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Rabies is a disease of viral origin that affects both wild and domestic animals. In developing countries, where it is transmitted mainly by rabid stray dogs, rabies is still considered a major public health concern and continues to cause 55,000 human deaths each year. (24)
Symptoms of rabies
Following infection, the virus replicates within muscle cells surrounding the wound. It then reaches the central nervous system and eventually spreads through the entire body. The mean incubation period is two to three months, but may range from several days to years. The first signs of the disease include pain or an abnormal sensation at or around the wound, followed by other non-specific symptoms such as fever, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, headaches, malaise, and lethargy. In the acute stage, rabies symptoms mimic encephalitis. The disease may evolve as one of two clinical forms: furious rabies or paralytic (dumb) rabies. In both cases, the outcome is coma followed by death within a few days.
Epidemiology and vaccination against rabies
Rabies is usually transmitted through a rabid animal’s saliva by a bite, scratch, or licking of damaged skin or mucosa. To date, vaccination remains the only effective treatment against rabies and acts by neutralizing the virus before it actually reaches the central nervous system. Indeed, once the nervous system is infected, the outcome of the disease is inevitably fatal.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article is about the disease. For the virus, see Rabies virus.
Classification and external resources
Dog with rabies virus ICD-10 DiseasesDB eMedicine MeSH A82. 11148 med/1374 eerg/493 ped/1974 D011818
Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. It is zoonotic (i.e., transmitted by animals), most commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if post-exposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is effectively untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to coma. The primary cause of death is usually respiratory insufficiency. Worldwide, roughly 97% of rabies cases come from dog bites. In the United States, however, animal control and vaccination programs have effectively eliminated domestic dogs as reservoirs of rabies. In several countries, including Australia, Japan, and the United Kingdom, rabies carried by animals that live on the ground has been eradicated entirely. Concerns exist about airborne and mixed-habitat animals including bats. A small number of bats of three species in the UK and in some other countries have been found to have European Bat Lyssavirus 1 and European Bat Lyssavirus 2. The
symptoms of these viruses are similar to those of rabies and so the viruses are both known as bat rabies. The economic impact is also substantial, as rabies is a significant cause of death of livestock in some countries.
1 Signs and symptoms 2 Virology 3 Diagnosis 4 Prevention 5 Management o 5.1 Post-exposure prophylaxis o 5.2 Blood-brain barrier o 5.3 Induced coma 6 Prognosis 7 Epidemiology o 7.1 Transmission o 7.2 Prevalence 8 History o 8.1 Etymology o 8.2 Impact 9 In other animals 10 See also 11 References 12 External links
 Signs and symptoms
Patient with rabies, 1959
The period between infection and the first flu-like symptoms is normally two to twelve weeks, but can be as long as two years. Soon after, the symptoms expand to slight or partial paralysis, cerebral dysfunction, anxiety, insomnia, confusion, agitation, abnormal behavior, paranoia, terror, hallucinations, progressing to delirium. The production of large quantities of saliva and tears coupled with an inability to speak or swallow are typical during the later stages of the disease; this can result in hydrophobia, in which the patient has difficulty swallowing because the throat and jaw become slowly paralyzed, shows panic when presented with liquids to drink, and cannot quench his or her thirst. Death almost invariably results two to ten days after first symptoms. In 2005, the first patient was treated with the Milwaukee protocol, and Jeanna Giese became the first person ever recorded to survive rabies without receiving successful post-exposure prophylaxis. An intention to treat analysis has since found that this protocol has a survival rate of about 8%. The results of this study are, however, under serious contention and clinical rabies should still be regarded as incurable at present.
Main article: Rabies virus
TEM micrograph with numerous rabies virions (small, dark grey, rodlike particles) and Negri bodies (the larger pathognomonic cellular inclusions of rabies infection). The rabies virus is the type species of the Lyssavirus genus, in the family Rhabdoviridae, order Mononegavirales. Lyssaviruses have helical symmetry, with a length of about 180 nm and a cross-sectional diameter of about 75 nm. These viruses are enveloped and have a singlestranded RNA genome with negative-sense. The genetic information is packaged as a ribonucleoprotein complex in which RNA is tightly bound by the viral nucleoprotein. The RNA genome of the virus encodes five genes whose order is highly conserved: nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), glycoprotein (G), and the viral RNA polymerase (L). From the point of entry, the virus is neurotropic, traveling quickly along the neural pathways into the central nervous system (CNS), and then further into other organs. The salivary glands receive high concentrations of the virus, thus allowing further transmission.
 If possible. and human enteroviruses 68 to 71. the animal from which the bite was received should also be examined for rabies. including coxsackieviruses. and possible exposure to animal bites. geographic location. as is illustrated by the recent outbreak of encephalitis due to West Nile virus in the eastern United States.. Similar nerve tissuederived vaccines are still used in some countries. Currently pre-exposure immunization has been used in both human and non-human populations. travel history. The diagnosis can also be reliably made from skin samples taken before death. Louis encephalitis virus. and La Crosse virus. and (less commonly) enteroviruses.g. season. Epidemiologic factors (e. enteroviruses. Powassan virus. in particular infection with viruses such as herpesviruses. as was evidenced by the recent outbreak in Malaysia of some 300 cases of encephalitis (mortality rate. echoviruses. polioviruses.. a newly recognized paramyxovirus. a new and less expensive purified chicken embryo cell vaccine and purified vero cell rabies vaccine are now available. as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. the California encephalitis virus serogroup. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits. A recombinant vaccine called V-RG has been successfully used in Belgium. St. from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to ten days. Diagnosis The reference method for diagnosing rabies is by performing PCR or viral culture on brain samples taken after death. Cheaper rabies diagnosis will become possible for low-income settings: accurate rabies diagnosis can be done at a tenth of the cost of traditional testing using basic light microscopy techniques. including eastern and western equine encephalitis viruses. . rodents. The most important viruses to rule out are herpes simplex virus type 1. Germany.g. In addition. West Nile virus). and the patient's age. but this is not as sensitive. The differential diagnosis in a case of suspected human rabies may initially include any cause of encephalitis. and the United States to prevent outbreaks of rabies in wildlife. consideration should be given to the local epidemiology of encephalitis caused by arboviruses belonging to several taxonomic groups.  Prevention Main article: Rabies vaccine All human cases of rabies were fatal until a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. It is also possible to make the diagnosis from saliva. Likewise. and ticks) may help direct the diagnostic workup. whereas in many jurisdictions domesticated animals are required to be vaccinated. urine and cerebrospinal fluid samples. well-known viruses may be introduced into new locations. but are found in only about 80% of cases. New causes of viral encephalitis are also possible. and arboviruses (e. France. The human diploid cell rabies vaccine was started in 1967. 40%) caused by Nipah virus. Cerebral inclusion bodies called Negri bodies are 100% diagnostic for rabies infection. however. varicella-zoster virus.
September 28 is World Rabies Day. mostly caused by bat bites. become strays. The Missouri Dept. which promotes information on. aqueous iodine solution. is highly successful in preventing the disease if administered promptly. in general within ten days of infection. which may go unnoticed by the victim and hence untreated. As much as possible of this dose should be infiltrated around the bites. since the widespread vaccination of domestic dogs and cats and the development of effective human vaccines and immunoglobulin treatments. . "If available. The immunoglobulin dose should not exceed 20 units per kilogram body weight. cats. or alcohol (ethanol) should be applied after washing. and reproduce more stray animals." In the United States. Washing the wound with soap and water between 10 and 15 minutes. if you do get bitten by an animal.In the USA. known as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). HRIG is very expensive and constitutes the vast majority of the cost of postexposure treatment. nose or mouth should be flushed well with water. of Health and Senior Services Communicable Disease Surveillance 2007 Annual Report states that the following can help reduce the risk of exposure to rabies: Vaccinating dogs. Patients who have previously received pre-exposure vaccination do not receive the immunoglobulin. to 1–2 per year. Pets that are sterile are less likely to leave home. the number of recorded deaths from rabies has dropped from one hundred or more annually in the early 20th century. if you see a wild animal or a stray. seven and fourteen after the first. and prevention and elimination of the disease. Thoroughly washing the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minutes is very effective in reducing the number of viral particles.  Management  Post-exposure prophylaxis Treatment after exposure. The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure. the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend patients receive one dose of human rabies immunoglobulin (HRIG) and four doses of rabies vaccine over a fourteen-day period. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes. with additional doses on days three. and contacting your healthcare provider to see whether you need rabies post-exposure prophylaxis. with the remainder being given by deep intramuscular injection at a site distant from the vaccination site. Getting pets spayed or neutered. a virucidal antiseptic such as povidone-iodine. iodine tincture. ranging as high as several thousand dollars. and ferrets against rabies Keeping pets under supervision Not handling wild animals or strays Contacting an animal control officer. especially if the animal is acting strangely. only the post-exposure vaccinations on day 0 and 2.
This is illustrated by the September 2000 case of a nine-yearold boy from Quebec who died from rabies three weeks after being in the presence of a sick bat. support the current Canadian guidelines that state that RPEP [PEP] is appropriate in cases where a significant contact with a bat cannot be excluded (45). as it may still be effective. if the bite or exposure was on an arm or leg. It is highly recommended that PEP be administered as soon as possible. where a bite or exposure may occur while the victim is asleep and unaware or awake and unaware that a bite occurred. This treatment should be combined with an intensive PEP regimen. In infants. as shown in the following conclusion made by the doctors involved in the case: Despite recent criticism (45). based on a cost-benefit analysis. especially in sleep areas. The old nerve-tissue-based vaccinations that require multiple painful injections into the abdomen with a large needle are cheap. or finding a bat in the room of a previously unattended child or mentally disabled or intoxicated person. recent studies have further confirmed the wisdom of maintaining the current protocol of precautionary administering of PEP in cases where a child or mentally compromised individual has been left alone with a bat. . which has been associated with vaccination failure due to injection into fat rather than muscle.Modern cell-based vaccines are similar to flu shots in terms of pain and side-effects. such that the possibility exists that the virus has already penetrated the nervous system. even though no attempts have yet been made to determine whether or not this treatment could be successful. the blood-brain barrier (BBB) does not allow anti-viral immune cells to enter the brain. the primary site of rabies virus replication. PEP is 100% effective against rabies. The recommendation for the precautionary use of post-exposure prophylaxis in occult bat encounters where there is no recognized contact has been questioned in the medical literature. Intramuscular vaccination should be given into the deltoid. In the case in which there has been a significant delay in administering PEP. The notion that a bite or an overt break in the skin needs to be seen or felt for rabies to be transmitted by a bat is a myth in many cases. the possibility exists that amputation of the affected limb might thwart rabies. the lateral thigh is used as for routine childhood vaccinations. the dramatic circumstances surrounding our patient's history. This aspect contributes to the pathogenicity of the virus and artificially increasing BBB permeability promotes viral clearance. as well as increasingly frequent reports of human rabies contracted in North America.  Blood-brain barrier During lethal rabies infection of mice. but are being phased out and replaced by affordable WHO ID (intradermal) vaccination regimens. is regarded as an indication for post-exposure prophylaxis. Opening the BBB during rabies infection has been suggested as a possible novel approach to treating the disease. not gluteal area. However. If there has been a delay between exposure and attempts at treatment. the treatment should be administered regardless of that delay. Begun with little or no delay. even though there was no apparent report of a bite. Awakening to find a bat in the room.
and amantadine. On April 10. Giese's treatment regimen became known as the "Milwaukee protocol".  Prognosis In unvaccinated humans. She was placed into an induced coma upon onset of symptoms and given ketamine. and only one known case of survival in which the patient received no rabies-specific treatment either before or after illness onset. There were 2 survivors out of 25 patients treated under the first protocol.  Epidemiology . Induced coma See also: Milwaukee protocol In 2004. became the third reported person in the United States to have recovered from rabies without receiving post-exposure prophylaxis.000 people a year. an eight-year-old girl from Humboldt County. Her doctors administered treatment based on the hypothesis that detrimental effects of rabies were caused by temporary dysfunctions in the brain and could be avoided by inducing a temporary partial halt in brain function that would protect the brain from damage while giving the immune system time to defeat the virus. American teenager Jeanna Giese survived an infection of rabies unvaccinated. She survived with almost no permanent sequelae and as of 2009 was starting her third year of university studies. Giese was released from the hospital. mostly in Asia and Africa. and is used as part of the Milwaukee protocol. Colombia. Rabies kills around 55. which has since undergone revision (the second version omits the use of ribavirin). 2011. The anesthetic drug ketamine has shown the potential for rabies virus inhibition in rats. California. After thirty-one days of isolation and seventy-six days of hospitalization. midazolam. Survival data using the Milwaukee protocol are available from the rabies registry. but prompt post-exposure vaccination may prevent the virus from progressing. an eleven-year-old boy was reported to survive rabies and the induced coma without noticeable brain damage. 2008 in Cali. Precious Reynolds. On June 12. ribavirin. A further 10 patients have been treated under the revised protocol and there have been a further 2 survivors. There are only six known cases of a person surviving symptomatic rabies. rabies is usually fatal after neurological symptoms have developed.
 The virus is usually present in the nerves and saliva of a symptomatic rabid animal. dogs remain the principal host. and vaccination may still confer cell-mediated immunity to prevent symptomatic rabies. and mice and lagomorphs like rabbits and hares are almost never found to be infected with rabies and are not known to transmit rabies to humans. Indeed the virus has even been adapted to grow in cells of poikilothermic ("cold-blooded") vertebrates. the virus enters the peripheral nervous system. Once the patient becomes symptomatic. except in Australia and New Zealand. chipmunks.  Prevalence Main article: Prevalence of rabies The rabies virus survives in widespread. The route of infection is usually. This is called the prodromal phase. by a bite. groundhogs. Infected bats. Small rodents such as squirrels. Especially in developing . coyotes. monkeys. When the virus reaches the brain. Most animals can be infected by the virus and can transmit the disease to humans. mongoose (normally yellow mongoose) or cats present the greatest risk to humans. it rapidly causes encephalitis. In some countries. and exhibits otherwiseuncharacteristic behavior. raccoons. parts of the Americas. varied. treatment is almost never effective and mortality is over 99%. It is present in the animal populations of almost every country in the world. rats. In many cases the infected animal is exceptionally aggressive. weasels. and is the beginning of the symptoms. rural fauna reservoirs. foxes. bears and other wild carnivores. producing transverse myelitis. It then travels along the nerves toward the central nervous system. Rabies may also inflame the spinal cord. wolves. like those in western Europe and Oceania. rabies is considered to be prevalent among bat populations only. but not always. may attack without provocation. gerbils. cattle. hamsters. the virus cannot be easily detected within the host. Transmission between humans is extremely rare. During this phase. In Asia. Rabies may also spread through exposure to infected domestic farm animals.Rabies-free countries (in green) as of 2010  Transmission Main article: Rabies transmission Any warm-blooded animal (including humans) may become infected with the rabies virus and develop symptoms (although birds have only been known to be experimentally infected). dogs. guinea pigs. After a typical human infection by bite. Mandatory vaccination of animals is less effective in rural areas. The Virginia opossum is resistant but not immune to rabies. skunks. A few cases have been recorded through transplant surgery. and large parts of Africa.
France. out of 671 confirmed rabies cases. Vaccination campaigns may be expensive. but as of 2006 raccoons in the mid-Atlantic and northeastern United States have been suffering from a rabies epidemic. 15 were skunks. Because of its potentially violent nature.countries. In the midwestern United States. North and South Dakota.C. and an increase in the prevalence of bats with rabies. 223 were skunks. 50 were bats. Wisconsin. may be related to the Sanskrit rabhas. the JAVMA found that. Rabies was once rare in the United States outside the Southern states. This. a practice that has successfully reduced rabies in rural areas of Canada. Iowa. dating from the 1970s. which was moving westward into Ohio. rabies has been known since c. According to the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA). Michigan. 352 cases were bats. and 24. Vietnam had the second-highest rate. 1930 BC).000 in Asia. There are an estimated 55. which . As of 2007.000 human deaths annually from rabies worldwide. baits are successfully used on raccoons in the Mont-Royal Park area. comprising 134 of the 237 documented non-human cases in 1996.  History  Etymology The term is derived from the Latin rabies. The first written record of rabies is in the Mesopotamian Codex of Eshnunna (ca. Minnesota.  Impact This section requires expansion with: currently the following web page . Canada. and costbenefit analysis suggests that baits may be a cost effective method of control. This contradicts the CDC finding that in the midwest most rabies cases are found in skunks. primarily because of stray dogs. China introduced the "one-dog policy" in the city of Beijing in November 2006 to control the problem. and Indiana). Surveying other states in the midwest (including Illinois. Of the 66 cases.2000 B. and the USA. between 1996 and 2009. there has been a relative decrease in the US midwest in the prevalence of skunks with rabies. Kansas. One of the sources of recent flourishing of rabies in East Asia is the pet boom. Nebraska. in turn. Therefore. in these countries too the virus is primarily transmitted through canines (feral dogs and other wild canine species). skunks are the primary carriers of rabies. Oral vaccines can be safely distributed in baits. "to do violence". with about 31. pets may not be privately kept and their destruction may be unacceptable. this root is used in the name of the genus of rabies lyssavirus. from "lud" or "violent". and the remaining cases were other animals. the state of Missouri had a total of 66 documented cases of rabies. India has been reported as having the highest rate of human rabies in the world. "madness". Ohio. In Montréal. followed by Thailand.000 in Africa. The Greeks derived the word "lyssa". and one domestic cat.
which lasts three to four days. Infected mammals can transmit rabies virus to humans and other mammals. where Saint Hubert was venerated. however.dictates that the owner of a dog showing symptoms of rabies should take preventive measure against bites. Incoordination is seen owing to rear limb paralysis and drooling and difficulty swallowing is caused by paralysis of facial and throat muscles. the owner was heavily fined. dogs were branded with the key in hopes of protecting them from rabies. by an application of magical thinking. Death is usually caused by respiratory arrest. Rabies "Rabies" is also available in Portable Document Format Versión en español What is rabies? Rabies is a deadly disease caused by a virus that attacks the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). Main article: Rabies in animals Rabies is infectious to mammals. It is this stage that is often known as furious rabies for the tendency of the affected animal to be hyperreactive to external stimuli and bite at anything near. Three stages of rabies are recognized in dogs and other animals. this gave Louis Pasteur ample opportunity to test post-exposure treatments from 1885. The first stage is a one. In France and Belgium. The third stage is the paralytic stage and is caused by damage to motor neurons. If another person was bitten by a rabid dog and later died. Fear of rabies related to methods of transmissions was almost irrational.to three-day period characterized by behavioral changes and is known as the prodromal stage. The second stage is the excitative stage. the "St Hubert's Key" was heated and applied to cauterize the wound. Rabies was considered a scourge for its prevalence in the 19th century.  In other animals This section requires expansion with: information from the main article. Rabies .
How do people become exposed to rabies? People usually get exposed to the rabies virus when an infected animal bites them. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the New York State Department of Health (NYSDOH) website at: http://www. guinea pigs. Pets and livestock can get rabies if they are not vaccinated to protect them against infection. but any mammal can be infected with rabies. What animals can get rabies? Rabies is most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons. Staggering. Reptiles (such as lizards and snakes). fish and insects do not get or carry rabies. even if they seem minor. you may . Try to keep track of the animal that exposed you and report this information to your county health department so the animal can be captured safely. Infected animals usually die within one week after showing signs of rabies. It may become unusually aggressive or tame.health. Report all animal bites to your county health department.htm. These include rabbits and small rodents such as squirrels. What should I do if I am exposed to rabies? Wash all wounds thoroughly with soap and water and seek medical attention immediately. convulsions. Some animals almost never get rabies. rats.ny. Many animals will make very unusual sounds.is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. A wild animal may appear affectionate and friendly. if possible. but only in rare circumstances. What are the signs of rabies in animals? The first sign of rabies is usually a change in an animal's behavior. cats are most frequently diagnosed with rabies in New York State. gerbils and hamsters. amphibians (like frogs). choking. Fortunately. bats. birds. chipmunks. mice. It may become excited or irritable and attack anything in its path.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. frothing at the mouth and paralysis are sometimes seen. only a few human cases are reported each year in the United States. In the case of a bat. nose or mouth). skunks and foxes. Exposure may also occur if saliva from a rabid animal enters an open cut or mucous membrane (eyes. such as if they are attacked but not killed by a rabid animal. The animal may lose its fear of people and natural enemies. Among domestic animals. It is possible for these animals to get rabies.
A person who has already been vaccinated for rabies and is exposed to rabies must receive two booster vaccine doses three days apart immediately after exposure. the disease almost always results in death. They do not need an injection of HRIG. How do I protect my pets from rabies? The best way to keep pets safe from rabies is to vaccinate them and keep their shots up-to-date. as determined by their doctor. if possible. treatment may be necessary for the people exposed. plus 4 doses of rabies vaccine given over two weeks. . 7 and 14 following the initial injection. Other types of animals that cause a potential human exposure must be tested for rabies under the direction of the county health department. To learn how to capture a bat safely. rabies can be prevented. touch or adopt wild animals. ferrets and livestock that have bitten or otherwise caused a potential human exposure to rabies will be confined under the direction of the county health department and observed for ten days following the exposure. Even though your pet has been vaccinated. view a short video (1 minute 22 seconds) at www.health. Healthy dogs. What happens if a rabies exposure goes untreated? Exposure to a rabid animal does not always result in rabies. If an animal cannot be observed or tested for rabies. What is the treatment for people exposed to rabies? Treatment after rabies exposure consists of a dose of human rabies immune globulin (HRIG) administered as soon as possible after exposure. People who have weakened immune systems may require a fifth dose of vaccine.be able to safely capture it yourself and take it to your county health department where it will be transferred to the state for rabies testing. a booster dose of rabies vaccine may be needed within five days of the incident. contact your veterinarian to get medical care. If there is a wound. If your pet has been injured by a rabid animal. with the remaining injections given on days 3. stray dogs or cats. If treatment is initiated promptly following a rabies exposure. If a rabies exposure is not treated and a person develops clinical signs of rabies. If the animal remains healthy during this period.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/ . the animal did not transmit rabies at the time of the bite. What can people do to protect themselves against rabies? Don't feed. The first vaccine dose is given at the same time.ny. Contact your county health department to determine what additional follow-up may be needed. Your county health department will assist you and your physician to determine whether treatment is necessary. the full dose of HRIG should go into the wound. cats.
New York City . You can find wildlife control experts. Rabies is almost always fatal once symptoms appear. If possible. Be sure your pet dogs. Report all animal bites or contact with wild animals to your county health department. Keep your property free of stored bird seed or other foods that may attract wild animals.health. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system.htm. do not let any animal escape that has possibly exposed someone to rabies. Keep family pets indoors at night. If nuisance wild animals are living in parts of your home. Board up any openings to your attic.ny. who work on a fee-for-service basis. porch or garage. Feed pets indoors. cats and ferrets as well as horses and valuable livestock animals are up-to-date on their rabies vaccinations. consult with a nuisance wildlife control expert about having them removed. Don't leave them outside unattended or let them roam free. skunks and raccoons. skunks. Tightly cap or put away garbage cans. Detailed rabies information is also available at the following websites: NYSDOH: Rabies Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): Rabies Last Reviewed: October 2010 Last Updated: October 2010 Revised: September 2011 What is rabies? Rabies is a preventable viral disease of mammals (including humans) most often transmitted through the bite of a rabid animal.gov/diseases/communicable/zoonoses/rabies/contact. Where can I get more information about rabies? The county health department is your best source of additional rabies information. Teach children not to touch any animal they do not know and to tell an adult immediately if they are bitten by any animal. primarily in bats. If a wild animal is on your property. Cap your chimney with screens. let it wander away. in your telephone directory under pest control. Bring children and pets indoors and alert neighbors who are outside. The phone number for your county health department can be found in the government listing of your telephone directory or the NYSDOH website at: www. Animal rabies is reported annually in New York City and State. Don't attract wild animals to your home or yard. Pets too young to be vaccinated should be kept indoors and allowed outside only under direct observation. Vaccination protects pets if they are exposed to rabid animals. You may contact a nuisance wildlife control expert who will remove the animal for a fee. basement. The vast majority of rabies cases in the United States each year occur in wild animals like raccoons. and foxes. bats.
can prevent infection after a person has been bitten or otherwise exposed to an animal with rabies. Human rabies vaccine. and continues to every year. if administered promptly and as recommended. 2004-2009 Borough Bronx Brooklyn Manhattan Queens 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 13 0 0 0 26 1 0 1 6 0 1 2 14 0 0 1 13 1 0 1 15 0 12 1 . In the United States.first saw rabies in animals starting in 1992. The one time dose of RIG and five vaccines administered over the course of one month is referred to as post exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Table 1: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City and New York State 2003-2008 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 New York City New York State 6 14 28 44 44 19 429 546 565 612 515 496 Table 2: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Borough. rabies rarely infects humans because of companion animal vaccination programs and the availability of human rabies vaccine. New York State has reported 14 human cases since 1925. The human rabies vaccine is given in a series of five vaccinations along with one initial dose of rabies immune globulin (RIG). especially among animals in the Bronx. There have been no human cases of rabies in New York City for more than 50 years.
fox and coyotes. but it most often seen among wild animals such as raccoons.Staten Island 1 0 35 29 4 1 Table 3: Number of Rabid Animals in New York City by Species and Borough. bats. 1992-2009 1992-2007 Bronx Queens Man SI Bklyn Total Raccoon Skunk Opossum Bat Dog Cat Groundhog Coyote Total 163 40 0 8 0 2 0 1 214 9 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 13 20 121 0 0 7 0 1 0 0 2 2 5 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 6 313 42 2 29 0 11 1 1 399 28 138 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2009 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2008 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2007 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2006 Animals Testing Positive for Rabies in New York City in 2005 back to top Who gets rabies? All mammals. skunk. including humans. back to top . can get rabies.
From 1990 to 2003 there have been 38 human rabies cases acquired within the US. mice. Of the 38 cases. 32 were due to bats. but quite rare. The one exception has been woodchucks or groundhogs. It is also possible. In all cases involving rodents. rats. In New York City. dogs or other mammals. for people to get rabies from a scratch or from direct contact with a rabid animals saliva or nerve tissue if it gets directly into their eyes. 263 animals have tested positive for rabies since 1992 when the virus was first introduced. gerbils. back to top How do people get rabies? People usually get rabies from the bite of a rabid animal. and none occurred in New York City. Rabbits and small rodents (such as chipmunks. as of January 2007. A history of having had contact with a bat could only be documented in approximately half of the cases. which have occasionally been reported to have rabies. bats. the health department should be consulted before a decision is made to initiate postexposure prophylaxis (PEP).Which animals get rabies? Animal species most often diagnosed with rabies in the United States are wild and include raccoons. and the person exposed should receive PEP. foxes and coyotes.e. an infant. Anyone who thinks they may have been exposed to a bat or a rabid animal should contact their physician or their local health department for advice. and squirrels) are rarely found to be infected with rabies and have not been known to transmit rabies to people. when raccoon rabies is widespread in an area. For more information on bats. The vast majority of those were raccoons. guinea pigs. foxes and coyotes are considered high-risk sources of virus. If the bat is not available for testing. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). back to top . or an open wound. On occasion. A suspect encounter would include any scenario in which a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person who may not be fully aware of its presence (i. skunks. Two of those occurred in New York State. hamsters. 2 opossums and 1 coyote were reported. rabies and advice on how to capture a bat. suggesting that even limited contact with bats may be associated with transmission of the rabies virus. raccoons are the principal reservoir of rabies and primarily transmit the virus to other raccoons. see the link to the NYS DOH website listed below. Bites by these animals are usually not considered a risk of rabies unless the animal appeared sick or was behaving in an unusual manner. Every known or suspect encounter with a bat is considered a possible rabies exposure and is treated as such. While raccoons. while only 7 cats. Bat bites may not be obvious as their teeth are small and very sharp. In the eastern US. nose. If the bat can be captured safely and tested. the bat is assumed to be rabid. results will determine whether the person exposed needs PEP. bats are the most common source of infection for people across the United States. mouth. raccoons may infect other animals such as cats. skunks.
four persons became infected and died from rabies after receiving solid organ donations from one infected donor. One of the most recognizable signs is excessive drooling or foaming at the mouth. muscle tremors (especially in cats). Occasionally non-bite exposures are treated with PEP. fever. or mucous membranes of the nose or eye that gets contaminated with saliva or other potentially infectious material (such as brain or other nerve tissue) from a rabid animal. Rabies has been transmitted through organ transplantation. hydrophobia (fear of water). soil. More recently. difficulty swallowing. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in animals? Animals with rabies most often exhibit behavior changes such as a friendly dog that becomes withdrawn or belligerent. guano or skunk spray) of a rabid animal. urine or feces (e. They may eat or chew things such as wood. such as petting a rabid animal or having contact with the blood. or other foreign objects. Other contact. Inhalation of aerosolized rabies virus is also a potential non-bite route of exposure. does not constitute an exposure and is not an indication for PEP. open wounds. with a throaty bark or snarl. A nonbite exposure could include a scratch. plants.Can I get rabies in any way other than an animal bite? It is extremely rare for a person to get rabies from an exposure other than an animal bite. dilated pupils. stones. which may last for several days. convulsions. back to top What are the symptoms of rabies in humans? Early symptoms. Within days the patient may develop slight or partial paralysis. but other than laboratory workers who work with the rabies virus. and or impaired locomotion. hallucinations. agitation. vacant stare. confusion. Other signs may include a change in voice so that it is hoarse. include irritability.g. or an animal that demonstrates unusual aggression. and sometimes discomfort or tingling at the site of the bite or exposure. back to top . varying degrees of paralysis frequently beginning at the head and neck causing jaws to hang open.. anxiety. excitation. delirium and death. but this is extremely rare. There have been eight well-documented cases of rabies transmission through corneal transplantation. abrasion. an aloof animal that becomes suddenly affectionate. hypersalivation. most people are unlikely to encounter an aerosol of rabies virus. malaise. headache.
or a bat is found in an enclosed setting with a person that may not be fully aware of it's presence (i. Prior arrangements must be made through the DOHMH before samples will be accepted. they were bitten by a dog. cats or dogs should be discussed with the DOHMH. raccoon or bat that either has tested positive for rabies or the animal is not available for rabies testing 2. so any injury from an animal. In these animals. For dogs. back to top When and for how long is an animal able to spread rabies? An animal can only transmit rabies through a bite when the virus has infected the animal's brain. the animal was not shedding rabies virus and the exposed person does not need PEP. It is sometimes difficult to determine whether a possible rabies exposure occurred. coyote. cats. rabies virus is present in saliva only a few days prior to the onset of their illness and up until their death. This allows us to observe a biting dog. back to top . fox. This protocol may not apply to all animal species. or exposure to a bat within the household. Once the brain is infected. an infant. should be discussed with a medical provider. although time periods of up to several years have been reported. cat or ferret for 10 days to determine whether it could have been shedding rabies at the time of the bite.. a person that is sleeping or intoxicated). cat or ferret that is unavailable for testing or a 10 day observation period 3. the animal begins shedding the virus in its saliva. back to top How are animals tested? Animal rabies testing is done at the New York City Public Health Laboratory. they had contact with a bat. Animal bites from animals other than ferrets. ferrets and some other animals the period during which they can shed the virus has been documented.How soon after infection do symptoms appear? Typically. symptoms of rabies may start to appear within 1 to 3 months of exposure. If the animal does NOT develop rabies illness during the 10 days observation period. back to top What constitutes a possible rabies exposure? A person is considered to have had a possible rabies exposure if: 1.e. It is at this time or soon after that the animal begins to shows signs of illness. they were bitten by a skunk.
cats and ferrets) vaccinated against rabies. Preventive treatment requires prompt washing of the bite site with soap and copious amounts of water. back to top How can rabies be prevented? Avoiding contact with bats and staying away from all wild and stray animals. This will help the DOHMH follow up with the pet owner regarding the 10 day at home observation. back to top What happens if I am exposed to rabies but I don't get PEP? Exposure to a rabid animal does not have to result in rabies. although several cats.g. primarily strays. If after 10 days the animal is still alive and healthy. Report the bite to the DOHMH by calling 311. animal bite or bat exposure)? If a physician determines that rabies exposure may have occurred. Any animal-related injury. If the animal is available for observation.What is the preventive treatment for a potential rabies exposure (e. they will recommend PEP. Immunosuppressed persons should receive a 5th dose of vaccine on day 28 followed by a blood test 14 to 28 days after the last vaccine to ensure an acceptable rabies antibody response. back to top What is the 10 day observation period? After a healthy dog or cat has bitten someone. For the most recent rabies data. It is also important to have domestic animals (dogs. address and phone number. 3. you do not need to start rabies shots. Untreated cases of rabies will likely result in death. No rabid dogs have been reported in NYC since 1954. most cases of rabies will be prevented. The health department will attempt to communicate with the pet . back to top What should I do if I've been bitten by a healthy dog or cat? Try to get the owner’s contact information including. should be discussed with a physician to determine if rabies preventive treatment is necessary.. and 14 after exposure. name. the animal can be watched for a period for 10 days at home by the owner. have tested positive. Rabies preventive vaccine is no longer given in the abdomen. click here. followed by the injection of PEP which includes rabies immune globulin (dosage depending on weight) and four doses of rabies vaccine injected into the arm muscle on days 0. and any household exposure or other direct contact with a bat. Immediately wash the wound with soap and water and consider seeking care from your health care provider. 7. especially those acting abnormally may minimize exposure to rabies. the bite victim does not need to get rabies shots. If preventive treatment is obtained promptly following a rabies exposure.
testing will be performed. back to top What if I was bitten by a raccoon. bat. but is regularly observed and easy to identy. you do not need to start the rabies vaccine. unless the animal tests positive for rabies. raccoons and skunks. back to top What if the dog or cat was a stray animal? If the animal is a healthy stray. foxes. . The rabies virus is usually transmitted through a bite. If during this time the animal develops signs of rabies. skunk. skunks and bats are known to transmit rabies. stray dogs are the most likely to spread rabies to people. coyotes. call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal so it can be observed at a shelter. or any animal that appears rabid? Raccoons. of Health) • Rabies Information for Children (CDC) Rabies Definition By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies is a deadly virus spread to people from the saliva of infected animals. consider observing the animal for 10 days where it lives. in most instances. Animals most likely to transmit rabies in the United States include bats. If you are bitten by one of these animals.owner during this time. In developing countries of Africa and Southeast Asia. Rabies testing requires that the animal be humanely euthanized. back to top Related Information • Rabies: Protecting Yourself and Your Pet • The Veterinary Public Health Service Website • Bat Inspection and Management (New York State Dept. Call 311 to see if arrangements can be made to capture the animal and test it for rabies. Otherwise. If the animal will be tested. immediately wash the wound with soap and water and see your health care provider.
Symptoms By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies doesn't cause any signs or symptoms until late in the disease. a bat that flies into your room while you're sleeping may bite you without waking you.Once a person begins showing signs and symptoms of rabies. The virus is spread through the saliva of infected animals. you and your doctor can decide whether you should receive treatment to prevent rabies. the disease is nearly always fatal. rabies can be spread when infected saliva gets into an open wound or the mucous membranes. If you awake to find a bat in your room. Causes By Mayo Clinic staff Rabies infection is caused by the rabies virus. Also. For instance. This could occur if an infected animal were to lick an open cut on your skin. anyone who may have a risk of contracting rabies should receive rabies vaccines for protection. such as a small child or a person with a disability. if you find a bat near a person who can't report a bite. For that reason. seek medical attention. Based on your injuries and the situation in which the bite occurred. such as the mouth or eyes. Even if you aren't sure whether you've been bitten. Signs and symptoms may include: Fever Headache Agitation Anxiety Confusion Difficulty swallowing Excessive salivation Fear of water (hydrophobia) because of the difficulty in swallowing Hallucinations Insomnia Partial paralysis When to see a doctor Seek immediate medical care if you're bitten by any animal. . In rare cases. assume you've been bitten. Infected animals can spread the virus by biting another animal or a person. often just days before death. assume that person has been bitten.
including countries in Africa and Southeast Asia Activities that are likely to put you in contact with wild animals that may have rabies. In rare cases. the virus has been transmitted to tissue and organ transplant recipients from an infected organ.Animals that can transmit the rabies virus Any mammal can transmit the rabies virus. such as exploring caves where bats live or camping without taking precautions to keep wild animals away from your campsite Working in a laboratory with the rabies virus Wounds to the head or neck. which may help the rabies virus travel to your brain more quickly Tests and diagnosis By Mayo Clinic staff . Risk factors By Mayo Clinic staff Factors that can increase your risk of rabies include: Traveling or living in developing countries where rabies is more common. The animals most likely to transmit the rabies virus to people include: Pets and farm animals Cats Cows Dogs Ferrets Goats Horses Rabbits Wild animals Bats Beavers Coyotes Foxes Monkeys Raccoons Skunks Woodchucks There has never been a documented case of human-to-human rabies transmission.
Wild animals that can be found and captured. Talk to your doctor and local public health officials to determine whether you should receive rabies shots. you won't need the shots. if it's determined the animal is healthy. Treatments and drugs By Mayo Clinic staff There is no specific treatment for rabies infection. you'll receive a series of shots to prevent the rabies virus from infecting you. treatment to prevent the rabies virus from infecting your body is recommended if the doctor thinks there's a chance you have been exposed to the virus. as soon as possible after the bite. there's no way to know whether the animal has transmitted the rabies virus to you. such as a bat that came into your home. can be killed and tested for rabies. You receive five injections over 14 days. Rabies vaccines are given as injections in your arm. Other pets and farm animals are considered on a case-by-case basis. Though a small number of people have survived rabies. Part of this injection is given near the area where the animal bit you if possible. such as the type of animal and the situation in which the bite occurred. it may be safest to assume that the animal has rabies. If the animal that bit you can't be found. it's possible to determine whether the animal that bit you has rabies before beginning the series of rabies shots. If the animal that bit you remains healthy during the observation period. That way. then it doesn't have rabies and you won't need rabies shots. Treatment for people bitten by animals with rabies If you've been bitten by an animal that is known to have rabies. Wild animals that can be caught. At the time a rabid animal bites you. Determining whether the animal that bit you has rabies In some cases. For this reason. Blood and tissue tests are used to diagnose rabies in people who have signs and symptoms of the infection. But this will depend on several factors. dogs and ferrets that bite can be observed for 10 days to see if they show signs and symptoms of rabies. Cats. For instance: Pets and farm animals. the disease is usually fatal. Procedures for determining whether an animal has rabies vary by situation. Rabies shots include: A fast-acting shot (rabies immune globulin) to prevent the virus from infecting you. For that reason. A series of rabies vaccines to help your body learn to identify and fight the rabies virus. anyone thought to have been exposed to rabies receives a series of shots to prevent the infection from taking hold. Tests on the animal's .
Ask your veterinarian how often your pets should be vaccinated. so stay away from any animal that seems unafraid. brain may reveal the rabies virus. Keep bats out of your home. Don't approach wild animals. Consider the rabies vaccine if you're traveling. This will help keep your pets from coming in contact with wild animals. Keep rabbits and other small pets. Animals that can't be found. Seal any cracks and gaps where bats can enter your home. you won't need the shots. discuss the situation with your doctor and the local health department. Wild animals with rabies may seem unafraid of people. Prevention By Mayo Clinic staff You can reduce your risk of coming in contact with rabid animals. In other cases. dogs and ferrets can be vaccinated against rabies. ask your doctor whether you should receive the rabies vaccine. These small pets can't be vaccinated against rabies. In certain cases. Report stray animals to local authorities. Cats. FROM: http://rabiespoi. If the animal doesn't have rabies. Keep your pets inside and supervise them when outside. Call your local animal control officials or other local law enforcement to report stray dogs and cats. Keep your pets confined. If you're traveling to a country where rabies is common and you'll be there for a long period of time. it may be unlikely that the animal that bit you had rabies and it may be determined that rabies shots aren't necessary. inside or in protected cages so that they are safe from wild animals. it may be safest to assume that the animal had rabies and proceed with the rabies shots.org/index. Here's how: Vaccinate your pets. Protect small pets from predators. work with a local expert to find ways to keep bats out. such as guinea pigs.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=59&Itemid=64 Declaring RabiesFree Zones . If the animal that bit you can't be found. If you know you have bats in your home. It's not normal for a wild animal to be friendly with people.
Rabies Fast Facts .
Rabies Fast Facts .
000 population Region IV-A had the highest incidence of rabies (in 2007).3. Reported Rabies Cases in Angeles City for 2007 was 26 (with a rate of 8.2. Region X had the 2nd highest incidence of rabies Region III ranked 3rd in national rabies morbidity in 2007 with 190 cases. (rate of 2 per 100. Tarlac ranked second at the regional level with an incidence of 30 and a rate of 3.Reported Rabies Cases in the Philippines for 2007 were 833 (with a rate of 1 per 100. the highest in the region) .4.000 population) Bulacan had the highest number of reported rabies cases for 2007 with a total of 126 but the rate was lower at 6.
Department of Health.ph RABIES: THE PHILIPPINE SITUATION Rabies is a dangerous disease of animals transmissible to humans through bites. a long-time resident of the UK contracted rabies after being bitten by a dog in the Philippines. In recent years.doh. He died in a London hospital.Reference: Field Health Service Information System Annual 2007 National Epidemiology Center. At least 50% of victims are children aged 5 to 14 years. We had gained notoriety among international communities as a nation with high endemicity (or prevalence) of rabies. the most common sources of infection are dogs and cats. In 2006. DOH recognizes that rabies remains a public health problem in the country despite the enactment of Republic Act 9482.gov.000 population. Manila www. otherwise known as the Rabies Act of 2007 which seeks to eradicate rabies in the Philippines by 2020. The last indigenous case of rabies infection in the UK occurred in 1902 while that of Japan was in 1954. In the Philippines. In 2001. Both countries have declared themselves rabies-free a long time ago.0 per 100. there were 833 reported rabies cases in the country with a rate of 1. In 2007. two Japanese nationals were infected after being bitten by dogs in the Philippines. It is transmitted to other animals through contact with virus-laden saliva from a rabid animal. The Department of Health (DOH) estimates that 300 to 600 Filipinos die of rabies each year. the Philippines ranked fifth in the rabies list of the World Health Organization in terms of prevalence in a specific area. . scratches or licks on open wounds.
on Monday. Many.9482 AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE CONTROL AND ELIMINATION OF HUMAN AND ANIMAL RABIES. Rabies is a highly misunderstood disease among Filipinos. Tandoks or faith healers . REPUBLIC ACT NO. No.Rabies is highly and easily preventable in this day and age but once the signs and symptoms appear. Title. No. – This Act shall be known as the “Anti-Rabies Act of 2007”. Poypoy has not died in vain. still believe that garlic and a few drops of vinegar can cure rabies. the nineteenth day of February. . Last Updated on Wednesday. Only a few know that an inch-long scratch or a playful lick on an open wound can cost a person his/her life. PRESCRIBING PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION THEREOF AND APPROPRIATING FUNDS THEREFOR Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the Philippines in Congress assembled: SECTION 1.people believed to have the power to eliminate the virus from the body with the use of a stone (called batong buhay) or by sucking with the use of a carabao horn or an animal bone are widely accepted as a wiser and more economical alternative to post-exposure treatment or vaccination. 25 March 2009 16:33 Anti-Rabies Act of 2007 Date 2007-06-22 (RA 9482) S. His shocking and dramatic exit from this world has opened our eyes to the realities surrounding this disease. rabies is almost always fatal and irreversible. 2541 H. especially those in rural areas. two thousand seven. 4654 Republic of the Philippines Congress of the Philippines Metro Manila Thirteenth Congress Third Special Session Begun and held in Metro Manila.
Definition of Terms. pierced or scratched. harboring or having charge. Declaration of Policy. or through contamination with virus-laden saliva on breaks in the skin and of mucous membranes such as the eyes. scientifically known as canis familiaris. a system for the control. (d) Dog refers to a common quadruped domestic animal belonging to the order carnivora (male or female). the mouth. the lips. (b) Concerned Officials refers to barangay officials. (j) Rabies refers to a highly fatal disease caused by a lyssa virus. malls. (i) Public Place refers to any place open to the public like parks. (e) Euthanasia refers to the process of painless death to Dogs and other animals. health workers. – For the purpose of this Act. hydrophobia and aerophobia. 3. and other neurological manifestations. SEC. (f) Impound refers to seize and hold in the custody of the law. streets. and eventual eradication of human and animal Rabies shall be provided and the need for responsible pet ownership established. Towards this end.SEC. care or control of a Dog including his/her representative. or the genital organs. cuts or grips with its teeth so that the skin of a person has been wounded. (h) Pound refers to a public enclosure for stray animals. etc. police officers or government veterinarians. prevention of the spread. markets. (g) Owner refers to any person keeping. (k) Rabies transmission refers to the transmission or passage of the Rabies virus through a bite by an infected animal. . the following terms shall mean: (a) Bitten refers to an act by which a Dog seizes. 2. transmitted mainly through the bite of an infected animal and is characterized by muscle paralysis. – It is the declared policy of the State to protect and promote the right to health of the people. (c) Direct Supervision refers to range supervision where physical presence of the veterinarian within the barangay is necessary.
(o) Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (P.) refers to an anti-Rabies treatment administered after an exposure to Rabies.E.(l) Rabies Vaccination/Immunoprophylaxis of Humans refers to the inoculation of humans. with modern day rabies vaccines or Rabies immunoglobulin. (2) establishment of a central database system for registered and vaccinated Dogs. National Rabies Prevention and Control Program.T.E. field control and disposition of unregistered. The services of the said trained individual shall be limited only to Rabies Vaccination Injection in Dogs and only during government mass vaccination campaigns. Rabies vaccine. which include local wound care. SEC. by a trained doctor or nurse under the supervision of a qualified medical practitioner. (q) Veterinary or Human Barbiturates refer to drugs that depress the function of the central nervous system. ( (3) impounding.) refers to Rabies vaccination administered before an exposure to Rabies to those who are at high risk of getting Rabies. . with or without antiRabies immunizing agent. Among its component activities include: (1) mass vaccination of Dogs.P. Stray and unvaccinated Dogs. The program shall be a multi-agency effort in controlling and eliminating Rabies in the country. 4. (n) Post-exposure Treatment (P. (p) Stray Dog refers to any Dog leaving its Owner’s place or premise and no longer under the effective control of the Owner. – It is hereby mandated that there shall be a National Rabies Prevention and Control Program to be implemented by a multiagency/ multi-sectoral committee chaired by the Bureau of Animal Industry of the Department of Agriculture. (m) Rabies Vaccination of Dogs refers to the inoculation of a Dog with a Rabies vaccine by a licensed government or private veterinarian or trained individual under the direct supervision of a licensed veterinarian.
adequate food and clean shelter. 5. (c) Maintain control over their Dog and not allow it to roam the streets or any Public Place without a leash. (f) Assist the Dog bite victim immediately and shoulder the medical expenses incurred and other incidental expenses relative to the victim’s injuries. as well as Local Government Units (LGUs) with the assistance of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). (d) Be a responsible Owner by providing their Dog with proper grooming. report immediately any Dog biting incident to the Concerned Officials for investigation or for any appropriate action and place such Dog under observation by a government or private veterinarian.) of schoolchildren aged five to fourteen in areas where there is high incidence of rabies as well as the (7) encouragement of the practice of responsible pet ownership. – All Pet Owners shall be required to: (a) Have their Dog regularly vaccinated against Rabies and maintain a registration card which shall contain all vaccinations conducted on their Dog. Responsibilities of Pet Owners. Department of Health (DOH).P. for accurate record purposes. Department of Agriculture (1) Improve and upgrade existing animal Rabies laboratory diagnostic capabilities to ensure better services to the people. SEC. shall be tasked to: A. (6) provision of free routine immunization or Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (P. (2) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of animal anti-Rabies vaccine at all times. Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) and People’s Organizations (POs). – The following government agencies. (e) Within twenty-four (24) hours. (3) Undertake free anti-Rabies Vaccination of Dogs giving priority to high .E. 6.(4) conduct of information and education campaign on the prevention and control of Rabies. The program shall be implemented by the Department of Agriculture (DA). Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG) and Department of Education (DepEd). which shall jointly implement the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. (5) provision on pre-exposure treatment to high risk personnel and Post Exposure Treatment to animal bite victims. SEC. Responsibilities of Government Agencies. (b) Submit their Dogs for mandatory registration.
DILG. (8) Conduct research on Rabies and its control in coordination with other agencies. B. vaccinators and other persons working with Rabies virus for free. (2) Provide Post-Exposure Treatment at the minimum expense to individuals bitten by animals suspected of being rabid which will consist of the initial vaccine and immunoglobulin dose. DILG. NGOs. Department of Education (1) Strengthen Rabies education program through school health . POs and other concerned sectors. (6) Immediately facilitate for the approval of the sale and use of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs by the DOH and the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA). Department of Health (1) Ensure the availability and adequate supply of DOH pre-qualified human Anti-Rabies vaccine in animal bite treatment centers at all times and shall coordinate with other implementing agencies and concerned NGOs for this purpose. (6) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. (10) Encourage collaborative activities with the DOH. laboratory staff. animal handlers. (5) Establish and maintain Rabies free zone in coordination with the LGUs. DepEd. (7) Strengthen the training of field personnel and the Information Education and Communication (lEC) activities on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. (5) Develop and maintain a human Rabies surveillance system. veterinarians. DENR. (7) Immediately approve the registration of Veterinary and Human Barbiturate drugs and veterinary euthanasia drugs in coordination with the PDEA. (3) Provide Pre-Exposure Treatment to high-risk personnel. POs and other concerned sectors. but not limited to. (4) Coordinate with the DA in the development of appropriate health education strategy to inform the public on Rabies prevention and control and responsible pet ownership. NGOs. DENR. C.risk depressed areas. (9) Formulate minimum standards and monitor the effective implementation of this Act. such as. DepEd. (4) Maintain and improve animal Rabies surveillance system.
DILG. (2) Assist in the Dog mass immunization campaigns in the community. shall: (1) Ensure that all Dogs are properly immunized. in accordance with Section 9 herein: Provided. Responsibilities of the LGUs. in their respective localities. (4) Integrate proper information and education on responsible pet ownership in the relevant subjects in the Elementary and High School levels. SEC. (3) Ensure that Dogs are leashed or confined within the premises of the Owner’s house or Owner’s fenced surroundings. establish a Dog Pound or opt to share the expense of establishing and maintaining a Dog Pound with other adjoining municipalities and/or with private animal shelters and control facilities. particularly on the financing of supplies and human and Dog vaccines needed for immunization. (2) Strictly enforce Dog Impounding activities and field control to eliminate Stray Dogs. (4) Allocate funds to augment the implementation of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program. on their own. (11) Require pet shops to post information regarding Rabies and responsible pet ownership. NGOs. opt to share the expense of having a veterinary office. – LGUs. 8485 or “The Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (8) With respect to cities and first class municipalities. That the other municipalities shall. (9) Prohibit the use of electrocution as a euthanasia procedure. DOH. (12) For purposes of ensuring the administrative feasibility of implementing the provisions of this Act and subject to . registered and issued a corresponding Dog tag for every i mmunized and registered Dog. 7. on their own. (3) Encourage collaborative activities with the DA. (6) Enact additional local ordinances that will support the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program that should include the regulation of treatment locally known as “tandok. establish and maintain a Dog Pound where Impounded Dogs shall be kept. (10) Appoint a veterinarian and establish a veterinary office in every province.That the other municipalities. city and firstclass municipality: Provided. POs and other concerned sectors. (5) Ensure the enforcement of Section 6 of Republic Act No. DENR. shall.” (7) Prohibit the trade of Dogs for meat.teaching/curriculum.
as well as the achievement of the objectives envisioned in this Act. 8. Field Control and Disposition of Unregistered. – The agencies tasked to implement the anti-Rabies program shall seek the assistance and participation of NGOs in any of the following activities: (1) Community mobilization. subject to the pertinent provisions of Republic Act No. Impounding. Dog Population Control. (4) Promotion of the anti-Rabies campaign during pet or any animal shows. pursuant to Section 7 hereof. or otherwise disposed of in any manner authorized. The DILG shall ensure compliance of these responsibilities by the LGUs. there is the need to control the Dog population and minimize the number of unwanted Stray Dogs. it is hereby mandated: . (3). (6) Any other activities geared towards the prevention and complete eradication of Rabies. taking into consideration the following guidelines: (1) Unregistered. Any and all fines collected pursuant to this Act shall be used for the enhancement of the National Rabies Prevention and Control Program within the locality concerned. the LGU shall collect the fines imposed under Section 11 subparagraphs (1). 8485. otherwise known as the “Animal Welfare Act of 1998”. (2) Health education/information dissemination on Rabies and responsible pet ownership. (3) Mass anti-Rabies campaign. when feasible. (3) A fee shall be paid by Owners of Impounded Dogs to the LGU concerned. (4). (5) Surveillance/reporting of Rabies cases in animals and humans. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be impounded and kept in the LGU’s designated Dog Pound. with the assistance of an animal welfare NGO. 9. SEC. Stray or unvaccinated Dogs shall be put in Dog Pounds and disposed of. Stray and Unvaccinated Dogs. 10. – Unregistered. (2) Impounded Dogs not claimed after three days from the Dog Pound shall be placed for adoption to qualified persons. As such.paragraph 8 of this Section. (5) and (6) hereof. – In furtherance of the policy of this Act to eradicate Rabies. SEC. SEC. Assistance of NGOs and the Academe.
(1) That the DA. (3) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation after said Dog has Bitten an individual shall be meted a fine of Ten thousand pesos (P10. (7) Any person found guilty of trading Dog for meat shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5.000.000.00) but not more than One thousand pesos (P1.00). (9) If the violation is committed by an alien. at the expense of the Pet’s Owner.00).000. (6) An impounded Dog shall be released to its Owner upon payment of a fine of not less than Five hundred pesos (P500. 11. – (1) Pet Owners who fail or refuse to have their Dog registered and immunized against Rabies shall be punished by a fine of Two thousand pesos (P2. he or she shall be immediately deported after service of sentence without any further proceedings. DepEd. SEC.000. (2) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog vaccinated against Rabies shall be liable to pay for the vaccination of both the Dog and the individuals Bitten by their Dog. Penalties. with the assistance of NGOs and POs shall undertake an educational and promotional campaign on responsible Pet Ownership. (3) That Dogs which have been impounded three times shall only be released after having been spayed or neutered. including the option of spaying or neutering their Dogs.00) per act and subject to imprisonment for one to four years. (5) Pet Owners who refuse to put leash on their Dogs when they are brought outside the house shall be meted a fine of Five hundred pesos (P500.00). DILG. (4) Pet Owners who refuse to have their Dog put under observation and do not shoulder the medical expenses of the person Bitten by their Dog shall be meted a fine of Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25. LGUs.000.000.00) per Dog and subjected to imprisonment for one to four years. (2) That the LGUs shall provide an incentive system whereby Owners of Dogs which have been spayed or neutered will be given a subsidized or discounted pet registration fee. DOH.00). . (8) Any person found guilty of using electrocution as a method of euthanasia shall be fined not less than Five thousand pesos (P5.00) for each incident.
Appropriations. the requirements shall be taken from their Internal Revenue Allotment and other local funds. ROBERTO P. – The DA. JOSE DE VENECIA JR. 4654 was finally passed by the Senate and the House of Representatives on February 9. For the LGUs. NGOs and POs shall issue the necessary rules and regulations within sixty (60) days from the effectivity of this Act. Implementing Rules and Regulations. the other provisions shall remain in full force and effect. whichever comes earlier. 13. in coordination with the DOH. 12. Thereafter. Separability Clause. YABES House of Representatives . – The amount of One hundred million pesos (P100.SEC. 14.00) necessary to implement the provisions of this Act shall be initially charged against the appropriations of the DOH. NAZARENO Secretary General OSCAR Secretary of the Senate MANNY President of the VILLAR G. 2007 respectively. SEC. DENR. SEC. Effectivity. 2007 and February 20.000. Speaker of the House Senate of Representatives This Act which is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. DepEd. 2541 and House Bill No. Approved. DA. – In case any provision of this Act is declared unconstitutional. 15. – This Act shall take effect fifteen (15) days after its publication in the Official Gazette or in at least two newspapers of general circulation. DILG and DepEd under the General Appropriations Act. such sums as may be necessary for its continued implementation shall be included in the annual General Appropriations Act.000. DILG. SEC.
through bites or licking of open wounds. symptoms become more distinctive such as hallucinations. For this year. burning of itching sensation at the site of the bite. Matibag 20 Views: 630 The health department of the Philippines reported 264 human rabies cases between January and 23 October this year.Approved: GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO President of the Philippines Rising rabies deaths alarms health dept Manila : Philippines | Nov 18. the following areas had the highest reported cases of rabies: Region IV-A (49). Later. fear of water (hydrophobia). abdominal pain. 206 died due to the virus that is transmitted by the infected saliva of animals. The symptoms of human rabies are trivial such as fever. With the Christmas vacation coming. muscle spasms in the face and neck. especially dogs. paralysis. seizures. pain. Human rabies is a deadly disease and over 99 percent of people who develop the symptoms of the disease die. and anxiety and agitation. 16 of whom succumbed. Region III (36). health officials are alarmed of the possible surge in the number of cases. heart and respiratory failure. coma. 2010 at 9:34 PM PST By Gino C. Region V (29). . cough or sore throat. Health officials say that it is during school vacation time that cases of rabies are on the rise because children play with the unvaccinated animals. Of these. fear of air (aerophobia). delirium. and Metro Manila (20).
and the United Kingdom. and reptiles cannot transmit the disease. Bats. New Zealand. too. fishes. In 2008. the 10 countries with highest human deaths due to rabies are: India-244. cats. Once bitten.042 Myanmar-1. and horses may harbor the rabies virus.683 Thailand-1. Ask a veterinarian or any authorities for further action toward the animal. elephants. Japan.900 China-13. Birds.The disease is also preventable through adequate vaccination of warm-blooded animal pets like dogs. Capture the animal and observe for 10 to 15 days for behavioral changes. it is strongly advised that the bite wound be thoroughly washed with soap and running water for 15 minutes.377 Indonesia-1. Do not kill the offending animal. Gino C. and monkeys. Immediately go to the doctor for medical advice.478 Bangladesh-22.208 Some of the countries that have successfully eradicated rabies are Australia.995 Philippines-5. National Capital Region. and is a Stringer for Allvoices. Report Credibility FROM: DOH .183 Pakistan-2. Philippines.658 Vietnam-5. chickens. rats. rabbits.843 Sri Lanka-2. Matibag is based in Manila.
A threepronged approach – dog immunization. Thus. all efforts should be made to contain rabies at its source. local government units and partner agencies will advocate for the full implementation of the law nationwide. Further. animal control and other public health measures are undertaken because of the high case fatality rate for rabies. Philippines. and the Philippines ranked number six among the countries with the highest reported incidence of rabies in the world. the said agencies are also gearing up their efforts towards the goal of declaring the Philippines as Rabies-Free by the 2020. Meanwhile. . The battlecry is “SUMUNOD SA BATAS RABIES”. and the disease almost always leads to death even when vaccination and medical management are given as soon as the symptoms have set in. 9482 (An Act Providing for the Control and Elimination of Human and Animal Rabies. the Department of Health. Source: National Objectives for Health. the cost of postexposure vaccination against rabies can be prohibitive. Rabies Although rabies is not among the leading causes of disease and death in the country it has become a public health problem of significance for two reasons: it is one of the most acutely fatal infections which causes the death of between 200-500 Filipinos annually. Manila. Department of Agriculture – Bureau of Animal Industry. It remains a serious public health problem in the country which causes the death of between 200 . Dogs remain the principal animal source of rabies. and the Philippines ranked No. 2005-2001. responsible pet ownership and dog-bite victim immunization – is still recommended for all government units to control rabies in their areas of responsibility. There is yet no way of immediately segregating those who had acquired rabies infection from those who had been bitten by nonrabid sources. with universal immunization of dogs and responsible pet ownership as major preventive measures. Prescribing Penalties for Violation Thereof and Appropriating Funds Therefore) on May 27. This next three years. 2007.500 Filipinos annually. Department of Health. Although a great majority of animal bites are non-infected with the rabies virus. Philippines. It is hard to make a definite early diagnosis of rabies. 6 among the countries with the highest incidence of rabies in the world.March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! March is Rabies Awareness Month and September 28 is World Rabies Day! Rabies is 100% fatal viral disease affecting the nervous system of humans and animals. The rabies prevention and control program received its needed boost when President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo signed into law the Republic Act No.
which is rabid at the time of the bite usually. » 1285 reads Is rubbing the bite wounds with garlic and vinegar useful in the prevention of Rabies? . If the dog is apparently healthy. » 1662 reads Do we need to kill the dog immediately? 8. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 1627 reads What is the difference between the observation period and the incubation period? The observation period is the period of time that the dog or cat is observed for signs of Rabies. A rabid person can transmit the Rabies virus to another person and need to be given antiRabies immunization » 972 reads Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? 10. The observation period for dogs or cats is usually 14 days starting from the day the animal has bitten a person.Rabies. Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given anti-Rabies immunization? Yes. If it remains to be alive within that period. it means that it is not rabid and has not transmitted the virus to the person. NCDPC Does a person bitten by a rabid person need to be given antiRabies immunization? Yes. Do we need to kill the dog immediately? No. Studies have shown that a dog or cat. it should not be killed immediately and should instead be kept on a leash or caged for observation for 14 days. dies within 14 days.
No. “Tandok” is folk medicine done by placing a deer horn over the wound. » 1725 reads What is active and passive immunization? Active immunization or vaccination aims to induce the body to develop antibodies against Rabies whose effect lasts for 1 to 3 years. NCDPC What is Rabies post-exposure treatment? . multiple/single deep bites. By washing the wound immediately with soap and clean water. Passive immunization is the process of giving an antibody to persons with Category III exposure (head and neck bites. » 1257 reads Is Rabies preventable? Yes. which should be administered within the first seven days of active immunization. Garlic and vinegar need not be applied on the bite wound for they will cause more injury (swelling. By administering vaccine and immunoglobin at the right time to an animal bite victim. Rabies. » 1254 reads Is “tandok” effective in the prevention of Rabies? No. This is believed to suck out the Rabies virus. licks of the eyes. the risk of Rabies infection will be greatly reduced. The effect of the immunoglobulin is only short term. lips and mouth) in order to provide immediate protection against Rabies. One important measure that will be of big help in reducing the risk of getting Rabies is by immediately washing the bite wound with soap and water. Once signs of brain involvement are manifested. which only means that “tandok” is not effective. contamination of mucous membranes. » 1526 reads Is Rabies curable? No. Rabies can be prevented. further introducing dirt into the wound). the Rabies victim dies within 1-3 days. Records have shown that patients who received “tandok” treatment died either of Rabies or Tetanus. irritation.
Dogs with the furious type of rabies become wild and uncontrollable. Immediately wash the bite wound with soap and clean water. It roams around aimlessly and will snap at or bite anyone who crosses its path. It can also enter the body through a person’s eyes and mouth. Let us examine the various rabies symptoms. if indicated. active immunization (vaccination) and passive immunization (administration of rabies immunoglobin). The victim may also be given antibiotics and anti-tetanus immunization. Dogs are the main sources of rabies in the country. A dog with this type of rabies will die suddenly without any indication beforehand. b. » 1298 reads If bitten by a stray animal. Carefully observe the animal for 14 days for physical symptoms described . c. lethargic and tends to hide in quiet. isolated places. The Department of Health (DOH) and other public health organizations hold annual seminars to educate the people about rabies. Antiseptics may be applied. A dog becomes depressed. and symptoms include the absence of appetite and difficulty in breathing. Consult a veterinarian for the management of the biting dog. To determine whether a biting dog is rabid or not. It consists of local wound treatment. The lack of discipline towards animal care and the fact that animals are allowed to roam around freely in the streets are the main culprits behind the high incidence of rabies in the Philippines. The dumb type of rabies is the total opposite of the furious type. Of course. Since rabies is a fatal disease which can kill those who get infected with it. a person should seek treatment immediately after bitten by a rabid animal. A dog becomes restless and has difficulty eating and drinking. which is why households are always encouraged to have their dogs vaccinated and restricted within their properties. with approximately 600 citizens dying of it every year.Post-exposure treatment is given to persons who are exposed to rabid animals. The most obvious sign would be the hanging of the tongue and continuous drooling. Consult a physician or go to your nearest Animal Bite Center for immunization. confine him in a cage or at least leash him in an isolated area. what should be properly done? a. even though they normally have a friendly disposition. Rabies is usually transmitted from a dog’s saliva and enters the body through breaks in the skin. There are two types of rabies: the furious type and the dumb type. Rabies is a rampant health problem in the country. the most obvious and popular symptoms of rabid dog is the continuous foaming of the mouth.
make sure to get medical attention immediately. the signs of infection include: fever. . Better yet. In humans.above. If bitten by a rabid dog. it is most likely rabid. If the dog dies within two weeks. make sure to have your dogs vaccinated every year and keep them within the confines of your home or property. vomiting and headache. bring the dog to a veterinarian for proper observation. An infected person will experience dysfunction in the nervous system such as hallucination and paralysis. nausea. To prevent the incidence of rabies in your area.
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