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A Case Study: South Korean Community-Driven Development in the 1970s (Not for Quotation)

A Case Study: South Korean Community-Driven Development in the 1970s (Not for Quotation)

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A Case Study: South Korean Community-Driven Development in the 1970s by Djun Kil Kim. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.  The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.
A Case Study: South Korean Community-Driven Development in the 1970s by Djun Kil Kim. Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.  The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

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Published by: ADBSocialDevelopment on Oct 11, 2011
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10/11/2011

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Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Saemaul Undong (SU)

Djun Kil Kim
Visiting Professor of Korean Studies University of Asia & the Pacific in Manila

Disclaimer: The views expressed in this paper are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use.  The countries listed in this paper do not imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

Overview

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Background of the SU Movement

Emblem of Saemaul Undong

Institutional Principles of the SU Movement


Outcomes of the SU Movement
Impacts on Participation in the SU Movement


Factors Contributing to Community Participation
Implications for Policy & Practice

Background of the SU Movement
Syngman Rhee: The 1949 Agrarian Land Reform Law - cf. North Korea’s agrarian land nationalization - No more tenant tillers in the village since 1950 Precedent Experiences

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

- Early NGO CDD movements: 4-H club, Farmers’ Association etc.

- Small-scale CDD programs in 1953 suggested by UN Commission for the Unification & Rehabilitation of Korea - National Reconstruction Movement in 1961 - Six-Year Rural Development Plan (1966-1971) in 1965

Launch of the SU Movement - Park Chung Hee speech on April 22, 1970

Institutional Principles: Key Ideas
Motivation
- “Poritkoge, or barley hump” - Rural-urban income gap after the two 5-Year Economic Development Plans

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

How to Overcome
- To overcome endemic rural poverty - Integrated development: conscious reform with economic incentive

Theoretical Concept
- Community-driven socio-economic campaign vs. government-driven political mass mobilization - The SU, not included in the FYEDPs during the 1970s

Institutional Principles: Arrangements
Strategic Unit
- Maul, the traditional village: primary unit of living community
- SU participation: 33,267 villages in 1971, 36,271 villages in 1979

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Organizer
- Saemaul leaders from both gender

- The Village General Meeting

Government Subsidizing Method
- Categorization: Basic, Self-help, Self-reliance villages - “Heaven helps those who help themselves” strategy

Distribution of Basic, Self-Help, SelfReliant Villages
35,000 30,000 25,000 20,000 15,000

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Self-Reliant

Self-Help

10,000
5,000 0 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979

Basic

Outcomes of the SU: Tangible Results
Production Infrastructure Rehabilitation
- Basic infrastructure: village path expanding, small stream mending, community facilities construction… - Agriculture production advancement: farm road construction, farm land alignment, machine farming…

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Living Environment Improvement
- Housing modernization: thatched roof replacement, kitchen amelioration, electrification… - Village environment: telecommunication, forestation…

Household Income Increases
- High-yield rice production of the hybrid rice seed, green house farming… - Wage earning agribusinesses, cottage industries, collective farm estates

Outcomes of the SU: Change of Mentality
National Confidence
- Can-do spirit - Industrial SU movement

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

“Master” Consciousness
- Volunteerism - Urban SU movement

Vision-Oriented Life
- From defeatism to hope - Saemaul spirit of diligence, self-help, & cooperation
[Anti-gambling campaign]

Impacts on Participation: Empowerment
• Social Capital Enrichment
- Village community hall - Village General Meeting - Sinbaram, or excitement: Korean-style social capital of volunteerism

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• Civic Society
- Village General Meeting vs. Village Development Committee - Active participation of Saemaul leaders at Saemaul Promotion Council of town and county levels.

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Impacts on Participation: Regeneration
Gender Issue
- Traditional Confucian order: seniority & male priority - Sprout of today’s feminist institutionalization

Women’s Social Participation
- Female partner in Saemaul leadership - Saemaul Wives’ Club, Mothers’ Club

Household Income Increases
- Frugality campaigns - Sideline earnings
[Saemaul Wives’ Club rice saving campaign]

Factors in Participation: Leadership
National Leadership
- Park Chung Hee from a poor rural community - Authoritarian political influence

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Excellent Bureaucracy
- Elite civil servants leadership - Incentive for the Saemaul officers

Educated Mass
- Illiteracy abolished & higher education - Role of educated women

Factors in Participation: System
Tradition
- Community cooperation culture: kye, dure, pumassi, & hyangyag - Local patriotism

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Ideological guidance
- Saemaul Spirit training - Public education

Availability of resources and financing
- Government resources - Community financing

Billion Won 350 300

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The SU Investment by Funding Sources
Government Support
National Local

250 200 150 100 50 0 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
Loan (NA/FCF) Self-Support

Community Financing

Source: Ministry of Home Affairs of Korea

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Implications for Policy & Practice: Governance Strong Political Leadership
- Political populism shunned - Government policy sustainability

Low Key Government Control
- Avoidance of the top-down commanding method - Abstention of the demonstration effect in monitoring

Leadership Shaping Through Education
- Partnership of men & women SU leaders - Camp-in training method

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

Implications for Policy & Practice: Operation Developing CDD Model
- No practice of standardized blueprint - Preservation of cultural heritage

Environmental Sustainability
- Resource recycling - Climate change policy

Green Growth in Consideration
- Green energy development - Green technology & industries

Preliminary Draft Not for Quotation

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