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By Njegos Nincic

Fourier

Overview

Transforms

Mathematical Introduction

Fourier Transform

**Time-Space Domain and Frequency Domain Discret Fourier Transform
**

Fast Fourier Transform

Applications

Summary References

Transforms

Transform:

In mathematics, a function that results when a given function is multiplied by a so-called kernel function, and the product is integrated between suitable limits. (Britannica)

Can be thought of as a substitution

Transforms

Example of a substitution: Original equation: x4 + 4x² – 8 = 0 Familiar form: ax² + bx + c = 0 Let: y = x² Solve for y x = ±√y

Transforms

Transforms are used in mathematics to solve differential equations: 2t Original equation: y'' 9y 15e

**Apply Laplace Transform:
**

s L y 9 L y

2

15 L y 2 s2 9 s

15 2 s

Take inverse Transform: y = Lˉ¹(y)

Fourier Transform

Property of transforms:

They convert a function from one domain to another with no loss of information

Fourier Transform:

converts a function from the time (or spatial) domain to the frequency domain

**Time Domain and Frequency Domain
**

Time Domain:

Tells us how properties (air pressure in a sound function, for example) change over time:

Amplitude = 100 Frequency = number of cycles in one second = 200 Hz

**Time Domain and Frequency Domain
**

Frequency domain:

Tells us how properties (amplitudes) change over frequencies:

**Time Domain and Frequency Domain
**

Example:

Human ears do not hear wave-like oscilations, but constant tone

Often it is easier to work in the frequency domain

**Time Domain and Frequency Domain
**

In 1807, Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier showed that any periodic signal could be represented by a series of sinusoidal functions

In picture: the composition of the first two functions gives the bottom one

Time Domain and Frequency Domain

Fourier Transform

Because of the property:

Fourier Transform takes us to the frequency domain:

**Discrete Fourier Transform
**

In practice, we often deal with discrete functions (digital signals, for example) Discrete version of the Fourier Transform is much more useful in computer science:

O(n²) time complexity

**Fast Fourier Transform
**

Many techniques introduced that reduce computing time to O(n log n) Most popular one: radix-2 decimation-in-time (DIT) FFT Cooley-Tukey algorithm:

(Divide and conquer)

Applications

In image processing:

Instead of time domain: spatial domain (normal image space) frequency domain: space in which each image value at image position F represents the amount that the intensity values in image I vary over a specific distance related to F

**Applications: Frequency Domain In Images
**

If there is value 20 at the point that represents the frequency 0.1 (or 1 period every 10 pixels). This means that in the corresponding spatial domain image I the intensity values vary from dark to light and back to dark over a distance of 10 pixels, and that the contrast between the lightest and darkest is 40 gray levels

**Applications: Frequency Domain In Images
**

Spatial frequency of an image refers to the rate at which the pixel intensities change In picture on right:

High frequences:

Near center Corners

Low frequences:

**Applications: Image Filtering
**

**Other Applications of the DFT
**

Signal analysis Sound filtering Data compression Partial differential equations Multiplication of large integers

Summary

Transforms:

Useful in mathematics (solving DE) Lets us easily switch between time-space domain and frequency domain so applicable in many other areas Easy to pick out frequencies Many applications

Fourier Transform:

References

Concepts and the frequency domain http://www.spd.eee.strath.ac.uk/~interact/fourier/concepts.html THE FREQUENCY DOMAIN Introduction http://www.netnam.vn/unescocourse/computervision/91.htm JPNM Physics Fourier Transform http://www.med.harvard.edu/JPNM/physics/didactics/improc/intro/fourier2.html Introduction to the Frequency Domain http://zone.ni.com/devzone/conceptd.nsf/webmain/F814BEB1A040CDC6862568460 0508C88 Fourier Transform Filtering Techniques http://www.olympusmicro.com/primer/java/digitalimaging/processing/fouriertransfor m/index.html Fourier Transform (Efunda) http://www.efunda.com/math/fourier_transform/ Integral Transforms http://www.britannica.com/ebc/article?tocId=9368037&query=transform&ct=

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