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Energy

# Energy

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03/14/2015

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# Energy

Energy is the ability to do Work. It can be either Kinetic or

Potential

Energy
Energy is measured in terms of work it does or can do therefore same units as work = Joules and it is also a scalar

Energy
Work is really used to measure the energy transfer. So if you measure the work that will equal the quantity of energy.

Potential Energy
PE is stored energy. When a certain amount of work is done the result is a gain in the same amount of PE

Potential Energy
If the work is done against gravity, it is called gravitational potential energy. Ex) swing = gravitational potential energy

Potential Energy
Ex) water behind a dam = gravitational potential energy

Potential Energy
Ex) bungee jumping = spring potential

Potential Energy
Ex) Gasoline = chemical potential

Potential Energy
Ex) Magnets = magnetic potential

DEMO PE
The Coffee Can (a wind-up toy)

Potential Energy
Do a certain amount of work and the result is a gain in the same amount of PE. This is called the Conservation of Energy.

Potential Energy
This is called the Conservation of Energy. Energy can neither be created nor destroyed. It can only be transferred from one form to another.

Demo PE
Bowling Ball

Demo PE
The Interrupter Rod

Gravitational PE
A change in PE is measured with respect to a base level. The object is moved away from the surface of the earth.

Gravitational PE
The base level is usually the floor or the ground or the bottom of the swing.

Change in PE
Measure the increase in PE as the pendulum bob rises from the lowest position.

Gravitational PE
PE is determined by the calculating the work done in lifting the object. PE = Fd = mad = mgh

PE = mgh

PE practice
A 5.0 Kg ball is raised from the lab table to the top of a ramp which is 0.40 m high. A) How much PE has the ball gained?

PE practice
A 5.0 Kg ball is raised from the lab table to the top of a ramp which is 0.40 m high. A) How much PE has the ball gained? Ans) PE = mgh = 20 Joules

Gravitational PE
Remember that energy is conserved as long as there are no frictional forces. Therefore the path does not matter in going from point A to point B. The final velocity will be the same no matter what the path.

Kinetic Energy
If a certain amount of work is done, the result is a gain in the same amount of KE.

Kinetic Energy
Energy IN = Energy OUT

Kinetic Energy
KE is proportional to mass of object And velocity of the object squared. 2 KE = ½ mv

KE
If the mass doubles the KE will double.

KE
If the velocity doubles the KE will quadruple.

KE

v

Derivation of formula for KE

Work = KE
KE = mad = ½ mv2 Notice this tells how much energy is needed to stop it. An unbalanced force changes the velocity, so it changes the KE of that object.

Work = KE
KE = mad = ½ mv2 This suggests if the velocity doubles, the KE quadruples and therefore it will take 4x the work to stop the object – which means 4x the distance to stop.

Notice how the planets energy transfers from KE to PE yet the total energy remains the same. Also max KE and fastest when closest and max PE and slowest when farthest away.

SUN

Speeding vs Stopping
If v doubles, the distance to stop will quadruple!!

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