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A PROJECT ON WASTE MANAGEMENT COMMOM EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT (A STEP TOWARDS BETTER ENVIRONMENT)
SUBMITTED BY Ms. VIRAL PATEL T.Y.B.M.S
SUBJECTED TO UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI 2007-2008
GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE S.V ROAD MALAD (WEST) MUMBAI - 400 064
COMMON EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT A STEP TOWARDS BETTER ENVIRONMENT
I, Ms. VIRAL PATEL of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College, Malad TYBMS (SEMESTER V) hereby declare that I have completed the project on WASTE MANAGEMENT in the knowledge. academic year 200708.The information submitted is true and original to the best of my
SIGNATURE OF THE STUDENT
Y. GURUNATHAN PILLAI (Project Guide) hereby certifies that Ms VIRAL PATEL of T. MALAD (W).M. Prof. MUMBAI.B.The information submitted is true and original to the best of my knowledge. 4 .400 064 CERTIFICATE I. MALAD WASTE MANAGEMENT has completed the project in the academic year 2007-08 .S (Semester V ) of GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS COLLEGE.Waste Management RAJASTHANI SAMMELAN’S GHANSHYAMDAS SARAF GIRLS’ COLLEGE (Arts & Commerce) ACCREDITED BY NAAC WITH ‘A’ GRADE S.V. ROAD.
guidance. GURUNATHAN PILLAI for being my project guide and for giving his valuable advice. and suggestion on the subject. 5 .Waste Management Project Co-ordinator Date: College seal Principal ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I sincerely thank the teaching faculty of the self financing department of Ghansyhamdas Saraf Girls College and also to the university of Mumbai to give us such big opportunity to work upon this project. My thanks are also due to the college library for providing me necessary books. Thanks GESCL) are due to Mr. support. I would particularly like to thank Prof. I also wish to thank all the employees of the GESCL who shared their views while acquiring some of the information and for all the support and help rendered in compilation of the project. useful material and information on the subject. for providing JATIN PATEL (Managing Director of guidance.
Waste Management I thus acknowledge their contribution with full sincerity. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost. and other socioeconomic and cultural factors. Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental. VIRAL PATEL EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the protection of the environment and of human health. Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had a unintended and negative impact on the urban environment generation of wastes far beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies. jobs and income levels. Implementing a "less is better" concept provides better protection of human health and safety by reducing exposures. Waste management is closely related to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles. Cities are now grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste. and economic impacts. resource consumption patterns. human health and safety. It is not only a technical environmental issue but also a highly political one. generating less demand for disposal on the environment. the disposal technologies and 6 . the costs involved.
7 .Waste Management methodologies. These issues have been amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities around the world. But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find solutions . focusing on life cycles (rather than end-of-pipe solutions). There is a need for a complete rethinking of "waste" .driven at the community level. and the impact of wastes on the local and global environment.involving the community and the private sector. and using low energy/low technology resources. to move more towards waste processing and waste recycling (that involves publicprivate partnerships. A rethinking that calls for WASTE to become WEALTH REFUSE to become RESOURCE TRASH to become CASH There is a clear need for the current approach of waste disposal that is focused on municipalities and uses high energy/high technology. aiming for eventual waste minimization . involving innovative technologies and disposal methods. and involving behaviour changes and awareness raising.to analyze if waste is indeed waste. understanding economic benefits/recovery of waste. Some of the defining criteria for future waste minimization programmes will include deeper community participation.
8 .What is waste . minimizing environmental impacts.Industrial wastewater treatment .How to dispose of water wastes .Preventive measures Waste water management . 5.Company Profile .What is waste management .Classification of waste water . Content Waste management introduction . INDEX Serial no.Introduction .History of waste management About waste mangement .Waste management concepts . 1.Health impacts of waste .Process overview Page no. 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 17 22 27 31 33 41 44 45 47 49 51 53 2.Types of waste .Waste Management decentralized administration of waste.Waste collection methods . 4. 3.Water Conservation . reconciling investment costs with long-term goals.Recycling and its advantages Waste management in India About the visit to GESCSL .Waste disposal methods .What is management .
9 . I have used the internet. some books from the library. Primary research can often prove more relevant than secondary research because the primary research can be co-ordinated to facts and data you want retrieve. Mainly.Waste Management . Secondary Research Secondary research is a method of research carried out of another company or organization. I have visited an industrial waste water purification plant in order to know the process to purify the waste water of various industries.Laboratory . Primary Research Primary research is a data you retrieve by doing some fieldwork.Secured landfill facility 55 58. I have got the required information from various sources. Research Methodology I have used both primary and secondary research method for the purpose of my project.
Waste Management What is waste? Waste is rubbish. Waste may also be intangible in the case of wasted time or wasted opportunities. 10 . trash. which have been used inefficiently or inappropriately. or junk is unwanted or undesired material. It is usually strongly linked with pollution. garbage. or gas or as waste heat. The term waste implies things. There are a number of different types of waste. liquid. It can exist as a solid. When released in the latter two states the wastes can be referred to as emissions.
and is set out in different acts of waste legislation. material. One view comes from the individual or organization producing the material. There are two main definitions of waste. e. glass or paper. metals.g. plastic bottles. intellectual or intangible). The biodegradable component of wastes (e. If it is not dealt with sustainably in this manner biodegradable waste can contribute to greenhouse gas emissions and by implication climate change. the word "manage" comes from the Italian maneggiare (to handle — especially a horse). the second is the view of Government.g. What is management? The term "management" characterizes the process of and/or the personnel leading and directing all or part of an organization (often a business) through the deployment and manipulation of resources (human. financial.Waste Management Some components of waste can be recycled once recovered from the waste stream. The two have to combine to ensure the safe and legal disposal of the waste. According to the Oxford English Dictionary. paper & food waste) can be composted or anaerobicly digested to produce soil improvers and renewable fuels. which in turn 11 .
usually ones produced by human activity. recycling or disposal of waste materials. A sub focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them. liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each. in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. processing (waste treatment). The French word mesnagement (later ménagement) influenced the development in meaning of the English word management in the 17th and 18th centuries.Waste Management derives from the Latin manus (hand). Waste management can involve solid. transport. What is waste management? Waste management is the collection. 12 .
while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. and for residential. Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those who scavenge and unknowingly reuses contaminate items. 13 . 2.Waste Management Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations. the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant mainly due to the low population densities. Common wastes produced during the early ages were mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes. Prevent the spread of infection to the local community. The history of waste management Historically. Waste management for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities. The purpose of waste management is to: 1. Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the waste. Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury. and commercial producers. and these were released back into the ground locally. 4. coupled with the fact there was very little exploitation of natural resources. 3. for urban and rural areas. with minimal environmental impact. industrial. Safely dispose of hazardous materials 5.
With the advent of industrial revolution. The Plague. wood was widely used for most applications. and contaminated water supply. waste management became a critical issue. This was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. They were perpetuated by filth that harbored rats. reuse of wood has been well documented Nevertheless. Waste has played a tremendous role in history. This section presents some of the most general. Waste management concepts There are a number of concepts about waste management.Waste Management Before the widespread use of metals. were diseases that altered the populations of many country. Waste hierarchy 14 . There was a consequent increase in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and environment. cholera and typhoid fever. It was not uncommon for everybody to throw their waste and human wastes out of the window which would decompose in the street. widely-used concepts. it is once again well documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans. However. which vary in their usage between countries or regions. to mention a few.
and that a thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of looking at waste.the now larger scraps are then used for cutting small parts of the pattern. with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws. Some "rethink" solutions may be counter-intuitive. The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies.Waste Management The waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce. reuse and recycle. This type of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry. Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other 15 . The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste. such as cutting fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -. Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think". resulting in a decrease in net waste. which classify waste management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.
16 . do not have a formal waste-collection system in place. and product formulation. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the more preventive aspects of source reduction but. raw material inputs.PAYT) which has been effective in reducing the size of the municipal waste stream. Toxics use reduction is a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. the term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction. especially those in less developed countries. and it would be impossible to describe them all. due to its emphasis on toxic chemical inputs. Source reduction methods involve changes in manufacturing technology. At times.Waste Management materials by modifying industrial production. Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. WASTE COLLECTION METHODS Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions. Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many areas. Many communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw . Toxics use reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states .
Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill. in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre (63.Waste Management For example.S. In rural areas people usually dispose of their waste by hauling it to a transfer station.or rear-loading compactor trucks. a few communities use a proprietary collection system known as Envac. In Europe and a few other places around the world.4 U. WASTE DISPOSAL METHODS 17 . In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most common method of disposal. whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or organics on a scheduled basis. gallon) bin that is emptied weekly from the curb using side. which conveys refuse via underground conduits using a vacuum system.
Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the area and type of waste material. For example, in Australia, the most common method of disposal of solid household waste is in landfill sites, as it is a large country with a low-density population. By contrast, in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the country is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types (such as liquid sewage) will be disposed of in different ways in both countries.
Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional method of waste disposal, and it remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, quarries, borrow landfills were or often established in disused mining pits. A voids properly-
designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method A landfill compaction vehicle in operation of disposing of waste materials in a way that minimises their impact on the local environment. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-managed landfills can
create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals and other materials in the waste to produce the leachate which can pollute groundwater and surface water. Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas. Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate, such as clay or plastic lining material. Disposed waste is normally compacted to increase its density and stablise the new landform, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as mice or rats) and reduce the amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Even flaring the gas is a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this consumes the methane, which is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to establish new landfills due to opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few people want a landfill in their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste disposal in these areas has become more expensive as material must be transported further away for disposal (or managed by other methods).
This fact, as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive materials consumption, has given rise to efforts to minimise the amount of orts include taxing or levying waste sent to landfill, recycling the materials, converting material to energy, designing products that use less material, and legislation mandating that manufacturers become responsible for disposal costs of products or packaging. A related subject is that of industrial ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The byproducts of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a reduced materials waste stream.
gaseous emissions. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are described as "thermal treatment". A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors. This type of incinerator is sometimes called an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility. Massachusetts. Sweden has been a leader in using the energy generated from incineration over the past 20 years. Other types of thermal treatment include pyrolysis and gasification. as they do not consume as much area as a landfill. and residual solid ash. incineration of waste materials converts the waste into heat. the first plant in the United States. Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource. Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of waste at high temperatures. In effect. It is recognised as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste). though it 21 .Waste Management A waste-to-energy plant in Saugus.
The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as secondary resource recovery. recycling. as there is a finite supply of most raw materials. In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by way of manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be sold in the recycling market. instead of simply a challenge to be managed and disposed of. There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials. The practice of treating waste materials as a resource is becoming more common. Resource recovery A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a resource to be exploited. especially in metropolitan areas where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled. or the calorific content of the waste may be converted to electricity. with new technologies and methods being developed continuously. and other terms.Waste Management remains a controversial method of waste disposal in many places due to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants. These unrecognised 22 . There is also a growing acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long term.
although not as commonly collected. newspapers. Other types of plastic (PVC. magazines. There is an increasing trend in recognising their contribution to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste management systems. making them relatively easy to recycle into new products. They are collected and sorted into common groups.Waste Management workers called waste pickers or rag pickers. and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries has come to refer to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials. food and aerosol cans. and cardboard. In developed countries. However. the very high human cost of these activities including disease. so that the raw materials from these items can be used again (recycled). PP. but more costly 23 . paperboard cartons. injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country Recycling Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered waste. are part of the informal sector. LDPE. These items are usually composed of a single type of material. steel. which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help in urban poverty alleviation. glass bottles and jars. but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid Waste Management departments. HDPE and PET plastic bottles.The recycling of obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important. the most common consumer items recycled include aluminium beverage cans.
It usually requires significantly less energy. such as selenium and cadmium. In some countries. most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of recycling these materials. as choice items are removed (such as aluminium cans). Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new (virgin) materials.Waste Management due to the separation and extraction problems. recycling programs are subsidised by deposits paid on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation). For example. where recovery of the gold and copper can cause environmental problems (monitors contain lead and various "heavy metals". Practices such as trash picking can reduce this value further. both are commonly found in electronic items). compared with extracting virgin materials. water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce new materials. The cost of collecting and sorting the materials often means that they are equally or more expensive than virgin materials. Much electronic waste is sent to Asia. However. This is most often the case in developed countries where industries producing the raw materials are well-established. The economics of recycling junked automobiles also depends on the scrap metal market except where recycling is mandated by legislation (as in Germany). 24 .
recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore (source: U.S.Waste Management recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the generation of 15. Bureau of Mines).17 tonnes CO2 greenhouse gases. 25 .
Disadvantages • Inexpensive to build and operate • High energy requirement • Requires skilled personnel and continuous maintenance Unsightly-smell waste. Disadvantages Recycling Advantages 26 . rodents etc.Waste Management Waste Disposal Methods Advantages and Disadvantages Ocean dumping Advantages • Convenient • inexpensive • source of material. design and operation. shelter and breeding Sanitary landfill Advantages • volume can increase with little addition of people/equipment • filled land can be reused for other community purposes. Damage due to air pollution • Groundwater and run off pollution.vermin. Incineration Advantages • requires minimum land • can be operated in any weather • produces stable odorfree residue • refuse volume is reduced by half Open dumping Advantages Inexpensive • • • • Disadvantages ocean overburdened destruction of food sources killing of plankton desalination Disadvantages • completed landfill areas can and requires maintenance • requires proper planning. Disadvantages • Health hazard.insects.
Some wastes cannot push needed • Separation of useful material from waste difficult. Types of solid waste Household waste Industrial waste Biomedical or hospital waste 27 .Waste Management liviable environment for the future.
This garbage is generated mainly from residential and commercial complexes. spray cans. b)Industrial waste as hazardous waste c) Biomedical waste or hospital waste as infectious waste. Garbage: the four broad categories Organic waste: kitchen waste. metals.Solid waste can be classified into different types depending on their source: a) Household waste is generally classified as municipal waste. paints. chemicals. Over the last few years. construction and demolition debris. and waste from streets. flowers. Toxic waste: old medicines. in 1997 it was about 48 million tonnes. the amount of municipal solid waste has been increasing rapidly and its composition changing. With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and food habits. sanitation residue. Recyclable: paper. Soiled: hospital waste such as cloth soiled with blood and other fluids. In India. plastics. glass. fruits. shoe polish. In 1947 cities and towns in India generated an estimated 6 million tonnes of solid waste. batteries. today one will not see a single piece of 28 plastic in the entire district of Ladakh where the local authorities imposed a ban . bulbs. 70% of the Indian cities lack adequate capacity to transport it and there are no sanitary landfills to dispose of the waste. For example. fertilizer and pesticide containers. aluminium foils. Waste Management Municipal solid waste Municipal solid waste consists of household waste. plastics. vegetables. The existing landfills are neither well equipped nor well managed and are not lined properly to protect against contamination of soil and groundwater. the consumer market has grown rapidly leading to products being packed in cans. some municipal areas have banned the use of plastics and they seem to have achieved success. More than 25% of the municipal solid waste is not collected at all. leaves. and other such nonbiodegradable items that cause incalculable harm to the environment.
This leads to unhygienic conditions and thereby to a rise in the health problems. and water. air. However. Impacts of solid waste on health 29 . The plague outbreak in Surat is a good example of a city suffering due to the callous attitude of the local body in maintaining cleanliness in the city. especially excreta and other liquid and solid waste from households and the community. and other creatures that in turn spread disease. With increase in the global population and the rising demand for food and other essentials. Unattended waste lying around attracts flies. Waste that is not properly managed. either due to resource crunch or inefficient infrastructure.Waste Management Health impacts of waste Modernization and progress has had its share of disadvantages and one of the main aspects of concern is the pollution it is causing to the earth – be it land. it can cause serious impacts on health and problems to the surrounding environment. Plastic waste is another cause for ill health. Thus excessive solid waste that is generated should be controlled by taking certain preventive measures. are a serious health hazard and lead to the spread of infectious diseases. rats. Normally it is the wet waste that decomposes and releases a bad odour. there has been a rise in the amount of waste being generated daily by each household. This waste is ultimately thrown into municipal waste collection centres from where it is collected by the area municipalities to be further thrown into the landfills and dumps. If at this stage the management and disposal is improperly done. not all of this waste gets collected and transported to the final dumpsites.
Waste Management The group at risk from the unscientific disposal of solid waste include – the population in areas where there is no proper waste disposal method. Other than this. In particular. Direct handling of solid waste can result in various types of infectious and chronic diseases with the waste workers and the rag pickers being the most vulnerable. whose water supply has become contaminated either due to waste dumping or leakage from landfill sites. and infection. Other high-risk group includes population living close to a waste dump and those. direct exposure can lead to diseases through chemical exposure as the release of chemical waste into the environment leads to chemical poisoning. since they ferment. especially the pre-school children. Waste from agriculture and industries can also cause serious health risks. and workers in facilities producing toxic and infectious material. co-disposal of industrial hazardous waste with municipal waste can expose people to chemical and radioactive hazards. Uncollected 30 . Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. creating conditions favourable to the survival and growth of microbial pathogens. children being more vulnerable to these pollutants. Uncollected solid waste also increases risk of injury. In fact. Exposure to hazardous waste can affect human health. organic domestic waste poses a serious threat. waste workers.
Waste dumped near a water source also causes contamination of the water body or the ground water source. health care centres. medical laboratories. Direct dumping of untreated waste in rivers.Waste Management solid waste can also obstruct storm water runoff. and other types of infectious waste are often disposed with the regular non-infectious waste. and research centres such as discarded syringe needles. Landfill sites should be well lined and walled to ensure that there is no leakage into the nearby ground water sources. Ideally these sites should be located at a safe distance from all human settlement. seas. Recycling too carries health risks if proper precautions are not taken. Waste treatment and disposal sites can also create health hazards for the neighbourhood. resulting in the forming of stagnant water bodies that become the breeding ground of disease. and lakes results in the accumulation of toxic substances in the food chain through the plants and animals that feed on it. bandages. Improperly operated incineration plants cause air pollution and improperly managed and designed landfills attract all types of insects and rodents that spread disease. Disposal of health-care wastes require special 31 . swabs. plasters. This waste generated from the hospitals. Disposal of hospital and other medical waste requires special attention since this can create major health hazards. Workers working with waste containing chemical and metals may experience toxic exposure.
especially during landfill operations. Occupational hazards associated with waste handling Infections Skin and blood infections resulting from direct contact with waste. Intestinal infections that are transmitted by flies feeding on the waste. through wounds caused by discarded syringes. Infecting wounds resulting from contact with sharp objects. Eye and respiratory infections resulting from exposure to infected dust. Rag pickers and others who are involved in scavenging in the waste dumps for items that can be recycled.Waste Management attention since it can create major health hazards. Accidents Bone and muscle disorders resulting from the handling of heavy containers. 32 . and from infected wounds. Poisoning and chemical burns resulting from contact with small amounts of hazardous chemical waste mixed with general waste. Chronic diseases Incineration operators are at risk of chronic respiratory diseases. including cancers resulting from exposure to dust and hazardous compounds. may sustain injuries and come into direct contact with these infectious items. Different diseases that results from the bites of animals feeding on the waste. such as Hepatitis B and C.
and polychlorinated biphenyls are highly toxic and exposure can lead to disease or death. the Government of Himachal Pradesh has banned the use of plastics and so has Ladakh district. Many studies have been carried out in various parts of the world to establish a connection between health and hazardous waste. and cadmium. Coloured plastics are harmful as their pigment contains heavy metals that are highly toxic. Some studies have detected excesses of cancer in residents exposed to hazardous waste. lead. e. cyanides. mercury.Waste Management Burns and other injuries resulting from occupational accidents at waste disposal sites or from methane gas explosion at landfill sites. Diseases Certain chemicals if released untreated. colour plastics have been legally banned. Other states should emulate their example. In most industrialized countries. In India. Some of the harmful metals found in plastics are copper. selenium. chromium. 33 . cobalt. The role of plastics The unhygienic use and disposal of plastics and its effects on human health has become a matter of concern.g.
attracts insects and causes disease. In fact. 34 . the organic part of the waste that is generated decomposes more easily.Waste Management Preventive measure Proper methods of waste disposal have to be undertaken to ensure that it does not affect the environment around the area or cause health hazards to the people living there. At the household-level proper segregation of waste has to be done and it should be ensured that all organic matter is kept aside for composting. Organic waste can be composted and then used as a fertilizer. which is undoubtedly the best method for the correct disposal of this segment of the waste.
These thermal power plants are run on fossil fuels (mostly coal) and are responsible for the emission of huge amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants . serious thought: -Electricity is the main source of power in urban areas.We use a huge quantity of paper in our work at schools and in offices. All our gadgets run on electricity generated mainly from thermal power plants. Give these points a good. Have we ever thought about the number of trees that we use in a day? 35 .Waste Management How we all contribute everyday? All of us in our daily lives contribute our bit to this change in the climate. buses. These are run mainly on petrol or diesel both fossil fuels. and trucks are the principal ways by which goods and people are transported in most of our cities. We generate large quantities of waste in the form of plastics that remain in the environment for many years and cause damage .Cars.
New techniques that need no water is highly beneficial. For example. need to operate their plants regularly without looking for savings. Because the land area available for agriculture is limited (and in fact.Timber is used in large quantities for construction of houses. such high-yielding varieties of crops require large quantities of fertilizers. PREVENTION & CONTROL OF WATER WASTE Water pollution are contributed due to industrial effluents and sewage. where it is already in existence. is actually shrinking as a result of ecological degradation!). . Some of the wet processes is replaced by the dry processes.A growing population has meant more and more mouths to feed. and more fertilizer means more emissions of nitrous oxide. Effluent treatment systems have to be incorporated in industry. high-yielding varieties of crop are being grown to increase the agricultural output from a given area of land. metal 36 . Industries.Waste Management . 1. which means that large areas of forest have to be cut down. The time has came to avert major disaster. However.
for reduction in pollution load and the diluted wastes after minor treatment is utilised for irrigation. For instance. 6. low in volume. 2. the waste water that is less polluted may be used in rinsing. To minimize the volume of effluents. The sludge from pulp and paper industry may be used for manufacturing boards used in packing or in preparation of artificial wooden panels while those from the electroplating industry may form water–proofing compounds. 3. It can be segregated from other streams of diluted wastes. near agricultural lands and on roads. the final rinse water containing little alkali is used for the first and second rinsing of yarn containing excess alkali. This method is used for treating tannery effluents. 37 . The sludge obtained is a problem. 4. 5. For instance. Small industries cannot afford treatment plants as they frequently discharge their effluents. Concentrated wastes. in the mercerizing of yarn.Waste Management pickling once carried out by acids is replaced by sand blasting in which no liquid effluent is generated. in our country distilleries can set up bio-gas plants which are fed by their effluents resulting in reduction in fuel costs and decrease in effluent’s strength. are mingled with diluted waste for treatment or disposal. It can be avoided by setting up a common effluent treatment plant where industries are located. Waste can be converted into wealth.
sugar industries and distilleries that let out more effluents can be used for irrigation or as fertilizers after proper treatment. Waste Water Management Water is one of the most essential parts for human survival. The reclaimed waste water can be reused for industrial processes such as boiler. cooling. irrigation. Human water demand for industrial water supply. and generation of power is ever increasing with development of civilization. In view of the wide range of 38 . Since the start of the industrial revolution and the fast expanding agricultural activities water resource began to deteriorate with time.Waste Management Recovery of chemicals and metals is practiced in most industries. which will help cut down the fresh water needs. feeding. without affecting ground water. And paper mills.
which eliminates pathogens before disposal. or washing the dishes. Process waste waters: These waters are produced by some industrial processes and include the undesired liquid product of any unit operation. by human activities making it harmful for living plants and animals. solutes and suspended mater in the water. Domestic waste waters: These waters are produced by the mere acts of living such as using the bathroom. In any case water quality is usually affected. There are three different groups of wastewater to be considered. Water quality. while others may be toxic 3. directly or indirectly. in general. Industrial operations produce a liquid product that almost always must be treated before being returned to the environment. doing laundry. Classifications of Waste Water 1. is determined by the gases. Waters can be 39 . Cooling waste waters: These waters are produced as a result of some sort of heat exchanger where heat is removed from the product. Some may rob oxygen from the environment. The major concern with these wastes is the reactions that may occur with the environment being either direct or indirect. These wastes are normally handled by the sanitation department.Waste Management activities affecting the quality of water. a large number of variables are to be considered to describe water quality and water use. 2.
Recycling creates the necessity for periodic cleaning. 40 . This type of waste must also be monitored and often treated. and is also a major factor in thermal pollution of water sources.Waste Management used once or recycled. where at least some may be released into the environment.
The idea of ground water recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many cities. had one of the most sophisticated urban water supply and sewage 41 systems in the world. In ancient India. Over the years rising populations. and expanding agriculture have pushed up the demand for water. The fact that the people were well acquainted with . Some ancient Indian methods of water conservation The Indus Valley Civilization. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs and digging wells.000 years ago. and rivers. water seeps gently into the ground as vegetation breaks the fall. In the forests. growing industrialization. that flourished along the banks of the river Indus and other parts of western and northern India about 5. This groundwater in turn feeds wells. lakes. people believed that forests were the 'mothers' of rivers and worshipped the sources of these water bodies. some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate (remove salts) water. Water conservation has become the need of the day. Protecting forests means protecting water 'catchments'.Waste Management Water conservation Our ancient religious texts and epics give a good insight into the water storage and conservation systems that prevailed in those days.
and Legionnaires' Disease can be the fatal consequence. and rinsing. cleaning. Domestic water can become unsafe to drink if proper hygiene measures are neglected. such as: heating. This can save money in three ways: lower charges for lower water consumption.Waste Management Industrial wastewater treatment Industrial Waste Water Treatment can be classified into the following categories: • • • Boiler water treatment Cooling water treatment Wastewater treatment Water treatment is used to optimize most water-based industrial processes. the warm. dirty water they can contain will encourage bacteria to grow. Cooling towers can also scale up and corrode. cooling. lower charges for the smaller volume of effluent water 42 . and these deposits will mean more fuel is needed to heat the same amount of water. With the proper treatment. In many cases. so that operating costs and risks are reduced. Poor water treatment lets water interact with the surfaces of pipes and vessels which contain it. Steam boilers can scale up or corrode. but left untreated. effluent water from one process might be perfectly suitable for reuse in another process somewhere else on site. processing. a significant proportion of industrial on-site wastewater might be reusable.
fungal spores and so on collect in the water and create a sort of "microbial soup" if not treated with biocides. Most 43 . Boilers do not have many problems with microbes as the high temperatures prevents their growth. as wet cooling towers are very efficient air scrubbers. microbiological activity and disposal of residual wastewater. but corrosion can also lead to leaks. Scale is a problem because it insulates and heat exchange becomes less efficient as the scale thickens. The corrosion products can cause similar problems to scale. Scaling occurs when the chemistry and temperature conditions are such that the dissolved mineral salts in the water are caused to precipitate and form solid crystalline deposits. like a fine silt. grass. Corrosion occurs when the parent metal oxidises (as iron rusts. which in a pressurised system can lead to catastrophic failures. Microbes can thrive in untreated cooling water. corrosion. Scale also narrows pipe widths and therefore increases the energy used in pumping the water through the pipes. which is warm and sometimes full of organic nutrients. or can build up in layers on the metal surfaces of the systems. Dust. which wastes energy. These can be mobile. Industrial water treatment seeks to manage four main problem areas: scaling.Waste Management discharged and lower energy costs due to the recovery of heat in recycled wastewater. for example) and gradually the integrity of the plant equipment is compromised. flies.
44 . chemical and petrochemical plants have onsite facilities to treat their wastewaters so that the pollutant concentrations in the treated wastewater comply with the local and/or national regulations regarding disposal of wastewaters into community treatment plants or into rivers. lakes or oceans.Waste Management outbreaks of the deadly Legionnaires' Disease have been traced to unmanaged cooling towers. and the UK has had stringent Health & Safety Guidelines concerning cooling tower operations for many years as have had governmental agencies in other countries. Most petroleum refineries. Disposal of residual wastewaters from an industrial plant is a difficult and costly problem.
STEP 6: Wash and dry hands or use an antiseptic handrub as described above. STEP 2: Carefully pour wastes down a utility sink drain or into a flushable toilet and rinse the toilet or sink carefully and thoroughly with water to remove residual wastes. urine and other body fluids) requires special handling. 45 . human tissue. dispose of liquids in a deep. Avoid splashing. because it may pose an infectious risk to healthcare workers who contact or handle the waste. blood. also be poured into the latrine.g. STEP 1: Wear PPE (utility gloves.Waste Management HOW TO DISPOSE OF WATER WASTES Liquid contaminated waste (e. hospital sewage must also be treated and disinfected.5% chlorine solution for 10 minutes before washing them.. STEP 3: If a sewage system doesn’t exist. not into open drains. covered hole. STEP 5: Remove utility gloves (wash daily or when visibly soiled and dry). Cholera Epidemic In case of a cholera epidemic. feces. protective eyewear and plastic apron) Note: Liquid wastes can when handling and transporting liquid wastes. STEP 4: Decontaminate specimen containers by placing them in a 0.
The sources typically are treated effluent from effluent treatment plant. "In-house" source of good suitable for any end usage. floor washings. • Recycled water can be treated to almost any standards hence is Reduction in "Fresh water" intake and the costs associated with it.Waste Management Advantages of Recycling & Reuse Of Waste Water • Reduction in interference with the Environment will increase by reducing or eliminating the effluent discharge. Recycled water is like creation of "New". It is an effective approach towards 'Sero Liquid Discharge'. • quality water largely unaffected by external factors. • • Reduction in "Disposal Volume" and the costs associated with it. the recycled water shall provide "ongoing savings".14000. • Recycling & reuse is an approach towards ISO . In areas where "fresh water" cost is presently high or likely to be hiked. End use of recycled water the recycled water generated from waste water can be used for various 46 . boiler blow down. Sources of waste water for recycle & reuse In a running industry the water in untreated or treated form is used for various applications. Hence the waste water is being generated in various sections.
chillers. boiler feed cooling tower. Process of recycling 47 . as soft water gardening etc.Waste Management applications after suitable post – treatment like process water.
Waste can be wealth. over 400 million people clustered in cities over the next thirty years (UN. i. India. Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. will have more than 40 per cent.e. fails even to manage waste in a cyclic process. which examines waste as part of a cycle of production-consumption-recovery or perceives the issue of waste through a prism of overall sustainability. such as India. creating health and environmental hazards. Till now. interventions have been fragmented and are often contradictory. which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than spreading pollution as has been the case. But a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated holistically. which came into effect from January 2004. recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. if a new paradigm for approaching it is not created. 48 .Waste Management WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA There is no Indian policy document. the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. Developing countries. Waste management still is a linear system of collection and disposal. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000. New consumption patterns and social linkages are emerging. Increasing urban migration and a high density of population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future. are undergoing a massive migration of their population from rural to urban centres. In fact.
especially over the past few years. environmental regulators. Critical issues such as industry responsibility. Urban planners. There is. There have been a variety of policy responses to the problem of urban solid waste in India. citizens’ groups and nongovernmental organizations need to develop a variety of responses which are rooted in local dynamics. 49 . but they do so in a piece meal manner and do not address the framework needed to enable this to happen. yet sustainable solutions either of organic or inorganic waste remains an untapped and unattended area. This new paradigm should include a cradle-to-grave approach with responsibility being shared by many stakeholders. municipal agencies. however. rather than borrow non-contextual solutions from elsewhere. including product manufacturers. say better packing. the recycling industry. both of infrastructure requirements as well as its social dimensions. municipalities and the urban poor. Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste. labour groups. a critical paradigm to enable sustainable recycling and to catalyse waste reduction through. All policy documents as well as legislation dealing with urban solid waste mention or acknowledge recycling as one of the ways of diverting waste.Waste Management 1995). trade. an inadequate understanding of the problem. has not been touched upon. consumers and communities. which increases in quantity. and changes in composition with each passing day.
11 crore Sabarmati Total Rs. 10. The land for the project is given at the token price of Rs.C.e. Power Requirement : The total connected power is 1100KW Supplied by A. Salient features of the plant : a) It has a state of art technology called as AIS (Advent's Intergral 50 . 18.17 crore Treatment units Rs.28 crore Source of Finance : Contribution from Member units Subsidy from Central/State Govt.75 crore Rs. Technology : M/s.00 crore Conveyance line upto AMC Pirana Plant Rs. 1150 lacs from Industrial Development Bank of India and same has been prepaid before maturity. S 24106 Dated 08-09-1992) Land Area : The Total Land area is 21000 sq. Vatva. Operative Society Limited formed by the member units of GIDC Estate. in May 98. Total Rs. In case of power failure they have stand by DG set of 1000 KVA which is sufficient to run the entire project. 22. 5. 32. Internal collection systems Rs. Cost of Project : The total cost of the project is about Rs. 33.00 crore. (Registration No. The construction work was started in March 96 and the plant was pre-commissioned in just two year i.E.Waste Management COMPANY PROFILE Constitution : The CETP at Vatva is managed by a Co. Advent Corporation USA has carried out the process design of the CETP. 10. Ltd. 1 by GIDC. mtrs.operative Society named The Green Environment Services Co.23 crore Rs.98 crore Society has obtained the loan amounting Rs. 32.
51 . INTRODUCTION The Vatva Industrial Estate has been developed by Gujarat Industries Development Corporation in the year 1960 to accommodate small scale and medium scale industries. Tank as it's designed based on gravity flow only through the system. 20/kg.Q. This Estate is located in the south east direction of Ahmedabad City on Ahmedabad-Mehmadabad state highway. c) There are no moving parts in the Aeration Tank as well as clarifier. 200/MT. b) The advantage of this system is about 66% saving in land area. which helps us in improving the quality of Influent of CETP.Waste Management System) Which consists Aeration system with Inbuit clarifier. Incase of exceeding in any of the parameter than the specified by us. They Collect extra treatment charges from the Member units who discharge their Effluent exceeding specified norms given by GESCSL. d) There is no pumping anywhere in the plant once effluent reaches to E. Charging Basis : Effluent Rs. they are calling them individually against our technical committee and proper technology is being guided to them to control it at their premises itself. project cost and power supply as compared to conventional systems. Toc/DAY Solid waste : Rs.
Dyes & Dye Intermediates manufacturers. with the support of Vatva Industries Association and Gujarat Dyestuff Manufacturer's Association. It is therefore necessary for the member units to give primary treatment to their effluent before discharging the wastewater into ICS of CETP for the further treatment. Process houses. Detailed engineering for the CETP project is carried our by renowed consultant M/s. U. Soc. rolling mills. Advent Corporation. The commissioning and operations supervision is done by advent's Indian Collaborators Advent Envirocare Technology Pvt.".. To treat the effluent by individual member units at source was very difficult and Techno-economically not viable hence to solve this problem. Ltd..Waste Management In this Industrial Estate there are approximately 1800 units. out of which approximately 680 industries generates the effluent. Pigment manufacturers etc. Treated effluent is taken to pirana sewage treatment plant through a closed pipeline.A. Sudarshan Chemicals Ind. Ltd. Pune (India). Ltd. 52 . These units include Pharmaceutical products manafacturers. one of the internationally renowned consultants for the industrial wastewater treatment.S. the most practical and cost-effective approach was adopted by establishing the Common Effluent Treatment Plant under the name "The Green Environment Services Co-op. Ahmedabad. The process designing is carried out by M/s.
The detailed engineering for ICS is carried out by renowed consultant M/s.Waste Management PROCESS OVERVIEW INTERNAL COLLECTION SYSTEM & CONVEYANCE NETWORK There are 680 member units spread in an area of 13.5 sq. 53 . in Vatva Insustrial Complex. The effluent from every member is conveyed through the ICS to CETP in a most scientific and economical way. control system is also provided. To Control the quality & quantity of member’s effluent. km.
C. The 680 members which are scattered in different area of the complex are covered in 92 sump rooms from where. It is obligatory on the part of member to construct discharge tank having holding capacity of waste water of one day volume at 15' height for gravity discharge. The rising mains have a total length of 6119m and their sizes vary from 180mm to 400mm and are made up of HDPE.588 mts. The salient features of the Internal Effluent Collection System are as under. and of different sizes varying from 250mm to 600mm diameter and are made up of R. 5 and its discharge goes to pumping station 5. 54 . All the members discharge their effluent from their over head discharge tank in the respective sumps. so that pumping cost can be minimised. and stoneware. the wastewater flows by gravity to the pumping stations. In all there are six pumping stations located in such a way that maximum flow from sump rooms to pumping stations is available by gravity. One new pumping station No. In Internal Collection System..C.Waste Management Dalal Consultants and Engineers Ltd. The magnetic flow meter & butterfly valves are provided in each sump room maximum 9 connections are given. Gravity mains is having a total pipe length of 17. The wastewater is pumped to CETP from six pumping stations. 7 is installed to divert choked gravity mains of pumping station no. Ahmedabad based on the Technoeconomic feasibility study of the various alternative of ICS.
We have modern and Imported Analytical Instruments for the Analysis. The physical and the chemical analysis of the wastewater from different units of the CETP as well as influent from the individual member is carried out in the laboratory. This CETP is a result of joint efforts and strong determination put together to 55 . The laboratory is functioning round the clock for the determination of various parameters of the effluent and solid waste. The laboratory has been divided into four sections : The Chemistry lab. The TOC lab.Waste Management LABORATORY The CETP has its own in house well equiped. The Microbiology lab. laboratory. The R&D lab.
Waste Management make environment pollution free and earth a better place. TOC Laboratory Analytical Laboratory 56 .
Waste Management Instrument Laboratory 57 .
VATVA Waste Management SECURED LANDFILL FACILITY (SLF) The Society developed three Secured Landfill Sites for the disposal of hazardous solid waste. of Gujarat. 58 The Govt.SCHEMATIC FLOW DIAGRAM OF CETP. Forests and Environment Department notified the area .
CONCLUSION Vasundhara or earth is the only planet in our solar system which can support life so it is very important to save it from various waste hazards. d) ETP sludge. Charges for disposal of solid waste: a ) Rs. The major types of solid waste include: a ) Gypsum Waste. Increasing amounts of wastes generated everyday is becoming a major problem particularly in urban cities around the globe. Thus. 250/ MT of solid waste – member units from Vatva. 400/MT of solid waste.most suitable for developing Secured Landfill Facility. National Productivity Council (NPC). there has been a substantial increase in the generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of 59 . c ) Iron Powder and. b) Rs.member units outside of Vatva. Environmental Waste Management Impact Assessment study was done by Ms. New Delhi. Detailed engineering design. With the rapid growth of population. construction and operation are done in compliance with the guidelines issued by CPCB and GPCB. b) Incinerator ash. Waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the entire planet and all its living creatures.
Instead of treating waste at the end of manufacturing processes. Human activities create waste. water and land resources. the waste can be reduced from source 60 . process engineers have been playing a more important role in waste management by either eliminating emissions at source or recovering and reusing materials that would otherwise be discharged. stored. collected and disposed of that pose risks to the environment and to public health. End Waste Before It Ends Your Life CASE STUDY Waste Minimization Through Plant Process Design And Modification The trend for waste management has been moving from traditional “end-ofpipe” treatment to “waste minimization” solution. This can be achieved using various process design and modification techniques. For instance. and it is the way these wastes are handled. it is rightly said that God Gives Enough to Satisfy Every Man’s Need but not Every Man’s Greed.Waste Management air. Thus.
by changing process or procedure. Cost justification for waste minimization. Barauni and Digboi refineries of IOCL and 4000 MT of sludge was biodegraded during the year 2002-2003 at an average cost of about US$15 per MT of sludge. Implementing and monitoring effective waste minimization principles. 61 . a collaborative research project was launched by Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. To find an environmentally safe and cost effective solution to the problem. by substituting raw materials. Discussions on holistic approach for source reduction . safe disposal of oily sludge in a cost-effective manner is a key issue that has confronted the oil industry in India for a long time. contribute unnecessary waste generation . (IOCL) and Tata Energy Research Institute (TERI).Waste Management by designing or modifying process equipment or technology. over 20. transportation and marketing of petroleum products throughout the country. At a conservative estimate. engaged in the business of refining. For sustainable growth. This led to development of OiliVorous-S.000 MT of oily sludge gets generated in the country every year. Identification of system components and process activities that may Examination of practical techniques for planning . This product was successfully field tested in Mathura. and by improving the housekeeping and inventory control. This topical presentation includes: • • • Introduction of the waste minimization concepts . • • • WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE PETROLEUM INDUSTRY Indian Oil Corporation is the largest commercial enterprise in India. a commercially produced microbial consortium to biodegrade the hazardous constituents of oily sludge.
General Manager (Safety & Environment Protection) INDIAN OIL CORPORATION LIMITED APPENDIX . Bio-remediation / bio-degradation. there are only 10 independent operational treatment. Going by the latest report of the hazardous waste management committee of the Supreme Court. The strategies adopted include: • • • • Minimization of sludge generation at source . Incineration .Waste Management Indian Oil Corporation has adopted a holistic approach for handling oily sludge at its refineries and other locations. storage and disposal facilities (TSDF) for industrial hazardous 62 . In-situ cleaning of tanks by chemical and mechanical means.1 HAZARDOUS WASTE DROWNING GROUND WATER India generates enough untreated hazardous waste to cover the whole of Delhi.
that came into play in 1989.Waste Management waste in the country. According to the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act. However. the TSDFs are still in the process of development. some large companies build their own. While independent TSDFs are open for industries to use at a price. Tamil Nadu. This takes care only 40% of the hazardous waste generated that includes harmful metals like lead and mercury and lethal chemicals.based NGO Toxic Link director Ravi Agarwal said. one of which states the storage time should not exceed three months.” Delhi. since TSDFs involve multi. In Kerela. especially small ones. many companies transport the waste to a state where a TSDF exists while others allow their waste to remain untreated”. Maharashtra. According to industry estimates. The 10 TSDFs are spread out in a few states including Andhra Pradesh. Gujarat and Rajasthan. the Supreme Court asked states to strictly implement the hazardous waste management rules under the Environment Protection Act 63 . hazardous waste must be kept in storage after which it is to be treated in a TSDFs facility.crore investments for development and maintenance. Contamination of ground water due to this is common. rely on independent TSDFs. environment ministry official said. among others. West Bengal and Haryana. In 2003. the country generates 5 million tonnes of hazardous waste every year and 10 TSDFs have the capacity to treat not more than 2 million tonnes. “Since in many states such facilities don’t exist. the environment ministry issued guidelines under the rules. “ The three month guideline is rarely followed and most of the hazardous waste is dumped in open spaces. In 2002. most companies.
It may sound unrealistic. SOURCE. 2007 Thursday APPENDIX . The state authorities are supposed to provide land for TDSFs at a subsidized rate. power your house from plastic waste Asian electronics & Singapore company to Build Power Plants Fired By Liquid Hydrocarbons Electricity from plastic waste. Alka 64 .” said AK Saxena.5th July. A TSDFs includes a laboratory and an incinerator where different waste is treated separately and a landfill where treated waste is disposed. “Lack of availability of appropriate land is the biggest constraint in developing TSDFs and the state governments need to be proactive.deficit India. but it’s now being touted as the technology of future for the power.2 Now.THE ECONOMIC TIMES DATED.Waste Management and had appointed a committee to monitor the implementation of the rules. The bottom of the landfill is covered by a high density polyethylene layer. The apex court said every state must have at least one TSDF. Officials said the Centre and the monitoring committee have repeatedly asked states to identify land for TSDFs. vice president of Ramky Enviro Engineers. that runs 7 TSDFs.
but it’s now being touted as the technology of future for the power-deficit India. It may sound unrealistic. Mumbai. which is running in full steam.Waste Management Umesh Zadgaonkar. is joining hands with two large corporate to make it a commercial success.Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW) each based on this commercially viable’ technology. Alka Umesh Zadgaonkar. The power plants will be set up in Navi Mumbai. Thane and Rajasthan at a total capex of Rs 128 crore. MUMBAI: Electricity from plastic waste. On experimental basis. Europe and the US. AEL had set up a 2 MW plant in Nagpur. who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent. The plants will be fired by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste. The new initiate will take shape through the projects of joint venture company. Bhiwandi. Green Hydrocarbons (GHL) which is registered in Japan.based Asian Electronics (AEL) AND Singapore ‘s environ. is joining hands with two large corporates to make it a commercial success. The plants will be fired by the liquid hydrocarbons produced from plastic waste. according to 65 . who has got six patents in India for the technology and in the process of filing for international patent. Mumbai-based Asian Electronics (AEL) and Singapore’s Enviro-Hub Holdings have teamed up to build four power plants of 8 mega watt (MW) each based on this ‘commercially viable’ technology.
claimed the official. The stock price has seen 43% jump over last one month. said the official. While working as the head 66 . Each plant with a capacity of 12. AEL top management refused to comment on their JV plans and proposals for setting up power plants. Enviro-Hub has access to nearly 50.000 tonnes per annum can be set up at a cost of $12 million. Mrs Zadgaonkar. In the present scenario. he said. who developed the technology for producing fuel from plastic waste. Using our technology. The JV is planning to set up plants to process plastic waste in eight countries in Far-East Asia and Brazil. owns the patent for her invention. executive chairman of Enviro-Hub. AEL’s share price has moved up 2% to close at Rs 908 on BSE. Our estimate is that the plant can generate a revenue of up to $10-$12 million. a part of $260 million Enviro-Hub. has already established its brand name in the global ewaste management and recycling industry. On Wednesday.000 tonnes waste in each of these markets. Cimelia. it can be improved to 90%. only 70% of the crude is refined to fuel.Waste Management The AEL board is expected to clear the proposals on Thursday (July 5). Raymond Ng. told ET from Singapore that his company is looking forward to jointly set up fuel plants in and around Singapore with the help of Unique and AEL. AEL is already in talks Hindustan Petroleum Corporation (HPCL) for a JV to develop technology for optimum conversion of crude oil into petrol and diesel.
Maharashtra Energy Development Agency had signed a memorandum of understanding with Mrs Zadgaonkar for a JV to develop commercial process for fuel from plastic. Mrs Zadgaonkar invented the new method to reuse the hydrocarbons in plastic. After years of refining processes. Rajasthan State Industrial Development & Investment Corporation has expressed interest in setting up similar plants across the state. science and technology. when 300 gm of plastic waste she was processing in her college lab broke down into a dark brown liquid. Mrs Zadgaonkar holds 26% stake. “In US Instruments. petroleum and natural gas. AEL and US Instruments. including coal and mines. It took time to reach a happy confirmation that the derivative was indeed liquid hydrocarbons. “On a December morning almost a decade ago. As per the request of President APJ Abdul Kalam. a company owned by Mrs Zadgaonkar and family.Waste Management of chemistry department in Raisoni Engineering College in Nagpur.” said the official. 67 . have done studies on the process and given permission to start commercial production of fuel from plastic waste. she tested the fuel in bikes and proved successful.” said the official. Enviro-Hub’s subsidiary Cimelia Resource Recovery will hold 50% stake in GHL and the remaining 50% will be owned by Shah-controlled companies. US Instruments has got the manufacturing licence from Unique Waste Plastic Management and Research. the ministries.
a product of petroleum.” said the official. we can convert the waste plastic into oil (70%).3 QUESTIONNAIRE 1. How the process of the plant works? 3. APPENDIX .Waste Management “Plastic. Is the technology oriented or labour oriented? 68 . How much percent of waste do you think is purified? 5. Through the new technology. gives a fuel better than petrol and diesel as the impurities are less when compared to the crude oil. gas (20%) and coke (10%). What do you with the water that is purified? 4. Why did you decided to have a plant for industrial waste water treatment? 2.
Does the government provide any assistance or subsidy for the work done? BIBLIOGRAPHY Reference Material Company (GESCSL) Booklet Pamphlets Newspapers 69 .Waste Management 6.
com 70 .gescsl.Waste Management The Economic Times Times of India Websites www.com www.wikipedia.
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