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**19 BULK DEFORMATION PROCESSES IN
**

METALWORKING

Review Questions

19.1 What are the reasons why the bulk deformation processes are important commercially and technologically? Answer. Reasons why the bulk deformation processes are important include the following: (1) they are capable of significant shape change when hot working is used, (2) they have a positive effect on part strength when cold working is used, and (3) most of the processes produce little material waste; some are net shape processes. 19.2 Name the four basic bulk deformation processes. Answer. The four basic bulk deformation processes are (a) rolling, (2) forging, (3) extrusion, and (4) wire and bar drawing. 19.3 What is rolling in the context of the bulk deformation processes? Answer. Rolling is a deformation process in which the thickness of the workpiece is reduced by compressive forces exerted by two opposing rolls. The rolls rotate, thus pulling and simultaneously squeezing the workpiece between them. 19.4 In rolling of steel, what are the differences between a bloom, a slab, and a billet? Answer. A bloom is a rolled steel workpiece with a square cross section of about 150 mm by 150 mm. The starting work unit for a bloom is an ingot heated in a soaking pit. A slab is rolled from an ingot or a bloom and has a rectangular cross section of about 250 mm by 40 mm. A billet is rolled from a bloom and has a square cross section of about 40 mm by 40 mm. 19.5 List some of the products produced on a rolling mill. Answer. Rolled products include flat sheet and plate stock, round bar and rod stock, rails, structural shapes such as I-beams and channels. 19.6 What is draft in a rolling operation? Answer. Draft is the difference between the starting thickness and the final thickness as the workpiece passes between the two opposing rolls. 19.7 What is sticking in a hot rolling operation? Answer. Sticking is a condition in hot rolling in which the surface of the workpiece adheres to the rolls as the piece passes between the rolls, causing severe deformation of the metal below the surface in order to allow passage through the roll gap. 19.8 Identify some of the ways in which force in flat rolling can be reduced. Answer. Ways to reduce force in flat rolling include (1) use hot rolling, (2) reduce draft in each pass, and (3) use smaller diameter rolls. 19.9 What is a two-high rolling mill? Answer. A two-high rolling mill consists of two opposing rolls between which the work is compressed. 19.10 What is a reversing mill in rolling?

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing, 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007

Answer. A reversing mill is a two-high rolling mill in which the direction of rotation of the rolls can be reversed to allow the work to pass through from either side. 19.11 Besides flat rolling and shape rolling, identify some additional bulk forming processes that use rolls to effect the deformation. Answer. Some other processes that use rolls are ring rolling, thread rolling, gear rolling, roll piercing, and roll forging. 19.12 What is forging? Answer. Forging is a deformation process in which the workpiece is compressed between two dies, using impact or gradual pressure to form the part. 19.13 One way to classify forging operations is by the degree to which the work is constrained in the die. By this classification, name the three basic types. Answer. The three basic types are (1) open die forging, (2) impression die forging, and (3) flashless forging. 19.14 Why is flash desirable in impression die forging? Answer. Because its presence constrains the metal in the die to fill the details of the die cavity. 19.15 What is a trimming operation in the context of impression die forging? Answer. Trimming is a shearing operation used to remove the flash on the workpiece after impression die forging. 19.16 What are the two basic types of forging equipment? Answer. The two types of forging machines are hammers, which impact the workpart, and presses, which apply a gradual pressure to the work. 19.17 What is isothermal forging? Answer. Isothermal forging is a hot forging operation in which the die surfaces are heated to reduce heat transfer from the work into the tooling. 19.18 What is extrusion? Answer. Extrusion is a compression forming operation in which a workpiece is forced to flow through a die opening, thus taking the cross-sectional shape of the die opening. 19.19 Distinguish between direct and indirect extrusion. Answer. In direct extrusion, also known as forward extrusion, a metal billet is loaded into a container, and a ram compresses the material, forcing it to flow through a die opening at the opposite end of the container. In indirect extrusion, also known as backward extrusion, the die is incorporated into the ram, and as the ram compresses into the metal billet, the metal is forced to flow through the die opening in a direction that is opposite (backwards) of the ram motion. 19.20 Name some products that are produced by extrusion. Answer. Products produced by continuous extrusion include structural shapes (window frames, shower stalls, channels), tubes and pipes, and rods of various cross sections. Products made by discrete extrusion include toothpaste tubes, aluminum beverage cans, and battery cases. 19.21 Why is friction a factor in determining the ram force in direct extrusion but not a factor in indirect extrusion?

Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

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19. Friction is a factor in direct extrusion because the work billet is squeezed against the walls of the container so that friction resists the movement of the billet toward the die opening. Answer: The preforming operations discussed in the forming video are (1) edging – to increase the cross-section of the work and (2) blocking – to refine the shape. how do compressive stresses also play a role in the process? Answer. 19. and thus there is no friction. (4) mandrels. (2) blocks. Each omitted answer or wrong answer reduces the score by 1 point. Multiple Choice Quiz There is a total of 27 correct answers in the following multiple choice questions (some questions have multiple answers that are correct). the billet does not move relative to the container walls. Because if the drawing stress exceeded the yield strength. 19. or (e) wire stock? Answer. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Answer. In indirect extrusion.25 In a wire drawing operation. Wire and bar drawing are bulk deformation processes in which the cross section of a wire or bar is reduced by pulling (drawing) it through a die opening. 19. (b) billet. (d) stock thickness. and (f) strength coefficient of the work metal? Answer. Answer: Accessory tools that can be used during open die forging are (1) saddles.28 (Video) List the preforming operations discussed in the forming video. (3) finish forging is used to complete the shape. what is the primary factor that makes the mechanical performance of forged parts better than cast parts in many situations? Answer: The mechanical performance of forged or wrought parts is usually better because of the microstructure changes and the directional grain flow imparted during the forging process. (d) slab.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. Each correct answer is worth 1 point. and (5) punches. They are both examples of how compressive stresses applied to the outside surface of a solid cylindrical cross section can create high tensile stresses in the interior of the cylinder. the metal on the exit side of the draw die would stretch rather than force metal to be pulled through the die opening. 99 . 19. Then. (c) bloom.1 The starting workpiece in steel hot rolling of plate and sheet stock is which of the following (one best answer): (a) bar stock.22 What does the centerburst defect in extrusion have in common with the roll piercing process? Answer. 19. and each additional answer beyond the correct number of answers reduces the score by 1 point. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 19. why must the drawing stress never exceed the yield strength of the work metal? Answer. (c) roll velocity. To attain a perfect score on the quiz. all correct answers must be given. (d).26 (Video) According to the video on forming.2 The maximum possible draft in a rolling operation depends on which of the following parameters (two correct answers): (a) coefficient of friction between roll and work. (3) rings.24 Although the workpiece in a wire drawing operation is obviously subjected to tensile stresses. 19.27 (Video) List the accessory tools that can be used during open die forging according to the video on forging. Percentage score on the quiz is based on the total number of correct answers. (a) and (b). Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. (b) roll diameter. Compressive stresses are present in wire drawing because the starting metal is compressed as it is forced through the approach of the die opening.23 What is wire drawing and bar drawing? Answer. 19. (e) strain.

and (h). Which of the following rolling mill types are associated with relatively small diameter rolls in contact with the work (two correct answers): (a) cluster mill. (e) Mannesmann process. (d) impact extrusion. (d) roll piercing. (g) soaking. (c) final flow stress.13 In which of the following extrusion operation is friction a factor in determining the extrusion force (one best answer): (a) direct extrusion or (b) indirect extrusion? Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. (b). 19. (c) ring rolling. 19. (g) trimming. or (e) yield strength? Answer. (e) swaging. (d) roll forging.6 19.10 Which of the following are alternative names for indirect extrusion (two correct answers): (a) backward extrusion. (b) hobbing. and (h) upsetting? Answer. (a). Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. Trimming. (b) compression strength. (e). (d) tensile strength. (b) direct extrusion. 19. (a). and (e) three-high configuration? Answer.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. (b) flashless forging. (c) forward extrusion. (c). Flash in impression die forging serves no useful purpose and is undesirable because it must be trimmed from the part after forming: (a) true or (b) false? Answer. (a). (f) tube sinking. (d) reversing mill. although associated with forging. Tube and pipe cross sections can be produced by either direct or indirect extrusion. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 19.11 The production of tubing is possible in indirect extrusion but not in direct extrusion: (a) true or (b) false? Answer.9 Which of the following are classified as forging operations (four correct answers): (a) coining. Flash causes build-up of pressure inside the die. (e). (c) final flow stress. Which of the following stress or strength parameters is used in the computation of the maximum force in a forging operation (one best answer): (a) average flow stress. (d) tensile strength. (e) roll piercing. and (h) upsetting? Answer. Production of pipes and tubes is associated with which of the following bulk deformation processes (three correct answers): (a) extrusion. (c) final flow stress. (c) fullering.7 19. is a cutting operation. (b) fullering. and (f). (c) impact extrusion. (b) continuous rolling mill. and (e) reverse extrusion? Answer. or (g) upsetting? Answer.3 Which of the following stress or strength parameters is used in the computation of rolling force (one best answer): (a) average flow stress.4 19. (f) precision forging. (b) compression strength. 19. (c). Which of the following operations are closely related to open-die forging (three best answers): (a) cogging. 19.5 19. (a). (a) and (c). answer (g).12 Which of the following stress or strength parameters is used in the computation of the force in an extrusion operation (one best answer): (a) average flow stress. (d) impression-die forging. (a). (b) compression strength. which forces the work metal to fill the die cavity. (c) four-high mill. (b). or (e) yield strength? Answer. (f) thread rolling. and (h). 100 .8 19. (e) yield strength? Answer. (b). (d) tensile strength. (a) and (e).

0) = 0.157 (b) Plate widens by 4%. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.0)(10.0 m/min.72? Answer. 101 .03)(1.04wo) = 630/35. and (c) forward slip. tf = (0. Determine (a) the minimum required coefficient of friction that would make this rolling operation possible.927 in towoLo = tfwfLf (2.75)(0. 19. Thickness is to be reduced in three steps in a hot rolling operation. and (f) upsetting? Answer. (a). (e) rolling. As the thickness is reduced.3 in = 26.vr)/vr = (17.0.4 = 17. (b) extrusion. (d) impression die forging.0246)0.1 A 42. (c) forging.844)(10.04wo)vf vf = 42(wo)(15)/ 34(1. Solution: (a) Maximum draft dmax = μ2 R Given that d = to .0)(10. (c).63.34 = 8.0) = 16.5 = 0.927)Lf Lf = (2. 19.0 mm in one pass in a rolling operation. (c) flashless forging.0 rev/min. (b) 0.927) = 312. and roll speed is the same for the three steps.04 wo 42(wo)(15) = 34(1. towovo = tfwfvf wf = 1.8 – 16.0246 μ = (0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 19. is which of the following (one answer): (a) zero. It is expected that for this metal and reduction. (b) extrusion.844 in wf = (1.0 mm.03)(1. The roll radius is 325 mm and the rotational speed is 49.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. The entrance speed of the plate is 15.0 in thick slab is 10.26 m/min s = (vf . Upset forged is used to form the nail head. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Answer. no friction. Each step will reduce the slab to 75% of its previous thickness. the slab will widen by 3% in each step. determine: (a) length and (b) exit velocity of the slab after the final reduction. Solution: (a) After three passes.025 ft (b) Given that roll speed is the same at all three stands and that towovo = tfwfvf .0 in wide and 12.75)(0. (b).15 Which of the following bulk deformation processes are involved in the production of nails for lumber construction (three best answers): (a) bar and wire drawing. the maximum reduction possible in a wire drawing operation. and then drawn into wire stock. (c) 1. and (d).2 A 2. μ2 = 8/325 = 0. under the assumptions of a perfectly plastic metal. The yield strength of the steel plate is 174 MPa and the tensile strength is 290 MPa. If the entry speed of the slab in the first step is 40 ft/min.26)/16. (b). Problems Rolling 19. Bar stock is rolled. and (d) rolling? Answer.325)2(49.26 = 0.75)(2. (a).0 mm thick plate made of low carbon steel is to be reduced to 34.0947 19.03)(10. the plate widens by 4%.0) = 10. (b) exit velocity of the plate.0)(12 x 12)/(0. or (d) 2.8 m/min (c) vr = π r2N= π(0.14 Theoretically.0)(12 x 12) = (0.0 ft long.16 Johnson's formula is associated with which one of the four bulk deformation processes: (a) bar and wire drawing.844)(10.tf = 42 . and no redundant work.

875 mm This converts into a maximum possible reduction x = 7.27 mm.5)1/5 = 0.53(0.875/50 = 0. The plate is wide enough relative to its thickness that no increase in width occurs.53 .8409 x = 1 .75 x 2.0) = 51. suppose that the percent reduction were specified to be equal for each pass.0)(40)/(0. the following relationship must be satisfied: 50(1 .032 x 10.25)/7.875 = 3.4.12945) = 6.17 → 4 passes (b) Draft per pass d = (50 . Let vr1 = roll speed at stand 1.42 m/min Let vr2 = roll speed at stand 2.tf)/dmax = (50 .x) = (0.6 = 13 mm. Equal drafts of 6 mm are to be taken at each stand.12945) = 5.91 mm. determine the exiting speeds at each rolling stand.032 x 10.x) = (0. 102 .78 ft/min Step 2: vf = (0.71 mm Pass 5: d = 28. which exceeds the maximum possible reduction of 0. and n = number of passes. Roll radius at each stand = 250 mm. if the entering speed at the first stand = 26 m/min.25 mm 19.51/n Try n = 4: (1 .3.6. Try n = 5: (1 .752 x 2.0)(1.71 .4 In the previous problem.0)(10.87055 x = 1 .89 .6 = 19 mm. Rotational speed at the first stand = 20 rev/min.0) = 51.x)n = 25/50 = 0. Determine (a) minimum number of passes required.47 = 43.63 = 37.03 x 10.752 x 2.5 A continuous hot rolling mill has two stands. Let t1 = exiting plate thickness at stand 1 and entering thickness at stand 2. Thickness of the starting plate = 25 mm and width = 300 mm.12945. and (b) forward slip s. Let v2 = exiting plate speed at stand 2. t1 = 25 . vr2 = ? Forward slip s = (vf .0)(1. (a) What is the minimum number of passes required? (b) What is the draft for each pass? Solution: (a) Maximum possible draft occurs on first pass: dmax = μ2 R = (0.03 x 10. determine (a) speed vr at each stand.15)2 (350) = 7. t2 = 19 .Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. and (b) draft for each pass? Solution: (a) Maximum draft dmax = μ2 R = (0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.5)1/4 = 0.00 mm 19.5.98 .91 = 32.0. Let v1 = exiting plate speed at stand 1 and entering speed at stand 2.63 mm. The specification is that the draft is to be equal on each pass.75 x 2.8409 = 0.vr)/vr svr = vf .033 x 10.1591.98(0.98 mm Pass 4: d = 32.71 mm. to = 25 mm.12945) = 4. Under the assumption that the forward slip is equal at each stand.0)(40)/(0. rather than the draft.753 x 2.12945) = 4. Solution: (a) Let to = entering plate thickness at stand 1.89(0.5 (1 . Final thickness is to be 13 mm.53 mm Pass 2: d = 43.875 mm Minimum number of passes = (to . 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Step 1: vf = (2.12945) = 3.15)2 (350) = 7. tf = 50 .87055 = 0. tf = 32. Let t2 = exiting plate thickness at stand 2.15.x)n = 25 (1 .78 ft/min 19.vr (1 + s)vr = vf Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.71 = 25.47 mm. tf = 28. (c) Also.78 ft/min Step 3: vf = (0.71(0. vr1 = πDNr = π(2 x 250)(10-3)(20) = 31.0)(1. The number of passes must be an integer.1575. To reduce from to = 50 mm to to = 25 mm in n passes.89 mm Pass 3: d = 37.0)(1. which is within the maximum possible reduction of 0.1575. (b) Pass 1: d = 50(0. Roll diameter = 700 mm and coefficient of friction between rolls and work = 0.0.0) = 51. Let vo = entering plate speed at stand 1.25)/4 = 6.27 = 28.0)(1.x) = 0. tf = 43.3 A series of cold rolling operations are to be used to reduce the thickness of a plate from 50 mm down to 25 mm in a reversing two-high mill.1575 Let x = fraction reduction per pass.0)(40)/(0. tf = 37.4.

Since s is a constant.5(1 + s)vr1 .0(1 . Determine (a) percent reduction at each stand. At stand 8: (1 + s)vr8 = v8. where vr1 = roll speed. wo = w1 = w2 = . 3) Combining (Eqs. and rotational speed at stand number 1 = 30 rev/min. towovo = t1w1v1 = t2w2v2 = .1 m/min (b) 25vo = 19v1 v1 = 25(26)/19 = 34. and it is assumed that the forward slip will be equal at each stand.3 in.x)8 = 0.r)v1 = 3(1 . where r = 0.01% at each stand. (b) rotational speed of the rolls at stands 2 through 8. = t8v8 to = 3. vr1 = πDNr1 = (2π x 18/12)(30) = 282.6 A continuous hot rolling mill has eight stands.78/(1-r)3 = 71. where vr2 = roll speed. By constant volume.10609 x 282.0 in.4) = 34. tovo = t1v1 = t2v2 1. where vr8 = roll speed. . 2) By constant volume.78 ft/min In general Nr = (30/282. 1) At stand 2. .4 = 1. . 2 and 3). previously calculated in (b) v2 = 1.5(34.3 m/min 19. 103 .78) = 0. (d) What is the draft at stands 1 and 8? (e) What is the length and exit speed of the final strip exiting stand 8? Solution: (a) To reduce from to = 3.75v1 = 0. v8 = exit speed of slab.9 rev/min Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.10609 x 282.5v1 (Eq.78/(1-r) = 0. .0 = 0. . towovo = t1w1v1 = t2w2v2 Since there is no change in width.5vr1 vr2 = 1. 1): (1 + s)vr1 = v1 (1 + s)(31. It is observed that the speed of the slab entering stand 1 = 240 ft/min.74989 x = 1 . At stand 2: (1 + s)vr2 = v2 .2) = 51. Etc. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 At stand 1. . wo = w1 = w2 Therefore.1 rev/min Nr5 = 0.78/(1-0.0.5(31. width = 15.x) = (0. tovo = t1v1 = t2v2 = . Percent reduction in thickness is to be equal at all stands. (1 + s)vr2 = v2 = 1.2 (1 + s) = 34.vr)/vr svr = vf .3 in over 8 stands.r)8v8 . 1). . The final thickness is to be 0.2501) = 40 rev/min Nr3 = 0. 3(1 . The dimensions of the starting slab are: thickness = 3.r)2v2 = . v1 = exit speed of slab. . : v8 Given that Nr1 = 30 rev/min. 3.5v1 = 1.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. and length = 10 ft. w8 Therefore. . vr1 : vr2 : .78/(1-r)2 = 53. 3vo = 3(1 . .78/(1-r)4 = 94.10)1/8 = 0.vr (1 + s)vr = vf At stand 1: (1 + s)vr1 = v1 .10609 x 282.74989 = r = 0.42) = 47.0 in to tf = 0.3/3.50v2 v2 = 1.2 m/min. Roll diameter at each stand = 36 in. (1 + s)vr2 = 1. (1 + s)vr2 = v2 (Eq.2501 as determined in part (a).10 (1 .3 rev/min Nr4 = 0. (b) Forward slip s = (vf .0. : vr8 = v1 : v2 : . .2/31. v2 = exit speed of slab.10609 x 282. (1 + s)vr1 = v1 (Eq. . Assume that no widening of the slab occurs during the rolling sequence. = t8w8v8 Since there is no change in width.089 s = 0.10609vr Nr2 = 0. and (c) forward slip.5v1 Substituting (Eq.10609 x 282.0 in.089 (c) v1 = 34.2501 = 25.0vo = 0. thus vr2 = 1.3 (1 . Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.x)8 = 0.2 m/min (Eq.

8/377.132 Check with stand 2: given v2 = 426.10609 = 9.78/(1-r)6 = 168.74989 = 426.5(1.8 ft/min From equations for forward slip.2501)7(0.223)0.10609 x 282.10609vr2 Rearranging.829)(50 x 10-3) = 92.20 = 148.500) = 9. Solution: (a) Draft d = 25 .1(250)(35.78/(1-r)5 = 126. vr2 = Nr2/0.318)(1.0.10006 in (e) Length of final strip Lf = L8 towoLo = t8w8L8 Given that wo = w8. and (c) power required to accomplish this operation.8 Solve Problem 19.74989 = 320 ft/min v2 = 320/0.78/(1-r)7 = 224. as before (d) Draft at stand 1 d1 = 3. Solution: (a) Draft d = 25 .132 s = 0.20/1.851. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Nr6 = 0.0(1 . (b) roll torque.78) = 320 (1 + s) = 320/282.591 N-m/s = 92.1(250)(50) = 1. The roll has a radius = 500 mm.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.7 L8 = 100 ft A plat that is 250 mm wide and 25 mm thick is to be reduced in a single pass in a two-high rolling mill to a thickness of 20 mm.591 W 19.2501) = 0. The work material has a strength coefficient = 240 MPa and a strain hardening exponent = 0.159 rev/s Power P = 2π(0.78 = 1.0(10 ft) = 0.1 rev/min = 0.25 = 0.04) = 426. Determine (a) roll force.426Nr2 = 0.311.8 (1 + s) = 426.5 = 50 mm True strain ε = ln(25/20) = ln 1. toLo = t8L8 3. 104 .20 = 5 mm.10609 x 282.10609 x 282. Contact length L = (500 x 5).5(1.223 Y f = 240(0.9.20 = 5 mm. and its speed = 30 m/min.35 mm True strain ε = ln(25/20) = ln 1.223)0.20 = 148.132 s = 0.829)( 50 x 10-3) = 46.25 = 0.2.3) = 2400 ft/min 19.55 rev/min = 0.250) = 19.851. Contact length L = (250 x 5).829 N (b) Torque T = 0.3L8 towovo = t8w8v8 tovo = t8v8 v8 = 240(3/0.132.8 ft/min from above Nr2 = 0.311.426(40) = 377.2501) = 0.1 MPa Rolling force F = 148.35) = 1.5 rev/min Nr8 = 0.318 rev/s Power P = 2π(0.7 using a roll radius = 250 mm.1 MPa Rolling force F = 148.604 W Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.0(0.35 x 10-3) = 23.311.04 ft/min (1 + s)(377. (1 + s)vr1 = v1 (1 + s)(282.35 x 10-3) = 92.604 N-m/s = 92. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.095 N (b) Torque T = 0.14 = 1.095)(35.3 rev/min Nr7 = 0.7503 in Draft at stand 8 d8 = 3.5 = 35.296 N-m (c) N = (30 m/min)/(2π x 0.095)(35.159)(1.223 Y f = 240(0.174 N-m (c) N = (30 m/min)/(2π x 0.20/1.851.9 rev/min (c) Given vo = 240 ft/min v1 = 240/(1-r) = 240/0.

20 = 148.20 = 5 mm. Contact length L = (250 x 2).0112) = 3.11 A single-pass rolling operation reduces a 20 mm thick plate to 18 mm.0112) = 37.50 rev/min Power P = 2π(5.81) = 585. The starting plate is 200 mm wide. and note the important effect of roll radius on force.592)(585.81 x 10-3) = 92.22.000)(0.554 W Note that this is the same power value (within calculation error) as in Problems 19. It is desired to reduce a 1.27) = 54.18 = 2. The work material has a strength coefficient = 30.5 = 11.5(585.554 N-m/s = 92. (b) roll torque.50)(483000)(3. The work material has a strength coefficient = 600 MPa and a strength coefficient = 0.000) = 138 hp 19.50 rev/min and has a radius of 17.27) = 483. Determine (a) roll force.417)(15.22 = 300 MPa Rolling force F = 300(0.223 Y f = 240(0.10 A 4.7 and 19.417)(15.0 mm. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0 x 0.500 in-lb/min HP = (54.5 = 15.000 lb (b) Torque T = 0.580.63 in.1 MPa Rolling force F = 148.1(250)(15. power would probably increase because of lower mechanical efficiency in the cluster type rolling mill.000 N (b) Torque T = 0. (b) roll torque. Solution: (a) Draft d = 20 .1508 Y f = 30. Solution: (a) Draft d = 25 . The mill has a maximum horsepower = 100 hp.1054 Y f = 600(0.5(483000)(3. Determine (a) roll force.63)0.15 = 19. Compare the results with the previous two problems.8.81 mm True strain ε = ln(25/20) = ln 1. It can exert a maximum force = 400.12 A hot rolling mill has rolls of diameter = 24 in. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Note that the force and torque are reduced as roll radius is reduced.5 rev/min = 1. Solution: (a) Draft d = 4.592 rev/s Power P = 2π(1.15.87 = 0. 105 .18 mm = 0.700 in-lb. 19.050) = 95.9 Solve Problem 19.16 = 0.0 in. The roll rotates at a speed of 5.500 in-lb/min)/(396.20/1.223)0.1508)0.414(9.87) = ln 1.417 N (b) Torque T = 0.2) = 0.1054)0.81 x 10-3) = 4.5/3.27 in True strain ε = ln(4.50 – 3. and (c) power required for this operation. but that the power remains the same (within calculation error) as in the previous problem.000(0. In fact.000 lb.642 lb/in2 Rolling force F = Y f wL = 16. and (c) power required to accomplish this operation.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.15/1.000)(0.697 W 19.0112 m True strain ε = ln(20/18) = ln 1.720 N-m (c) Given that N = 12 rev/min Power P = 2π(12/60)(672. Roll radius = 250 mm and rotational speed = 12 rev/min.0)(3.50 in thick slab that is 9 in wide and 24 in long is to be reduced in a single pass in a two-high rolling mill to a thickness of 3.5(672.87 in.111 = 0. Contact length L = (17.628 N-m (c) N = (30 m/min)/(2π x 0.0112)(0.7.22/1.000 lb/in2 and a strain hardening exponent = 0. only assume a cluster mill with working rolls of radius = 50 mm. (c) N = 5.672 MN = 672. 19. torque and power.25 = 0.580. Contact length L = (50 x 5).27) = 789.5 = 3.5FL = 0.5 in thick plate by the maximum Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.

which does not equal the initial trial value of d = 0.5 = 1.333)0.5 . 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 possible draft in one pass.2) = ln 1.0 in ε = ln(1. tf = 1.4055 Y f = 16.547 Now use trial-and-error to values of Y f and d that fit this equation. Draft d = 1.949(0. Solution: (a) Assumption: maximum possible draft is determined by the force capability of the rolling mill and not by coefficient of friction between the rolls and the work.134 = 0. Try d = 0.333 = 1.631.5 .000/34.5 .13 Solve Problem 19.5/1.3 in.88 rev/min vr = 2πRN = 2π(12/12)(7.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.5 = 400.5 = 400.5 = 34.000 lb/in2.18 F = Y (10)(12d)0. the work material has a strength coefficient = 20.0.000(10) (12d)0.5 ft/min 19.0 = 20.000 = 2.026.5 ε = ln(1.5 .5 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.3 Try d = 0.0. and (c) maximum speed of the rolls for the operation.000 (as given) f Y f (d)0.949(0.000)(2.18. which does not equal the trial value of d = 0. (d)0.5/tf) tf = to -d = 1.12 except that the operation is warm rolling and the strain-hardening exponent is 0.134 lb/in2.5/1.5 = 11.000 (the limiting force of the rolling mill) (12d)0.18 = 14.5 = 2.18/1. Determine (a) maximum possible draft.538 lb/in2.000 lb/in2 and a strain hardening exponent = zero.000/200.5 = 11.641 Y f (d)0.000(ε)0.000 inlb/min Contact length L = (12 x 0.000 N = 7.18 = 16.5 in.000(ε)0/1.223).2 in ε = ln(1.5/tf) Y f = 20.25 = 0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.600.8791 d = 0.0.5 Y f = 20.tf Contact length L = (12d)0.0 12 d = 2.3 = 1. The starting plate is 10 in wide.18 = 13.548N = 39.4055).000 lb/in2 Force F = 20.167) = ln 1. 106 .547/13.548N in-lb/min 5. Solution: (a) Assumption (same as in previous problem): maximum possible draft is determined by the force capability of the rolling mill and not by coefficient of friction between the rolls and the work. (d)0.600.5 .5 = 400.50 = 0.0) = 5.251 (c) Given maximum possible power HP = 100 hp = 100 x 396000 (in-lb/min)/hp = 39.7942 d = 0.773.0 in P = 2πN(400.88) = 49. Draft d = 1. tf = 1.538 = 0.949ε.333 in (b) True strain ε = ln(1. In the heated condition.285 = 0.5/1.641 = 11.5 = 400.547/14.026.0) = ln 1.223 Y f = 16.tf Contact length L = (12d)0.02 = 4 d = 4/12 = 0. Assume the strength coefficient remains at 20.167 in ε = ln(1. (b) associated true strain.

000 N = 5. Solution: (a) V = πD2L/4 = π(45)2(40)/4 = 63. tf = 1.002)0. which is close but still above the trial value of d = 0.579 = 0.002) = 39.143 = 0.0.5/0. 107 .494).2)(48.600.768 d = 0. The coefficient of friction at the die-work interface is 0. (d)0.494 Y f = 16.5108 Y f = 16.949(0.002).5/0.5108). which is too much compared to d = 0.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.5/0.002. tf = 1.2 ft/min Forging 19.498 Y f = 16.489 Y f = 16.18 = 15.9 in ε = ln(1.547/15. (d)0.486.000N = 39.0.585 = 0.600.685.12 = 284.912) = 0.585.007 lb/in2.498).547/15.58 in. (d)0.7637 d = 0.120 lb/in2.66 in P = 2πN(400.58 = 0.4(0.6 Try d = 0.000)(2.547/15.588.4(0.9) = 0.949(0. The initial diameter is 45 mm and the initial height is 40 mm.036 = 0.767 d = 0.949(0.92) = ln 1.92 in ε = ln(1.14 A cylindrical part is warm upset forged in an open die.50 .50 .489).949(0.590.5 .1)/35 = 1.6 in. and (c) at a height of 25 mm. The work material has a flow curve defined by a strength coefficient of 600 MPa and a strain hardening exponent of 0.1335 Yf = 600(0.617 mm3 from part (a) above.588)0.1 mm (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.92) = 37.6 MPa.0.5/0.053 = 0.5 = 11. ε = ln(40/35) = ln 1. which is close but still above the trial value of d = 0.5 = 11.912) = 0.2)(45)/39.5 = 11. A = V/h = 63617/35 = 1818 mm2 Corresponding D = 48.92 rev/min vr = 2πRN = 2π(12/12)(5.5 = 2.09(284.588.915 in ε = ln(1.0.20.585 in.1335)0. Determine the force in the operation (a) just as the yield point is reached (yield at strain = 0.000N in-lb/min 6.09 F = 1.5 = 11.5 .5/0.6= 0.769 d = 0. tf = 1. (b) at a height of 35 mm.12 = 471. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. tf = 1. The height after forging is 25 mm.66) = 6.18 = 15.12. At h = 35.120 = 0.400 N (b) Given h = 35. (d)0.55 Try d = 0.588 = 0. which is almost the same as the trial value of d = 0.053 lb/in2.40(0.007 = 0.592.18 = 15.6)(1594) = 494.915) = 0.110 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.912 in ε = ln(1.000 in-lb/min Contact length L = (12 x 0. and h = 40 .583. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Try d = 0.547/15. (b) True strain ε = ln(1.498 (c) Given maximum possible power HP = 100 hp = 100 x 396000 (in-lb/min)/hp = 39.617/39. Try d = 0.92 = 1.92 A = V/h = 63.92 = 1594 mm2 Kf = 1 + 0. Yf = 600(0.588 in.18 = 15.2 MPa V = 63.036 lb/in2.617 mm3 Given ε = 0.

It is upset forged to a height = 2.511)0.087 = 0.2.060 F = 1.46) = 225.15 = 27.649.4(0.002) = 2.5/1.15.87 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.511 Yf = 40. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.379 lb 19.273 in3 from part (a) above. The work material has a flow curve with strength coefficient = 25.9)/25 = 1.182(548. work height. Solution: (a) V = πD2L/4 = π(2.273 in3 Given ε = 0.04 F = 1.16 A cylindrical workpart has a diameter = 2.5 in and a height = 4.4(0. (c) h = 1. At h = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.000(0. ε = ln(2.0.166)(8.15 A cylindrical workpart with D = 2.5 in.5)2(4.3.700 N (c) Given h = 25. and (d) h = 1. (c) 3.495 = 4.10.556 lb/in2 V = 12.9 = 6.667 = 0.1)(3.273 in3 from part (a) above.1)(2.000 N 19. These values can be used to develop the plot.75. (b) at height h = 2. A = V/h = 63.5)2(2. At h = 1.5.9. Solution: Volume of cylinder V = πD2L/4 = π(2.5/2. Determine the instantaneous force in the operation (a) just as the yield point is reached (yield at strain = 0.5.274 Yf = 40.46 in2 Corresponding D = 2.0834)0.87)/1.15 = 36.000(0.635 in3 We will compute the force F at selected values of height h: h = (a) 4.4(0.13 in the text.579 lb (b) Given h = 2.273/1. The shape of the plot will be similar to Figure 21.9 = 1.748 lb/in2 and h = 2.5)/4 = 12. A = V/h = 12. ε = ln(2.2)(1818) = 950.9.000(0.0 in.5 = 8. Coefficient of friction at the die-work interface = 0.182) = 321.495 = 1.002)0.3 in.273 in3 from part (a) above.617 mm3 from part (a) above.0 MPa V = 63.948)(6.0)/4 = 19.5/1.10.5 in.5 .22.495 A = V/h = 12. Determine the plot of force vs. Yf = 40.23 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.23)/1.166 lb/in2 V = 12.75 in.000 lb/in2 and n = 0.4(0.5 in is upset forged in an open die to a height = 1. (e) 3. ε = ln(2.5.273/2. A = V/h = 12.948 lb/in2 V = 12.002).617/25 = 2545 mm2 Corresponding D = 56.3.5)/2.2)(56.273/2.0)(2545) = 1.3 = 5.3) = ln 1. (b) 3. (f) 2.273/1.04(15.12 = 548.5) = ln 1. 108 .470)0.9) = ln 1.61 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.9 mm (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.045(27.1)(2. The work material has a flow curve defined by: K = 40. ε = ln(40/25) = ln 1.822 lb (c) Given h = 1.0.0834 Yf = 40.5.086(36.000(0.110(471.3 = 1.6 = 0. (d) 3.75.92 in2 Kf = 1 + 0.182 F = 1.4(0.002.274)0.1)(2.000 lb/in2 and strain hardening exponent = 0.15 = 32. Coefficient of friction at the die-work interface = 0.25. At h = 2. and (g) 2.695 lb (d) Given h = 1.15 = 15.9 in.61)/2.5 = 1. At h = 25.086 F = 1.045 F = 1.4700 Yf = 600(0.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. A = V/h = 12.5 in and h = 2.748)(4.5(0.316 = 0.34 in2 Corresponding D = 2.182 in2 Corresponding D = 3.060(32.34) = 153.556)(4. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 F = 1.92) = 80.

582)/3.25.002) = 3.92) = 32.6)/4 = 113. The wire stock out of which the nail is made is 5.5 = 1.808 lb At h = 3.002. Yf = 25.042) = 110.4545 = 0.635/2.0/3.0/3.22 = 17.5.3747)0.887)/3.028(13.031(16.75.75. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.000(0.143 = 0.0.774)/3.015)/2.140 in2 Corresponding D = 3. ε = ln(4.635 in3 calculated above. A = V/h = 19. Coefficient of friction at the die-work interface is 0.4. A = V/h = 19.680)(5.000(0.22 = 16.1)(2.774 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.2076 Yf = 25.635/3.002)0.034 F = 1. Solution: (a) Volume of nail head V = πDf2hf/4 = π(9.0/3.1)(2. A = V/h = 19.053 lb/in2 At h = 3.000(0.635/3.2874)0.1)(2.4(0.002 (the approximate yield point of metal).25) = ln 1.1)(3.025(6.5 = 5.4 mm3.680 lb/in2 V = 19.1)(2.75) = ln 1.025 F = 1.22 = 6.4(0.635/3.006)(6.635/3.601 lb At h = 3. The strength coefficient for this steel is 600 MPa.015 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.691 lb/in2 At h = 3.370 lb/in2 Adjusting the height for this strain.236 in2 Corresponding D = 2.4(0.182 lb At h =2.5) = ln 1.22. and the strain hardening exponent is 0.031 F = 1.038(19.75.992 = 1.000(0. (a) What length of stock must project out of the die in order to provide sufficient volume of material for this upsetting operation? (b) Compute the maximum force that the punch must apply to form the head in this open-die operation.231 = 0.0(0.0645)0.25 = 1.582 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0. The final length of the nail is 120 mm. The head is to have a diameter of 9.14.17 A cold heading operation is performed to produce the head on a steel nail.000(0.00 mm in diameter.25 = 6.75 = 5. A = V/h = 19.992 A = V/h = 19.0645 Yf = 25.3747 Yf = 25.75 = 1.635/3.0/3.61) = 92.92 in2 Kf = 1 + 0.5 mm and a thickness of 1.028 F = 1. Use ε = 0.0.0667 = 0.053)(5.0/2.545) = 129. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 At h = 4.144)(7.034(17. At ε = 0.125 lb At h = 3.4(0.5)2(1.136 lb 19.0.5.1335)0.0 = 6.2874 Yf = 25. A = V/h = 19.4(0.0 . ε = ln(4.22 = 20.000(0.992 = 4.887 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.22 = 13.042 in2 Corresponding D = 2.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.75) = ln 1. ε = ln(4.6 mm. 109 .236) = 73.75 = 1.044 F = 1.006 lb/in2 At h = 3. At h = 3.370)(4.635 in3 calculated above.75.5)/3.61 in2 Corresponding D = 2.044(20.2076)0. ε = ln(4.691)(6.75 = 7. we assume yielding has just occurred and the height has not changed significantly.1)(2.140) = 150. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.4(0.22 = 19.0) = ln 1. h = 4.333 = 0.538 lb At h = 3.144 lb/in2 V = 19.1335 Yf = 25. ε = ln(4.25.545 in2 Corresponding D = 2. At h = 2.038 F = 1.0 = 1.673 (from A = πD2/4) Kf = 1 + 0.673)/3.

1)(Df/hf) Forging force F = KfYfAf = (1 + 0. 110 .75)2/4 = 19.5 mm.3863)0 = 85 MPa Force is maximum at largest area value.5)2/4 = 70. Determine the maximum reduction in height to which the part can be compressed with this forging press.19 A hot upset forging operation is performed in an open die. as well as the diameter of the nail shank.073(333.4).2 = 400(ln 30/hf)0.40.4(0.22 = 634 MPa Af = π(9. Solution: (a) V = πDo2ho/4 = π(25)2(50)/4 = 24. (1) Try hf = 20 mm Af = 21.4μ(Df/hf) = 1 + 0.6 = 5.3/π)0.64 F = 1. Calculations similar to those in the preceding problem for the data developed by the student. compute the maximum force in the heading operation to form the head.5 = 0.04(36.5) = ln 4 = 1.20 A hydraulic forging press is capable of exerting a maximum force = 1. The work metal at this elevated temperature yields at 85 MPa (n = 0).5/1. and ho = 50 mm.4)(50/12.61= 1.9)(1060.5 = 50 mm Kf = 1 + 0.2837)0.405)0.6 mm2 ho = V/Ao = 113.5 mm2 D = (4 x 1963.5/π)0.206 mm3.3) = 380.9 mm2 Kf = 1 + 0.7/20) = 1.5) = 273.1.206/hf) Requires trial and error solution to find the value of hf that will match the force of 1.33(634)(70.7 mm Kf = 1 + 0.405 Yf = 400(0.18 Obtain a large common nail (flat head). 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Ao = πDo2/4 = π(4. Coefficient of friction at the die-work interface = 0.050 N Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. The starting part has diameter = 30 mm and height = 30 mm.712 N 19.000 N. hf = V/Af = 24.2837 Yf = 600(1.78/1. Af = 1963.14)(9.2 = 333. (b) ε = ln(50/12.2)( 21.544 mm3. Final area Af = 21. if the coefficient of friction = 0.2.3 mm2 ε = ln(30/20) = ln 1. Determine (a) final height of the part.78 mm (b) ε = ln(5.6) = ln 3.5) = 1.4(0. The part is upset to a diameter = 50 mm.9) = 59. A cylindrical workpart is to be cold upset forged. Measure the head diameter and thickness.6) = 1.33 F = 1.000 N. (a) What stock length must project out of the die in order to provide sufficient material to produce the nail? (b) Using appropriate values for strength coefficient and strain hardening exponent for the metal out of which the nail is made (Table 3.5 mm2.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.4/19.206/hf ε = ln(30/hf) Yf = 400ε0. The flow curve of the metal is defined by K = 400 MPa and n = 0. Solution: Student exercise.000.544/1963. The initial size of the workpart is: Do = 25 mm. Solution: Volume of work V = πDo2ho/4 = π(30)2(30)/4 = 21.886 N 19.4(0. Af = πDf2/4 = π(50)2/4 = 1963.5 = 36.000. 19.3863 Yf = 85(1.04Df/hf)( 400(ln 30/hf)0.64(85)(1963.5 = 12.2) Kf = 1 + 0.9 MPa Df = (4 x 1060.206/20 = 1060. and (b) maximum force in the operation.073 F = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.

18(400.069)0.16)(2052. the part has a projected area of 10 in2.400.33) = 10.099 Yf = 400(1. Try a smaller value of hf to increase F.3 = 19.2 = 405.0(10. Af = 21.000 lb/in2 Determine the maximum force required to perform the forging operation. so that the area. The projected area of the part is 6.199 F = 1.30 Af = 21.04(51.96/10) = 1. At room temperature. closer to 10.30) = ln 2.5 = 51.198(405.8 mm2 ε = ln(30/10.206/11 = 1927. is 16 in2.33) = ln 2.12/11) = 1. After trimming. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.280. The design of the die will cause flash to form during forging. The projected area of the part. Part geometry is complex.5 = 51.6) = 1.33 mm Af = 21.33) = 1. As heated the work material yields at 10.04(51.0 . choose Kf = 8.000 N.000 lb.653 N (4) By linear interpolation. n = 0. (3) Try hf = 11 mm Af = 21.30 = 2058.04(51.043.199(405.21 A part is designed to be hot forged in an impression die.206/10 = 2120.2/10.8/π)0.069 Yf = 400(1. and has no tendency to strain harden.3) = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.500 mm2.099)0. The part geometry is considered to be complex.33 = 2052.8) = 996. As heated the work material yields at 75 MPa.2 = 407.96 mm Kf = 1 + 0. Determine the maximum force required to perform the operation. including flash.5 = 49.54 mm Kf = 1 + 0.0 = 1.8 mm2 ε = ln(30/10.000 mm2.8) = 1.2 = 405.12/10. F = 8.8 mm2 ε = ln(30/11) = ln 2. try hf = 10 + (44/48)(0. Solution: Since the work material has no tendency to work harden.1. (2) Try hf = 10 mm.18 F = 1.22 A connecting rod is designed to be hot forged in an impression die.0(75)(9.12 mm Kf = 1 + 0.5 = 51.38)(2058.2 = 400.38 MPa Df = (4 x 2058.000.7 mm 19. 19.206/10.003)0. the material yields at 25.198 F = 1.553 N Close enough! Maximum height reduction = 30. From Table 21.8) = 910.9042 = 1. Need to try a value of hf between 10 and 20.208 F = 1.2 mm Kf = 1 + 0.066 Yf = 400(1. n = 0. will be 9.000 lb/in2.000)(16) = 1.04(51.6/π)0. choose Kf =8.10.8/π)0. F = 8.206/10.8/π)0. and has no tendency to strain harden.6 MPa Df = (4 x 2120.7273 = 1. 111 .208(407.364 N (5) By further linear interpolation.003 Yf = 400(1. From Table 21.16 MPa Df = (4 x 2052.6 mm2 ε = ln(30/10) = ln 3.066)0.3 MPa Df = (4 x 1927.998 N Slightly high.3)(1927.6)(2120.0.000) = 5.1. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Too low. Solution: Since the work material has no tendency to work harden. try hf = 10 + (44/133) = 10.0.913 = 1. including flash.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.

(c) extrusion strain.959) = 383.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.5Df = 10 mm. (d) ram pressure.5/tan 75 = 2.228 in-lb/min HP = 13.5Do = 17. For the work metal.4. The Johnson equation has a = 0.13 = 766.5(2. (b) true strain (homogeneous deformation).000 N 19.411(20) = 13.833) = 3.228/396. and the flow curve for the work metal has a strength coefficient of 800 MPa and strain hardening exponent of 0.0625 = 1.8 + 1. 112 .24 A 3.5 in is reduced by indirect extrusion to a diameter = 0. a = 0.375 in. the height h of the frustum is formed by metal being compressed into the die opening: The two radii are: R1 = 0. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af = Do2/Df2 = (50)2/(20)2 = 6.5) = 5.767 in2 F = (383. 40.25 A billet that is 75 mm long with diameter = 35 mm is direct extruded to a diameter of 20 mm.934 lb/in2 (e) Ao = πDo2/4 = π(1.423(4. Determine (a) extrusion ratio.8 and b = 1.367 (d) Y f = 600(1.13.000 = 34.773) = 4. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.01 mm Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.568.375)2 = 42 = 16.773)0.13/1.366) = 2578 MPa (e) Ao = πDo2/4 = π(50)2/4 = 1963.4.25 (b) ε = ln rx = ln 6. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Extrusion 19.959 (d) Y f = 75. to assess whether metal has been forced through the die opening by the time the billet has been reduced from L = 75 mm to L = 70 mm.119 (c) εx = a + b ln rx = 0. and (e) ram force.767) = 678. and (d) ram pressure at L = 70.119)0. and 10 mm.8 + 1.5 mm and R2 = 0.773 (c) εx = a + b ln rx = 0. (b) true strain (homogeneous deformation).25. (d) ram pressure.423 lb/in2 p = 77.0-in long cylindrical billet whose diameter = 1.833)0. (f) P = 678. a = 0. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af = Do2/Df2 = (1. K = 600 MPa and n = 0.062.0(3.366 (d) Y f = 800(1.25/1.934)(1.568. In the Johnson extrusion strain equation.23 A cylindrical billet that is 100 mm long and 50 mm in diameter is reduced by indirect (backward) extrusion to a 20 mm diameter.4(1.0 (b) ε = ln rx = ln 16 = 2.25 = 1.5 mm2 F = 2578(1963. In the Johnson equation. Determine (a) extrusion ratio. The die angle is 90°.25/1. and h = (R1 .000(2. For a cone-shaped die with angle = 75°.25 = 493.R2)/tan 75 = 7.0 MPa p = 766. K = 75.8 and b = 1. The extrusion die has a die angle = 75°. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af = Do2/Df2 = (35)2/(20)2 = 3.119) = 2. (c) extrusion strain.7 MPa It is appropriate to determine the volume of metal contained in the cone of the die at the start of the extrusion operation. (b) true strain (homogeneous deformation).4(1. and (f) power if the ram speed = 20 in/min.833 (c) εx = a + b ln rx = 0.0625 (b) ε = ln rx = ln 3.26 hp 19.5)2/(0.5)2/4 = 1.8 + 1.000 lb/in2 and n = 0. (e) ram force. Determine (a) extrusion ratio. In the flow curve for the work metal.8 and b = 1. Die angle = 90°.25 = 77.411 lb.25. (c) extrusion strain.5.

The operation is carried out hot and the hot metal yields at 13.25 + 0.0 (b) The portion of the billet that is compressed into the die cone forms a frustum with R1 = 0.7 MPa 19.25)2/(0. L = 2.811 in Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.8326)0.333π(0. The extrusion die angle = 90°. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Frustum volume V = 0. a = 0.25 in is direct extruded to a diameter of 0.25)/tan 60 = 0. The die angle = 60° and orifice diameter is 0.333πh(R12 + R1R2 + R22) = 0. 1.549 + 2 x 1.549 + 2 x 0.50 in.0 in and R2 = 0.25 in.549 + 2 x 2.433 in.549 + 2 x 1.433)(1.367 + 2 x 40/35) = 2297.01)(17. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af = Do2/Df2 = (1.6 mm3 Since this volume is greater than the volume of the frustum.5Df = 0.25) = 251. (c) What is the ram pressure corresponding to this position? (d) Also determine the length of the final part if the ram stops its forward movement at the start of the die cone.8 + 1. The volume of the frustum is V = 0.L1) Setting this equal to the volume of the frustum.0)2(Lo .Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.0/1.25 = 1.8 and b = 1.189 = 3.27 A direct extrusion operation is performed on a cylindrical billet with an initial diameter of 2.333π(2. In the Johnson extrusion strain equation. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af = Do2/Df2 = (2.5. (a) What is the extrusion ratio? (b) Determine the ram position at the point when the metal has been compressed into the cone of the die and starts to extrude through the die opening.L1) = 0. For the work metal.950 lb/in2 L = 0.5)2 = 6.26 A 2.0 in: pressure p = 42.5/1.5Do = 1.5 in: pressure p = 42.25) = 285. we have π(Lo .4 mm3.25π(35)2(75 .7(2.0/1.50 in.0 x 0.549 + 2 x 0. and (d) ram pressure at L = 2.677 lb/in2 L = 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.0.0.367 + 2 x 70/35) = 3143.000(1.0.0/1. In the Johnson extrusion strain equation.000 lb/in2 and does not strain harden when hot.L1) = 0.0-in long billet with diameter = 1.330(3.367 + 2 x 10/35) = 1450.5/1.0 in.20 = 42.70) = 4810.R2)/tan 65 = (1. (b) true strain (homogeneous deformation).813 lb/in2 L = 1.5)2 = 16. Determine (a) extrusion ratio. so metal is forced through the die opening as soon as the billet starts to move forward in the chamber. a = 0. this means that the metal has extruded through the die opening by the time the ram has moved forward by 5 mm.25) = 184.02 + 1.L1) = π(1.5 in: pressure p = 42.333πh(R12 + R1R2 + R22) = 0. 113 .549 (d) Y f = 45.7(2.0 .8 and b = 1.5(1.330(3.330 lb/in2 Unlike the previous problem. and n = 0.25) = 217.52 + 10 x 17.229 lb/in2 19.0 MPa L = 10 mm: pressure p = 493.5 and zero in.0 .595 in3 (Lo .0.5 + 102) = 1223.0 in: pressure p = 42.330(3.8326) = 3. The volume of billet compressed forward to fill the frustum is given by: V = πR12(Lo . (c) extrusion strain.0 in and an initial length of 4.8326 (c) εx = a + b ln rx = 0.0 in: pressure p = 42. 0.7(2.595 in3 The billet has advanced a certain distance by the time this frustum is completely filled and extrusion through the die opening is therefore initiated.4 MPa L = 40 mm: pressure p = 493. L = 70 mm: pressure p = 493.25 (b) ε = ln rx = ln 6.595/π = 0. Compare this with the volume of the portion of the cylindrical billet between L = 75 mm and L = 70 mm. 1.189 in L1 = 4.5. V = πDo2 h/4 = 0.000 lb/in2.086 lb/in2 L = 0. the die angle α = 90°.330(3.20/1.5. K = 45.330(3.252) = 0.25) = 150. The height of the frustum h = (R1 .0)2/(0.20.

Final cross-section after extrusion is a square with 1.25 = 1.855/1.2/1.20.145) = 2. 114 .8 + 1.5)(π22/4) = 1. The radius of the circle is R = (1.068 (b) To determine the die shape factor we need to determine the perimeter of a circle whose area is equal to that of the extruded cross-section.0) = 114.000 lb/in2 p = 13. and (2) extrudate. (b) shape factor.1 mm2 Af = 2 x (12 x 50) = 1200 mm2 rx = 6082.006(22.1/1200= 5. length L = 7. The radius of the circle is R = (1200/π)0. excluding the cone shaped butt remaining in the die is L = 3.0 = 13.811 in.0/π)0.0 in. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. what is the length of the extruded section? (d) Determine the ram pressure in the process.000(2.5 in Original volume V = (3.0 x 1.0)(π x 22/4) = 9.3(1.7726)0/1.531 mm3 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.0) = 4.145)0.8 mm.0 = 1.000 lb/in2 and strain hardening exponent n = 0. 19.29.8 + 1. The die angle = 90°.0 in2.2 = 22. and extrusion strain.000 lb/in2 (d) Length of extruded portion of billet = 3.174 (b) To determine the die shape factor we need to determine the perimeter of a circle whose area is equal to that of the extruded cross-section.02(4.5 = 19. Its volume V2 = LAf = 9.855 in3. In the Johnson extrusion strain equation. The perimeter of the extruded cross-section Cx = 62 + 50 + 12 + 38 + 50 + 12 = 224 mm Kx = 0. and (c) length of the extruded section if the butt remaining in the container at the end of the ram stroke is 25 mm.006 (c) Given that the butt thickness = 0.7726 εx = a + b ln rx = 0.174) = 48.0 in and length = 3.426 in3 The final volume consists of two sections: (1) butt.54 mm. Thus.959 Y f = 13.98 + 0. A = 1200 mm2.142 = 1. The butt volume V1 = (0.0 in2 rx = 3.261)(2.811(16) = 60.855 in (d) Y f = 26. A = 1.5(2. Die angle = 90°.0/3.2.142 in2 Af = 1.545 in The perimeter of the extruded cross-section Cx = 4(1. (a) Compute the extrusion ratio.1.261 lb/in3 p = 1.97 in.0 = 3. The operation is performed cold and the strength coefficient of the metal K = 26.571 in3.98 + 0.0 in2. the final part length.8)2.000(4.145 εx = 0.25π(88)2(250) = 1. (b) What is the shape factor of the product? (c) If the butt left in the container at the end of the stroke is 0. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 (c) ε = ln rx = ln 16 = 2.000(1.142/1. Determine (a) extrusion ratio.5642 in.959 + 2 x 3. true strain. With a reduction rx = 16.520.5 in thick. Dimensions of the cross-section are given in Figure P19.0 in Kx = 0.29 An L-shaped structural section is direct extruded from an aluminum billet in which Lo = 250 mm and Do = 88 mm.7726) = 4.0 = 7.426 . a = 0.545)2.057 (c) Total original volume V = 0. Cc = 2π(0.28 An indirect extrusion process starts with an aluminum billet with diameter = 2.25 = 1.8 and b = 1.698 lb/in2 19.0 in on a side.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.571 = 7. The extrudate has a cross-sectional area Af = 1. Cc = 2π(19.5642) = 3.142 ε = ln 3.811/2.5 = 0. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af Ao = π(88)2/4 = 6082.02(224/122.54) = 122. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af Ao = πDo2/4 = π(2)2/4 = 3.

and (2) extrudate.068 ε = ln 5.2 mm (d) ε = ln 2.25 = 1.86 = 2.151. height = 100 mm.5 mm3 (2) Ring OD = 50 mm.33) = 912.31 A cup-shaped part is backward extruded from an aluminum slug that is 50 mm in diameter.053 mm3.152.32 Determine the shape factor for each of the extrusion die orifice shapes in Figure P19.816.86 mm2.2 (6082.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful. 115 .402)(95) = 0.25π(2500 .057(223.778 (b) To determine the die shape factor we need to determine the perimeter of a circle whose area is equal to that of the extruded cross-section.969 mm3 Volume of starting slug must be equal to this value V = 76.531 . Its volume V2 = LAf = 1.151.430 N 19. (1) Base t = 5 mm and D = 50 mm.32.0218)0.4 mm 19.2 MPa F = pAo = 2107.8 + 1.86 mm2 rx = 1963.75/706. ID = 40 mm. The radius of the circle is R = (706. A = 706. The extrudate has a cross-sectional area Af = 1200 mm2.5.86/π)0. and the corresponding Johnson strain equation has constants a = 0.16 = 223.5(1.29 are: K = 240 MPa and n = 0.6) = 1.25π(50)2 = 1963.234 + 2(250)/88) = 2107. (b) shape factor.217 (c) Volume of final cup consists of two geometric elements: (1) base and (2) ring. and thickness of base = 5 mm.478 mm3.33 Y f = 400(1.368.267 N 19.3 MPa Ao = 0.368.5 = 76.73 MPa p = Kx Y f εx = 1.6 mm2 F = 912.0218 εx = 0.25.8 and b = 1. and (c) height of starting slug required to achieve the final dimensions.5(1.5 = 15 mm. Kx = 0.402) = 706.02(282. V2 = 0.16.25/1. Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.623) = 3.234 Y f = 240(1.053 = 1. rx = 5.8 + 1.5h = 76. The perimeter of the extruded cross-section Cx = π(50 + 40) = 90π = 282.8 and b = 1. Solution: From Problem 19. If the die angle in this operation = 90°.1) = 12.6 MPa Maximum ram force occurs at beginning of stroke when L is maximum at L = 250 mm p = Kx Y f (εx + 2L/Do) = 1. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 The final volume consists of two sections: (1) butt.25π(50)2(h) = 1963. (d) If the metal has flow curve parameters K = 400 MPa and n = 0.3(1256. compute the maximum force required to drive the ram forward at the start of extrusion. ID = 40 mm.478/1200 = 1140.25π(502 .25 = 321.75 mm2 Af = 0.25π(40)2 = 1256. Determine (a) extrusion ratio.16/1. Cc = 2π(15) = 94.5 + 67.146.29. determine the extrusion force.25π(88)2(25) = 152. V1 = 0.068= 1.969 mm3 V = 0.0218) = 2.623)0.778 = 1.623 εx = 0.30 The flow curve parameters for the aluminum alloy of Problem 19.73)(2.74 mm.5 mm3 Total V = V1 + V2 = 9817.74/94. Solution: (a) rx = Ao/Af Ao = 0. The final dimensions of the cup are: OD = 50 mm.969 mm3 h = 39.520.6)( 3.25π(50)2(5) = 9817.5. Thus.25)2. and h = 95 mm. length L = 1.25 mm.98 + 0. and the constants in the Johnson extrusion strain equation are: a = 0.217(321.1600)(95) = 67. The butt volume V1 = 0.25π(502 .

R = 13. and (c) draw force required for the operation.5 + 2.45 mm R2 = 373.34 Rod stock that has an initial diameter of 0.000 lb/in2 and a strain hardening exponent of 0. Solution: (a) r = (Ao .5 mm.98 + 0.46 mm2 r = (4.22.10) = 300 + 250 = 550 mm2 Cx = 30 + 60 + 30 + 5 + 25 + 50 + 25 + 5 = 230 mm Ao = πR2 = 550. 116 .02(230/83.47)2.375 in.25π(2.26. Determine (a) area reduction.8)2.23 mm Cc = 2πR = 2π(13.544 mm.349 Y f = 450(0.647 φ = 0.2) = 534. Cc = 2πR = 2π(19.46) = ln 1.47 mm Kx = 0.75.0 N 19. The work metal has a strength coefficient of 450 MPa and a strain hardening coefficient of 0.12(2.97.897) = 68.26/1.23) = 83.98 + 0. Coefficient of friction at the work-die interface is 0. Coefficient of friction at the work-die interface = 0.08.52) = 373.25 = 1.6 MPa φ = 0.Af)/Ao Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.09 mm Cc = 2πR = 2π(23. Cc = 2πR = 2π(10.12(D/Lc) D = 0.5x5) = 1675 mm2 Cx = 2 x 55 + 16 x 25 + 8 x 15 + 10 x 5 = 680 mm Ao = πR2 = 1675.98 + 0.25π(2.26 = 271.897 mm.544) = 122.20.14 mm Kx = 0. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Solution: (a) Ax = 20 x 60 = 1200 mm.626 Drawing 19.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.πRi2 = π(252 .02(680/145.25 = 1. R = 10.46(154.177 (d) Ax = 5(55)(5) + 5(85 .06 mm2 Cx = πDo + πDi = π(50 + 45) = 298.06/π = 118.1 mm.30 Lc = 0.88 + 0. R = 23.31 σd = Y f (1 + μ/tan α)φ(ln Ao/Af) = 271.08)2. The metal has a strength coefficient of 40.1)2 = 3.2 MPa (c) Draw force F: F = Af σd = 3.09) = 145.5(2.91 = 0.50)2 = 4.08 mm Kx = 0.647) = 1.02(298. and (c) horsepower to perform the operation if the exit velocity of the stock = 2 ft/sec.08/tan 18)(1.33 A spool of wire has a starting diameter of 2.6(1 + 0. Determine (a) area reduction. R2 = 1675/π = 533.46)/4.2. R2 = 550/π = 175. The drawing is performed at room temperature.349) = 154.1.98 + 0.91 – 3.30/0.5(2.1)/sin 18 = 0.Af)/Ao Ao = 0. The final diameter of the rod is = 0.17.50 in is drawn through a draw die with an entrance angle of 13°.02(160/122.1) = 2.417 = 0.91/3. It is drawn through a die with an opening that is to 2.349)0.07. (b) draw stress.5 .45/68. The entrance angel of the die is 18° degrees. Cx = 2(20 + 60) = 160 mm Ao = πR2 = 1200 R2 = 1200/π = 381.88 + 0.14)2. Solution: (a) r = (Ao . (b) draw force for the operation. R = 19.91 mm2 Af = 0.8 mm Kx = 0.31)(0.25 = 1.016 (b) Ax = πRo2 .53 (c) Ax = 2(5)(30) + 5(60 .25 = 1.294 (b) Draw stress σd: ε = ln(4.

50)2 = 0.288)(0. Determine (a) area reduction. The draw die has an entrance angle = 18°.069 F = Af Y f (1 + μ/tan α)φ(ln Ao/Af) F = 0.9)/6361.000(0. (b) draw stress.250 = 0. Determine the maximum possible speed of the wire as it exits the second die.000 lb/in2 and a strain hardening exponent = 0.12(D/Lc) D = 0.5754) = 2907 lb (c) P = 2907(2 ft/sec x 60) = 348.20/1.88 + 0.1964/0.20 = 29.08. The metal behaves as a perfectly plastic material with yield stress = 105 MPa.125 in. The starting metal has a strength coefficient = 40.0.3646 Y f = k = 105 MPa φ = 0. and the coefficient of friction at the work-die interface = 0.12(D/Lc) D = 0.2778) = 1. and (d) power to perform the operation if exit velocity = 1.36 Wire stock of initial diameter = 0.3056 (b) Draw stress σd: ε = ln(6361.50 + 0.25π(0.1964 .7 = 0. Y f = 40.5754 Y f = 40.800 ft/lb/min HP = 348800/33.9 mm2 r = (6361.5/24.5(0.069)(0.45 MPa (c) F = Af σd = 4417.125)2 = 0.0 m/min.88 + 0.35)2 = 0.845)(1 + 0.440 = 0.3646) = 61. and the coefficient of friction at the work-die interface is estimated to be 0. The motors driving the capstans at the die exits can each deliver 1. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.15 = 75 mm.50 .57 hp 19.475 N-m/min = 4524.0.0.Af)/Ao.08/tan 18)(1.88 + 0.15/1.12(82.1964 = 0.9) = ln 1.1/tan 13)(1.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.125 in is drawn through two dies each providing a 0.35 Bar stock of initial diameter = 90 mm is drawn with a draft = 15 mm.7 /4417.3) = 1.5754)0.5 mm Lc = 0.7 mm2 Df = Do .000(0.775 lb/in2 Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.375)/sin 13 = 0.6 W 19. Solution: (a) r = (Ao . Each die has an entrance angle of 12°.10.288 σd = Y f (1 + μ/tan α)φ(ln Ao/Af) = 105(1 + 0.1104)/0.1104) = ln 1. Ao = 0.4375 (b) Draw force F: ε = ln(0.d = 90 . (c) draw force required for the operation.50 hp at 90% efficiency.2231 r = (Ao .7 .2231)0.475 N (d) P = 271.778 = 0.15 = 27.9 (61.25π(75)2 = 4417.20 area reduction.12(0.012273/0.2) = 0.5(90 + 75) = 82.009819) = ln 1.2778 φ = 0.438 Lc = 0.438/0.6 N-m/s = 4524.5(90 .4417. Solution: First draw: Do = 0.000 = 10.25π(90)2 = 6361.r) = 0.75)/sin 18 = 24.012273 in2 009819 in2 ε = ln(0.012773(1 .15.3 mm φ = 0.1104 in2 r = (0.88 + 0.375) = 0. Af = Ao(1 .Af)/Ao Ao = 0. 117 .475(1 m/min) = 271.845 lb/in2 φ = 0.1104(29.25π(0.5(. Af = 0.45) = 271. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Ao = 0.1964 in2 Af = 0.25π(0.

35)(0. 3/e (published by Wiley) © MPGroover 2007 Df = 0. P = Fv = 214v = 742. The first operation would have to be operated at well below its maximum possible speed.007855(30.8). 118 .100)/sin 12 = 0.88 + 0.125 .5 ft-lb/sec P = Fv = 119v = 742.125(0.5 ft-lb/sec as before in the first draw.47 ft/sec Note: The calculations indicate that the second draw die is the limiting step in the drawing sequence.5(0.007855) = ln 1.5 x 0.0.2231 + 0.4462) = 214 lb.775)(1 + 0. φ = 0.33 F = Af Y f (1 + μ/tan α)φ(ln Ao/Af) F = 0.35 F = Af Y f (1 + μ/tan α)φ(ln Ao/Af) F = 0.009819(1 .1118)2 = 0.000 ft-lb/min)/60 = 742.1118 in. Af = Ao(1 .8).007855 in2 ε = ln(0.5 v = 742.03173 φ = 0.100) = 0.88 + 0.125(1 .100 in D = 0.5(.r)0.4462 Y f = 40.0269) = 1.5/119 = 6.1118 in D = 0.r) = 0.5 = 0.1059 Lc = 0.03173) = 1.24 ft/sec Second draw: Do = 0.1118 .1184 Lc = 0.15/1.90(33.2231) = 119 lb 1.1/tan 12)(1.4462)0.88 + 0. Ao = 0.5 = 0.5 hp at 90% efficiency = 742.r)0.5 v = 742.12(0.1118)/sin 12 = 0.5/214 = 3.1/tan 12)(1.25π(0.818 lb/in2 φ = 0.12(D/Lc) Excerpts from this work may be reproduced by instructors for distribution on a not-for-profit basis for testing or instructional purposes only to students enrolled in courses for which the textbook has been adopted.88 + 0.Solutions for Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing.5(0. Any other reproduction or translation of this work beyond that permitted by Sections 107 or 108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act without the permission of the copyright owner is unlawful.1118(.5 = 0.1184/0.818)(1 + 0.2) = 0.1118) = 0.1118 + 0.009819/0.0.2231 = 0.000(0.5 = 0.1059/0.2231 Total strain experienced by the work metal is the sum of the strains from the first and second draws: ε = ε1 + ε2 = 0.09819(27. 1.5(0. or the second draw die could be powered by a higher horsepower motor.250 = 0. or the reductions to achieve the two stages could be reallocated to achieve a higher reduction in the first drawing operation.33)(0.12(D/Lc) Df = 0.5 hp at 90% efficiency = 1.Af)/Ao.009819 in2 r = (Ao .0269 φ = 0.15 = 30.1118(1 .125 + 0.0.12(0.

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