxiT gamosca. gavixseneb kuriozsac: gazeT „soflis cxovrebaSi“ moTavsebuli iyo sofel nikorwmindeli cnobili Jurnalistis mamasaxlisis werili, romelic iqaur maswavlebels, moyvarul mxatvars SarabiZes Seexeboda. werilSi ,,Cveni rusTavelis” avtorad SarabiZe iyo gamoyvanili. redaqciaSi wavedi gaugebrobis gasarkvevad. iq momibodiSes, _ SecdomiT gagvepara, Torem vin ar icis am portretis istoria da misi namdvili avtorio. uyvarT axalgazrdebs igi da xataveno. am faqtebis gaxseneba me aq imitom damWirda, rom naTeli gaxados paolo iaSvilis Jurnalis „oqros verZis“ is didi gavlena, rasac is swavlasa da literaturas mowyurebul imdroindel axalgazrdobaze axdenda. TviTonac xom SesaniSnavi mxatvari iyo paolo da am saqmeSic albaT bevrs aravis udebda tols. aRniSnul portrets arc bolo aTeul wlebSi dahklebia popularoba. magaliTad, poetma jansuR Carkvianma mis Sesaxeb 129

friad Sinaarsiani moxseneba waikiTxa 1954 wels mweralTa erT jgufSi. aseve Tbili, mravlismTqmeli werili miuZRvna mas osma poetma ilia kavkazagma da igi heqtografiulad daibeWda medicinis muSakTa kulturis saxlTan arsebuli ilia WavWavaZis saxelobis literaturuli gaerTianebis mier gamocemul krebulSi. am saqmeSi gansakuTrebiT didi Rvawli miuZRvis gaerTianebis ucvlel xelmZRvanels _ mweral ioseb pavliaSvils. krebuli 1966 wels iqna dastambuli (vimeoreb, heqtografiuli wesiT). * axla ramdenime sityva tician tabiZis Sesaxeb: ticiani paolos quTaisis klasikuri gimnaziidan megobrobda. isini jer kidev moswavleobis periodSi iyvnen cnobilni, rogorc poetebi da mxatvruli sityvis saukeTeso ostatebi. tician tabiZe 1912 wels gavicani. isic iseve, rogorc paolo iaSvili, imxanad quTaisSi Cems umcros ZmebTan – valerianTan da aleqsandresTan erTad swavlobda. tite tabiZe! am saxels erTgvari siamayiTac warmoTqvamdnen gimnazielebi da, bunebrivia, mec amitom aranaklebi pativiscemiT viyavi ganwyobili; xolo, roca pirvelad vnaxe es simpaTiuri, cisferTvaleba tanmorCili gimnazieli sqeli tuCebiTa da lamazi vardisferi saxiT, kidev ufro meti pativiscemiT ganvimsWvale misdami. rogorc yovel gimnaziels, formis tansacmeli ecva, xolo qudis gerbze da qamris balTaze ucvleli sami rusuli aso „KKG“ – e.i. „quTaisis klasikuri gimnazia“ hqonda amokveTili. dinji iyo, seriozuli, fiqriani. 1913 wlis agvistoSi, roca moskovis universitetSi saqarTvelodan abiturientTa jgufi Camovida, maT Soris Cemi Zmebi valeriani da aleqsandrec iyvnen. moskovs swored maSin ewvia tite tabiZec. is ticianad jer kidev ar iyo monaTluli. Camovidnen agreTve daviT kldiaSvilis vaJi sergo, romelsac kargad vicnobdi quTaisidan, galaktion beJaniSvili – amJamad pensioneri (cxovrobs moskovSi) da mravali sxva. qaliSvilebidan aq iyvnen susana janaSia, nina sayvareliZe, zina kvitaSvili, fenia korZaia da sxvebi. ticiani universitetis filologiur fakultetze Cairicxa. bejiTad swavlobda da Tanac Jurnalis gamocemaze fiqrobda. maxsovs, erTxel Jurnalis (Tu almanaxis) gamocemis organizebaSi mTxova daxmareba. magram Jurnali ar gamosula da dResac ar vici, ram SeuSala xeli am keTili ganzraxvis SesrulebaSi. moskovSi 1914 wlamde viyavi da axalgazrda poets xSirad vxvdebodi qarTuli sazogadoebisa da universitetTan arsebuli qarTuli saTvistomos mier mowyobil sxvadasxva literaturul RonisZiebasa Tu calkeul Sexvedrebze. vakvirdebodi, yovelTvis raRacas werda, uqmad ar ijda. is mozrdili werilic ki, romelic mas „cisferi yanwebis“ pirvel nomerSi aqvs dabeWdili, studentobis dros dawera. meore nomerSic sakmaod soliduri adgili ekava. dabeWdili aqvs erTi leqsi (wignidan „qaldeas qalaqebi“), agreTve, erTi vrceli werili saTauriT „cisferi yanwebiT“, 130

romelic arsebiTad pasuxia yvela im gamolaSqrebaze, „cisferyanwelebs“ rom mouwyves quTaisSi. pasuxi metad Tamami da mouridebeli iyo. „cisferi yanwebiT“ iwyeba axali periodi qarTul mwerlobaSi, _ werda is da amtkicebda, rom simbolizmi, rogorc literaturuli skola, ar yofila CvenSi manamde. is unda Semovides da damkvidrdes saboloodo. ticiani universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg 1917 wels dabrunda saqarTveloSi da energiulad Caeba aqaur literaturul saqmianobaSi. aRar maxsovs, romel wels da ra pirobebSi gadaikeTa saxeli tite ticianad, msgavsad misi Tanamokalmis paolo iaSvilisa, romelmac Tavisi axali saxeli „paolo“ safrangeTidan Camoitana. tites ticianad gadakeTebac paolos mibaZviT iyo. amis Semdeg poetebs Soris saxelis axleburad gadakeTeba TiTqos modad iqca da igi mTel literaturul saqarTvelos moedo. ticiani, yvela sxva sikeTesTan erTad, udidesi patrioti iyo. ase rom ara, rodi ityoda:

„davbadebulvar, rom viyo mona da saqarTvelos medgas uReli, maS, gamarjveba, tkbilo sicocxle, davrCebiT erTad Cven ganuyreli! “
ticianisa da paolos Semdeg yvelaze gamorCeuli cisferyanweli valerian gafrindaSvili iyo, cxadia, Tu arafers vityviT grigol robaqiZeze, romelic Tavisi didi avtoritetiT da niWierebiT dedaboZi iyo aRniSnuli Jurnalisa. magram grigols naklebad ecala cisferyanwelebTan saurTierTobod. is didi mwerali da literaturaTmcodne, ubadlo oratori da qarTuli zepiri sityvis namdvili jadoqari gaxldaT. misma leqciebma vaJafSavelasa da sxva qarTvel mwerlebze sabolood moxibla Cveni sazogadoeba. amitom cisferyanwelTa saqmianobaSi mxolod sporadulad iRebda monawileobas. valerian gafrindaSvilma quTaisSi daamTavra klasikuri gimnazia, magram me is mxolod moskovSi gavicani _ iuridiul fakultetze CemTan erTad swavlobda. Zalze moridebuli axalgazrda iyo, Tavaziani, Cumi, upretenzio. laparaki ar uyvarda, arc xalxSi gamosvla, amitom mTeli cxovreba TiTqmis martoobaSi gaatara. moskovSi valerianis yvelaze axlo megobari ali arseniSvili iyo, isic didi moyvaruli poeziisa da literaturisa, magram sakvirvelia, rom 1916-1917 wlebSi valerianTan erTad cisferyanwelTa jgufSi ar iyo gaerTianebuli. valerianma leqsebis wera moskovSi rusul enaze daiwyo da es faqti iq myof qarTvel studentobas gvakvirvebda, magram male qarTuli leqsebis werasac SeeWida da, marTlac, iSviaTi ostatobiT Wedda yovel striqons, Wedda, rogorc kargi oqromWedeli.

„vin aris, sarkis ufskrulidan rom mevlineba. visi Tvalebi emuqreba Cems fermkrTal Tvalebs?..“
valerians gansakuTrebiT rusuli emarjveboda da TiTqmis mTlianad Targmna n.baraTaSvilis leqsebi. Sesaxedavad jmuxi iyo, warbSekruli, magram guli keTili hqonda. es uwyinari adamiani yvelas uyvarda da pativsa scemdnen, magram „filisterebma“ isic ar dazoges da karikaturiT gaumaspinZldnen iumoristul Jurnal „eSmakis maTraxSi“: suraTze rusTavelis giganturi figu131

raa daxatuli da mis orTave mxares, aqeT-iqiT, klounis qudiani paolo iaSvilisa da valerian gafrindaSvilis juja figurebia. rusTavelis giganturi figuris fonze isini marTla sacodavad da sasacilod gamoiyurebian; karikaturas qvemoT warwera hqonda balmontis cnobili leqsidan: „Lhblh sodru[njx Rustaveli Gaprindawvili i $wvili“. cisferyanwelTa pleadidan TiTqmis yvelasTan axlos da megobrulad viyavi, magram yovel maTganze calke laparaki, rasakvirvelia, Sors wagviyvanda. vityvi mxolod imas, rom maTi Jurnali wminda xelovnebis qadageba iyo. magram TiToeul ,,yanwels” didi kultura, taqti Tu aRzrda gamoarCevda sxvaTagan. isini pirvelobdnen rogorc SemoqmedebiT, ise sazogadoebasTan urTierTobiT. aseTebi iyvnen galaktion tabiZe, n.lorTqifaniZe, i.griSaSvili, leli jafariZe, a.WumbaZe, al.cirekiZe, a.faRava, n.nadiraZe, gr.jafari, i.yifiani, sxvani da sxvani. aq dasaxelebulTagan umravlesoba mxolod Tavisi SemoqmedebiT iyo dakavSirebuli „cisfer yanwebTan“ da vidre Jurnali ar gamovida, misi mimarTuleba yvelasaTvis cnobili ar iyo. aseve viyavi mec, roca misma redaqtor-gamomcemelma paolo iaSvilma Jurnalis mxatvrad amiyvana. Jurnalis ideologiuri mimarTulebis Sesaxeb araferi uTqvams da mec darwmunebuli viyavi, rom igi iqneboda iseTive nimuSi xelovnebisa, rogoric iyo misi winamorbedi Jurnali – „oqros verZi“. „pirvelTqma“, – aseTi iyo saTauri im mowinave werilisa, romelic, saerTod, redaqtoris svetis saxeliTaa cnobili. „saqarTvelos mgosnebs, yvela meocnebes, qarTvel xalxs!“ – mimarTavda Jurnali mkiTxvelebs, – ,,ismineT yvelam Cveni qadageba!..“ davinteresdi _ netav, ra qadagebaa-meTqi da xarbad daviwye am striqonebis kiTxva:

_„ Cven SevikribeT axali silamazis sadideblad... vumReriT raindobas da alur sixaruls... axal silamazes... Cven vadidebT sityvas axals, mkacrs da gabeduls, rogorc mefuri xelis gaqnevas gagiJebul diriJorisa.“
vkiTxulob ganmeorebiT da vxvdebi, rom Jurnali simbolizms qadagebs, rogorc axal literaturul momarTulebas. magram, amasTan erTad, is rusTavelsac aRmerTebs; warsuls ki uaryofs, magram iseT warsuls, romelic uimedo artaxebSi amwyvdevs Cvens awmyos. _ cecxli, cecxli yvelafers, rac Sobs mwuxarebas da daRlilobas!.. – da vgrZnob, TandaTan rogor mSordeba gulidan yovelgvari mwuxri da usasooba. miuxedavad amisa, Jurnalis manifestma, misma xmamaRalma gancxadebam sazogadoebis iseTi guliswyroma gamoiwvia, rom bevrs da, maT Soris, Zvel Jurnalist filipe maxaraZes kalamic ki aaRebina. Cemi azriT, sazogadoebis am aRSfoTebis mizezi iyo yanwelTa gadaWarbebuli siTamame: „giyvardeT qali vnebianad da amravleT adamianebi dauzogavad.“ es quTaisis patriarqalur sazogadoebas gulze tyviasaviT moxvda. 132

rasakvirvelia, sazogadoebas gansakuTrebiT warsulis uaryofa aRizianebda. _ maS, Tu asea, uarvyoT Cveni warsuli, ilia, akaki; uarvyoT saukuneebis ganmavlobaSi xalxis mier rudunebiTa da siyvaruliT naRvawi literatura, xelovneba da yanweli poetebi davisvaT kerpebad?! _ cxarobda mkiTxveli. magram yanwelebi ilias da akakis ki ar uaryofdnen, piriqiT, didad afasebdnen. aRiarebdnen maT Rvawls, rom maT Seqmnes patriotuli saqarTvelo; yanwelebma ki poeturi saqarTvelo unda SevqmnaTo. paolo sastikad ilaSqrebda im xalxis winaaRmdeg, vinc mis jgufs – cisferyanwelebs – futuristebad racxavda. futuristebi cecxlis alSi xvevdnen warsuli kulturis yovelgvar faseulobas da mxolod momavals aRiarebdnen, magram momavali xom warmoudgenelia warsulis gareSe, is xom momavlis saZirkvelia! paolo ki piriqiT: araTu uaryofda warsuls, is imiT sunTqavda. rusTaveli RmerTi iyo misTvis, ilia da akaki – udidesi erovnuli moRvaweebi. opozicionerTa da Jurnalis ideebis uarmyofelTa Semotevam cisferyanwelebi da ufro ki paolo iaSvili, rogorc ukve vTqvi, aiZula erTgvarad SeerbilebinaT toni, rac Jurnalis meore nomris Sinaarssac aSkarad daetyo; gansakuTrebiT mas Semdeg, rac quTaisis erT-erT maSindel kafeSi yanwelTa winaaRmdeg gamoxdoma skandalSi gadaizarda. yanwelTa winaaRmdeg presaSi gamoqveynebuli erT-erTi werili, romlis dabeWdvam kidev ufro gaaZliera miTqma-moTqma maT e.w. „TavaSvebulobaze“, swored ase iyo dasaTaurebuli: „skandali kafeSi“. me es gazeTi foTSi wavikiTxe da metad Sevwuxdi; miT ufro, rom am usiamovnebis mizezad gazeTi „rusTavelis portrets“ asaxelebda. Cveni naxati Turme kafeSi ekida. ratomRac (ratom, aRar maxsovs) yanwelTa mowinaaRmdegeebs ar moswonebiaT. mouTxoviaT misi, rogorc viTomda maTi emblemis, Camoxsna. axalgazrdobam da metadre iq myofma poetebma es metismetad iukadrises da Seiqna erTi ayalmayali, Cxubi da gawev-gamoweva. bolos mowinaaRmdegeni SemTxveviT iq myof cnobil kritikoss – kita abaSiZes Zlivs dauSoSminebia. _ ra SuaSia aq rusTavelis portretio, _ uTqvams kita abaSiZes, _ me kargad vici, rom es namuSevari jer kidev Tbilisis gazeT „TemSi“ iyo dabeWdili, roca „cisferi yanwebis“ xsenebac ar iyo amqveynad. es portreti Jurnalma dabeWda, rogorc erT-erTi lamazi varianti didi poetis – SoTa rusTavelisao... Cavedi Tu ara quTaisSi, maSinve vinaxule paolo. bulvaris piras, megobrebis wreSi Semxvda. damawynara da miTxra: rusTavelis portreti mxolod sababi iyo skandalisTvis, magram javri nurafris geqneba, yvelas Tanabrad gavumaspinZldebiTo. am periodSi Cemi umcrosi Zma daviT jafariZe quTaisis gimnaziaSi swavlobda da iqve cxovrobda pansionSi. is ,,omgadaxdili” kafec iqve gimnaziis Senobas emijneboda. davSordi Tu ara paolos, pansionSi ZmasTan gaveSure. daviTma dawvrilebiT miambo yvelaferi. misTvis amxanagebs ecnobebinaT: „ariqa, daTiko, Seni Zmebis daxatuli rusTavelis gamo Cxubia kafeSi da mieSveleo“. 133

rasakvirvelia, bavSvi ver mieSveleboda maT da CxubSic ver Caereoda, magram mainc gaqceula da swored im dros misula, roca Cxubi ukve Cawynarebuliyo da kita abaSiZec damSvidebuli gamodioda kafedan. paolos Tqmisa ar iyos, rusTavelis portreti mxolod mizezi iyo, Torem maT gauTavebel Cxubs sxvadasxva jgufebad dayofa, urTierTSeurigebloba, mxatvruli sityvis mniSvnelobisadmi gansxvavebuli damokidebuleba, moWarbebuli pretenziebi iwvevda da ara Cveni rusTavelis portreti. piriqiT, is yvelas moswonda, gansakuTrebiT ki yanwelebs, romlebic TavianT Jurnals ar dasjerdnen da Teatralur afiSazec dabeWdes. am afiSebidan amonaxevi rusTavelis portreti dResac maqvs Senaxuli da Tvalis CiniviT vufrTxildebi. didi xani gavida mas Semdeg, magram me mainc siamovnebiT vigoneb cxovrebis im monakveTs, „ocnebis naperwklebs rom fantavdnen poeturi xeliT xalxSi“. miyvars is dro _ quTaisi, rogorc qarTuli literaturisa da Semoqmedebis poeturi duRilis saasparezo. „ismineT yvelam Cveni qadageba!..“ dResac zaris rekvasaviT Camesmis yurSi 90 wels gadacilebul moxucs Jurnalis es fraza. miyvars masSi dastambuli mxatvruli nawarmoebebi, leqsebi Tu mxatvruli eskizebi: galaktioni misi „lurja cxenebiT“, griSaSvili „SeSlili oTaxiT“, elene dariani leqsiT – „magiJebs siTbo“, gr.jafariZe „firuzisferi ocnebebiT“... miyvaran _ ticiani, valeriani, kolau, leli jafariZe, lamazad moxatuli oradori sityva: _ „cisferi yanwebi“ da, bolos, SoTa rusTavelis Cveneuli portreti. da kidev Jurnalis gamocemis droisa da adgilis maniSnebeli ramdenime sityva: „quTaisi, gazafxuli. CSiv“. am „CSiv“-is Semdeg ukve samoci welia gasuli. guli ki ar berdeba – isev im cisferi ocnebebiT dadis da xarobs am qveyanaze.

grigol robaqiZe

grigol robaqiZe im did qarTvelTa pleadas ekuTvnis, romelTa ukvdavi saxelebic SuqurvarskvlaviviT brwyinaven Cveni erovnuli kulturis istoriaSi. me bedniereba mqonda wlebis ganmavlobaSi megobruli urTierToba mqonoda masTan. amitom Tavs valdebulad vTvli, cota ram movigono mis Sesaxeb. mosagonari ki arc Tu cota maqvs da STamomavlobis winaSe saflavSi maTi waReba danaSaulad mimaCnia. Cemi ganzraxva erTaderTia _ simarTle da mxolod simarTle movuTxro momaval Taobas. simarTle ki is gaxlavT, rom grigol robaqiZe araTu moRalate, udidesi patrioti gaxldaT saqarTveloisa, qarTveli xalxisa, misi warsulisa da momavlisa, misi didi kulturisa Tu mwerlobisa. 134

am mxriv is sanimuSo moqalaqe gaxldaT. grigol robaqiZes kargad icnoben, rogorc mwerals, rogorc Zalze gaxmaurebuli romanis – „gvelis perangisa“ da popularuli dramatuli nawarmoebis – „lamaras“ avtors. magram gansakuTrebiT didi saxeli grigols 1908-1930 wlebma moutana, rodesac mwerali germaniidan dabrunda da quTaissa da TbilisSi qarTuli mwerlobis sakiTxebis garSemo sajaro leqciebis qarTul enaze kiTxva daiwyo. diax, qarTul enaze! Tamamad vityvi, rom im dros grigol robaqiZe TvalsaCino da uaRresad kolorituli figura iyo, uniWieresi oratori, saxelganTqmuli mWevrmetyveli, SaravandediT mosili pirovneba. diax, grigoli gaxldaT udidesi niWis mqone poeti, dramaturgi da, yvelaferTan erTad _ filosofosic. filosofia misi ZiriTadi specialoba gaxldaT: man xom laifcihis universitetis filosofiis fakulteti daamTavra da am dargSi didis warmatebiT kiTxulobda leqciebs. ase rom, grigolis saxiT im dros saqarTveloSi erT-erTi didi pirovneba moRvaweobda. vTqvi, rom is qarTul enaze kiTxulobda-meTqi leqciebs. zogierTma SeiZleba mkiTxos: aba, ra enaze unda waekiTxa qarTuli auditoriis winaSeo, magram im dros rusifikatoruli politikis wyalobiT mTels ruseTis imperiaSi leqciebis kiTxva mxolod rusul enaze iyo nebadarTuli. amitom qarTuli ena TiTqmis daviwyebuli gaxldaT. kidec rom moendomebinaT am enaze sajarod gamosvla, mis aRsrulebas imdeni winaaRmdegoba Sexvdeboda, rom faqtiurad verc ganxorcieldeboda. diax, saukuneTa manZilze devnili qarTuli ena imdenad daClungda, rom is mxolod „saSinao xmarebisTvisRa“ gamoiyeneboda. yovelive amis gamo qarTveli xalxi kargavda rwmenas sakuTari enisadmi da misdauneburad rusulze gadadioda, uromlisodac, xalxis azriT, „nabijis gadadgmac ki ar SeiZleboda.“ mokled, qarTuli enis daviwyeba da mospoba istoriulad garduval procesad aRiqmeboda, da, vin icis, sanamde mividoda saqme, rom Cveni didi samocianelebis – ilias, akakisa da sxvaTa moRvaweoba ar wamoSveleboda. swored maT aRimaRles xma qarTuli enis uflebaTa dasacavad da igi kvlav daubrunes mSobel xalxs. erTaderTi adgili, sadac qarTul enas, Cveni soflebis garda, sulis moTqma SeeZlo, iyo Teatri, Jurnal-gazeTebi. cocxali sityva anu sajarod gamosvla im drois gasaWirze jer kidev ar Canda. igi akrZaluli iyo. da, ai, swored aseT viTarebaSi gamoCnda grigol robaqiZe, romelmac Cveni xalxis farTo fenebs sajaro leqciebi _ uaRresad saWiro, didi xnis nanatri sulieri sazrdo _ mSobliur qarTul enaze waukiTxa. Tan rogor kiTxulobda! rogori eniT, diqciiT, mWevrmetyvelebiT? –es iyo oratoruli xelovnebis Seudarebeli nimuSi. aseTi Sinaarsis gamosvlebi saqarTveloSi manamde aravis moesmina. es iyo cxraasiani wlebis pirveli aTeulis miwuruls. imxanad, e.i. 1908 wels, qarTveli sazogadoebrioba emzadeboda didi mgosnis – akaki wereTlis – literaturuli moRvaweobis 135

50 wlisTavis iubilisaTvis. im saRamoze moxsenebis wasakiTxavad grigol robaqiZe miiwvies, magram gubernatorma mas qarTul enaze gamosvlis neba ar darTo. ai, imis cocxali magaliTi, Tu rogor epyroboda mefis xelisufleba qarTul enas! kidev kargi, rom saqmes gavlenian pirTa Carevam uSvela. pirvel rigSi vgulisxmob cnobil generals giorgi yazbegs – wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis gamgeobis maSindel Tavmjdomares. swored misi wyalobiT gamovida axalgazrda grigoli qarTul enaze. robaqiZis mSobliuri enis silamaziTa da mdidruli leqsikiT aRtacebuli sazogadoeba aRfrTovanebas ver malavda. diax, STabeWdilebam yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba. cnobilma mweralma ilia elefTeriZem gazeTSi werilic ki dabeWda saTauriT: „amomavali mze“. TviT didi mgosani akaki imdenad aaRelva grigol robaqiZis am moxsenebam, rom igi wamdauwum imeorebda gulis siRrmidan wamosul sityvebs: „aw ganmiteve, meufeo, me mona Seni!“ aseve mWevrmetyvelebis nimuSi iyo grigolis mier vaJa-fSavelas Semoqmedebisadmi miZRvnili moxsenebac. is leqcia namdvil Sedevrad SeiZleba CaiTvalos. gulaxdilad unda iTqvas, rom vaJa-fSavela, rogorc msoflio masStabis poeti, romlis Semoqmedeba farTod exmaureba kacobriobis maRal idealebs da mxars usworebs Cveni planetis TiTqmis yvela genios mwerals, Tavdapirvelad grigol robaqiZem aRmoaCina. pirvelad man Tqva logikurad da mecnierulad dasabuTebuli sityva. me es Zalian kargad maxsovs da amis cocxali mowmec gaxlavarT. gulaxdilad unda iTqvas, rom vaJa-fSavelas kulti swored grigol robaqiZis moxsenebis Semdeg damkvidrda. didi fSaveli ruseTsac man gaacno „Russka% mjsl>“-Si (1911, 8) gamoqveynebuli weriliT... grigol robaqiZis saxeli pirvelad swored 1908 wels akaki wereTlis iubilis dReebSi gavigone. maSin jer kidev moskovis universitetSi vswavlobdi da kargad maxsovs is didi mowoneba da aRtacebuli SeZaxilebi, qarTvel studentTa Soris rom gaismoda Soreul ruseTSi. gvainteresebda, vin iyo es axalgazrda ucnobi leqtori, ra ganaTleba hqonda da misTanani, _ mokled, yvelaferi, rac ki mis pirovnebasTan iyo dakavSirebuli. bolos da bolos, gavigeT, rom grigoli zemo imereTidan iyo, Cxareli glexis Svili; daemTavrebina quTaisis sasuliero seminaria, ris Semdeg niko nikolaZis, giorgi zdaneviCisa da kita abaSiZis uSualo xelSewyobiT gaugzavniaT sazRvargareT saswavleblad, rogorc WiaTuris Savi qvis mrewvelTa sazogadoebis stipendianti. aseTi didi adamianebis erTsulovani mondomeba da maTi saxelis dakavSireba maSin jer kidev sruliad ucnobi axalgazrdis pirovnebasTan ukve raRacas niSnavda. rogorc Cans, grigol robaqiZis xalasi niWi jer kidev seminariis kedlebSi gamJRavnda da aman qvelmoqmed adamianTa yuramdec miaRwia. amis safuZvelze maT grigolis momavalic iwinaswarmetyveles da aki arc motyuebulan. grigolma warmatebiT daamTavra laifcihis universitetis fi136

losofiis fakulteti da didi codniT aRWurvili dabrunda saqarTveloSi. rogorc zemoTac vwerdi, man Tavisi leqciebiT male gaiTqva saxeli, gansakuTrebiT, axalgazrdobaSi. mis pativismcemelTa Soris viyaviT me da Cemi Zma griSac. gagonils TvaliT nanaxi jobiao, da Cvenc guliT vcdilobdiT masTan Sexvedrasa da saubars, rac 1914 wlis gazafxulze quTaisSi, cnobili eqimis dimitri nazariSvilis ojaxSi moxda. es ojaxi metad pativsacem da stumarTmoyvare kerad iTvleboda mTel qalaqSi da iqauri mowinave inteligenciis TavSeyris adgilad iyo miCneuli. romel cnobil sazogado moRvawes ar SexvdebodiT am ojaxSi – adgilobrivsa Tu Camosuls. rogorc Cans, grigol robaqiZec Sinaur kacad iyo miRebuli, magram Tavi mainc misi avtoritetis Sesabamisi sidinjiT eWira da xalxic mokrZalebiT eqceoda. erTi sityviT, grigoli imTaviTve gamoirCeoda Tavisi ganaTlebiT, sidarbaisliTa da Rirsebis grZnobiT. grigoli Tundac imitom iyo sayovelTao aRiarebis Rirsi, rom did propagandas uwevda qarTul enas, qarTul sityvas da mas didi xnis winaT dakargul saxelsa da wonas ubrunebda. es udidesi ram iyo mTeli qarTveli xalxisaTvis. vityvi metsac: es iyo namdvili revolucia. es yovelive grigol robaqiZes didad amaRlebda Cvens TvalSi da mas gansakuTrebul moRvawed miviCnevdiT. swored amitom dRes yoveli Segnebuli qarTveli didad wuxs misi saxelis amoSlas qarTuli mwerlobisa da kulturis istoriidan. * imedi unda viqonioT, rom es droebiTi movlenaa da istoria yvelafers gadaafasebs, yvelafers Tavis adgils miuCens. grigoli tanad saSualo simaRlisa gaxldaT, Txeli, pirxmeli, mxrebSi gamarTuli, xolo saxe metad mimzidveli da sasiamovno hqonda. did STabeWdilebas axdenda misi Wkviani, metyveli da elvare Savi Tvalebi; isini TiTqos Cvens sulSi imzirebodnen. rodesac gaiRimebda da TeTrad Camwkrivebul kbilebs gamoaCenda, gegonebodaT, Tqven irgvliv yvelaferi ganaTdao. mudam gemovnebiT da faqizad iyo Cacmul-daxurulic. bunebiT dinji iyo, saubaric dinji, auCqarebeli sCveoda, siarulic neli icoda. misi xaverdovani baritoniT mJReri sxarti da gonebamaxviluri saubari erT ramed Rirda. namdvil siamovnebas aniWebda msmenels. TxemiT terfamde sufTa da amaRlebuli sulis patroni mSobeli qveynis siyvaruliT iyo ,,dasneulebuli”. misTvis saqarTvelo yvelaferi iyo, misi macocxlebeli da masazrdoebeli. magram dadga dro, roca is unda gascloda moaxloebul safrTxes. Tumca ganSorebis sevda tanjavda, mainc imedianad iyo: _ ,,samSoblos gareT yofna, albaT, didxans ar momixdeba da male davbrundebi. saqarTvelo Cemi sunTqvaa, Cemi guliscema. umisod me araraoba var, sxvagan ra gamaZlebinebs...” Cemi azriT, amiT ufro Tavs imxnevebda.
*

am ,,mogonebis” werisasGjer kidev tabudadebuli iyo gr.robaqiZis saxeli.

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amis Semdeg ar gasula ori-sami weli, rom CvenSi iseTi xma dairxa, yuro, nu gaigonebo, rom ityvian: grigol robaqiZe faSistebs mimxrobia da hitleris marjvena xelic ki gamxdarao. es, ra Tqma unda, Zalze arasasiamovno ram gaxldaT da ragind usafuZvloc unda yofiliyo, CvenSi mainc did aRSfoTebas iwvevda. grigol robaqiZe ar yofila iseTi ubralo pirovneba, rom mis dakargvas ase advilad Seleoda qarTveli xalxi. dakargvas da Tanac rogors: samarcxvinosa da TavismomWrels. mwerali da Ralati? samSoblos moyvaruli da gamcemloba?! SeuZlebeli iyo amis dajereba, magram misi gamamarTlebeli faqtebic rom aravin icoda! marTalia, xmebi modioda, rom grigol robaqiZe iqaur progresul mweralTa Soris idga da es mwerlebi iyvnen Stefan cvaigi, Tomas mani, romen rolani, marsel brioni da sxvani, romlebic hitlers opoziciaSi edgnen... magram amqveynad raRa ar xdeba moulodneli. Stefan cvaigma grigol robaqiZis germanul enaze gamocemul romans – „gvelis perangs“ – gulTbili winasityvaoba warumZRvara (“ogonioki,“ 1929 w., # 26), hitleris axlobel mwerals ki Stefan cvaigi Tavis mSvenier winasityvaobas ar Seawevda! mokled, viyaviT aseT orWoful mdgomareobaSi... magram, rogorc irkveva, araferi amis msgavsi ar momxdara da mis saxels Cirqi ar moscxebia. grigol robaqiZe iyo ubralo, nazi grZnobebis patroni, faqizi, uboroto. uyvarda yvelaferi inteligenturi da uCveulo, originalurs igi TviT CveulebrivSiac xedavda da SeigrZnobda. erTxel me da Cemi Zma griSa quTaisidan TbilisSi CamovediT; mgoni, es, 1916 wels unda yofiliyo, prospeqtze miviCqarodiT. uecrad xalxSi win mimavali grigol robaqiZe SevniSneT. dinjad, misTvis Cveuli neli nabijebiT miuyveboda quCas. igi aSkarad gamoirCeoda yvelasagan garegnobiT, ieriT, siarulis maneriT. gagvixarda misi danaxva da nabijs kidev ufro avuCqareT; maleve wamovewieT. grigolsac aranakleb esiamovna CvenTan moulodneli Sexvedra. _ vah! saidan, megobrebo, ase erTad, rogorc yovelTvis? ra kargia, rom SegxvdiT!... laparakiT guli rom vijereT, grigoli axla Cvens arcTu urigo Cacmulobas daakvirda da rom gaigo, quTaisuri naxelavi iyo, siamayiT warmoTqva: _ ai, uyureT quTaiss!... brwyinvale qalaqia quTaisi!... asec icoda _ yvelaferi moswonda iqauri. Segiqebda, gasiamovnebda... Tavad ki evropaSi Sekerili kostumi ecva, pirdapir, iSviaTi ostatobis nimuSi. _ eh, Tumca ra dros egenia! – TiTqos ucbad gamoerkva, _ modiT, isev quTaisisa da Tqveni ambavi miTxariT; didi xania, aRar minaxixarT... aba, Tu gamogicnobT, romeli xar griSa da romeli – lado. yovelTvis meSlebiT... da amis Taobaze gulianad icinoda. 138

gamogvkiTxa Cveni zne-xasiaTisa da bunebis Taviseburebani, Cveulebrivisagan gansxvavebuli. rogorc fsiqologs, didad ainteresebda tyupTa fizikuri da sulieri msgavsebis sakiTxi. sxvaTa Soris, es pirveli SemTxveva ar iyo. yoveli Sexvedris dros am sakiTxis irgvliv aucileblad raRac unda ekiTxa, raTa Cveni pasuxebiT tyupebis, rogorc bunebis iSviaTi fenomenis, misTvis saidumloebiT moculi sakiTxebi gaerkvia. erTxel mas romeliRac leqciaSic ki vuxsenebivarT sakuTari debulebis dasadastureblad imis Sesaxeb, rom tyupebi erTmaneTs usityvodac ki ugebeno... aseTi SemTxvevebi Cven, marTlac, gvqonda da es grigols gagonili hqonda Cvengan. grigol robaqiZes kidev ufro davuaxlovdi da davumegobrdi 1921-1931 wlebSi, rodesac me saxelgamSi daviwye muSaoba – pavle sayvareliZesa da aleqsandre abaSelTan erTad. „saxelgamSi“ sxvadasxva sakiTxebis gasarkvevad xSirad modiodnen mwerlebi. „saxelgami“ – anu saxelmwifo gamomcemloba, moTavsebuli gaxldaT rusTavelis gazirze (# 22), operis Teatris pirdapir, wignis maRaziis Tavze, meore sarTulze. metad moxerxebuli adgili iyo mweralTa Sesaxvedrad Tu sagamomcemlo saqmeebze mosasvlelad. beWdviT saqmes poeti nikolo miwiSvili ganagebda. Cveni dawesebuleba namdvili mweralTa klubi iyo, maTi TavSesafari. kargad maxsovs, yovel mweralTan saqmeebiT Tu megobruli urTierTobiT viyavi dakavSirebuli, rac did sulier kmayofilebas mgvrida. eseni iyvnen: daviT suliaSvili, mixeil javaxiSvili, daviT kasraZe, grigol robaqiZe, geronti qiqoZe, Tedo saxokia, Sio mRvimeli, aristo WumbaZe, Salva dadiani, konstantine gamsaxurdia, mamed-beg abaSiZe, pavle ingoroyva, galaktion tabiZe, sandro SanSiaSvili, ioseb griSaSvili, giorgi quCiSvili, konstantine WiWinaZe, paolo iaSvili, tician tabiZe, valerian gafrindaSvili, sergo kldiaSvili, iona vakeli, iakinTe lisaSvili da sxvebi. iSviaTad Semoivlidnen xolme ufrosi Taobis mwerlebic: vasil barnovi, daviT kldiaSvili da TavianTi darbaisluri baasiT gvatkbobdnen. mwerlebma „saxelgamSi“ siaruls kidev ufro mouxSires, rodesac sursaT-sanovagis naklebobis gamo warmoeba-dawesebulebebSi muSa-mosamsaxureebze siiT papirosis gayidva SemoiRes. CvenTan papirosisa da sxva sanovagis misaRebad, muSa-mosamsaxureTa garda, mwerlebic moamagres, romlebic arsad ar msaxurobdnen. siaSi mxolod imaT werdnen, vinc TuTuns eweoda, radgan siZviris gamo misi bazarze Sovna TiTqmis SeuZlebeli iyo. im gaWirvebaSi aramweveli patiosani mSromeli kacic mwevlebSi ewera, radgan mere papirosis sanacvlod da safasuriT is sxva saxis sursaT-sanovages iZenda. marTalia, arc grigol robaqiZe eweoda, magram papirosis siaSi isic Caewera da mTxova, ukeTu raime mizeziT romelime dRes gamomcemlobaSi ver movidoda, misi kuTvnili norma me ameRo.

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magram grigoli, rogorc yvela sxva saqmeSi, did akuratulobas iCenda da yoveldRe Semodioda CemTan misi wili papirosis misaRebad. magram erT dRes grigoli ar movida. es metad meucnaura. ar movida arc meore da arc mesame dRes. Sevwuxdi da is iyo, mis sanaxavad wasvlas vapirebdi (cxovrobda axlandel kote mayaSvilis quCaze, TofuriZis saxlSi), rom moulodnelad misi werili miviRe: „Tbilisi. rusTavelis pr. „saxelgami“. lado jafariZes". gulze momeSva: madloba RmerTs, avad ar yofila-meTqi, _ vifiqre CemTvis. „Zvirfaso lado, _ mwerda grigoli, _ guSin gamoveqec Tbi-

lisis sicxes. papirosebi dapirebisamebr damigrove. „Literat. gazeta“ – fostiT. momikiTxe yvela. misamarTi: kojori. qvemo gzatkecili. agaraki soSCenkosi. Seni grigol robaqiZe.“
ai, Turme ra yofila grigolis mousvlelobis mizezi! aseTi didi deficitis gamo usiamovnebac xSirad gvqonda xolme, zogjer – komikuri. rogorc adgilkomis Tavmjdomare, am saqmes me ganvagebdi. erTxel CemTan TanamSromeli qali Semovida, romelsac savaWro organizaciidan siis mixedviT papirosis motana hqonda davalebuli da daxmareba mTxova. moxuci qali iyo. rogorc Canda, gaWirvebas moeyvana am saqmeze. Canda, rom warmoSobiT didgvarovani unda yofiliyo da, rom vkiTxe, „gruzinskaia“ aRmoCnda. qarTuli ar icoda, radgan ruseTSi iyo gazrdili da iq nacxovrebi. romeliRac batoniSvilis STamomavali unda yofiliyo. SevekiTxe: _ ra iyo, qalbatono, ram SegawuxaT-meTqi? gamoirkva, rom papiross sTxovs viRac ucnobi kaci, romelic siaSi ar uweria. -Trebuet, skandalit, a u men% ego v spiske net. Ego famili% Sezman. Vero%tno, evrey!... _ fxui! – sicili waskda saSa abaSels, _ sezman erTawmindels gaujavrebiao... iyo im dros aseTi adamiani, Zalian kargi pirovneba. marTlac ase gamodga: oRond sezmani saxeli iyo da ara gvari. „sezmani“ gamyidvels gvari hgonebia da amitomac siaSi ver moeZebna. amis gamo mTxovnels, cxadia, Tavaziani uari uTxra. es ki sezmans ar mouTmenia da amtydara erTi vaiuSvelebeli. saqmeSi pavle sayvareliZec Caeria, mas nikolo miwiSvili da akaki gvaxariac wamoeSvelnen. yvelaferi gairkva, „sezmanis“ magivrad, siaSi „erTawmindeli“ monaxa da kuTvnili papirosic udavidarabod gadaeca. sicili moedo yvelas: sezmansac da Cvenc. moxucma qalma moibodiSa, magram is ki ver gaego namdvilad, Tu ratom atarebda sezmani aseT ucnaur saxels. erTxel, papirosTan dakavSirebiT aseTi baraTic mogvivida: „pavles, an saSas, an lados, _ gvwerda Salva SaraSiZe, iumoristi mwerali, metad simpaTiuri da sayvareli adamiani, mwerlobaSi „Tagunas“ fsevdonimiT cnobili, _ „Zmao pavle, an Zmao saSa, an

Zmao lado, an samive! gevedrebiT, gaikiTxoT davrdomili, sneuli, papirosi miwyalobeT, aTeuli rveuli. vwuxvar, vkvnesi, arvina myavs mwyalobeli, momvleli, fexi mtkiva, papirosebs wamaliviT moveli.
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Tqveni S.SaraSiZe. aba, Tqven iciT, Tu miSoviT ramdenime papiross.“
ai, aseTi gaWirveba iyo maSin Tambaqozec da amitom yvela cdilobda, Tavisi norma ar dahkargvoda. grigol robaqiZisa da Tagunas orTave baraTs dRemde siyvaruliT vinaxav Cems saqaRaldeebSi. quTaisSi, eqim dimitri nazariSvilis ojaxSi Sexvedris Semdeg, grigol robaqiZesTan Cveni nacnoboba megobrobaSi gadaizarda, gansakuTrebiT 1915 wlidan, roca quTaisel axalgazrda literatorTa da poetTa wreSi mixdeboda yofna. is udidesi siyvaruliTa da pativiscemiT sargeblobda, rogorc aRiarebuli sazogado moRvawe, poeti, mWevrmetyveli da rogorc namdvili evropeli saqarTveloSi. grigol robaqiZem didi monawileoba miiRo paolo iaSvilisa da misi poeturi wris Jurnal „cisferi yanwebis“ gamocemaSi, did daxmarebas uwevda am wres, iyo misi ideuri xelmZRvaneli da, SeiZleba iTqvas, beladic ki. rogorc Cans, yovelive es Cveni qveynis gareTac ki iyo cnobili, radgan grigols „cisferi yanwebis“ Teoretikosadac ki asaxeleben. aq minda davimowmo estoneTSi gamocemuli wigni: „Skvoz> godj i rassto%ni%,“ romlis avtoria s.isakovi da dabeWdilia qalaq talinSi 1969 wels. s.isakovi mimoixilavs tartus (igive iurievis) universitetis studentTa cxovrebas da, sxvaTa Soris, iqaur qarTvel studentTa saTvistomos cxovrebasac exeba, kerZod, im wlebs, roca iq 1910-1914 wlebSi grigol robaqiZec swavlobda. man xom germaniaSi yofnis Semdeg tartus universitetic daamTavra!... me Tavs nebas mivcem, amoviwero grigolze arsebuli cnobebi am wignidan, radgan isini udavod sainteresoa: „V sostave zeml%qestva (gruzinskogo – l.j.) okazalos> sil>noe literaturnoe %dro, vklhqavwee neskol>ko pisateley. Samjm krupnjm iz nix bjl Gr.Robakidze, odin iz vo[dey gruzinskogo simvolizma, teoretik izvestnoy literaturnoy organizacii ,,Golubje rogi“. avtori vrclad laparakobs gr.robaqiZis literaturul moRvaweobaze saqarTveloSi da SeniSnavs: „Nezadolgo do smerti Gr.Robakidze predprin%l wagi k ustanovlenih sv%zi s rodinoy. V sovetskom literaturovedenii issledovanie tvorqestva Gr.robakidze tol>ko naqinaets%.“ Tavis werils s.isakovi ase amTavrebs: „V nekrologax, po%vivwixs% v zapadnoy peqati posle ego smerti v 1962 godu, Gr.Robakidze nazjvali da[e klassikom mirovoy literaturj.“ wyarod miTiTebuli aqvs 1963 wels q.tartuSi gamosuli msoflio literaturis leqsikoni: „Lexikon der weltliteratur“. me arasodes damaviwydeba Cveni sasiqadulo mwerlis daviT kldiaSvilis sityvebic: _ gasaocaria, batono, gasaocari! – ityoda xolme igi, imdenad STagonebuli gaxldaT grigolis niWis ZlierebiT. am Tavis SeZaxilze raimes damatebas igi ukve zedmetad miiCnevda. axalgazrdoba da, gansakuTrebiT, „cisferyanwelTa“ ordenis wevrebi Cveuli moridebiT eqceodnen, rogorc gamorCeul pirovnebas. 141

grigol robaqiZe yvela Tavis Tayvanismcemels Tavadac didis TavazianobiT eqceoda. grigoli aqebda „yanwelTa“ leqsebs, xSirad zepiradac warmoTqvamda xolme calkeul striqonebs, magram Tavis nawerebze ar maxsovs, rodesme raime eTqvas. arada, nawerebi grigol robaqiZes sakmaod bevri hqonda, calke wignad gamocemuli ki – mxolod sami piesa: „londa“, „malStremi“ da „lamara“. 1926 wels gamovida misi „gvelis perangi“, magram, rogorc misi pirveli piesebis wigni, es ukanasknelic Zalze mcire tiraJiT iyo gamocemuli: 3 aTasi calis raodenobiT. da imave 20-ian wlebSi isini ukve bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgendnen. Cemda iRblad, pirveli wigni adreve SeviZine, meore ki Tavad grigolma misaxsovra Tavisi avtografiT: „Zvirfas lado jafariZes. grigol robaqiZe. Tbilisi... 1930, oqtomberi.“ am dros xsenebuli wignis Sovna bazarze ukve SeuZlebeli iyo. im dros grigol robaqiZes kidev gamocemuli aqvs „Portretj“ da broSuris saxiT – „baqo da haiastani“, romelic mwerlis baqosa da erevanSi mogzaurobis STabeWdilebaTa Sedegad aris dawerili. rac Seexeba mis leqsebs, agreTve kritikul narkvevebs qarTvel da ucxoel mwerlebze, werilebs esTetikur problemebze, isini calke wignebad arasodes yofila gamoqveynebuli da sxvadasxva periodul gamocemebSia gabneuli. grigol robaqiZis nawerebi didi popularobiT sargeblobda, Tumca misi zepiri gamosvlebi gacilebiT ufro STambeWdavi iyo. didi mwerlis saxeli romanma „gvelis perangma“ daumkvidra, xolo dafnis gvirgvini piesa „lamaram“ daadga, romelic sandro axmetelma ganaxorciela rusTavelis Teatris scenaze 1926 wels. „lamaras“ gamoCenam yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba. man imdenad moxibla mayurebeli, rom yoveli misi dadgma namdvili dResaswauli iyo, xolo, roca 1930 wels sruliad sakavSiro Teatralur olimpiadaze aCvenes moskovSi, iseTi aRfrTovaneba gamoiwvia, rom rvajer gaameorebines moskovSi da rvajerve uamravi mayurebeli hyavda. mis erT-erT dadgmas stalinic ki daeswro; iq iyvnen agreTve sazRvargareTeli stumrebi, Jurnalistebic. darbazi grgvinavda Turme da mTeli es warmodgena namdvili saxalxo dResaswaulis elfers iZenda. niu-iorkis Teatris „vassari“-is direqtori sandro axmetelis misamarTiT gamogzavnil misalmebaSi werda: „lamara“ me momeCvena sruliad araCveulebriv warmodgenad. musika, cekva, msaxiobis moqmedeba harmoniuladaa Serwymuli scenasTan, romelic erTsa da imave dros warmoadgens mxatvrobasac da gabedul arqiteqturasac...“ Tavad grigol robaqiZec didad afasebda „lamaras“,ambobda xolme: „marTalia, me aRar viqnebi odesme, magram „lamara“ xom iqneba!...“ marTalic iyo: „lamara“ arasodes mokvdeba arc qarTul mwerlobaSi da arc Teatris scenaze. me araerTxel davswrebivar mis warmodgenas da mudam suliT amaRlebuli da ganspetakebuli gamovsulvar Teatridan. sul sxva Sinaarsisa da xasiaTis iyo grigol robaqiZis meore piesa – „malStremi“. 142

Rirseba uTuod didi hqonda: samjer Tu oTxjer mainc daidga rusTavelis saxelobis TeatrSi, darbazi mudam xalxiT iyo gaWedili. piesas saTanadod afasebdnen recenzentebi evropuli masStabiTac ki. mayurebels xiblavda piesis siaxle da jadoqari kote marjaniSvilisagan misTvis Cadgmuli namdvili sasceno suli. „aprilis sami Cveni ganaxlebuli scenis sruli gamarjveba iyo, _ werda cnobili mwerali da sazogado moRvawe ivane gomarTeli, _ Cvens winaSe qarTuli scena ki ar iyo, aramed evropuli

Tavidan bolomde; da me, rogorc qarTveli eris Svilma da moqalaqem, sruli siamaye vigrZeni. Zmoba da erToba didi ram aris, magram mis salaroSi xelcarieli Sesvla saSinelebaa. „malStremis“ dadgmam ki sruliad damarwmuna, rom Cven ara Tu ar CamovuvardebiT evropas, gaTanasworebisa da zogierT xazebSi gaswrebis niWi da SesaZleblobac mogvepoveba. piesaSi, _ ganagrZobs ivane gomarTeli, _ eqvsi moqmedebaa sxvadasxva ideebiT, magram yvela maTgani agebulia krialosaniviT erT mTavar azrze. es azria – burJuaziuli kulturis sruli gaTaxsireba da gadagvareba. burJuaziulma kulturam daiviwya ideali, adamianis mowodeba, misi mizani, absoluti-maradiuli da daemorCila fuls, gaamefa relativi warmavali da yovelisferi gadaaqcia manqanad... avtori am piesas fantasmagorias uwodebs qvesaTaurSi da marTlac, Tavisi saxiT is metad originaluria; arc misteria aris, arc drama, arc tragedia, arc komedia da ufro „gadaxlarTvaa“ yovelgvari skolisa da mimarTulebisa, romelSiac realizms cvlis romantizmi, tragikuls – komikuri; erTi suraTi cremlis tba aris, meore – sicilis Sadrevani. piesis ena, _ daaskvnis i.gomarTeli, _ rogorc gr.robaqiZis sxva nawerebSi, daxvewilia da dawmendili.“
1931 wlidan grigol robaqiZe germaniaSi cxovrobs da iqauri kulturis, iqauri xalxis stumarTmoyvareobiT sargeblobs, magram mTeli misi gulisyuri, misi yuradReba mainc misi sayvareli samSobloskenaa mipyrobili. ocnebobda samSobloSi dabrunebaze da Tavis adamianur, moqalaqeobriv movaleobas wuTiTac ar iviwyebda. igi, marTalia, germanulad werda, magram nawerebis Sinaarsi saqarTvelosadmi did siyvarulzea agebuli. mwerali saqarTveloTi sunTqavda da saqarTvelo iyo misi daucxromeli sulis maradiuli Relva. aviRoT Tundac romani „mcvelni gralisa.“ momyavs amonaweri Jurnalidan „bedi qarTlisa“ *: „Tvali Casula mtevanSi“ – romanis

engadi. im vazis lerwebidan, romelTac es mtevani gamousxamT, wminda ninos jvari gamouWria da igi Tavis TmebiT Seuxvevia. miTiuri nawili: JamTa ubedurebisa vazis jvars mtevnebi gamouRia. am mtevnebidan zedaSi raindebs SeunaxavT TasiT. es Tasi „grali“-a saqarTvelos guli. igi mcvelTa xelSia, romelnic mas inaxaven. wveTi diddeba nel-nela, uCinarad. diddeba rwmenac da imedic saqarTvelos ukeTesi momavlisa.“
*

istoriuli, literaturuli da samecniero krebuli #47, parizi 1964w.

143

_ unda aRiniSnos, _ SeniSnavs Jurnalis redaqtori kale salia, _ rom „gralis mcvelni“-s moqmedni pirni arian namdvilni

da ara gamogonilni. grigols surda maTi vinaobis gaxsna erT-erT nomerSi Cveni Jurnalisa saTanado werilis darTviT. mas es ar dascalda. Cven vasrulebT mis survils: odiliani – paolo iaSvili; avala – tician tabiZe; mamia odiSvili – Salva dadiani; mzisafar – apolon wulaZe; daTa da kosta – Zmani jafariZeni, lado da griSa (tyupebi); hiddir – mamed-beg abaSiZe; saRara – mfrinavi saRaraZe; s.o. – sergo orjonikiZe; aiSa – aisori gogona; Savdia – lavrenti beria; legi – levan RoRoberiZe; besia – Saqro falavandiSvili; marjani – kote marjaniSvili; uSang – uSangi CxeiZe; xorav – akaki xorava; vassa – akaki vasaZe; vano - iakob nikolaZe (gamoyvanilia, rogorc mxatvari); sandro – vano naniSvili (mrokavi); yarangozi – yarangoziSvili (mrokavi) da muSni dadiani...“
grigol robaqiZes didad uqebdnen qarTul enas, magram man, qarTulis garda, germanulica da rusuli enebic brwyinvaled icoda, erTnairad flobda orives. 60-ian wlebSi, grigol robaqiZis gardacvalebis Semdeg, sajaro biblioTekaSi me gavecani zemoT xsenebul Jurnals – „bedi qarTlisa“, saidanac minda amovwero zogierTi adgili imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor srulyofilad iyo dauflebuli is germanul enas. cnobili poeti frank mariuni grigols swerda: „gancvifre-

buli vdgevar gasaocari SeTvisebis winaSe, romliTac Tqven germanuli ena da poeturi gamoTqmis saSualebani jer miuRwevel, arnaxul doneze aiyvaneT sxva enaTa Soris; Cemi gulwrfeli rwmenaa, rom rilkes Semdeg ase srulyofili araferi gamosula germanul enaze.“
meore cnobili germaneli poeti, homerosis mTargmneli, antikuri msoflios mkvlevari t.fon-Seferi ki ase werda: „Zvirfa-

so maestro! ra SesaniSnavia Tqveni Sairi „mokvdavi arwivi!“ rogor SesZeliT Tqven, ucxoelma, Cveni rTuli enis esoden amaRleba, rasac TviT germanelic ki ver SeZlebda?... me SemSurdeboda Tqveni geniisa, Surianobisadmi raime midrekileba rom mqondes, magram, radgan es ara maqvs, isRa damrCenia mxolod, aRfrTovanebuli viyo TqveniT.“
sxvaTa Soris, Jurnali „bedi qarTlisas“ 1964 wlis 47-e nomeri mTlianad grigol robaqiZis xsovnisadmia miZRvnili. axla imis Sesaxeb, Tu rogor flobda is rusul enas. im dros sxvadasxva xasiaTis werilebs is xSirad beWdavda rusul JurnalebSi, romelTac xels awerda fsevdonimiT _ „Gr.Robakidze-Kavkasieli.“ araCveulebrivi iyo misi gamoCenil rus mweralTa portretebi, romelTac saocari poeturi ferebiT xatavda. 1919 wels grigol robaqiZem es nawerebi calke wignad gamosca TbilisSi (Gr.Robakidze – Portretj. Vjpusk pervjy, T. 1919), sadac gamoqveynebulia petre Caadaevis, mixeil lermontovis, vasil rozanovisa da andrei belis poeturi portretebi. araferi sjobs am wignis kiTxvas. es proza ki ara, namdvili poeziaa! xal144

asi, ankara, kriala poezia! iSviaTi silamazisa da siRrmis rusuli ena! am wigns avtori uZRvnis did ruseTs: „Strane, gde v bespredel>njx step%x sljwen dalekiy gul apokaliptiqeskix koney. Rossii +ti razdum>% gruzinskiy po+t lhbovno posv%\aet.“ Cems ojaxur biblioTekaSi SemomrCa grigol robaqiZis xsenebuli „portretebi“ da Tavisufal dros udidesi siamovnebiT vkiTxulob mas. samwuxarod, dRes es wigni bibliografiuli iSviaTobaa da yvelas ara aqvs misi wakiTxvis saSualeba. grigol robaqiZis mWevrmetyvelebis aRiareba gaxldaT petrogradSi ilia WavWavaZis xsovnisadmi miZRvnili misi sityviT aRtacebuli didi rusi mecnieris maqsim kovalevskis Sefaseba:

„kidec rom ar gvcodnoda saqarTvelosa da misi kulturuli cxovrebis mravalsaxeoba da sidiade, sakmao iyo mogvesmina yovlad niWieri Wabukis grigol robaqiZis saucxoo sityva, rom gadaWriT gveTqva: „im ers, romelsac aseTi axalgazrda Taoba hyavs, didebuli mermisi moelis!“
mere da vin iyo Tavad maqsim kovalevski? – saxelganTqmuli rusi mecnieri, sociologi, rusulis brwyinvale mcodne da araCveulebrivi oratori. me araerTxel momismenia misi leqciebi sociologiaze q.moskovSi da mudam usazRvro kmayofilebiT mavsebda misi brZnuli, araCveulebrivad poeturi gamosvlebi.

grigol robaqiZis araCveulebrivma niWma da Semoqmedebam bevri mwerali boRmiTa da SuriT aavso. zogierTma ganqiqeba dauwyo: _ vin aris bolos da bolos grigol robaqiZe, ra Rvawli muZRvis Cveni eris winaSe?! _ magram aseT vai-kritikosebs Tavad dro aZlevs sakadris pasuxs. grigoli moSurneebs didad ar aqcevda yuradRebas da mimteveblurad olimpiuri simaRlidan dascqerda maT. grigoli „susti“ mxolod mxatvruli nawarmoebis kiTxvis dros iyo. raRac Tu moewoneboda, maSinve Tvalze cremli moadgeboda. aseT zemoqmedebas axdenda, magaliTad, vaJa-fSavelas leqsi „fSaveli jariskacis werili,“ rasac Tavadac aRiarebda erT-erT werilSi:

„ramdenjer maqvs wakiTxuli „fSaveli jariskacis werili,“ ucremlod ver wamikiTxavs! mTel saqarTvelos vgrZnob aq, viTar cocxal arss.“
masze didi STabeWdileba mouxdenia JenevaSi qarTvel mocekvaveTa ansamblis gamosvlas, romelsac n.ramiSvili da i.suxiSvili xelmZRvaneloben. igi ansamblis yvela warmodgenas daswrebia da maT koncertebs aRfrTovanebuli weriliT gamoxmaurebia: „qarTuli genia rokviT ganfenili.“ qarTul balets grigol robaqiZe „jiSis balets,“ „rasis balets“ uwodebda.

„mocekvaveTa dasSi arc erTi vaJi araa niJinski, arc erTi qali _ pavlova. xolo, vera-romeli niJinski icekvebs, magaliTad, „qarTuls“ ise, rogorc cekvavs amas romelime vaJi am dasisa. verca-romeli pavlova gahyveba mocekvave vaJs, magaliTad, imave „qarTulSi“ ise, rogorc amas asrulebs romelime qali uwyebuli
145

dasiTgan. es imitom, rom: qarTuli baleti aris baleti jiSis, rassis.“
am werilis Semdeg gr.robaqiZes didxans aRar ucocxlia. sainteresoa mwerlis anderZic, romelic aq SemoklebiT momyavs:

„Cemma mkiTxvelma icis, Tu rogor mesaxvis me mcxeTa, igi wminda saSoa Cveni miwis. iq egulebodaT Cvens Zvelebs saflavi kardusi, mcxeTis midamoebSi airCies Zvelad mogvebma erTi adgili: iq adidebdnen da Tayvans scemdnen isini mzesa da cecxls. mcxeTis ubeSi miviReT Cven qristes sjuli... aqve mtkicdeboda xelmwifoba saqarTvelosi... Cemi natvraa: roca me am soflad aRar viqnebi, midiodes vinme qarTveli deda yovel wels mcxeTas, mwifobis, Cemi dabadebis TveSi *, sanTels aanTebdes pawa salocavis win da locviT axsenebdes Cems saxels. mets aras vTxov saqarTvelos.“
grigol robaqiZe gardaicvala 1962 wels, Semodgomaze da misi neSti gadasvenebul iqna parizSi qarTvelTa koloniis sasaflaoze. JenevaSi aResrula, parizSi hpova samudamo savane.

„1962 wlis noembris 19-s samudamod gamogveTxova... didi qarTveli poeti da moazrovne grigol robaqiZe, _ wers rudolf
karmani, cnobili germaneli mwerali Tavis mimoxilvaSi „grigol robaqiZe da miTosis aRorZineba.“ _ Tavisi sicocxlis ukanasknel

wuTamde grigol robaqiZe iyo gonebiT da suliT Zlieri. goliaTiviT amaRlebuli...
mwerali dawvrilebiT aRwers gr.robaqiZis Semoqmedebas da dasZens: „misi nawerebi, uwinares yovlisa, gansxvavdebian TavianTi

originalobiT. isini itaceben mkiTxvelebs TavianTi momajadoebeli sityvebiT, ferebis siuxviT da amomavali mzis cecxlovani sxivebiT. misi Semoqmedeba gardaiqca, viTarca simbolo qarTuli literaturisa, romelmac saTanado da jerovani adgili daikava msoflio literaturaSi... rabindranaT Tagoris saxeli iyo pirveli saxeli, romelic aRmosavleTidan dasavleTSi SemoSuqda. mas mosdevda grigol robaqiZe, ufro pirvelqmnili, ufro dakavSirebuli bunebasTan, vidre nobelis premiis matarebeli indoeli. Cven, dasavleTevropelebs, grigol robaqiZem gadagviSala qarTuli miwa, misi madli, misi sisxli, sunTqva qarTuli miwisa, misi SoreTidan momdinare zRapruli ferebi.“
da bolos werils ase amTavrebs:

„rogorc yvela didi, droiT ganusazRvreli naqmi, grigol robaqiZis Semoqmedeba marad awmyoa da ukvdavi...“
Cveni qveynis aseTi saxelovani Svilis fasdaudebel Semoqmedebas, romelmac evropac ki aalaparaka, me vfiqrob, codvad CagveTvleba, Tu samzeoze ar gamovitanT.

*

oqtomberi

146

Cemi drois Tbilisi
1921 wlis damdegi iyo. me im dros demokratiuli saqarTvelos sagareo saqmeTa saministroSi vmuSaobdi. maSin axali Camosuli viyavi baqodan da gulis tkiviliT vadevnebdi Tvalyurs Tbilisis misadgomebTan warmoebul brZolebs. xolo roca 25 Tebervals Cveulebisamebr samsaxurSi mivedi, iq oriode TanamSromeliRa damxvda, maT Soris poeti aleqsandre abaSeli da cnobili germaneli qarTvelologi arTur laisti; isini oblebiviT isxdnen TavianT magidebTan da daRvremilebma ar icodnen, ra saqmes sweodnen. mec maT mivemate. darbazi areul-dareuli iyo, iatakze qaRaldebi eyara, wignebic uwesrigod mimoefantaT magidebze. Canda, saministro gaxiznuliyo da dalagebisaTvis aravis ecala. sagareo saqmeTa saministro moTavsebuli iyo Sio CitaZis quCaze, sam Tu oTxsarTulian saxlSi, romelic im dros erT-erT saukeTeso sacxovreblad iTvleboda TbilisSi; mTavrobis Tavmjdomaresac aq edo bina... is iyo, sxva samsaxurze daviwye fiqri, rom moulodnelad saqme sxvagvarad warimarTa: erT dRes saxlSi mewvia Cemi foTeli megobari, cnobili inJineri andria kacitaZe, romelic axal xelisuflebas saqarTvelos rkinigzebis ufrosad daeniSna. man am uwyebas daqvemdebarebuli saswavleblis saswavlo nawilis gamgis Tanamdeboba SemomTavaza. mas kargad xsomebia Cemi maswavleblad muSaoba foTis vaJTa gimnaziaSi. maSin pirveli maisis quCaze vcxovrobdi, axali samsaxuri ki klara cetkinis # 200 saxlSi iyo moTavsebuli da amis gamo cota Sori meCvena, magram uari veRar vuTxari da saqmesac mondomebiT Sevudeqi. ar damaviwydeba Cemi pirveli Sexvedra da Semdeg saqmiani damokidebuleba skolis gamgeebTan, romelTa Soris aRmoCndnen iseTi cnobili maswavleblebi, rogorebic iyvnen nino ZiZiguri, vladimer kandelaki, evgeni xoStaria, giorgi CixlaZe da sxvebi. maT gverdiT Tavs mSobliur garemoSi vgrZnobdi. rasakvirvelia, samsaxurSi tramvaiT davdiodi, radgan sxva transporti qalaqSi arc arsebobda, garda kerZo faetonebisa. avtomanqanebi, marTalia, Canda aqa-iq, magram iSviaTad; am privilegiiT mxolod mTavrobis xalxi an didi dawesebulebebis xelmZRvanelebi Tu sargeblobdnen. tramvais xazi viwroliandagiani iyo da, Sesabamisad, vagonebic _ viwro da momcro. miuxedavad amisa, ar maxsovs xalxiT gaWedili vagonebi. morig gaCerebaze mgzavrebi Tavisuflad adiodnen. mosacdelTan TiTqmis aravin rCeboda, arc gaCerebaze WirdebodaT didxans cda. mgzavroba Sauri Rirda, magram erT dros fasi gaaormages da axla Sauri mxolod vagzlidan kirkis (dRevandeli marjaniSvili) moednamde Rirda, aqedan erevnis moednamde _ kidev erTi Sauri. ase rom, dRevandelTan SedarebiT, tramvaiT mgzavroba gacilebiT Zviri Rirda. aseve xdeboda Cemi studentobis dros moskovSic da amitom xSirad ramdenimekilometrian gzas studentebi fexiT gavdiodiT. amiT Cven kapikebs vzogavdiT da Semdeg wignebs vyidulobdiT 147

xolme. ubileTo mgzavroba SeuZlebeli ki ara, TiTqmis warmoudgeneli iyo. samsaxurSi misasvlelad erevnis moednidan vagzlis moednamde mixdeboda mgzavroba, amitom qalaqis im nawils tramvais fanjrebidan gavecani. erevnis moedani dRevandel leninis * moedans erqva, magram ufro momcro iyo, radgan misi didi nawili qarvaslis uzarmazar Senobas ekava. Cemamde iq eniT auwereli talaxi iyo Turme, Cems ymawvilkacobaSi ki golovinis prospeqtsa da sxva mTavar quCebze ukve qvafenili ego. erevnis moednidan rkinigzis sadguramde tramvai rusTavelis gamziris gavliT miemarTeboda, magram Tavad gamziri dRevandeli leninis moednidan ki ara, mefisnacvlis (dRes – pionerTa) sasaxlidan iwyeboda, xolo moedansa da sasaxles Soris patara, magram lariviT swori quCa gadioda _ sufTa, koxta da lamazi, mdidari Tavisi maRaziebiT. namdvili gamziri TbilisSi swored es quCa iyo, oRond gamziris nacvlad „sasaxlis quCa“ erqva. Tu raime qarTuli iyo maSindel TbilisSi, am quCaze iyrida Tavs: qarTuli Teatri (dRes griboedovis saxelobis Teatri), yvela qarTuli ojaxisaTvis didad popularuli qarTuli klubi; qarTvel Tavad-aznaurTa qarvasla, qarTvelTa Soris wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoeba, daviT sarajiSvilis saxlebi, gazeT „cnobis furclis“ redaqcia, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis biblioTeka da sxva aseTebi... sxvaTa Soris, am quCidan warmoTqva Tavisi istoriuli sityva akaki wereTelma ilia WavWavaZis cxedris win zRva xalxis TandaswrebiT 1907 wels. aseve patara iyo maSindeli namdvili gamziri, romelic sasaxlidan iwyeboda da griboedovis asaxvevTan mTavrdeboda. amis Semdeg ukve sxva viwro, patar-patara maRaziebiTa da duqnebiT savse „olginskaias“ quCaze gavdiodiT. is gaivlida mWidrod dasaxlebul patara moedans, romelsac dRemde SemorCa saxeli _ „zemeli“, iqve, kuTxis saxlis pirvel sarTulze erT dros moTavsebuli germaneli provizoris _ zemelis afTiaqis misaniSneblad damkvidrebuli. aqedan gadioda sxva quCa, romelic bozarjiancis TuTunis fabrikamde (dRevandeli abreSumis fabrika) grZeldeboda, xolo fabrikis iqiT dausaxlebeli da verani adgilebi iwyeboda. zemelis Semdeg olRas quCa bolomde gacilebiT ukeT iyo mowyobili. man Tavisi saxe TiTqmis ucvlelad Semoinaxa bolomde, sarajiSvilis koniakis qarxnis gamoklebiT, romelic ukve aRebulia da mis adgilze amJamad „komunistis“ redaqciis Senobaa aRmarTuli. tramvai „zemelTan“ marjvniv, veris daRmarTTan Cauxvevda da veris xidis gavliT mixeilis (dRes plexanovis) † gamzirze gadioda. veris daRmarTi imxanad, rogorc Tbilisis bevri viwro quCa, Tavidan bolomde duqnebiTa da jixurebiT iyo gadatenili. sakvirvelia, iq rogor Tavsdeboda tramvais liandagi...
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axla: Tavisuflebis moedani amJamad: daviT aRmaSeneblis

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es siviwrove imdenad damaxasiaTebeli iyo maSindeli TbilisisaTvis, rom arc ki igrZnoboda. mogvianebiT orjer Tu metad gaganierda veris daRmarTi; daangries erTmaneTze Sexorxlili qoxmaxebi, duqnebi da igi siganiT TiTqmis rusTavelis gamzirsac ki gautolda. moxda veris xidis rekonstruqcia, romlis daqaneba xidis sworma zedapirma Seamcira. voroncovis moedani im wlebSi axleburad gadakeTda. mis SuagulSi maRal kvarcxlbekze mefisnacval voroncovis Zegli idga piriT mTawmindisaken mibrunebuli da gars moajiri ertya. is klasikur stilSi iyo Camosxmuli da mnaxvelze grandiozul STabeWdilebas axdenda. aseTi mTliani figura im drois TbilisSi mxolod es Zegli iyo da mTeli qalaqis siamayed iTvleboda... Tbiliss amSvenebdnen da dResac amkoben, agreTve, puSkinisa da gogolis biustebi. SemdgomSi, mefisnacvlis Zeglis aRebasTan erTad, aRebul iqna mis garSemo mdgari umniSvnelo nagebobani da amiT moedani gafarTovda, xolo mogvianebiT moednis garSemo mravalsarTuliani saxlebi aRimarTa. TbilisSi sacxovreblad 1919 wels Camovedi. manamde xuTi wlis manZilze, samsaxuris gamo araerTxel Camovsulvar, magram qalaqs mainc kargad ar vicnobdi. adre, roca myudro da mSobliuri quTaisidan TbilisSi momixda Camosvla, igi uzarmazar qalaqad momeCvena, magram studentobis wlebSi, moskovidan momavals axla ukve Tbilisi mepatarava. vidre axlos gavicnobdi Cvens dedaqalaqs, masze sul sxva warmodgena mqonda. axla, roca Tbiliss ase kargad vicnob, mikvirs, wlebis ganmavlobaSi ras akeTebdnen qalaqis mesveurebi quCebisa da moednebis keTilmosawyobad?! aRarafers vambob baRebisa da parkebis mouwyoblobaze da maT simcireze. iseTi baRebis SeqmnaSi, rogoric iyo „aleqsandres“, botanikuri Tu mefisnacvlis sasaxlis baRebi, muStaidi da sxva _ araviTari Rvawli ar miuZRvis qalaqis gamgeobas. aviRoT, Tundac, vagzlis moedani, romelsac „moedani“ ki erqva, magram vai mis ,,moednobas”! iq Tu oriode faetoni an tramvai erTad gaivlida, Tagvi kuds veRar moiqnevda. amas miumateT patar-patara duqnebi, jixurebi da vagzlis moednidan aRaraferi rCeboda. yoveli matareblis Camosvlaze, roca iqauroba mgzavrTa xelbargebiT aivseboda, qurd-bacacebs „rTveli“ hqondaT. ramdeni gulubryvilo mgzavri irtyamda TavSi xels, roca xelbargidan raimes dahkargavda da amaod eZebda. vagzlis, anu dRevandeli CeluskinelTa * quCac, viwro, mokle da keTilmouwyobeli, axlandeli klara cetkinis quCasTan wydeboda. es iyo da es. 20-ian wlebSi gaiWra dRevandel cirkis Senobasa da akademqalaqs Soris aRmarTuli mTa da aigo CeluskinelTa xidi riTac quCa gmirTa moedans SeuerTda. manamde vagzlidan wamosuli tramvai gadauxvevda klara cetkinis quCaze da pirogovis (axla kargareTlis) quCiT plexanovis gamzirze Cadioda. dRes es marSruti ukve daviwyebulia, aRaravis axsovs.
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amJamad Tamar mefis gamziri

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madaTovis kunZuli ki or xids Sua, aTonelis quCidan marqsmoednisaken mimaval monakveTs erqva, sadac axla baRia da erT dros stalinis Zeglic idga. kunZuli imitom Seerqva, rom igi mtkvris or tots Sua mdebareobda. im adgilas, romelic dRes moasfaltebul sanapiros ukavia, aTonelis quCidan pirveli xidis qveS mtkvris marjvena toti moedineboda, magram wylis simciris gamo, gansakuTrebiT zafxulobiT, toti xSirad Sreboda. amitom atalaxebul kalapotSi autaneli, janmrTelobisaTvis saziano Smoris suni dgeboda, rac koRoebis budeebsa da malariis gavrcelebis keras qmnida. qalaqis gamgeobaSi araerTxel dasmula mtkvris am totis amoSrobis sakiTxi. magram es mxolod Semdeg gaxda SesaZlebeli da igi Zvirfas sanapiro quCad gadaiqca. madaTovis kunZulze _ xididan xidamde _ viwro quCa miuyveboda, romelic orive mxares patar-patara maRaziebiT, duqnebiTa da saxelosnoebiT Caxergiliyo, danarCeni adgilebi ki umTavresad meetleebis, mefaetoneebisa Tu cxeniani transportis sxva mflobelTa, traqtirebisa da samikitnoebis adgils warmoadgenda; amas mivumatoT cxenebis sadgomic _ mTlianad dabinZurebuli. 1922 wlis zafxulidan Tbilisis saqalaqo aRmaskomSi daviwye muSaoba da Cveni qalaqic swored maSin gavicani Zirfesvianad. raionuli aRmaskomebi maSin jer kidev ar arsebobda da saqalaqo aRmaskomi Tavad uwevda momsaxurebas mTel qalaqs. damniSnes safinanso kolegiis wevrad da gamomyves komisiis xelmZRvanelad, romelsac daevala savaWro Tu sawarmoo obieqtebidan saijaro qiris gadasinjva da maTi obieqtebis xelaxla Sefaseba Semosavlis gazrdis mizniT. im dros aRricxuli da danomrili iyo 16 aTasze meti werti, romelTagan zogi didi iyo, zogi patara. aRmaskomis Tavmjdomared maSin lado dumbaZe muSaobda. vTqvi ukve, avtomanqanebi qalaqSi Zalian naklebad iyo, komisiis muSaobisaTvis ki aucilebel saWiroebas warmoadgenda; amitom daiqiraves kerZo piris manqana, rac maSin sruliad dasaSvebi iyo. is manqana dRevandeli manqanebiviT moduri da eleganturi ar yofila, patara iyo, TavRia, uZaro, magram komisiis muSaobisaTvis mainc savsebiT kmaroda. igi Zalian lamazi gveCveneboda, siamayis grZnobac ki gveufleboda, roca rusTavelis gamzirze samuSao obieqtebisaken mivqrodiT. ai, swored maSin gavicani imdroindeli Tbilisi. sad ar vyofilvar im Cveni patara koxta manqaniT, Tbilisis romel kuTxekunWuls ar gavcnobivar, romel bakSi ar Segvixvevia, romel sardafSi, romel sastumroSi. da imdroindeli Tbilisis siavkarge swored maSin Sevicani. pirveli quCa, romlis gafarToebac aucileblad miiCnia Cvenma aRmaskomma, dRevandeli leseliZis quCaze mdebare bazari iyo, romelsac oficialurad „Arm%nskiy bazar“, qarTulad „Suabazari“ ewodeboda. is bazars naklebad hgavda, Zalze viwro iyo da faetonebi gverds Zlivs uqcevdnen erTmaneTs. yovel nabijze savaWro da saxelosno idga. muStris misazidad, gareT yovelgvari saqoneli is *
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amJamad zaarbrukenis moedani

150

iyo gamofenili da, miuxedavad amisa, qurdoba ar xdeboda. yovel SemTxvevaSi, aseTi ram arasodes gamigonia. Cems dros Suabazars iseTive ZvelTaZveli saxe hqonda SemorCenili, rogorc is aRwera cnobilma turneforma asze meti wlis winaT. TiTqos nakrZalad yofiliyo gamocxadebuli. es is Suabazaria, romelzedac poeti vaxtang orbeliani ambobs: „me ar miyvars kilo muxambazisa, kintoT kilo, kilo Suabazrisa.“ quCis gaganierebas didi gulmodgineobiT Seudga Cveni Zveli teqnikuri inteligenciis Rirseuli warmomadgeneli, cnobili inJineri grigol qurdiani, Tavaziani, keTili da Tavisi saqmis brwyinvale mcodne. igi TavdadebiT xelmZRvanelobda mindobil saqmes, magram sifrTxiliT ki iqceoda, radgan aseTi didi moculobis samuSaoebSi gawvrTnili ar iyo. amasTan, mosaxleobasac uwevda angariSs. ganisazRvra ara marto Suabazris gafarToeba, aramed axali quCis gayvanac sionidan ,,maidnamde.” unda iTqvas, rom niWierma xuroTmoZRvarma Cinebulad gaarTva Tavi mindobil saqmes da ,,maidnamde” mSvenieri, im droisaTvis sakmaod ganieri quCa gaiyvana. abanoebisaken iseT adgilze gaxsna samanqano gza, sadac adre fexis dasadgmelic ar yofila da mTlianad sacxovrebeli saxlebiT iyo Caxergili. am saqmiT yvela kmayofili darCa da aravin ar ganawyenebula maTi saxlebis aRebiT. axlac mikvirs, aseTi viwro quCebiTa da quCabandebiT xalxi rogor dadioda. cnobilia, am gzis gayvanas rogor cdilobda didi niko nikolaZe im farTo xasiaTis samSeneblo proeqtis safuZvelze, romelic man, rogorc xmosanma, waradgina Tbilisis qalaqis gamgeobaSi. magram es proeqti CaiSala maSindelma qalaqma ver SeZlo am uzarmazari xarjis gaweva, rac kerZo mflobelebisagan im adgilebis gamosyidvas sWirdeboda. maSin es sakiTxi Zalze Zneli da TiTqmis dauZleveli iyo. grigol qurdianma, rasakvirvelia, icoda niko nikolaZis proeqtis Seusruleblobis mizezi. an romelma qarTvelma inteligentma ar icoda es?... maxsovs, sionis quCis iqiT, Cveni komisia pirvelad gavida samuSaod, magram manqana win veRar wavida, quCa orsarTuliani saxliT iyo gadaketili. manqana pirdapir „bnel rigze“ gavatareT, romelic cis qveS arsebul „universams“ warmoadgenda, radgan, rasac moisurvebdiT, iq iSoveboda. am savaWroebsa da qoxmaxebs Soris idga gorelaSvilis sakmaod mozrdili qarvaslac. amasTan erTad isic unda gaviTvaliswinoT, rom qalaqi nela izrdeboda, aTeuli wlebis ganmavlobaSi TiTqmis Seucvleli iyo misi sazRvari, romelic wyneTis quCis (amJamad meliqiSvilis), anu varazis xevis marjvena napirTan wydeboda. cxadia, wyneTis quCac sakmaod viwro da keTilmouwyobeli iyo. xevze patara xidi gaedoT, romlis iqiT idga dRevandeli universitetis anu maSindeli qarTuli gimnaziis erT-erTi korpusi. aq imperialisturi omis dros samxedro hospitali iyo moTavsebuli. am SenobaSi 1915 wlis zafxulSi gardaicvala didi vaJa-fSavela. qarTuli gimnaziis Senoba oblad idga im ukacriel mindorSi. irgvliv xrioki adgilebis meti araferi Canda. 151

erTaderTi, rac TvalSi mogxvdebodaT, viwro biliki iyo, romelsac sofel wyneTisaken mivyavdiT. dRes es adgili da, masTan, mTeli vake, Cveni dedaqalaqis erT-erTi privilegirebuli raionia. varazisxevis mTeli is uzarmazari xrami dRevandeli gmirTa moednis iqiTac aRwevda. xrami Zalian Rrma iyo da nagvis sayrelad iyenebdnen, ris gamoc irgvliv saSineli suni trialebda. sakmaod gvian daiwyo qalaqma saburTalos Tavisufali miwebis aTviseba. omis dros is miwebi gamoyenebuli iyo dawesebulebaTa TanamSromlebis sayane adgilebad da Cven, fizikuri kulturis maswavleblebi, 1943 Tu 44 wlebSi siminds vTesavdiT xolme. namdvili triali mindori iyo, xis Crdilic ki arsaiT Canda. kargad maxsovs is nakveTi, romelsac me vamuSavebdi _ dRevandeli pavlovis quCis mikroraionSi. aba ras warmovidgendi, rom iq Cqara samedicino institutis Senoba aRimarTeboda da studentebTan mec momiwevda muSaoba. dRevandeli kirovis baRi * im dros veris moqmed sasaflaos warmoadgenda. 1919 wels, iq erTi Cemi axlo naTesavi, eqimi iaSvili davasaflaveT, romelmac 1907 wels ilia WavWavaZis gvami gakveTa. vakis sasaflao im dros ar arsebobda da kidec rom yofiliyo, im siSores Tavis micvalebuls aravin gaimetebda dasakrZalavad. Zveli „veris sasaflaoze“ axlac mkafiod ikiTxeba daniel WonqaZisa da „solomon isakiC mejRanuaSvilis“ avtoris _ lavrenti ardazianis gvarebi sagangebod dacul maTi saflavis qvebze... oriode sityva „dinamos“ stadionze. 30-ian wlebSi qoxmaxebiTa da sabostne miwebiT dafarul didubeSi aSenda sportis moyvarulTa yvelaze sayvareli nageboba. iqve iyo sasoflo-sameurneo teqnikumic, romelsac Tavisi mozrdili miwis nakveTi hqonda. „dinamos“ kompleqss xuroTmoZRvrebi da mSeneblebi rom ewvivnen, SemTxveviT, mec iq viyavi, sadac Sevxvdi erT dros Tbilisis pirveli gimnaziis, xolo SemdegSi sasoflo-sameurneo institutis saxelovan direqtors, Cems axlo naTesavs ivane evdokimis Ze gamyreliZes. man miTxra: teqnikumisaTvis ninoSvilis quCaze mogvces samagiero adgili da iq gadavdivarT, aq ki fexburTis didi stadioni unda aSendeso... marTlac, Cqara aSenda Cveni didebuli stadioni. ar damaviwydeba Cemi uzomo sixaruli, roca ocian wlebSi erT romeliRac dawesebulebaSi gamofines momavali Tbilisis rekonstruqciisa da ganaSenianebis xuroTmoZRvruli ocdaxuTwliani gegma. es dro Zalian xangrZlivi meCvena da uimedod CaviqnieT xeli, magram Turme vcdebodi. Cem Tvalwin moxda Tbilisis arnaxuli zrda, Zveli daingra da mis adgilze axali Senobebi aRimarTa. axlac ar SemiZlia, gulgrilad Cavuaro rusTavelis gamzirze mdebare # 52 veeba saxls. me iq xis WiSkari mizidavda, „omCinskaia, # 4“ad wodebuli. am WiSkriT „Temis“ redaqciaSi Sedioda xolme didi akaki. erTxel, studentobis dros, me da griSam „Temis“ redaqtori grigol diasamiZe movinaxuleT. gamoTxovebisas grigolma gviTxra: dRes saRamos redaqciaSi akaki da ovanes Tumaniani unda gvewvion da Tqvenc modiTo, magram Cven quTaisSi migveCqareboda da redaq*

axla veris baRi

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toris mipatiJebaze uari vTqviT. mere es ambavi mTeli sicocxle sananeblad dagvrCa orive Zmas. xsenebuli xis WiSkari dRes, rasakvirvelia, aRar aris, magram ezos siRrmeSi darCenilia saxli # 4, sadac Tavis droze „Temis“ redaqcia iyo moTavsebuli. mosagonari Zvel Tbilisze Zalian bevria, magram yvelafers erTad ver vixseneb. SeuZlebelia, Tvalwin ar warmomidges xarfuxi, aSpaSxani, cicianovis TavdaRmarTze dagorebuli tramvai, veres daRmarTi da uamravi sxva. mis yaraCoxelebze, kintoebze, krivze Tu abanoebze xom bevri dawerila da daxatula, amitom aRar gavimeoreb ukve mravalgzis naTqvams. mxolod gulistkiviliT minda aRvniSno, rom 1795 wlis jojoxeTurma mexTatexam, agreTve, Semdegi drois avbediTobam TbilisSi uamravi Zveli nageboba, TaRovani xidi Tu Sadrevniani baRebi daangria, rac Cveni drois siamaye iqneboda. rad eRireboda Tundac erekle meoris sasaxle, romelic dRes aRar aris. aRarc Tbilisis cnobili Walebi da tyeebi Srialeben... samwuxarod, bevri ram waritana drois dinebam. Tbiliss didi qartexilebi gadautania, roca ieremias godebasaviT gaismoda qarTvelis Civili: „puri mogvdis, sxva vaWrobs, Cveni venaxi sxvis xelSia, Cvens Rvinos sxva hyidis da Cven metic aRaraferi gagvaCniao.“ iveriis dedaqalaqi bevrjer aqcies nangrevebad. sisxlis zRvac gamoucuravs da mainc moaRwia dRemde. rogorc Zvelma Tbiliselma, is gavixsene, rac sakuTari TvaliT mqonda nanaxi, riTac bednierad da valmoxdilad vgrZnob Tavs.

CargalSi
araerTxel vTqvi, rom 1909 wels moskovSi student Zmebs bedniereba gvqonda, rusul enaze gveTargmna da wignebad gamogveca qarTuli mxatvruli prozis zogierTi nimuSi; saTargmnel nawarmoebTa Soris Cafiqrebuli gvqonda vaJa-fSavelas moTxrobebic, ris Sesaxebac Tavad avtors unda movTaTbirebodiT; amisaTvis ki fSavSi Casvla iqneboda saWiro. magram Cvens axalgazrdul wadils im xanebSi bevri damabrkolebeli mizezi gamouCnda da poetis mSobliur sofel CargalSi wasvlis saSualeba Zalian gvian, mxolod 1935 wels mogveca, roca Cveni qveyana vaJa-fSavelas gardacvalebis 20 wlisTavs aRniSnavda. am TariRTan dakavSirebiT saqarTvelos saxelmwifo literaturulma muzeumma sofel CargalSi sagangebo eqspedicia miavlina, romelsac mgosnis Sesaxeb zogierTi biografiuli xasiaTis masala unda Seekriba da, amasTan erTad, memorialuri nivTebic SeeZina. eqspediciaSi Sediodnen: literaturaTmcodne ivane enikolofovi da Cemi Zmebi: poeti da literatori grigol jafariZe da maSin jer kidev damwyebi mxatvari uCa jafariZe. eqspedicias mec SevuerTdi Cemi fotoaparatiT. literaturul muzeums imxanad giorgi leoniZe xelmZRvanelobda... 153

* Semodgomis namdvili „oqros dReebi“ idga. avtobusiT swrafad gaviareT jer duSeTi, mere _ ananuri misi cixe-koSkiT da gadavuxvieT fSav-xevsureTisaken mimaval axal gzaze, romelic sul oriode weli iyo, rac gaexsnaT da amitom Savi gudroni isev prialebda mzeze. es gza aqaur adgilebs barisaxosTan aerTebs. avtobusSi CvenTan erTad ramdenime fSaveli da xevsuri mgzavrobda. isini Tbilisidan brundebodnen saxlebSi savse xurjinebiTa da daclili kasrebiT; garemo erbos suniT gaJRenTiliyo. Cveni Tanamgzavrebi erTimeoreze ufro vaJkacuri aRnagobisani iyvnen da mzeze garujuli saxeebiT vaJas ukvdav gmirebs _ gogoTurs, aludas Tu afSinas Camohgavdnen. gaviareT Jinvali, fSavis aragvis napirebi da maRaroskarSi SevediT. Zvelad aq soflis kancelaria da dawyebiTi skola yofila, sadac erT dros vaJa-fSavelas Zma _ niko (baCana) maswavleblobda. axla es adgili am kuTxis kulturis centria. iq aris saavadmyofo, afTiaqi, skola, fosta, kooperativi da soflis sabWo, romelsac vaJas sofeli Cargalic eqvemdebareba. fSav-xevsureTis xsenebuli saavtomobilo gzis mSenebloba im dros jer kidev ar iyo damTavrebuli, ganuwyvetliv ismoda naRmis afeTqebis xma da moglejili kldeebis griali. alag-alag rkina-betonis xidebis gverdiT Zveli xid-bogirebic SemorCeniliyo. maRaroskars rom gavcdiT, patara mdinare „Carglula“ Semogveyara, vaJas mSobliur Cargalze rom moedineba da saxelic am soflisagan miuRia. is tyiT dafaruli xeobiT marcxena mxridan erTvis aragvs. „Cargliskaridan“ ukve soflis gza miuyveboda zemoT da Cvenc fexiT ganvagrZeT siaruli, avtobusma ki barisaxosaken aiRo gezi. aqedan Carglamde sul raRac oTxiode kilometria. Cven win viwro xeoba, alag-alag yanebi da xSiri, foTlovani xeebiT Semosili maRali mTebia. es vaJas mSobliuri kuTxea... salami Senda, kurTxeulo adgilo, didi mgosnis cxovrebisa da Semoqmedebis cocxalo mowmev!... „mogesalmebiT, qedebo, momaqvs salami gviani!“ * rac ufro zeviT avdivarT da sofels vuaxlovebiT, miT ufro viwrovdeba xeoba. seqtemberia, magram qeri da simindi jer kidev mwvaned bibinebs. ukve daRamda.

„daRamda, wvrilni varskvlavni ayovdnen, dasxdnen cazeda, mTvare ki jer arsada Cans, ar dagvnaTois Tavzeda...“

154

Zexorcieli aravin Cans, vaJas saxlisaken mimavali gza rom migvaswavlos. anazdad mbJutavi sinaTle gamoCnda da Soridan ZaRlebis yefac Semogvesma. _ maspinZelo! _ SevZaxeT erT-erT qoxs, _ maspinZelo! saxlidan viRacis silueti gamoCnda da Cvenc CvenTvis saWiro misamarTs vekiTxebiT. _ vaJais saxli? _ gvpasuxobs qalis xma, _ ra vqna, romeli vaJais? _ magram bolos mainc iazra da darwmunebiT gvipasuxa: _ razikaanT saxli gindaT? hoo... is gaRmaa, Svilo, wyalgaRma, aqeT ras modixarT? qvemod CadiT da riye-riye auyeviT wyals... erT qoxSi, romelSic, rogorc Semdeg gavigeT, vaJas megobars bekura baCiaSvils ucxovria, sinaTle ainTo da nagazebmac boxi xmiT atexes yefa. am saxlidan viRac axalgazrda kaci gamovida, mogvesalma da vaJas saxlisaken gagviZRva. * _ ai, am gorakzea vaJais saxli, _ gviTxra gamyolma kargaxnis siarulis Semdeg, mere Carglulaze gadebuli xis bogiri gadagvatara da... Cven ukve didi mgosnis kar-midamoze vdgavarT, mis ezoSi. bnela da Cvenc TiTqos vaJas ukvdav gmirTa landebs vxedavT, TiTqos maT sunTqvas vgrZnobT: „usulo sagans suli Cavbere, avasaubre lodebi kldisa.“ didi interesiT vakvirdebiT landebad qceul xeebs, saxls, patara damxmare nagebobebs; ager kaloze aRmarTuli oriode zvini, ager gomuri, qviTkiris momcro qoxi. irgvliv sruli siCumea da mxolod Carglulas Cumi JRurtuli moismis qvemodan. am ezoSi, ratomRac, arc ZaRlis yefa moismis, romelic TiTqos Cveulebrivi movlenaa iq, sadac saxli ganmartoebiT dgas. mgosnis es mokrZalebuli samyofeli TiTqos amiT Tu gansxvavdeba fSaveli glexis tipiuri kar-midamosagan. es wminda savane, sadac mgosanma Tavisi bavSvoba da Segnebuli cxovrebis umetesi nawili gaatara, kidev ufro wminda gaxda CvenTvis, rodesac misi qoxidan mbJutavma sinaTlem gamoaSuqa. rogorc Canda, maspinZels jer kidev ar eZina. diax, Cven ukve im adgilze varT, ase rom uyvarda vaJas da ris gamoc yvelas SesTxovda: _ „Cems adgils mimabareTa, sicocxliT gamwarebuli mkvdar mainc gamaxareTa“-o. * karma gaiWriala da Sav tansacmelSi gamowyobili maRali, Txeli tanis Warmagi mandilosani gamogvegeba, romelmac moridebuli mosalmebis Semdeg, Sin Tavazianad SegvipatiJa. es vaJas meuRle _ Tamari gaxldaT. qals Cveni vinoba gavumxileT da vTxoveT, araferze Sewuxebuliyo, radgan SevatyveT, sufris mzadeba daewyo. Tamari metad sandomiani qali Cans, zrdilobiani da moridebuli. gvsiamovnebs misi metyvelebis fSavuri kilo. igi ukve xanSi Sesulia, misi sityvebiT „samoczedac gadasuli“, magram garegnulad jer kidev kargad gamoiyureba. is laRad, Tavaweuli daiareba. 155

gasakviri araa, rom suliTa da sisxliT namdvil mTiels _ vaJas es qali moswoneboda da misi Tval-tanadobiT moxibluliyo. mTis pirobebSi uTuod lamazi gamoCndeboda da dResac tols ar daudebs mezobel qalTa umetesobas. mas odnav SemaRlebuli Txeli cxviri aqvs, Savi Tval-warbi da didi xelebi; ganier Sav tansacmels bunebrivad erwymis aseve Savi Tavsafari. Tamari vaJas meore colia. mgosanma igi sofel xorxidan „moitaca“, „cxenis gavaze moigdo.“

„cxenis gavaze movigdo, sdiodes cremli mwarea, SuaRamisas Cargalsa gadaviwero jvaria. mere moides sadaod Tundac osmalos jaria!...“
Tamars kargad axsovs es ambavi, ris gamoc „kinaRam sisxlic Camovardnila or ojaxs Sua.“ es miT ufro, rom qali gaTxovebas ar apirebda da monasterSi wasasvlelad emzadeboda Turme. _ mamaCemma xanjarsac wamaavlo xeli, _ gviyveba Tamari, _ roca luka da misi Zma niko movidnen Cem wasayvanad; mamaCems xelebSi veci da Zliv davamSvide: „ZaliT xom ar wamiyvanen-meTqi.” lukas me ar vicnobdi manamde. wigni ki wamekiTxa vaJa-fSavelasi; saxlSic mqonda, magram ki ar vicodi, Tu is mwerali vaJa-fSavela Cargleli razikaanT luka iyo. es mere gavige.“ Tamaris garda am ojaxSi misi vaJi, vaxtangi, cxovrobda, magram im dros igi Tbilisis universitetSi swavlobda da Tamars martodmarto, TiTqmis umezoblod uxdeboda yofna. amis gamo didi wvalebiT eweoda soflur meojaxeobas. _ wyalic ver momitania jer, dedaSvilobas, _ gveubneba maspinZeli, _ erTi Zroxa-Ra myav, davkarge da mis ZebnaSi sul Semoviare Cveni tyeebi; Zliv vipove da esaa davbrundi Sin. daviqance, Svilo, magram ra vqna, sayvedurs ver vityvi. cxovreba garjas moiTxovs. daRlilma Tamarma spilenZis didi Tungi mxarze Seigdo da im kunapet RameSi sadRac gauCinarda. wyali Tumca Sors ar yofila, xevSi gamoedineba Turme, magram im berbecoSi Casvla da isic, am RameSi, arc Tu ioli saqmea. _ eeh, Cemo batono, mTaSi Raribuli cxovreba gvaqvs da, Tu ar viSromebT, aras gvargia! _ ambobs Rrma amooxvriT wyarodan ukve Sin dabrunebuli Tamari da bodiSs ixdis, rom „sakadrisad ver gagvimaspinZldeba.“ qals patara sufra Semoaqvs da zed uxvad awyobs „Raribuli cxovrebis“ damadasturebel sanovages: axlad mowvelil rZes, karaqs, xaWosa da Wyint yvels, romelsac Tamari vaJas naqoni basri daniT veeba naWrebad Wris. TiToeuli naWeri qalaqSi vaJkacsac ki daapurebda. Cven bodiSs vixdiT misi ase udrood SewuxebisaTvis, magram Tamari sulac ar grZnobs Tavs Sewuxebulad da mSvidad gveubneba: „aravin modis aq, mTaSi mowyenilad varT. amas winaT mixeil javaxiSvili iyo mxolod da isic imave dRes gabrunda ukan...“ * es saxli ki ara, erTi ubralo qoxia. nuTu am kedlebSi iwereboda „gvelis mWameli“, „aluda qeTelauri“, „stumar-maspinZeli“, „CxikvTa qorwili“ da vaJas sxva didebuli qmnilebebi?... ara, 156

patara is fizikuradaa, Torem, wminda sauflo taZaria, muzaTa TavSesayari, maTi samosaxlo... Cemi cxovrebis manZilze araerTi gamoCenili mwerlis saxli da kar-midamo minaxavs, maT Soris iliasi _ yvarelSi, akakisa _ mSobliur sxvitorSi, lev tolstoisa _ iasnaia polianaSi. rodesac maT sasaxleebs vaJa-fSavelas qvis patara qoxs vadareb, guli sevdiT mevseba, ucnauri, eniT gamouTqmeli grZnoba mipyrobs... magram swored es patara kedlebi meubnebian, rom didi niWisaTvis sra-sasaxleebs araviTari mniSvneloba ara aqvs. gana amaze ar metyvelebs saxelganTqmuli Sotlandieli poetis robert bernsis cxovrebiseuli istoriac?!... amazeve ar metyvelebs genialuri firosmanis duxWiri cxovrebis sinamdvilec?!... sad aris aq ucxouri aveji, franguli preferansis magida, italiuri suraTebi, sparsuli noxebi, „gammondis“ sabeWdi manqana da mravali sxva, rac im drois mdidarTa ojaxebisTvis Cveulebrivi ram gaxldaT?! es ubralo, nivTebi Tavisi pirvelyofilebiT gvaoceben, rogorc vaJas naxevrad warmarTi, naxevrad zRapruli da miTiuri gmirebi. ai, yvelaferi is, rac TvalSi gveca Cven, Tbilisidan mivlinebiT Camosul stumrebs, rac gvafiqrebs, rac sevdiTa da amave dros didi siamayiTac gvavsebs... * Tamari jarasaviT trialebs ojaxSi, dRe da Rame gasworebuli aqvs. sami dRe davyaviT mis keraze da vxedavdiT am dauRalavi adamianis garjas: acxobda, wvelida, saqonels uvlida, SeSa mohqonda, wyals ezideboda, sadils amzadebda da am xnis manZilze mxolod erTxel vnaxeT oTaxSi damjdari da gana dasasveneblad? ara _ is wnelze Camokidebul „varias“ ujda da rZisTavsa dRvebda, raTa ucxo stumrebi axali karaqiTa da gemrieli doTi vesiamovnebineT. _ ra vqna, Svilo, aseTia Raribi kacis bedi, _ gvpasuxobda Tamari Cveni gakvirvebuli Tvalebis Semxedvare, magram mas yvelaze ufro martooba awuxebda. mxolod ojaxis didi siyvaruli da mamapapuri saxlis erTguleba aZlebinebda martoxela qals. _ ratom mezoblis bavSvebi mainc ar Semovlen da xels ar wagaSveleben xolme? _ vekiTxebiT Tamars. _ rogor Semovlen, gana scaliaT? _ gvpasuxobs Tamari, _ mTaSi balRebic muSaoben; da kidevac rom ecaloT, usaqmurad isini mezoblis kars ar moadgebian; araa adaTi... Tavad vaJasac fizikuri da sulieri Zalebis araadamianuri daZabva sWirdeboda, arseboba rom SeenarCunebina. mainc ver sZlia naRvels, ramac es jan-RoniT savse bunebis Svili sikvdilis piramde miiyvana sul raRac 54 wlis asakSi. mere da rogor swyuroda sicocxle da rogor eficeboda Tavis mSobel qveyanas:

Tu giRalato, dedao, numc davimarxo mTaSia,
157

nu dasdon vaJis-fSavlisa xmali satirlad TavSia, nu damitiros qal-rZalma sakacezea karSia, SaveTSi gamgzavrebulsa cxeni wameqces wyalSia. qveynisgan SeCvenebulma bina davkargo caSia. gamiwydes bewvis xidai, Cavvarde kupris zRvaSia.
* dilauTenia gamovdivar ezoSi. Carglulas gaRma mTis ferdobze moCans soflis erTi ubani; is jer kidev dilis bindSia gaxveuli, magram soflelebi ukve fexze arian da adreul saqmes Sesdgomian. bavSvebi saqonels mierekebian xmauriTa da SeZaxilebiT... aqaurma xalxma, rogorc CvenSi yvelgan, garjac icis da dasvenebac. daRamdeba Tu ara, maSinve wvebian da amitom mbJutavi sinaTle maTTvis saWiroebas aRar warmoadgens. ukidures SemTxvevaSi mamapapeul kvarsac mimarTaven, navTis lampisaTvis ki sawvavia saWiro da aba, muSaobiT daRlilma Carglelma kacma navTisaTvis rogor unda iaros maRaroskarSi? amisTvis naxevari dRe mainc unda daikargos! ager imave wyalgaRma bilikze viRac qali gamoCnda, zurgze guda hkidia, albaT wisqvilisaken miiCqaris. aq Zalauneburad maxsendeba vaJas sasimRerod qceuli leqsi:

„gamoRmiT me var, gaRmiT Sen, Suaze modis mdinare, xidi ar gviZevs wyalzeda, fiqri mklavs mouTminare.“
* vaJas saxli Carglulas gaswvriv, erT maRal kordzea wamomdgari. ezo mwvaneSia Cafluli, ufro anwli da, gansakuTrebiT, WinWari da „WinWris deda“ Warbobs; aqa-iq moCans Rolo, „mayalurZa“ da „tuxtic“. am mcenareTa fesvebs da nayofebs aqauri xalxi samkurnalod iyenebs; an mwvanes xmaroben an axmoben, xarSaven da naxarSs svamen. ezodan mdinaremde daferdebuli napiri vaJas ojaxs bostnad da saTibad aqvs gamoyenebuli... yvelani ezoSi vsxedvarT da SevyurebT mzrunveli xeliT naxareb vaSlisa da msxlis xeebs, RoRnaSos, zRmartls, anu “xutkaras“, WanWurs, Sindsa da, rac mTavaria, kaklis xeebs. Tamaris TqmiT, yvela es xe vaJas dargulia da mis mier aris damynobili. kaklis xe, rogorc Cans, Zalze gavrcelebulia fSavSi. marto vaJas ezosa da saTibSi aTamde Ziri mainc dgas, gverdiT kidev ufro metic. xis totebs lamazad Semoxvevia svia _ Tavisi Ria-Calisferi pawia burTulebiT. _ es svia lukais motanili da dargulia, _ gveubneba Tamari, _ umagisod ludi ar gamaixdebao... uvlida Zalian. 158

damxmare Senobebidan (aseTebs raWaSi „Sromels“ uwodeben) dgas boseli anu igive gomuri, romlis zemoT saTive aris gawyobili. iq Cveni misvlis dros ,,mSvidobianad mezoblobdnen” Tamaris Zroxa da cxeni... ezos ukana nawilSi gancalkevebiT dgas patara „furne“. esec Turme vaJas gaukeTebia Tavisi xeliT, raTa amiT diasaxlisisaTvis puris cxobis mZime saqme Seemsubuqebina. saxli, sadac mgosani ojaxTan erTad cxovrobda, am damxmare nagebobaTa ukan dgas da piriT xeviskenaa miqceuli, ukana kedeli ki _ tyiT dafaruli ferdobisaken. saxli, rogorc es mTaSia miRebuli, qviT aris naSenebi da daxurulia kramitiT; es ki, Tamaris ganmartebiT, SeZlebulobis niSania, Tumca am ukanasknel xans TiTqmis yvelas aseTi Senoba udgas, oRond kramitis magier isev Zveleburi saxuravi „yarti“ aqvs gamoyenebuli. yarti sagangebod iTeseba yanaSi. vaJas saxli sul oriode oTaxisagan Sedgeba. es ase yofila mgosnis sicocxleSiac, mxolod im gansxvavebiT, rom win xis patara aivani hqonia. erT-erTi oTaxi sastumrod yofila gankuTvnili, romelic duSeTis raiaRmaskomis iniciativiTa da xarjiT gaudidebiaT rogorc siganeSi, ise simaRleSi. Senobis sxva danarCeni nawili isevea SemorCenili, rogorc es mgosnis dros iyo. saxlis erTi oTaxi jer kidev poetis mamas pavle razikaSvils vaJas mowafeobis dros auSenebia, manamde ki aqac baniani miwuri saxli hqoniaT. am Zvel patara oTaxs, romelic zomiT Tormetiode kvadratuli metri Tu iqneba, Tamari „lukas oTaxs“ uwodebs, radgan is vaJas samuSao da sawoli oTaxi yofila. mas ezos mxriv erTi patara kari da ori sarkmeli hqonia, romelic dRemde asevea SemorCenili; meore oTaxis msgavsad, iataki aqac miwisaa. oTaxis erT kuTxeSi buxaria datanebuli, romelic gansakuTrebiT hyvarebia Turme vaJas. am buxris win Seuqmnia Tavisi araerTi Sedevri da, maT Soris, dauviwyari „fSaveli jariskacis werili“:

„gulmkerdic agiyovdeba, dedao, ia-vardiTa... fiqriT SenTan var. saCeClis kbilebis mesmis wkriali... gicqer, matylsa sCeC, fartenas cremli gisvelebs tiali...“
vaJas avejeulobidan mis yofil oTaxSi rkinis sawoli da mcire zomis gamoCorknili xis ubralo magidaa. es iyo vaJas saweri magida. misi erT-erTi ujra gamoRebulia da, mgoni, dakargulic ki... aqvea erTi dabali da ubralo karada, romelSiac mgosani Tavis nawerebsa da wignebs inaxavda. buxris aqeT-iqiT, kedlebSi Catanebul TaxCebSi ori Wraqia Sedgmuli. magidaze dgas moSlili maRviZara saaTi, romelic raRac musikis msgavs bgerebs gamoscemda da amisTvis ufro yidulobdnen, vidre drois gasagebad. vaJasac Turme Zalian uyvarda is saaTi, momarTavda da usmenda mis musikas. oTaxis erT kuTxeSi vaJas Tofi, misi nanadirevi irmis rqebi da ori yanwi hkidia. 159

_ lukais jixvis rqebic hqonda aq, _ SeniSnavs Tamari, _ magram romeliRac mezobels aCuqa. irmis rqebs ukan mgosans Tavisi didi suraTi ekida Turme, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebeli sazogadoebis mier liTografiulad gamocemuli; aqve ekida meore didi suraTic _ „qarTvel mweralTa jgufi“, romelic im dros metad gavrcelebuli iyo CvenSi da TiTqmis yovel qarTul ojaxSi naxavdiT. imave oTaxis erT kuTxeSi ewyo vaJas samuSao iaraRebi: Toxi, bari, namgali, xerxi, culi da sxva. kedels mcire zomis fardagic amSvenebs. _ es fardagi ki Cemi moqsovilia, _ ganmartavs Tamari, _ CvenTan yvela qsovs da, cxadia, mec movqsove. qalma uTuod unda gaakeTos es saqme, moqsovos xaliCa, xurjinebi da gaTxovebisas Tan gaiyolos. aseTia Cveneburi adaTi. oTaxidan ezoSi gamovdivarT. mwvane balaxi Tvals axarebs. Tamars moswons Tavisi samosaxlo. _ zamTar aq sicive ar icis, rogorc mindvrad, _ gveubneba is, _ myudrod varT, SeSac naklebi gvWirdeba. Tamari Tavis oTaxSi Sedis da mcire xnis Semdeg raRac moZvelebuli da dro-Jams gadarCenili mcire zomis, Txelydiani lukas wigni gamoaqvs. rogori sixaruliTa da mRelvarebiT gadavfurcleT es Zveli, wera-kiTxvis gamavrcelebel sazogadoebis mier 1911 wels dastambuli patara wignaki, romlis satitulo furcelsa da garekanze dabeWdilia: „vaJa-fSavela. sami saymawvilo ambavi rva suraTiT da avtoris mokle biografiiT“. aqve vkiTxulobT: „vaJam male maswavleblobas sruliad mianeba Tavi da dasaxlda col-SviliT Tavis sofel CargalSi. sofelSi vaJa-fSavela soflur muSaobas misdevs – xnavs, sTesavs da mxneobs iseve, rogorc sxva misi mezobeli glexkacoba, xolo Tavisufal dros andomebs mwerlobas.“ diax, es sruli WeSmaritebaa: marTlac, „Tavisufal dros“ Tu gaimetebda mwerlobisaTvis im dros adamiani!... Cven beds unda vumadlodeT, rom didi mgosani, miuxedavad didi garjisa, kidev axerxebda „Tavisufali drois“ gamonaxvas da buxris mbJutavi cecxlis win, roca „jalabs eZina,“ sakacobrio mniSvnelobis qmnilebebs werda. * _ Tunuqis Rumeli ar eWaSnikeboda, _ gviambobs Tamari, _ „cecxls Tu TvaliT ar vxedav, ise siTbos ra gemo aqvso”. _ leqsebis wera Tumca dRisiTac icoda, magram aseT dros is iSviaTad iyo moclili, rogorc ojaxis erT-erTi burji da marCenali amitom is ufro Ram-RamobiT werda, _ ganmartavs igi. _ roca werda da Cven vfxizlobdiT, albaT xels vuSlidiT, _ daiZineTo, gvetyoda. xSirad Ramec wamoiWreboda loginidan da SemomZaxebda: „Tamar, Sens mzesa, sawer-kalami momitane erT wamso.“ dajdeboda da ise werda riJraJamde. iriJraJebda Tu ara, vaJa mxarze nabads moigdebda da iaraRiT aRWurvili, sanadirod midioda, an saTib-samkalSi gaswevda. 160

_ Zalian iRleboda beCavi ganuwyveteli muSaobiT, _ naRvlianad dasZens Tamari, _ Rameebic ki ar eZina, xSirad TeTrad aTenebda. aki Tavadac Cioda:

ise gaivlis sTvlis Rame, ar momexuWvis Tvalia!... miSvele, Cemo gamCeno, miSvele, momec Zalia. akmare beCavs Cems Tavsa amdeni codo-bralia!...
_ xSirad vusayvedurebdi xolme: _ ra aris, sul raRacas swer da eg Seni Sroma Cveni siRaribis wilad ki arafers gvargia. is gaiRimebda, mere rveuls xelSi aiRebda da wamikiTxavda Tavis nawers. magram, aba, me ra mesmoda, Svilo? erTi uswavleli qali var.. Zalian uyvarda sakuTari leqsebis fandurze damRereba; kargi fanduri hqonda, magram damimtvries xelidan xelSi tarebiT, ver gadavarCine. stumari uyvarda, amitom Sin Rvinos ar gamailevda, magram simTvrale ki ar icoda, rigze somda, Wamac ise rigze icoda, cota, magram xSirad... Tavisi soflidan Znelad Tu wavidoda didi xniT, ufro zamTarSi midioda xolme Tavisi cxeniT duSeTs an TianeTs. xSirad TbilisSiac Cadioda. kaxeTSiac icoda gasvla; iq mas qaliSvili hyavda gaTxovili da, garda amisa, nadirobasac eweoda gareul Rorze, xanac kidev jixvze... * CargalSi vnaxeT vaJas erTi mezobelTagani _ ivane molodinaSvili. Tumca axalgazrda kaci iyo, vaJaze bevri ram icoda. Tavis erTaderT aRmzrdelad da moamaged miiCnevda: _ damiZaxebda xolme da metyoda: _ aba, ivane, Svilo, xval diliT qalaqs mivdivar da duSeTidan cxeni unda damibrunoo... diliT jer kidev Rameul gavudgebodiT duSeTis gzas, ai, im tyeebze, xedavT im goras?... bilikebi viwro da iseTi saxifaTo savali iyo _ xan aRmarTi, xan daRmarTi, rom sanaxevrod fexiT mivdiodiT, radgan cxenze jdoma SeuZlebeli iyo. duSeTSi Tavis cxens Camabarebda, Tavad lineikas daujdeboda da savse xurjiniT miemgzavreboda qalaqs. am xurjinSi, rogorc cnobilia, vaJas xSirad Tavisi nawerebic elaga. iq is am savse xurjiniT Jurnal-gazeTebis redaqciisaTvis yovelTvis sanatreli da Zvirfasi stumari iyo. dedaqalaqSi Ramis gasaTevad Tavis Zma sandrosTan Cerdeboda. sandro fostis uwyebaSi msaxurobda da ojaxTan erTad veraze, mleTis quCaze cxovrobda. dRes am saxlis fasads marmarilos memorialuri dafa amSvenebs. magram qalaqSi vaJa didxans ver Zlebda, guli isev fSavisken miuwevda.

isev fSavis xevs venacvle, gulkeTils, Tavaziansa. mis mTebs, moxdeniT daqarguls, mis aremares wyliansa.
* 161

bevr Zvirfas ambavs ixsenebda Tamari misi dauviwyari „vaJais“ cxovrebidan _ mis yoveldRiur yofaze, mis damqancvel muSaobaze mindvrad Tu tyeSi, saxnav-saTessa Tu samkal-saTibSi. wuxda, roca ixsenebda sayvarel adamians, romelmac Semoxeuli CoxiTa da naxevradZirgavardnili qalamnebiT daaRama Tavisi cxovrebis dReni. _ Raribebi viyaviT, magram lukai guls mainc arasodes ar itexda. rarig uyvarda beCavs es patara Raribuli qoxi da mTeli ojaxi! rarig uyvarda saqoneli! Tu romelime maTgani gareT darCeboda, wavidoda da mTeli Rame eZebda. eZebda da bolos mainc moiyvanda Sin. mainc ar gaxdida nadiris lukmad... Tamari moxucebulobas uCivis: _ davberdi, Svilo, ra vqna?!... sibere lomsac mareviav, xom gagigoniaT? mec movidrike, aRar SemiZlia; sanam lukai cocxali iyo, ojaxsac Tavad uvlida da gareTac Tavad iyo, magram roca aRar aris, maS, vin unda moabas Tavi aqaurobas? isev me, maS, ra vqna? me ki jer missobasac ver viyavi srul janze da vCiodi amas, magram lukai yovelTvis gamamxnevebda xolme Tavisi SeZaxiliT: _ kargi ra, dedakaco, dadeq, moeSvi wuwuns! mTieli qali xar, ar gekadreba... ar SegiZlia? neba-neba imuSave, ra geCqareba? vin mogdevs? janic mogiva da Ronec... Tamari ixsenebs agreTve vaJas mier araerTxel anderZiviT naTqvams: roca movkvdebi, nu mimatoveb martodmartoo da wuxs, ase Sors rom aris misi saflavi da ver uvlis mas, ver asrulebs sayvareli adamianis anderZs:

mkvdars minda Seni sinaTle, cocxals sicocxlec mkmaria; trfobiT aRvsili gulisTvis ca Rrublianic daria. Tu mze xar, maSin mimzeve, miSvele Semibralia...
_ bolo wlebSi luka gverds itkivebda, _ naRvlianad igonebs Tamari, _ karga xans Cioda amas, magram ra unda meSvela?... mere qalaqSi wavida, male davbrundebio, damibara, damibara da is iyo... veRarc vnaxe meti... da qali Tavsafris yuriT moridebiT iSrobs Tvalze momdgar cremls da Tan mZime fiqrebSi iZireba... * vaJas gardacvalebis Semdeg misi naqoni wignebi, agreTve sawer-kalmi, xmali, fari da zogierTi ram misi tansacmlidan, Tamaris sityviT, wauRia poetis ufros vaJs levans, romelic gorSi cxovrobda. levanis Semdeg ra bedi ewia am nivTebs, Tamarma ar icis, radgan levani 1924 wels daxvrites da misi nivTebis Zebnas vin ras gabedavda. _ mereda, ukvalod rad unda dakarguliyo vaJas naqoni nivTebi? _ swuxs Cemi Zma grigoli, _ isini xom fasdaudebeli eqsponatebi iqneboda poetis memorialuri muzeumisaTvis?... magram aseTebi jer kidev mainc moiZebnebian vaJaseul qoxSi da grigoli da vano Tamars am nivTebis SeZenis Sesaxeb esaubrebian. 162

Tamars Zalze enaneba maTi moSoreba, TiTqmis Sezrdilia am nivTebTan, uyvars isini, magram ra qnas, uars ver ambobs da mxolod moridebiT warmoTqvams: _ ra vqna, e Zvelmanebi rom waiRoT qalaqSi, merideba, ras ityvis xalxi... sircxvilia. _ Tan naRvliani TvalebiT dasCerebia im ,,Zvelmanebs”, TiTqos Zvirfas megobrebs eTxovebao.

„xsovnai Cemi qveynisa aqve, CemTana marxia!...“
gulsa swvdeba poetis es amoZaxili, TiTqos is sios mihqondes sadRac da Carglis mTebsa da xeobebs sevdiT avsebdes. * uCas, Cems umcros Zmas, ukve mouswria da akvareliT dauxatavs vaJas es patara, WvartliT Semuruli buxriani oTaxi. ar gamorCenia magida, kedelze Camokidebuli irmis rqebi da, saerTod, ojaxis mTeli garnituri. vaJas, rogorc Tamari ambobs, didi survili hqonia mSobliur sofelSi damarxuliyo da TiTqos anderZiviT werda:

aq nu gamwiravT, wamiReT, Cems kuTxes mimabareTa, gza-gza qurdulad mavlieT, nabadi wamafareTa. CemT mamapaT gverdiTa samare gamiTxareTa, damcqerdes diyelis gori, inos mTa Wiuxiani...
marTalia, guramiSvilisadmi miZRvnil leqsSi vaJa metismetad Tavmdablobs, roca qveynis gasagonad acxadebs: „poetad vixseniebi, Tumca xari var labao, CemisTanebi bagaze asiaTasi abao“, mas mainc sjeroda Tavisi geniisa da kargad icoda, rom gardacvalebis mere aucileblad TbilisSi waasvenebdnen da iqaur miwas miabarebdnen. amis Sesaxeb TviT meuRlesTanac araerTxel uTqvams Turme. da axda is, risi Rirsic iyo Cveni didebuli mgosani.

vaJas mezoblebi
aRiniSna, rom im dros vaJas saxli ganmartoebiT idga da axlo mezoblebi ar hyavda. magram Sori iqneba is Tu axlo, mezobeli mainc mudam mezoblis Wirsa da lxins iziarebs. diliT, rodesac mec da Cemi Zmebic qalbaton TamarTan maslaaTiT da garemos TvalierebiT viyaviT garTulni, mezoblis eqvsi-Svidiode wlis, fexSiSvela da perangisamara patara gogonam Semoirbina. raRac saqmeze gamoegzavna dedas TamarTan. arc ki amousunTqavs, ise Sedga maspinZlis winaSe da sxapasxupiT raRac saintereso ambis moyola daiwyo; Tanac, ise seriozulad eWira Tavi, cxovrebaSi gamocdili didi adamiani gegonebodaT. cnobismoyvareobam mZlia da bavSvs mivuaxlovdi. axla ukve garkveviT gavige, Tu ris macned mosuliyo es cerodena gogona: Turme maTi „boCola“ wuxel mglebs daukbeniaT da biWebs Zlivs gamouglejiaT. axla SedarebiT ukeT yofila maTi xbo da misi mSoblebi guldasmiT wamlobdnen sabolood gansakurneblad. zustad „mzis dabrZanebis dros“ momxdara es yvelaferi. 163

_ karga mzis dabrZaneba iqneboda, _ gulmodgined ganagrZobda gogona da Cvenc siyvaruliT mivCerebodiT mis namzeur lamaz saxes, bednier Rimils rom afrqvevda garSemo. bolos gogonam daamTavra tiktiki da iseve swrafad gabrunda ukan, rogorc movida. swrafadve gadairbina Carglulaze bogiri, mere _ riye da sirbiliT auyva aRmarTs. meore dRes sagangebod wavediT gogonas sanaxavad, raTa misTvis suraTi gadagveRo, magram is ukve gaTenebamde amdgariyo da dedas gahyoloda „ToTo bavSvis misaxedavad“. netavi sad aris dRes es gogona? _ xSirad vekiTxebi xolme Tavs da mwyins, didad mwyins, rom SesaZlebloba ver gamoviyeneT maSin, suraTi ver gadavuReT, saxeli da gvari ver CaviwereT misi, magram sadac ar unda iyos, mjera, rom dedaa da patara Svilebs uzrdis samSoblos. esec didi nugeSia CemTvis da ara marto CemTvis...

Wedela razikaSvili, bekura baCiaSvili, Tedo, ivane molodinaSvilebi
am yoCaRi gogonas Semdeg fiqrad mogvivida didi mgosnis sxva zogierTi mezobelic gagvecno. vaJas saxli Tumca sakmaod daSorebulia soflis ubnebs, xalxs iqac gaego, rom „razikaanTsa qalaqidan ucxo stumrebi mosvliaTo, lukais Sesaxeb raime cnobebs hkrefeno“ da Tavad daiwyes CvenTan siaruli. aq naxavdiT bavSvebs, axalgazrdebs da moxucebsac. movidnen da gagvecnen: Wedela razikaSvili, vaJas megobari da naTlimama _ bekura baCiaSvili, axalgazrda Tedo, solomona, maRaroskaris Tavmjdomare ioseba da sxvebi. saubris dros movindome am jgufisaTvis samaxsovro fotosuraTis gadaReba da aparatic movimarjve, magram maT xelebi gaasavsaves: _ nu, Tqveni Wirime, samagiso samoseli ar Cagvicvams da ar ivargebso... samagierod, uCa akeTebs CarglelTa Canaxatebs da fanqriT xelSi rig-rigobiT misCerebia bekuras, Wedelas, ivanes, Tedosa da sxvebs. bekur baCiaSvilma bevri ram icis Tavis siyrmis megobarze. Wedela da Tedoc bevr rames gviamboben sainteresos... _ winaT aseTi saxlebi ar icodnen CvenSi, _ ambobs Tedo, _ iseTi ki ar iyo, vaJas qviTkiri rom aris: saxlebi aq mxolod baniani, miwaSi SeWrili Sendeboda, „moqceuls“ rom etyodnen. maSin arc buxari hqonda da arc sanaTuri, Tqveneburad _ fanjara, mxolod erTi kari hqonda da eg iyo sul... cecxli keraze enTo, Tbiloda kidec da mosaxerxebelic iyo Raribi kacisaTvis. magrama qveyana gamoicvala, batono, yvelgan qvitkiris saxli moiwyves! es kidev fanjarao, es buxario, da ra vici, kidev ra. lukais mamasac miwuri hqonda Cems bavSvobaSia, ai, iq, _ xeliT gviCvenebs ezos bolos, _ xedavT nasaxlars? is Rvdeli iyo, SaZlebuli, da TavisTvina mere qviTkiris saxli daidga. exla yvela qviTkiris

164

saxls etaneba. am axloSi cotaRa darCa Zveleburi moqceuli... „moqceuli saxli“. _ gana aseT moqceulSi ar gazarda Svilebi pavlema? _ dasZens Tedo, _ giorgi, lukai, niko da yvela. giorgi xom peterbuxSi swavlobda da didi kaci iyo, magram gana sxvaze naklebi ganaTleba hqondaT Tedosa da sandrosa?

bebo babale
saubarSi isic gamoirkva, rom vaJas saxlidan erTi saaTis savalze, mTaSi, afxuSos axlos, xidis sofelSi Turme poetis biZis _ Rvdela razikaSvilis _ qvrivi, moxuci babale cxovrobs aseT „moqceul saxlSi.“ Cvenc didi mondomebiT da interesiT gavwieT misken. gza sul aRmarTiT midis. qvemoT nairferad morTuli velebi da tyeebi moCanan... CvenTan erTad modis axalgazrda fSaveli solomona. igi mglis muxliT miabijebs da Tan ganmartebebs gvaZlevs: _ ager „CarglisTavi“ alpiuri saZovrebiTa da kldovani wveriT, ager „diyelisgori“ xSiri foTlovani tyiT, „inos mTa“, mgosani „Wiuxians“ rom uwodebs, ager kidev „Saldayiani xevebi!“ vaJa albaT am adgilebs gulisxmobda: „damcqerdes diyelis gori, inos mTa Wiuxiani, yinCad naRranti aqa-iq xevebi Saldayiani.“ ai, mTis jansaRi da sufTa haeri. ai, kenkra da mwife Sindi, Wkuta vaSli, Txili da kowaxuri. gza zeviT da zeviT miiwevs, tyesac bolo ar uCans... fSavelebi gvaimedeben, _ male afxuSoSi avalT, sadac erT dros vaJas Zma niko, igive _ poeti baCana cxovrobdao. male kidevac gamoCnda mTis wverze gadmoyudebuli gomuris silueti. Cveni fSaveli Tanamgzavri nagazebis mosagerieblad dawinaurda. mas veeberTela xanjari hkidia mxarze da ZaRlebis sulac ar eSinia. Cven SevdivarT patara ezoSi da „moqceul saxls“ vuyurebT. ai, adamianis uSualo kavSiri bunebasTan!... ai, fSavuri yofis namdvili nivTieri Zegli. sadRaa aseTi „moqceuli saxli?“ TiTqos warsuli Semogvcqeris Tavisi umweobiTa da sibeCaviT. kar-midamo sruliad ganmartoebiT dgas, umezoblod da mowyenili. irgvliv mxolod tyea da simyudroves Citebis galoba arRvevs. ezo xarixiTaa SeRobili; mis iqiT kalo, oriode zvini, „Tivis sari“ da „muxlis Zna“ moCans. marcxniv sabZeldaSenebuli gomuria. sabZeli yartiTaa daxuruli. baniani anu „moqceuli saxli“ mTis ferdSia SeWrili. ezos garSemo kaklis uzarmazari xeebi dganan, ufro iqiT ki wifeli, cacxvi, verxvi, aryi, Tu muxa... „moqceuli“ fiqalis qviTaa naSenebi. Tu ukana sami kedeli miwaSia SeWrili, wina meoTxedi _ patara kariTa da derefnis saSualebiT _ dRis sinaTleze gamodis. am derefans fSavSi „saCexs“ uwodeben. saCexi fardulia, romelic, sulxan-saba orbelianis ganmartebiT, „derefnis piris saCrdilobel ficars hqvian,“ 165

xolo nik. CubinaSvilis „qarTuli leqsikoni“ am sityvas ase ganmartavs: „derefanTa zedan gavlebul ficruls...“ Cven rom movediT, am saCexSi moxuci qali ijda da patara saCeCelze matylsa CeCavda. mas Savi tansacmeli emosa. Savi Tavsafari ise Camoefxata Sublze, rom Tvalebi ZlivsRa mouCanda. ucxo stumrebs, cxadia, ar eloda da roca SegvamCnia, gakvirvebiT SemogvaSterda: _ RmerTma Tqven Tav micocxlos! _ gvpasuxobs misalmebaze da Tan ZaRlebs utevs, mere saCeCels gverdze debs da fexze dgeba. solomona Cvens vinaobaze esaubreba, uxsnis Cveni mosvlis mizezs, magram, roca vaJas uxsenebs, gakvirvebiT ambobs: _ vaJai?... vaJai vinaa?... luka? _ hooo, luka, Cemi luka, Cemi gazrdili lukai, _ sixaruliT imeorebs... masaxeleT, Svilebo, masaxeleT, Cem mkvdar cxonebama!... es moxuci babalea, vaJas „Zalua babale“, misi bicola, pavle razikaSvilis ufrosi Zmis Rvdela razikaSvilis qvrivi. moxuci „Zalua“ vaJa-fSavelas sakuTar dedasaviT hyvarebia da sanadirodan Tu samuSaodan momavali, Tu, piriqiT, iqiT mimavali, uTuod Seivlida Turme bicolasTan... _ avi iyo, avi lukai, _ xumrobs moxuci qali, _ sul majavrida, daberdio, aRar geyo jaxiri, ratom ara kvdebio, mere Semomxvevda xels da Camikravda gulSi siyvaruliT... eeh, Cemo lukai, Cemo lukai! _ mwared aqnevs Tavs moxuci da Tvalebi cremlebiT evseba, _ axalgazrda mokvda ubeduri, axalgazrda... sul raRac ormoci wlisa! babales saxlis bans sqlad ayria miwa, romelic zemodan balaxiTa da xavsiT Semosila. Sua adgilze bani gaxsnilia sakvamurad da sanaTurad. saCexSive babales gverdiT wvanan da icoxnian erTi xnis xboebi, iqve abia ori Zroxac. saTavsi savsea sxvadasxva ZvelmanebiT da iaraRiT; Zelebze acmuli Ciri hkidia. moxuci grZnobs Cvens interess misi saxlisadmi da ambobs: _ meTakileba, Svilebo, rom yvelas kai saxlebi aqv da me ki es rodindeli moqceuli midga da ver ki gamiaxlebia. SevdivarT „keraSi“. iq SedarebiT bnela, radgan irgvliv yru kedlebia. roca kari moxurulia, erTaderTi sinaTle sakvamuridan Camodis,. amitom kari TiTqmis sul Riaa. wvimisa da Tovlis dros es sakvamuri _ igive sanaTuri _ ixureba, da „kera“ kidev ufro bneldeba. „Sua cecxls“ Tavze jaWvis sakideli, igive ojinjali, hkidia qvabebisaTvis. aqvea xis TviTnakeTi WurWelic: jamebi, gobebi, Cognebi, kovzebi, kofiebi, skivrebi da mravali sxva. kerasTan „varia“, anu sadRvebeli, hkidia; gverdiT dganan rZiT, yveliT, xaWoTi, SratiT, naRebiT, doTi da naduRiT savse xisa Tu Tixis WurWlebi. ojaxi ufro rZiT ikvebeba, iSviaTad _ qaTmis an cxvris xorciT, romelic Zalian Zvirad gamoCndeba xolme babalesa da misi qaliSvilis Rarib sufraze. moqceulis Tavsa da boloSi ori dedaboZi dgas, orTave lamazi Zveleburi ornamentebiTaa Semkuli da kvamlisagan Savad gaprialebuli. 166

babales saxli namdvili samuzeumo eqsponatia, warsuli cxovrebis iSviaTi naSTi. _ wignSi rom rames dawerT, mec masaxeleT, Svilebo, raxan lukais biZais coli var, _ tkbili RimiliT gveubneba moxuci da Tan fexze dgeba, raTa vaJas saxelTan dakavSirebuli nivTebi gviCvenos. _ agerai lukasobindeli xanjari, fanduri, es kidev mis uwindeburi yanwebi, kidev mis ufro uwindeburi feSxumi... erTi cxeni gvyavs, ageraic misi unagiri. Cven kiTxvas kiTxvaze vaZlevT maspinZels. _ e ra Cqara mekiTxebiT, Svilebo? mec xom dotorRliv unda gaCvenoT yvelaferi?... mere da gana SamiZlia cisa da qveynis tol dedakacs?... amas ra hqvia? _ cremlai hqvia, Svilo, cremlai; fardagis saqsovia, Svilo, fardagisa... amasa kidev qobai, marili gviyria Siga... es qobis (qvabis) Camosakidia, qobisa, _ cocxlad da dauzarelad gvpasuxobs babale. babale 92 wlisad werebula soflis sameurneo siaSi, TviTon ki ambobs _ „orasisa varo“. da mainc ojaxis dedaboZia, radgan ojaxis meore da ukanaskneli wevri _ misi qaliSvili, romelic avadmyofobis gamo gauTxovrad darCenila, bevrs verafers exmareba moxuc dedas. axla samwyemsaod aris mTaSi wasuli. vanom da grigolma aqac araerTi nivTi SeiZines muzeumisaTvis da metad kmayofilebi gamovbrundiT Carglisaken.

salome
Cven ukve vaJas saxlTan viyaviT, roca erTma qalma cxeni mgosnis ezoSi SemoaWena, Zirs marjved Camoxta da iqve gomuris win daaba. Tamarma mosuli qali gagvacno. is afxuSoeli salome iyo, Tamaris megobari, moxdenili, Tvaltanadi, briala TvalebiTa da TeTrad moelvare kbilebiT. Camojda Tamaris gverdiT da CvenTan saubarSi CaerTo. salome qvrivia da Tavis sam patara balRs zrdis; amaTgan ori bavSvi ukve skolaSi dadis sofel afxuSoSi. cxovrobs vaJas Zmis _ poet baCanas nasaxlarze sruliad ganmartoebiT, radgan mezoblebi Zalian moSorebiT hyavs. namgzavr qals daRliloba ar etyoba. maRaroskarSi yofila eqimTan. diliT adre Rameul CaWrila masTan, raTa sofelSi ZaRlisagan dakbenili mezoblis bavSvis samkurnalod amoeyvana, magram misi erTaderTi nugeSi sxvas waeyvana da salome gawbilebuli dabrunda ukan. is isev xelmeored cxeniT unda wavides eqimTan. iqidan ki, rasakvirvelia, Tavad fexiT wamova, aba, eqims xom ar atarebs qveiTad. _ ratom ar geSinia, salome, martodmarto siaruli aseT tyian da udabur adgilebze, Tanac Rame? _ ekiTxeba grigoli salomes: _ xom SeiZleba nadiri SegefeTos an ucxo mamakaci gadageyaros? _ nadirisa rais meSinia?!... _ mokled mouWra salomem, _ kaci ki, Tu Semxvdeba, Cveni vinme iqneba, rais meSinia?!... mara es kia, _ daumata man Cafiqrebis Semdeg, _ ro bolo xanSi foStis gzis 167

samuSaoze sxvai vinme mouyvaniaT, qalaqelebi, rusebi da rusobaCi rai adamiania, ra vici!... karga xans iyo salome da Tamars raRac samuSaoze waexmara kidec, mere Tavis dakvriT gamogveTxova yvelas, „cxenais“ mardad Seaxta da gzas gaudga. ZalRoniTaa savse es dauRalavi mTieli qali, mTis wiaRSi dabadebuli da gazrdili. igi kmayofilia Tavisi martivi cxovrebiT da SiSic amitom arafrisa aqvs. „raisa eSinia,“ roca alalmarTalsa da sruliad jansaRs sxvebic amnairive eguleba am veeberTela da ukidegano qveyanaze. sjera mis mSobliur kuTxeSi odiTganve damkvidrebuli qalis xeluxleblobisa da misi pativiscemis vaJkacuri adaTisa. * vaJa-fSavelas cxovrebaSi arasdros Sevxvedrivar, ar mqonia bednieri SemTxveva misi naxvisa da es garemoeba kidev ufro miZlierebda survils, gavcnobodi mis saxl-karsa da garemos, sadac cxovrobda da moRvaweobda igi. kidev kargi, rom droze movaxerxe da CargalSi im dros Cavedi, roca iq jer kidev cxovrobda misi meuRle Tamari, misi uaxloesi adamiani da, rogorc ityvian, misi „mesaidumle“. vin mogvawvdida mgosnis Sesaxeb ufro namdvilsa da WeSmarit cnobebs, Tu ara igi? 1935 wels Sesrulebul Canawerebs dRes ukve Tavisi istoriuli Rirebuleba aqvs. miT ufro, rom axla Tamaric aRaraa amqveynad. misi moyolili ambebi im droisaa, roca vaJas ojaxi inerciiT jer kidev Zveli yaidiT ganagrZobda arsebobas, saxl-karsac isev vaJas droindeli elferi hqonda SerCenili yovelgvari SekeTeba-Selamazebis gareSe, rac dRes, samwuxarod, aRara aqvs. ramdeni ram Seicvala mas Semdeg CargalSi!... sofelma Zireulad icvala saxe... aRarc is didebuli adamianebi arian, romlebic sisxlxorceulad iyvnen dakavSirebulni genialur poetTan, magram me mainc zustad 40 wlis Semdeg kvlav cxadad vxedav qviTkiris saxls, isev Camesmis Tamaris fSavuri kilos sitkboeba. minda es bedniereba qristes puriviT Tqvenc giwiladoT, Cveni drois axalo Taobav!

SovSi daviT kakabaZesTan erTad
qarTuli sazogadoebisaTvis kargadaa cnobili Cveni erovnuli kulturis erT-erTi didi warmomadgenlis, gamoCenili mxatvrisa da TaobaTa aRmzrdelis daviT kakbaZis saxeli. qarTul saxviT xelovnebaSi daviTi namdvili dedaboZi da wamyvani moazrovne mxatvaria. misi saxeli jer kidev 1918-19 wlebSi gavigone da didi pativiscemiTac ganvimsWvale. xelSi Camivarda daviTis mier parizSi qarTul enaze gamocemuli xelovnebis sakiTxebisadmi miZRvnili wignebi da aRtacebuli davrCi misi Teoriuli aRmoCenebiT. es wignebi dRemde samagido naSromebad rCeba ara marto qarTul, msoflio xelovnebaTmcodneobaSic ki. maTi wakiTxvis Semdeg kidev 168

ufro meti sulieri naTesaoba vigrZeni daviTTan, radgan imxanad mec mxatvrobis didi trfiali gaxldiT da ukve mqonda aTobiT sakuTari tilo Tu grafikuli Canaxati. 1929 wels kinoreJisorma nino RoRoberiZem filmis gadasaRebad raWaSi daapira wasvla da me, rogorc iqauri, konsultantad mimiwvia. raoden didi kmayofileba vigrZeni, rodesac kinojgufSi daviT kakabaZec aRmoCnda. is axali dabrunebuli iyo parizidan da Tbilisis samxatvro akademiaSi muSaobda pedagogad. Cven Zalian male davuaxlovdiT da davumegobrdiT erTmaneTs. jgufSi im droisaTvis metad popularuli da aRiarebuli, enamoswrebuli msaxiobi petre WiWinaZec iyo. ai, am kacTan me da daviTma erTgvari „triumvirati“ SevkariT da SovSi rom CavediT, sastumroSiac erTad davbinavdiT. erTad davdiodiT mJave wylebze, Sovis midamoebSi da vtkbebodiT bunebis simSvenieriT. ,,sastumroelebs” yovelTvis xalisian gunebaze gvayenebda petres dausrulebeli oxunjoba, enamoswrebuli eqspromtebi da anekdotebi. Cveni sicil-xarxari mTel sastumros iklebda, magram daviTi TiTqos sxva qveynidan iyo mosuli da Cveni ena ar esmoda, arc icinoda da arc laparakobda. xandaxan Tu gaiRimebda. TiTqos raRac sxva awuxebda, CvenTvis uCveulo fiqrebi da naRveli. evropidan Camotanili Tavisi ganuyreli fotoaparati „leikaTi“ mxolod imas iRebda, rac moewoneboda, Tumca misi mosawoni irgvliv cota Tu moiZeveboda... Cveulebriv, mSvenieri da Tvalmimtaci mis yuradRebas ar imsaxurebda... maggvari aq imdenia, firi ar meyofao... magram firis ekonomia sul ar gaxsenebia, roca erTxel onSi, ebraelTa ubanSi naxevrad waqceuli xis Zveli WiSkari dainaxa; ucbad moimarjva „leika“ da sxvadasxva mxridan ramdenjerme gadaiRo. daviTma metad saintereso, mimzidveli da Sinaarsiani saubari icoda, magram bevri laparaki ar sCveoda, sityvaZunwobda, sul fiqrebSi iyo CaZiruli. erTxel, rodesac evropaSi Tavisi cxovrebis Sesaxeb miyveboda, naRvlianad SemomCivla, rom peterburgidan ase ugvianeben stereoskopuli kinos gamogonebis patents. mere dananebiT daamata, ra dro, Zala da energia dasWirda evropaSi yofnisas stereokinos gamogonebisaTvis, rogori miRwevebi aqvs am dargSi da ra saxis patentebi miuRia. _ Cemi gamogonebiT viRac sxva isargeblebs da me pirSi Calas gamomavleben. ramdeni boroti saqmosania amqveynad, _ arada, kinos am axal dargs, romelic mxolod axla idgams fexs, didi momavali aqvso. da dawvrilebiT amixsna fizikaSi axali aRmoCenebis, optikis saganTa moculobis da sxva saxis siaxleni. mojadoebuli vusmendi da mikvirda misi esoden didi ganswavluloba da farTo erudicia. Tumca isic maxsovda, rom man umaRlesi ganaTleba peterburgSi sabunebismetyvelo fakultetze fizika-maTematikis ganxriT miiRo. daviTis SiSi, rom misi gamogonebiT sxva isargeblebda, usafuZvlo ar gamodga. marTlac, dRes misi gamogonebuli stereokino, Tanamedrove teqnikiT aRWurvili, ukve sxvis gamogonebad aRiarebuli, mTel msoflioSia gavrcelebuli. am saocnebo saqmiT daviTi imdenad iyo dakavebuli, rom mxatvroba TiTqmis aRarc ki axsovda; mis Sesaxeb gacilebiT mets 169

laparakobda, meti xalisiTa da STagonebiTac ki, vidre xelovnebis sakiTxebze. ise ganvles SovSi yofnis dReebma, rom daviTs erTi ubralo Canaxatic ki ar gaukeTebia, fanqaric ki ar auRia xelSi. es ambavi Zalian mawuxebda, radgan daviTis Semoqmedebis didi pativismcemeli viyavi da msurda Cemi TvaliT menaxa misi muSaoba tiloze; albomic ki ar hqonda wamoRebuli, zogierT mxatvars gamudmebiT rom ukavia xelSi da wamdauwum akeTebs Canaxatebs. daviTis stereokinoTi gataceba, rogorc Cans, dResac ar daviwyebula da SarSan zafxuls amis Sesaxeb gazeT „TbilisSi“ (9.VI_1981 w.) SesaniSnavi werili gamoqveynda aseTi saTauriT: „stereokino da saqarTvelo.“ daviT kakabaZes me vicnobdi, rogorc martooden mxatvars da vnanobdi, rom Tavis did niWsa da unars sxva dargSi flangavda, Tundac iseT sferoSi, rogorc maSin jer kidev sruliad ucnobi moculobiTi kino iyo. roca saubari mis mniSvnelobaze Camovardeboda, me saubars gangeb ferweraze gadavitandi xolme, magram daviTi „sivrceze“, „moculobaze“ da „reliefze“ melaparakeboda, rac, misi azriT, dasavleT evropis plastikur xelovnebas axasiaTebda. me am filosofias mainc naklebad vugdebdi yurs, ar mainteresebda arc „kubizmi“, arc „neokubizmi,“ romelTa Sesaxeb is Teoriulad ki laparakobda, magram praqtikulad realisturi tradiciebiT ganagrZobda muSaobas. misi SesaniSnavi ferweruli avtoportretebi, dedis portreti da „wurblebis gamyidveli,“ xolo grafikaSi _ Zveli Tbilisis ramdenime Canaxati aSkarad metyvelebda misi realisturi xelovnebisadmi erTgulebas, magram, bunebrivia, SemoqmedebiTi Ziebis procesSi gamosaxvis sxvadasxva formebiTac iyo gatacebuli. misi RmerTi genialuri fermweri leonardo da vinCi iyo; xSirad imeorebda xolme mis gamonaTqvamebs xelovnebaze, magram imasac ambobda, rom xelovnebas bunebisaTvis ar unda miebaZa, ar unda damoneboda mas. piriqiT rac ufro Tavisufalia nawarmoebi bunebis monuri mibaZvisagan, miT ufro mxatvrulia igio... erTxel sofelSi davpatiJe. vicodi, amiT Zalian gavaxarebdi Cveni ojaxis wevrebs, gansakuTrebiT daviTis students, Cems Zmas uCas, romelic im dros Tbilisis samxatvro akademiaSi swavlobda da sul Tavis maswavlebelTa _ lado gudiaSvilisa da daviT kakabaZis _ xsenebaSi iyo. lineikiT onisaken gavwieT. Cveni melineike gadaRmeli osi iyo da qarTuli ena saerTod ar icoda. erT adgilas gzatkecilis SemkeTebeli glexebi Semogvxvdnen. erTi maTgani Cveni gamyolis nacnobi aRmoCnda da Zalzed esimovnaT erTmaneTis naxva. _ Ne xotel rabotat> za p%t> dollarov, tak vot rabotay za dva rubl%! _ siciliT miutrialda nacnobs osi mamakaci, roca ukve muSebisagan Sors viyaviT da SekeTebul gzaze TqaraTquriT miveqanebodiT. mere Cvenc gangvimarta, Tu rogor muSaobdnen erTad amerikaSi xe-tyis damzadebaze da rogor moawyves gaficva xuTi dolaris gamo, dRiurad rom aZlevdnen, magram momatebis magier, sulac dauTxoviaT samsaxuridan. am sityvebze osi xmamaRla xarxarebda da Cvenc gulianad gvacinebda. xmamaRla icinoda daviT170

ic. aman, cxadia, Zalian gamakvirva, radgan aseTi ram mTeli zafxulis manZilze ar gamegona misgan. sazogadod, daviTi suliTa da xorciT jansaRi adamianis STabeWdilebas tovebda. tanad saSualo simaRlisa iyo, mkvrivi agebulebis, mxrebSi lamazad gaSlili. gegonebodaT, Tavis dReSi frCxilic ar wamostkivebiao. icvamda sadad, umetesad ruxi feris kostums da dinjad miabijebda quCaSi, miabijebda mTeli Tavisi Rirsebis SegnebiT, magram, amasTan, uaRresad Tbili, Tavmdabali da mokrZalebuli gaxldaT. erTxel Cveni lineikiT uweraSi wavediT da gzis piras qveda ubnis civ mJave wylebs SeveqceodiT. ucbad qvemodan ori msubuqi manqana mosrialda da orive mJave wyalTan gaCerda. mgzavrebidan SamSe leJava, abel enuqiZe, aleqsandre svaniZe da Salva eliava Sevicani. iyvnen agreTve CemTvis ucnobi pirebic. Salvas meuRlec axlda. Zalian gamexarda da guliT mivesalme maT. moikles Tu ara wyurvili, Sovisaken ganagrZes gza da Cvenc davedevneT. glolis xidTan, sadac aseve civi wyali moCuxCuxebs, stumrebi isev gadmovidnen manqanebidan da mindorze muxli gamarTes. aq ki daviTma veRar moiTmina da Tavisi „leika“ moimarjva. xom ar iukadriseben gadaRebaso, mkiTxa daviTma, magram maT araTu iukadrises, Segrovdnen erTad kldidan moglejil lodze, romelic rionSia Caxergili da mec maTTan erTad gadaviRe suraTi. manqanebSi rom sxdebodnen, Salva eliavam mkiTxa, _ vinaa es axalgazrda fotografio da, roca vupasuxe, _ daviT kakabaZea-meTqi, Tvalebi gaufarTovda da yuradRebiT miaCerda mas. _ cnobili mxatvaria? _ isev gamimeora kiTxva Salvam. _ ra Tqma unda, _ vupasuxe siamayiT. da man Tavis meuRlesac gaacno igi. SamSe leJavas da aleqsandre svaniZes ki ar dasWirvebiaT misi gacnoba, isedac kargad icnobdnen. daviTi Cvens ojaxSi ori dRe darCa. uCa Rirseuli stumris samaspinZlod datrialda. zogierTi Tavisi namuSevaric aCvena. aCvena agreTve onSi akakis stumrobis dros Cem mier daxatuli mgosnis portretic, gaacno Cveni maSindeli sofluri kar-midamo da didad asiamovna Zvirfas maswavlebels. uCasac tkbil mosagonrad darCa daviTis ordRiani stumroba. Cvenebic Zalze kmayofilni iyvnen. magram uCas guli wydeboda, rom daviTisTvis raime Canaxatis Sesruleba ar uTxovia; mec araferi damrCenia misgan samaxsovrod, ubralo avtografic ki. es im dros, roca didi lado gudiaSvilisagan mSvenieri naxati maqvs saxsovrad megobruli warweriT damSvenebuli. dRemde saTuTad vinaxav. suliTa da guliT miyvars es mSvenieri qmnileba. Sovis Semdeg daviTs xSirad vxvdebodi TbilisSi da vxarobdi masTan saintereso saubrebiT, SovSi gatarebuli dReebis gaxsenebiT. 1934 wels Cemma vaJma, romelmac im wels daamTavra pirveli saSualo skola, umaRlesi ganaTlebis misaRebad samxatvro akademiaSi Sesvla moisurva. kargadac xatavda. soflidan rom davbrundiT TbilisSi, ukve gviani iyo da gamocdebi yvela umaRles saswavlebelSi damTavrebuli gaxldaT, magram me mainc Sevedi akademiaSi da daviTi Tavis kabinetSi movinaxule. maSin is akademiis proreqtori iyo. 171

vuTxari Cemi gasaWiri. Zalian Sewuxda: _ dagvianebulia, Zalze gauZneldeba amxanagebis daweva, magram mainc vsinjoTo... _ miiRo da, givi araTu CamorCa Tanatolebs, bevr maTgans gauswro kidec. daviTis es sikeTe arasodes damaviwydeba... didi xania aRar aris daviTi... kidev kargi, erTi fotosuraTi mainc damrCa, erTad rom gadaviReT sawalikes mTaze, sofel wkadisSi. aTas kacSi gamoarCevdiT am keTilSobil adamians misi metad Taviseburi da mimzidveli garegnobiT, amaRlebuli suliT.

nikoloz baraTaSvilis neStis gadasveneba didubidan mTawmindaze
rogorc cnobilia, nikoloz baraTaSvilis neSti ganjidan gadmosvenebis Semdeg dakrZales didubis panTeonSi 1893 wlis 25 aprils. 1938 wels mweralTa kavSiris iniciativiT isev daisva sakiTxi poetis didubidan mTawmindis panTeonSi gadasvenebisa. am saqmis xelmZRvaneloba daevala literaturul muzeums da didubis panTonis direqtors ivane enikolofaSvils. literaturis muzeumSi imxanad muSaobda Cemi Zma grigoli da masTan erTad mec am mzadebas gansakuTrebuli interesiT vadevnebdi Tvalyurs. didi survili mqonda, gadasvenebis istoriul moments aucileblad davswrebodi. am ganzraxvas maincdamainc ar axmaurebdnen, raTa xalxis mosalodnel mozRvavebas misi ganxorcielebisaTvis xeli ar SeeSala. pirvel yovlisa daSales poetis Zegli, romelic neStTan erTad unda aetanaT mTawmindaze. 15 oqtombers diliT adre saflavic gaTxares. iq iyvnen sagangebod gamoyofili komisiis wevrebi: alio maSaSvili, giorgi leoniZe, Salva dadiani, sandro SanSiaSvili, pavle ingoroyva, ilo mosaSvili da sxvebi. roca akldama gamoCnda, muSebma sifrTxiliT Catexes qviTkiriT amoSenebuli saxuravi da komisiis wevrebma saflavis siRrmidan amoiRes TuTiis sakmaod mozrdili yuTi, romelSic moTavsebuli iyo poetis neSti. yuTi frTxilad xis kuboSi Cadges da sabargo manqaniT mTawmindisaken waasvenes. Cvenc am manqanas gavyeviT. vinaidan panTeonamde jer kidev ar iyo saavtomobilo gza, besikis quCis aRmarTze kubo mwerlebma da gamyolebma mxrebiT aitanes. mTawmindaze neSts daxvdnen mweralTa kavSiris warmomadgenlebi, mecnierebisa da xelovnebis moRvaweni, SemTxveviT mosuli xalxi. vidre kubos saflavSi Caasvenebdnen, profesorma v.JRentma komisiis wevrTa TandaswrebiTa da daxmarebiT TuTiis yuTidan magidaze gadmoitana micvalebulis ConCxi da moaxdina misi mec172

nieruli daTvaliereba, aRdgena-gazomva, ris Semdeg komisiis wevrebTan erTad Seadgina saTanado oqmi. am gasinjvam xelaxla daadastura poetis marcxena fexis wvivis Zvlis dazianeba, romelic SeamCnies ganjaSic, saflavidan amoRebis dros 1893 wels. TuTiis yuTSi ConCxTan erTad aRmoCnda liTonis erTi Rili, SesaZloa micvalebulis mundiridan darCenili. Rili, rogorc maxsovs, yuTSi aRar CaubrunebiaT da is SemdgomSi literaturuli muzeumisaTvis unda gadaecaT. ConCxi TuTiis yuTSi moTavsda, es yuTi isev xis kuboSi Caidga da damswreTa dumilSi nel-nela CauSves axal saflavSi. man bina daido „winaparTa saflavebs“ Soris, mis sayvarel mTawmindaze. Semodgomis SesaniSnavi, mziani dRe idga. damswreni mdumared idgnen da gulCaTxrobilni dasCerebodnen poetis mesame samares. gulSi Tumca kaeSani dasadgurebuliyo, iqve, TiTqos, didi akakis sityvac Cagvesmoda, poetis dakrZalvis dRes rom warmoTqva didubeSi 1893 wels. „aravis gegonoT, aq Cveni Sekreba TiTqos glo-

va da zari iyos, es Cveni litaniobaa da mzeSina, poetis samare es ki araa, yoveli qarTvelis gulia. samSoblos gareT Tu Caesvena, es imitom, rom samSobloSi metis ZlierebiT aRmobrwyinebuliyoo.“
WeSmaritad aRmobrwyinda kidec ukvdaveba didi poetisa da kidev ufro meti naTeli mohfina Cvens erovnul Segnebas. poetis dakrZalvas mTawmindaze, komisiis wevrTa garda, eswrebodnen: simon Ciqovani, grigol abaSiZe, geronti qiqoZe, irakli abaSiZe, konstantine gamsaxurdia, Salva afxaiZe, dimitri benaSvili, sergo kldiaSvili, aleqsandre abaSeli, aleqsandre gomiaSvili, vaso gorgaZe, platon keSelava da sxvebi. dakrZalvis monawileTa Soris iyo agreTve poetis diswuli giorgi sumbaTaSvili. Zeglic male iqna aRdgenili da igi dResac amayad dgas sxva ukvdavTa Zeglebs Soris.

gigo gabaSvilis erTi ucnobi namuSevris gamo
Cveni xalxi jerovnad afasebs mSobliur saxviT xelovnebas, siyvaruliT da yuradRebiT eqceva yovel nawarmoebs, rogorc erovnuli sulis gamovlinebis mravlismetyvel nimuSs. kerZod, aseTi suliskveTebiTaa gamsWvaluli is Cveni didi mxatvris gigo gabaSvilis Semoqmedebisadmi, romelic metad mniSvnelovania, rogorc uaRresad xalxuri da Rrmad erovnuli movlena. misi yoveli namuSevari, rogorc aqamde gvegona, aRricxuli da daculi iyo. magram Turme gamonaklisic yofila. misi mxatvruli memkvidreobis nawils jer kidev ar icnobda xelovnebaTmcodneoba. ai, ras ambobs prof. m.duduCava: „gigo gabaSvilma ori aTas-

ze meti suraTi, eskizi, naxati, etiudi da monasmi Seqmna, da udi173

desi nawili am SesaniSnavi memkvidreobisa ucnobia da ugzo-ukvlod gafantuli.“
TiTqmis aseTive azrisaa gigo gabaSvilis Semoqmedebis meore mkvlevari i.uruSaZe, romelic agreTve miiCnevs, rom mxatvris mravalricxovan nawarmoebTagan bevri dakargulia an sazRvargareTaa gatanili. am garemoebaTa gamo miT ufro sasiamovno unda iyos, Tu sadme aRmoCndeba misi romelime namuSevari. da ai, aRmoCnda kidec! aRmoCnda sruliad SemTxveviT da yovelgvari kvlevisa da Ziebis gareSe. esaa zeTis saRebavebiT dawerili portreti (tilo 75 X 40), romelic asaxavs axalgazrda qalis saxes, zomiT naturalurze odnav meti, margalitis mZivis yelsakidiTa da mozrdili „broSiT“ gulze. es qali aris elene maCabeli-CerqeziSvilisa, asuli Cveni sasiqadulo mwerlis, Seqspiris ubadlo mTargmnelis, ivane maCablisa. aRmoCnda is, rogorc mosalodneli iyo, CerqeziSvilebis ojaxSi. rodis da ra pirobebSi daiwera es portreti? ra mizeziT darCenila uyuradRebod savsebiT dasrulebuli nawarmoebi farTo sazogadoebisaTvis? saxelovani mxatvari gigo gabaSvili imTaviTve megobrobda ivane maCablis ojaxs da xSiri stumaric iyo misi, magram ojaxis wevrTa ferweruli asaxva, rogorc Cans, ar ufiqria, Tumca isini metad mimzidvel masalas warmoadgendnen saamisod. marTalia, Jurnal „droSis“ 1963 wlis me-12 nomerSi moTavsebuli gigo gabaSvilis suraTi _ „qarTveli qali aRdgomis kvercxiT xelSi“ ivane maCablis meuRlis da elene maCablis dedis _ tasos portretad miiCneoda, magram es Secdoma aRmoCnda. rogorc TviT elenem Tqva, suraTze ar aris gamosaxuli taso maCabeli. mxatvars mxolod sicocxlis ukanasknel xans _ ocdaaTian wlebSi ganuzraxavs daewera elene maCablis portreti da miumarTavs kidec misTvis. es iyo 1930-1933 wlebSi. rogorc qalbatoni elene ixsenebs, portretis Seqmnas TiTqmis aTamde seansi mondomebia, radgan mxatvari daJinebiT eZebda zust msgavsebas, rac moxucebulobis gamo, albaT, advilad aRar uxerxdeboda. _ me meamayeboda, rom aseTi gamoCenili mxatvari werda Cems portrets, magram CemTan saTanado msgavsebas ver vatyobdi da amitom naxatis silamazec ar mitacebda maincdamainc, _ ambobs qalbatoni elene, _ miT ufro, rom TviTon mxatvaric sakmaod nerviulobda amis gamo. maS, rogor moxvda mxatvris arqividan es suraTi elene maCabeli-CerqeziSvilis ojaxSi, Tuki is qalbaton elenes „ar itacebda maincdamainc?“ igi elene maCablisaTvis mxatvris meuRles 1936 wels gamougzavnia, roca man qmris gardacvalebis Semdeg mTeli misi memkvidreoba, rac ki binaSi aRmoCenila, qarTveli sazogadoebriobis warmomadgenlebs gadasca. mas Semdeg iwyeba am portretis „meore istoria“, Tumca CerqeziSvilebis ojaxSi mas istoria arc hqonia, radgan raime funqcias ar asrulebda. mas saTuTad inaxavdnen, rogorc didi Semoq174

medis nawarmoebs da, rogorc vfiqrob, arc mis sajarod gamotanaze ufiqriaT. wlebis ganmavlobaSi CerqeziSvilebis ojaxSi Cemi mravalgzis stumrobisas es suraTi ar minaxavs, arc araferi msmenia da amitom arc arseboba vicodi misi. magram, erTxel sruliad SemTxveviT, CerqeziSvilebis ojaxSi Cveulebrivi saubris dros elene maCabel-CerqeziSvilisam, romelic cnobilia ara marto maRali sulieri TvisebebiT, aramed iSviaTi garegnobiTa da mokrZalebulobiTac, Tavis ferwerul portretTa Soris, romlebic Cvens mxatvrebs odesme dauweriaT, gakvriT gigo gabaSvilis namuSevaric moixsenia. q-n elenes didi xania vicnob da aseTi ram misgan arasdros msmenia, amitom aRar moveSvi, yvelaferi dawvrilebiT gamovkiTxe... _ Senaxuli maqvso, _ miTxra arc ise xalisiT. me _ mosveneba dakarguli meore dRes, isev gamovecxade CerqeziSvilebis ojaxs da bolis da bolos, rogorc iqna, vixile gigo gabaSvilis maneriTa da iSviaTi koloritiT dawerili axalgazrda qalis portreti, romelic qveCarCoze araa gadaWimuli, ufro ki amoWrilia iqidan, amitom ferebi aqa-iq damskdari da dazianebulia. _ ratom ar fendiT ojaxSi, an ratom arafers ambobdiT mis Sesaxeb? _ vkiTxe q-n elenes. _ me ukve mogaxseneT, rarig gulgrilad iyo ganwyobili misdami avtori da ar gamouqveynebia. mec amitom Sevikave Tavi, miT ufro, rom Cemi portreti, rogorc aseTi, sazogadoebisaTvis sainteresos arafers warmoadgens. me mainc mowiwebiT vinaxavdi mas, radgan mwamda, rom is Tavis mniSvnelobas ar dakargavda. odesme mxatvruls Tu ara, istoriul rols mainc Seasrulebda. xsenebuli namuSevari, rasakvirvelia, ver gautoldeba avtoris mier axalgazrdobaSi Seqmnil Sedevrebs, rogoricaa „mZinare xevsuri“ da mravali sxva, magram mxatvris SemoqmedebiTi biografiisaTvis mainc didi mniSvneloba aqvs. portretze arc avtoris xelweraa da arc TariRia aRniSnuli; amitom, rogorc ki misi mflobelis q-n elenes nebarTva miviRe, Cems Zmas uCas vaCvene. uCam umalve icno misi maswavleblis xeli, metad nasiamovnebi darCa da didxansac ucqerda yuradRebiT. _ pirwavardnili gigo gabaSvilia! _ Tqva man bolos, _ oRond misi sicocxlis ukanaskneli wlebis. gigo gabaSvili, elene maCablis sityviT, griboedovis quCaze, axlandel samxatvro akademiis SenobaSi cxovrobda, zeda sarTulze, sadac ori oTaxi ekava. am oTaxTagan didi saxelosnod da sastumrod hqonda gamoyofili, ufro patara ki _ saojaxod. iq misi meuRle o.miulbaumi saqmianobda, simpaTiuri germaneli qali, romelmac miunxenSi gaicno mxatvari da Seiyvara. xolo garkveuli xnis Semdeg masTan erTad Camovida saqarTveloSi da cxovrebis gzaze erTgulad uwevda uRels. _ o.miulbaumi xSirad werda dRiurebs, _ SeniSnavs elene maCabeli, _ sadac, albaT, arcTu mcire masala iqneba gigo gabaSvilis cxovrebaze. zamTarSi, rodesac did oTaxSi acivdeboda, xolo misi gaTboba arc ise advilad SeiZleboda, gigo mTeli samuSao iaraRiT gadadioda patara oTaxSi, romelsac pawia Tunuqis RumeliT aTbobda da iq muSaobda. Cems portretsac im patara oTaxSi werda, 175

radgan zamTari iyo da cioda, _ amTavrebs did mxatvarsa da mis ojaxze Tavis saintereso saubars pativcemuli elene maCabeli. metad savalaloa, rom sacxovrebeli bina da saxelosno, sadac mxatvars araerTi brwyinvale tilo Seuqmnia, araa cnobili sazogadoebisaTvis. sul ubralo memorialuri dafa samxatvro akademiis Rirsebas sxva elfers Sematebda. miT ufro, rom gigo gabaSvili aqtiurad monawileobda akademiis daarsebaSi. cnobilia isic, rom mas wlebis ganmavlobaSi profesorad umuSavia da araerTi saxelovani ostati aRuzrdia Cveni qveynisaTvis. saxelovani mxatvari WeSmaritad imis Rirsia, rom is wminda adgili, sadac mas ucxovria da umoRvawia, cnobili iyos Cveni sazogadoebis farTo wreebisaTvis. misi xelidan gamosuli arc erTi nawarmoebi ucnobi ar unda darCes xalxisaTvis.

i.m. sarkizov-serazini
ivane mixeilis Ze sarkizov-serazins jer kidev moskovis universitetidan vicnobdi, rodesac is samedicino fakultetze swavlobda. es iyo 1910-1912 wlebi. moskovis universitetis Semdeg, ukve TbilisSi, 1941 wlis gazafxulze Sevxvdi. igi Tbilisis fizkulturis institutSi gamosaSvebi gamocdebis Tavmjdomared iyo movlinebuli. ivane mixeilis Ze im dros ukve xandazmuli gaxldaT, medicinis mecnierebaTa doqtori, mecnierebis damsaxurebuli moRvawe, mwerali da araerTi saintereso wignis avtori, romelTa Sorisaa metad saWiro gamokvleva: „Put> k zdorov>h.“ TbilisSi Camosvlis momentSi ivane mixeilis Ze moskovis fizkulturis centraluri saxelmwifo institutis samkurnalo fakultetis kaTedris gamged muSaobda; iyo ubadlo leqtori da enciklopediuri codnis mecnieri. didad gavixareT erTmaneTis naxviT. gavixseneT Cveni Zveli nacnobebi, moskovis universitetis studentebi, studenturi cxovreba, xolo roca moskovSi gabrunda, erTmaneTTan xSirad gvqonda miwer-mowera. 1958 wlis aprilSi moskovSi mivlinebiT vimyofebodi. ra Tqma unda, Cems megobarsac mivakiTxe. Zalian gaexarda Cemi danaxva da sayveduric miTxra, _ winaswar ratom ar macnobe moskovSi Camosvlao. Cveulebisamebr megobruli saubari gavabiT da mTel rig ambebTan erTad, misi TbilisSi yofnis dReebic gavixseneT. saqarTveloSi ivane mixeilis Ze mxolod orjer iyo namyofi, magram misi warsuli da awmyo kargad icoda; icnobda bevr qarTvel moRvawes, gansakuTrebiT mxatvrebTan megobrobda, maT Soris _ aleqsandre cimakuriZesTan, qeTo maRalaSvilTan, elene axvledianTan, uCa jafariZesTan, grigol mesxsa da sxvebTan. xelovnebaSi yvelaze ufro ferwera izidavda. moskovSi mis binaze (Ckalovis quCa) SeiZleboda genaxaT aivazovskis originalebi, romelTa raodenoba ocdaaTamde aRwevda. arc Tu patara ganZia! es ukve saxviTi xelovnebis namdvili muzeumia! magram ivane mixeilis Zis binaSi marto aivazovskis naxatebi ki ara, ucxoel mxat176

varTa originalebic bevri iyo gamofenili: ticiani, grinie, arxipovi, kukriniqsebi da kidev sxva didostatTa namuSevrebi. 1960 wels sarkizov-serazinma xsenebuli originalebi tretiakovis galereas gadasca ufasod. es ambavi xazgasmiT aRniSna 1960 wlis (# 178) gazeTma „izvestiam“. tretiakovs sul 90 cali namuSevari gadaeca saCuqrad. ivane mixeilis Ze, misi meuRle da qaliSvili mTxovdnen kidev ori dRe davrCeniliyavi maTTan. magram me gadaudebeli saqmeebis gamo ar SemeZlo; amitom maspinZelma pirdapir Tavis wignTsacavSi gamiyvana. damaTvalierebina mecnieruli xasiaTisa da xelovnebis amsaxveli wignebis uzarmazari koleqcia. am ganZs is mxolod yvelaze axlobel megobrebs Tu uCvenebda xolme. sacavis kedlebi naxatebiT iyo damSvenebuli, romelTa Soris aivazovskis namuSevrebi Warbobda. zogi naxati pirdapir iatakze ewyo. me mxolod axlaRa mivxvdi, ase dabejiTebiT ratom epatiJeboda xolme uCas, _ ticianis, grinies, dobiniasa da sxvaTa originalebs giCvenebo... is wlebis manZilze iZenda am namuSevrebs. rogorc Tavis sayvarel wignebs, ise uvlida maTac da bolos es yvelaferi tretiakovis galereas gadasca, romelic isedac mdidaria msoflios xelovnebis brwyinvale nimuSebiT. mamis es keTilSobiluri saqcieli Zalian aRizianebda ivanes erTaderT gaTxovil qaliSvils da am niadagze didi usiamovnebac hqondaT, magram profesori mainc ar iSlida Tavisas da biblioTeka-muzeumebs ori milioni maneTis ganZi usaCuqra. mamasTan brZolaSi damarcxebulma qaliSvilma Suri imiT iZia, rom roca ivane saxlSi ar iyo, qmarTan erTad gaitaca mamis mTeli oqrouloba da vercxleuli. sarkizov-serazinma es ambavi mwuxarebiT mauwya TbilisSi. misma qaliSvilma svetlanam, bandit qmarTan erTad, Turme pirwmindad gaZarcva misi bina. saSinlad wuxda profesori. TiTqos bukinistur maRaziaSi movxvdi, maSinve vigrZeni uZvelesi da unikaluri wignebis sunTqva. iataki, fanjris rafebi, Taroebi mTlad wignebiT iyo avsili. etyoba, profesori axarisxebda maT. _ esaa bukinistebTan Cemi ormoci wlis siarulis Sedegi, _ miTxra maspinZelma, _ ukanasknel kapiks ar viSurebdi am wignebisaTvis. rasac inatrebT, yvelaferi maqvs Cems biblioTekaSi, TiTqmis yvela enaze gamocemuli, sxvadasxva drois, Sinaarsis, mxatvruli Rirsebis... magram rodemde unda vuyuro am wignebs puSkinis Zunwi raindiviT? me ukve movxucdi da Cem Semdeg yvelaferi ise gaifanteba, kapikad ar eRireba Cemi amdeni xnis wvaleba. amitom dargobrivad valageb maT da nel-nela vugzavni sxvadasxva biblioTekebs, maT Soris TbilisSiac gavgzavne ramdenime wigni, romlebSiac aRmosavleTis sakiTxebia gaSuqebuli. vfiqrob, yvelas dagainteresebT isini. sxva biblioTekaSi rom moxvdes da mkiTxveli ar hyavdes, aseTi wignebis fasi kapiki iqneba. _ Tbilisi internacionaluri qalaqia. iq sxvadasxva erovnebis adamianebi cxovroben, amdenad Tqven mier gagzavnili wignebi, romlebic aRmosavleTmcodneobas Seexeba, maTTvisac gamosadegi iqneba, _ davamSvide sarkizov-serazini. _ amitom Tqven Tu kidev geqnebaT aseTi Sinaarsis wignebi, umjobesia, Tbilisis sajaro biblioTekaSi gagzavnoT. 177

maspinZeli maSinve dameTanxma, xolo 1960 wlis 2 agvistos werilSi kidec mwerda, rom 10 manqana wigni gaizida misi biblioTekidan moskovis sxvadasxva dawesebulebebisa da biblioTekebisaTvis _ rogoricaa istoriuli muzeumi, puSkinis muzeumi da sxv. TbilisSi SeeZlo ufro meti wignis gagzavna, magram siSoris gamo es cota mouxerxebeli iyo. saWiro Seiqna maTi gadarCeva, SefuTva, fostaSi mitana da TbilisSi gagzavna, es ki moxuci adamianisaTvis Zalian Zneli gaxldaT. amis gamo Tbilisis sajaro biblioTekaSi yvelaze naklebi wigni moxvda da, SesaZloa, isinic ar moxvedriliyo, me rom ar Cavsuliyavi moskovSi mivlinebiT da ar vwvevodi Cems Zvel megobars... Cem win elaga klaproTis, turneforis, parotis, gambas, verderevskis, bolxovitinovis, platon ioselianisa da sxvaTa wignebi... romeli erTi ameRo, romeli gadamefurcla, ar vicodi; pirdapir Tavgza amebna... italiur enaze gamocemul wigns „Se Navigationi“ ivane mixeilis Zis xeliT aseTi ram aqvs miwerili: „me-16 saukunis italieli mogzauris franCesko floris iSviaTi aRwerebi maSindeli osmaleTis, saberZneTis, somxeTisa da afrikis Crdilo napirisa. wigni miZRvnilia saxelovani don Juan avstrielisadmi da Semkulia Zvirfasi graviurebiT. wigni gamocemulia 1577 wels.“ zogi wigni 1607 welsaa dabeWdili, zogic _ cota mogvianebiT. maTi umetesoba pirdapir unikaluria; aq aris gasuli saukunis pirvel naxevarSi rusul enaze gamocemuli mxatvruli nawarmoebebi ,,Qernjy god“, ,,Iskateli sil>njx o\u\eniy“, romlebic imdroindeli kavkasiisa da saqarTvelosadmia miZRvnili. ager saqarTvelos samxedro gzis iSviaTi fotosuraTebis albomi. romeli erTi CamovTvalo. sadRaa dRes aseTi wignebi?... _ bevri iSviaTi wigni ukve gadaveci kievis SevCenkos muzeums, lermontovis orTave muzeums piatigorsksa da tarxanSi, turgenevisa da tolstois muzeumebs da sxvebs, _ meubneba Cemi maspinZeli, da kidev kargi, rom TbilisisTvisac sakmaod damrCa!... kurskis rkinigzis sadguramde Tavad gamomyva ivane mixeilis Ze da Tbilisis sajaro biblioTekisaTvis iSviaTi wignebis Sekvra gamomatana. jer miTxra, dagamZimebs da me Tavad gamogigzavniT fostiTo, magram ra guli momiTmenda maT dasatoveblad. sixaruliT mecxre caze viyavi. vxarobdi, rom aseTi brwyinvale wignebi momqonda Cveni mkiTxvelebisaTvis. pirvelad sarkizov-serazinis wignebi ioseb griSaSvils mivutane. poeti gaocda. furclavda da furclavda maT, mere mTxova meore dRemde dametovebina da davutove kidec xelweriliT. xolo ramdenime dRis Semdeg sajaro biblioTekas gadaveci. misi maSindeli direqtori pavle kandelaki da mwerali vladimer zambaxiZe aRtacebulni darCnen am daufasebeli saCuqriT da, wesisamebr, samadlobeli werilic gaugzavnes sarkizov-serazins. amis Semdeg Cems misamarTze, kidev araerTxel movida gamogzavnili wignebi, romelTac umalve gadavcemdi xolme sajaro biblioTekas. amis Sesaxeb cnobebi egzavneboda profesors moskovSi. erTxel man sajaro biblioTekis misamarTi mTxova, raTa zedmetad aRar Sevewuxebine. mere momwera, rom Tbilisis biblioTekas kidev gaugzavna 1692 wels germanul enaze gamocemuli iSviaTi wigni, romelSiac 600 maneTi gadavixadeo. am wigns profesori, samwuxarod, ar asaxelebda da dResac ar vici, romel maT178

ganzea saubari. es werili daTariRebulia 1960 wlis 23 ivnisis ricxviT. misive wignebi miiRo saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis biblioTekamac. es gamocemebi piradad me mivutane mis direqtors. sarkizov-serazini mTxovda, rom Cemi biblioTekisaTvis dametovebina misgan gamogzavnili wignebis garkveuli nawili, romelic ki momesurveboda, magram amis ufleba Cems Tavs ar miveci... gazeTma „zaria vostokam“ gadawyvita sarkizov-serazinze werilis gamoqveyneba da amisaTvis redaqciam suraTi moiTxova profesorisagan, magram Tavmdabalma adamianma es ar isurva, uari ganacxada. piriqiT, madlobas Tavad ixdida misi wignebis miRebisa da SefasebisaTvis. ivane mixeilis Ze xuTi weli mZimed daavadebul meuRles uvlida saavadmyofoSi; yovel cismare dRes masTan iyo, mere samsaxurSi garboda, samsaxuridan _ saxlSi da biblioTekebisaTvis wignebs arCevda, fuTavda, fostiT agzavnida. ase agrZelebda is meuRlis gardacvalebis Semdegac. sulierma tkivilebma da simartovem ver gatexa misi nebisyofa da kvlavindeburad ganagrZobda Tavis sayvarel saqmianobas. Cemi Zvirfasi megobari, rogorc eqimi, samkurnalod binaze aravis ar iRebda. me es vicodi, magram erTxel, rodesac mxatvarma lado quTaTelaZem Tavisi avadmyofobis Sesaxeb SemomCivla, mainc gavuwie proteqcia. man avadmyofi miiRo da erTi Tvis ganmavlobaSi mkurnalobda saxlSi; xolo, rodesac pacientma gasamrjelo SeaZlia profesors, man civi uari uTxra: _ fuli imdeni maqvs, ar vici, sad davxarjo, Seni fuli Sen TviTon gqondes, waiRe, gzaSi gamogadgebao... ase gamoistumra Cveni lado quTaTelaZe am ganumeorebelma adamianma. diax, marTla ganumeorebelma da uiSviaTesma adamianma. naSromi ganZad daSTebiso, naTqvamia da es ganZi momaval Taobebsac madlobas aTqmevinebs am didi Rvawlis sazRaurad. kurTxeul iyos igi ukuniTi ukunisamde!...

Sio mRvimeli
Sio mRvimelma Cvens sazogadoebas da gansakuTrebiT Cvens mozard Taobas SesaniSnavi memkvidreoba dautova. esaa misi tkbilxmovani sabavSvo leqsebi, aRsavse maRali poeturi niWierebiTa da patarebisadmi mxurvale mamaSviluri siyvaruliT. bavSvebis guls axarebs leqsebis sada, lamazi qarTuli ena, romelic ase advilad gasagebia maTTvis. misi leqsebi xSirad sayvarel mSobliur bunebasa da mis movlenebs exeba:

„marti gavida, gaTba dRe, darebi dgeba mziani, miwa gafuvda, mindorSi gamoCenilan iani. mofrinda gvriti, SoSia, ofofi savarcxliani,
179

mwvaned bibinebs mindori, ole da veli cvriani...“
bavSvebs xom umisodac miuwevT guli mSvenieri, lamazi da kekluci mindor-velebisaken,

„pirveli gazafxulia, biWo, gavideT velada, mindori amwvanebula, bibinebs sanatrelada.“
Sio mRvimelis poezia bunebis siyvarulsac unergavs pataras da mSromeli adamianisadmi pativiscemasac. bavSvebic uxvad hpoveben mis wminda, Tavankara poeziaSi zneobriv Tu gonebriv sazrdos. maTTvis is erTnairad sayvarelia, amitomacaa, rom „Zia Sios“ azriani da lamazi poezia ase maxlobelia yvelasaTvis. TviT poetic, misi sityviT, „maSinaa bednieri, mxolod maSin stkbeba guli, roca esmis norCi yrmebis sicelqe da Jriamuli.“ pirvelad Sio mRvimelis saxeli jer kidev oTxmocdaaTian wlebSi sabavSvo Jurnal „jejilis“ furclebidan gavige da Cemi bavSvuri guli myisve misi leqsebis siyvaruliT aivso. magram SexvedriT Sio mRvimels mxolod 1929 wels Sevxvdi, roca saxelmwifo gamomcemlobis mxatvruli literaturis xaziT sagamomcemlo ganyofilebaSi daviwye muSaoba. mgoni, vTqvi ukve, ganyofilebas imxanad poeti nikolo miwiSvili ganagebda _ iSviaTi adamiani, dauzareli, mousvenari da sayvareli saqmisaTvis Tavdadebuli. romelsac momsvlelTaTvis iSviaTad ecala. amitom didad gamikvirda, rodesac erT dRes, gaxurebuli saqmianobis dros, metad Tavazianad miesalma masTan misul mamakacs. ase gasinjeT, karga xniTac ki gadasdo Tavisi saqme da gulTbil saubarSi gaerTo. es iyo Sio mRvimeli. amis Semdeg Sio Cveni xSiri stumari gaxda. aq isic siamovnebiT unda gavixseno, rom Sio arafriT ar hgavda romelime karCaketil poets da Zalian uyvarda megobrebTan sadme patara sardafSi Casvla, molxena da mwerlobis garSemo guliTadi saubari. Cveni didi klasikosebi _ ilia, akaki, vaJa, yazbegi _ mudam misi sayvareli salaparako Tema iyo. mec xSirad Sevswrebivar mis aseT didebul saubars, Cems suls axal-axali grZnobebiT rom avsebda. amis gamo romeliRac misma megobarma mweralma, mgonia, giorgi quCiSvilma, Sios saxumaro leqsi gamouTqva. leqsidan mxolod ori pwkari damamaxsovrda: „sayvareli Cveni Sio dinjad Cadis maranSio,“ romelic Sios Zalian moswonda da xSirad gulianad icinoda. imxanad, ese igi 30-ian wlebSi, Sio mRvimeli ukve sakmaod dafasebuli literaturuli moRvawe iyo, „damsaxurebuli mwerlis“ sapatio wodebiT dajildoebuli da personaluri pensioneri; megobrebTan yofnisaTvis mas xalisic sakmaod hqonda da moclilobac, miT ufro, rom Cumi da upretenzio adamiani, Tavisi xalasi da Tavaziani bunebis gamo, Zalian Sors iyo yovelive cru gandidebisa da medidurobisagan. tanmorCili, farflebiani qudiTa da ganuyreli xeljoxiT RimiliT Semoabijebda xolme gamomcemlobis sammarTveloSi da 180

Tavisi Sinaarsiani, Wkvianuri saubriTa da xumrobiT uzomod gvatkbobda yvelas. dRes Sio mRvimelis saxeli istorias ekuTvnis, misi didebuli sabavSvo leqsebi ki _ Cveni mwerlobis oqros fonds.

Sexvedrebi ioseb imedaSvilTan
ioseb imedaSvili (1876-1952) Cems mexsierebaSi darCa, rogorc bibliuri patriarqi TeTrad moelvare lamazi grZeli TmawveriT, romlis erTi danaxvac mowiwebas iwvevda yvelaSi. erTxel iosebi Semxvda berias moednidan * momavali. mxned da ganieri nabijiT moabijebda sasaxlis win; TuSuri qudi exura, mxrebze nabadi moesxa, xelSi Tavisi sayvareli msxvili xeljoxi ekava. SeZmakacebuliviT mkiTxa: _ romeli xar: griSa Tu lado? rogorc bevr sxva megobars, cxadia, iosebsac uWirda Cveni erTmaneTisagan garCeva. karga xans mesaubra. roca gamomeTxova da damSorda, maSinRa davinaxe, rarig iqcevda gamvlelTa yuradRebas. ramdenime axalgazrda kidec momiaxlovda da cnobismoyvareobiT mkiTxa, _ vin iyo TmaTeTri wverosani vaJkaci. _ albaT kaTalikos-patriarqia an sxva vinme didi kacio. me avuxseni, rom is iyo mwerali, msaxiobi da sazogado moRvawe ioseb imedaSvili. kmayofili axalgazrdebi didxans ayolebdnen Tvals quCaSi mimaval ioseb imedaSvils. Tumca iosebs im droidan vicnobdi, rodesac wver-ulvaSs sulac ar atarebda da pirgaparsuli ufro msaxiobs an evropel mwerals moagonebda kacs, magram Cems mexsierebaSi mainc bibliur patriarqad damkvidrda, swored iseTad, rogorc is gamosaxulia Cemi Zmis uCa jafariZis mier zeTis saRebavebiT Sesrulebul did portretze _ laRi, lamazi, azriani... * iosebi Zalze energiuli adamiani, cnobili literatori, mwerali, redaqtor-gamomcemeli, mudam mSfoTvare da dauRalavi sazogado moRvawe iyo. 1923 Tu 1924 weli iyo. iosebis redaqtorobiT gamodioda Jurnali „Teatri da cxovreba.“ redaqcias puSkinis saxelobis skverTan, cekavSiris qveS erT patara oTaxSi daedo bina. gamomcemlobac iqve iyo. yvela saqmes TviTon iosebi uZRveboda, Tumca TanaSemweobas misi ufrosi vaJi _ Salva uwevda, romelic im xanebSi ukve yrmobis asakSi Sedioda. igi xSirad Seirbenda xolme redaqciaSi, aTasgvari saqmisagan daRlil-daqanculi. _ rogoraa, Svilo, saqmeebi? _ SeekiTxeboda Salvas iosebi, _ im saqmisa ra hqeni?... am saqmisa?... stambaSi Tu iyavi?... mavansa da
*

amJamad Tavisuflebis moedani

181

mavans werili gamoarTvi? _ daayrida kiTxvebs isedac saqmeebiT welSi gawyvetils. iosebi, roca sasurvel pasuxs miiRebda, morig davalebebs miscemda. Tavad ki isev mxned da imave energiiT ganagrZobda Tavis saqmes. Salvac axal davalebaTa Sesasruleblad mieSureboda. mas xandaxan misi umcrosi Zma gaiozi Tu wamoeSveleboda. iseTi erTgulebiTa da siyvaruliT asrulebdnen TavianT saqmes, maTi garja yvelasaTvis samagaliTo nimuSad gamodgeboda. iosebis danarCeni Svilebi patarebi iyvnen da saredaqcio saqmeebSi monawileobis miReba ar SeeZloT, Tumca guli yvelas erCoda: _ Tamars, qeTos, patara ninos da kidev ufro patara farnaozs. isini xelixelCakidebulni Semovidodnen xolme redaqciaSi mamasTan... iosebi namdvili inteligenti iyo, mSromeli, da Tavis Svilebsac aseTi suliskveTebiT zrdida. sulac ar naRvlobda imas, rom mravalSviliani ojaxi materialur xelmokleobas ganicdida. _ de, bavSvebma Tavidanve igrZnon, rom cxovrebis gza ia-vardiT mofenili xaliCa araa da risime mopovebisaTvis Sromaa saWiro, daucxromeli Sroma, _ ityoda xolme iosebi. saqarTveloSi sabWoTa xelisuflebis damyarebis pirvelsave wlebSi (ar maxsovs, romelSi) iosebma Cemi da grigolis mier daxatuli da Semdeg qarTul Jurnal-gazeTebSi araerTxel dabeWdili axalgazrda SoTa rusTavelis portretis masiuri tiraJiT gamocema ganizraxa. mas moswonda es portreti da cdilobda Tavisi Jurnalis saSualebiT is farTo masebamde mietana. Tqven warmoidgineT, im gaWirvebaSi aRasrula kidec ganzraxuli. is Jurnal „Teatri da cxovrebis“ wliur xelismomwerTa ufaso damatebad gamoacxada da, didi tiraJiT dabeWdili, mravali qarTuli ojaxis saCuqrad aqcia. _ dee, yvelas hqondes ufleba, naTeli warmodgena iqonios ukvdavi poetis Tqveneul portretze!... * ioseb imedaSvili mudam mtkiced idga saqarTvelos sazogadoebrivi cxovrebis sadarajoze, Tvalyurs adevnebda mis majiscemas; mas ar gamoepareboda Tundac naklebad mniSvnelovani movlena. 1924 wlis miwuruls raWis ganaTlebis ganyofilebam da adgilobrivma sazogadoebam onSi iubile gadauxada mxcovan maswavlebels _ mamaCems, malaqia jafariZes _ pedagogiur asparezze misi moRvaweobis 45 wlisTavis aRsaniSnavad. es ambavi ar gamorCenia iosebs da am movlenas Taviseburad gamoexmaura: JurnalSi iubilarze Tbili werili dabeWda da xazi gausva ara marto mis moRvaweobas pedagogis eklian gzaze, aramed mis sanimuSo ojaxur cxovrebasac, mis moqalaqeobas da mamuliSvilobas. Tavisi daudgromeli cxovrebis ukanasknel wlebSi iosebma xeli mohkida qarTvelTa ricxobrivi zrdis propagandas. am saqmem igi imdenad gaitaca, rom yvelaferi daTmo TbilisSi da, miuxedavad xandazmulobisa, raionebSi iwyo mogzauroba, sadac kiTxulobda saTanado Sinaarsis leqciebs. 182

erTxel CvenTan binaze (TbilisSi) pirdapir qariSxaliviT SemoiWra. dajda, karga xans gvelaparaka da bolos Cveni ojaxuri fotosuraTi gvTxova, sadac eqvsive Zma mSoblebTan erTad varT gadaRebuli. _ aseTi fotoebi Cems leqciebze yovel statistikaze ukeT gaWris, msmenelebi sakuTari TvaliT dainaxaven mravalSvilianobis mTel silamazes... bavSvebs didi movla undaTo, xarjebic didio da, ra vici, ras ar imizezeben axalgazrda mSoblebi. ai, swored aseTi mSoblebisaTvis maqvs momzadebuli mravalSviliani ojaxebis fotosuraTebi. maS, amdeni Svilebi amaT rogorRa gazardes-meTqi, _ veubnebi. isev Cveni dalocvili sofeli! is iyo mudam Cveni mxsneli da iqneba kidec, _ ficxad da aRgznebiT laparakobda es mgznebare patrioti. erTxel am mizniT raWac ki Semoiara... 1950 wlis zafxuli iyo, mgoni. sofelSi visvenebdi. erT saRamos onidan dabrunebulma mezoblebma miTxres, Tbilisidan Camosuli ioseb imedaSvilis leqcias daveswariT da metad kmayofili davrCiTo. gulze meca... rogor? iosebi amosula raWaSi da ver gavige? _ Zalian Sevwuxdi, Tumca Tavi imiTi davimSvide, rom dilaadrian Cavidodi onSi da Zvirfas megobars saxlSi amoviyvandi, magram iosebi gadaudebeli saqmis gamo gaTenebisTanave gabrunebuliyo TbilisSi. man dayovneba araferSi icoda. iosebi iSviaTi energiis mSromeli kaci iyo, werac emarjveboda. Cems wignebs Soris mis erT poemasac vinaxav _ „mzeTamzes“ _ romlis ukana mxares misi dawerili sxvadasxva xasiaTis Sromebis siaa dabeWdili. maT Soris aris ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni, gamoCenil adamianTa saZiebeli-cnobari, leqsebi, poemebi, moTxrobebi, romanebi, piesebi da mravali sxva. aseTi xelxvaviani gaxldaT es „Cumi muSaki“! qarTvel moRvaweTa cnobars rom adgenda, xSirad vyofilvar masTan mTawmindaze da sakuTari TvaliT minaxavs, raoden Sromismoyvare iyo igi. es pirdapir gaocebas iwvevda CemSi. leqsikonisTvis auarebeli masala hqonda dagrovili _ uamravi wigni, Zveli gazeTebi Tu xelnawerebi. igi faustiviT ijda am Tavmoyril masalebs Soris da TavdaviwyebiT werda. iosebis didebuli wamowyeba farTo masStabisa gaxldaT. romeli qarTveli moRvawe ar iyo gaTvaliswinebuli am cnobarisaTvis! umniSvnelo saqmis moqmedsac ki Tavis adgils akuTvnebda, aravis arafers ukargavda. swored Tavisi momavali cnobaris Taobaze ambobda Semdgeneli: _ Tu am wignis damTavreba damcalda, mTeli saqarTvelo xelisgulze gveyolebao... iosebis poema „mzeTamzesTan“ dakavSirebulia Cemi Zmis uCas Semoqmedebis pirveli nabijebi; amitom am sakiTxis gaxseneba gansakuTrebul siamovnebas mgvris. es iyo 1925 wels. uCa maSin samxatvro akademiaSi swavlobda da Tavisufal dros xSirad Seivlida xolme „Teatri da cxovrebis“ redaqciaSi. uCas Tan dahqonda Tavisi ganuyreli albomi da raime Canaxatis gakeTebis SemTxvevas xelidan ar gauSvebda. iosebi xedavda yovelive amas da siamovnebiT akvirdeboda damwyebi Semoqmedis Ziebebsa da Sromismoyvareobas. amitom, roca Ta183

visi poemis _ „mzeTamzes“ gamocema daapira, misi mxatvruli gaformeba uCas SesTavaza. Cem Zmas wignis gaformebis gamocdileba ar hqonda da SekveTa iuara. iosebma gaamxneva: _ Svilo, Tu gamoucdelobis mizeziT ambob uars, maSin mudam gamoucdeli darCebi. me vxedav Sens niWs, SesaZleblobas da amitom gTavazob am samuSaos. aba axla mokide xeli saqmes da darwmunebuli var, gaimarjveb... sxva gza ar iyo, uCa misTvis Cveuli gulmodginebiT Seudga wignis gaformebas. bolos kmayofilic darCa. gansakuTrebiT eamayeboda satitulo furclis meore gverdze dabeWdili sityvebi: „yda da naxatebi uCa jafariZisa.“ vin icis, iqneb am TiTqos umniSvnelo warweram Cems Zmas frTebi Seasxa, sakuTar ZalebSi daarwmuna da momavali SemoqmedebisaTvis Zala Semata. rogorc Cans, uCa ioseb imedaSvilis mimarT madlierebis grZnobiT ganimsWvala da ukve mowifulma ostatma xalisiT Seasrula mxcovani mwerlis didi portreti, romelic amJamad saqarTvelos xelovnebis muzeumSi inaxeba. iosebi tiloze warmodgenilia Tavisi ganuyreli nabdiTa da TuSuri qudiT. es didi portreti miuZRoda win gansvenebul mwerals saimsoflo gzaze. madlier xalxs, romelic didubis panTeonisaken miacilebda ioseb imedaSvils, TvalTa kiloebze cxeli kurcxlebi ubrwyinavda. TeTri Tma-wveriT Semosili iosebi namdvil patriarqs hgavda. aseve darCa igi Cems mexsierebaSi. is xom Cveni xalxis kulturis, istoriisa da mwerlobis propagandiT cxovrobda. xalxis samsaxurSi xelCarTuli brZoliT galia man cxovrebis gza. Tbilisis maswavlebelTa saxlTan arsebobda da dResac arsebobs literaturuli wre, romelsac maSin poeti da mTargmneli savle abulaZe xelmZRvanelobda. aq naxavdiT rogorc axalgazrda avtorebs, ise mwerlebs, maT Soris: ipolite varTagavas, literator solomon caiSvils, maswavleblebs, poetebs, sxva dargis warmomadgenlebs. ioseb imedaSvili am literaturuli wris erT-erTi aqtiuri wevri iyo. igi mudam xalisiT monawileobda ama Tu im sakiTxis ganxilvaSi, literaturul kamaTSi. zedmiwevniT erkveoda qarTuli kulturis istoriis problemebSi. rodesac Cemma Zmam, grigolma, profesor aleqsandre xaxanaSvilis Sesaxeb moxseneba waikiTxa, momxseneblis misamarTiT wris wevrebi saqebar sityvebs ar iSurebdnen; magram ioseb imedaSvilis gamosvlam yovelgvar molodins gadaaWarba, mxurvale sityva Tqva da Tavisi gamosvla ase daamTavra: _ vai, rom Cveni kulturis aseT uangaro da nayofier moRvawes umadurad mivayareT daviwyebis ferfli! misi gamokvlevebi rom ara, CvenTvis kidev didxans iqneboda ucnobi saqarTvelos istoriisa da kulturis araerTi umniSvnelovanesi sakiTxi. es iseTi gulwrfelobiT warmoTqva, rom maSinve p.sayvareliZisadmi gagzavnil mis Ria werilSi naTqvami gamaxsenda: „grZel Wapnad momdevs glexur-muSuri STamomavlobao...“ aq misi mokrZalebac Cans da Tavazianobac, meores mxriv ki vaJkacuri brZolis unari da qeduxreloba. 184

* Tavaziani da mokrZalebuli moRvawe ioseb imedaSvili Tavis Tavs „patara muSaks“ uwodebda, magram amasTanave iseT moRvawes, „romelsac mTeli Tavisi Zal-Rone SeZlebisdagvarad Seuwiravs qarTveli mSromeli xalxis gamofxizlebisaTvis.“ marto misi „ucxo sityvaTa leqsikoni“ rad Rirs!... is xom Cveni sazogadoebis samagido wignad iqca!... mas rom dawyebuli wigni _ „qarTvel moRvaweTa cnobaric“ daemTavrebina, rogorc ityvian, es iqneboda misi xelTuqmneli Zegli; magram, vaglax, rom ver moaswro dawyebuli Sromis damTavreba! ioseb imedaSvilis gamocemuli wigni _ „cxovrebis sarke“ pirdapir malamo iyo soflis scenismoyvareTaTvis. aq iseTi piesebi iyo SerCeuli, romelTa warmodgenac advilad da gasagebad SeiZleboda saxeldaxelod mowyobil scenebze. am mxriv, maSin, xsenebuli wignis badali ar iyo. * ioseb imedaSvils mdidari arqivi darCa. igi yvelgan werda, Sin Tu gareT, niadag agrovebda masalebs xalxisTvis metad saWirboroto sakiTxebze. me araerTxel vstumrebivar da aRtacebuli davrCenilvar mis mier Tavmoyrili Zveli Jurnal-gazeTebiT, wignebiT, rveulebiT, davTrebiT, xelnawerebiT. es mdidari masala zogi magidaze ewyo, zogi Taroebze, zogic... pirdapir iatakze. iosebs arasodes bezrdeboda Tavis arqivSi fusfusi... * erTxel, saRamo xans, uCam damireka. _ es-es aris macnobes ioseb imedaSvilis avadmyofoba. axlave unda wavideT, miT ufro, rom iosebs Cemi naxvac mousurvebia.. damelode,gamogivli da erTad avideT avadmyofis sanaxavad... marTlac, uCam bevri ar malodina da male manqaniT kote mesxis quCaze avediT, mTawmindis midamoebSi, sadac iosebis Zveli saxli idga, gardasuli drois samuzeumo eqsponativiT rom Canda. karebSi iosebis qaliSvilebi Semogvegebnen da avadmyofis oTaxSi SegviZRvnen. iosebi Rrmad iyo TavCarguli sawolSi da, rogorc Cans, eZina. _ mama! _ yurSi CasZaxa erTma qaliSvilma, _ uCas rom natrobdi, ager movida kidec... _ ha, uCa movida? _ dasustebuli xmiT amoiZaxa avadmyofma, _ aba, Svilebo, qeTo, nino, sada xarT? momeSveleT, wamomajineT loginze. qeTos uCac mieSvela da avadmyofi ris vai-vaglaxiT wamoayenes sawolidan. _ uCa, Svilo, _ Zlivs warmoTqva iosebma da Cemi Zma gulSi Caikra, _ am oxerma avadmyofobam glaxad momkida xeli... mgoni, vkvdebi kidec... ramdeni samuSao mrCeba daumTavrebeli, ra vqna? _ kvnesoda jafiT daqanculi Semoqmedi, naRvliani TvalebiT miCereboda mis irgvliv Semowyobil foliantebs. _ vinRa upatronebs Cems amden nawvalebs?... me da uCa ugunebod wamovediT. ra unda gveTqva sanugeSo? 185

_vaiTu, ver gauZlos, _ TavisTvis laparakobda naRvliani uCa. _ eh, ase TandaTan, Tvalsa da xels Sua midian amagdari adamianebi... afsus!... ramdenime dRis Semdeg iosebi gardaicvala. magram wlovanebam ki ar gatexa es „glexur-muSuri STamomavlobis“ rkinis vaJkaci, aramed dardma, mZime materialurma mdgomareobam, xelSemSlel mizezTa gamo Tavmoubmel saqmeebze fiqrma. aseTi mtkivneuli gancdebi rom ara, iosebi kidev didxans emsaxureboda Tavis sayvarel saqmes, xalxs, mis kulturas, magram, rac Seqmna, isic fasdaudebelia da Zvirfasi madlieri STamomavlobisaTvis. diax, igi kidev didxans ivlida Tavisi ganuyreli nabdiTa da joxiT da ara yavarjniT, rogorc SecdomiT werda gazeTi „axalgazrda komunisti“ (20.6.57). mxned mimaval TeTrwvera moxucs yvela aRtacebiT gaayolebda xolme Tvals... yavarjeni iosebs arasodes sWeria, an ki raSi sWirdeboda sruliad janmrTelsa da saR-salamaT kacs? ioseb imedaSvili didi popularobiT sargeblobda qarTul sazogadoebaSi da araerT gamoCenil mweralsa da moRvawes megobrobda. ar damaviwydeba akaki wereTlis soflidan gamogzavnili werili, romelSiac did madlobas uZRvnis mas Jurnalis gagzavnisaTvis, magram amasTanave sayveduriT ixseniebs zogierTs: „droeba“ rom ar momdis, ar mikvirs, magram „maTraxi“ mainc ratom enanebaT CemTvis?...“ .* es mogoneba ukve damTavrebuli mqonda, rodesac xelSi Camivarda Jurnal „iskustvos“ 1963 wlis me-6 nomeri, sadac gamoqveynebulia xelovnebaTmcodne n.prokofievas werili Cemi Zmis uCas Semoqmedebis Sesaxeb. teqstTan erTad moTavsebulia mxatvris ramdenime nawarmoebis reproduqcia da maT Soris ioseb imedaSvilis portretic. avtori aRniSnavs, rom uCa jafariZis portretebis erT-erTi Rirsebaa adamianis Sinagani samyaros gadmocemisadmi interesi da mohyavs amis damadasturebeli nimuSebi; xolo ioseb imedaSvilis portretze wers: _ „sul sxva grZnobebs iwvevs mxcovani mwerlis ioseb imedaSvilis monumenturi portreti _ portreti am Zlieri, energiuli da nebisyofiani adamianisa. aq Cven winaSea cxovrebiT dabrZenebuli Wkviani adamiani, romlis WaRara did pativiscemas aRZravs CvenSi. mwerlis SorsmWvreteli Tvalebidan gamokrTis Rrma adamianuri Tvisebebi.“ am werilis wakiTxva ufro imitom mesiamovna, rom avtorma sworad SeniSna uCas portretebis Rirsebebi, gansakuTrebiT ki, ferebiT ,,moTxrobili” ioseb imedaSvilis Sinagani Tvisebebi, misi mdidari sulieri samyaro da amiT mkiTxvelebs swori warmodgena Seuqmna mxatvris Semoqmedebaze. iosebis portretma moiara TiTqmis mTeli evropa da bolos ungreTSic gamoifina, sadac sabWoTa kavSiris samxatvro akademiis wevrTa da, maT Soris, uCas naxatebis gamofenac moewyo. uCas ojaxSi inaxeba iq gamocemuli mSvenieri katalogi Sesabamisi reproduqciebiTa da siiT, romelTa Soris iosebis portreticaa... 186

vici, es namuSevari mxcovan mweralsac didad uyvarda da, rogorc misma qaliSvilebma _ qeTom da ninom miambes, mamis survili yofila, ukanasknel gansasvenebel gzaze misTvis uCas mier Sesrulebuli portreti waemZRvarebinaT win... sasiamovnoa, rom uCas naxatze srulyofilad aris gadmocemuli ioseb imedaSvilis Rrma adamianuri Tvisebebi. aseTad SemorCa misi saxe madlier STamomavlobas.

ioseb griSaSvili
me xalxs vumReri avad Tu kargad, ara mqonia warsuli cudi... i. griSaSvili
cxovrebaSi arian iseTi bednieri adamianebi, romelTac bunebam imTaviTve ukarnaxa maTi samomavlo gzis mimarTuleba. me aseTad ioseb griSaSvils vTvli, visac bunebam siyrmiTve saero moRvaweobis, poeturi sityvis msaxurebis tvirTva daakisra. poet griSaSvilis saxeli pirvelad 1907 wels gavigone. im dros me ukve universitetSi vswavlobdi da, rogorc studenti, maSindeli tradiciis mixedviT, sazogadoebrivi sakiTxebisadmi didi interesiT viyavi gansmWvaluli. amitom sasiamovnod mrCeboda, roca ama Tu im wreSi Cveni mxatvruli literaturis awmyosa Tu momavalze laparaks daveswrebodi xolme. iq xSirad axalgazrda poetebis gamoCenaze, maT niWsa da unarzec laparakobdnen. maSin poetebi TiTebze CamosaTvlelebi iyvnen da amitom xalxi yvelas kargad icnobda. maTi gamoCena aravis ar gamoepareboda da yvela imedis TvaliT Sehyurebda. xolo gansakuTrebul niWs Tu Seatyobdnen, maSinve „akakis memkvidred“ miiCnevdnen xolme. akaki im dros, rogorc „RvTivkurTxeuli,“ erTaderTi idga Cveni poeziis parnasze da masTan vinmes Sedareba, cxadia, metad did Sefasebad miiCneoda. ai, am axalgazrda poetebs Soris gavigone griSaSvilis saxelic. sazogadoebis TvalSi is garkveuli poeturi xmis patronad iyo aRiarebuli, amitom momavlisaTvis saimedo Zalad asaxelebdnen. warmoidgineT „akakis memkvidredac“ ki racxdnen, ise rogorc erT dros poet g.Waladidels, Semdeg gr.abaSiZesa da sxvebs. magram akaki ara marto mgosani iyo, aramed didi erovnuli moRvawe, imdroindeli saqarTvelos namdvili droSa da winamZRoli. miuxedavad aseTi ,,moTxovnebisa”, niWier axalgazrda poets mainc mas adarebdnen xolme. vidre poeti Tavis Tavs griSaSvilad gaacnobda sazogadoebas, misi bedi poeziis asparezze imdenad sainteresoa, rom am faqts gverds ver avuvli. 1906 wels iosebs, jer kidev 17 wlis Wabuks, Tavisi namdvili gvariT leqsebis patara krebuli daubeWdavs. es leqsebi Tavisi 187

SinaarsiT da, rac mTavaria, formis primitiulobiT „ufro Tbilisuri folkloris mibaZvis nimuSi yofila, vidre damoukidebeli poeturi gaazrebis nayofi“, _ rogorc amas ambobs ak.xinTibiZe. is krebuli Zveleburi gamocemebisaTvis damaxasiaTebeli saxelwodebiT yofila dabeWdili: _ „vardis kona da Telavis muxambazi da sxvadasxva leqsebi da simRerebi, Sedgenili mamulaSvilis mier,“ ise, rogorc es icodnen saxalxo mTqmelebma da „modis motrfiale“ axalgazrdebma. es yovelive, winaistoriad unda CaiTvalos i.griSaSvilis SemoqmedebiTi biografiisa. ,,albaT, maSin aravin ifiqrebda, _ ambobs pativcemuli leqtori ak.xinTibiZe savsebiT samarTlianad, _ rom am krebulis avtori odesme mwerlis saxels moixveWda”. rogorc vxedavT, i.griSaSvilis pirveli nabijebi poeziaSi xelmocarvas ufro hgavda, magram am marcxma mas iaraRi ar daayrevina. Seqmnil viTarebas sxvanairad auRo alRo da isev is qalaquri folklori moiSvelia, im dros metad popularuli axalgazrdebSi. aseTi xasiaTis leqsi gaxlavT, Tundac, „ar Segcivdes, baraSkajan“ da sxva amisTanebi. maxsovs, man erTbaSad miiqcia mTeli Cveni sazogadoebis yuradReba. gagvegona griSaSvili, magram, vin iyo da sadauri, es mxolod SemdegSi gavigeT, _ kerZod is, rom igi iyo Tbiliseli xelosnis ojaxidan da bavSvoba xarfuxSi gaatara, sadac mas mamis danatovari patara saxlic hqonda. swavla usaxsrobis gamo 11-12 wlis asakSi miutovebia. magram ramdenad niWieri yofila es Tavmdabali axalgazrda, iqidan Cans, rom TiTqmis uswavleli kaci, SemdegSi saqarTvelos mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvili wevric gaxda, laureati da saqarTvelos saxalxo poetic. gana aseTive bedi ar xvda wilad maqsim gorkisac, visac uswavlelobam xeli ver SeuSala, qceuliyo gamoCenil mwerlad da sabWoTa kavSiris mecnierebaTa akademiis namdvil wevrad?! rac dro gadioda, i.griSaSvilis satrfialo motivebi sul ufro xiblavda Cvens sazogadoebas; xiblavda misi poeturi sityvis Taviseburi siaxle, uaRresad cincxali da metyveli ritmi, poetis mkiTxvelisTvis advilad gasagebi Canafiqris simartive... i.griSaSvilma Tavidanve Seiyvara qarTuli wigni da xarbad ecnoboda yovel maTgans. droTa ganmavlobaSi man detalurad Seiswavla Cveni qveynis warsuli, Zveli da axali literatura. energiulad mohkida xeli TviTganviTarebas. Cems megobrebSi, romelTa gaxseneba yovelTvis sasiamovno da saamayoa CemTvis, erT-erTi pirveli adgili ioseb griSaSvils ukavia. igi daaxloebiT 1909-1911 wlebSi gavicani, grigol diasamiZesTan, gazeT „Temis“ redaqciaSi. grigol diasamiZe gazeT „Temis“ redaqtoric iyo da gamomcemelic. redaqciac Tavis binaSi hqonda moTavsebuli, dRevandel rusTavelis gamzirze #50 saxlis ukan. es orsarTuliani qvis kapitaluri Senoba dResac dgas. grigoli am saxlis beletaJze cxovrobda. is metad keTilSobili da sayvareli adamiani iyo, didad ganaTlebuli inteligenti, iuristi, literatori, patri188

oti, yvelas megobari, yvelas damxmare da gulisxmieri redaqtori. 50 wlis grigoli _ qarTuli sazogadoebriobis aqtiuri wevri _ yvelgan iyo, sadac sasikeTo qarTuli saqme keTdeboda, mzad iyo miSveleboda da daxmareboda yvela gaWirvebuls . i.griSaSvilma rom poeziaSi pirveli nabiji gadadga, grigolma farTod gauRo „Temis“ redaqciis kari da samuSaodac xSirad iwvevda. swored aq SevxvdiT pirvelad me da Cemi Zma griSa ioseb griSaSvils. grigol diasamiZe didi megobari gaxldaT akakisa da roca is raWa-leCxumSi samogzaurod Camovida, grigoli pirvelTagani iyo mis amalaSi. im dRes moskovidan TbilisSi Camosuli Zmebi maSinve „Temis“ redaqciaSi grigol diasamiZis sanaxavad wavediT. grigoli, rogorc yovelTvis, xelgaSlili Semogvegeba. Tan ase gulianad imitomac migviRo, rom Cveni Targmnili „glaxis naambobi“ (rusuli egzemplarebi) ukve TbilisSiac mieRoT da am ambavs didi gamoxmaurebac mohyoloda. erTi ki iyo: yvelas akvirvebda is garemoeba, rom mTargmneli ori iyo da isic viRac „jafari“. grigolis mier Cveni ase gulTbilad miReba uyuradRebod ar darCa iqve mjdom axalgazrdas, romelic, Cvenda sasixarulod, ukve cnobili poeti ioseb griSaSvili aRmoCnda. bluza mowafesaviT ecva, Txeli da pirtitvela iyo, WabukobaSi jer kidev ar Seedga fexi, nazi da qaliSviliviT moridebuli Canda. Cveni vinaoba rom gaigo, Zalian esiamovna, _ Tqveni Targmnili „glaxis naambobis“ ramdenime cali viyide da Sevinaxeo. gakvirvebiT mogvCereboda xan erTs, xan meores da ganmasxvavebel niSnebs eZebda: _ aseTi msgavseba jer arsad minaxavso. _ maS Tqvena xarT „gr. da vl.jafari“? _ gvekiTxeboda axlad SeZenili megobari, _ me ki ufro xnierebi megoneT, es ra didi saqme gikisriaTo, _ Segvaqo. aseTi viTareba sufevda im dros Cveni xalxis cxovrebaSi: patara movlenasac ki, Tuki mas saerTo erovnuli mniSvneloba hqonda, saxalxo saqmed miiCnevdnen. poetic am Tvalsazrisis iyo da amitomac gulTbilad gviRimoda. sosos sazogadoebaSi yofna gansakuTrebiT 1914 wlidan mixdeboda, roca universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg foTSi daviwye muSaoba da samsaxuris gamo TbilisSi xSirad Cavdiodi. me uTuod Sevivlidi xolme gazeT „cnobis furclis“ redaqciaSi, romelic moTavsebuli iyo sasaxlis quCaze (axlandeli rusTavelis gamziris # 1) aw ukve ararsebul samsarTulian sarajiSviliseul saxlSi da siyvaruliT mivakiTxavdi iq momuSave megobrebs: Tedo Rlonts, samson fircxalavas, qristefore raWveliSvils, mixeil sayvareliZes da maTTan erTad soso griSaSvilsac. erTxel suraTic ki gadaviReT erTad Tedom, sosom da me. ar vici, SerCaT Tu ara maT is samaxsovro foto, me ki dRemde vinaxav, rogorc Zvirfas reliqvias. erTxel sosomac wamiyvana xarfuxSi da Tavisi sacxovrebeli saxli miCvena. es iyo orsarTuliani xis patara Senoba, romlis qvemoT sosos deda cxovrobda, zemoT _ TviTon. ori patara oTaxi ekava, erTi maTgani wignebiT iyo savse. 189

sofluri ieri dahkravda maSin xarfuxs. aRmarT-daRmarTi da oRroCoRro Sukebi, irgvliv yvelaferi Raribuli da Seuxedavi gaxldaT. iq ufro muSa xalxi, xelmokle xelosnebi cxovrobdnen da yvelas erTnairi, gaWirvebiT aSenebuli TiTqmis aseTive ulazaTo saxli edga. samagierod, qalaqTan SedarebiT, haeri ufro sufTa iyo da xmauric naklebi. ar damaviwydeba erTi patara ambavi, romelic iq SememTxva. 1916 weli iyo. TbilisSi Camovedi. kviradRe gaxldaT, redaqciaSic aravin muSaobda. sosos naxva mxolod xarfuxSi SeiZleboda. vifiqre, modi, waval _ xarfuxsac vnaxav da griSaSvilis saxl-karsac ufro axlos gavicnob-meTqi. gavicnob im garemos, sadac iosebi izrdeboda da misi niWi isxamda frTebs. miT ufro mainteresebda iq wasvla, rom xarfuxi qalaqis metad originaluri, migdebuli, mitovebuli, „RvTisagan miviwyebuli“ kuTxe iyo, _ karCaketili, gareSe qveynisas rom arafers kiTxulobdnen, magram, samagierod, ainteresebdaT iqauri, Sinauri, mezobluri ambebi. mezoblebma ki erTmaneTis avan-Cavani yvelaferi zedmiwevniT icodnen. TiTqos erTi ojaxi iyo mTeli is kuTxe. gazafxulis kviradRe iyo, mziani da Tbili. aviare aRmarTi, amJamad griSaSvilis quCa rom ewodeba, irgvliv mivixed-movixede, magram verafriT ver viniSne, romeli unda yofiliyo poetis saxli. ufro im garemoebam damabnia, rom griSaSvilis saxlis axlos quCis Sua nawilSi erTi uSno goraki maxsovda (quCa sad iyo maSin?). misTvis aucileblad gverdi unda agevlo. marTalia, es kargad maxsovda, magram is gorakic versad davlande. mainc ar gavitexe ixtibari, albaT, quCis keTilmowyobis dros gaasworesmeTqi. _ aq sadRac griSaSvilis saxlia, magram ver mimignia. xom ver metyviT, romelia-meTqi, _ SevekiTxe erT-erT gamvlels, romelic adgilobrivi Canda. _ griSaSvilis? _ dafiqrda is, _ ar gamigonia. vkiTxe meores: _ visi, griSaSvilis? _ isic dafiqrda, _ ara, ar gamigonia. vkiTxe sxva gamvlelsac. yvela gakvirvebulia. ara. aseTi aravin icis. arc gaugonia... _ ki magram, xarfuxSi mezoblis saxli ar iciT, romelia? _ mezoblis?! mezoblis rogor ar viciT... magram aseTi gvaris mezobeli ara gyvavs. vinaa griSaSvili? vinaa aq griSaSvili? _ ekiTxebian erTimeores. iqve quCis meore mxares, siRrmeSi saxeldaxelod akowiwebuli, xis patara farduli SevniSne, Sig viRac winsafriani moxuci ijda da dazgaze dadebuli Zveli wuRis nakerebze raRac simZimes ubagunebda. gadavedi misken da mivuaxlovdi. _ ukacravad, _ vekiTxebi, _ Tqven aqauri xarT? xarfuxeli? man Zveli saTvalis qvemodan gakvirvebiT Semomxeda. _ ma sadauri viqnebi, Se dalocvilo? aqauri var. _ aba, poet griSaSvilis saxls veZeb da Tqven gecodinebaT, romelia. _ xarazi Sefiqrianda. _ griSaSvilisa? saxeli ra hqvia? iosebi? ara, geTayva, aseTi aq aravin gamigonia. dawvrilebiT gamomkiTxa, ra kacia is griSaSvili, ra xelobisaa, ramdeni xania rac xarfuxSia da sxva. mere viRac mezobels 190

gadasZaxa WiSkars iqeT, aq griSaSvils kiTxuloben da xom ar gagigonia vinaao. sxvasac hkiTxa. etyoboda, guliT swadda CemTvis daxmareba gaewia, magram verafers axerxebda da Tavs uxerxulad grZnobda. is iyo, gamobrunebas vapirebdi, rom mewuResTan viRac axalgazrda movida, _ Zveli, dasakerebeli wuRebi eWira. moxuci am ymawvilsac SeekiTxa, aq aseTi da aseTi kaci vin aris, iqneb Sen mainc icodeo. amisTana gvari arsad gamigoniao, _ mipasuxa manac guldajerebiT. _ va, e rogora? _ SfoTavs moxuci, _ Tu vinme xarfuxelia, ratom ar vici? _ mere TiTqos raRac moagondao, _ xom ar geSleba misi gvari? egeba araa egre? _ ara, _ veubnebi darwmunebiT, _ namdvilad aseTi gvari aqvs, mas mTeli saqarTvelo icnobs, mweralia, poeti, sakuTari wignebica aqvs dabeWdili; misi namdvili gvari mamulaSvilia, griSaSvili ki fsevdonimia-meTqi, ganvumarte, magram mainc veraferi gaigo da fsevdonimma xom sul daabnia is keTili moxuci. bodiSi movixade SewuxebisaTvis da ukan gamovbrundi. anazdad moxucisa da axalgazrda mamakacis laparaki Semomesma. _ ra vqna, ver gamigia, vinaa es griSaSvili, _ kiTxulobda moxuci xarazi. _ e mand firuzaze xom ar iZaxis neta es adamiani? _ ucbad wamoisrola axalgazrda muStarma, TiTqos raRac saintereso rames miagnoo, _ raRac ise meniSneba, ai, wignebi aqvso, werso, raRac hgavs imasa, ai! – da momaZaxa: _ gazeTCiks xom ar eZeb, Ziajan? ai, TiatrSic gamodis, wignis kacia, warmodgenebsa dgams, firuzas veZaxiT. _ firuza, xo, ai egaa swored, eg! _ SevZaxe gaxarebulma da ukanve mivtrialdi, gamaxsenda, rom sosos bavSvobisas firuzas eZaxdnen Turme, _ eg aris swored! gazeTCiki, TeatrSi momuSave! _ esec xom vicodi, rom erT dros TeatrSi muSaobda. _ maS, firuzaze iZaxis? Cvens firuzaze? _ wamoiZaxa mewuRem da muxlze xeli dairtya, gaxarebulma imiT, rom, bolos da bolos, ucxo adamiani upasuxod ar gamiSva da ar Sercxva Tavisi ucodinarobiT. mere me momibrunda: _ Se dalocvilo, Tavidanve egre geTqva, raRa! gana me aq iseTi gaugebari var, rom firuzas ambavs ver getyodi? firuzas vin ar icnobs aqa? Cveni xarfuxis Tvalia. vaa, misi saxli rogor ar vici, visac ginda hkiTxe _ getyvis. gana egre yru var, Se dalocvilo!... _ mere Tavis axalgazrda muStars miubrunda: _ aba, Svilo, maita eg wuRebi da Sen am patiosan adamians firuzas saxlisaken gauZexi. vaa, firuzas eZebs Turme es dalocvili da viRac griSaSvils ki mekiTxeba. gana me firuzas saxls ver getyodi... _ buzRunebda moxuci mewuRe, _ am xarfuxSi vin unda cxovrobdes, me rom ar vicode, aqauri kaci var, gana mosuli... me da Cemma RmerTma, javriT Zili damekargeboda. axalgazrdam ki mimiyvana griSaSvilis saxlSi, magram soso adgilze ar damxvda da Sin dabrunebuls es ambavi mimaviwyda. amis Semdeg sakmaod didi dro gavida... 1951 wlis gazafxuli iyo. fizkulturis instituti, sadac me maswavleblad vmuSaobdi, imxanad droebiT xarfuxSi, griSaSvilis quCaze, saSualo skolis SenobaSi iyo moTavsebuli. erTxel, dRis dasasruls, roca institutSi leqciebi moTavda da Sin mi191

mavali zemo sarTulidan Camovdiodi, vestibiulSi xalxis uCveulo simravlem gamakvirva: didi da patara darbazisaken miiwevda, yvelas undoda iq Sesvla, ezoSiac auarebeli xalxi idga. Turme im dRes i.griSaSvils uwyobdnen Sexvedras. mec gaWirvebiT SeveWede karebSi. tribunidan oratoris aRfrTovanebuli laparaki moismoda. poeti prezidiumSi ijda garindebuli, magram saxeze etyoboda, rom ubralo xarfuxeli xalxis misdami aseTi didi yuradReba Zalze aRelvebda. iqneb imasac fiqrobda, rom misi cxovrebis daRmarTi ukve dawyebuli iyo da amis gamo gulic stkioda... magram mis maSindel leqsebSi es sulac ar igrZnoboda, mxnedac gamoiyureboda da siberis siaxloves arafrad agdebda: „davberdi? ara! leqsebis ferebs dahkravs surneli saukeTeso!... “ sosom SemamCnia karebTan xalxSi CaWedili da xeliT maniSna, scenaze amodio. mec scenisaken gavemarTe da mis gverdiT davikave adgili. vkiTxe, rasTan aris dakavSirebuli es Sexvedra-meTqi. sosom magidaze dadebuli qaRaldebidan erTi mosawvevi baraTi momawoda, romelSiac aseTi ram amovikiTxe: „1951 wlis 12 maiss, saRamos 8 saaTze fizkulturis institutis darbazSi (griSaSvilis q. 15) gorkis saxelobis #22 masobrivi biblioTeka awyobs poet griSaSvilTan Sexvedras. gTxovT daeswroT. direqcia.“ am baraTs dResac sasoebiT vinaxav Cems qaRaldebSi. sulganabuli vusmendi oratorebs, romlebic erTimeoreze ufro mWevrmetyvelurad da aRfrTovanebiT laparakobdnen griSaSvilis poeziaze, mis popularobaze da, uneblieT, Tvalwin damidga 1916 wlis xarfuxi, sadac griSaSvilis gvari arc ki gaegonaT da es im dros, roca mas mTeli saqarTvelo icnobda. bolos oratorebis sia amoiwura da sosom mTxova, mec meTqva oriode sityva. xalxiT gaWedili auditoriis winaSe gamovTqvi Cemi gulwrfeli aRfrTovaneba im didi da uCveulo zeimis gamo, rasac maSin xarfuxSi, poet griSaSvilis SexvedrasTan dakavSirebiT vxedavdi, roca misi poezia qebiTa da didebiT camde ahyavdaT. mere is ambavic movyevi, rac aq, xarfuxSi, 1916 wels SememTxva. ra xdeboda darbazSi Cemi laparakis dros, unda genaxaT, yvela ise momCereboda, TiTqos sxva qveynidan viyavi Camosuli; sulganabuli migdebdnen yurs, magram mere „fxuo“ daiZaxes da sicili veRar Seikaves; kiTxulobdnen, vin iyo is meCuste?! magram aba 35 wlis winanadel ambavs ase ucbad vin gaixsenebda. vin moigonebda an mas, an Tundac im axalgazrdas, romelmac griSaSvilis saxlamde mimacila... xolo im saRamos Zveli da axali Taobis xarfuxelebi, ukve saTanadod ganaTlebulni, taSs ukravdnen Tavis firuzas. diax, firuzas, romelsac erT dros „griSaSvilze“ ufro metad icnobdnen xarfuxSi. yvelaze metad TviTon soso icinoda, icinoda Cems maSindel gaWirvebaze. _ diax, _ davasrule Cemi sityva _ CamorCenili iyo Zveli xarfuxi, uwignuri da karCaketili, magram, samagierod, xedavT Cvens dRevandel ganaTlebul xarfuxs, roca griSaSvils ara marto icnoben, aramed aseT brwyinvale Sexvedrasac uwyoben. ai, 192

ramdenad win wasula Cveni cxovreba, rarig gazrdila xalxis kulturis done sul raRac 35 wlis manZilze. _ vaSa Cvens sayvarel poets, vaSa mis did adamianobas! _ vaSa, vaSaaa! _ SesZaxa xalxma da mTeli darbazi fexze wamodga. iosebi usazRvrod gaxarebuli iyo am Cemi ubralo mogonebiT, xels marTmevda, mexveoda da bolos sityvac ki CamomarTva, rom usaTuod davuwerdi Cems naambobs. _ damiwere, lado, genacvale, yvelaferi, rac Tqvi. magisTana ambebs me mTlianad vinaxav Cems qaRaldebSi, uTuod damiwere. da mec davpirdi, magram erTxel rom mimaviwyda, mere veRar movabi Tavi. mxolod 1972 wlis gazafxulze gamaxsenda es ambavi da gadavwyvite damewera poetis 83 wlisTavis aRsaniSnav saRamoze wasakiTxavad, poetis saxelobis biblioTekaSi _ xarfuxSi, magram sxvadasxva mizezTa gamo, daswreba ver SevZeli. werili ki „xarfuxeli firuzas“ saTauriT gamoqveynda gazeT „TbilisSi“ (11.08.72). xarfuxi mas saTuTad uyvarda. saamayod hqonda, rom iqaur mTavar quCas misi saxeli _ griSaSvilis quCa _ erqva. rogorc cnobilia, ioseb griSaSvili wignebis namdvili „mususi“ iyo. Tuki sadme dainaxavda mas, maRaziaSi iqneboda is Tu ojaxSi, ar SeiZleboda ar aeRo da Tavidan bolomde ar gadaeTvalierebina. Tu gasayidi iyo da is wigni ar gaaCnda, ukanasknel kapiks ar daiSurebda. roca me 1929-1931 wlebSi saxelgamis sammarTveloSi sagamomcemlo ganyofilebaSi vmuSaobdi, soso xSirad Semodioda CemTan, miT ufro, rom iq, Cem garda, kidev eguleboda keTili megobrebi: pavle sayvareliZe (didi pavle) da saSa abaSeli; aqve xvdeboda xolme megobar mwerlebsac _ goglas, giorgi quCiSvils, mixeil javaxiSvils, daviT kasraZes, Sio mRvimelsa da sxvebs. amasTan, Zalian uyvarda Cveni oTaxis karadaSi axal-axal gamocemaTa daTvaliereba. yovelTvis ise faqizad iyo Cacmuli, wvergaparsuli da damSvenebuli, TiTqos saqorwilod yofiliyos gamzadebuli. oriode miseburi Tbili sityvis Semdeg miadgeboda xolme karadas. _ rame axali Tu miiReT, momeciT Cemi biblioTekisaTvis. sul erTia, sxva waiRebs, Tqven mainc ar dagrCebaT, _ mogvmarTavda soso megobrebs, magram Cven Txovna ar gvWirdeboda, umisodac siamovnebiT vamaragebdiT Cveni gamocemebiT. xolo, roca Seagviandeboda Semosvla da karadaSi axal-axali wignebi dagrovdeboda, misTvis xSirad gadavdebdiT xolme calke TiTo egzemplars. gansakuTrebiT uyvarda Zveli, bukinisturi wignebi. _ kargia es axali wignebi, magram madli mainc ZvelSi ufroa, antikvarulSi. im ZvelSia poezia, misi gadasuli Sriftis oxSivari, magram rom aRarsadaa... rac dro gadis, miT ufro iSviaTia aseTi wignebi. hai, gidi!... ra wawkapuli iyvnen bukinistebi qaSueTis eklesiis qvemoT. ra gindoda, rom ar genaxa im damtveril grovaSi. axlac davdivar, magram aRaraferia. sadac ar unda yofiliyo soso, pirvel rigSi mainc wignebi axsovda da maT SesaZenad arafers iSurebda. 193

erTxel, albaT 1959 wlis damdegs, saRamo Jams, Cveulebisamebr, Seviare sososTan. Cveni im dRis sasaubro, isev da isev, literatura, poezia da wignebi iyo. gamoirkva, rom soso raRac saqmeebis gamo im dReebSi moskovSi midioda da radgan am qalaqs kargad ar icnobda, bevr rames mekiTxeboda. Tanac kmayofili iyo, rom sul male naxavda didi qveynis dedaqalaqs. ucbad, TiTqos raRac saintereso ipovao, gaxarebulma wamoiZaxa: _ marTla, lado, kinaRam damaviwyda! Sen rom moskovSi kargi megobari gyavs, vinc Zvel wignebs ugzavnis Cvens sajaro biblioTekas, modi ra, TaTariaxnad, erTi kargi baraTi mimiwere. mival da axlos gavicnob. Zalian mainteresebs misi naxva, SeiZleba biblioTekac maCvenos Tavisi... _ sosom magidis ujridan fostis qaRaldi amoiRo da win damido. kalamic momirbenina. mec, daaxloebiT, aseTi ram mivwere megobars:

„Tbilisi. 1959 wlis 4 Tebervali, poet griSaSvilis bina. Zvirfaso ivan mixailoviC! am werils gwerT sruliad SemTxveviT. Semoviare Cveulebisamebr Cems megobar poet ioseb griSaSvilTan aqauri respublikuri biblioTekis erT-erT pasuxismgebel TanamSromelTan erTad * da gagixseneT Tqvenc Cveni sajaro biblioTekisaTvis iSviaTi wignebis gamogzavnasTan dakavSirebiT. ucbad ioseb griSaSvilma momitana qaRaldi da kalami da mTxova, mogweroT werili, romelsac piradad gadmogcemT moskovSi Camosvlisas am mokle xanSi. mas didi survili aqvs, gaicnos Tqveni „wignebis muzeumi“. isic xom didi bibliomania TqvensaviT, rogorc ukve gwerdiT amas winaT. uyvars es saqme, masTan erTad aseTi „sulieri naTesavebic“ uyvars, kerZod, Tqvenc uyvarxarT, rogorc wignis didi moyvaruli; is gicnobT Tqven Cemgan da axla unda piradadac ginaxuloT da gagicnoT, rom TviTon dagidasturoT uRrmesi pativiscema. megobruli salmiT lado jafariZe.“
soso metad kmayofili darCa minaweriT da saTuTad Cado gamzadebul konvertSi. rogorc ukve gagacaniT, i.m.sarkizov-serazini didi diapazonis moRvawe iyo, mecnieri da mwerali. is bevrs mogzaurobda sazRvargareT da bevric icoda rogorc Cveni qveynis, agreTve ucxoeTis cxovrebisa. iSviaTi mosaubre gaxldaT da amitom mouTmenlad velodi ioseb griSaSvilis masTan Sexvedras, rac, orive maTganisaTvis sasiamovno unda yofiliyo. magram, samwuxarod, soso ver Sexvda am sasurvel adamians misi iq SemTxveviT aryofnis gamo. igi daRonebuli Semxvda ukve TbilisSi dabrunebuli, ramdenime xnis Semdeg ki ivan mixailoviCisagan Semdegi werili miviRe: Miljy Vladimir Malakieviq! $ tol>ko qto vernuls% iz serdeqnogo sanatori%, v kotorom prole[al dva mes%ca. Doma mne skazali, qto ko mne neodnokratno zvonil kakoy-to gra[danin iz Tbilisi s pis>mom. Ot kogo pis>mo, on ne govoril. Iz Vawey otkrjtki % uznal, qto +tot gra[danin bjl poet Griwawvili. Kaka% dosada, qto % ne poznakomils% s +tim vjdah\ims% po+*

Tamar maWavariani.

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tom Gruzii, kotorogo % oqen> uva[ah i cenh, kak dostoynogo predstavitel% staroy kogortj velikix gruzinskix po+tov. Esli bj mne skazali ([ena i doq>), qto zvonil Griwawvili, % bj ego priglasil k sebe v sanatoriy. Mesto zdes> krasivoe, starje dvor%nskie ugolki turgenevskogo vremeni, qudesnje prudj, mo\njy les, krasiveywie vidj podmoskovi%. Ego bj, kak po+ta, zaxvatilo bj. Prowu Vas izvinit>s% pered nim i ob]%snit> emu, qto bol>njm le[al v sanatorii. Po[elayte t.Griwawvili dal>neywix tvorqeskix uspexov. Moskva. 8 ma% 1959 g. {mu Vawu ruku i dru[eski obnimah. Vaw I.Sarkizov-Serazini Sevwuxdi, magram raRas vizamdi! sanugeSo isRa mqonda, rom didi rusi inteligenti ase Tbilad mwerda Cvens sayvarel poetze. ase kargad ixsenebda mas da gulwrfelad wuxda, maTi Sexvedra rom ar moxda. es didad sasiamovno iyo CemTvis da Tanac saamayo. vicodi, rom sososac gavaxarebdi am ambiT da amitom specialurad wavedi megobarTan am ambis saTqmelad. sosos saxe gaubrwyinda. kidev ufro meti sinanuli gamoTqva im „uiRblobis“ gamo. rac Seexeba mis qebas, bevri laparaki aRar ganagrZo. erTi ki Tqva: eh, ra saqebi varo. marTlac da, Zalian moridebuli iyo, Tavmdabali, Tavaziani. „mgosani var susti, nazio,“ ambobs erT Tavis leqsSi da es, me vfiqrob, pirdapiri azriT ufroa naTqvami, vidre gadataniTi mniSvnelobiT. rodesac aqebdiT, Tavs uxerxulad grZnobda, xolo Tu sxvas Tavad aqebda, guliT da xSirad gadaWarbebiTac. amitom iSviaT warwerebs akeTebda gasaCuqebel wignebze. piradad me bevri maqvs misgan naCuqari wigni da TiTqmis yvelas aqvs martivi da gulwrfeli warwera „Cems megobars“, „Cems Zmas da piris ziarebas,“ „lado jafariZes, poets, mxatvars, ilias pirvel mTargmnels da Cems megobars, moRvawes. siyvarulis da sixarulis niSnad i.griSaSvilisagan. 1958 w. 20.V.“ 1916 Tu 1917 wels foTSi rom davpatiJe da mewvia, Tavisi leqsebis wigns ase waawera: „miyvars me Seni ormagi niWi,

niWi mxatvruli, esTetikuri, da ha, miiRe saCuqrad, lado, es Cemi wigni, es tetiuri“.
werilebsac ise ubralos werda, martivs. SemomrCa 1917w. misgan foTSi mowerili erTi Ria baraTi: g.Poti. Lado D[aparidze, _ ase wers soso misamarTs. kidev kargi, foTSi micnobdnen da ar daikarga umisamarTod mowerili baraTi. maSin jer kidev ar iyo SemoRebuli misamarTis qarTulad wera. teqsti, rasakvirvelia, qarTuladaa dawerili: „lado! gTxov Seni gazeTi, romelic

foTSi gamodis, gamomigzavno aq erTi cali. mec dagexmarebi, Seni i.griSaSvili.“ TariRi araa aRniSnuli, magram fostis beWdis mixedviT gamogzavnilia borjomidan 1917 w. Tavis misamarTs iwereba: „borjomi, sastumro „firuza“. gazeTi, romlis Sesaxebac soso mwers, iyo e.w. „amxanagi,“ romelic gamodioda foTSi 1917 wels, Tebervlis revoluciis Semdeg, socialist-federalistTa jgufis iniciativiT. is sul raRac aTiode nomeri daibeWda. mas redaqtorobda niWieri axalgazrda severiane museriZe. gazeTi „amxanagi“ dRes bibliografiul iSvia195

Tobas warmoadgens da i.griSaSvilma Tavis unikalur biblioTekaSi is srul ganadgurebas gadaarCina. Cems qaRaldebSi sosos erTi werili aRmoCnda. oRond, baraTs me ar mwers. misi adresatia abasTumanSi damsvenebelTa erTi jgufi. konvertze poetis faqizi xeliTaa gamoyvanili misamarTi: „abasTumani, sanatoriumi „aRobili“ da qvemoT adresatebs CamoTvlis: a.loluas, e.jafariZes, i.jafariZes, T.nozaZes, n.saluqvaZes. gamgzavnis misamarTi aseTia: Tbilisi. rusTavelis pr. #2. es aris yofili qarvaslis Senoba (ukve aRebuli), sadac poeti cxovrobda 40-ian wlebSi. werilic iseTi Tbilia, megobruli, rogorc man icoda mxolod.

„Tqveni saaxalwlo molocva miviRe, Cemi leqsebis mkiTxvelebo. gamexarda! Tqveni gulwrfeli sityvebi mafrTovanebs, rom SemdegSi ufro mZlavrad vemsaxuro Cvens did epoqas da sayvarel samSoblos. didi mokiTxva areTas, romelTanac miTamaSnia Tedos roli piesa „msxverplSi.“ dailocos axalgazrdoba! megobrobas araferi sjobia“.
aqve, calke gverdze moyvanilia Semdegi leqsi _ „megobari.“

„momivlia SoTas mxare, mSobliuri mTa da bari, miZebnia, mipovnia guliTadi megobari. visac ar swams megobroba, qurdia da mekobari. amtania, gamtania, mxolod erTi _ megobari. amitomac gamigoneT, gesmaT Cemi naubari: SeiZineT, SeiZineT, SeiZineT megobari. i.griSaSvili“.
_ Oba%tel>njy! _ Tqva erTma Cemma rusma megobarma misi misamarTiT. albaT Semoqmedebac mitom hqonda iseTive momxibvleli, jansaRi da ZarRvmagari. i.griSaSvilis leqsebi gazeT „cnobis furcelSi“ („saxalxo furcelSi“) ibeWdeboda da maTi danaxva gazeTis gverdebze dResaswauli iyo CvenTvis _ axalgazrdebisaTvis. magram, samwuxarod, arc ise xSiri iyo aseTi dResaswauli _ iSviaTad Tu gamoereoda; samagierod, namdvili sixaruli da siamovneba iyo. tyuilad ar uTqvamT Cvens winaprebs: dailocos yvelaferi, rac iSviaTiao. Cans, zomiereba uyvardaT da afasebdnen mxolod imas, rac Tavsayrelad ar hqondaT. _ griSaSvilis leqsia dRes gazeTSi!.. _ vaxarebdiT erTimeores da Tan im leqsis oriode pwkars zepirad vkiTxulobdiT. magaliTad:

„SeiTanbazars rom gascdeba TaTris folorci, trioletiviT davyialob gaRma-gamoRma...“
mogvwonda riTmaTa simdidre da originaloba, Zveli Tbilisis, Zveli gmirebisa da poetebis xseneba da es sityvebi didxans gvadga enaze:

„miyvars Tbilisi! irakliviT mudam mSfoTari! da msurs aq movkvde, rom misi mze swvavdes Cems kubos. an msurs, mtkvris talRam orTaWalis xrams damagubos (miyvars Tbilisi, irakliviT mudam mSfoTari). da me ar minda sxva anderZi araviTari: axliCeT mwvadi... sTqviT leqsebi... aJRereT Tari...
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rom saiqios saiaTnova ar wameCxubos! miyvars Tbilisi! irakliviT mudam mSfoTari da msurs aq movkvde, rom misi mze swvavdes Cems kubos“.
_ Semoalaje, lado!.. _ metyoda xolme, roca saRamo Jams megobrebi binaze mivakiTxavdiT. mas stumari ar dahklebia, rac lamazi ojaxi aawyo da diasaxlisic mSvenieri Sexvda _ stumarTmoyvare, guluxvi da gulkeTili, yvelasaTvis sayvareli da pativsacemi qeTo jafariZe. me ar maxsovs, am SesaniSnav ojaxSi mivsuliyavi da iq vinme ar damxvedroda _ an sosos axloblebi da megobrebi, an qeTos sasurveli adamianebi. ra jobda maTTan mxiarul baass... Tina jafariZe _ qeTos da _ rusTavelis Teatris msaxiobi da misi qmari _ emanuil afxaiZe; sosos diswuli, misi biblioTeka-muzeumis gamge, ani ciciSvili meuRliTurT; respublikuri biblioTekis cnobili bibliografi Tamar maWavariani; poetis vaJi vaxtangi, moqandake zaqaria krawaSvili da mravali sxva, vinc me sosos ojaxSi Semxvedria, saukeTeso adamianebi iyvnen, sosos sxva megobar mwerlebTan erTad. i.griSaSvilis bedi is iyo, rom xandazmulobis Jams igi Sexvda SesaniSnav, erTgul meuRlesa da megobars _ qeTo jafariZes. Tu manamde namdvil bohemur, daudegar cxovrebas eweoda, qeTosTan SeuRlebis Semdeg wynari, nanatri cxovrebis Jami daudga. mTavrobamac SesaniSnavi, sakadrisi bina gamouyo leninis quCaze. rogorc iqna, mieca „sadguri myudroebisa“. qeTo daibada da aRizarda iurist konstantine jafariZis ojaxSi. leqsebs konstantinec werda da beWdavda kidec, magram, samwuxarod, yvela isini periodikaSia gabneuli da erT krebulSi moqceva ar Rirsebia. Tumca, misi erTi sakmaod mniSvnelovani naSromi mainc momeZeveba, romelsac Tuki vinme upatronebs, momavali TaobebisTvis ar daikargeba. da vin icis, vis raSi dasWirdes. es gaxlavT mixeil lermontovis poema „demonis“ Targmani. is calke wignakad 1928 wels TbilisSia gamocemuli da 1929 wlis dekemberSi, masTan ojaxSi stumrobisas, Tavad mTargmnelma _ Zvirfasma konstantinem misaCuqra saTanado Tbili warweriT. Targmani ase iwyeba:

„demon mwuxare, suli devnili, codvili miwis zeviT frinavda. ukeTes dReTa mogonebani, mis win Seyrilni, idgen mwkrivada“.
magram k.jafariZe (da bevri sxva niWieri pirovneba) Cveni literaturuli cxovrebis fonze ar Candnen, radgan im dros poets sxva moTxovnilebebs uyenebdnen. is unda yofiliyo beladi, mebairaxtre, winaswarmetyveli, nacionaluri da socialuri sakiTxebis wina planze wamomwevi, moqalaqeobrivi principebis erTguli. maSin Cveni ideali iyo poeti-mebrZoli, poeti-meTauri da winamZRoli. marTalia, qeTo jafariZem umaRlesi saswavlebeli TbilisSi daamTavra da Semdeg germaniaSic swavlobda, laureatobac daimsaxura, rogorc saxelovanma momReralma, magram mas yvelaferze 197

metad qaluri mokrZaleba da sifaqize amSvenebda, rac, Tavis did adamianobasa da silamazesTan erTad, uxvad hqonda momadlebuli. omis dros sverdlovskSi momixda mogzauroba da roca Cems gvars gaigonebdnen xolme, yvela imwamsve qeTo jafariZis Sesaxeb SemekiTxeboda. aqebdnen da adidebdnen, rogorc mSvenier momReralsa da didebul adamians. qeTom iSviaTi megobroba gauwia Tavis sosos, uvlida da patara bavSviviT Tavs evleboda. emanuil afxaiZem tyuilad ki ar uTxra qeTos mis iubileze Cveuli oxunjobiT: „Sen miTi xar mogebuli, sosoze xar morgebuli“-o. es iubile qeTos madlierma Cvenma sazogadoebriobam 1959 wlis 27 ianvars mouwyo. xelovnebis muSakTa saxlSi maxaraZis * quCaze teva ar iyo. qeTo Rirseulad Seamkes Cveni sazogadoebis warmomadgenlebma. qeTomac axalgazrdoba gaixsena da Tavisi lamazi simReriT damswreTa yurTasmena daatkbo. ukve vTqvi, misalmebiT msaxiobi emanuil afxaiZec gamovida. darbazi smenad gadaiqca. misi enamoswrebuloba yvelas xiblavda. _ iSviaT adamians, saucxoo momRerals, Zvirfas qeTos, _ daiwyo emanuilma da waikiTxa Semdegi leqsi:

momRerali, moqalaqe gagebuli. eh, ramdeni taSi gaxsovs da fulebi aRebuli. sxvaze zrunva! es cxovreba Sen ase gaqvs agebuli. vinc sxvas Svelis, arasodes ar iqneba wagebuli. Tumca bevrjer gagamwares, dagikodes, mokles guli. magram mainc msuqnada xar, sul ara xar moklebuli. ar gvenaxos Seni guli gadaRlili, SeniRbuli, ar gvenaxos Seni suli Serisxuli _ Senisluli. Sen imiT xar mogebuli, sosoze xar morgebuli. aq damswreTa survilia, erTi saqme gavakeToT: sanam ZalgiZs, estradidan fexi TviT ar aRikveTo. mogisminoT, yvelas gveTqvas: „Cveni qeTo, Cveni qeTo...“ da knavila momRerlebi gagvifanto, dagvifeTo. ragind niWiT Sevimoso, mainc mjobnis Seni soso.“
qeTom am Sexvedraze araerTi simRera Seasrula da damswre sazogadoeba Zalze asiamovna. is saRamo, SeiZleba iTqvas, misi namdvili „gedis simRera“ iyo. Semdeg sajarod gamosuli aRarc minaxavs. mTeli Zala da energia ojaxur cxovrebas, sayvareli meuRlis movla-patronobas miuZRvna. gaitaca ojaxurma cxovrebam, sayvarel megobarTan urTierTobam. mTeli dReebi ojaxur saqmeebs dastrialebda da sosos janmrTelobaze zrunavda, uvlida bavSviviT, xolo roca meuRle gardaecvala, yvelaferi gaakeTa sosos anderZis Sesasruleblad. dasaflavebis dRes da wlisTavzec Tavis farTo binaSi Tavi mouyara sosos megobrebsa da pativismcemlebs da, Zveli Cveulebisamebr, gardacvlili moigones ise, rogorc poetma erT leqsSi dawera: _ axliCeT mwvadi... sTqviT leqsebi... aJRereT Tari!..
*

„iSviaTi

axlandeli qiqoZis q.

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mere vin aRar iyo iq. auarebeli xalxi!... TiTqmis mTeli Tbilisi. mis Semdeg qeTosac aRar ucocxlia didxans. igi dasaflavebulia didubis panTeonSi. i.griSaSvili saintereso pirovneba gaxldaT: yvelaferi sasiamovno iyo masSi, yvelaferi mimzidveli. adamianebTan keTil damokidebulebas uadvilebda auRelvebeli da mSvidi xasiaTi, Tavmdabloba da ubraloeba. rogor koxtad aRadgenda xolme Zvel wignebs! leqss werda Tu narkvevs, yvelafers didi dakvirvebiTa da pasuxisgeblobis grZnobiT asrulebda. gamorCeulad aRelvebda Zveli, gardasuli cxovrebis wesi, nivTebi Tu sityvebi, afiSebi, arRani... duduki, krivi... Widaoba... da mainc, upirvelesad Zveli wignebi iwvevdnen mis gansakuTrebul interess... guls sxvagvarad uCqrolebda maTi „furclebis nesti da Jangi“.

_ me Semiyvarda Zvel wignebis nesti da Jangi! vetrfi yovelgvar Zvel danaSToms, Zvel natamalsa. ax, netav im dros, roca swerda „dasturlamalsa“ mefe vaxtangi!...
1918 wlis maisSi gazeT „saxalxo furcelSi“ i.griSaSvilma dabeWda erTi leqsi, sadac is pirdapir acxadebda:

„miyvarda tuCi! _ da SeviZage, TviT alerssac ki vetyvi uarsa. rad minda vardi, rad minda bage! dRes saqarTvelo jvars iwers... jvarsa... da me damkocnis sxva angelozi da mec dReidan dameufleba Tavisufleba saqarTvelosi da Cemi leqsis Tavisufleba!“
ase rom, didma politikurma Zvrebma i.griSaSvilis literaturul interesebs sakmaod didi saxecvlilebac ganacdevina da misi poeziis intimur-satrfialo Tema sazogadoebriv-moqalaqeobrivi motivebiT Seicvala. am Temaze bevri kargi leqsi aqvs poets, magram mexsierebaSi yvelaze ufro Rrmad misi „daTovlili medroSe“ CamrCa. es leqsi avtorma valerian gunias miuZRvna da mis iubileze waikiTxa pirvelad ara ugvianes 1920 wlisa. rogorc cnobilia, v.gunia pirveli iyo, vinc oblad darCenil ioseb griSaSvils patronoba gauwia da misi gzis winamZRoloba ikisra. poeti mTeli Tavisi sicocxlis manZilze amJRavnebda misdami uRrmes pativiscemas da meore mSobel mamas uwodebda. es leqsi, albaT, ufro amitomac CamrCa mexsierebaSi. gazafxuli iyo. ara marto bunebaSi, politikur cxovrebaSic didi cvlilebebis sasixarulo Jami dadga. qarTuli sazogadoebrioba cnobil msaxiobs da sazogado moRvawes valerian gunias iubiles umarTavda. aseTi ambavi im dros jer kidev iSviaTobas warmoadgenda, radgan mefis mTavroba Znelad Tu dasTanxmdeboda romelime qarTveli moRvawisaTvis iubilis gamarTvas. am zeimSi farTo sazogadoebam miiRo monawileoba. me, rogorc araerTxel miTqvams, im dros foTSi vmuSaobdi. adgilobrivma dramatulma sazogadoebam 199

pativi damdo da iubileze Tavis warmomadgenlad mimavlina foTis sazogadoebriobis saxeliT misasalmebeli sityvis saTqmelad. operis TeatrSi teva ar iyo. misalmeba misalmebas mosdevda. bolos ioseb griSaSvili gamovida da valerianisadmi miZRvnili leqsi ubadlo deklamaciiT ise waikiTxa, rom mquxare ovaciam kedlebi Seazanzara. ai, es leqsic:

„_ amiranma dafqva jaWvi, cxramTas iqiT gadiara. Sen SeTovldi! da Sens ersac gaumTelda kvlav iara...“ „_ xom aRsrulda Seni fiqri da qarTvelebs sxva ra gvinda? ha, asi wlis nanatri sul erT wamSi dagvirgvinda!...“ „_ ar SevdrkebiT, ragind mteri Cvens winaRmdeg maxes qsovdes, unda aRdges saqarTvelo _ exla, anda ... arasodes!... “
_ „yvela tuCze vardi mReris, _ ganagrZobs poeti, _ yvelas Rimi dRes atyvia, dRes kacismkvlel tyviis nacvlad _ mozuzunebs taSis tyvia!...“ dasasrul poetma mimarTa damswreT:

„da Tqven, xalxo, Tu odesme mogiZRvniaT CemTvis qeba, Tu yofila Tqvens TvalebSi Cemi leqsis aSuqeba, Tu odesme mec vyofilvar siyvarulis ustabaSi da scenaze gamosvlisas Tu dagikravT CemTvis taSi, igi taSi, igi qeba, ah, mekuTvnis me ki ara, es ekuTvnis Cems valikos, vinc me leqsebs maziara, vinc me mzrdida balRobidan, vis veZaxdi mSobel mamas, me ara var taSis Rirsi, is ekuTvnis amas... amas...“
deklamatoris iubilarisaken STambeWdavad gawvdilma xelma, efeqturi tonalobiT, anu wamRerebasaviT wamoZaxilma „amas... amas!...“ gamaognebeli STabeWdileba moaxdina... iubilari _ didi msaxiobi da erovnuli moRvawe valerian gunia _ uZravad idga da olimpoze mdgar zevss mogagonebdaT... im wuTebSi Zneli gasarCevi iyo, vis ufro ekuTvnoda is dausrulebeli ovacia da visi misamarTiT ufro quxda xalxis erTsulovani taSi. me xSirad vyofilvar mowme ioseb griSaSvilis scenaze gamosvlisa da misi misamarTiT aRfrTovanebuli ovaciebisa, magram aseTi erTsulovani aRtaceba me ar maxsovs. es raRac gansakuTrebuli iyo, raRac iSviaTi. axlac ise mkafiod Camesmis xolme „is ekuTvnis amas... amas!...“, TiTqos guSin iyoo. soso, rogorc ukve vTqvi, Zalze moridebuli gaxldaT. did SekrebilobebSi ar uyvarda yofna, xalxs Tavs aridebda. erTxel, raRac mizezis gamo, wveuleba ganvizraxe. davpatiJe xalxi. sososac da qeTosac vTxove mwveodnen. dampirdnen, siamovnebiTo. magram, ra mere, arc soso da arc qeTo ar movidnen. Sevwuxdi, vifiqre, avad Tu gaxdnen-meTqi da ambis gasagebad maTTan Seviare. orive saR-salamaTi damxvda. bodiSi momixades, ufro ki sosom, _ gavige, auarebeli xalxi gyolia da, xom ici, rogor veridebi aseT ambebs, aseT Tavyrilobaze ra cudad vgrZnob Tavs. Tan Ramis gatexvas ver vitan. qeToc uCemod marto aRar wamovida. 200

gulwrfeli iyo es ganmarteba da mec kmayofili davrCi. miyvarda masTan baasi, misi tkbili saubari. erTxel Tavisi unikaluri biblioTeka damaTvalierebina. binaSi yvelaze didi oTaxi misTvis mieCina. auarebeli wigni mwyobrad hqonda dalagebuli Taroebze. mikvirda, rogor audioda maT movlas! yvelafers dawvrilebiT mixsnida da, Tanac, zogierT maTgans iseTi mZafri interesiT furclavda, TiTqos pirvelad ecnobao. Zveli arRanic maCvena. „gadaatriala“ kidec da samoTxis xmebad Cagvesma orives misi ZvelisZveli hangebi. iqve idga misi biusti, misi skulpturuli portreti, romelic moqandake zaqaria krawaSvils gamoeZerwa didi ostatobiT. gavida sakmao xani, rac soso aRar menaxa. samsaxuri da yoveldRiuri cxovrebiseuli ambebi imden drosa da energias marTmevda, rom survilebi ganze mrCeboda. erTxel me da Cemi meuRle leninis quCiT vakisaken mivdiodiT. Semodgomis mziani dRe iyo da Cvenc auCqareblad mivabijebdiT. jer kidev Soridan SevamCnieT, rom belinskis quCaze gamomavali fanjridan (mesame sarTulze) soso da qeTo quCas gadmohyurebdnen. gagvixarda maTi danaxva. imaTac SegvamCnies da aRfrTovanebiT gviqnevdnen xels. soso Tavis qudsac aqnevda da Sin mepatiJeboda. _ SemoalajeT, lado, orivem, _ CamogvZaxoda zemodan, SemodiT, ra! _ magram saimiso dro ar gvqonda da Sesvla ver movaxerxeT. „mere SemovivliT“, _ SevZaxeT gamoTxovebisas, magram tyuilad ar uTqvamT Zvelebs, _ „gadadebuli saqme eSmakisaao“ da Cvenc Seusrulebeli dagvrCa dapireba. * 1965 wlis aprilis Sua ricxvebSi gazeT „komunistSi“ akademikos giorgi jiblaZis werili wavikiTxe, sadac avtori didi guliswuxiliT mouTxrobda qarTul sazogadoebriobas, Tu rogor unugeSo mdgomareobaSi ixila misi da mTeli qarTveli xalxis usayvarlesi mgosani ioseb griSaSvili. Tavis sagulisxmo werils pativcemuli giorgi ase amTavrebda:

„mimdinare (1965) wlis 23 aprils igi (i.griSaSvili) unda daeswros Tavisi cxovrebis samocdameTeqvsmete gazafxuls. es ar iqneba misTvis Cveuli poeturi gazafxuli, romelsac winaT axali simRerebiT egebeboda. magram man mTeli cxovreba qarTuli leqsis uangaro samsaxurs Sealia. vinc saxelovnad daiferfla poeziis grZneul parnasze da Tavisi eris sulieri kultura gaamdidra, misTvis savaldebulo aRar aris didebis axal gvirgvinebs wnavdes; mas SeuZlia daimedebuli iyos, rom xalxis mier sayovelTaod aRiarebuli Zveli gvirgvinebic yovelTvis axal poetur gazafxuls miulocaven“.
werilTan erTad moTavsebulia s.kilaZis mier gadaRebuli poetis fotosuraTi, saidanac aSkarad Cans misi avadmyofoba. yvelaferma aman guli matkina da, gansakuTrebiT, poetis fotom. bevri vifiqre, wavsuliyav Tu ara, radgan vSiSobdi, ar Semewuxebina Cemi misvliT. bolos mainc gadavwyvite wasvla, raTa erTxel kidev menaxa Zvirfasi megobari. 201

vnaxe kidec (es iyo 1965 wlis 16 maiss) da Cemi mZime STabeWdileba Sin mosvlisTanave Cavwere rvulSi. minda poetze es mogonebebi im naucbadevad dawerili Cemi STabeWdilebebiT davamTavro: ,,16.V.65. dRes soso griSaSvilTan viyavi. karga xania, aRar minaxavs, veraa kargad. samwuxarod, sul saxlSi zis da gareT veRar gamodis. davureke da telefonTan qeTo movida. _ cudadaa, genacvale, _ miTxra man, _ magram, Tu moxval, ar iqneba urigo, egeba esiamovnos Seni naxva. wavedi. kari mosamsaxure qalma gamiRo, magram zarze qeTomac gamoixeda, momegeba gulTbilad da misaRebi oTaxisken gamiZRva. iq ganier divanze ijda soso, marto, rogorc yovelTvis, sufTad Cacmuli. lamazi piJamos qveS TeTrad gaqaTqaTebuli perangi mouCanda. axali gaparsuli iyo da Tavze misi sayvareli kaxuri qudi exura. iatakis erT wertils misCereboda gayinuli TvalebiT. _ soso, genacvale, ai, ra gaxaro! _ mimarTa qeTom, _ Sexede vin mosula! Seni lado! xom icani? miesalme, genacvale, Sens lados... sosom Tavi aswia da gaqvavebuli saxe Cemken moabruna. nela, gaWirvebiT... kargad damakvirda, warbebi SeWmuxna, TiTqos mexsierebas iSveliebso da... ucbad Zirs daSvebuli mklavebi gamoiSvira, momkida xeli, mimizida da gulSi Camikra... tiroda... gulamomjdari tiroda, Cumad, unugeSod. _ rogora xar, soso, genacvale? _ Zlivs vaxerxebdi xmis amoRebas da Tan gulSi vnanobdi, rom Cemi misvliT tkivili mivayene. soso momCerebia cremlebiT savse TvalebiT da sdums... raRacis Tqma unda, magram ver axerxebs... saxeze cremlebi Camosdis, ena ar emorCileba, rom raRac miTxras, Tundac erTi sityva. _ eh, am sabralos iseTi ubedureba ewia, rom xmis amoRebas veRar axerxebs, _ ambobs acremlebuli qeTo, _ magis codviT aRara var... me vzivar garindebuli da xmas ver viReb. _ kargi, genacvalos qeTo, kargi, Torem Sewuxdeba Seni lado... xom gsiamovnebs, roca modis xolme? hoda, aba, rogor movides, Sen Tu ase Sewuxdebi mis yovel mosvlaze?! is ki zis TavCakidebuli da gulamomjdari qviTinebs, qviTinebs sacodavad... gabruebuli avdeqi da mZime STabeWdilebiT daTrgunuli wamovedi... bednieri iyo griSaSvili, Tavis mowodebas rom misdia da cxovrebis mizans ewia. im gzam qarTuli poeziis parnasze aiyvana! TbilisSi, leninis * quCaze, belinskis † quCis kuTxeSi lamazi xuTsarTuliani saxli dgas. mis sadarbazoSi Sesasvlels marmarilos memorialuri dafa amSvenebs, romelzedac ioseb griSaSvilis saxis bareliefia amotvirfuli. qvemoT ki warweraa:
* †

axla kostavas axla WoveliZis

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„am saxlSi 1951-1965 w.w. cxovrobda saqarTvelos saxalxo poeti akademikosi oiseb griSaSvili“.
TiTqos axlac amCnevia sosos fexis nakvalevi am adgils!... magram is ukve istoriis kuTvnilebaa. dResac, roca belinskis quCaze gavivli xolme, sosos yofili binis fanjaras Sevxedav da ase mgonia, qeTosTan erTad ager-ager gamoCndeba da sixaruliT gadmomZaxebs: _ Semoalaje, lado, CvenTan!...

ipolite varTagava
ipolite petres Ze varTagava Cemze daaxloebiT oci wliT iyo ufrosi, magram es asaki srulebiT ar uSlida xels Cvens did megobrul urTierTobasa da siyvaruls. aTeuli wlebis manZilze xSirad mixdeboda masTan binaze stumroba galaktion tabiZis quCaze, sadac qmnida Tavis mSvenier mogonebebsa Tu kritikul werilebs, sadac stumrobda misi didi namowafari Tbilisis sasuliero seminariidan _ galaktion tabiZe agreTve, leo qiaCeli da sxvani, ufrosebi Tu umcrosebi, romelTa Soris viyaviT mec da Cemi tyupiscali griSac, baton ipolites kolega goris pedagogiuri institutidan. batoni ipolite da Cemi Zma Zalze axlos iyvnen erTmaneTTan, magram es megobroba manamde grZeldeboda, sanam erTad msaxurobdnen gorSi da erTad uxdebodaT iq siaruli. griSas gardacvalebis Semdeg batonma ipolitem Cemi Zmis siyvaruli Cemze gadmoitana. mis gulSi darCenili megobris xsovnas erTi mSvenieri mogoneba miuZRvna, romelic, patara baraTTan erTad, saxlSi gamomigzavna. es iyo 1962 wlis 20 Tebervals. baraTSi vkiTxulobT:

“Zvirfaso lado! salami! gigzavni mcire mogonebas griSas Sesaxeb. Cemma, Rrma moxucebuli adamianis, mexsierebam meti cnobebi ver Semoinaxa mis Sesaxeb. sxva saWiro faqtobrivi masala, samwuxarod, me ar mqonda. erTi dRis ganmavlobaSi da isic karnaxiT daiwera, magram ra gaewyoba! naTqvamia: „suliT da guliT miZRvnili mciredic Seiwirebiso.“ siyvaruliT ip.varTagava P.S. Tu rame Secdoma da Seusabamoba naxoT, waSaleT. i.v.“
didi siyvaruliT CavikiTxe es baraTi da kidev erTxel vigrZeni, rom megobrul siyvaruls Rrma moxucebulobis asakic ki ver aqrobs. rodesac ipolite varTagavam Cems Zmas mogoneba miuZRvna, 90 wlis moxuci iyo. im asakSi rakiRa wera Tavad aRar SeeZlo, Tavis nanax-nafiqrals axloblebs karnaxobda. am mxriv mas did samsaxurs uwevdnen qaliSvili Tina, sofelSi dasvenebisas _ rZali nina, xolo zogjer SviliSvilebi tarieli da avTandili. ase karnaxiT dawera man Tavisi „Tanamedrove qarTveli mwerlebi,“ romelic mis sicocxleSive dasabeWdad moamzada gamomcemloba „sabWoTa saqarTvelom“, uSualod misi maSindeli direqto203

ris elguja maRraZis iniciativiT. magram, samwuxarod, avtoris gardacvalebidan ramdenime wlis mere gamoica mxolod. maxsovs is dReebi, rodesac aRniSnuli wigni gamoCnda qalaqSi; elviseburad gaqra mTeli misi tiraJi, magram mTavari es rodi iyo: umTavresi is gaxldaT, rom misma avtorma sruliad axleburad gaiazra misi mrwemi Taobis Semoqmedeba da yovel maTgans namdvilad poeturi sagalobeli uZRvna. ramden axalgazrdas gaexsna WeSmariti Semoqmedebis gza, manamde mavanTa da mavanTa wyalobiT saguldagulod Caketili rom iyo. mokled, am wignma maSin mTeli literaturuli samyaro aalaparaka. gadaWarbebuli ar iqneba vTqva, rom am wigniT gamowveuli aRtaceba dRemde ar ganelebula, rogorc ar ganelebula vaJas Semoqmedebaze misi gamoxmaurebiTa da vaJas sapasuxo werilis eqoTi gamowveuli STabeWdileba. gadavikiTxe baton ipolites mier Cems Zmaze dawerili mogoneba da iseTi STabeWdileba damrCa, TiTqos Cemi Zma gacocxlda, mkvdreTiT aRdga. Seusabamoba, ra Tqma unda, araferi SeminiSnavs da kidec rom SemeniSna, Tavs uflebas rogor mivcemdi, Semesworebina. am mogonebis daweris Semdeg ipolite varTagavam kidev xuTi weli icocxla, xuTi SemoqmedebiTi weli, radgan ukanasknel dReebamde qmnida, azrovnebda da karnaxobda. manamde ki erTad davdiodiT Tbilisis maswavlebelTa saxlTan arsebul literaturul wreSi, romelsac mwerali, mTargmneli da leqtori savle abulaZe xelmZRvanelobda. Cven, amasTanave, Tavisufal dros davdiodiT Tbilisis medmuSakTa i.WavWavaZis saxelobis kulturis saxlTan arsebul literaturul wreSi, romelsac TiTqmis ormoci wlis manZilze ucvlelad xelmZRvanelobda ukeTilSobilesi adamiani, mwerali ioseb pavliaSvili. da ai, am wrem dabadebidan 90 wlis iubile gadauxada ipolite varTagavas. ra Tqma unda, daibeWda mosawvevi baraTi, romlis garekanze moTavsebulia naxevrad profilSi gadaRebuli suraTi da am suraTis qveS misive sityvebi, romelic jer ioseb noneSvilma dabeWda „literaturul gazeTSi“, xolo Semdeg Sevida mwerlis zemoxsenebul wignSi. es sityvebi amoRebuli iyo SoTa niSnianiZis Semoqmedebisadmi miZRvnili werilidan: „kidev ramdenime weli da mzada var, amoviRo saukunis gasaRebi jibidan.“ magram am gasaRebis amoReba mxcovan mwerals aRar dascalda da aRniSnuli saiubileo saRamos Semdeg male gardaicvala. dauviwyari iyo es saRamo. mas eswreboda saqarTvelos maSindeli kaTalikos-patriarqi, baton ipolites namowafari Tbilisis sasuliero seminariidan efrem II, romelic gulmxurvaled miesalma Tavis saxelovan maswavlebels. gamosulTa Soris iyvnen: mwerali ioseb pavliaSvili da poeti SoTa xodaSneli, agreTve Tavad iubilari, romelsac fexze dgoma aRar SeeZlo da pirdapir savarZlidan laparakobda:

_ me rom TviT mweralTa kavSirSiac mivewvieT, romlis Camoyalibebasa da Senobis xelSi CagdebaSi, kote mayaSvilTan erTad, erT-erTi upirvelesi wvlili mimiZRvis, an romelime TeatrSi gadawyvetiliyo Cemi saiubileo saRamos mowyoba, arsad ar mivcemdi
204

Tanxmobas, garda am literaturuli wrisa, am istoriuli Senobisa, sadac TviT didi ilia WavWavaZe msaxurobda da xelmZRvanelobda Tavad-aznurTa banks, sadac mas seifi hqonda, sadac is fiqrobda qarTveli eris bedze. swored am didma adamianma pirvelad mikurTxa Cemi patara kalami da jer kidev yazanis sasuliero akademiis students farTod gamixsna gazeT „iveriis“ redaqciis karebi. madloba mis naTel aCrdils, romelsac TiTqos aq vxedav... Cvens Soris... ai, ratom aris dRevandeli saRamo CemTvis Zvirfasi, ai, ratom movedi dRes aq _ 90 wlis moxuci adamiani. Tqven ki, yovel aq damswres, did madlobas gwiravT im Tbili sityvebisa da keTili survilebisaTvis, rac Tqven Cem misamarTiT warmoTqviT. me Rrmad moxuci... mivedi iseT asakamde, rom ukve Sevanele muSaoba da ai, axlaa saWiro namdvili gamamxnevebeli SeZaxili sazogadoebisa, raTa Cvenma energiam isev ifeTqos da Zveleburad Seisxas frTebi... da Tu Tqveni survili axda, Tu marTla mivaRwie saukunis Wers, maSin isev amoval am scenaze, saukunis gasaRebs amoviReb da yvelas daglocavT...
mimsalmebelTa Soris viyavi mec. bevri ram gavaxsene Zvirfas iubilars da bolos vukurTxe is marjvena, romelsac igi arTmevda did ilias, vaJasa Tu akakis... es saRamo da ipolite varTagavas gamosvla gedis simRera aRmoCnda: mwerali male aResrula da, Tumca saukunes bevri aRaraferi uklda, mainc samwuxaro iyo iseTi kacis sikvdili, romelic Tavisi sicocxliT amTelebda mecxramete da meoce saukuneebs. dRes igi mSvidad ganisvenebs didubis mweralTa da sazogado moRvaweTa panTeonSi da umwikvlo patiosneba Saravandedad adgas mis naTel saxels.

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saqarTvelos damoukidebloba
mogonebebis es krebuli papaCemis sicocxleSive (1981 wlis noembramde) iyo gamosacemad momzadebuli. mogexsenebaT, am krebulSi ver Sevidoda mogonebebi saqarTvelos damoukideblobaze da Semdgom mis dapyrobaze bolSevikuri ruseTis mier. papaCems vTxove daewera mogonebebi orive movlenaze, radgan igi TviTmxilveli iyo yovelivesi. vuTxari, es mogonebebi ar gamoqveyndeba (maSin sabWoTa periodi gaxldaT), magram STamomavlobas mainc darCeba TviTmxilvelis naambobi-meTqi. man es Txovna Semisrula da damitova warweriT „daTosTvis“. axla meZleva saSualeba, gamovaqveyno orive, rasac didi siamovnebiT vakeTeb. daTo maWavariani.

Cemi werili griSasTan, romelic im dros oCamCireSi muSaobda gimnaziis direqtoris Tanamdebobaze:
Tbilisi 1920 w. martis pirveli. orSabaTi. Zvirfaso griSa! ver iqna da ver movigde xelSi dro, rom guldasmiT davmjdariyav da SenTvis werili momewera. iseTi ki ara, rom „Cven kargada varT da Tqven rogora xarT-meTqi“, aramed ufro dawvrilebiT, ufro bunebiTi. dro, marTalia, arc ise maqvs danawilebuli, rom verodes movicalo, magram, samagierod, uadgiloba (saTanado adgilis arqona) ufro miSlis xels. Senc ici, Tu rogori mowyobili varT Cvens binaze. im patara oTaxSi ukve xabakebis meti araferia (sxva aRaraferi eteva) da amitom yvelam Tavi moviyareT wina oTaxSi; didi da patara erTad varT, sasadiloc isaa, sastumroc da sawolic; da aba, rodis unda davjde da an sad, rom werili davwero guldasmiT! swored axla mivxvdi, Tu ra cxovreba damikargnia foTis datovebiT. gaxsovs, ra bednierad vcxovrobdi iq sakuTar saxlSi, ra mowyobili! mere ra saxli! axla samsaxurs ar ityvi? is samsaxurs ki ara, samflobelos ufro hgavda da sabatonos. mowyobilic mSvenieri. aq ki _ didi pasuxismgebloba da didi muSaoba, jamagiri ki patara. erTaderTi preimu\estvo am Cemi axali mdgomareobisa isaa, rom foTis malarias movSordi da Tbilisis jansaRi haeriT vsargeblob. magram, samagierod, malaria aq jibes gauCnda. Cemi mezobeli mosamarTle, romelTanac erT kabinetSi vzivar, didi xania „yrilobazea“ gawveuli da iq muSaobs, misi ubanic me mabaria; ase rom, Tumca muSaoba meti maqvs, magram simartoviT vsargeblob da, ai, vixelTe kidec dro, rom Sen erTi kargi guliani werilic mogwero. vzivar sul marto Cems ganier kabinetSi da aravin mawuxebs, miT ufro, rom msaxuri myavs Zveli mosamarTlidan darCenili, rusi, yofili jariskaci, iseTi disciplinirebuli, rom CemTan aravis uSvebs umoxsenebod. sul „smenad“ dgas. Sen Semdeg, rac aqedan waxvedi, Cemo griSa, aq bevri ambavi datrialda. madloba RmerTs, rom mamaCemma yvelaferi es Tavisi TvaliT ixila! da Zalian kmayofilic iyo, miTumetes, rom swored im dros mouxda Camosvla, roca saqarTvelos damoukideblobis miRebis cnoba movida sazRvargareTidan. didebuli mziani 206

dReebi idga. Cvens sasamarTloSi 12 saaTze gavrcelda xma am aRmtaci ambis Sesaxeb. me im dros sxdoma mqonda da or saaTamde ver gavTavisufldi. mere ki, mogeca RvTis wyaloba, wavedi, rasakvirvelia, saxlisaken gaveqane pirdapir. qalaqi mTlad „gabdRialebuli“ iyo erovnuli droSebiT. tramvai Sewyvetiliyo, radgan muSebma manifestaciaSi monawileobis miReba moindomes. rusTavelis prospeqti savse iyo xalxiT... gasakviria, yvelaferi ise ucbad moxda... saidan gaigo ase swrafad yvelam, rom aseTi xalxmravali manifestacia moewyo. samwuxarod, me sakmaod Semagvianda da veRar mivuswari im aRfrTovanebul sityvebs, romlebic warmoeTqvaT sasaxlis aivnidan noe Jordanias da mTavrobis sxva wevrebs, agreTve damfuZnebeli krebis deputatebs. udidesi aRfrTovaneba gamefebuliyo... vin vis ar hkocnida da exveoda... aRdgomis dResaswauli gegoneboda, sofelSi rom ician eklesiis galavanSi aRdgomis wirvis damTavrebisas... mec, rasakvirvelia, gaverie xalxSi, megobrebSi, nacnobebSi; mamaCemic da daTikoc iq iyvnen da erTad vxarobdiT. im dResve damfuZnebeli krebis prezidiumis da mTavrobis sxdomaze gadaewyvitaT, aeSvaT sasaxlis Tavze erovnuli droSa (Standarti) nacvlad wiTeli droSisa, romelic iq frialebda revoluciis pirveli dRis Semdeg. Senc kargad warmoidgen, Cemo griSa, Tu ra aRtacebas gamoiwvevda yovel qarTvelSi parlamentis Tavze saqarTvelos erovnuli droSis afrialeba!... erTi kia, gorSi momxdari samwuxaro ambis (miwisZvris) gamo, niSnad glovisa, mTavrobis dadgenilebiT axla is daxrilia... im dReebSi _ am erTi kviris win _ sazRvargareTidan akaki Cxenkeli Camovida romelsac moxseneba unda waekiTxa, saqarTvelos saerTaSoriso mdgomareobis Sesaxeb saxelmwifo (saopero) TeatrSi. mec da mamasac, agreTve lenas da daTikos winaswar gvqonda bileTebi SeZenili, unda davswrebodiT saxumaro operas „qeTo da kotes“; magram, roca TeatrSi mivediT, gavigeT, rom dResaswaulis gamo (12 ianvars), „qeTo da kotes“ nacvlad midioda „abesalom da eTeri.“ mamas es Zalian esiamovna, radgan „abesalomi“ ar moesmina; Cven, danarCenebi, „qeTo da kotesaTvis“ viyaviT ufro ganwyobilni da kinaRam saxlisaken gamovbrundiT, magram SevxedeT, rom bileTebiT Tu ubileTod didZali xalxi awydeboda Teatrs. rogorc gavigeT, diplomatiuri misiebic iyvnen mowveulni da mTavrobis mTeli Semadgenlobac movida. rasakvirvelia, raRas wavidodiT Sin, imwamsve SevediT TeatrSi da Cveni adgilebi davikaveT. ra sanaxaoba vixileT, Cemo griSa!... ra sanaxaoba! Sen rom aq yofiliyavi, uTuod cremlebs ver Seikavebdi, Seni ambavi rom vici, didad mgrZnobiare iyo yvelaferi da gulis amaCuyebeli. Cvenma alioSam, wuwunavam, jer kidev fardis axdamde scenidan miuloca xalxs „saqarTvelos borkilis saukunod damsxvreva“ da, aixada Tu ara farda, Cvens Tvalwin gamoCnda SesaniSnavi suraTi _ cocxali suraTi _ qal-vaJni qarTul tansacmelSi da „TeTri giorgi“ da aseTebi. misi aRwera Sors wamiyvanda. orkestrma Seasrula erovnuli himni da mTeli xalxi fexze wamodga. Semdeg dausrulebeli aplodismentebiT da „vaSas“ SeZaxiliT egebeboda 207

yovel _ scenas. yvela damoukideblobaze da mis momavalze laparakobda. gamonaklisi ar iyo. im Rames Sin uzomod nasiamovnebi da kmayofilebi davbrundiT. meore dRes akaki Cxenkelis leqcias daveswariT saxelmwifo TeatrSi. fexze amdgari xalxi didi ovaciebiT Sexvda da didxans ar aclida laparaks. bolos, roca „qanci gamoilia“, daiwyo, rogorc iqna, akakim, aRelvebiT, mgrZnobierad... daiwyo imiT, rom „didi dRe gagviTendao,“ da yvelaferi es Cems bavSvobas magonebso, rodesac aRdgomis dResaswaulze sixaruliT vegebebodiT erTmaneTso, did dResaswauls vulocavdiT erTimeores yvelanio. Cveni erovnuli aRdgomis dRec dadga da mec gilocavT saqarTvelos aRdgomas mkvdreTiTo. ,,saqarTvelo aRdga, batonebo!...” _ SemogvZaxa aRtacebiT da, unda genaxa, ra ambavi Seiqna am sityvebze, ra ambavi! bevri cremlebs ver ikavebda da tiroda kidec, arc rcxvenodaT, tirodnen pirdapir didi sixarulisagan... taSis cemisagan xelebi gvtkioda yvelas. vlasa mgelaZe wamoxta adgilidan da SesZaxa akakis scenaze _ „WeSmaritad aRdgao“ da aman xom mTlad gadaria xalxi. vlasa kinaRam scenaze Sexta aRtacebuli, rom gadaxveoda akakis da gadaekocna. didi aRtyineba iyo swored, didi, Cemo griSa, da es wuTebi me arasodes damaviwydeba. sizmari megona. mamamac ki ijera guli cremlebiT. akakis leqcia-moxseneba mis sazRvargareT saqmianobas Seexeboda _ kerZod, saqarTvelos respublikis cnobis Taobaze sxva did saxelmwifoTa mier. sxvac bevri kargi ilaparaka, metad saintereso da amaRelvebeli. mere mweralTa kavSirma mamadaviTze ilias, akakis da dimitri yifianis panaSvidis gadaxda gamoacxada da maTTvis saqarTvelos damoukideblobis milocva. didZali xalxi iyo iqac, mSvenieri mziani dRe idga. noe Jordaniac movida da daeswro wirvasa da panaSvids... namdvili erTsulovneba sufevda irgvliv. sad gaqra partiuli SuRli da brZola, romelic ise Sxamavs mudam gulwrfel muSakTa Soris damokidebulebas. meore kviradRes ki didubis panTeonSi miuloca xalxma gardacvlil moRvaweebs. amis Semdeg ramdenime kviram da Tvemac gaiara da ukve yvelaferi Cveulebriv kalapotSi Cadga, siciveebic ki daiwyo, namdvili moskovuri, CvenTvis Cveulebrivi. axlac yinavs, Tumca ise aRar. mamam Tvalebis mkurnalobac moaswro; SatilovTan damyavda da wamlebic waiRo. 7.III. es werili ukve ramdenime dRea, rac davwere, magram veravis gamovatane. raRac iRblad amas winaT aq viqtor JorJoliani vnaxe da imas vatan am werilsac da Sens wignsac (Celpanovs), agreTve, Jukis „Mat> i dit%“-s. rogorc iqna, valikos fexsacmelebi viyideT, miveciT 2000 maneTi. Cven gvarianad varT. Tqveni ambavic gvacnobeT male. gigzavni „saq. respublikis“ kvitancias. lenam da bavSvebma gakoces. guSin mamas 5000 gavugzavne fostiT. meSinia, siZviris gamo uxeirod damTavrebuli ar dagvrCes Cveni saxli. axla, Tu moasw208

rebs SeiZinos saxlis damTavrebisTvis saWiro masala, Torem, xom xedav, rogor Zvirdeba cxovreba. yvelaferi iqeT, soflisaken minda waviRo. ise menatreba erTi kargi dasveneba Cvens saxlSi. didi fardagi viyide 4 arSini X 7,5 arSinze. 6000 maneTi miveci sakomisioSi. didebuli iqneba Cvens did oTaxSi misi dafena. saaRdgomod uTuod gewveviT me da lena bavSvebiT. sxva ra mogwero? daTiko dRes diliT gorSi wavida. saSac Cava iq quTaisidan da erTad daaTvaliereben, Tu ra ubedureba moutana qalaqs miwisZvram. xom ici, rom amJamad qalaqis Tavad iq parmenia, Cveni parmeni, qvelis. mec vapireb sul male gorSi wasvlas. ase, Cemo griSa, mouTmenlad veli, rodis Camoval SenTan da piradad mogiyvebi ufro dawvrilebiT. Seni lado

damoukideblobis dakargva
1981 w. Tebervali ra mdgomareoba iyo TbilisSi am samoci wlis winaT, sanam bolSevikebi Semovidodnen, _ ufro imxanad, roca amierkavkasiis komiteti idga TbilisSi da qveyanas damoukideblad marTavda, radgan moskovTan TiTqmis aRar iyo urTierToba. iyo erTi ambavi, partiaTa Sexla-Semoxla. amas daemata uTanxmoebebi erovnebaTa Sorisac. amiT isargebla omSi damarcxebulma TurqeTma da ruseTis jarebis mier dapyrobili teritoria baTumidan trapizonamde, romelic upatronod miatova frontze mdgomma jarebma, Tofis gausrolelad kvlav daikava da Zvel sazRvrebs moadga. ultimatumic gamogzavna, baTumic dacaleT, is Cveniao. gadawyda osmaleTTan mosalaparakeblad delegaciis gagzavna, magram TurqeTma, rogorc ambobdnen, amierkavkasiis delegacia ar miiRo, me kavkasia ar vici, melaparakos saqarTvelos mTavrobao. amitom amierkavkasiis komitets gamoeyo saqarTvelos warmomadgenloba da saqarTvelos respublikis damoukidebloba gamoacxada. amasTan erTad cal-calke darCnen somxeTic da azerbaijanic, azerbaijanelebi baqoSi gaemgzavrnen, xolo somxeTis warmomadgenlebma moulaparakeblad erevanSi wasvla ar isurves. laparaki exeboda Tbiliss, romelic maTi winadadebiT, Tavisufal qalaqad unda gamocxadebuliyo, saqarTvelos dedaqalaqi quTaisi iqneboda, xolo somxeTis _ erevani. magram saqarTvelos delegaciam Zalian Sors daiWira es azri, dedaqalaqad Tbilisi gamoacxada da daikava sasaxle Tavis adgilsamyoflad. amgvarad, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis gamocxadebam osmaleTTan molaparakeba SesaZlebeli gaxada. mogvarda sazRvrebis sakiTxic. 209

mTavrobis Tavmjdomared noe Jordania airCies, rogorc yvelaze ufro mravalricxovani partiis lideri. irgvliv uzomo sixaruli sufevda, xumroba xom ar iyo: erma Tofis gausrolelad, ubrZolvelad da usisxlod moipova Tavisufleba. magram amas xom SenarCuneba undoda da aki yvelaferi keTdeboda saamisod. sazRvargareT wavidnen respublikis warmomadgenlebi _ sagareo saqmeTa ministri evgeni gegeWkori da akaki Cxenkeli, raTa iq e.w. „umaRles sabWoSi“ iuridiulad ecnoT saqarTvelo, rogorc saxelmwifo. gamovuSviT sakuTari fuli; Seiqmna jari da sxva saWiro saxelmwifoebrivi organoebi... avad Tu kargad, ase vicxovreT sam weliwads, damoukideblad, Cvenive Tavis patronad. magram amas verafriT ver eguebodnen gareSe mtruli Zalebi. yvelafers akeTebdnen qveynis damoukideblobis Ziris gamosaTxrelad. gzavnidnen agentebs, jaSuSebs, awyobdnen viTom ajanyebis inscenirebebs... raSic Tavi, gansakuTrebiT, osebma gamoiCines. magram menSevikuri mTavroba ar moerida Tavis socialistobas da sastikad gausworda maT, rom ityvian _ cecxliTa da maxviliT... amas garda, aqtiurobdnen denikinelebi, magram mtrebma veraferi waiRes, piriqiT, general mazniaSvilis razmma krasnodaramde sdia maT da kudiT qva asrolina... mosveneba ki mainc ar iyo: axla somxebma wamoyves Tavi, viTom usamarTlo sazRvris gamo da ficxlad Semogvities, magram Cvenma jarma isinic moigeria da didxans sdia damarcxebuls, sanam ingliselebi ar Caerivnen da Cvens mTavrobas ar mosTxoves qarTuli jaris SeCereba. erTi sityviT, mousvenari da daulagebeli cxovreba iyo... Tumca arc sxvagan sufevda mSvidoba, ufro metic, e.w. revoluciis Semdeg ruseTis mTel imperiaSi iseTi ubeduroba trialebda, rom yvela isev saqarTvelosken morboda, aq eZebda SedarebiT dawynarebul cxovrebas da poulobda kidec. vis ar naxavdiT Tbilisis quCebSi, gansakuTrebiT, rusebs _ mwerlebs, mecnierebs, xelovnebis moRvaweebs. Cveni damoukidebloba erT-erTma pirvelma ruseTma cno. Jordaniam grigol urotaZe gagzavna leninTan. man aRiara saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrioba da oficialurad miiRo Cveni respublikis elCi _ gerasime maxaraZe. ruseTis elCad TbilisSi _ kirovi gamogzavna. magram gansakuTrebuli mniSvneloba hqonda evropis saxelmwifoebis mier cnobas da marTlac, 1920 wlis dasawyisSi asec moxda. Cems qaRaldebSi griSasTan gagzavnili werili aRmovaCine. griSa imxanad oCamCireSi gimnaziis direqtori gaxldaT, me TbilisSi axlandeli pirveli maisis * quCaze vcxovrobdi da momrigebel mosamarTled vmuSaobdi. bevri rame gamaxsena im werilma. minda mokled giamboT, damoukidebeli saqarTvelos bolo dReebze. 1919 wlis Semodgomaze me baqoSi wavedi samuSaod Cveni respublikis saelCoSi pirveli mdivnis Tanamdebobaze. gabriel xundaZe dainiSna iq sruluflebiani elCis postze grigol alSibaias nacvlad da aRar momeSva, _ wamodi da wamodio. gabo Cemi amxanagi iyo moskovis universitetidan, iSviaTi keTilSobili, uSiSari vaJkaci da SesaniSnavi oratori. bolSeviki iyo, leninis mimdevari da megobaric. cnobili iyo, rogorc aleqsei moskovski
*

axla gia abesaZis

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da popularuli gautexeli mebrZoli, baqos „bailovkis“ da moskovis butirkis xSiri „stumari“. ase rom, gamobrZmedili revolucioneri iyo da, Tanac, metad popularuli. mis binaze moskovSi stoleSnikovis SesaxvevSi xSirad imaleboda stalini. saelCos „sovetnik-ad” gabom miSa CoCia wamoiyvana, Cveni saerTo amxanagi moskovis universitetidan, xolo safinanso ganyofilebis gamged _ miSa germanoviCi, quTaiseli. baqoSi Cveni saelCos TanamSromlebi sabWoTa dawesebulebebis kolegebTan SedarebiT ukeT cxovrobdnen, radgan xelfass iRebdnen saqarTvelos valutiT _ fulis niSnebiT, romelic sabWoTa fulze metad fasobda da didi moTxovnilebac iyo. amitom me iq Cemi xelfasiT bevri kargi nivTi SeviZine da zogierTiviT komerciuli niWi rom mqonoda, kidev ufro mets SeviZendi, miT ufro, rom wamosvlisas calke vagoni momces, xolo Cems bargs Tan xelSeuxeblobis saTanado sabuTebi axlda. me am upiratesobiT, rasakvirvelia, ar misargeblia da TbilisSi didi sixaruliT Camovedi, radgan Tavi cocxali Camovitane. ar dagaviwydeT, meTerTmete armiis saqarTvelos sazRvrebisaken daZvrisTanave baqoSi Cveni saelCos yvela TanamSromeli daapatimres da mxolod TebervalSi gaaTavisufles, roca aqac komunisturi xelisufleba damyarda. TbilisSi Camosvlisas warvudeqi sagareo saqmeTa ministrs _ evgeni gegeWkors, moadgiles konstantine sabaxtaraSvils, gadaveci elCis moxseneba da piradadac movaxsene Cveni respublikisadmi baqos damokidebulebis Sesaxeb. saministroSi bevri kargi megobari myavda. yvelaze ufro axlobeli iyo saSa abaSeli (CoCia), Cveni cnobili poeti, agreTve, artur laisti, didi ilias megobari germaneli mwerali. TviTon k.sabaxtaraSvilic, _ is xom safrangeTSi umaRlesi saswavleblis damTavrebis Semdeg foTSi cxovrobda; evgeni xom TavisTavad, rogorc Cems dros moskovis universitetis studenti. mokled, yvela axlobeli iyo. yvelas didi SiSi hqonda Cvens respublikaze meTerTmete armiis Tavdasxmisa. noe Jordanias mTavroba yovelmxriv emzadeboda amisaTvis da xalxsac amzadebda fsiqologiurad: kaciWamia bolSevikebi uRmerToebi arian da aravis zogaveno, rac namdvilad iyvnen. SiSiT yvelani vcaxcaxebdiT. komunistebis propaganda ki, piriqiT, menSevikebs aginebda, Cven _ mosaxleobas, samoTxis bednierebas gvpirdeboda, pirvel rigSi, puris TeTr fqvils. es ufro imitom, rom Cvens mTavrobas puris fqvili aklda da mosaxleobisaTvis umetesad siminds iyenebdnen, rasac Tbiliselebi cudad eguebodnen. magram bolSevikebi fqvils saidan mogvitandnen, roca TviTonac ara hqondaT da mTels ruseTSi SimSili mZvinvarebda. naianvrevs davbrundi baqodan imis gamo, rom veRar gavuZeli saSinel pirobebs. „saSineli“ imitom iyo, rom axalad damyarebuli komunisturi reJimi mkacrobda, baqo ki ver egueboda cxovrebis aseT pirobebs, rac ver warmoedgina manamde. amitom yvelaferi areuli da aSlili iyo... qalaqis maSindeli mdgomareoba eniT ar aiwereboda: yvelaferi Cabnelebuli da Calewili, maRaziebi daxuruli, bazarSic araferi iSoveboda. yvela garboda qalaqidan, sad?! saqarTveloSi, TbilisSi, romelsac samoTxes eZaxdnen. naxevari baqo CekaSi ijda _ zogi simdidrisaTvis, zogi sabotaJi211

saTvis, viTom spekulaciisaTvis da, ra vici, kidev risTvis. Ceka namdvili risxva iyo yvelasaTvis. mec ki damapatimres, sruliad udanaSaulod, rasakvirvelia. rogorc mere gamovarkvie: _ TbilisSi azerbaijanis saelCos pirveli mdivani daepatimrebinaT. samagierod, (v otmestku) baqoSi gadawyvites, me davepatimrebine _ saqarTvelos saelCos pirveli mdivani. maSinebdnen kidec CekaSi, Tqveno, mZevlad gvyavxarT da ra sasjelsac Cvens mdivans gamoutans saqarTvelos xelisufleba, im sasjels miiRebT Tqvenco. ase rom, Cemi bedi Cemze ki ar iyo damokidebuli, aramed sxvaze. me Tugind udanaSaulo vyofiliyavi da „abraamis batkani“, sasjels mainc ver avcdebodi, Tu TbilisSi dapatimrebuls dasjidnen. hoda, ra guli damidgeboda amis Semdeg baqoSi. amitom, rogorc ki gamaTavisufles, im dResve Sevexvewe Cvens elCs, gabriel xundaZes, gaveTavisuflebine samsaxuridan. baqos komunistebi Zalian cudad gviyurebdnen saqarTvelos saelCos TanamSromlebs; maT winaaRmdeg mebrZolebad gvTvlidnen, Tundac imisTvis, rom sxvebTan SedarebiT, cotad Tu bevrad ukeT vcxovrobdiT, bina kargi gvqonda, ulufebic kargi gveZleoda da mzareulic calke gvyavda. Tanac, Cveni fuli didad fasobda da iq oqros valutasaviT gadioda. Tan, mSvenieri manqanac gvqonda, romelzedac Cveni erovnuli alami frialebda. manqanebi ki am dros mxolod didi Tanamdebobis pirebs hqondaT. yvelaferi es lursmaniviT esobodaT iqaur maSindel xelisufalT TvalSi da sul mizezs eZebdnen Cven winaaRmdeg; gazeTSi sul saqarTvelosa da misi mTavrobis gineba ewera, _ „yviTeli“ saqarTvelosi, sadac „muSebs sisxlis RvarSi“ axrCobdnen da „awvalebdnen“. baqos dakavebis Semdeg saqarTvelos jeric dadga. orjonikiZe im dros baqoSi iyo da meTerTmete armiiT saqarTveloze gamosalaSqreblad emzadeboda. is iq ara marto sardali da komunistebis meTauri, aramed, erTpirovnuli mbrZanebelic brZandeboda. magram saqarTvelos, anu damoukidebeli saxelmwifos sazRvars umizezod xom ver gadmolaxavda, arada, saqarTveloSi Semosvla uzomod swyuroda. sazogadoebas fsiqologiurad amzadebda: viTom saqarTveloSi muSebs aviwroeben, awameben da ajanyeba ajanyebas mosdevso da nuTu muSur-glexuri xelisufleba ase gulgrilad unda misCerebodes maT tanjvas. Cveni lozungi xom erebis TviTgamorkvevaao... es lozungi Cvens muSebs didxans hqondaT saanekdotod, maT Soris, aseTi leqsic: „TviTgamorkveva erebis lozungad hqondaT qceuli, saqmiT ki yvela gasrises, vinc naxes gamorkveuli.“ ase mouvida Cvens qveyanasac, kremlis nebarTvisTanave, meTerTmete armia saqarTvelosken daiZra. maSinve mTeli amer-imeri fexze dadga. didi, patara, muSa Tu mrewveli, partiuli Tu upartio, yvela Tof-iaraRs moiTxovda frontze wasasvlelad _ TviT bolSevikebic ki, qarTveli bolSevikebi, radgan maT swamdaT, rom jarebiT namdvili bolSevikebi ki ar modian, romlebic eris TavisuflebisaTvis ibrZvian yvelgan da yovelTvis, aramed rusebi, da isic mxolod Savrazmuli nawili, Sovinistebi, „didi da ganuyofeli ruseTis“ „warmomadgenlebi,“ romlebic ver iTmenen romelime eris ruseTidan gamo212

yofas. muSebTan maT araferi aqvT saerTo da pirwavardnili imperialistebi arian. ase iyo Tu ise, wamovida meTerTmete rusis armia. ori kvira grZeldeboda brZola. gansakuTrebiT gaafTrebiT qarTveli muSebi ibrZodnen, ibrZoda axalgazrdoba, mowafeebic ki, biWebic, da gogoebic. Tavs aravin izogavda. namdvili saxalxo brZola gaumarTes okupantebs. * me im dros TbilisSi viyavi da gulis fancqaliT vadevnebdi Tvals Seqmnil mdgomareobas. col-Svili gaxiznuli myavda quTaisSi da mTeli dReebi, ise rogorc TiTqmis yvela Tbiliseli, frontidan axali ambebis momlodine rusTavelis prospeqtze, sasaxlis win videqi. frontze ki gacxarebuli brZolebi mimdinareobda. imdenad gacxarebuli, rom iyo momentebi, roca mteri ukve damarcxebulic ki gvegona. maxsovs gazeTi „Bor>ba“ _ Tbilisis imdroindeli rusuli gazeTi _ 20 Tebervlis nomerSi werda: Tu rogor daamarcxes Cvenma jarebma karze momdgari mteri: ,,Pobeda!” _ iyo saTauri Cveni generaluri Stabis cnobisa. magram miuxedavad am gamarjvebisa, Cvenma mcirericxovnebam ver gauZlo ricxvmraval momxdurs. isini sxvadasxva mxridan moadgnen respublikis sazRvrebs. TviT mamisonis gadmosavalic ki ar dautovebiaT gamouyenebeli. iq Cveni jari ar idga, radgan is bunebrivad didi TovliT iyo gamagrebuli, romlis gadmolaxvas aravin moeloda. vTqvi, im dRes TbilisSi viyavi-meTqi, da Cemi TvaliT vixile is jojoxeTi, romelic Semosulebma daatriales. mokled, ase iyo Tu ise, mosaxdeni moxda! mere da mere, rusis urdoebma Tbiliss aRa-mahmad-xani daaviwyes. gamovedi quCaze, irgvliv sicarielea. bolos erevnis moedanze rom amovedi, oriode uZilobisagan TvalebCaRamebuli moxucebuli davinaxe, erTs wiTeli qsovili Semoexvia mklavze. miTxres, Cvenma jarebma datoves qalaqi da sul male rusis jarebi Semovleno. eseni Turme CemsaviT SemorCenilebi yofilan da „seiris“ sayureblad mosulan. me gulSemoyrili videqi da wasvlas ar vapirebdi. an sad unda wavsuliyavi? saxlSi? _ samsaxurSi xom sul aravin aRar iqneboda. videqi da vucdidi jarebis Semosvlas. aqa-iq gamoCdnen CemsaviT SemorCenilebi _ ori-sami kaci _ da, bolos, rusis qalebis erTi patara jgufic. damlageblebi iyvnen Tu kerZo ojaxebSi mosamsaxureni, mxiarulad modiodnen prospeqtis mxridan da mzesumziras aknatunebdnen, cxadia CenCos quCaSi afurTxebdnen. Zalian gaxarebulni iyvnen, _ etyobodaT da ucdidnen TavianTi Zmebis Semosvlas. icinodnen, xarxarebdnen am usazRvro naRvliTa da wuxiliT Sepyrobil garemoSi. _ Xa-xa-xa! A pomnits% Grun%, erti, ori, erTi, ori, _ siciliT erTmaneTs askdebian. Cven _ me da CemsaviT damunjebuli is oriode moxuci _ axlandeli aRmaskomis Senobis win videqiT. am dros erTi inteligenti movida da isic CvenTan dadga. rom Sematyo daRoneba, gamomelaparaka. poloneli varo, miTxra. isic Zalian Sewuxebuli iyo _ Cemze aranakleb, magram Tavs inugeSebda da mec mar*

am dros tabaxmelasTan brZolebSi iunkrebs xelmZRvanelobda Cemi momavali mZaxali kapitani daTiko maWavariani.

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wmunebda, rom sam TveSi Jordanias mTavroba isev TbilisSi iqnebao. eseni aq mets ver gaZlebeno da ugunurad moxiTxiTe rusis qalebs brazmoreuli misCereboda. amasobaSi axlandeli leseliZis quCidan, romelic im dros metad viwro iyo, cxenosanTa razmi gamoCnda. daRlil-daqanculobisa da uZilobis gamo TvalebCaRamebuli mxedrebi, ganuyreli budionovkebiT TavdamSvenebulni, mSier-mwyurvalni Zlivs molaslasebdnen. erTnair mazaramosilTagan meTaurs ver gamoarCevdiT. aRmaskomis win kidev moeyara Tavi ramdenime kacs. razmi mcire xniT aRmaskomis Senobis win Sedga da daiZaxa, _ Da zdravsvuet sovetska% vlast>, ura! magram sapasuxo ,,uras” mTqmeli aravin iyo, garda im ramdenime rusis qalisa. _ Da zdravstvuet Sovetska% Gruzi%! _ daiZaxa erTma maTma albaT meTaurTaganma da Cvenc gamovfxizldiT. cota momeSva, gruzia rom axsenes. rusis qalebma ki gakvirvebac gamoxates. vinme efimovi usircxvilod „igonebs“ ,,Zar%”-s furclebze: „Na ulicax massa naroda, krasnje flagi, mnogo cvetov, privetstvennje vozglasj”. da rac mTavaria, ,,Povshdu radosti!” _ gvarwmunebs, TiTqos marTla vismes raime uxaroda, garda im mzesumziraWamia rusi gogoebisa. karga xans videqi qalaqis gamgeobis Senobis win, jarebi Tavis gzas gaudgnen. me sasaxlisaken wavedi, iqneb vinme nacnobs gadavyrodi da gamego, ra ubedureba iyo Cven Tavs. zogi ambobda, Cveni jarebi mcxeTis simaRleebze gamagrebulano da ubrZolvelad wiTel armias dasavleTisken ar gauSvebeno, zogi kidev ras. prospeqtze damfrTxali xalxi dabodialobda. am dros Sevxede da... „zemelis“ mxridan rusi jariskacebis konvois mohyavda Cveni jaris nawilebi, datyvevebulni. iq oficrebic erivnen, maT Soris, Cemi nacnobebic. isini StabSi mihyavdaT. uazrod davborialobdi naxevraddacarielebul prospeqtze mTeli dRe da nacnobebTan gamolaparakebisas xavsiviT vebRauWebodi, vinme rame saimedos Tu ityoda. im dRes Sevxvdi abel enuqiZes, Tbilad ecva, Tavze fafaxi exura, gverdze viRac mohyveboda. gamacno. alioSa svaniZe gamodga, SemdgomSi Cveni respublikis mTavrobis erT-erTi wevri _ finansTa ministri (stalinis colisZma). abeli, rogorc miTxra, noe JordaniasTan Sesaxvedrad Camosuliyo, leninis davalebiT, magram veRar Camoaswro da imave dRes quTaisisken gaemgzavra, iqneb sadme wamosweoda.

memedbegis ambavi
memedbeg abaSiZe, aWareli TavadiSvili, mwerali da sazogado moRvawe. man erT-erTma pirvelma mahmadianma qarTvelma, Tavis ZmebTan haidarbegTan da ziabegTan erTad, orientacia deda-samSoblo saqarTveloze maSin aiRo, rodesac religiuri fanatizmiT gonebaareuli sxva misi Tanamemamuleni jer kidev osmaleTisken imzirebodnen. 214

es sami Zma abaSiZe did propagandas eweoda maSindel aWaraSi da erovnul, patriotul Segnebas aRvivebda xalxSi. memedbegi xSiri stumari iyo xolme Cveni „saxelgamisa“, rodesac me iq vmuSaobdi. adrec mogaxseneT, Cveni dawesebuleba moTavsebuli iyo rusTavelis prospeqtze #22-Si, operis pirdapir. mwerlebi, poetebi, mxatvrebi, _ gamomcemlobaTa „StabSi“ vin ginda, ar modioda saqmeze, Tu megobrebTan Sesaxvedrad; miT ufro, metad marjve adgili iyo amisaTvis da dasvenebac SeiZleboda, darbazSi skamebi blomad gvqonda. hoda, memedbegic ase Semoivlida xolme da pirdapir Cvens oTaxs moaSurebda. visxediT da vsaubrobdiT. memedi gansakuTrebiT Sexumrebuli iyo Tavis Zvel megobarTan _ pavle sayvareliZesTan. SesaniSnavi mosaubre iyo aWareli Tavadi, aseTive SesaniSnavi garegnobis, maRali, mxarbeWiani, rkinasaviT kunTebi hqonda, magari. xels rom garTmevda, SiSi gipyrobda, _ ar momamtvrioso; qera gaxldaT, TmaxuWuWa, cisferTvaleba. didi patrioti iyo da yvelgan didi pativiT miRebulic. erTxel pavle cud gunebaze movida samsaxurSi, _ „tramvaiSi saaTi amomacales jibidano“ da Zalian wuxda, mTeli dRe daRvremili iyo, arc gauRimia. SuadRisas Tavisi ganieri nabijiT Semoabija memedma. _ gamarjoba. rogora xarT? pavle, ra gunebaze xar, kaco?... dana kbils ar gixsnis... ra mogivida? _ pavlem SesCivla Tavisi gaWirveba. _ xa,xa,xa,xa... _ xiTxiTebs memedi, _ agre mogixdeba!... loTebi xarT, biWo, da misi bralia!... albaT CageZina da imitom veraferi gaige... aba, me ki ar damekargeba Cemi saaTi, venacvale amas, _ Tqva memedma, pijakis jibidan uSvelebeli saaTi amoagora „Doxa“-s firmis, Zveli, iSviaTi sizustiT momuSave. _ rogor dakarge, biWo, saaTi?... daberdi albaT ukve da isaa... sad unda gamoyo Tavi sircxviliT! _ aRizianebs pavles. memeds xakisferi kostumi ecva, Tavze kraveli exura. pavles gasarTobad is dro xumrobaSi gaatara. ar gasula erTi kvira, rom memedi isev gvewvia. 1929-30 wlebi iyo. raRac uxalisod gamoimzireboda. _ eh, biWebo, „nu dascini sxvasao, gadagxdeba Tavsao“. ra kargad uTqvamT im cxonebul Cvens winaprebs. mec SensaviT ar damemarTa, Cemo pavle?!... saaTi amaZvres, is Cemi didi saaTi, Cemi „doqsa“. ra saaTi, ra saaTi, ra momuSave, ra saimedo!... sadRa viSovi axla aseTs?!... _ ara, rogor ver SevamCnie me oxerma, meZina, Tu ra momivida?... _ sasowarkveTili Sublze irtyamda xels. _ vai, mis dedasa, ra iRbali hqonia, rom ver SevamCnie, Torem mariliviT mivafSvnidi im orive xels!... marTlac, memedi iSviaTi Zalis patroni iyo, mtersac ki ar vusurvebdi mis „marwuxebSi“ Cavardnas... memedi axalgazrda wavida am qveynidan. didi xani araa, rac misi nawerebi gamovida erT wignad. me dauyovnebliv SeviZine is da siyvaruliT vinaxav Cems wignebSi.. im dResve memedis saaTis ambavi ukve TiTqmis yvela mweralma icoda, romelic Cvens gamomcemlobaSi dadioda. isini metismetad gaamxiarula am ambavma da memedbegs aTasnairi eSmakuri kiTxvebiT axelebdnen. 215

_ kai, batono, ra moxda aseTi?... _ igeriebda memedi abezrebs. _ netavi sulac ar gamemxila es ambavi!... pavle, sul Seni bralia es, Tavi rom momWeri... Tqven araferi dagkargviaT, Tqve dalocvilebo?... _ icinoda TviTonac da Cvenc gvacinebda.

igdiri
1904-1909 igdiri iyo erevnis guberniis surmalinis mazris centri. mamaCemi iq quTaisidan gadaiyvanes samoqalaqo saswavleblis inspeqtorad 1904 wlis seqtemberSi. quTaisSi ki pirvel samoqalaqo saswavlebelSi maswavleblad muSaobda. Cven (me, griSa, valiko, saSa) iq, mSoblebTan, saSobao ardadegebze CavediT. susxiani zamTari iyo. sadgur karxunidan 25 kilometri faetoniT gaviareT da kinaRam gzaSi gaviyineT. gimnazielis formaSi gamowyobil 10-11 wlis saSas fexebi gaeyina, sicivisagan tirili daiwyo, etlidan gadmovida, _ iqneb fexebi gamiTbeso da etls gverdiT sul tiril-tiriliT mosdevda; ver gavaCereT, cremlebi RapaRupiT mosdioda. meetlem pirdapir saswavlebelSi migviyvana, sadac Cvenebi cxovrobdnen. Cven danaxvaze deda sixarulisagan atirda. 7 wlis daTiko yvela Zmas kiserze gvexveoda da aRar gvSordeboda. somex tol-amxanagebTan urTierTobisas somxuri aeTvisebina. saswavlebeli Zalian karg, erTsarTulian qvis SenobaSi iyo moTavsebuli, sadac sami oTaxi mamas ekava. erTi samuSao kabineti iyo, ori mozrdili oTaxi didi aivniT ki _ bina. Cveni Casvla igdiris mTel inteligencias imave dRes gaego. bevri modioda Cven sanaxavad. isini ukve damegobrebodnen Cvens ojaxs, uxarodaT, rom axalgazrda mSoblebs ukve ase moswrebuli da amdeni Svili hyavdaT. marTlac, mamaCems xuTi vaJi vyavdiT. meeqvse _ Cveni daiko _ swored im zafxuls dagveRupa difteriiT. dedaCemi gulmokluli iyo misi dakargviT, jer kidev ver Serigeboda am ubedurebas da Cvens danaxvaze tirilic amitom veRar Seikava... ramdenime weliwads cxovrobda mamaCemi igdirSi da adgilobrivi macxovreblebis didi siyvaruli daimsaxura. igdirSi cxovrobdnen somxebi da TaTrebi, agreTve, Casuli muSa-mosamsaxureebi, ufro rusoba. mosamsaxureebidan bevri iyo qarTvelic: mamaCemi _ samoqalaqo saswavleblis inspeqtori (e.i. gamge, direqtori), arCil cixisTavi _ fostis kantoris ufrosi, ilia Wyonia _ momrigebeli Suamavali, daviT daTeSiZe _ amosaRebTa inspeqtori, avqsenti tyemalaZe _ boqauli da a.S. maxsovs SesaniSnavi adamiani, Cveni ojaxis didi megobari, polkovniki dulaevi, mgoni, zaurbegi erqva, osi iyo erovnebiT, lamazi, warmosadegi vaJkaci. kidev ufro lamazi, nazi da metad simpaTiuri coli hyavda, osi qali. Svilebi _ biWebic, gogoebic. netav sad arian da rogor arian es keTilSobili da sayvareli adamianebi?!. Svilebi, Torem TviTon zaurbegi da misi meuRle, rasakvirvelia, cocxlebi aRar iqnebian ukve. 216

ilia Wyonia da misi meuRle ana _ merab lorTqifaniZis asuli _ bolo dros TbilisSi cxovrobdnen, gardaicvalnen 30-ian wlebSi. ilia mwerali iyo da me da griSas Tavisi erTtomeuli gvaCuqa; avqsenti tyemalaZec imave xanebSi gardaicvala. erTaderTi misi qaliSvili olia vaso golovins gahyva colad da mSvenieri gogona darCa, TviTon sul axalgazrda gardaicvala; arCil cixisTavi, miuxedavad imisa, rom oficialuri ganaTleba ar hqonda, didi patrioti iyo, moyvaruli qarTuli literaturis, TviTonac werda patar-patara moTxrobebs, mgoni beWdavda kidec. cekvavda mSvenivrad, xSirad Coxa-axaluxs da ufro Zvelebur qarTul qulajas atarebda. fostis uwyebaSi naxevar saukuneze meti imsaxura. gardaicvala 1959 wels TbilisSi. darCa vaJi da ori qaliSvili. daviT daTeSiZesac qaliSvilebi darCa, cxovroben TbilisSi. qarTvelebidan, marTla, kinaRam damaviwyda simon agiaSvili, orklasiani saswavleblis gamge. maswavleblebidan: giorgi kupraSvili, anania goguaZe (jamleTis Ze), konstantine gamyreliZe (giorgi jafariZis qaliSvili hyavda colad). masTan erTi wlis cxovrebis Semdeg 1909 Tu 1910 wels tragikulad daasrula sicocxle: jer axalgazrda coli mokla revolveriT da iqve TviTonac moikla Tavi. es moxda veris daRmarTze, iq, sadac Semdeg mwerali mixeil javaxiSvili cxovrobda. adgilobrivi macxovreblebidan maxsovs maRaziebis patronebi: isabekianebi, kanaiancebi, Saxsuvarianebi, ter-manuiliani, akofiani. yvela eseni didi megobrebi iyvnen mamasi da kidev ufro arCil cixisTavisa. sul erTad iyvnen, WirSi, lxinSi. TaTrebidan maxsovs didi gvaris makinskebi, mgoni, Tavadebi iyvnen, anu begebi; makinski raSid-xani, muxtar-begi, musaxani, SamSadinovebi da sxvani. mgoni, im igdireli isabekianis Svilia Tu SviliSvili mxatvari eduard isabekiani, romelsac arCil cixisTavis mSvenieri portreti dauxatavs zeTis saRebavebiT, qulajiT (Tbilisis samxatvro akademia daumTavrebia). igdirSi qarTvelebidan iyo agreTve qsante dgebuaZe Tavis meuRle pelagea jafariZesTan erTad. gamosaRebTa meore inspeqtors sokolovs qarTveli coli hyavda (rogorc eliko cixisTavma miTxra, arCil qurdianis simamri yofila Turme,). s.kulpSi, sadac qvamarilis sabadoebi iyo, e.i. Cveneburad aRzevanSi, fostis ufrosad agiaSvili muSaobda, s.aStarakSi samoqalaqo saswavleblis inspeqtorad mamas amxanagi _ meliton WiWinaZe; erevnis guberniis saxalxo saswavleblebis direqtori im dros cnobili pedagogi aleqsi WiWinaZe iyo. mamaCems ramdeni hqonda jamagiri, ar vici, magram 1906 wels man inspeqtoris pensia daimsaxura, amitom jamagiri da pensia erTad karga „blomad“ gamodioda. im dros SesaniSnavi xorci (axali, rasakvirvelia, gana gayinuli!) girvanqa _ Sauri Rirda, e.i. oya _ 15 kapiki (kilo 12-13 kapiki), girvanqa brinji _ 3 kapiki, „aqula“ brinji _ 4 kapiki, boTli Rvino _ Sauri (5 kapiki), aseve iafi iyo rZis nawarmi. SesaniSnavi msxvilTvala „ganjuri“ yurZeni girvanqa 1 kapiki Rirda,FfuTi _ 40 kapiki. cudi iyo, rom sasmeli wylis uqonlobis gamo araqsis mRvrie wyliT sargeblobdnen, romelic baRebisa da yanebis mosa217

rwyavad quCebSi mozrdili TxrilebiT moedineboda. sasmelad specialur qvis gobebSi gafiltrul wyals xmarobdnen. ase rom, yovel ojaxSi idga didi qvis gobebi, romlebSic araqsis mRvrie wyali esxa da mTeli dRis ganmavlobaSi ukve dawmendili wveTwveTad Cadioda im gobebs Sedgmul CafSi. avsebis Semdeg, cremliviT ankara wyals sxva WurWelSi gadaasxamdnen da im Cafs isev Seudgamdnen qvis filtrs. gasufTavebuli wyali ukve gemrielic iyo da krialac. Cveni ojaxisaTvis Zneli iyo aseT wyalTan Segueba, magram ras vizamdiT. raWaSi iseTi kargi wylebia, mtknaric, mJavec da aseT sikeTes miCveulni, iZulebulni viyaviT, wveTobiT miRebuli wyliT davkmayofilebuliyaviT. iq tyeebi arsad aris. irgvliv unayofo mariliani miwaa. SeSa arsad iSoveba, amitom ise, rogorc yvela, Rumels wiviT vaTbobdiT, romelic saqonlis nakelisagan keTdeba (puriviT zelen da mere mzeze aSroben). wiva wvis dros did kvamls uSvebs, amitom iqaur xalxs sul dawiTlebuli, daavadebuli Tvalebi aqvs. quTaisidan igdirSi mivdiodiT erevnis matarebliT, Tbilisis gavliT. CavdiodiT sadgur karxunSi, saidanac igdiramde 25 versi etliT unda gagvevlo. magram gza iyo lariviT swori da meetleebi xSirad gaaqanebdnen xolme cxenebs ise, rom sul xviTqi gasdiodaT sawylebs. irgvliv triali, moxmetili, unayofo velebi Canda, TiTqos TeTri mariliT mofrqveuli. Tu sadme alvis xeebi gamoCndeboda, es imas niSnavda, rom iq sofeli iyo. Canda mxolod lamazi, amayad momzirali didi ararati. parmen caxeli poetma caxelma Cems cnobierebaSi jer kidev im dros daikava sakmaod safuZvliani adgili, rodesac skolis asakSi Segnebuli cxovrebis gzaze pirvel nabijebs vdgamdi. wakiTxul wignebs bavSvuri uSualobiT aRviqvamdi; SesaZloa bundovnad, magram cxoveli interesiT. 1890-iani wlebi iyo. me im dros onSi samazro saswavlebelSi vswavlobdi da Zalian miyvarda Cveni ojaxis sawigne karadasTan triali. erTxel me da Cemma Zmam griSam Cven ,,wignsacavSi” aseTi saTauris wigni aRmovaCineT _ „gurgen raindi“; legenda caxelisa, _ ewera ydaze. gadavfurcleT: „lomsaviT qeCoayrili, adidebuli, mZvinvari mohquxs rioni, mTebs Sua amyad Camomdinari“... rioni? Cveni rioni!... cas vewieT bavSvuri sixaruliT. „zeviT cas Sehyefs muqariT da qveS glejs dedamiwasa“, _ ase iyo mocemuli iq Cveni sayvareli mdinaris suraTi; Semdeg aRwerilia peizaJebi _ kordebi, serebi, Zveli koSkebi da cixe-darbazebi, saidanac „saTofurebi mrisxaned iyurebian“: „Tavzarsa scemen mosul mters da sikvdils emuqrebian“. 218

gagvitaca gurgen raindis Tavgadasavalma, mtrebTan sabrZolvelad misma salaSqrod wasvlam, Semdeg mzakvari mouravis Ralatma da gurgenis ojaxSi datrialebulma ubedurebam, rasac sabolood simarTlis gamarjveba mohyveba: „gamxiarulda sasaxle kvlav gurgen bednierisa“. misi finali Cvens bavSvur gulebs sixaruliT avsebda. mas Semdeg, rac mamaCvenma gangvimarta, Tu vin iyo caxeli _ igive TvalWreliZe, misdami interesi kidev ufro gagviZlierda da ufro gulmodgined gadavikiTxeT misi patar-patara wignebi. am gamocemebs lamaz, gmirul warsulSi gadavyavdiT, sadac qveynis sasikeTod iwvoda vaJkacTa suli. garda amisa, dagvainteresa poetis mSobliurma kuTxemac, kerZod, misma sofelma caxma. amitom quTaisi-onis gzaze mgzavrobisas mudam didi interesiT vakvirdebodiT Wrebalos gaRma amarTul mTebs, sadac xSiri tyeebiT garSemortymuli poetis sofeli caxi gveguleboda. Cveni bavSvuri warmodgeniT, SesaZloa, iq TviT gurgen raindsac araerTxel uvlia Tavisi jariT. samSoblos, eris erTgulebiTaa gamTbari caxelis Semoqmedebis yoveli striqoni, amitom didi siyvaruliT viyavi ganwyobili misi Semoqmedebisa da pirovnebisadmi. survili mqonda, avsuliyavi poetis sofel caxSi, gamecno Tavad poetic da misi poeturi samyaroc. mogiyeviT ukve, _ 1906 wels moskovis erT-erT studentur wreSi TvalWreliZis gvari amoikiTxes. me yuradRebiT movaTvaliere Sekrebilni, magram qarTuli saxe versad davinaxe, amitom Zalian gamikvirda, roca erT-erT studentze mimiTiTes. mas metad simpaTiuri rusuli saxe hqonda; tanmorCili, qera, seriozuli gamometyvelebiT gamoirkva, rom es simpaTiuri studenti Tumca TvalWreliZe iyo, magram qarTvels TiTqmis aravis icnobda. _ poeti caxeli Tu gagigoniaT? _ vkiTxe bolos, _ is Tqveni gvarisaa, TvalWreliZea. students uecrad saxe gaubrwyinda, saTvalis CarCoebidan Ria feris Wkviani TvalebiT Semomacqerda da metad kmayofili RimiliT mipasuxa: _ poeti caxeli biZaa Cemi. Tqven icnobT mas? _ da axalgazrda momiyva Tavis ambavs: is caxelis ufrosi Zmis antonis vaJi gamodga, romelic biZamisis mgznebare patriotizmiT sunTqavda da universitetis damTavrebis Semdeg saqarTveloSi muSaobaze ocnebobda. marTlac, aleqsandre TvalWreliZem SemdgomSi mTeli Tavisi didi codna, gamocdileba saqarTvelos da mis keTildReobas moaxmara. gamoCenilma mecnierma _ geologma da mineralogma ganuzomeli Rvawli dasdo Cvens qveyanas. mere, roca Cven erTmaneTs vxvdebodiT, mudam erTnairi siamovnebiT vixsenebdiT Cvens pirvel Sexvedras moskovis universitetSi da im tkbil saubars, romelic gamoiwvia mgznebare poetis saerTo siyvarulma. sasiqadulo mecniers mTeli Tavisi keTilSobili guliT uyvarda poeti-biZa.

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_ samSoblos tkbili siyvaruli bavSvobidanve biZaCemma Caminergao, _ ityoda xolme is, _ da es didi grZnoba Turme, mis naTel saxelTan erTad miuZRvoda yovel saqmianobaSi. biZis tragikulad daRupvis Semdeg saxelovanma Zmiswulma Tavad itvirTa daoblebuli ojaxis mfarveloba da saWiro mzrunvelobas arasdros aklebda. Cans, tyuilad ar umRerda poeti Cvil Zmiswuls, samSoblos did qomags momavalSi: „da ros omidan dabrunde mxsnelis saxeliT mkobili, mamulis gmirTa winamZRvrad, xelSi mZle droSa pyrobili, Cems saflavzeda maxare mtris musvra, Cveni lxineba, da amis Semdeg samudmod mec tkbilad dameZineba“. piradad caxels me mxolod 1917 Tu 1918 wels Sevxvdi. im wels quTaisis gimnaziaSi maswavlebloba daiwyo Cemma Zmam griSam. erTxel, roca gimnaziaSi Zmas mivakiTxe, sadac sacxovrebeli binaca hqonda, Cveni sasiqadulo poetic swored maSin gavicani; caxeli gimnaziaSi im dros qarTuls aswavlida. poeti metad gulTbilad Semxvda. keTil Tvalebs ar gvaSorebda xan me, xan Cems Zmas, gaocebuli iyo Cveni uCveulo msgavsebiT. aseTi iyo Cemi Sexvedra sayvarel poetTan. merec araerTxel Sevxvedrivar da misi araerTi tkbili saubari momismenia. garegnobiT poeti metad mimzidveli iyo: Savi wver-ulvaSi da sqeli qoCori amSvenebda mis sandomian Savgvreman saxes. ganieri mxarbeWi, magari mklavebi da xelis mozrdili mtevnebi vaJkacur iers aZlevda da fizikur SromaSi mis gamocdilebaze metyvelebda. Tavisufal dros is marTla muSaobda miwaze, quTaisis axlos Tavis karmidamoSi. maxsendeba poetTan saubris erTi detalic: erTxel laparaki Camovugde im wlebSi TiTqmis ukve miyuCebul, magram manamde metad gaxmaurebul literaturul movlenaze, kerZod, quTaisSi moRvawe cisferyanwelebsa da simbolistebze. ar esiamovna. Sens ZmasTanac araerTxel gvqonia amaze laparaki, aba, ra sawamebelia is mwerloba, romelic Cvens wminda warsuls udierad axsenebs; vinc warsuls arafrad miiCnevs, is momavalsac ver iwamebs; adamians ki me warsulis siyvaruliT da momavlisaTvis brZolis unariT vafasebo. e.w. wminda xelovnebis principebi ara swamda. misi saTayvanebeli iyo saqarTvelos gmiruli warsuli da Cveni didi klasikosebis iliasa da akakis erovnul-gamaTavisuflebeli maRali ideebiT gamsWvaluli mgznebare patriotuli Semoqmedeba. maTze raime upativcemulo sityvis gagonebas verafriT ver iTmenda. miuxedavad imisa, rom Tavisi poeturi Sinagani xedviT caxeli mxolod warsulSi iyo, praqtikul saqmianobaSi is, rogorc progresulad moazrovne patrioti da moqalaqe, did monawileobas iRebda sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi, aqtiurad exmareboda xalxis keTildReobisaTvis yovel patiosan mebrZols; am mizeziT sofelSi mamapapuri saxlic ki gadauwves. caxeli ubralo iyo da upretenzio, Tavaziani, pirdapiri, Seurigebeli mowinaaRmdegesTan, xolo faqizi da nazi TanamoazresTan. mSvidi, kacTmoyvare da gulkeTili. gaWirvebam adre motexa: 220

„adre momtexa cxovrebam da mawyevlina Tavbedi, Zlivs davWabukdi, davkacdi da, vxedav, ukve davberdi“. caxelis nawerebi mxolod patar-patara wignebis saxiT maxsovs: „zarnaSo“, „ukvdavi sardali“, „gurgen raindi“, „Salvas Tavgadasavali“ da e.w. „ramdenime leqsi caxelisa“. maTi gamomcemlebi kerZo pirebi iyvnen, umTavresad _ qarTuli wignis moyvaruli enTuziastebi da poetis piradi pativismcemlebi, maT Soris, cnobili z.WiWinaZe, Zveli mwignobari da mwerali. ekonomikur bazas moklebul gamomcemlebs cotad Tu bevrad, mozrdili wignis gamocemis SesaZlebloba ar hqondaT. mkiTxvelic ar hyavdaT didi raodenobiT, rom dabeWdili produqcia droze gaesaRebinaT. es savsebiT naTlad Cans caxelis erTi wignis ukana ydaze dabeWdili gancxadebidan: „z.WiWinaZis maRaziaSi, iarmukaze, aleqsandrovis baRis gverdze, rusis saydris zemoT, arjevaniZis saxlebSi isyideba sxvadasxva qarTuli wignebi“. cnobilia, rom es arjevaniZis saxlebi, sadac binadrobdnen bukinistebi, qarTuli wignis imdroindeli gulwrfeli moamageni, axlandel arCil jorjaZis quCaze iyo moTavsebuli. sakvirvelia, nuTu maSin am quCas Tavisi saxelwodeba ar gaaCnda, rom aseTi mravalsityviani miniSnebebi ar dasWirvebodaT?!. Tumca caxelis mTliani krebuli arc iq iyo, qarTuli sazogadoeba mainc did interess iCenda misi nawerebisadmi rogorc mxatvruliGRirsebebis gamo, ise pedagogiur-aRmzrdelobiTi TvalsazrisiTac, radgan poetis yoveli nawarmoebi xmamaRla da gabedulad qadagebda brZolas usamarTlobis winaaRmdeg da bavSvebisadmi gansakuTrebul saTuT damokidebulebas amJRavnebda. poets ori samyaro hqonda. erTi maTgani iyo iq, „sadac grigali grialebs da Semodgomis furceli ugzakvlod caSi trialebs“ _ e.i. mebrZoli da Seupovari, meore ki _ „sad gazafxuli irTveba da dilis nami foTlebze moedeb-moezvirTeba“. 1919 wlis 31 agvistos mis mebrZol suls Savi burusi gadaefara da „keTils, uZlurad mimomsvlels am muxTal qveyanazeda ganrisxebuli boroti gadaeRoba gzazeda“. naZiralebis mier mogzavnili avazakebis tyviam gaugmira guli, romelic samSoblos siyvaruliT feTqavda. poetis mkvlelobas sazogadoeba didi aRSfoTebiT gamoexmaura, magram boroteba mZlavrobda, ZaRli patrons ver cnobda, xelisuflebasac ar gaaCnda sakmarisi Zala avazakTa Sesapyrobad. presaSi gamoqveynda samgloviaro werilebi, maT Soris, quTaisis gazeT „samSobloSi“ cnobili sazogado moRvawis, vasil wereTlisa, romelic zizRs da krulvas ugzavnida mkvlelebs. mere kacis mkvlels marto zizRi unda miezRos? Cemma Zmamac dabeWda megobrobis grZnobiT gamTbari werili gazeT „saxalxo saqmeSi“, romelic poetis Semoqmedebasac exeboda mokled.

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Teofile xuskivaZe
im dros, 1900-ian wlebSi, jer kidev quTaisis realur saswavlebelSi vswavlobdi. skolaSi mimavali, me da Cemi Zma griSa, gzaze Semxvedrebs vakvirdebodiT, ufro ki „formaSi“ gamowyobilebs, romlebic Cvens warmodgenaSi „didi Tanamdebobisani“ unda yofiliyvnen. erTxel maT Soris Tvali movkari erT sandomiani saxis, wver-ulvaSiT damSvenebul, maRal, mxarbeWian „formians“, romelic puSkinis quCaze modioda da nacnobebTan Sexvedrisas Tavazianad quds ixdida. griSam xeli gamkra: _ ici, vin aris? Cveni valiko xuskivaZis mamaa (valiko Cveni Tanaklaseli iyo), mwerali Teofile xuskivaZe, gaxsovs, sofelSi rom vkiTxulobdiT? marTlac, maSinve gamaxsenda sofeli, Cveni saxli, mamas biblioTeka da patara wigni _ „Txzulebani“ Teofile xuskivaZisa. „axalsenakic“ gamaxsenda, ydaze rom ewera im adgilis aRsaniSnavad, sadac daibeWa. griSa wignebis mususi iyo, araferi gamorCeboda waukiTxavi. me am saqmeSi sakmaod CamovrCebodi, magram „Txzulebani“, misi Sinaarsi mainc kargad maxsovda da guliT TanavugrZnobdi mis gmirebs _ student bedkrulaZes, maswavlebels gulkeTiliSvils da sxvebs, romlebic maSindeli cxovrebis ulmobeli pirobebis gamo sul axalgazrdebi iRupebian. es me uRrmesi protestis suliskveTebiT mavsebda da socialur usamarTlobasTan mebrZolTa banakisaken meweoda. Cvens biblioTekaSi Teofile xuskivaZis sxva wignebic moiZeveboda. maTgan yvelaze ufro mogvwonda istoriuli moTxroba „konstantine batoniSvili“. es wigni marto imiT ki ar gvizidavda, rom moTxrobis gmiri _ axalgazrda konstantine _ mefe solomonis Zaladobis msxverpli Seiqna da Tavisi mware xvedriT Cvens bavSvur TanagrZnobas imsaxurebda, aramed imitomac, rom masSi Cveni mSobliuri raWis zogierTi adgilicaa moxseniebuli; es ki CvenTvis ucxo xili iyo, Tanac, sasiamovno. garda amisa, mis personaJTa Soris Cveni winaparicaa gamoyvanili: muxuris cixeSi dapatimrebuli konstantines dedis TxovniT ruseTis imperatorma aleqsandre I-ma saTanado sigeliT imereTis mefe solomonTan elCi sokolovi moavlina, sadac mefe konstantines gaTavisuflebas „urCevda“. movlinebuli sokolovi ruseTidan raWis mTebiT gadmovida, sofel Rebze, sadac mas mefis warmomadgeneli, zemo raWis mouravi Tavadi jafariZe Sexvda. man ucxo stumari, mxleblebiTurT, jer Tavis sofelSi miipatiJa, Semdeg mefesTan waiyvana, xvanWkaraSi Seaxvedra da sxva. yvelaferi es Cvens norC gulebs aRelvebda, moTxrobas mimzidvels da axlobels xdida, avtors ki Cveni gulwfeli siyvarulisa da pativiscemis grZnobiT mosavda. da, ai, isic! mwerlis es momxibvleli garegnoba zustad exmianeboda masze Cems warmodgenas. kmayofili didxans mivCerebodi mimavals, vidre is meore quCaze gauxvevda da qalTa gimnaziis Senobas miefareboda. amis Semdeg did dros ar gauvlia, rom Cven Zvirfasi mwerlis ojaxSic movxvdiT. 222

quTaisSi imxanad Zalian intensiurad muSaobdnen politikuri partiebi, raTa moswavle axalgazrdoba miemxroT da TavianT aralegalur wreebSi CaebaT. Cvenc _ me da griSa _ Cawerili viyaviT aseT wreSi. iq mecadineobebs atarebda axalgazrda studenti daniel qinqlaZe _ SemdegSi Tbilisis universitetis rusuli enis leqtori. wreSi vswavlobdiT politikur ekonomikas, socializmis sakiTxebs da bevr sxvas, rac proletariatis brZolis istorias aSuqebda klasobrivi TvalsazrisiT. yvelafers gulmodgined vswavlobdiT da Tavi revolucionerebad, socialuri usamarTlobisagan gaTavisuflebisaTvis mebrZolebad mogvqonda. magram Cveni sulis erT patara kunWuls mainc RrRnida raRac, es leqciebi raRacas mainc ver pasuxobda mTlianad da amomwuravad. es raRaca, rogorc SemdegSi aRmovaCineT, Cveni mSobliuri xalxis erovnuli Cagvrisagan gaTavisuflebis problema iyo. es sakiTxi Cvens wreSi Riad rCeboda, ufro sworad _ arc dasmula. da, ai, Cvens mowafeebSi gaCndnen iseTebi, romelnic socialur problemebTan erTad, erovnuli sakiTxis Seswavlasac Tvlidnen saWirod. erTimeoris daxmarebiT Cvens warsulze, Cvens literaturaze daviwyeT qarTuli wignebis Segroveba. davixmareT mSoblebic. davukavSirdiT qarTuli enis maswavlebels ioseb CimakaZesac. is gansakuTrebulad gviyvarda imisaTvis, rom Tavis gakveTilebze, romelic kviraSi erTxel gvqonda da isic meeqvse saaTi, yovelmxriv cdilobda CvenSi qarTuli literaturisa da istoriis siyvaruli Caenerga. gadavikiTxeT zogi ram, risi Sovnac movaxerxeT, maT Soris, xaxanaSvilis „narkvevebi qarTuli literaturis istoriidan“. is bibliografiul iSviaTobas warmoadgenda da mxolod rusul enaze iyo dabeWdili. am saqmianobisas Cveni nakli is iyo, rom daqsaqsulni viyaviT da usistemod vmuSaobdiT, saWiro iyo wris organizeba, xelmZRvanelis gamoZebna. am mxriv didi daxmareba gagviwia Cvenma Tanaklaselma gola axraxaZem, romelic klasSi gamoirCeoda ara marto Tavisi lamazi Tval-tanadobiT, aramed mxurvale patriotizmiTac. man aTiode mowafe, romelTa Soris, Cem da griSas garda, Sediodnen giorgi (kukuri) xundaZe, ambrosi devdariani, platon sayvareliZe, vano xelaZe da sxvebi, erT saRamos „Zvel Tbilisis“ quCaze wagviyvana, sadac xeebiT daCrdilul ezoSi erTsarTuliani xis mozrdili saxli idga. saxls ganieri aivani mTel sigrZeze miuyveboda. aq golasagan gavigeT, rom Turme mweral Teofile xuskivaZis binaze movuyvanivarT. golam isic gvamcno, rom amieridan wris Sekrebebi aq gveqneboda xolme. wres ki TviTon batoni Teofile gauwevda xelmZRvanelobas, rac CvenTvis metad gasaxareli da Tanac saamayo iyo. maSinRa mivxvdi, saidan hqonda Cvens Tanaklasels valiko xuskivaZes aseTi kargi codna qarTuli literaturisa: ra aaxloebda mas am saganSi aseve kargad momzadebul Cems meore axlobel amxanagTan kukuri xundaZesTan. kukuri Svili iyo qarTuli enis didi specialistis, mgznebare patriotis, mwerlisa da sazogado moRvawis silovan xundaZisa, romelic quTaisis qarTul gimnaziaSi Cvens mSobliur enas aswavlida. 223

qarTuli enis codnaze rom vlaparakob, nu gaikvirvebT, im dros, e.i. revoluciamdel xanaSi, qarTul literaturas skolebSi ar aswavlidnen. amis sapasuxod, misi gamZafrebuli siyvaruli gauneleblad enTo Segnebuli da erovnulad ganwyobili axalgazrdebis gulebSi, ganaTlebul ojaxebSi rom izrdebodnen. sxvebi ki, gansakuTrebiT, medrove, uwignur ojaxTa naSierni, ara Tu siyvaruls, ubralo interessac ar amJRavnebdnen mSobliuri enisa da literaturis mimarT. aseTebs Cven „Seugnebels“ vuwodebdiT da yovelmxriv vcdilobdiT „mogvenaTla“ isini, gagverkvia erovnul sakiTxebSi. axla Zvel Jurnalebs rom gadavxedav da im pirTa sias vecnobi, romelTac es Jurnali (vTqvaT akakis „krebuli“) egzavneboda xelmoweriT ama Tu im qalaqSi, gakvirvebas var maTi simciriT. maSindeli „garusebis politika“ imdenad Zlieri iyo, rom patara erebi mas TiTqmis ver uZlebdnen. xolo Cven Cveni mcdelobiT ras gavxdebodiT. quTaisis realuri saswavleblis mowafeTa Soris yvelaze ufro gamoirCeoda vladimer emuxvari. is Tavisi momzadebiT maswavleblebsac ki ancvifrebda. yovel sakiTxSi is iyo Cveni lideri, Cveni didi avtoriteti. masTan erTad iyvnen geronti qiqoZe da dimitri uznaZe, romelnic, Tumca ufros klasebSi swavlobdnen, mainc axlos iyvnen CvenTan. niWier da momzadebul mowafeTa Soris mkveTrad gamoirCeoda, agreTve, axovani, metad lamazi saxis aleko TavdgiriZe, saukeTeso oratori, dinji, seriozuli, ucvleli friadosani. politikurad momzadebulad iTvleboda da aralegaluradac muSaobda icka riJinaSvili, romelic 1906 wlis reaqciam imsxverpla, magram is ufrosebSi daiareboda da mowafeebSi TiTqos ucxo iyo. maspinZeli xalisiT gamogvegeba, ganier oTaxSi SegvipatiJa. yvelani grZel magidas SemovusxediT da guliTad saubars SevyeviT. mxolod musaifisas gavige, rom batoni Teofile mwerlobis garda sazogadoebriv saqmianobasac eweoda. is gansakuTrebul yuradRebas aqcevda axalgazrdobis sazogadoebriv-patriotuli suliskveTebiT aRzrdis saqmes. im saRamos da oriod Semdgom Sekrebaze maspinZlisagan bevri ram Tavmosawoni gavigeT Cveni warsulis Sesaxeb. rac mTavaria, davrwmundiT, rom revoluciur lozungebs _ xalxTa socialuri Cagvrisagan gaTavisuflebas unda mimateboda lozungi, patara erebis erovnuli Cagvris winaaRmdeg mimarTuli. es im dros uTuod didi miRweva iyo, radgan revoluciur wreebSi yuradReba mxolod klasTa brZolaze iyo gamaxvilebuli da erovnuli sakiTxi umarTebulod iCqmaleboda, ris gamoc mTeli es brtyel-brtyeli laparaki yovelgvar fass da azrs kargavda.

valodia okujava
minda oriode sityviT mainc gavixseno Cemi Taobis yvela quTaiseli mowafisaTvis tkbilad mosagonari valodia okujava _ didi erudiciis mqone axalgazrda, Rrmad moazrovne filosofo224

si, gulwrfeli revolucioneri da poeti, Tavisi sajaro gamosvlebiT cnobili oratori. saSualo tanis TmaxuWuWa ymawvili, mudam Cafiqrebuli da seriozuli, mudam wignebiT xelSi, Cveni quTaisis moswavle axalgazrdobis rCeuli iyo, yvela Cvengans pirze misi saxeli ekera, yvela masze laparakobda, mis Rirsebebze. valodia e.w. „eseri“ iyo, socialist-revolucioneri. ase ewodeboda ruseTis erT-erT did partias, romelic miwis socializacias qadagebda da idealistur filosofias iziarebda. magram Cven amis gamo ki ar viyaviT misi Tayvanismcemlebi, aramed imitom, rom kargi laparaki icoda, lamazi gamosvlebi hqonda. Cven aseve gvxiblavdnen sxva partiebis warmomadgenlebic: kolia qarcivaZe, vladimer emuxvari da, gansakuTrebiT, anarqisti mixako wereTeli. yvela eseni SesaniSnavi oratorebi iyvnen. ase rom, CvenTvis partiul mimarTulebas ki ar hqonda gadamwyveti mniSvneloba, aramed oratoris pirad Rirsebebs. didi avtoritetiT sargeblobda agreTve valiko SavguliZe, isic didad niWieri. tomskis politeqnikuri saswavleblis studenti, is mxolod filosofiur sakiTxebze gamodioda. garegnuladac namdvili filosofosi iyo, maRali, mxrebSi moxrili, TmagaCeCili, didi TaviT. mudam saxemoRuSuls, Tvalebi Rrmad hqonda Camjdari. xolo yovelTvis Savperangians, maSindeli wesisamebr, welze Zafisgan nagrexi, foCebiani qamari ertya. is imdenad iyo gatacebuli Tavisi filosofiiT, rom gonebrivad gadaiRala da fsiqiurad daavadebuli sul male gardacvlila kidec. Zalian damwuxrebuli iyo misi udroo dakargvis gamo maSindeli quTaiseli axalgazrdoba. rom dascloda, didi, TvalsaCino pirovneba iqneboda. isic, rogorc maxsovs, eserebis idealistur filosofias iziarebda. magram davubrundeT isev valodias. is, etyoboda, Raribi ojaxidan unda yofiliyo. ubralo Txeli palto ecva SeZvelebul studentur „tuJurkaze“ da Sexunebuli formis qudi exura. im dros jer kidev ar iyo Semdeg „modaSi Semosuli“ uqudod siaruli. amxanagebisgan mqonda gagebuli, rom valodias Zmebi kidev ufro niWierebi ariano. gansakuTrebiT aqebdnen mis Zmas miSas, romelic „SesaniSnavi marqsistia, niWieri da didad momzadebulio “. Zmebs, Turme Sin Tu gareT, xSirad hqondaT paeqroba; araerTxel sajaro paeqrobazec gamosulan erTi meoris winaaRmdeg. magram, samwuxarod, me aseTs ar davswrebivar. cxovrobda valodia sadRac Sors, orpiris quCis boloSi, xonis gzis axlos, _ „gadasakargavSio“, rogorc ityodnen maSin.

griSa cxakaia
dRes Tvalcremlianma lenam Cumad gamando: _ esaa, aniko cxakaiam damireka da metad usiamovno ambavi miTxra, parizSi griSa gardacvlilao. tyviasaviT momxvda gulze. Tavbru damesxa. ukve karga xania velodi griSas werils da mikvirda, rom axanebda. man ar icoda 225

werilis dagvianeba da mis miuReblobas fostis daudevrobas vabralebdi. vaglax, vaglax!.. griSa cxakaia parizSi 1921 wels wavida, roca saqarTvelos menSevikuri mTavroba bolSevikur ruseTTan orkviriani warumatebeli brZolis Semdeg evropaSi gaixizna. ar vici, ratom wavida, ra mizeziT. SeiZleba ifiqra, rom ori-sami Tvis Semdeg bolSevikebi wavlen da mec davbrundebio. maSin xom ase araerTi fiqrobda. magram, ase iyo Tu ise, wavida da samSoblos gareT, parizSi, zusti 52 weli da 2 Tve icxovra. amdenive xani aRarc me minaxavs. griSam quTaisis gimnazia 1907 wels daamTavra. me mgonia, igive gimnazia imave wels daamTavra Salva nucubiZem, Salva sanebliZem, daTiko lominaZem, daTiko gaguam, mgoni, sergo daneliamac da bevrma sxvam, romlebic gamoirCeodnen TavianTi niWierebiT da quTaisis gimnazias saxels uxveWdnen. CvenTan realurSi aseTebi ar yofilan. gimnazia axalgazrdobas mainc met zogad ganaTlebas aZlevda, aristokratul pews matebda. gimnaziadamTavrebuli SeiZleboda pirdapir parlamentSi gaegzavnaT xalxis namdvil warmomadgenlad, mebrZol deputatad. aseTi iyo griSac. moskovSi is rom saTvistomos sxdomaze sityviT gamovidoda, gansakuTrebiT ki polemikuri xasiaTis sityviT, mosasmenad Rirda; rusulad, rasakvirvelia, radgan qarTulad sityvis Tqma im dros mxolod rCeulebs SeeZloT _ grigol robaqiZes, spiridon kedias, grigol laRiZes da SeiZleba kidev oriodes. griSam brwyinvaled daamTavra iuridiuli fakulteti da saqarTveloSi dabrunda. me da is erTad vmecadineobdiT da erTadve vabarebdiT gamocdebs. mikvirda, ra swrafad iTvisebda sagnebs da ra unaklod eufleboda maT. verc erTi rusi oratori ver gautoldeboda mas, yovel SemTxvevaSi, ver ajobebda Tundac rusuli enis codnaSi. is qarTuladac lamazad laparakobda. me vfiqrob, es ojaxidan mosdgamda. misi Zmebi miSa da petrec metad niWierebi iyvnen, magram griSa mainc sul sxva iyo. is rom maSindel saxelmwifo saTaTbiroSi moxvedriliyo, aranakleb gaiTqvamda saxels, vidre, vTqvaT, kaki wereTeli. Cvens studentur saTvistomoSi bevri iyo kargi oratori _ Salva mesxiSvili, giorgi Jordania, evgeni gegeWkori, giorgi koniaSvili, kostia fanievi, pavle mesxi, silovan gabunia, sergo danelia, lazare SurRaia, grigol laRiZe da sxvebi, magram griSa cxakaia mainc sxva iyo, sxva temperamentis da brZolis sxva Jinis mqone. maxsendeba erTi anekdoturi SemTxveva: erTxel me da griSa iuridiuli fakultetis meore auditoriaSi romeliRac saganSi gamocdas vabarebdiT. iq TiTqmis yvela auditoria uzarmazari iyo, amfiTeatris msgavsi. mraval studentTa Soris karga xans visxediT, vucdidiT gamoZaxebas. ucbad, profesorma mimarTa auditorias: _ Gospoda studentj! Zdes> u men% po spisku +kzamenuets% odna devuwka; davayte osvobodim ee pervjm dolgom. Vozra[eniy ne budet? _ Net, net! _ SevZaxeT yvelam erTxmad, magram auditoriaSi es „devuSka“ arsada Canda. profesori CasCerebia sias da ZlivZlivobiT arCevs: G.I.Cxa...cxa...Cxaka%. _ Gospodin professor, +to ne devuwka, +to _ %, Grigoriy Ivanoviq Cxaka%! _ SesZaxa griSam adgilidan. amaze studentebma bevri icines... 226

griSam rogorc ki daamTavra saxelmwifo gamocdebi da diplomic miiRo, sul male wamovida moskovidan quTaisSi. iq mas ori da da ori Zma eguleboda udedmamod (mSoblebi adre dakarges). cxadia, maT mixedvas eSureboda; da-Zmebis iSviaTi moyvaruli iyo. Tu rames zedmet kapiks iSovida, quTaisSi agzavnida. mudam maT werils eloda, maTi javri hqonda. me da Cemi Zmebi, agreTve griSa cxakaia, daTiko gagua, vano mWedliZe, grigol laRiZe, miSa Tuxareli, lado ramiSvili da sxvebi, erTxel, marjaniSvilTan (nezlobinis TeatrSi) viyaviT statistebad miwveuli da kargi fulic aviReT studentebis kvalobaze. griSam is fuli sul quTaisSi gamougzavna Tavis da-Zmebs. TiTqmis 8 weliwadi gvqonda me da griSas miwer-mowera parizsa da Tbiliss Sua. misi werilebi ganZia CemTvis sxva megobrebisagan miRebul werilebs Soris.

iliko qurxuli
ilikoze dawerili maqvs patara narkvevi, romelic erT mis saRamoze wavikiTxe, mgoni, xalxuri Semoqmedebis saxlSi (maxaraZis q.8). ilikoze sergei iablonovskimac dawera moskovSi gamomaval gazeT „ruskoe slovoSi“ da engelmac („ruskie vedomosti“). iliko Cemsobas Zalian popularuli iyo moskovSi. is pirdapir anTebuli iyo ideiT, rac ar unda dajdomoda, ra siZneleebis gadalaxvac ar unda dasWirveboda, „gasuliyo xalxSi“ da, SeZlebisdagvarad, samsaxuri gaewia xalxis im fenebisaTvis, romlebic moklebulni iyvnen musikas. mTeli moskovi Semoiara Tavisi violinoTi da peterburgsac ewvia; iqac imuSava, iqaurebsac gaacno Tavisi musika. bolos ki sazRvargareTac wavida da bulgareTSi daiwyo moRvaweoba. ilikom iq ramdenime weli dahyo da mTelma bulgareTma gaicno. amasobaSi maTi enac Seiswavla, wignic dawera da gamosca kidec _ „Za Gruzi% lazurna“. roca sabolood dabrunda samSobloSi, erTi egzemplari am wignisa griSas usaCuqra, Cems Zmas; griSas Zalian moswonda misi bulgaruli ena da rogorc karg leqsebs, ise kiTxulobda, tkbeboda misi musikiT. ar vici, kidev SerCa Tu ara es wigni griSas biblioTekas. meore msoflio omis wlebSi iliko TbilisSi imyofeboda; xSirad modioda CemTan da moskovSi gatarebul studentur cxovrebas vigonebdiT. 1942 wlis zamTarSi ki, roca frontze wasuli Cemi Svilis, givis, gmirulad daRupvis ambavi gavige da cudad Seviqeni, iliko ar momeSva, CemTan wamodio, meubneboda, guls gadaayolebo; imxanad kaspis raionSi midioda sofel-sofel samuSaod. zamTari iyo, didi Tovli ido. Tanac, giorgi xeCuaSvilsac sTxova, CvenTvis kampania gaewia da isic wamogvyoloda. me wasvla gadavwyvite da samive erTad gavemgzavreT. xelT gvqonda raionis skolebisa da saTanado dawesebulebebisadmi ganaTlebis saxkomis miweriloba _ xeli SeewyoT Cveni kulturul-saganmanaTleblo saqmianobisaTvis. im zamTarSi mTeli raioni fexiT SemoviareT. cnobil „kalmasobas“ mogagonebdaT Cveni is sofel-sofel siaruli. 227

minda gavixseno ukanaskneli dReebi im daudgromeli enTuziast-musikosisa. TbilisSi iliko bolo xanebSi doliZis quCaze cxovrobda, saburTaloze, Tavisi megobris svaniZis (momRerlis) binaSi. Sesasvleli ezodan iyo (Tumca Cven masTan ufro pekinis quCiT SevdiodiT sxvisi ezos gavliT). ekava erTi patara oTaxi. ar maxsovs, romeli weli iyo, iliko avad gaxda da gareT veRar gadioda. mas axalgazrda rusi qali _ misi ukanaskneli coli uvlida, romelic, Tu ar meSleba, aseve xalxSi dadioda, mgoni, gitariT. ar vici sad, romel raionSi Sexvda ilikos, imxanad marto rom iyo da colis „vakansia“ Tavisufali hqonda. amitom axalgazrda, janmrTel gogoze uars xom ar ityoda! miT ufro, rom arc im gogos dauwyia gapranWva!... aRar maxsovs, ramden xans iyvnen erTad. avadmyof qmars rom uvlida da gulianadac, kargad maxsovs, magram sanamde eyo moTmineba da ra mdgomareobaSi miatova is, aRar magondeba; es ki vici, rom roca ilikos ukve magrad moeria avadmyofoba, im qalis magier iq viRac daqiravebuli momvleli damxvda. ilikom SemomCivla, rom valia (Tu tania) sakmaod ZviradRirebuli nivTebianad cam Caylapa Tu miwam, aravin iciso. magram tyuilad ukvirda, es xom asec unda momxdariyo! sxvagvari bolo ar ewera amnair ,,SeuRlebas”. kanonzomieri iyo es yvelaferi! ase Tu ise, iliko seriozulad iyo avad da sayvareli adamianis magier viRac daqiravebuli qali uvlida. isic _ xan erTi da xan meore. erT dRes gazeTSi wavikiTxe, rom bulgareTidan kulturis muSakebi _ momRerlebi Tu msaxiobebi Camosuliyvnen da qarTul sazogadoebasTan Sexvedrisas ganucxadebiaT, rom kargad icnoben erT qarTvels _ iliko qurxuls _ meviolines, romelic didad popularulia bulgareTSio. survilic gamouTqvamT masTan Sexvedrisa bulgareli xalxis saxeliT madlierebis gamosaxatavad. man xom bulgarul enaze dawerili SesaniSnavi wigniT „Za Gruzi% lazurna“ pirvelma gaacno Cvens xalxs saqarTvelo da misi kulturao. wavikiTxe Tu ara es, _ samwuxarod, is gazeTi ar SemomrCa, _ maSinve gaviqeci ilikosTan, rom es yovelive mecnobebina da misi bulgarelebTan Sexvedrac momewyo. magram avadmyofi kidev ufro cudad gamxdariyo da Cemi danaxva mxolod siamovnebis RimiliT gamoxata, laparaki TiTqmis aRar SeeZlo. me mivaxare ris saTqmeladac mivedi. mas Tvalebi gaubrwyinda da raRac wailaparaka, magram, samwuxarod, veraferi gavige. es igrZno, unugeSod Cahkida Tavi da Tvalebze cremli moadga. wuxda, albaT, rom aseT sasurvel stumrebTan Sexvedris Tavi aRar hqonda. Sevecade odnav mainc gamomekeTebina misi guneba-ganwyoba. davpirdi, rom Tavad Sevxvdebodi sasurvel stumrebs da masac vawvevdi. uTuod mogiyvan, Cemo iliko, oRond Sen iyav kargad-meTqi. magram vxedavdi, rom misi saaTebic ki daTvlili iyo ukve. _ oriode dRiT mainc adre CamoeswroT im dalocvilebs, _ vifiqre gunebaSi, _ cotas mainc gaixarebda es sacodavi!...

228

avadmyofis oTaxSi viRac qali trialebda. me miCveuli viyavi momvlelTa xSir cvlas da yuradReba ar mimiqcevia, magram wamosvlisas mainc SevekiTxe, vina brZandebiT-meTqi. coli varo. _ romeli coli?!. gaecina. TviTonac kargad icoda, rom Cemi gakvirveba ar iyo usafuZvlo da ganmimarta, _ avWalis quCaze rom vcxovrobdio.

gazeT ,,TbilisSi” dabeWdili erTi werilis avtoris mezRapreoba, anu cota ram aleqsandre cimakuriZeze
13 noembers gazeT „TbilisSi“ daibeWda werili _ „didi mxatvris cxovrebis epizodebi“, romelic upasuxismgeblod ekideba mxatvar aleqsandre cimakuriZis warsuls da iseT „epizodebs“„igonebs“, rogoric sinamdvileSi arasdros momxdara. mogoneba iSviaTi da metad ZviradRirebulia, Tu is namdvilis mogonebaa, magram Zalze miuRebelia, gayalbebuli. avtori sruliad ar icnobs a.cimakuriZis warsuls da iseT zRaprebs hyveba, gangacvifrebs. jer erTi, a.cimakuriZe „moskovis samxatvro akademiis studenti“ ar yofila im ubralo mizeziT, rom moskovSi samxatvro akademia arasodes yofila da arc axlaa. iyo mxolod samxatvro saswavlebeli, xolo am or cnebas Soris gansxvaveba arc ise umniSvneloa. magram es uneblie ucodinaroba vapatioT avtors. is mere da mere ufro mets „mezRapreobs“. cimakuriZes Turme Tavisi profesorisaTvis suraTebi uTxovia da „didi wvalebiT“ ocamde saukeTesos TbilisSi wamoRebac mouxerxebia. mere aq „samxatvro galereaSi“ „am suraTebis gamofena“ mouwyvia. arada, im dros (laparakia 1907 welze) samxatvro galerea sul ar yofila TbilisSi da dRevandel samxatvro galereas Tu gulisxmobs, im Senobas im dros „didebis taZari“ erqva, sadac samxedro uwyebis Zveli naalafevi (iaraRi, almebi, droSebi da a.S.) iyo gamofenili. sinamdvileSi moskovel mxatvarTa gamofena moawyo samxatvro saswavleblis studentma grigol mesxma, romelmac ara 1907 wels, aramed 1909 wlis gazafxulze Camoitana TbilisSi ara „ocamde“, aramed 142 suraTi. imave wlis 6 maiss moawyo gamofena ara „samxatvro galereaSi“, aramed zubalaSvilebis saxlSi, kavkasiel mxatvarTa sazogadoebis skolaSi, romlis direqtori imxanad iyo CvenSi kargad cnobili mxatvari oskar Smerlingi. marTalia, a.cimakuriZe da a.araqeliani daxmarebas uwevdnen amxanags, magram suraTebis Segrovebis, maTi Camotanis da gamofenis avtoroba grigol mesxs ekuTvnis (ixile gazeTi „droeba“, 1909.05.01. #95). rac Seexeba revolucioneri cimakuriZis mokvlis ambavs, misma Zmam aleqsandrem moskovSi gaigo da iqve gamoiglova ise, rom TbilisSi arc wamosula. Svilis mokvlisas aleqsandre cimakuriZis mSoblebis iqve yofnac metad saeWvoa da Tu gaviTvaliswinebT imas, rom mTel am did werilSi simarTlis natamali araa, unda davaskvnaT, rom esec avtoris gamogonilia. 229

magram yvelaze ufro skandaluria, ai, es ambavi: TiTqos im dros, roca rusTavelis prospeqtze samxatvro galereis kari gaiRo, „xalxma dena daiwyo“, xolo quCaSi Tofi gavarda da xalxis yvirili gaisma _ „kaci mokleso“ (a.cimakuriZis Zma, revolucioneri). gamofenaze Turme „am dros Tavisi amaliT Semovida mefisnacvali voroncov-daSkovi, daaTvaliera, moewona da ikiTxa, vin iTava misi mowyobao. roca gaigo, rom misi organizatori a.cimakuriZe iyo, mxleblebs SeekiTxa: _ cimakuriZe? ai is cimakuriZe, dRes rom mokles, revolucioneri, buntisTavi? _ is cimakuriZe am studentis Zma ariso, _ moaxsenes. _ kargad uTqvamT qarTvelebs: erTi xidan baric gamoiWreba da niCabico, _ am sityvebiT mefisnacvals gamofenis darbazi dautovebia“. mefisnacvali da galereaSi siaruli?! isic viRac studentis mier mowyobil gamofenaze „ociode suraTiT“, miT ufro im dros, roca gamofena is iyo gaixsna da „xalxma daiwyo dena“, xolo quCaSi yvirili ismoda, ,,kaci mokleso“. es upasuxismgebloze upasuxismgeblo gancxadebaa da meti araferi. vis unaxavs, rom mefis nacvali ase daseirnobda quCaSi? aseT dros, roca xalxi Sedioda galereaSi, Tavisi prestiJisaTvis ubralo pristavic ki Seufereblad miiCnevda im xalxSi garevas... es aris absurdi da sruli umecreba!. rac Seexeba werilis meore nawils, aq TiTqos 1921 wlis gazafxulze, roca a.cimakuriZe Tavis sofel qviSxeTSi venaxSi muSaobda „ubralo glexiviT“, is viRac Tofianma kacma daapatimra, waiyvana fexSvela, tanCaucmeli da revkomis Tavmjdomares Caabara. Turme Tavmjdomarem mxatvars daavala, „leninis suraTi ara gvaqvs da unda dagvixatoo“, es xom mTlad zRaparia da ufro metic. Turme revkomSi leninis suraTi ara hqoniaT da dapatimrebul mxatvars ubrZaneben, „erTi sulis SeberviT“ daexata beladi... am dros mxatvars araTu xatvisTvis saWiro masala ar gaaCnda, perangic ar ecva, ise wamoaCiqCiqes soflidan. werilis avtors amis gamogoneba imisTvis dasWirda, rom dagvarwmunos, rogor zrunavda revkomi leninis portretis mopovebaze... es albaT komediis Temaa. „vcdi, _ gaifiqra aleqsandrem, _ Tumca portretul ferweraSi gawafuli ara var da arc ufunjod mimuSavia adre. gaakra tilo, bamba TiTze daixvia, xatvas Seudga... (mere rogor ggoniaT? _ zepirad, udednod, mere rodis? 1921 wels, gana dRes, roca leninis saxe asea CabeWdili yoveli sabWoTa adamianis mexsierebaSi! maSinac ase iyo?) magram mxatvarma utyuari intuiciis wyalobiT didi beladis suraTi male daamTavra ise, rom revkomis Tavmjdomarem „aRtaceba ver damala“. ai, ase, unaturod, TiTze gadaxveuli bambiT, revkomis mTeli Statis Tvalwin iqmneba portreti im mxatvris mier, romelic namdvilad ar iyo gawafuli portetul ferweraSi. „ase Seiqmna leninis erT-erTi pirveli suraTi saqarTveloSi“, _ dasZens avtori, metad kmayofili imiT, rom kvleviTi sakiTxic gadaWra da leninis portretis Seqmnis pirvelobac saqarTveloSi xaSuris revkomis Tavmjdomaris brZanebiT dapatimrebul mxatvars miakuTvna. sircxvilo, sad aris Seni siwiTle?!. 230

grigol mesxis damokidebuleba uCa jafariZis naxatebisadmi
dRes ukve namdvili gazafxulis dRea da institutidan grigol mesxs Tavis saxelosnoSi (l.kavsaZis quCaze) gamovuare. visxediT, vilaparakeT. mere SevediT roman davlianiZis saxelosnoSi (moqandakea); pirdapir davtkbi misi xelovnebiT, gansakuTrebiT iakob gogebaSvilis biusti momewona. magram raa mere? moqandakeebi „SimSiloben“, aRaraviTari dakveTa an rame samuSao. griSam Zalian aqo uCas nawarmoebi „mSobliur midamoebSi“ (dedis didi portreti), _ iSviaTi naxelovnebia. wavideT vnaxoT, galereaSi akademikosebis gamofenaa da uCas suraTic iqaao. wavediT. galereaSi bevri mnaxveli iyo, ufro _ mxatvrebi. griSa yvelas esalmeboda da esaubreboda, me ki suraTebs vaTvalierebdi. kargi gamofena iyo, an ra gasakviria, _ aq xom mxolod akademikosebi iyvnen warmodgenili. vnaxeT uCas kuTxec. misi ramdenime namuSevaria: „deda“, „tyupebi“, ,,akademikosi korneli kekeliZe” (portreti) da sxva. griSa didxans idga dedis portretis win. sxvebic bevrni iyvnen, bWobdnen. aqebdnen. ianqoSvilma (mxatvarma qalma, lado avalianis meuRlem) karga xans ilaparaka am suraTis Rirsebebze. mere momibrunda da miTxra, _ mxolod TqvenTan vlaparakob amas. ra Sedarebaa aq gamofenil sxva suraTebTan, uCa mTeli TaviT maRla dgas yvela aq warmodgenil akademikoszeo. am namuSevars Zalian aqedebdnen agreTve lado grigolia da misi meuRle. ai, aq ufro gamoCnda uCas namdvili siZliere, roca sxva mxatvrebTan erTadaa gamofenili, misi erovnuli elferi, misi poeturoba... bevri sxvac miTxres qaTinauri, aRar damamaxsovrda. vladimer wilosanic iq iyo, axalgazrda mxatvrebic... magram yvelaze aRfrTovanebuli mainc griSa mesxi iyo. is pirdapir ar Sordeboda am suraTs. mere, rogorc iqna, movacile, sxvaganac vnaxoT-meTqi. _ ra unda naxo aseTio, _ mipasuxa, _ me pirdapir vtkbebi am suraTiT, siamovnebis cremlebs ver vikaveb, xom xedavo. da, marTlac, cremlebs iSrobda Tvalebze cxvirsaxociT. mTeli gamofena davaTvaliereT. karga xans davrCiT galereaSi. wamosvlis win griSa erTxel kidev mivida im suraTTan, _ me TiTqos imasve vgrZnob, rasac Rrmad morwmune RvTismSoblis xatis win, gauTaveblad minda vidge da vilocoo.

rafiel erisTavis qoneba
guSin Cvens poliklinikaSi viyavi. iq bevri nacnobi mxvdeba. magram SeiZleba didi xnis unaxaobiT daviwyebul axlobelsac 231

gadaawyde, Tavs rom gagaxsenebs, Sen ki Seicxadeb, _ es ra momsvlia, Seni Tavi ram damaviwyao. im dResac ase moxda. uceb Tvali movkari TmaTeTr sandomian mandilosans. mecnaura, magram ver gavixsene da gverdi moridebiT avuare. ramdenime wuTis Semdeg TerapevtTan unda Sevsuliyav da vidre eqimi CemTvis moiclida, misi kabinetis win mosacdelad davjeqi. kari rom gaiRo, is mandilosani davinaxe, eqimTan ijda. mec SemamCnies kabinetidan da mTxoves, Sevsuliyavi. _ batono vladimer, Tqven ver cnobT am qalbatons? _ mkiTxa eqimma merim. maSin ki vifiqre, namdvilad Sevmcdarvar da nacnobi veRar micvnia-meTqi; bodiSi movixade mandilosanTan da aRar maxsovs-meTqi, vupasuxe. _ eh, Cemo batono, ra gasakviria, rom veRar micnoT, ramdeni xania aRar SevxvedrivarT. Cven ki kargad vicnobdiT erTmaneTs. gaxsovT, Tamar WavWavaZe da mania erisTavi, usinaTloTa skolis axalgazrda maswavleblebi?... eh, unda genaxaT erTad es ori Zma axalgazrdobaSi, _ miubrunda mandilosani eqims, _ amaT Sexedvas araferi sjobda. Tanac erTnairebi, ver gaarCevdiT, romeli griSa iyo da romeli _ lado. vin ar icnobda amaT, am or Zmas?!. karga xans visaubreT, gavixseneT Zveli Sexvedrebi, Tamari (WavWavaZe), viqtori (anjafariZe) da sxvani. daaxloebiT ocian wlebSi Cemma kargma megobarma viqtor anjafariZem gamacno Tavisi axalgazrda megobrebi, usinaTloTa skolis maswavleblebi Tamar WavWavaZe (SemdegSi cnobili msaxiobi), mania erisTavi, rafiel erisTavis, Cveni sasiqadulo mwerlis, qaliSvili. Cven araerTxel vyofilvarT maTTan skolaSi da SemdegSic araerTxel SevxvedrivarT erTmaneTs. magram dro midis da vberdebiT. Tamar WavWavaZe ukve aRar aris, aRarc viqtor anjafariZe, SesaniSnavi jentlmeni, uaRresad zrdili adamiani. mec wlebma miwia da gamovicvale. visaubreT. sxvaTa Soris, qalbatonma maniam gaixsena Zveli ambebi da sinanuli gamoTqva, rom mamis mravali kargi nivTidan veraferi gadaarCina muzeumisaTvis Casabareblad. es ambavi imasTan dakavSirebiT gaixsena, rom wina dRiT televizorSi enaxa zugdidis muzeumi. _ ramdenad ufro siZvelis pativismcemeli xalxia samegreloSi, ufro Segnebuli, vidre Cven, kaxelebi. aseTi mSvenieri da mdidari muzeumi hqoniaT da inaxaven kidec mowiwebiT, _ Tqva man, _ Cven ki, miuxedavad imisa, rom mama-papaTagan datovebuli imdeni simdidre gvebada sofelSi, marto im nivTebisagan gaivseboda erTi muzeumi, veraferi gamoviyeneT samuzeumod da yvelaferi ase ukvalod gaibna. marto is rad Rirda, rac qarTulma sazogadoebam mamaCems iubileze miarTva. sxvas rom Tavi davaneboT, Tundac dakrZalvaze, sxvadasxva zomis, sxvadasxva saxis, mxatvrulad gaformebuli ocdaaTi marto vercxlis gvirgvini iyo, Tbiliseli durglebis mier specialurad misi iubilisaTvis gakeTebuli saweri magida, saucxood morTuli da mokazmuli; bukinistebis morTmeuli Zveli wignebi; nair-nairi, xeliT nakeTebi nivTebi. ra vici, ra ar gvqonda. revoluciis dReebSi soflidan gamoviqeciT da mivatoveT yvelaferi, raRa dros nivTebze fiqri 232

iyo... dasavleTSi ki aseTi ambebi ar yofila, arc araferi gabneula da dakargula. didi dananebiT igonebda yvelafer amas qalbatoni mania da wuxda, rom mamamisis _ rafiel erisTavis qonebidan aRaraferi darCa samuzeumod. marTla dasanania, radgan iubilar poets bevri ram miarTves saCuqrad. ai, Tundac sagangebod gakeTebuli saweri magida!.. sad wavida? es xom patara rame nivTi ar iyo, rom dakarguliyo? an Tundac 30 vercxlis gvirgvini! es mTeli kapitalia. rogor gaibna ase SeumCnevlad?.. afsus!..

gulbaT _ qarTuli legenda
gazeT „axalgazrda komunistis“ 1955 wlis 11 agvistos nomerSi wavikiTxe solomon caiSvilis werili gulbaTis Sesaxeb da Zalian damainteresa, radgan gulbaTs me da griSa kargad vicnobdiT. is iyo ilia batoniSvilis (giorgi XII-s vaJis) qaliSvili olRa gruzinskaia (uganaTlebulesi Tavadi _ svetleywa% kn%gin%). igi im wels (1906), roca me da griSa pirvelad CavediT moskovSi, gadmosaxlebuliyo peterburgidan da cxovrobda kerZo saxlSi kudrinis moedanTan „bolSaia gruzinskaia“-s quCis dasawyisSi. maSin ukve samoci wlis qali iyo, magram axla rom maxsendeba, ufro xnierad gamoiyureboda. me da griSa davdiodiT xolme masTan, yovel aRdgomas masTan viyaviT. yvelas gvirigebda TiTo wiTel kvercxs, gvilocavda aRdgomas da gvkocnida. Cven xelze veamborebodiT xolme. ufrosebidan am dros masTan stumrobdnen aleqsandre xaxanaSvili, ivane TulaSvili, jibilo lorTqifaniZe, andro xorava, polkovniki gerasime qavTaraZe da sxvebi ; studentebidan _ me, griSa, aleqsandre kvitaSvili, giorgi da Tedo Jordaniebi, vano mWedliZe, griSa cxakaia, daviT gagua, miSa Tuxareli, Salva qarumiZe. gulbaTma yvelas dagviriga Tavisi wignebi „gruzinskie legendi“ da gviyveboda xolme Tavisi bavSvobis drois STabeWdilebebs saqarTveloze; bavSvobis mere is samSobloSi aRar yofila, ar aZlevdnen uflebas. axsovda mas yurTmajebiani qulajebi, qaTibebi. _ eh, me vici, axla aRar atareben im tansacmels, da imitomac aRar minda iq wasvla, kidec rom momcen uflebao. _ naRvlianad ityoda xolme, _ aba, raRa qarTvelia is, visac aseTi, yvelasaTvis mosabezrebeli evropuli kostumi acviao. saxelebs ar gveZaxda, SeiZleba, ver imaxsovrebda da yvelas mogvmarTavda „suliko“-Ti. qarTuli ar icoda, erTi-ori sityva Tu axsovda bavSvobidan. garegnulad Zalian lamazi eTqmoda, qalis pirobaze cxviri odnav mozrdili hqonda, bagrationebiseuli. SesaniSnavad laparakobda frangulad da evropis sxva enebic icoda. bavSvobaSi is peterburgSi cxovrobda, freilinad yofiliyo sasaxleSi da 1906 wels, ar vici ris gamo, gadmosaxlebula moskovSi. ilia bagrations (gruzinskis) hyolia sul 12 Svili _ 8 qali da 4 vaJi, romelTaganac olRa yvelaze umcrosi yofila. igi gardaicvala moskovSi 1913 wlis ivnisSi. olRas, ramdenadac vici, zvenigorodis mazraSi hqonda didi mamuli, romlis mmarTvelad, Cvensobas, hyavda jibilo lorTqi233

faniZe. jibilo „kniaJna olgas“ mouravi iyo da ufro zvenigorodis mazraSi cxovrobda, „kniaJnas“ sofelSi. erT zafxuls im sofelSi ardadegebze sandro kvitaSvili stumrobda da Zalian kmayofili iyo, yvelaferi mzamzareuli mosdioda, fuli saWmel-sasmelSi ar exarjeboda. me da griSas gvexveweboda, wamodiT Tqvenco, ar mogawyenT, karg dros gagatarebinebTo; magram Cven iq ki ara, Cveni mSobliuri soflis siyvaruliT sazRvargareT eqskursiebze ar wavsulvarT da iq rogor wavidodiT. solomon caiSvili ki wers, rom olRas Tavis mouravad artileriis polkovniki ivane TulaSvili hyavdao, magram raRac meeWveba. jibilo rom iyo mouravi, es danamdvilebiT vici, magram, Tu ivane TulaSvilic misi mouravi iyo, es me ar gamigia. vfiqrob, solomons ar moawodes, albaT, swori informacia. an ratom unda yofiliyo vinmes mouravi, roca uimisodac kargi Tanamdeboba eWira. polkovniki iyo da aleqsandres saxelobis samxedro saswavlebelSi kiTxulobda leqciebs Vozdvi[enka-ze. aseT pirobebSi ramdenad SeZlebda is meore samsaxuris tvirTis zidvas, ar vici. rac Seexeba imas, rom olRas sikvdilis Semdeg misi literaturuli da sxva memkvidreoba ivane TulaSvilis xelSi gadasuliyo, es ki advili SesaZlebelia da uTuod damajerebelic, radgan TulaSvili Zalian axlos iyo olRasTan, _ SeiZleba iTqvas, erTaderTi patroni moxucisa. amis Semdeg aba sxva vin unda gamosCenoda mas meurved da, isic, 1913 wels? magram me solomonis am mSvenieri werilis im nawils ar veTanxmebi, sadac wers, rom TiTqos „pirveli msoflio omis Semdeg TulaSvili horizontze ar gamoCeniliyo...“ TulaSvils kargad vicnobdi da moskovSi mis ojaxSic araerTxel vyofilvar _ vozdviJenkaze. msoflio omis Semdeg is karga xans TbilisSi cxovrobda, vfiqrob, axlandel galaktion tabiZis quCaze. xSirad vxvdebodi da yovelTvis tkbilad vigonebdiT moskovsa da iqaur yofas. samwuxarod, olRas Sesaxeb mas araferi uTqvams, arc mis literaturul Tu sxva memkvidreobaze. vano rodis gardaicvala, ar vici, magram misi vaJi ki (ori qali da erTi vaJi hyavda) axlac mxvdeba xolme. is romeliRac redaqciis fotokorespondenti unda iyos. olRas megobrobda cnobili qarTveli moRvawe polkovniki boris esaZe (simonis Zma), romelmac gamosca sqeltaniani wigni „K 300-letih Romanovjx“.

simon jafariZe (sofeli xirxonisi)
simonTan yovelTvis didi stumrianoba icodnen. vin ar ijda mis sufrasTan da isic yoveldRe! ustumrod am ojaxSi puris Wamac ugemuri iyo. ori Tone hqondaT da oriveSi yoveldRe puri cxveboda _ mere ra puri! axlac maxsovs misi aromati, gemo da garegnuli silazaTec. gansakuTrebiT did wveulebas ixdida sxierobas, soflis dReobaze. orasi, samasi kaci da qali mainc ijda sufrasTan SigniT da gareT, e.i. ezoSi, kaklebqveS, iyo erTi cekva, TamaSi, simRera, Rreoba. 234

simoni TviTon sufrasTan ar jdeboda xolme. is nelinel daseirnobda aivanze Tu ezoSi da xandaxan Tu Semoixedavda did darbazSi. erTxel gaxurebuli simReris dros dinjad Semoabija. zafxuli iyo da msubuqad ecva. axaluxis sayelo gaxsnili hqonda, xolo Coxa _ Seukravi, misi marjvena kalTa marcxena mxarze gadaegdo da saxeze sasiamovno Rimili dasTamaSebda. karga xans ugdo yuri simReras. mere, roca Sewyda, momRerlebs miubrunda: _ romeli iyo, maRal bans rom ambobda, axalgazrdebo? _ me, batono simon, _ wamoxta Tavmomwoned n. g. _ Segircxva Tavi, gaafuWe mSvenieri simRera!

uCa jafariZis naambobi
_ amomiRo suli margaritam. meubneba, _ kaco, sul taqsiT ras dadixar, geyofa, rogorc yvela axla troleibusSic Cajeqi. mTeli Seni xelfasi im taqsebs undeba. _ ho, kargi, _ vifiqre, _ Cavjdebi mec troleibusSi, didi xania aRar vmjdarvar. Cems warsuls gavixseneb. marTlac, meore diliT samsaxurSi mimavalma, pirdapir troleibusis gaCerebas mivaSure da, rogorc ki samxatvro akademiisaken mimavali nomeri Camodga, avedi. xalxi blomad iyo da didi nawili fexze idga. Zlivs movaxerxe jibeSi xelis Cayofa safulis amosaRebad da konduqtors fuli mivawode. mgzavrebi yovel gaCerebaze Cadiodnen da amodiodnen. rogorc iqna, mivaRwie Cems gaCerebas da Zlivs, vai-vaglaxiT gadmovedi troleibusidan, Tavisuflad amovisunTqe. _ RmerTma daswyevlos aseTi gaWirvebuli mgzavroba, _ vifiqre gunebaSi. _ marTalia, raRac kapikebi damijda, magram, samagierod, rogor gavwvaldi, axla aqedan samsaxuramdec xom fexiT unda viaro. Rirda ki wvalebad aseTi „momWirneoba“? am „msjelobaSi“ rom var, ratomRac meqanikurad xeli paltos jibeSi Cavyavi... xelSi raRac momxvda... _ es ra aris?! _ gavifiqre gunebaSi, _ me iq araferi Camidvia... saidan?... amoviRe, davxede da... es xom Cemi safulea?! pijakis jibeSi medo! aq ra jandabam gadmoitana!? me TviTon Cavde da aRar maxsovs? isev pijakis jibeSi davapire Cadeba... magram jer ratomRac gavxseni da... _biWos!... es ra ambavia? safuleSi groSi-kapiki aRar aris! saidan da rogor? aq xom ori ocdaxuTiani medo da ramdenime Tumnianic!... vifiqre... vifiqre da mereRa gamaxsenda, rom troleibusSi viRac axalgazrdebi trialebdnen Cem garSemo, _ amouRiaT pijakis jibidan. _ rogor? ra saswauliT?!. _ da mere carieli Cemi paltos jibeSi CaubrunebiaT?! jibgirebis aseTma maRalma profesiulma xelovnebam (ostatobam) pirdapir gamaoca... ai, yoCaR!... ase gavakeTe „ekonomia“, romelmac ukanaskneli 80 Tu 90 maneTi mazarala. 235

mcire Canawerebi
mogonebebi! magram ara marto is, rac piradad maxsovs, aramed isic, rac Cveni ojaxis Soreul warsulze babua nestorisagan bavSvobaSi gamigonia. babuaCemi didi moyvaruli iyo gardasulisa da xSirad icoda masze laparaki xan siamayiT, xan naRvlianad. Cveni winaprebidan arc im pirTa augad moxseniebas erideboda, romlebmac Tavisi ugunurebiT xeli Seuwyves (uneburad, rasakvirvelia) Cveni ojaxis qonebrivad dakninebas. am mxriv babua yvelaze cudad Tavis uaxloes winapars „patara jafaras“ ixsenebda _ mis babuas Tu papas, aRar maxsovs. „papas“ Cveni, raWuli gagebiT vxmarob. papa aq babuis mamaa. patara jafara, gansxvavebiT didi jafarasagan, romelic am „pataras“ babua iyo Tu papa, uxasiaTo yofila. „paplavaqi“ (ampartavani) iyoo, _ ambobda babuaCemi, e.i. „yoyoCa“, „cxviraweuli“. Turme aravis arafrad agdebda. mas Tavisi da imereli kurcxaliasaTvis miuTxovebia da mziTvad mamulebi miucia. es Zalian dastyobia Cvens ojaxs, Tanac, im mamulebTan siZes sxvac miuyolebia da amitom moyvrebs Soris dava da gauTavebeli saCivrebi Camovardnila. ise, kurcxalias gvars mainc siamovnebiT vigoneb, radgan masSi sadRac Cemi winapris sisxli meguleba. garda im jafarasi, babua ukmayofilo iyo agreTve erTi romeliRac winaprisa, romelsac erT dRes (is, rogorc didi Tavadi, imereTis mefis samsaxurSi, mgoni, zemo raWis mouravi iyo) moaxsenes, rom quTaisidan mefis mgaloblebi gveaxlnen da Tqvens Segebebas da mopatiJebas eliano. _ ra dros maTi Segebebaa da stumrad mopatiJebao, _ mkvaxed miuxlia mosulisaTvis, _ me iseTi gaWirveba madgas, rom magaTTvis ara mcxelao. Tavads Turme coli hyoloda mosalogineblad mwoliare da am gaWirvebis gamo mTeli ojaxi fexze idga. ganawyenebuli mgaloblebi gatrialebulan da sofel lagvanTisaken wasulan, sadac swvevian iqaur aznaurs jafariZes _ vaxtangiSvils _ da mTeli kvira masTan moulxeniaT. quTaisSi dabrunebulebs ki mefisTvis mouxsenebiaT Tavad jafariZe-jafaraSvilis saqcielis Sesaxeb da „magradac“ mouxseniebiaT, rogorc mefis warmomadgenelTa arafrad Camgdebi da „mironcxebulis“ „orguli“. mefe didad ganrisxebula jafaraSvilis aseT ampartavnobaze, misi wargzavnilebisadmi aseT uyuradRebobaze da saTanado mkacri zomebic miuRia: CamourTmevia misTvis TavadiSviloba (albaT Tanamdebobac) da is lagvanTeli jafariZisaTvis (vaxtangiSvilis Stodan) miuniWebia. Cveni gvaris Tu ojaxis warsulis am epizods babua nestori didi gulistkiviliT ixsenebda. ambobda: uRirsi adamianis cudi da Seuferebeli nabijis gamo Cvenma ojaxma dakarga iseTi didi pativi, rogoric iyo zemo raWis mouravoba da Tanac TavadiSvilobao. magram jafaraSvilebi _ e.i. jafar jafariZis STamoma236

vloba _ mainc TavadiSvilebad iTvlebodnen. bavSvobaSi gamigonia esao, _ Rarveli jafariZea anu „didi jafariZeebidanaao“. SemdegSi es tituli nel-nela uferuldeboda Tu xelidan gvecleboda. Tumca babua nestori Tavadad iTvleboda, ufro _ iwereboda. ase iyo mamaCemis sabuTebSic, romlebic daculia Tbilisis samaswavleblo institutis (Zakavkazskiy Uqitel>skiy Institut) fondSi, centralur arqivSi. me TviTon wamikiTxavs mamaze ,,iz kn%zey“, magram mamas es tituli aRarafrad miaCnda da arc axsenebda mas. akademikosi giuldenStedtic moixseniebs Cvens gvars raWis warCinebul gvarebSi. raWis erisTavio, _ ambobs is, _ wulukiZe, jafariZe, iaSvilio; Semdeg ki aznaurTa gvarebze gadadis.

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Cveni gvaris warmomavlobaze verafers vityvi. is Soreuli warsulidan unda momdinareobdes. babua nestori gvetyoda xolme, rom Cveni winapari oseTidan gadmosula odesRaco. SeiZleba. es ki cxadia, rom jafariZeebis fuZe zemo raWaa, svaneTis mijna. svaneTidan _ svani jafariZeebidan _ aqvT maT dasabami, Tu piriqiT, iqauri jafariZeebi arian raWidan wasuli, Zneli saTqmelia. es kia, rom Ze-Ti daboloebuli gvarebi svaneTSi araa da, Tu aris, unda vifiqroT, ufro gviandelia. Tumca jafariZeebs svaneTSi, rogorc vici, jafranebs eZaxian. Tu es asea da isini ufro jafranebi arian, vidre jafariZeebi, maSin is namdvilad svanuri gvari yofila dasabamidanve. yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi garkveva istoriuli monacemebis uqonlobis gamo CemTvis SeuZlebelia. an ra saWiroa?!. ise ki, istoriidan cnobilia didi brZola raWis Tavad jafariZisa da svanebs Soris, romelic kargadaa gaSuqebuli egnate gablianis „Tavisufal svaneTSi“ da profesor bardaveliZis wignSi. brZolis Sedegad jafariZes darCenia svaneTis didi nawili, romelic amJamad „mTis raWad“ iwodeba da soflebis Rebis, Wiorasa da glolisagan Sedgeba. es soflebi rom namdvilad svanebis sacxovrisi iyo, amas iq uamravi svanuri koSkis arseboba adasturebda. koSkebi dRes ukve TiTqmis mTlianadaa aRebuli. xolo mere, es soflebi rom jafariZeebis kuTvnileba iyo, amis sabuTebi moipoveba, _ Tundac rostom erisTavisadmi jafar jafariZis minaweri (leqsad) *, _ Rebi da Wiora wamarTvio; rostoms jafarisaTvis _ albaT Ralatis gamo _ Tvalebi dauTxria. amnairad, Cveni gvari zemo raWidanaa. sxvaTa Soris, amJamad es gvari Zalian momravlebulia, amitom gasarCevad damatebiT gvarebs iSvelieben. magaliTad _ merabiSvilebi, nasyidaSvilebi, elizbaraSvilebi, gelaSvilebi, lomkaciSvilebi, kunkuliSvilebi, vaxtangiSvilebi da kidev mravali sxva. Cveni ojaxi cnobilia _ rogorc jafariSvilebi, radgan Zvelad Cvens StoSi miRebuli yofila bavSvisaTvis jafaris darqmeva, ori Taobis Semdeg mainc.
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akakis “krebuli” 1899w. #7

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rostom erisTavis droindeli jafar jafariZe, rogorc babuasagan gamigonia, Turme Rarulas piras cxovrobda, sadac Semdeg Cveni didi yana da baRCa iyo. uzarmazari kaklis xe ki, romelic „kolmeurneobam“ 30-ian wlebSi moWra, mis ezos amSvenebda. saxl-kari gaSlil vakeze hqonda: oda (sastumro), sajalabo, sameurneo Senobebi, sajiniboebi da mravali sxv. es nagebobebi did sivrceze koxta qalaqiviT iyo Turme gadaWimuli. Tanac, iqve hqondaT karis eklesia da cixe. onis cixe romeliRac jafariZes auSenebia. me maqvs fragmenti Jurnalisa ({urnal Ministerstva Vnutrennjx Del“. 1840 g. q.XXXVIII) „Obozrenie drevnix zdaniy v Zakavkazskom Krae“, sadac sxvaTa Soris weria: „V mesteqke Oni _ krepost> postroenna% tavadom D[aparoy D[aparidzevjm v XV stoletii. Posredi sey kreposti naxodits% razvalivwa%s% cerkov>...“ TvaldaTxrili jafar jafariZe am cixezedac swers rostoms: „onisa cixe wamarTvi da zed patara qalaqi...“ me maxsovs Zveli cixis nangrevebi Cvens yanaSi, e.i. Cveni winaprebis namosaxlarze, agreTve patara eklesiis „sajvares“ nangrevebi, 1890-ian wlebSi babuam yanis gawmendis mizniT rom aiRo. mas ukve sxvagan hqonda samosaxlo. Zveli Tvaluwvdeneli Tavaduri mamulebidan babuaCemis dros ukve aRaraferi iyo. babuaCemi _ erTaderTi vaJiRa darCenoda mis mSoblebs, mamulebidan TiTqmis aRaraferi miuRia da Raribad cxovrobda. ori da hyolia; orive sofel somiwoSi iyo gaTxovili. erTi maTgani, evgeni CikvilaZis bebia, kargad maxsovs, babudas veZaxdiT. meore da sandro CikvilaZis bebia iyo. babuas gvian, 1858 wels, SeurTavs coli. dabadebuli iyo 1828 wels (lev tolstois kbila yofila da gardaicvala 1911 wels, lev tolstois gardacvalebidan erTi wlis Semdeg). bebia marTa ki, iaSvilis qali somiwodan, gaTxovebisas 18 wlis yofila. maxsovs misi ufrosi Zma sofromi, napoleon iaSvilis mama, is xSirad dadioda xolme Cvensas. bebia da babua Raribad cxovrobdnen, aRarc mamulebi SemorCenodaT da aRarc Zveli didebis raime naSTi. yvelaferi gamqraliyo, ar vici, ra gziT: gaiyida Tu daingra, araferi maxsovs babuas naTqvamidan. es ki vici, imdenad Raribad cxovrobdnen, Turme, rom, roca gaRma Rars, ordiniZeebSi, misi erT-erTi naymevi uSvilod gadaego da amitom misi avladideba, saxl-kari, mamuli da qoneba, kanonis safuZvelze mas darCa, rogorc mis batons, babua Tavisi ojaxiT mis danatovar saxlSi gadasula. mamaCemi da misi da-Zmani (vano, zenopia, apoloni, maSa), amnairad, glexur saxlkarSi gaizardnen. miuxedavad amisa, yvela maSindeli sabuTi babuaCems Tavads uwodebs. Cveni Stos garda, jafariZeebSi Tavadebad mxolod onWeveli jafariZeebi (kunkuliSvilebi) da agreTve lagvanTeli vaxtangiSvilebi iwodebodnen, _ me vambob rusuli mmarTvelobis SemoRebamde. danarCeni jafariZeebi aznaurebad moixseniebodnen. Zalian mikvirs, velTeTeli jafariZeebi (igive lomkaciSvilebi) rad ar miiCneodnen TavadiSvilebad, radgan maTi winapari lomkac jafariZe imereTis mefis solomonis elCi iyo ruseTSi. babuaCems Wkua uxmaria da Tavisi vaJebisaTvis ganaTlebis micema ufiqria. isini onis samazro orklasiani dawyebiTi saswav238

leblis Semdeg TbilisSi wauyvania; jer ufrosi vano, romelsac samaswavleblo institutTan arsebuli samoqalaqo saswavlebeli daumTavrebia da mere _ TviT institutic; mis Semdeg ukve mamaCemisTvis da bolos apolonisTvisac uzrunia. mamaCems samaswavleblo instituti (Zakavkazskiy Aleksandrovskiy uqitel>skiy institut) 1881 wels 19 wlis asakSi (daibada 1862 wels) daumTavrebia da imave wels dauqorwinebiaT mSoblebs. ufrosi Zma vano institutis damTavrebisTanave gardacvlila, amitom ufro SeSinebul mSoblebs mamaCemis daqorwineba dauCqarebiaT. da am qveyanas Cven movevlineT.

kuriozebi me da Cemi Zma griSa
me da griSa davbadebulvarT raWaSi 1887 wlis 14 maiss. me masze daaxloebiT naxevari saaTiT gvian davbadebulvar da taniT ufro didi vyofilvar. amitom Cvens mSoblebs is SecodebiaT da, roca dedas dasaxmareblad ZiZa mouyvaniaT, me Turme ZiZis ZuZus mawovebdnen; griSas ki, rogorc ufro susts, deda awovebda. sabolood, ratomRac, mainc griSaze ufro janmrTeli da Zlieri gavizarde. griSas wignebis kiTxva uyvarda. kiTxva ise itacebda, rom gakveTilebis momzadebac aviwydeboda; ufro ki ezareboda, radgan wignis moSoreba emZimeboda. gansakuTrebiT ar uyvarda maTematikuri sagnebi. me ufro bejiTad vekidebodi saswavlo programas da, Tumca gulze arc me mexateboda maTematika, swavliT mainc vswavlobdi. Cveni sayvareli sagnebi iyo rusuli literatura, istoria, geografia da, gansakuTrebiT, xatva; qarTuli literatura xom _ TavisTavad. griSas werac Zalian uyvarda: roca raime Temas mogvcemdnen, rusulSi iqneboda es Tu qarTulSi, misi ,,aRdgoma“ is iyo, Seudgeboda weras da dawerda, marTlac, lamazad da Sinaarsianadac. ufro stilis silamaziT gamoirCeoda. SemdegSi griSam leqsebis werac daiwyo, romelic mravlada aqvs dabeWdili ,,impresionistul” JurnalebSi ,,cisfer yanwebSi“, ,,niamorebSi“ da sxva. leqsebs rusuladac werda. mec vwerdi, magram am saqmeSi mas ver Sevedrebodi. moskovSi rom viyaviT, is xSirad gzavnida werilebs Tbilisis rusul gazeT ,,Zakavkaz>e“-Si da zogjer marTla kvleviTi xasiaTis did werilebsac, risTvisac xSirad ijda xolme e.w. „rumiancevis“, axla „sajaro“ biblioTekaSi. literaturis siyvaruliT is filologiis fakultetze moewyo, risTvisac ar moerida damatebiTi berZnuli enis Cabarebas. mTeli weliwadi moandoma am enis dauflebas da daeufla kidec. gamocda moskovis „saswavlo olqSi“ brwyinvaled Caabara; bejiTad swavlobda, pirdapir Rameebs aTenebda. me ki ufro Tanmimdevruli viyavi rogorc sagnebis swavlaSi, ise gareSe wignebis kiTxvaSi. roca gamocdebi mqonda, mxolod saxelmZRvaneloebi maxsovda, gareSe wignebsac gadavdebdi, werasac, xatvasac da nacnob qaliSvilebTan stumrobasac. griSa qaliSvilebTan wasvlas arafriT ar gadadebda. erTxel gamocdaze wavida da Sin dabruneba daagviana. Sevwuxdi, vi239

fiqre, an CaiWra, an rame daemarTa-meTqi. Turme viRac gogona gaucvnia universitetSi mimavals, moswonebia da TiTqmis mTeli dRe masTan JRurtulSi gautarebia, gamocda ki sruliad daviwynia, „gadaudvia“ sxva droisTvis. me ki berZnulis gamo filologiur fakultetze Sesvlas Tavi davanebe da iuridiul fakultetze Cavewere. ase rom, me ufro angariSiani viyavi, is ki _ ufro grZnobaTa amyoli, ufro „emociuri“. roca mamaCemma gimnaziaSi misabareblad quTaisSi wagviyvana, dedasTan daSorebis gamo gzaze sul tiroda, me ufro gulmagrad viyavi. wlis ganmavlobaSic, roca mSoblebs werilsa vwerdiT xolme, is icremleboda da me Semomnatrida _ netavi Sen, ra gulmagari xaro. aseTi darCa bolomde _ mgrZnobiare, moyvaruli... usiamovnebis patara niavsac ver uZlebda. SeiZleba imitomac, rom raRac awuxebda. mowafeobis dros misi avadmyofoba mxolod erTxel maxsovs, gacivda da filtvebis anTeba daemarTa. Tveze meti iwva da mkurnalobda, ris Semdeg sofelSi gagzavnes mSoblebma, swavlasac ki Tavi daanebebines _ akademiuri Svebuleba auRes. amis Semdeg is sul kargad iyo, magram bolo wlebSi kuWis avadmyofoba dasCemda. albaT frontze 1914-16 wlebSi aranormalurma kvebam daaavada. kuWis avadmyofobam TandaTan sZlia griSas janmrTelobas da bolos operaciamde miiyvana, romelsac veRar gauZlo. SeiZleba iTqvas, rom griSam sicocxle me Semomwira: Zveli kanoni tyupi Zmebidan mxolod erTs avaldebulebda samxedro samsaxurs, rasac Tavad Zmebi wyvetdnen. da ai, griSam Cems wasvlas, TviTon arCia wasvla; ucolo iyo, martoxela, me ki _ colSviliani, Tanac samsaxurSic viyavi. mokled, vin Caswvdenia wuTisoflis gamocanas! vaxsene ukve wignisadmi griSas gansakuTrebuli siyvaruli. magram nakleb ltolvas arc xatvisadmi amJRavnebda. Zmebs xatvis interesi mamam gagviRviZa. roca skolaSi Sesasvlelad gvamzadebda, gvaZlevda xolme raime lamaznaxatebian wigns da iqidan vixatavdiT. TviTonac gvixatavda fanqriT cxenebs, cxenian kacebs. is albaT wignis siaxloves gvaCvevda, mis siyvaruls, fanqris xelSi Weras da mis xmarebas. xatvis es siyvaruli Zalian gagviRrmava quTaisis realurma saswavlebelma, sadac am sagnis swavlis saqme Zalian kargad iyo dayenebuli; gansakuTrebuli, didi darbazi iyo am sagnisaTvis gamoyofili. darbazSi TabaSiris lamazi figurebi da biustebi idga. skolaSi me da griSas xatvaSi veravin gvjobda. magram niWs ki bevri amJRavnebda, maT Soris _ patara dimitri SevardnaZe, SemdgomSi cnobili mxatvari, Tbilisis samxatvro galereis direqtori. griSas ufro suraTis galamazeba uyvarda, erTgvari stilizacia. me ufro, ase vTqvaT, realisturad vudgebodi samuSaos, modelis mimgvanebaze vfiqrobdi. is ki msgavsebas didad ar dagidevda, oRond lamazad gamoeyvana, Taviseburi ieri mieca. roca moskovSi SoTa rusTavelis axleburad, Cveneburad gagebuli portretis daxatvas vfiqrobdiT, bevri viwvaleT: xan uqudod davxateT, xanac _ qudiT, xan wveriT, xan _ uwverod; axlac maqvs sadRac Semonaxuli erTi im sacdel monaxazTagani _ patara wveri aqvs, qoCora Tma, uqudod. is ufro griSas namuSeva240

ria. arc is mogvewona. xanSi Sesulis wveriani saxe „ar Cajda“, „ar Caewera“ rusTavelze Cvens warmodgenaSi. gvindoda raRac araCveulebrivi yofiliyo, rac Cvens rus megobrebs, studentobas, saqarTvelos warsuls, qarTul kulturas daanaxvebda, maT warmodgenac rom ar hqondaT. zogadad gvesaxeboda, rogori iqneboda me-12 saukunis qarTvelis saxe da Tanac _ geniosisa, Tavadve rom gvixatavs ,,vefxistyaosanSi”: _ „avTandil iyo spaspeti, Ze amirspasalarisa, sarosa mjobi, nazardi, msgavsi mzisa da mTvarisa“. diax, _ vambobdiT orive, _ rusTaveli unda iyos nimuSi ara marto brZenkacis, ara marto sulieri silamazisa, aramed _ fizikurisac, „msgavsi mzisa da mTvarisa“. arc erTi ar vaklebdiT cdas, gvepova is ,,raRac”, is Strixi, is feri da xazi... Tavs ar vzogavdiT... amas e.w. „zemliaCestvos“ yoveldRiuri cxovrebac gvavalebda, rogorc mis aqtiur wevrebs. Cems beds namdvilad vemduri, metad patara roli damekisra sazogadoebriv cxovrebaSi. mets velodi da monacemebic mqonda. gansakuTrebiT, Cemi da griSas erToblivi moRvaweoba iqneboda meti sikeTis momtani. amas xazs imitom vusvam, rom marto me verafers vakeTebdi, griSasTan erTad ki raRac iseTi ZaliT davimuxtebodi, megona, yvelafers SevZlebdi. ase iyo isic da meubneboda kidec. magram Cven, orive, wiTelma katastrofam * gvimsxverpla... TiTqos Cveni SesaZleblobebidan aRaraferi dagvitova... yvelaferze xeli CaviqnieT, rakiRa yvelam erTad wamoyo Tavi, mcodnem Tu uvicma, Rirseulma Tu uRirsma da cxovrebis „gaSlil sufras“ miesia. aseT dros Cveni adgili aRarsad darCa. ukadrebels ver vikadrebdiT da uRirsTa darad cxovrebas mujlugunebiT ver gavarRvevdiT... ase TandaTan mdabioTa da uvicTa xelSi aRmoCnda qveyana. Tu proletaruli warmoSobis ar iyavi, ar gendobodnen araferSi. Tu naswavli iyavi, kidev uaresi, Tu gecva adamianurad da gexura, eWvis TvaliT giyurebdnen da „cilindrio“, gaiZaxodnen. sando ar iyavi da SenTvis gzac gadaketili iyo. ase da amnairad CamovrCiT cxovrebas, uimedoni da gulgatexilni... samagierod, Tavxedi da umecari, wera-kiTxvis ucodinari ,,prolet-revolucionerebi” miiwevdnen zemoT da zemoT... magram, miuxedavad yvelafrisa, rac ar unda daekisrebinaT CemTvis, mainc yvelafers sindisis karnaxiT vasrulebdi, Cemi patiosani adamianuri SegnebiT. mamaCemis da Cveni didi ojaxis wminda saxeli ar SegvibRalavs arc me, arc Cems Zmebs. Cven yvelani erTni viyaviT adamianuri SegnebiT, sindisiT, patiosnebiT. es maRali cnebebi yvelas erTnairad gvesmoda da gvesmis dResac.

zogi ram Cemi da griSas warsulidan
roca me da griSa quTaisis realur saswavlebelSi vswavlobdiT, xSirad veSlebodiT maswavleblebsac da mowafeebsac. erTxel, pirvel klasSi rom viyaviT, did dasvenebaze, mowafeebi

*

igulisxmeba 1917 wlis revolucia.

241

ezoSi gamoefinen da TamaSobdnen. raRac saqmeze griSas davuwye Zebna. davinaxe Tu ara mowafeebis gundSi, davuZaxe: _ „griSaaa!...“ uceb im jgufidan Cemi misamarTiT muqara Semomesma da muStmoRerebuli erTi ufrosklaseli mowafe, gvarad baxtaZe, sacemrad gamoeqana: ,,me Sen giCveneb seirs, damacadeo“, magram movaswari gaqceva. saqme is gaxldaT, rom baxtaZe iyo brge biWi, Ronieri da guladi. misi yvelas eSinoda. igi ver itanda, roca wiTuri Tmis gamo vinme „riJas“ dauZaxebda. amas, rasakvirvelia, veravin bedavda, radgan kargad icodnen, rom aravis SearCenda dacinvas. Cemken rom muqariT gamoeqana, maSinve mivxvdi, _ griSa „riJad“ moeCvena. ar gasula ramdenime wuTi, rom griSam moirbina da tiriltiriliT misayvedura: _ baxtaZem mcema, „Seni riJa var meo“?... ratom dauZaxe riJa, Sen magier me gamlaxa. _ Tan akvirvebda Cemi saqcieli, radgan icoda, rom vinmes Seuracxyofa ar mCveoda, moCxubarac ar viyavi. marTlac, me da griSas yvela gvicnobda, rogorc mSvidobismoyvare bavSvebs, zrdilobianebs da mokrZalebulT ufrosebTan. magram sul male yvelaferi gamoirkva da bevric icines megobrebma. baxtaZemac mogvibodiSa, roca gaigo Tavisi ormagi Secdoma: pirveli, da mTavari, is, rom me „riJa“ ar damiZaxnia, da meorec _ SecdomiT udanaSaulo GgriSas gausworda.

frangulis gakveTilze

mexuTe klasSi, franguli enis maswavleblad vinme porakovi gvyavda, parizSi namyofi da naswavli Tbiliseli axalgazrda, Turme qarTveli foraqiSvili. magram im dros bevrs urusulebdnen gvars, ar moswondaT qarTuli daboloeba „Svili“. amitom rusi gvegona. foraqiSvili kargi maswavlebeli iyo. mowafeebTanac zogierTiviT ar ibRinZeboda da yvelas gviyvarda. erTxel gamiZaxa, mkiTxa gakveTili, moewona Cemi pasuxic da kargi niSanic damiwera. Semaqo kidec. Cemi merxisken rom wamovedi, griSa gamoiZaxa. magram griSa Turme fanqars Tlida, TiTi gaeWra da sisxlis SeCerebas cdilobda, gakveTilis sapasuxod ar ecala. wamCurCula: isev Sen gadi, ras gaigebso. raRas vizamdi, _ Zma ZmisTviso da gavedi. maswavlebeli SemomaCerda, SemomaCerda da... gaicina: _ kaco, es Zmebi rogor hgvanan erTmaneTs. me isev is megona, weRan rom mpasuxobdao. _ weRan vladimeri pasuxobda, me ki grigoli var-meTqi, _ vTqvi utexad. damijera, rasakvirvelia, magram bevri ki icina Tavis „Secdomaze“. gakveTilis Semdeg Turme maswavleblebs uyveboda am gaugebrobze, romelic sinamdvileSi sulac ar iyo Secdoma.

242

kosmografia
1906 wlis gazafxulia. saswavleblis damamTavrebel gamocdebs vabarebT. dRes kosmografiaSi gvaqvs gamocda. sagani sainteresoa, Tan moculobiTac pataraa, maswavlebelic kargi gvyavs da amitom kargadac var momzadebuli. gulmagrad var. esaa, rom bolomde ver gavimeore, Tumca ar meSinia, raRa maincadamainc is bolo bileTi Semxvdeba-meTqi, vifiqre. da, ai, uiRbloba! gavedi Tu ara gamocdaze, me-17 bileTi aviRe. fu, dagwyevlos RmerTma! xuTosani viyavi am saganSi da 4-ze meti ki ver miviRe. samagierod, maswavleblebTan saubarSi es bileTic kargad davamuSave. me ukve Cems merxze vijeqi, griSa rom gamoiZaxes. magram sad aris griSa! raSia saqme? igvianebs, jer ara Cans. mowafeebi Camciebian, gadi imis magivrado, magram me ver vbedav, vai, Tu micnon. arada, saqme dayovnebas ver iTmenda. gavdivar, momCerebian maswavleblebi: ilarion lorTqifaniZe (inspeqtori), konstantine RoRoberiZe, zargariani da sxvani. me guladad var, rom SiSi ar Sematyon. _ Grigoriy? _ mekiTxebian. _ Da, Grigoriy! _ vpasuxob me. gaSales bileTebi. gaSales xelaxla, radgan bileTebi cota iyo kursis sipataravis gamo, mowafeebi ki _ bevri. davwvdi bileTebs, vcdilob pirveli nomrebidan aviRo... aviRe, gadavabrune. isev is me-17 nomeri! maswavlebels rom gadaveci registraciisaTvis, gaecina da kolegebs mimarTa: _ uyureT am saswauls, weRan es me-17 nomeri vladimerma ,,daisakuTra” da axla grigolmac igive bileTi ar amoiRo!... _ ise Zalian hgvanan Zmebi erTmaneTs, rom bileTsac erTi da igives ,,irCeveno”. bevri icines. me mixaria gunebaSi, rom yvelaferi rigzea da ukve weRan damuSavebul bileTSi mocemuli masala, rasakvirvelia, ufro ukeT Cavabare da xuTianic miviRe (griSasTvis!).

maTematika
kosmografiis gamocdebs rom movrCiT, mowafeebi sul Cvens _ Zmebis eSmakobebze laparakobdnen da Turme am ambavma maswavleblebis yuramdec miaRwia, magram maT es xumrobad miiCnies da yuri ar ugdes. Tumca yoveli SemTxvevisaTvis, Zarubili na nosu da maTematikaSi, mgoni, algebraSi, orive erTad gagviZaxes. jer zepirad gvekiTxebodnen, mere TiTo amocana mogvces da dafebisken gagvistumres, zepirad ki sxva or mowafes cdidnen. me Cemi amocana gamoviyvane, magram griSas raRac ar gamosdioda, mal-male Slida dawerils. rogor unda mivxmarebodi, ar vicodi. dafis ukan fanjaraze wyali idga grafiniT da iq mivedi, WiqaSi wyali Cavasxi da vsvam. am dros griSac movida, miTxra, biWo, am amocanas veraferi gavuge da miSvele rameo. me vuTxari: Cemi amocana gamoyvanilia da wadi Cems dafasTan-meTqi, me ki griSas dafisaken gavwie. gvecva sul erTnairad da vin ras mixvdeboda. magram maswavleblebs fiqradac ar mosvliaT, rom Cven aq 243

raimes vieSmakebdiT, miT ufro, rom zepiri orivem kargad CavabareT. raRac iRblad verc mowafeebi mixvdnen raimes, Torem atydeboda sicili da... sanam komisia im ori mowafiT iyo dakavebuli, romlebic jer kidev zepirs abarebdnen, griSa Cems dafasTan idga gamarjvebulis saxiT da mec ukve vamTavrebdi griSas amocanis gamoyvanas. gaTavda zepiri. Cven vdgavarT da vucdiT. gadaxedes dafebs. yvelaferi rigzea. mere jer griSas mimarTes: _ vladimer, rogoraa Tqveni amocanis saqme, _ ekiTxebian griSas, anu maTi azriT _ me. _ kargad, maswavlebelo, yvelaferi rigzea, amocana gamoyvanilia, _ pasuxobs griSa. gadaxeda maswavlebelma: _ sworia, _ Tqva man, Tqven yoCaRi xarT, vladimer. Tavisufali xarT, wabrZandiT. gaxarebuli griSa ukanmouxedavad gavarda gareT. _ Tqven ki, grigol, raRac gagirTuldaT, mgonia, ara? _ mekiTxeba maswavlebeli, _ gagiZneldaT? _ ki gamiZnelda, magram mainc davZlie_meTqi, _ vuTxari da davsvi wertili. _ Senc yoCaRi xar, grigol, mara xandaxan waizarmacebo, _ miTxra maswavlebelma da griSas gaswvrivac dawera 5.

fexsacmelebis maRaziaSi
moskovSi, 1906 wels, me, griSa da andro razmaZe erTad vcxovrobdiT bolSaia nikitskaiaze, semenkoviCis saxlSi (konservatoriis pirdapir). erTxel samiveni fexsacmelebis sayidlad wavediT. maRaziaSi rom SevdiodiT, griSa ukan CamogvrCa, viRacas elaparakeboda. me da andro darbazSi SevediT, dagvsves da, rogorc yvela, vizomavT fexsacmelebs. magram griSa sadaa amden xans? am fiqrSi rom var, gavixede pirdapir da gamikvirda: griSa ager zis da CemsaviT axal fexsacmels izomavs. _ andro, griSa ager yofila, kaco... manac Sexeda da mere xarxari autyda. maRaziaSi swored im dros Semovida griSac. me ki Turme uzarmazar sarkes Sevuyvanivar SecdomaSi, Cemi Tavi rom griSad ,,momaCvena”. samivem didxans vicineT, magram me mainc ver gamego, rogor momivida, rom Cemi Tavi griSa megona.

Tbilisis qarTul klubSi
me da griSa moskovidan sazafxulo ardadegebze Sin movdiodiT da TbilisSi SevCerdiT. maSin gza baqos gamovliT iyo. saRamos megobrebTan erTad „qarTul klubSi“ wavediT. es klubi moTavsebuli iyo dRevandel ilia WavWavaZis kulturis saxlSi. mTeli Senoba Tavis baRianad saucxood hqondaT mowyobili. qarTuli Teatric, SemdegSi _ griboedovis saxelobis rusuli Teatri _ iqve iyo. klubSi didxans SevyeviT megobrebTan saubars da drostarebas. wamosvla davapire, magram griSa ver vnaxe. vifiqre: albaT ukve wasulia, qveviT Tu micdis-meTqi. baRidan rom Senobis gamovliT, auarebel xalxTan erTad, qveviT CamovdiodiT, uceb am xalxSi Tvali griSas movkari da gamexarda, Zebna aRar damWirdeboda. isic kibeze Camodioda da manac daminaxa. 244

_ sada xar, kaco, geZeb-meTqi, _ SevZaxe da amden xalxSi me misken, is ki Cemken moiwevs, moarRvevs xalxs da ucbad SubliT sarkes davejaxe. Turme mTel kedelze sarke yofila. visac qarTuli klubi axsovs, uTuod emaxsovreba is didi sarkec, romelic mTel kedels faravda Camosasvlel kibesTan Senobis meore sarTulze. griSa, marTlac, micdida qveviT amxanagebTan erTad da, roca Cemi Secdomis ambavi movuyevi da Sublze kopic vaCvene, bevri vicineT yvelam.

saxelgamSi
erTxel griSa soxumidan Camovida. is iq qarTuli teqnikumis direqtorad muSaobda da Cem sanaxavad samsaxurSi „saxelgamis“ sammarTveloSi mewvia. mosula griSa „saxelgamSi“ da meZebs, ar icis, romel oTaxSi vzivar. Seixeda pirvelsave oTaxSi. iq buxhalteri ijda, saxeli aRar maxsovs, gvarad ki maisuraZe iyo. griSam jer salami misca yvelas, rogorc icoda, da SeekiTxa: _ bodiSi, aq lado jafariZe romel oTaxSi zis, xom ver metyviT? maisuraZe gaSterebuli misCerebia. ver gaugia: ra mouvida am lado jafariZes, Tavis Tavs rom kiTxulobso, magram iRblad iq Zveli TanamSromlebic isxdnen, romlebmac icodnen Cveni ambavi, mixvdnen misaxvedrels da griSa Cems oTaxSi Semoiyvanes. maisuraZes ki didxans ara sjeroda, rom is, vinc weRan lado jafariZe ikiTxa, TviTon lado ar iyo da SiSneulad kiTxulobda Turme: sklerozi xom ara aqvs lado jafariZes, Tavis oTaxsac rom veRar agnebso.

soxumSi
1931 wels, Semodgomaze, griSasTan soxumSi Cavedi, romelsac qalaqSi yvela kargad icnobda. soxumSi matarebliT diliT Cavedi da iqauroba Zalian momewona, yvelafers interesiT vaTvalierebdi, vakvirdebodi. mivdivar nel-nela quCa-quCa, yvelani salams maZleven, darwmunebuli var, gamvlelebs griSa vgonivar. mec Tavazianad vpasuxob maT. ar vici, saiT wavide, romeli mimarTulebiTaa netav griSas teqnikumi! vikiTxo? mrcxvenia. ras ityvian, Tavis teqnikums kiTxulobs, xom ar gagiJdao. arada, rogor moviqce? bolos, gavbede da mainc vkiTxe erTs, romelic, Cemi fiqriT, ar unda yofiliyo griSas nacnobi: _ ukacravad, xom ar iciT, sadaa aq qarTuli teqnikumi? is SemomaSterda, karga xans miyura da mere ukan-ukan daixia, gamecala. Sevatyve, Soridan miTvalTvalebda. vin icis, ra ifiqra, ra mouvida am adamianso... Sevwuxdi, irgvliv transportic araferi Canda, arc taqsi, arc cxeniani etli, arc avtobusi! is xom pirdapir mimiyvanda teqnikumSi. bolos, erTs vkiTxe teqnikumis misamarTi, Tanac, davumate, rom jafariZis Zma var, Tbilisidan Camovedi, masTan mivdivarmeTqi da iman mimaswavla. Tanac, bevri miyura da mezoblebs Cem245

ken uTiTebda, albaT ukvirda TviTonac da sxvasac uyveboda Cems msgavsebaze ZmasTan. rogorc iqna, mivedi teqnikumTan. iq bevri mowafe darboda ezoSi. ager griSas „kazbekamac“ moirbina da Semomaxta wina torebiT, laquci damiwyo, Sinaur adamianad micno. mowafeebi salams maZleven grigori malakieviCs. da bolos, rogorc iqna, griSac gamoCnda. rom daminaxa, Cemken gamoqanda. erTmaneTs tariel-avTandiliviT gadavexvieT. mowafeebis gancvifrebas sazRvari ara aqvs, mogvCerebian da, romelia maTi direqtori da romeli misi Zma, ver gaugiaT.

Sexvedra miSa qorqiasTan
(1918-1919)

griSam rom universiteti daamTavra, TbilisSi Camovida da kavkasiis samoswavlo olqis mzrunvelis, rudolfis, kancelarias ewvia. kavkasiis farglebSi iqneb sadme maswavleblis adgils momixerxebdeTo. es maSin ocneba iyo qarTveli kacisaTvis. saerTod, qarTvelebs samuSaod ruseTSi agzavnidnen, ufro _ cimbirSi. roca imedi gadauwures _ araferi gamogivaT, tyuilad imedi nu gaqvT, ruseTSi wadiTo, griSam gadawyvita, TviTon rudolfi enaxa piradad. inaxula kidec, magram rudolfmac igive uTxra, adgilebi ara maqvs gimnaziebSi, ruseTSi wadiTo. mere uTqvams, _ yovel SemTxvevaSi, damitoveT sabuTebi da, rac mTavaria, daxasiaTebao. roca mamis saxels daakvirda, hkiTxa: _ Malakieviq? Kakogo Malaki%, ne lanqxutskogo inspektora Vj sjn? _ Da, Vawe prevosxoditel>stvo, _ miugo griSam. _ Nuuu,... Oqen> xorowo! Znaqit xarakteristiki vawey mne bol>we nikakoy ne nado. Sjnu vawego otca mo[no poverit> i na slovo, qto budete otliqnjm prepodavatelem. da griSa salianis gimnaziaSi daniSna baqosTan axlos. griSa rom iq Cavida, gimnazia axali gaxsnili iyo. mosawyeni adgili aRmoCnda, magram oriod qarTveli mainc ipova, axalgazrdebi, griSasaviT samuSaod Casulni. erTi, veteqimi miSa qorqia, meore _ axalgazrda provizori spiridon xaburzania, mesame _ fostis moxele lado maWaraSvili. zafxulSi ardadegebze Sin rom dabrunda, griSa xSirad miyveboda salianis ambebs _ miSa qorqiaze, spiridon xaburzaniaze, lado maWaraSvilze, romlebic ZmebiviT Sehyvareboda da, roca quTaisSi gadmoiyvanes, Zalian ganicdida maTTan daSorebas. im dros foTSi vmuSaobdi da xSirad mixdeboda quTaisSi yofna. erTxel, quTaisis vagzalze var, foTSi mivdivar. SuadRea. gavedi baqanze, magram jer adrea. raRac sagareubno matarebeli idga sazafxulo, Ria vagonebiT, xalxiT iyo savse, magram nacnobi veravin SevniSne. ucbad, im xalxSi erTi axalgazrda wamoxta da aRtacebiT SemomZaxa: _ griSa, Cemo Zamiko! _ waavlo Tavis xabaks xeli, gaarRvia xalxis nakadi, Camoxta vagonidan, gamoeqana, meca, Camikra gulSi da mkocnis... me meRimeba mis Secdomaze (aseTi ambavi ucxo xom ar iyo CvenTvis _ ZmebisTvis!) da ras ityvis, ro246

ca gaigebs, rom griSa ar var. maSasadame, mec, SeZlebisdagvarad, unda SeviSnovo griSaoba... roca movrCiT xvevna-kocnas da mkiTxa, _ kaco, sada xar, rogora xaro, SeiZleba raRac igrZno kidec, Tumca Zalian vcdilobdi masaviT gaxarebuli saxe mimeRo. bolos, meti ra gza iyo, ganvacxade, _ nu gagikvirdebaT da me lado var da ara griSa-meTqi. _ ladoo?... rogor Sewuxda!... iuxerxula... _ ki vicodi Tqveni metismeti msgavseba, magram aseTi?!. daujerebelia... RmerTmani... daujerebeli!.. mere gamecno: _ me miSa qorqia var, griSas megobari salianidano. Zalian gamexarda mec, radgan griSa mas yovelTvis didi siyvaruliT ixsenebda, rogorc iSviaT axalgazrdas da mis megobars. me da miSa SemdegSi iseTive kargi megobrebi gavxdiT, rogorc is da griSa. marTla metad sayvareli adamiani iyo. metad gulTbili da gulmarTali. miSas SesaniSnavi vaJebi darCa. ori maTgani fizkulturis institutSi Cemi studenti iyo _ oTari da, mgoni, konstantine. oTari qarTuli kalaTburTis didostatia da iseTive keTilSobili da kargi, rogorc mamamisi.

saparikmaxeroSi
erTxel, moskovSi, me da griSa axal binaze gadavediT, gazetni SesaxvevSi (axla ogariovis quCa). es iyo 1910 wels. iqve, CvenTan axlos saparikmaxero iyo da diliT, sanam leqciebze wavidodi, wveris gasaparsavad Sevedi. parikmaxerma savarZelze mimiTiTa, mere samarTebeli moimarjva da rom Semomxeda, Tvalebi gaufarTovda, cota ukan daixia da isev Semomxeda: _ Gospodin student, _ SeSinebuls xma ukankalebda: _ Vj, ved>, tol>ko-qto brilis>!... *tim utrom [e!... _ ara, me ar vyofilvar; me Zma myavs, Zalian mgavs, is ufro adre gamovida saxlidan da albaT is iyo-meTqi, _ varwmune bevri, magram ar sjeroda. _ arao, Tqven iyaviTo. da roca oriode dRis Semdeg me da griSa erTad SevediT, mxolod maSinRa irwmuna sinamdvile. ki minaxavs tyupi Zmebi, magram aseTi msgavseba Cems dReSi ar minaxavso. kargi saparikmaxero iyo, ori Sauri Rirda gaparsva. Tu abonements iyiddi 10 gaparsvaze, maneTis magier 80 kapiki Rirda, e.i. gaparsva 8 kapiki gamodioda.
* * *

erT dRes papuna wereTeli Semxvda meored. _ axla ki gicani, Sen griSa xar, lado universitetSi vnaxeo. axlac lado varmeTqi, _ vupasuxe me. * * * Cemi qaliSvili rom gaTxovda, dedaCemma SecdomiT GgriSas miuloca Svilis gabedniereba.
QAM

247

ikorTis magaliTiT
Tu eri socialuri erTeulia, xolo Cven _ calkeuli pirovnebebi _ misi cocxali nawilebi, maSin savsebiT bunebrivad unda CaiTvalos ama Tu im erovnuli mniSvnelobis movlenis iseTive SegrZneba, rogorc cocxali sxeulis gancdebi gadaecema sxeulis TiToeul nawils. swored amitomac damrCa 88 wlis asakSi didad gasaxarad is garemoeba, rom Cveni axalgazrdobis TaosnobiT (biZina ColoyaSvilis meTaurobiT) a.w. 1 ivniss sofel ikorTaSi aRiniSna iqauri taZris 800 wlisTavi da saxalxo dResaswaulic moewyo. es Cveni mSobliuri kulturis namdvili zeimia! Cveni qveynis warsulis materialuri kulturis Zeglebisadmi aseTi zrunva da yuradReba marto mecnieruli RirebulebiT ki ar amoiwureba, mas didi moralur-aRmzrdelobiTi mniSvnelobac aqvs da patriotul grZnobas uRvivebs mozard Taobas. am SesaniSnavma ambavma, mec ki _ esoden xandazmuli adamiani _ bavSviviT gamitaca da Semdgomi aseTi keTilSobiluri aqciebisaTvis sruliad gasagebi xalisic aRmiZra. mere ramdeni istoriuli Zeglia, Cvens yuradRebas da patronobas rom saWiroebs. aseT ZeglTa Soris pirvel rigSi cnobili erTawmindis eklesia minda davasaxelo. is kargad aqvs aRwerili Cvens istorikoss platon ioselians. _ am eklesiis Senebis dawyebas _ wers is, _ miaweren mefe vaxtang I-s, romelic V saukuneSi cxovrobda. maS, ra xnis unda iyos es saxelovani Zegli!... erTawmindis eklesia daba axalqalaqis Tavzea, platoze, sofel erTawmindaSi (kaspis raioni) da mefuri sidiadiT gadasCerebia Zirs qarTlis dacemul vakes, mtkvars, TeZams. vaxuSti bagrationi ase wers masze: „TeZamze aris axalqalaqi. amis zeviT _ eklesia gumbaTiani erTawmindisa. saswaulTmoqmedi, Tlili qviT naSeni, keTilovani. saarqimandrito. aramed kaTalikozs upyria taxtad“. erTawminda iSviaTi sofelia, kargi haeriT da saucxoo sasmeli wyliT. misi midamoebi mdidaria istoriuli ZeglebiT. is namdvili gmirTa samkvidroa. iqve mis zemoT luarsab mefis sazafxulo rezidenciis cixedarbazis _ cxireTis nangrevebia, qvemoT _ noste, ukvdavi gmiris giorgi saakaZis sofeli da cixe; odnav moSorebiT Zveli metexis eklesia da sofeli metexi. magram marto amiT ar amoiwureba am TvalsaCino Zeglis mniSvneloba. mis kedlebs Soris xom saukuno gansvenebis adgili miuCines gmir Wabuks _ giorgi saakaZis vaJs paatas, romelic, Sahabasis brZanebiT wamebiT iqna mokluli sparseTSi 1625 wels. Wabuki paata ara marto gmiria, is iSviaTi magaliTia mamulisaTvis uyoymano Tavdadebisa axalgazrdobisaTvis. amitomaa saxeli gmirisa ukvdavi yvelgan da yovelTvis. Wabuki paata dakrZalulia erTawmindis taZarSi, calke ekvderSi. magram mis saflavs araferi amkobs, gmirisa da zvarakis sakadrisi. saflavis qva ki adevs, magram am qvaze warwera imdenad gacveTili da waSlilia, rom teqsti aRar ikiTxeba. 248

istoriidan cnobilia, rom Svilis cxedris dasaflavebis mere giorgi saakaZem mas calke ekvderic auSena. magram es ekvderi mainc nawili iyo eklesiisa da saukuneebis manZilze saflavis qvaze mlocvelTa dgomam da siarulma Tavisi qna, warwera savsebiT gacviTa da waSala. iq amJamad sxva saflavebicaa da axal saflavTa Soris gmiris Zveli saflavi TiTqmis Caikarga. am axalTa Soris erT-erTi qvis warwera sanimuSod gadmoviwere: „98 weli SemaSfoTebdnen Relvani soflisani. aw vewie myudrosa navTsayudelsa. ese ars gansasvenebeli Cemi ukuniTi ukunisamde. aqa davemkvidre nebiTa uflisa CemisaTa maiori T-di n.d.Tarxanmouravi. aRvsruldi Cy... welsa. anugeSe, ufalo, Zeni Cemni aslan, dimitri, giorgi da estate“. paatas saflavze ki aseTs verafers waikiTxavT. misi warwera ukve aRar arsebobs. is waSlilia drois ulmobeli xeliT. mas arc platon ioseliani axsenebs Tavis wignSi, Tumca dawvrilebiT aRwers erTawmindis eklesias. unda vifiqroT, rom es warwera maSinac (1847w.) aseT unugeSo mdgomareobaSi iyo. magram is, rac maSin iyo, Zvel droSi, dRes ukve aRar gvekadreba. gmiris saflavi Rirsia imisa, rom movlili iyos da saTanado warweriT damSvenebuli. es Cveni erovnuli Rirsebis saqmea! erTawmindis istoriuli Zegli, romelsac araerTi da ori saukune „aRaSfoTebdnen Relvani soflisani“, mowmea Cveni boboqari istoriis mravali dramatuli da tragikuli momentisa... paatas naTeli xsovnis ukvdavsayofad, misi wamebidan 350 wlisTavs, romelic wels sruldeba, darwmunebuli var, axalgazrdoba saTanadod aRniSnavs, rogorc ekadreba Cvens ganaTlebul epoqas, niWier Taobas, mTel Cvens kulturas, Cvens warsuls.

damateba
werilebi ladoze
vladimer jafariZe _ vamayob, rom viyavi misi mowafe. b-n vladimers pirvelad 1947 wels Sevxvdi, rodesac me Tbilisis saxelmwifo fizkulturis institutis studenti gavxdi. Cemi daaxloveba b-n vladimerTan, rogorc pedagogTan da aRmzrdelTan, misma gasaocarma adamianurma Tvisebebma ganapiroba. igi uCveulod keTili, Tbili, ubralo, studentebisadmi gulSematkivari da, amave dros, maRali kulturis profesionali iyo. misma pedagogiurma xelovnebam, Tavisi saqmis Rrma codnam, studentebTan uSualo damokidebulebam da axlo urTierTobam waruSleli kvali datova Cems sulSi da gauzviadeblad SemiZlia vTqva, rom man Tavisi damrigebluri rCevebiT, pedagogiuri taqtiT, 249

yuradRebiani damokidebulebiT didi roli iTamaSa Cemi, rogorc momavali sportsmenis, moqalaqis CamoyalibebaSi. Tamamad SeiZleba iTqvas, rom fizkulturis institutis kedlebSi aRzrdili yvela cnobili sportsmenis warmatebaSi lomis wili b-n vladimers ekuTvnoda. ise dagmuxtavda gamarjvebis JiniT, iseT cecxls daginTebda gulSi, umal sikvdils virCevdi, vidre orTabrZolaSi damarcxebas. pirvelad msoflio pirvelobaze rom mivdiodi, damiZaxa da, ai, ra miTxra: _ es erTi muWa qveyana, Tavisi mtkice xasiaTiTa da SeupovrobiT iyo, dRemde rom movida. Cvens mama-papas imdeni naxmlevi, naxanjlari da natyviari hqonda, rom verc ki dauTvlida kaci. saqarTvelo yoveli kuTxiT mtriani iyo: iraneli Tu osmalo, skviTi Tu xazari, monRoli Tu leki, osi, Cerqezi, RliRvi, dido, qisti _ yvela am erTmtkavela miwis misataceblad modioda da radganac qarTveli qal-vaJebi aTasi Tvisebis _ silamazis, siCauqis gamo Zalian Zvirad fasobdnen stambolis Tu egviptis bazrebze, itacebdnen da cxvrebiviTa hyiddnen. es iyo didi Semosavlis wyaro... qarTveli kaci erT xelSi xmliT, meoreSi guTniT xvdeboda mtersa da moyvares. erTi qarTveli aTs mainc ebrZoda. am brZolam gamogvawrTo. ase rom, erTi qarTveli meomari Tavis mamuls icavda da aTi kacis damarcxebas axerxebda. erTi ram gulis ficarze geweros _ Senze Zlieri ar aris arc Turqi, arc iraneli, arc evropeli, arc rusi. Sen rom ucxoeTSi vinmem wagaqcios, es saqarTvelos Sercxvena iqneba da es Tu moxda, icode, aq, am institutSi, fexs aRar dagadgmevineb. aq ar dabrunde. dabrundebi mxolod gamarjvebuli, rogorc Seni jiSisa da niWis kacs, rogorc qarTvels ekadreba da Seefereba. tradicia ar daarRvio. erTi aTs unda udride. icode, rom Seni damarcxebiT saqarTvelo marcxdeba. yovel wuTs da wams gaxsovdes, _ Sen aTjer meti unda SeZlo da SeZleb kidec. yoveli gamosvlis win sul es magondeboda da gaaTmagebuli ZaliT vWidaobdi. ise mowinaaRmdegeebis ar SemSinebia, rogorc vladimer malaqieviCisa, romelic marTla aRar SemiSvebda Cems mSobliur, sayvarel institutSi da es sxvanair mxneobas da Zalas mmatebda. es muxti mudam Tan damyveboda. ase rom, Cems gamarjvebebSi olimpiur, msoflio da saerTaSoriso SejibrebebSi vladimer malaqieviCis udidesi wvlilia da, axla, aTeuli wlebis Semdeg didi madlierebis grZnobiT vixseneb mas. me, b-ni vladimeris Sobilma studentma _ romelmac davamTavre fizkulturis instituti, Semdeg Tsu istoriis fakulteti, Cemi sportuli moRvaweobis periodSi moviare msoflios mravali qveyana, xolo sportuli karieris damTavrebis Semdeg dRemde vmoRvaweob sportis sferoSi, vxvdebi uamrav adamians _ yovelgvari gadaWarbebis gareSe SemiZlia vTqva, rom b-ni vladimeris msgavsi adamiani ar Semxvedria. igi namdvilad saswaulTmoqmedi, didi Rirsebisa da maRali sulis mqone pirovneba iyo. b-nma vladimerma miwinaswarmetyvela, rom gavxdebodi didi sportsmeni, msoflios Cempioni da mivaRwevdi warmatebebs ara marto sportSi. me bednierad vTvli Tavs da meamayeba, rom yvelasaTvis sayvareli adamianis _ b-ni vladimeris winaswarmetyveleba gavamarTle, ar gavucrue imedi da gavxdi msoflioSi pirveli Cempioni 250

saqarTvelodan. b-ni vladimeri yovelTvis sixaruliT xvdeboda Cems yovel gamarjvebas da gulwrfeli grZnobiT milocavda warmatebebs. me namdvilad vamayob imiT, rom viyavi am didebuli adamianis mowafe. man Tavisi kaikacobiT waruSleli kvali datova Cemze. im uamrav adamianTa Soris, romelTac raime wvlili miuZRviT Cem, rogorc moqalaqisa da sportsmenis, CamoyalibebaSi, erT-erTi uTvalsaCinoesia b-ni vladimeri. igi Cems mexsierebaSi samudamod darCa adamianobis _ am sityvis sruli mniSvnelobiT _ nimuSad.

vaxtang balavaZe. 2001 w. 27 oqtomberi.

*
axla me 85 wlisa var. es moxda 1939 wels. fizkulturis instituti maSin orTaWalaSi iyo kunZulze, yofil makaronis fabrikaSi. b-ni lado rusul enas gvaswavlida. erTxel curvaSi mecadineoba gvqonda sanapiroze. sadac axla restorani „aragvia”, im adgilas sacurao auzi iyo. curvas rom movrCiT, CvenTan b-ni lado movida, raTa mecadineoba rusul enaSi iqve Caetarebina. aqeT-iqidan SemovusxediT. ucbad gamovarda gveli da mocuravs Cvenken. gaviqeciT. b-ni lado ki ijda, fexi ar moucvlia. mogvaZaxa _ nu garbixarT, nu geSiniaTo. TviTon arc amdgara. gveli misken micuravs. daviwyeT yvirili... b-ni lado miaCerda gvels da gaaCera... gvelma auqcia gza da gacurda sxva mxares. mere b-ni lado mogvibrunda da gviTxra: „me sofelSi var gazrdili da vici magaTi gaCerebis xerxi. ar unda SegeSindes. Tu ar gaabraze, arafers gerCiso”, _ aseTi iyo gulmagari raindi, vaJkaci da saintereso pedagogi lado jafariZe.

profesori akaki dokvaZe. 2001 w. seqtemberi.

*
batoni lado uaRresad inteligenti, erudirebuli da keTili adamiani iyo, saxeze sul naTeli gadasdioda. maxsovs, pirveli gakveTilidanve pedagogsa da studentebs Soris SesaniSnavi urTierToba damyarda. jgufSi bevrma kargad ar icoda rusuli da xSirad qarTulad gvesaubreboda, gviyveboda saintereso istoriebs, zogjer piradi cxovrebidanac. Tumca is, rom mas aseTi gamoCenili Zma hyavda, Zalian gvian gavigeT. maxsovs, saTxilamuro Sekrebis dros bakurianSi mecadineobis Casatareblad batoni lado Camovida. mecadineoba sasadiloSi gvitardeboda, sadac Cvens zurgs ukan rkinis Rumeli gizgizebda. erT-erTma studentma RumelTan Caimuxla da malulad sigaretis moweva daiwyo. jgufeli gvyavda, romelmac, viTom xumrobiT, Riad dabezReba icoda. axlac ase moiqca: Sen! _ mimarTa mwevels, _ 251

ar ici, rom mecadineobaze sigarets ar ewevian?! masw, uTxariT rame, dagvaxrCo kvamliT! _ biWebo, me yvelafers vxedav, imasac, rasac is akeTebda, da imasac, rac Sen gaakeTe, _ RimiliT miugo batonma ladom. erTxel _ me ukve maswavlebeli viyavi _ batonma ladom 14-15 wlis lamazi ymawvili momiyvana da miTxra: „es Cemi SviliSvilia _ daTo, Zalian moswons farikaoba da unda, rom TqvenTan ivarjiSos”. rasakvirvelia, davTanxmdi da garkveuli periodi daTo * CemTan varjiSobda, SejibrebebSic iRebda monawileobas. dRes es vaJkaci universitetis leqtoria da iseTi mowiwebiT mxvdeba, TiTqos isev patara biWi iyos. Tavmdabloba papisagan dahyva, albaT. daTos rom vxvdebi, maSinve batoni lado maxsendeba, rogor ubrwyinavda Tvalebi, roca SviliSvili mis gverdiT iyo. dRes, rodesac yofili studentebi vixsenebT Cvens maswavleblebs, batoni lado pirvel rigSia, _ albaT imitom, rom igi SesaniSnavi adamianuri TvisebebiT iyo dajildoebuli.

fizikuri aRzrdisa da sportis akademia, mwvrTnelTa fakultetis dekani, biologiur mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori j. zaldastaniSvili

cocxali mematiane
baton vladimer jafariZesa da Cveni turistuli jgufis wevrTa Soris didi asakobrivi sxvaobis miuxedavad, gulwrfeli megobruli urTierToba Cven Soris arasodes moSlila. 70 wels gadacilebuli Zia lado erTnairad megobrobda rogorc asakovan, ise axalgazrda turistebTan. xSirad asakovani turistebis _ laSa SublaZis, vladimer norakiZisa da sxvaTa winadadebiT gzaSive Segvicvlia da gagvirTulebia laSqrobis manZili. bevrjer yofila SemTxveva, rodesac radios an televizias gaukeTebia reklama Cveni turistuli jgufisaTvis, xazgasmiT gamouyvia saubari b-n ladoze da meore dRes telefonis zarebsac SevuwuxebivarT, _ nu aWarbebT, 70-s gadacilebuli kaci erT dReSi amxela manZils rogor faravso. albaT, amitomac iyo,rom b-n vladimers Rrma siberemde ar Seuwyvetia aqtiuri pedagogiuri saqmianoba da yovelTvis iTvleboda studentTa sayvarel maswavleblad. maxsovs, fakultetis dekanad Cemi muSaobis dros kabinetSi Semovida sakmaod Sewuxebuli studenti, gvarad sulaSvili, romelmac mauwya, rom malaqieviCTan (maSin xSirad ase mimarTavdnen xolme b-n vladimers) darCenili bolo gamocda ver Cavabare da albaT gamricxaveno. Tan matrikuli gamomiwoda, ai, naxeTo, _ miTxra man da Sig Caweril niSanze maniSna. me gavocdi. sayovelTaod cnobili faqtia, rom matrikulSi oriani ar iwereba. man matrikulSi Caweril niSans TiTi gaayola da „ganmarta”, _ ai, naxeT, malaqieviCma matrikulSi „udov” Cawera, e.i. CamWrao. eh, sulaSvilo, _ bevri icina

*

daviT maWavariani, qimikosi, Tsu docenti.

252

maSin Cvenma aRmzrdelma, _ wesieri biWi rom ar iyo, eg „udov” axla „neudovad” unda gadagikeTdeso. yvelam vicodiT, rom Cveni Zia lado saocrad hgavda Tavis tyupiscal Zmas da rodesac maT SevxvdebodiT, cotas SevayovnebdiT xolme salmis micemas. romelic gagviRimebda, is iyo Cveni TanamSromeli. turistuli laSqrobis dros turistebi vcdilobdiT Zia ladosTan axlos vyofiliyaviT, vicodiT, rom igi yovelTvis raime saintereso ambebs gaixsenebda. mosayoli ki, icocxleT, bevri hqonda. rad Rirs Tundac is ambavi, rom igi lev tolstois dasaflavebas eswreboda da moskovel studentebTan erTad misi kuboc auwevia Turme. Tavad gansajeT, student axalgazrdobasTan ramdeni ram hqonda mosayoli am cocxal mematianes.

avTandil cibaZe. pedagogikis mecnierebaTa doqtori, profesori.

batono lado! gilocavT 85 wlisTavs, mapatieT, rom sapatio mizezis gamo ver veswrebi Tqvens iubiles. miiReT es eqspromti niSnad Tqvendami udidesi pativiscemisa da siyvarulisa. Tqveni avTandil cibaZe mkacri sargis jafariZe, ulmobeli jafara, vis ar axsovs, misma jarma xom yvela gza dafara? da rodesac Sen giyureb, azri mTlad ameria, mkacri kaci im Tqvens gvarSi rogor gamoeria. ulmobeli ki ara da, xar nimuSi kacobis, SeniT laRobs, SeniT xarobs ucnobi Tu nacnobi. jafariZeT didebul gvars mxolod Sen rom hyolodi, mis saqebrad marto esec eyofoda bolomdi. 253 kargo kaco, dido kaco, didebulo qarTvelo, me mzada var, Sen qebaSi vaRamo da vaTeno. dailocos, vinc gagzarda, _ Seni kuTxe patara, Seni Rari, da Rarula, Seni wyaro ankara. mamis sityva vaJkacuri, dedis tkbili nanina, ramac suli didqarTuli dRemde mogatanina, Seni niWi, Seni xeli, molberti da kalami, minda ase ulevad vTqva locva wminda, alali.

da rogor ar viamayo: me xom ferxTa mtveri var, mec xom SenTa megobarTa did siaSi vwerivar. Cven xom fexiT dagvilaxavs Cveni koxta mTa-bari, da orives misi trfobiT gulebi gvaqvs gamTbari.

sixaruli, siyvaruli fiandazad dagegos, Senze mxolod warmateba, mxolod kargi gagvegos. minda wlebi amdenive isev akabadono, sasurvelo, sayvarelo, Cveno lado _ batono.

Cveni sayvareli maswavlebeli
ase veZaxdiT studentebi CvenTvis Zvirfas adamians baton vladimer malaqias Ze jafariZes. arian adamianebi, romlebic Tavisi keTilSobilebiT, adamianuri siTboTi, usazRvro yuradRebiTa da siaxloviT samudamod aRibeWdebian mexsierebaSi. aseT adamianad darCa CvenSi b-ni vladimeri. pirvelad mas 1948 wels Sevxvdi fizkulturis institutSi misaRebi gamocdebis Cabarebisas, xolo axlos gavicani imave wlis seqtemberSi rusul enaSi seminarul mecadineobaze, rogorc pedagogi. pirveli SexvedrisTanave Cven Soris iseTi Tbili da axlo urTierToba damyarda, rom miuxedavad asakobrivi gansxvavebisa, megobrobaSi gadaizarda da b-n vladimeris sicocxlis bolo dRemde gagrZelda. is Cems mexsierebaSi darCa, rogorc didi pedagogi, Tavis saganze Seyvarebuli adamiani, saukeTeso mcodne, maRali inteleqtisa da kulturis mqone pirovneba. mis mier masalis axsna da gadacemis meTodi, metyvelebis maRali kultura da damajerebeli msjeloba namdvilad qrestomaTiuli iyo. Tu marTalia sentencia, „pedagogad unda daibado”, maSin igi b-n vladimerzea zedgamoWrili. b-ni vladimeri Zalze keTili bunebis, uaRresad Tbili, yuradRebiani da metad mokrZalebuli adamiani iyo, romelic pirveli SexvedrisTanave xiblavda adamians. misi institutSi muSaobis periodSi ar maxsovs SemTxveva, rom mas raime garTuleba hqonodes studentebTan Tu sxvebTan urTierTobaSi. igi xSirad gviyveboda saintereso epizodebs Tavisi mdidari cxovrebiseuli gamocdilebidan. mas Txrobis manera, stili metad saintereso da mimzidveli hqonda. b-ni vladimeri gulCvili kaci iyo. maxsovs, pirvel kursze, leqciebs Soris Sesvenebaze masTan saubrisas gairkva, rom erTi Cvengani (SemdgomSi cnobili mecnieri) stipendias ar Rebulobda, radgan misaReb gamocdebze b-n vladimerTan samiani hqonda miRebuli. es faqti b-nma vladimerma ise mwvaved ganicada, ise Sewuxda, rom didxans vamSvidebdiT. TviT im studentma uTxra, rom is Sefaseba misi pasuxis sruliad adeqvaturi iyo da mets ar imsaxurebda. amis miuxedavad, es SemTxveva didxans axsovda da Sexvedrisas ityoda xolme: „aba, kaco, rogor momivida eso”. b-ni vladimeri qvelmoqmedic iyo, Tumca igi Tavad SeZlebulad ar cxovrobda, magram xSirad exmareboda gaWirvebul studentebs. im wlebSi, rodesac meore msoflio omi axali damTavrebuli iyo, xalxs ekonomikurad uWirda. CvenTan kursze iyvnen xelmokle studentebi, romlebsac b-ni vladimeri materialur 254

daxmarebas uwevda. bevri SemTxveva vici, roca b-nma vladimerma gaWirvebul students niSani auwia, raTa mas stipendia ar daekarga. igi kargad xatavda. misi naambobidan vici, rom mis umcros Zmas, SemdgomSi saxalxo mxatvars b-n uCas xatva man Seaswavla. mis mier Sesrulebuli cnobili mecnieris dimitri uznaZis portreti dResac hkidia saq. fizaRzrdisa da sportis akademiis pedagogikis da fsiqologiis kaTedris oTaxSi. man igi kaTedras saCuqrad gadasca. b-ni vladimeri suliT xorcamde patrioti iyo. maxsovs, 1956 wlis martis mRelvare dReebSi, rodesac qarTvelma axalgazrdobam xma aimaRla moskovis xelisuflebis winaaRmdeg i.stalinis kultTan dakavSirebiT, masTan erTad viyaviT stalinis ZeglTan, sadac yoveldRiurad xalxmravali mitingebi imarTeboda. rodesac vuyurebdiT axalgazrdobis gmirul SemarTebas, am movleniT aRtacebulma vladimerma miTxra: „ar megona, Tu aseTi kargi, mebrZoli axalgazrdoba gvyavdao”. metad sawyeni da guldasawyvetia, rom b-ni vladimeri saq. sax. fizkulturis institutSi mravali aTeuli wlis pedagogiuri moRvaweobis Semdeg (igi institutis daarsebis pirveli dRidanve muSaobda iq) institutis maSindelma xelmZRvanelobam ise gauSva pensiaze, rom am damsaxurebul da amagdar adamians, mravali Taobis aRmzrdels, madlobac ki ar uTxra _ ubralo gacilebac ar mouwyviaT. Cven, fizkulturis institutis 1952 wlis kursdamTavrebulebma, 1962 wlidan daviwyeT yovel 5 weliwadSi erTxel Sekreba. Cveni sayvareli da sapatio stumari mudam b-ni lado iyo. 25 weliwadi grZeldeboda es Sekrebebi. bolos 1977 wels SevikribeT da Zalian gavixareT, radgan Cveni institutis damTavrebidan 25 wlis iubiles b-n lados dabadebidan 90 wlis iubile daemTxva. iqve movilaparakeT, rom 1982 wlis ivnisSi Sesabamisi 30 da 95 wlis iubileebi erTad aRgveniSna. 1977 wels b-n lados 90 wlis iubile, Tu ar vcdebi, pedagogiurma sazogadoebam gadauxada, sadac misi Tanatoli da megobari, didi mecnieri akaki SaniZe misalmebisas gadaexvia da uTxra: „Cemo lado, Cven 100 wlis iubile erTad unda vizeimoTo”. b-nma akaki SaniZem 100 weli marTlac izeima, magram b-ni lado am TariRs, samwuxarod, ver moeswro, _ igi 1981 wlis 8 noembers gardaicvala. me im dros moskovSi viyavi da am Zvirfasi adamianis dakrZalvas ver daveswari. misma qaliSvilma, q-nma elisom miTxra: „Znelia mamis sikvdili, magram mamaCemi tkbili kaci iyo da am qveynidanac tkbilad wavidao”. igi Tbilisis „dinamos” matCs televiziiT adevnebda Tvals, Sesvenebisas cudad Seiqna, Tavis oTaxSi gavida, wamowva, erTi amoioxra da suli daliao”. b-ni lados gardacvalebam, rogorc yvelas, aseve Cven, mis yofil studentebs, didad dagvwyvita guli. b-ni vladimerisTana adamianebs daviwyeba ar uweriaT. igi samudamod darCa Cvens gulsa da mexsierebaSi kacuri kacis, didi pedagogis, didi moqalaqisa da humanistis brwyinvale nimuSad.

SoTa buaZe saq. fiz. aRzrdisa da sportis akademiis docenti Tbilisi, 2001 w. oqtomberi.
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sarCevi
Semdgenlisagan...................................................................................................................................................... 3 lado jafariZe ..................................................................................................................................................... 3 gogla leoniZe...................................................................................................................................................... 5 Cemi megobrebi da xelisSemwyobni, Cemi „mogonebebis“ weris Sefebi! ......... 7 mcire mogoneba onis skolasa da mis pedagogebze........................................................... 8 moskovi Cemi droisa. universiteti .................................................................................................. 9 moskovis qarTuli saTvistomo........................................................................................................... 21 rac Cemi TvaliT minaxavs ........................................................................................................................ 33 lev tolstois dakrZalvaze ................................................................................................................36 andria razmaZe.....................................................................................................................................................42 maiakovskebis ojaxi........................................................................................................................................45 Sexvedra kote marjaniSvilTan moskovSi................................................................................ 51 i.WavWavaZisa da al.yazbegis TxzulebaTa Targmanis istoriisaTvis........... 53 yvelaferi xalxs misca... ...........................................................................................................................56 Sexvedra anatol fransTan....................................................................................................................60 Sexvedrebi kompozitor dimitri arayiSvilTan................................................................65 mcire mogoneba knut hamsunze .............................................................................................................79 Cemi scenismoyvareoba...................................................................................................................................85 maqsim gorki qalaq onSi ...........................................................................................................................95 akakisTan erTad raWa-leCxumSi..........................................................................................................98 foTis periodi..................................................................................................................................................103 TaTbirze mefisnacvalTan ..................................................................................................................... 112 irodion evdoSvili foTSi.................................................................................................................. 118 Jurnali „cisferi yanwebi“ ...................................................................................................................122 grigol robaqiZe.............................................................................................................................................134 Cemi drois Tbilisi.....................................................................................................................................147 CargalSi.................................................................................................................................................................. 153 SovSi daviT kakabaZesTan erTad.....................................................................................................168 nikoloz baraTaSvilis neStis gadasveneba didubidan mTawmindaze.........172 gigo gabaSvilis erTi ucnobi namuSevris gamo ..............................................................173 i.m. sarkizov-serazini.................................................................................................................................176 Sio mRvimeli.......................................................................................................................................................179 Sexvedrebi ioseb imedaSvilTan....................................................................................................... 181 ioseb griSaSvili...........................................................................................................................................187 ipolite varTagava ....................................................................................................................................... 203 saqarTvelos damoukidebloba ......................................................................................................... 206 damoukideblobis dakargva.................................................................................................................. 209 memedbegis ambavi..............................................................................................................................................214 igdiri ........................................................................................................................................................................216 parmen caxeli.....................................................................................................................................................218 Teofile xuskivaZe ....................................................................................................................................... 222 valodia okujava ........................................................................................................................................... 224 griSa cxakaia..................................................................................................................................................... 225 iliko qurxuli ............................................................................................................................................... 227 gazeT ,,TbilisSi” dabeWdili erTi werilis avtoris mezRapreoba, anu cota ram aleqsandre cimakuriZeze .......................................................................... 229 grigol mesxis damokidebuleba uCa jafariZis naxatebisadmi ........................231 rafiel erisTavis qoneba .......................................................................................................................231 gulbaT _ qarTuli legenda...............................................................................................................233 simon jafariZe (sofeli xirxonisi) .......................................................................................... 234 uCa jafariZis naambobi.............................................................................................................................235 mcire Canawerebi ............................................................................................................................................. 236 kuriozebi .............................................................................................................................................................. 239 ikorTis magaliTiT..................................................................................................................................... 248 damateba................................................................................................................................................................... 249

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