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study of nature and the facts about environment. Basically environment can be defined as “all the social, economical, physical & chemical factors that surrounds man” (or) “all abiotic and biotic components around man-all living and non living things surrounds man”. Environment Components can be divided into biotic and abiotic components. According to ancient man the environment was the Panchaboodhas (i.e) air, water, land, sky and energy. The human were disciples of nature. They were able to protect themselves from harmful one and protect the others. But according to modern man the env. is only air land and water. Exploitation of various earth resources to satisfy the increasing needs of human population has resulted in 1) depletion of various resources of earth 2) pollution. Principles of environmental education: Examine the major environmental issues discover the root cause develop problem solving skills promote co-operation in solving problems emphasis active participation in prevention and solution to problems.
Scope of environmental science: Studying the interrelationship between the components of env. Carrying out impact analysis and env. Audit Preventing pollution from existing and new industries Stopping the use of biological and nuclear weapons Managing unpredictable disasters etc.
Public awareness: Environmental Pollution or problems cannot be solved by mere laws. Public participation is an important aspect which serves the environmental Protection. Public awareness of environmental Is at infant stage 30-40% of public of developing country are aware of environmental. Problems but they do not bother about it. Ignorance and incomplete knowledge has lead to misconceptions Page 1 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering
Environmental Science and Engineering Development and improvement in std. of living has lead to serious environmental disasters Debate on environmental Issues are treated as anti-developmental
Reasons for environmental Ignorance: science, technology and economics failed to integrate the knowledge on environmental Aspects in curriculum the decision makers do not process environmental Angle of decision making consideration of economic growth, poverty eradication has lead to environmental Degradation only few developmental activities are made considering the environmental Aspects.
Need For Public Awareness: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held at Reo de Janeiro in 1992 (popularly known as „Earth Summit‟) and world summit on sustainable development at Johannesburg in 2002, have highlighted the key issues of global environmental concern. They have attracted the attention of people. Any government at its own cannot achieve the goals of clear environment until the public participate in action. Public participation is possible only when the public is aware about the ecological and environmental issues. Eg. Ban- the littering of polythene. Methods to propagate environmental Awareness: 1. Among students through education – introducing environmental studies in the curriculum. 2. Among public through mass media- environmental programmmes through TV, radio etc. 3. Among decision makers, planners, leaders etc. Role of NGOs 1. Advise the government in interacting with ground level people 2. Organize public meetings to create environmental awareness Eg. Recent report of „centre for science and environment‟ on permissible limits of pesticides in cola drinks. Public awareness is needed in the area 1. study of natural resources-conservation and management 2. ecology and biodiversity – conservation 3. environmental Pollution and prevention Page 2 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering
Environmental Science and Engineering 4. social issues related to development and environment 5. human population and environment. Concept Of Ecosystem: Living organisms cannot be isolated from their non-living environment because the later provides materials and energy for the survival of the farmer. An ecosystem is therefore defined as a natural functional ecological unit comprising of living organisms and their non-living environment that interact to form a stable self supporting system . Eg. Pond, lake, desert, grassland, forest, etc. Ecosystems Ecology – earnest Haeckal- 1869 –derived from „oikos‟ – home , logy – study -deals with the study of organisms in their natural home interacting with their surroundings. Ecosystem – Tansley (1935) – self regulating group of biotic communities of species interacting with one another and with their non-living environment exchanging energy and matter Ecosystem characteristics Structural features – composition and organization of biological communities and abiotic components constitute – Structure of Ecosystem Biotic structure – Plants , animals , microorganisms – form biotic components – nutritional behavior and status in the ecosystem – producers or consumers – how do they get their food. Structure of Ecosystem 1. Abiotic or non-living components or physical components 2. Biotic or Living components 3. Energy components. Abiotic Components: Abiotic components enter the body of living directly or indirectly take part in metabolic activities and return to environment. Abiotic components are as follows 1. Atmosphere –The cover of air that envelopes the earth is known as atmosphere. Compostion – Nitrogen-78%, oxygen- 2%, other gases- 1% 2. Lithosphere or Interior of Earth – Solid Earth –Radius 6371- density -5.5 3. Hydrosphere – 97% earth‟s water is in oceans – Fresh water – 3%.
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Troposphere –lower portion – extends from 0-18 kms.essential for photosynthetic activity of plants.Ozone layer Mesosphere.essential nutrient for plant growth.solid thickness 30 – 40 Km in continents and 5 – 6 km in oceans. 4. 3. Crust – top most layer.extends from 50-85 kms. Producers – Photosynthesis – photoautotroph (auto – self. 2. 3. Temperature – raises up to 1200ºC Exosphere – extends up to 1600 km. Metamorphic. Core – (outer core – solid .light) Chemotrops or Chemosynthetic organisms – Chemicals Consumers – feeding upon other organisms Page 4 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .50 kms.3 – Thickness – 2860 – density increases with depth. animals . N2 . Functions of Ecosystems Ecosystem characteristics Structural features – composition and organization components constitute – Structure of Ecosystem of biological communities and abiotic Biotic structure – Plants . 2. depth – 2900 km from the surface of the earth – density -12 – not exact composition. microorganisms – form biotic components – nutritional behavior and status in the ecosystem – producers or consumers – how do they get their food. Mantle – average density 3.Temperature drops to (-95ºC) Ionosphere or Thermosphere –extends up to 500 kms. photo. Functions of Lithosphere: 1.Temperature (-2ºC to -56ºC ). Functions of Atmosphere: It maintains heat balance on the earth by absorbing IR radiation. 2. Co2 .temperature very high due to solar radiation. Rocks of the earth crust – 3 types – Igneous . Sedimentary. It is home for human beings and wild life.Environmental Science and Engineering Structure of Atmosphere: Five Layers 1. Oxygen – support life on living organism. inner core – liquid). 5. It is store house of minerals and organic matter. temperatureStratosphere -18. Interior of Earth or Lithosphere: Three major Zones 1.
Biotic Components – Abiotic components and viceversa – linked through – energy flow. Food web and trophic structure.ants . 4. N. 5. 2. water availability. O. S. beetles. –strong influence on the ecosystem. H. – physical and chemical components of an ecosystem. matter cyling. Humans. Omnivores – feed on both plants and animals – eg. major essential nutrients – C. water currents etc. soil type. Detritivores . 3. rat. Decomposers – nutrition breaking down in to complex organic molecules to simpler organic organic compounds – bacteria and fungi. earthworms. Energy flow Cycling of Nutrients (Biogeochemical cycles) Primary and secondary production Ecosystem development programme Food Chains Grass Sequence of eating and being eaten in an ecosystem.feed on other carnivores – Tertiary / Consumers. Functional Attributes. fox. crabs. Grasshopper Frog snake Hawk (Grassland Ecosystem) Grazing food chains – Starts with green plants. Physical factors – sunlight .Environmental Science and Engineering Types – Herbivores – Plant eating animals – primary consumers Eg . Grass Rabbit Fox Zooplanktons Small fish Carnivores (fish) Phytoplanktons Page 5 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . rabbit Carnivores – Feed on consumers – Secondary Consumers .annual rainfall.(Detritus feeder or Saprotrophs ) – feed on dead on organisms or decomposed matter eg. P. termites. temperature . 1. Food chain. Chemical factors. Abiotic Structure.
This sequence of eaten and being eaten . The main source of energy in the ecosystem is sunlight. Consumer I order (Deer) Consumer II order (Tiger. Producers (Plants) FOOD WEB: The food relationship between various organisms is being depicted by linking all the possible prey and predators of different food level. About 80% of energy is lost during flow of energy from one trophic level to the next one. produces transfer of food energy known as food chain. In an ecosystem linking of feeding habit relations will provide a food web. The process of energy flow involves transfer of energy from autotrophs to various components of heterotrophs and help in maintaining bio diversity. Lion) Decomposers (Bacteria. The flow of energy from producer level to top consumer level is called energy flow. fungi) Mouse Grass Rabbit Grasshopper snake Hawk Lizard Page 6 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . For living organisms. It flows from producer level to consumer level and never in the reverse direction.Environmental Science and Engineering Food Web Network of food Chains ENERGY FLOW IN ECOSYSTEM: Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. it is the basic force responsible for running all the metabolic activities. The flow of energy in an ecosystem is unidirectional. Small herbivores consume the vegetable matter and convert into animal matter which in turn eaten by large carnivores. Sun Producer Herbivores Carnivores Top carnivores Decomposers ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION FOOD CHAIN Plants by photosynthesis convert solar energy into protoplasm.
In any ecological pyramid the producer forms the base and the successive levels form the tires which can make the apex. The graphical representation of the number. The total mass of herbivores in an ecosystem will generally be less than the total mass of plants. fungi Parasites Birds Tree Page 7 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Grassland ecosystem – pyramid of number – upright pyramid birds insects Worms grass Parasite ecosystem – pyramid of number – inverted pyramid Bacteria. Types of ecological pyramids: a) pyramid of numbers b) pyramid of biomass c) pyramid of energy Eg. Similarly the total mass of carnivores will be less than the total mass of herbivores. biomass and energy of various energy levels is called ecological pyramid.Environmental Science and Engineering ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS: The energy biomass and number of organisms gradually decreases from the producer level to the consumer level.
Environmental Science and Engineering MAJOR TYPES OF ECOSYSTEMS a. Secondary – snakes. evergreen. tigers etc Decomposers : Functional components: Ecological pyramids (upright) fungi. shrubs and animals Structure: Producer Consumer : : trees and shrubs Primary – elephants. bacteria lions lizards deers trees Page 8 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . deer etc. temperature etc Biotic : forest trees. wet green Littoral and swamps Sub tropical Characteristics: Abiotic: soil. birds. sun light. lizards etc Tertiary – lions. FOREST ECOSYSTEM Definition: It is a natural ecosystem consisting of dense growth of trees and wild animals Types: tropical – deciduous.
– A thick layer of ice remains frozen under the soil surface throughout the year – known as permafrost – summer insects and birds appear. – fires are common in dry seasons – termite mounds produce methane – leads to fire – high in photosynthesis – deliberate burning leads to release of high CO2 – global warming. Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds insects Worms grass Page 9 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 2. 3. Savannas in Africa. nutrients. soil moisture. etc. butterfly. Components: Structural Components: Abiotic: soil pH. insects. giraffes etc. Polar grasslands – found in arctic polar region – organism – arctic wolf. Eg. temp. climatic conditions. Biotic: grass. fox. Tropical grass lands – found near the boarders of tropical rain forests. birds. caterpillar. worms. Three types – depending on the climate 1. etc.Environmental Science and Engineering GRASSLAND ECOSYSTEM: dominated by grass – few shrubs and trees are also found – rainfall average but erratic – overgrazing leads to desertification. Animals – Zebra. Very cold winter and very hot summer .dry summer fires do not allow shrubs and trees to grow – soil is quite fertile – cleaned for agriculture. Temperate grasslands – flat and gentle slopes of hills. etc.
2. cold desert-China-Gobi desert Characteristics: 1. Pond ecosystem: Small fresh water ecosystem – seasonal in nature – organisms: algae.AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Definition: Deals with water bodies and biotic communities present in them-Classified as fresh water and marine ecosystems. Vegetation is poor d. swimming etc. aquatic plants. especially during summer is a common one. temperate desert-south California-Majave 3. Climate is hot 3. Fresh water systems are classified as lentic and lotic ecosystems. Types: 1. Air is dry 2. cattle bathing. Ponds are very often exposed to anthropogenic pressure like cloth washing. insects. Annual rainfall is less than 25 cm 4. Page 10 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . tropical desert-found in Africa-Sahara and Rajasthan –Thar 2.Environmental Science and Engineering Energy flow: Grass worms Insects small birds huge birds Decomposition sediments c. Lake ecosystem: Big fresh water ecosystem – Zonation or stratification. fishes etc. DESERT ECOSYSTEM Types: 1. bathing.
Mg. sand etc. 4. Snails Types of lakes : Many types. warm. euphotic zone – abundant sunlight 2. drugs etc. bathyal zone – dim sunlight 3. 3. prone to anthropogenic activities – Littoral zone Second layer – enough sunlight. Open sea – away from continental shelf – vertically divided in to 3 zones. abyssal zone – dark zone – world‟s largest ecological unit.50. Third phase: river shapes the land – lots of silts. Page 11 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 2. Two zones: coastal zone – warm. Oceans: Gigantic reservoirs of water covering >70% of earth surface – 2. Three phases: 1. Naini lake in Nainital Organisms: planktons – phytoplankton eg. Dal lake in Srinagar.000 species – huge variety of sea products. 3. high primary productivity – Limnetic zone Third layer – very poor or no sunlight – Profundal zone Eg. nutrients are brought – deposited in plains and delta – very rich in biodiversity. Algae – zooplankton eg. oils. – provide Fe. Stream organisms have to face extreme difference in climatic conditions but they do not suffer from oxygen deficiency as pond and lake organisms. nutrient rich.Environmental Science and Engineering Top layer – shallow. Fishes Neustons – that float on the surface of water Benthos – that attached to sediments eg. Estuary: coastal area where river meet ocean – strongly affected by tidal actions – very rich in nutrients – very rich in biodiversity also – organisms are highly tolerant – many species are endemic – high food productivity – however to be protected from pollution. Second phase – gentle slopes of hills – warmer – supports the growth of plants and fishes that require less oxygen are seen. The animals have very narrow range of tolerance towards oxygen deficiency. natural gas. shallow – high sunlight – high primary productivity. Rotifers Nektons – that swims in water eg. 1.oligotrophic lakes – with less nutrient content – eutrophic lakes – with very high nutrient content due to fertilizer contamination – desert salt lakes – that contains high saline water due to over evaporation – volcanic lakes – formed by water emitted from magma due to volcanic eruptions – dystrophic lakes – that contains highly acidic water (low pH) – endemic lakes – lakes that contain many endemic species – etc. mountain highlands – rushing down water fall of water – large quantity of dissolved oxygen – plants attached to rocks and fishes that require more oxygen are found. Oxygen and nutrient content are uniform. This is because large surface area of running water provides more oxygen supply. River ecosystem: large streams flowing from mountain highlands are rivers. Thus stream are worst victims of industrial pollution. – major sinks of carbon di oxide – regulate biochemical cycles. Streams: fresh water ecosystem where water current plays a major role.
Biotic: Phytoplankton. climatic conditions. D.O. The sum of total of various types of microbes. Functional components: Ecological pyramid birds fishes Worms. etc. consumers and decomposers) in a system. insects phytoplankton Energy flow: Phytoplankton Insects small fishes huge fishes Decomposition sediments INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is the abbreviated word for “biological diversity” (bio-life or living organisms. Page 12 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . etc. Thus biodiversity is the total variety of life on our planet. diversity-variety). fishes.Environmental Science and Engineering Characteristics: Structural Components: Abiotic: pH. plants and animals (producers. birds. snails insects. varieties and species. temp. the total number of races. nutrients.
The Malaysian Peninsula. from highest mountain to deepest ocean trenches. the biodiversity. unusual collection of species. environment with similar climatic. South America has 200 000 species of plants. Of all the world‟s species. Biodiversity is vital for a healthy biosphere. topographic and soil conditions and roughly comparable biological communities (Eg. ecological processes (which capture energy). shape. by research expeditions. The biomes shelter an astounding variety of living organisms (from driest desert to dripping rain forest. The concept of biodiversity may be analyzed in 3 different levels. has at least 8000 species of flowing plants. Each species in the biosphere has its own significance. for instance. while Britain. Biodiversity Hotspots: Most of the world‟s biodiversity are near the equator especially tropical rain forest and coral reefs. New Zealand. The variety of living organisms. has only 1400 species. forest). life occurs in a marvelous spectrum of size. Page 13 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . It is the combination of different organisms that enables the biosphere to sustain human race. including tropic levels. colour and inter relationship). desert or mountain can also have high conc. Significance of Biodiversity: Biosphere is a life supporting system to the human race. of unique species and biodiversity. There are 1. food webs and material recycling. Areas isolated by water. with an area twice as large. They are 1 ecosystem diversity 2 species diversity 3 genetic diversity Ecosystem or ecological diversity means the richness and complexity of a biological community. Biodiversity is must for the stability and proper functioning of the biosphere. Species diversity describes the number of kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems. Grassland. Genetic diversity is a measure of the variety of versions of same gene within individual species. taxonomists estimate there are between 3-50 million different species may be alive today.4 million species known presently. makes the world beautiful. only 10-15% live in North America and Europe. But based on new discoveries. South Africa and California are all mid-latitude area isolated by barriers that prevent mixing up of biological communities from other region and produce rich.Environmental Science and Engineering Biomes can be considered life zones. mainly in tropics. Insects make up more than one half of all known species and may comprise more than 90% of all species on earth.
Benefits of biodiversity: We benefit from other organism in many ways. Removal of forest-cover for road laying and also due to soil erosion Illegal trade of wild life Population explosion. farmers prefer hybrid reeds. Page 14 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Drugs and medicine: Living organisms provides many useful drugs and medicines. childhood leukemia was fatal. Eg. Soil formation.Malaria treatment Morphine – poppy bark – Analgesic Twenty years before. For natural medicinal products Penicillin – fungus is the source – Antibiotic Quinine – chincona bark . Food: Many wild plant species could make important contributions to human food suppliers either as they are or as a source of material to improve domestic crops. ethical values and aesthetic values. nutrient cycling and food production all depend on biodiversity. The United Nations Development Programme derived from developing world plants. many plant species become extinct Increase in the production of pharmaceutical companies made several number of medicinal plants and species on the verge of extinction.000 edible plants could be used by human. animals and microbes to be more than $30 billion per year. solar energy absorption. construction of dam. air and water purification. discharge of industrial effluents use of pesticides. In many environments. removal of medicinal plants) Production of hybrid seeds requires wild plants as raw material. social values. About 80. waste disposal. Now the remission rate for childhood leukemia is 99%.Environmental Science and Engineering Besides these biodiversity is so important due to having consumptive use values. Ecological benefits: Human life is inextricably linked to ecological services provided by other organisms. productive use values. once the drugs were not introduced. Even insignificant organisms can play irreplaceable roles in ecological systems or the source of genes or drugs that someday become indispensable. Threats to biodiversity: Due to Habitat loss Deforestation activities (cutting trees for timber. high diversity may help biological communities to withstand environmental stress better and to recover more quickly than those with fewer species.
can support more individuals of given species and therefore less likely to suffer extinction due to genetic problems and natural catastrophes. Elephant – for ivory tusk.) Hunting: Over harvesting is responsible for depletion or extinction of many species. A large island for example. Habitat fragmentation reduces the biodiversity because many animals like bears and large cats require large territories to subsist. Some forest birds reproduce only in deep forest or habitat far from human settlement. is a normal process of the natural world. there are 9800 protected areas and 1500 national parks Page 15 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Star turtle – sold to foreign market. Sea Horse. called protected areas Today in world. In-situ or on-site conversion 2. Woodlands and grasslands are converted now use about 10% of the world‟s land surface for crop production and about twice the amount for pasture and grasslands. Species die put and are replaced by others as part of evolutionary change. Rhinoceros – for horns. Eg. Conservation of biodiversity: In general biodiversity is generally disturbed by human activities. (Extinction. Tiger. Human disturbance of natural habitat is the largest single cause pf loss of biological diversity. Deer – for hides. it is essential to protect our bio diversity by two ways. market hunting and habitat destruction caused the entire population to crash with in 20 years. The American passenger pigeon was the world‟s most abundant bird. in place where the species normally occurs The strategy involves establishing small or large protected areas. hides. 1. Human caused reduction: The climate change caused by our release of green house gases in the atm. could have catastrophic effects. To solve the problems. horns and folk medicines also affect the biodiversity in an abrupt manner. Fragmentation. In spite of this vast population. illegal trade and smuggling activities most of our valuable fauna are under threat organised crime has moved into illegal wild life smuggling because of huge profit Eg. Ex-situ conservation In-situ conservation: Conservation of species in its natural habitat. Commercial products: Smuggling of fuels.Environmental Science and Engineering Poaching of wild life Due to poaching. the elimination of species.
vedanthangal 3. gardens and laboratories The crucial issue for conservation is to identify those species which are more at risk of extinction. The continuous circulation of all the essential elements and compounds required for life. Methods: 1. vegetables and fruits to maintain traditional crop varieties. 2. Ex. national parks and sanctuaries (Eg) Mudumalai. carbon cycle 5. 4. Define Environmental science Environmental science is the study of the environment. What are the functions of lithosphere? It is a home for human beings and wild lives. What are the processes involved in hydrological cycle? Continuous evaporation. from the environment to the organism and back to the environment. 5. precipitation of surface run off and ground water 4. 2. its biotic and abiotic components and their interrelationships. long term captive breeding shortage term propagation and release animal translocation and re introductions seed bank reproductive technology (i) embryo transfer technology (ii) cloning Review questions: 1..Environmental Science and Engineering Methods: 1. 3. Define biogeochemical cycle. It is a store house minerals and organic matters Page 16 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Give example. transpiration.situ conservation: It involves maintenance and breeding of endangered plant and animal species under partially or wholly controlled conditions in zoos.g. on farm and home garden conservation for plants.e. Nature or biosphere reserves (Eg) Nilgiri Bio reserve 2. What are the important components of environment? Abiotic or non-living components Biotic or living component Energy component 3.
Explain biosphere? The part of lithosphere. Pressure group Watch dog Advisory council Enforcing the environmental laws 7. hydrosphere and atmosphere in which living organisms live and interact with one another is called biosphere Page 17 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Environmental Science and Engineering 6. Mention the various types of public participation.
which can cause undesirable effects on man and his environment. Iodine 131. Sr 90 Page 18 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . aerosol. dust. volatile organic compounds Particulate pollutants – smoke. condition where certain substances are present in conc.Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 2: ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION-DEFINITION:Any undesirable change in the physical. soil) which can cause harmful effects on various forms of life or property. Gaseous pollutants – sulphur oxides. fumes. Types of environmental pollution:a) Air pollution b) Water pollution c) Soil pollution d) Marine pollution e) Noise pollution f) Thermal pollution g) Nuclear hazards a)AIR POLLUTION: It is an atmospheric. carbon oxides. nitrogen oxides. particulate matter. pollen grains Radio active pollutants – Radon 222. radioactive substances etc. soot. Gases. Ex. water. chemical or biological characteristics of any component of the environment (air. liquid droplets.
NOX.more NOX and SPM Petrol vehicles – CO & HC) 4. Pollen grains of flowers fossil fuel burning Agricultural activities Metallurgical plants (SO2. Volcanic eruption 2. NOX-8%)(Heavy duty diesel vehicles. smoke) (PAN. HC-14%. Sea salt spray 5. aldehydes) Gaseous air pollutants (CO2.Environmental Science and Engineering Sources of air pollution Natural sources 1. Forest fires 3. NOX) particulate air pollutants (dust. SO3. Biological decay man made sources(anthropogenic) thermal power plants (fly ash. mist) Page 19 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . CO2) Fertilizer plants Textile mills Refineries Paper and pulp mills Classification of air pollutants: Air pollutants According to origin According to state of matter Primary pollutants secondary pollutants (SO2. SO2) industrial units vehicle emission(CO-77%.
Effects of air pollution: Effects on human: Human respiratory system has a number of mechanisms for protection from air pollution. causes nausea. SO2. Burning of fuel produce pollutants like CO. bad odour vehicle Bronchitis Page 20 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . benzo(a)pyrene (BAP) are toxic and harmful for health. S.Environmental Science and Engineering Indoor air pollution: Radon is an important air pollutant. Bigger particles (> 10 micro m) can be trapped by the hairs and sticky muscus lining in the nose. Upper respiratory passage dye making. which are derived from soil containing radium. It can be emitted from building materials like bricks. mucous membranes gasoline Fog formed with combination of NOx affects respiratory system treatment. No. tiles etc. soot and many other like formaldehyde. Irritates eyes. BAP is also found in cigarette smoke and is considered to cause cancer. cause jaundice. A person using wood as fuel for cooking inhales BAP equivalent to 20 packets of cigarette a day. lung and skin cancer 2 Ammonia 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Arsenic Carbon Monoxide Motor exhausts. concrete. explosives and fertilizers Coal and oil furnaces Damages kidney. oil damages lungs and heart and coal furnaces Cadmium Chlorine Hydrocarbons Hydrogen Sulfide Nitrogen oxides oil and coal furnaces Chemical industries Unburnt vapours Sewage refineries Motor exhaust Damages kidney Attacks respiratory tracks. Pollutant 1 Aldehydes Sources Effects on human Thermal Irritates nasal and respiratory tracts decomposition of fats and oils Chemical processes.
9. asthma. 8.Environmental Science and Engineering 10 11 12 Ozone Sulphur dioxide Suspended solids Photochemical reactions Coal and combustion Industrial manufactures Eye irritation. 7. suffocation. 5. protozoa fungi) natural organic pollutants synthetic organic pollutants inorganic chemicals radioactive waste. 6. suspended matter thermal discharge pathogens (bacteria. construction sites) Classification of water pollutants: 1. aggressive asthma oil Obstructs breathing. biological) in such quantities so as to constitute a health hazard by lowering the water quality and making it unfit for use. irritates eyes Eye irritation. lung cancer air Control of air pollution: 1. oil. 3. 6. Causes: Point source Ex: flow of water pollutants from sewerage system. 2. 4. Non-point source Ex: agricultural land (pesticides. 2. Using non conventional energy Using bio filters Planting more trees Reducing vehicle exhausts Using less polluting fuels Using mass transport Removal of particulate matter using electrostatic precipitator. cyclone filter etc. fungi. 4. 7. mining. industrial effluent etc. 3. 5. sediments Page 21 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Setting of industries of EIA Removal of NOX from vehicle exhaust b)WATER POLLUTION: Presence of foreign impurities (organic. inorganic. fertilizers.
phosphate. biodegradable waster deplete D O in the receiving stream. domestic treatment screening sedimentation filtration. water borne infectious enteric disease like typhoid. highly turbid and very hard water is unpleasant to drink. waste water treatment preliminary treatment primary treatment secondary treatment advanced treatment Page 22 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . cholera. drinking water b. radioactive pollution enter human body through food and get accumulated in thyroid gland. food processing 3. lead may reach human body through contaminated food. Objectionable colour and odour is unacceptable and unsuitable for drinking and other purposes. 2. pH adjustment disinfection b. affect the flora cause creates anaerobic conditions 7.Environmental Science and Engineering Effects of water pollution 1. treatment a. disposal of waste water into water course/sewer/land 2. promote the growth of algae and encourage eutrophication 10. mercury. are the predominant health hazard arising from drinking contaminated water 5. lay down standard for a. Industrial effluents result in addition of poisonous chemicals such as arsenic. acid and alkaline water cause serious health problem 4. Control measures of water pollution 1. dysentery. non biodegradable waste and pesticides travel the food chain and ultimately reach human where they accumulate in fatty tissues 8. monitoring 3. thermal discharge in stream depletes D O 9. nitrate. bones and muscles 6. liver.
use cattle dung For biogas generation.Environmental Science and Engineering C) SOIL POLLUTION:The contamination of soil by human and natural activities which may cause harmful effects on living beings. waste disposal oil spill thermal pollution (plants located nearby coastal areas) ship breaking activities aquaculture practices nuclear test conducted in seas and oceans disturb entire aquatic or marine ecosystem oil has suffocation effect on most aquatic animals Page 23 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Causes: Effects: Affect human health Affect soil fertility Reduce soil productivity Cause abnormalities Control measures: Properly collect solid waste Microbial degradation Recovery of products from waste For methane generation. Causes: Sources: Effects: Rivers Catchment area Oil drilling and shipment. hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water. use biodegradable organic waste Industrial waste Urban waste Agricultural practices Radioactive pollutants Biological agent d) MARINE POLLUTION:The discharge of waste substances into the sea resulting in harm to living resources. hazards to human health.
zooplankton. The CPCB has recommended the permissible noise levels for various places. There may be chances for bioaccumulation and bio magnification in the food chain due to the disposal of non-degradable wastes Oil promotes anaerobic conditions by preventing diffusion of oxygen from air Disposal of radio active wastes cause chronic. Sound pressure creates alternate compression and rarefaction.Environmental Science and Engineering smaller animals can be caught in oil envelope and die thermal Pollution may increase the temp. Sound can affect ears either by loudness or by pitch (frequency). algal species. of water and DO may be depleted which causes danger. The international reference P is 2X10 power -5 Pa. birds and mammals. coral reefs. Noise is measure in terms of SPL which is a log ratio of sound P to a std. liquid or solid Sound is pressure perturbation in the medium through which it travels. fish. P. The number of c and r per unit time is called frequency. Sound pressure does not produce linear impact on human. Page 24 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . hazards waste and sewage sludge. e) NOISE POLLUTION:Sound is mechanical energy from a vibrating source Unpleasant and unwanted sound is called noise Sound can propagate through air. A logarithmic scale has been devised. It has a dimensionless unit decibel (dB). Prevent sewer overflows Minimize coastal developmental activities Oil ballast should not be dumped into sea. Control measures: Ban to dump the toxic. acute and genetic damage Affects the recreational activity along the beaches Affect sensitive flora and fauna Loss of buoyancy Affect phytoplankton.
Transportation modes 3. Ordinary conservation – 70/80 dB 8. Library or soft whisper – 30 B 11. Electric home appliances Nanjing – 105 dB Rome Calcutta Mumbai Delhi – 90 dB – 85 dB – 82 dB – 80 dB Effects of noise pollution: Interferes communication Hearing damage (90 dB) Physiological and Psychological disorders Page 25 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Threshold of pain – 140 dB 4. Construction works. Air conditioning unit/ Light traffic – 60 dB 9. Threshold of hearing – 0 dB Sources of noise pollution: 1. Recorded music (max) – 130 dB 5. Jet plane take off – 150 dB 3. news paper press – 100 dB 6. Rocket engine – 180 dB 2. Motor cycle – 90 dB 7. Celebrations 5. Normal living room – 50 dB 10. Industrial units 2. Construction activities 4.Environmental Science and Engineering Area Permissible noise level(dB) Day Industrial Commercial Residential Silent Zone 75 65 55 50 Night 70 55 45 40 Sounds and their decibel scale: 1.
Environmental Science and Engineering
Noise pollution during Diwali: The environmental (protection) (2nd amendment) Rule 1999 has given the permissible limit of noise level produced from fire crackers to be 125 dB. According to recent test reports on fire crackers by National Physical Laboratory, the fire crackers available in the market produce noise beyond the permissible limit. Atom bomb – 135-138 dB Hydrogen bomb – ”
The Union Government and all the state governments shall follow the guidelines of amendment 89 of env. (Protection) Rule 1986 framed under Env. (Protection) Act 1986 which says 1. The manufacture, sale or use of fire crackers generating noise level exceeding125dB shall be prohibited. 2. For joined fire crackers the limit is taken as 5log 10 (N) dB; where N= no. of crackers joined together 3. The use of fire crackers shall not be permitted except between 6.00a.m and 10p.m. 4. No crackers burning is permitted in/near silent zone – areas near hospitals, educational institutions, courts, religious places, etc. 5. The State Education Resource Centre shall take appropriate steps to educate students about the ill effects of air and noise pollution. Control of noise pollution: Reduction in source of noise] Noise making machines should be kept in containers with sound absorbing media Proper oiling will reduce noise from machinery Using silencers – fibrous material Planting trees Legislation can prevent excess sound production, unnecessary horn blowing etc.
f) THERMAL POLLUTION:Addition of excess undesirable heat to water Causes: Nuclear power plant Domestic sewage Hydro electric power Effects: Reduction inn dissolved oxygen Increase in toxicity Page 26 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering
Environmental Science and Engineering Direct mortality Control measures:The following methods should be adopted to control thermal pollution Cooling towers Cooling ponds Spray ponds
g) NUCLEAR HAZARDS:- OR RADIO ACTIVE POLLUTION The physical pollution of air, water and soil by radio materials. Causes:I) Natural causes: Solar rays Radio nuclides in earth‟s crust Environmental radiation II)Anthrogeneic causes: Effects: Causes skin burns, loss of teeth, vomiting anemia Blood cancer Brain damage Control measures: Radiation exposure protection Radiation contamination protection Controlled area Disposal of radioactive waste Medical X-rays Radio isotopes Nuclear test Nuclear installations Nuclear reactor
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT:Any material that is thrown away or discarded as unwanted is considered as solid waste. Types: Garbage or food waste Rubbish Agricultural waste Page 27 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering
Environmental Science and Engineering Industrial waste Hazardous waste Cause: Over population Affluence Technology Effects: Health hazard Environmental impact Control measures:Solid waste management include the waste generation Solid waste generation
Collection of waste
Storage Segregation of waste
Collection of solid waste Disposal of solid waste Land fill- Disposal of municipal waste in the upper layers of the earth‟s mantle. Incineration- Burn highly combustible wastes at very high temperature, Composting or Bio degradation- Decompose the organic components of the municipal solid wastes. Page 28 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering
Pay immediate attention to leaks in pipes.Small hostel village in Japan –Chicago-chemical company produces Venyl polymer plastics-industry release its effluent into Minamata sea-Effluents Page 29 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Chernobyl Disaster : ( Nuclear pollution) Occur at Chernobyl in USSR 28 th April. Compost garden waste Segregate waste and recycle Buy locally made long losing material Buy environmentally degradable products. Bhopal gas tragedy:. Gulf War: (Marine Pollution) Gulf war was fought between Iraq and US-Period of 6 weeks in 1991-American fighters dropped a lakh of bombs-force the Iraq army to withdraw from Kuwaitretreat of Iraq-burning of 700 oil wells-near sea shore –oil from well spills out into the sea-the floating oil oversea water nearly 80 km long-burning of oil wells nearly 10 months-released huge amounts of pollutants likeCO2 and SO2 into the atmosphere-1 million birds killed.result of uncontrolled nuclear reactions-radioactive fuel spread out in to the surrounding areas –killed at least 20. 3.changegas chamber-within a week 10.- Use stairs instead of elevators Use public transportation walk or ride a bicycle Plant trees around building Turn off lights. Recycle glass metal and paper.000 people-damage to soil.Environmental Science and Engineering Waste utilization o Reuse o Recycling o Reclamation Role of an individual in prevention of pollution.(Air Pollution) Pesticide factory-Union Carbide. water and vegetation around 60 km. POLLUTION CASDE STUDIES:1. television sets and computer when not in use. Take some bag from home to market to purchase.000 people died – 1000 people turned blind-lakhs of people still continue to suffer various diseases 2.1986-the reactor exploded.India-midnight on December 3. Install waste saving equipments. 4.1984-city.corporation leak large volume of methyl iso cyanate –atmosphere Bhopal. Minamata Disease :( Marine Pollution) Minamata.
Pressure of manmade dams. Underground nuclear testing 2. reservoir and lakes 4. Soil erosion is the major loss of agriculture 3. Damage to building and property 2. FLOOD: Submergence of waste areas of land under water for many days in continuation Causes: 1. Earthquake in Bhuj town Page 30 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . advance meteorological information will prevent flood damage 3.highly toxic consumed by fishes –affect human being through food chain-damage central nervous system-loss of vision and hearing-loss of muscular coordination and severe headache.nervous disorders DISASTER MANAGEMENT. reduction of run off by increasing infiltration through appropriate forestation eg. Sudden Snow melt 3. Clearing of forest for agriculture 4.Environmental Science and Engineering containing mercury ions-converted into methyl mercury. Cause Tsunami 2. Any product submerged by flood water cannot be rescued Control measures: 1. movements of plates of earth Effects: 1. Deformation of ground surface 3. Depending on the severity of the quake collapses house and people died in 1000 eg. Industries increase the value and rate of water discharge after a storm Effects: 1. Building wall prevent spilling out the flood water over flood pains 2.flood in Bangladesh 1974 EARTHQUAKE: Earthquake is the motion of the ground surface caused by wave motion starting from a focal point Causes: 1.Heavy rainfall 2. Volcanic eruption 3. In hilly and mountain areas may cause land slides which damage the settlement and transport system 4.
block the roads 3. Damage to human life crops roads. movement of heavy vehicles on the unstable sleepy region Effects: 1.g. soil and debris from higher region to lower due to gravitational pull is called landslide Causes: 1.land slides in U. Government can inform the earthquake prone zone and caution residence 2. sanctuaries biosphere. Create national parks. communication could be very heavy Control measures: 1. life stock Control measures: 1. mud.Environmental Science and Engineering Control measures: 1. damage the houses. construction of dams 3. shock. Radar system is used to detect cyclone eg. building should be designed to withstand tremors CYCLONE: Cyclone is meteorological phenomena intense depressions forming over the open oceans and moving towards the land Effects: 1. planting more trees on hostel areas 2.e. Planting of deep rooted vegetation 2. Increase erosion of soil 2. Depends on the intensity of the cyclone 2.Cyclone in AP LANDSLIDES.P Page 31 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Earthquake. Deep water ground mining 3. Encouragement for construction of bridges water ways 3. The movement of eart materials like coherent rock. vibration 2. crop yield. transport.
Define the term Tsunami. What are the types of solid waste? Municipal waste Industrial waste Hazardous waste What is waste minimization? Industrial manufacturing system the primary concern should be reducing the quantities of waste materials produced. Name the chemical constituent of gas that caused death in Bhopal gas tragedy in India. This activity displaces the overlying water in the ocean Page 32 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . What is point source of water pollution? Point source is discharge pollutants at specific locations through pipes. 6. This avoids the necessity to threat and disposal off such materials. ditches into bodies of surface waters. 4. 3. 7. Methyl iso cynaide. When a sound causes noise pollution? Noise beyond 120 dB 5. What is smog? It is a mixture of smoke and fog which forms droplets that remain suspended in the air. It is a large wave that are generated in a water body where the sea floor deformed by seismic activity. Give any three methods of air pollution control equipment Catalytic converters Cyclone collectors Electrostatic precipitators 2.Environmental Science and Engineering Review questions 1.
medicine. 3. fire wood. water. Solar energy. Clean air. Production of Oxygen: Photosynthesis – earth‟s lungs Reducing global warming – sink for carbon di oxide Wild life habitat – 7 million species in tropical forests alone Regulation of hydrological cycle – prevent surface run off – giant sponges – 50-80% moisture Page 33 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . rubber. non edible oils. Any component which can be transferred in a way such that it becomes more valuable and useful is termed as resource. resin. gum. fibers. Which has intrinsic value of its own is called as resource. bamboo and many other important items. 4. But the matter under high concern is the declination of forest cover year by year. drugs. Ecological uses: 1. USES OF FOREST: Commercial uses: Forests provide timber. wind Human skills energy Available only in Considered to be finite quantity – available always. They act as a blanket on the surface of the earth. 2. clean Ground water minerals Considered to be renewable with considerable life span-as long as they have the capacity to renew – unless they are affected by catastrophes or anthrophogenic activity. Apart from having high commercial importance they provide high environmental services also. their rate of renewal is so slow that they are considered as non-renewable FOREST RESOURCES: Forests are one of the most important resources of the world.Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 3:NATURAL RESOURCES Any component of the env. Around 1/3rd of world land area was found to be forests. 1/5 th of world forests were found in Brazil and 6-7% was in Canada and USA. Resources Renewable Non renewable Continuous Extrinsic Eg. food material.
we have a target of achieving 33% forest area. threatens many wild life species due to destruction of natural habitat biodiversity is lost along with that genetic diversity hilly regions are made prone to landslides soil erosion and loss of soil fertility hydrological cycle is affected (loss of rainfall. DEFORESTATION: The total forest area of the world in 1900 was 7000 million hectares -1975 – 2900 mha – 2000 – 2300 mha. developmental projects 5. wood. 3. shelter. growing food needs 6. raw materials for industrial use 4. Shifting of Cultivation – 300 million people – 5 lakh hectares of forest for slash and burn culture 2.04% declaration per year between 1982 . 2. agricultural and industrial areas and overgrazing have lead to over exploitation and rapid degradation of forests. Soil conservation – hold solid particles tightly and prevent soil erosion – wind breaks 6.Environmental Science and Engineering 5. As per our NFP.44 mha land was brought under afforestation. But it is alarming in tropical countries. drought etc) Page 34 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 4. 5. flood. Deforestation rate intemperate countries are relatively moderate. road building and clearing of forests. fuel wood. shooted up resulting in large scale mining. MAJOR CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION: 1.90. It is estimated that in next 60 years we would lose more than 90% of our tropical forest. overgrazing CONSEQUENCES OF DEFORESTATION 1. During this period it is estimated that about 1. fuel and medicine with growing civilization etc.27% of our land area covered by forests(satellite data). fuel requirement 3. with about 0. Pollution moderators: absorb toxic gases and purify air reduce noise pollution OVER EXPLOITATION OF FORESTS: Human beings depend heavily on forests for food. expansion of urban. INDIAN STATUS: Stabilized since 1982. But we still have only 19. Excessive use of charcoal.
Ag. Mining is done for the extraction of several minerals of metals like Fe. The latter would invest in afforestation and reforestation projects in the developing country. They play an important role in the carbon cycle and the way we manage forests could significantly affect global warming. These credits are tradable. The minerals are especially found in thick forests. If the predicted global warming occurs. Under the Protocol. mining The important effects of timber extraction are i) thinning of forests ii) loss of biodiversity. The Kyoto Protocol on climate change may have a great impact on forest management. since its forests absorb carbon dioxide. we can see how any extreme weather has great impact on forests. a developing country can sell its credits to an industrialized country that has exceeded its quota of emissions. For example. Even now. underground mining or sub-surface mining The effects of under ground mining on forest reserves is comparatively less than that of surface mining Relation between forest and climate change: Forests both influence and influenced by climate change. the 1999 storms in Europe caused heavy damage to forests and also to trees outside forest areas. that is.Environmental Science and Engineering TIMBER EXTRACTION AND MINING: The major activities in forest area are 1. particularly tree breading species iii) soil erosion and loss of soil fertility iv) migration of tribal people from one place to another in search of new forest v) extinction of tribal people and their culture MINING: Mining is a process of removing ores from area which is very much below the ground level. and long-lasting. dramatic. Mn. Surface mining 2. the impact on forests is likely to be regionally varied. Au. a country with forests earns emission credits. deforestation contributes significantly to net emissions of carbon dioxide into the atm. timber extraction 2. Page 35 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Hence. Mining can be carried out in two ways 1. Forests hold more than 50 per cent of the carbon that is stored in terrestrial vegetation and soil organic matter.etc.
7. 3. 8. 5. 4. provide drinking water to remote areas 9. contribute for economic uplift and growth 4. 6. Displacement of tribal people Loss of flora and fauna siltation and sedimentation near reservoir stagnation and water logging near reservoir growth of aquatic weeds micro climatic changes RIS causes earthquakes breeding of disease vectors Downstream problems 1. 3. 2. generate electricity 6. Water logging and salinity due to over irrigation micro climatic changes salt water intrusion at river mouth loss of fertility due to sediment deposits out break of vector born diseases.Environmental Science and Engineering DAMS – BENEFITS AND PROBLEMS River valley projects with big dams are considered to play a key role in the development of a country. 5. India has large number of river valley projects 1. These dams are regarded as symbol of national development. 2. promote navigation and fishery. provides large scale employment of tribal people and increase the std. provide irrigation water 8. Page 36 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . reduce power and water shortage 7. help in checking flood 5. of living of them 3. 4. Environmental problems: The environmental problems can be at upstream as well as downstream Level Upstream problems 1. 2.
sand etc.86% of fresh water is ground water and it is 35-50% greater than surface water. In our country ~93% of water is used for agricultural purposes. Effects of over utilization of ground water: Reasons: Economic development. High specific heat 2. Tropical rain forest 2. The recharge of this layer is by rainfall or snowmelt. Unique features of water 1. Confined aquifer: sandwiched between impermeable layers. Aquifer: The layer of soil which is permeable has the ability to store water is called an aquifer. Anomalous expansion on freezing 5. High surface tension Global distribution of water is very much random depending on the geographical conditions. Ground water: 9. lowering of water table and water logging. Good solvent for oxygen.Environmental Science and Engineering WATER RESOURCES Water is an indispensible resource. The recharge is through unconfined aquifer layers. High latent heat of vapourisation 3. Around 97% of world surface is covered with water. 1. The availability of water decreases in the following order. Most of the animals and plants have 60-65% of water in their body. ground subsidence. Over utilization of ground water: Over utilization of water leads to rapid depletion of water resources. 20% for industrial usage. Unconfined aquifer: it is covered by permeable layer. irrigation and also industrial purposes Out of the total available water 75% is used for agriculture. Deserts Water is used for domestic. nutrients and pollutants 4. rapid industrial growth and population explosion The use of ground water and surface water rates which are higher than that of recharge ultimately leads to Water scarcity Water logging Salination alkalization Page 37 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Temperate regions 3. It is generally made up of gravel.
mining increases water run off 5. 2. 4. Reduction in carrying capacity due to obstructions or sediments etc. Prolonged down pour leading to overflowing of rivers and lakes 3. sudden release of water from dams. Removal of dense forests from hilly regions Effects: 1. 2. streams etc. Extinction of civilization at costal area Flood management: 1. overgrazing. famine and food shortage over pumping of ground water sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers land subsidence may due to over pumping of ground water river pollution due to industrial activities and dumping of waste into rivers. Flood: over flow of water. whenever the water in flow is greater than the carrying capacity of the channels flood occurs. Submerges the flooded area 2. pond. which in turn force to utilize the ground water. 3. heavy rainfall. Page 38 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . snow melt. river. Deforestation. surface water body like lake. ultimately leads to over pumping Clean water is universal right. 5. Loss of soil fertility due to soil erosion 3. Causes: 1. 4. are formed.Environmental Science and Engineering water pollution or contamination creates declining of water levels crops failure and reduction in agricultural production over pumping of ground water create drought. Dams and reservoirs can be constructed Embankments and proper channel management Flood way should not be encroached Forecasting or flood warning Decrease of run off by infiltration through afforestation or rain water harvesting etc. Surface water: When evaporation and transpiration rates are lower than the rainfall. It is the responsibility of everyone to ensure the purity of water. Water is a valuable commodity and it has to be conserved.
actual moisture supply at a given place consistently falls below critical level. Hydrological: deficiency in surface and subsurface water supplies Agricultural: inadequate soil moisture to meet the need of a particular crop at particular time or susceptibility of crops during different stages in its development Socioeconomic: reduction in the availability of food and social securing of people Causes: Deforestation and lesser rainfalls coupled with cutting of trees for timber leads to desertifictation. industrial effluents etc makes land useless and dry Population explosion in man and livestock leads to enhanced requirement of timber. fuel wood. drying of wetlands Pollution of soil with solid waste.Environmental Science and Engineering Drought : Unpredictable delay in climatic condition occurring due to monsoon rain failure. Types: Meterological : in order of month or year. Over drafting of ground water. subsidence of soil. grazing Shifting cultivation Effects: Increase of water in stream pond Ground water table get declined Loss of agricultural crops Loss of biodiversity Government spent a lot of money as drought relief f und Control measures Rain water harvesting Watershed management Prevent deforestation Encourage afforestation Page 39 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .
2 dam construction Construction of power stations on Conflicts through pollution-rhine river.plataneous in upper basin. Colorada and Rio Grande. Ganges . Nile. reduced in lower basin due to extensive use.Europe Distributional conflict-relative storage Euphrates. Jordan Conflicts management: Enact laws to check practices to control water pollution Sharing river solved by interlinking river Power must be given to national water authority and river basin authority and river s-basin authority for equitable distribution of basin waterdemand fo0r nationalization of water needs Control of water resources Military food resources Political resources Terrorism Military targets Development disputes Page 40 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Anatolian dam project by turkey Farakka dam in India Distributional conflict: Absolute shortage.Environmental Science and Engineering CONFLICTS OVER WATER Due to increase in population and decrease in water resources conflicts over water starts Conflicts over the water around world was classified as Causes: Conflicts through use 1. Shipping traffic in international water .
Environmental Science and Engineering MINERAL RESOURCES Environmental impacts of over extraction of mineral resources: Depending on the conditions of terrain and depth of ore deposits 2 types of mining operations are carried out. which adversely affects the flora and fauna. In both types each steps in mining processing produce several environmental effects such as. Deeper excavation of ground causes lowering of water table. but also cause hazard from fly rocks and dusts and damage to buildings due to vibrations The disposal of waste material produced after concentrations of ore create increase concentration of heavy metals and toxic elements in the environment. Great volume of debris has been generated which disrupt the surface and ground water circulation. It also reduces the water carrying capacity of streams very close to mining area The stacking of over burden and building of soil banks creates problems of landslides Under ground fire in coalmines is a hazard that is difficult to control Mining and ore processing normally causes air pollution and water pollution The acid water generated in coalmines can pose a serious problem of water pollution. underground mining. which leads to drying of wells or sea water intrusion In stone quarries. FOOD RESOURCES: PROBLEMS FACED BY FOOD RESOURCES Overgrazing modern agriculture Land degradation Soil erosion Loss of useful species high yield variety crops micronutrients imbalance nitrate pollution Eutrophication Pesticide related problems Water logging Salinity Page 41 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . open cast mining and 2. blasting of rocks not only annoying the people nearby. 1. Deforestation takes place due to removal of vegetal covers.
interferes with water uptake by plants Fossil fuels and pesticides produce air pollution Impacts related to high yielding varieties: Monoculture ie the same genotype is grown over vast areas. compacted soil cannot be used for further cultivation Soil erosion-cover of vegetation gets removed from soil Loss of useful species-good quality grasses and herbs with high nutritive value. earthquake. when grazed lose even the root stocks which carry the reserve food for regeneration get destroyed which gives raise to secondary species like parthenium.Switch grass Modern agriculture: The practice through which specific plant species are cared and managed so as to obtain maximum yield of consumable parts of plants –agriculture Makes use of hybrid seeds and selected and single crop variety. Xanthium etc To prevent –match the forage supplement to the herd‟s requirement. green revolution Damage to soil Water contamination Water scarcity Global climate change Water logging-results when soil is over irrigated Soil salinity-increase plant productivity. Lantane. storm Disease and medical facilities Pest damage:-insects.Environmental Science and Engineering WORLD FOOD PROBLEMS: Problems mainly under nutrition and malnutrition Natural calamities:-famine. gale.eg. drought. dry. high tech equipment and lots of energy subsides in the form of fertilizers.g Zinc deficiency-affect soil productivity Page 42 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . viruses. parasites consume 60% of world‟s food production Hunger Population explosion in rural areas Environmental pollution Lack of water for irrigation Less rainfall due to deforestation Livestock overgrazing Overfishing CHANGES CAUSED BY OVERGRAZING AND AGRICULTURE: Overgrazing: Process of eating away the vegetation along with its roots without giving a chance to regenerate Land degradation-leads to organically poor. Disease spread easily Micronutrient imbalance e. pesticides and irrigation water e.g. bacteria. flood.
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification Mobility through soil.coal. electrical energy. Industries. heating. Occurs in clayey soil. Agriculture. water. lighting. Water logging results when soils are over irrigated without drainage. hydrogen Non – renewable energy. when it rains can harm fishes Creating super pest Death of non starget organisms Salinity Water logging Water logging / salinisation: Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation. biofuel.Resources which have accumulated in nature over a long span of time and cannot be quickly replenished when exhausted. hydropower. soil root zone becomes saturated with so much water blocking oxygen supply for growth and soil becomes unsuitable.affects infants Eutrophication: Over nourishment of lakes due to agriculture field wash out-leads to algal bloom-dead organic matters increases due to decomposition-leads to oxygen demand Problems associated with pesticide use: Evolution of genetic resistance Imbalance in ecosystem Creation of new pest Persistence. washed away into rivers.wood.Environmental Science and Engineering Nitrate pollution-nitrogenous fertilizers applied deep soil contaminates ground water. coal burning Page 43 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . air. So that water table rises close to surface. streams. building all need energy. geothermal. cooling. Tidal. Carbondioxide and ethylene accumulate around roots and affects plants ENERGY RESOURCES Growing energy needs: Population explosion. biomass. oil. natural gas produce 95% of energy Sources of energy PrimaryRenewable energy-resources which can be generated continuously in nature and are in exhaustible and can be used again endlessly. Fossil fuels like coal. Luxurious life. cause blue baby syndrome methaemoglobinemia. natural gas Secondary-petrol. transportation. wind. petroleum. mining. Solar.
000 times the energy used by man Used to run car. Wide availability 2. Easy to store 3. Solar energy: Total energy from sun per year-35.Environmental Science and Engineering Energy renewable Advantage 1. power plants and spaceships Energy harvesting devises: Solar heat collectors Solar cells „ Solar cooker Solar water heater Solar furnace Solar power plants Wind energy: Average wind velocity of earth -9 m/sec and power produced when a windmill is facing the wind od 10 miles/hr-50 watts.largest wind farm-Kanyakumari in tamilnadu is generating 380 MW electricity Page 44 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Difficult to store 4. Lower cost Disadvantage 1. Unreliable supply 2. Low cost 3.highly pollution Available only in few places High running cost Limited supply and will one day get exhausted Use of alternate energy sources: Refers to energy sources which are not based on the burning of fossil fuels or the splitting of atoms. Available for the future 1. Available in high concentrated form 2. Cost more Energy non renewable 1.eg. Produced in small quantity 3. Decentralized power production 4. Low pollution 5. Reliable supply 4.
natural geysers in Manikaran. sweet sorghum. Geothermal energy Energy harassed from the hot rocks inside earth. Sweetbeet aquatic weeds like hyacinth. oil palms rich in hydrocarbons and yield oil like substance under high temperature and pressure-refined to form gasoline LAND RESOURCE Land is critically important national resource which supports all living organisms including plants and animals.Energy plantations: Solar energy is trapped by green plants through photosynthesis and converted to biomass e.kully. Petro crops Latex containing plants Euphorbias. eg. It has been estimated that more than 5000 million tonnees of top soil is eroded annually along with 5 million tones of nutrients.sohana Biomass energy Organic matter produced by plants Types: 1. Page 45 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Environmental Science and Engineering Hydro power: Comes from damming of rivers and utilization of high pressure.Sugarcane. The surface of the tropical ocean and at deeper level is called OTE. Sea weeds. its kinetic energy is transformed into turbine blades and used to generate electricity Minimum water falls height-10 m Hydro power potential of India-4x1011KW/Hr Tidal Energy Uses the natural motion of tides to fill reservoirs which are then slowly discharged through electricity producing turbines Ocean thermal energy Energy available due to the difference in water temperature.potato. „About 1/3 of this is lost in sea while the rest in reservoirs and rivers leading to flood. The soil profile of land determines its ability to serve socio-economic needs. A difference of 20 0c or more is required for operating OTE power plants.cereal-energy plantations Produce energy by burning directly or by getting converted into burnable gas or converted to fuels by fermentation.g Leucaema.
Effective steps have to be taken for preventing diversion of land suitable for sustainable farming to non-farm uses. Simultaneously. 2. landslips. sustainability or ability to produce continuously and indefinitely. Landscapes generally undergo degradation but are usually compensated by nature‟s inherent recovering ability. rockslides etc. slides due to natural factors 2. the result will be a disaster.33 hectare in 2000. degraded lands and waste lands have to be improved by ecological restoration. carrying capacity or the number of people and animals the land can normally support without significant stress.Environmental Science and Engineering About 38% of the area in India suffers from moderate to high degree of water based erosion. All these lands cannot be utilized for agricultural purpose. level terraces. Whenever degradation occur exceeding nature‟s restorative capacity. communication media and water flow. Some land would be required for other activities (to maintain urban area). The definition is also based on 1. Constructions Soil erosion: 1. This retains water for crops at each level and reduces soil erosion by water run off. quality of land resource that makes it sustainable or resistant to degradation 3. This involves planting crops in rows across the contour of gently sloped land. Engineering. Man induced landslides: The hill slopes are prone to land slides. These hazardous features have reduced the overall progress of the region as they obstruct the roads. 2. The per capita availability of land in the country has declined from 1. Page 46 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .37 hectare in 1901 to 0. Terracing: Terracing reduces soil erosion on steep slopes by concerting the land into a series of broad. Land Degradation: Land degradation is defined as the reduction in soil capacity to produce in terms of quality. There are two types of slides 1. Contour Farming: This method is adopted for gently sloped land. slides induced by man and his activities Some of the human activities that cause land sliding are massive deforestation erratic agricultural practices road building Unscientific quarrying etc. The Department of Land Resources was setup in April 1999 by ministry of Rural Development to act as nodal agency for land resource management. quantity goods and services.
Australia have 22% of natural resources. 15% of income Gap arises due to increase in population distribution of resources and wealth Problem solved by equitable distribution of resources and wealth Global consensus has to be reached for more balanced distribution of basic resources like safe drinking water. So poor low developed countries able to sustain their life Two basic cause of unsustainability are over population in poor countries and over consumption of resources by rich countries generate wastes Rich countries lower down their consumption level Poor countries fulfilled by providing them resources Review questions Page 47 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Alley Cropping or Agro forestry: In this method crops are planted together in strips or alleys between trees and shrubs that can provide fruits and fuel wood. The trees and shrubs provide shade which reduce water loss by evaporation and preserve soil moisture. Canada.mineral and energy Overuse of these resources cause problems Conserve water: Don‟t keep water taps running Install water saving toilets Check forwater leaks Reuse soapy water Use drip and sprinkling irrigation Conserveenergy Turn off lights.soil. food.water.Environmental Science and Engineering 3. use 88%.fan when not in use Use solarcooker for cooking Try riding bicycle Protect soil: Don‟t uproot plants Grow grass which binds soil andprevent erosion Make compost Use green manure Don‟t over irrigate Use mixed cropping EQUITABLE USEOF RESOURCES FOR SUSTAINABLE IFE STYLE: Most developed countries like USA.73%of its energy and command 85%of its income Less developed countries has 78% of population. Japan. ROLE OF INDIVIDUAL IN CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES: Natural resources-forest. Wind Breaks or Shelter Belts: Wind breaks and shelter belts or trees are established to reduce wind erosion and also for retaining soil moisture. 12% Usage of natural resources.food. fuel etc. 27% of energy.
Mathya Pradesh and Rajasthan. all the water is not absorbed in the soil. rain water 9. the temperature difference) of about 200C exists between surface water heated by sun and colder deep water. What is artesian well? A well or hole in aquifer flows freely at the surface 2.Environmental Science and Engineering 1. This difference can be harnessed to produce power. surface water. 5.chemical extractions 4. What is salinization? During over irrigation. Smelting. State the major process which have major environmental impact while processing of minerals. 7. This concept is OTEC. such water evaporates leaving behind a thin crust of dissolved salts in the top soil. What is integrated pest management? The process of controlling crop pests using ecological system Page 48 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . sea water. What is ocean thermal energy conversation? In oceans. Marshes 3. Give two examples of primary and secondary sources of energy? Primary source-fossil fuels. What is sardar sarovar Narmada project? It is a multipurpose project on river Narmada. Give any four environmental benefits of dam Source of cleaner and safer power For irrigation of agricultural lands Helps in recharging of ground water Habitat for many fishes and wildlife 8. What is wetland?give examples and use Wetlands are the natural water storage bodies on ground surface Eg. 10. a thermal gradient (i. hydro energy Secondary source-petrol. Meadows. power and drinking water to Gujarat. bringing the benefits of irrigation.Swamps..e. electrical energy 6. What are the sources of water Ground water.
so difficult to accommodate with their limited area . trade. employment etc Causes. transportation. medical facilities and employment Urban sprawl: Urban growth is fast .Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 4:SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT From unsustainable to sustainable development: Brundland commission describes sustainable development as the development that meet needs of present generation without compromising ability of future generations to meet their own need Concept of sustainable development A symbiotic relationship between consumer human race and producer natural system Compatibility between ecology and economics Aim of sustainable development: Inter generational equity Intra generational technology Significance of sustainable development: Developing appropriate technology Reduce . communication. health.So cities spread into rural areas Urban energy requirement: Residential and commercial lighting Public and private transportation Electrical and electronic appliances Page 49 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . recycle of natural resources Providing environmental education and awareness Consumption of renewable resources Conservation of nonrenewable resources Population control Urban problems related to energy: Urbanization: Movement of human population from rural areas top urban areas for betterment of education. reuse. Cities are main centers of economic growth. education.
road surface.Environmental Science and Engineering Solution: Use public transport instead of motor cycles Energy consumption must be minimized Use solar and wind energy Impose strict laws. play ground diverted to surface tank Advantages of rainwater harvesting Page 50 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . and energy audit Water conservation: Process of saving water for future utilization Water source: Fresh water River Stream Pond Ocean Need for water conservation: Population increases water requirement also increases Due to deforestation annual rainfall decreases Over exploitation of ground water Ways of water conservation Reducing evaporation loss Reducing irrigation loss Reuse water Avoid sewage discharge Water conservation method Rain water harvesting Watershed management Rain water harvesting Objective: To meet increasing demands of water Raise water table by recharging ground water Reduce ground water contamination from salt water intrusion Roof top rainwater harvesting Involves collecting water that falls on roof of house Rainwater from roof top. penalty.
ponds. degraded land and supplement folder and fuel wood resources available to rural communities Agriculture Aims to increase agricultural productivity in sustained manner and to diversify crop production . Page 51 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering - . Animal husbandry Energy conservation Community participation Training and awareness programme Advantages of Watershed projects Improved access to drinking water in project areas during drought Increase in cultivation area leading to increase in employment Increase in crop yield. lakes. Himalaya. The management of rainfall & resultant runoff. water harvesting tanks. implementing measures to check soil erosion Horticulture establishment of private orchard Rejuvenation of existing orchards Distribution of horticulture plant for home garden planting. resulting better income to rural population Improved availability of fodder for animals and increase in milk yield Increase in employment & involvement of women Increase in net returns from all crops. training camps and exposure visits. Macro Watershed Management. Eg. repair of old channels . reservoir. Types 1.Construct check dams. provide vegetative cover. storage tanks and channels . Farm. dams.Major objective shall be achieved through organizing farmers. Mini 3. Pits. Micro 2. Forestry Halt deforestation.Environmental Science and Engineering Increases the well water availability Raise ground water level Minimizes soil erosion Watershed management: It is defined as land area bounded by divide line from which water drains under influence of gravity in to stream. .
system to function naturally. waste management and harvesting non conventional energy If we change as individuals then the society will also change by itself.Restoration of ecological balance. Rehabilitation – making.g) reduction of waste. water as well as various living components of biosphere and failure to tackle the problem of pollution and environmental degradation are exposing the humanly to the thread of a global environment crisis. 1. The society is nothing but an extension of the individual. Page 52 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . system to work again by allowing. Minimize the resource utilization and conservation 3. Safeguard Employment. it is the duty of each and every one to protect our nature. Therefore human beings are ethically responsible for the preservation of the world‟s ecological integrity. Includes replacing the lost economic assets. Resettlement and Rehabilitation of people: Resettlement – simple relocation or displacement of human population.Decrease in soil erosion. The environment ethics literally means conscious efforts to protect environment and to maintain its stability from the pollutants. Provide safe land for building Repair damaged infrastructure. . regulations. policies. recycling. laws. Following are some of the ways to safeguard environment. Even though our government is formulating several rules. Adopt sustainable and eco friendly development.Environmental Science and Engineering . Effects: Loss of land Loss of recourse Unsatisfactory comp[enasation Social and cultura problems Changes in tradition of indigenous people Spread of disease Submergence of valuable forest Waterlogging Extinction of wild life Environmental ethics:Over exploitation of forests. land. (e. To sacrifice the consumption of some of the good which reduces environment quality 2. It emphasis that real development cannot occur unless the strategies which are formulated are implemented are environmentally sustainable.
to 45 0 C. is about 10 ppm. Has increase by 25%. 4. with in next 50 years. Of green house gases may double in the atom. Its conc. It acts as a protective shield for the life on the earth. Causes: Over the last century. deforestation. Methyl bromide used during packaging of fruits to prevent bacterial action flows out into the atmosphere as soon as the packing is opened. 3. These 3 major global warming gases are released into the atm. Ozone is produced and also broken down by photochemical reactions. 3. the conc. 5. If proper precautions are not taken. Ozone layer depletion: Ozone is an important chemical species present in the stratosphere. 1. Causes for ozone layer depletion: 1. High altitude aircrafts and chemicals emitted by industrial plants and automobiles. 2. Effects: 1. the level of carbon dioxide in the atm. and will makes the average global temp. Marked rise in cause skin cancer Damage immune system Eye ailment such as cataract Shorter life of paints and plastics Restricted growth and crop damage Page 53 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . the level of nitrous oxide by 19% and the level of methane by 100%. by burning of fossil fuels. Chlorine released from CFC and Bromine released from halogens are the most important chemicals associated with ozone layer depletion 2. 3. Effects: Increase evaporation of surface water – influence climate change Leads to declining biodiversity Melting of mountain glaciers and polar ice. the plants will grow bigger with increase in yield and resulting in the soils getting poor quality 7. 4. exhaust from increasing automobiles and other anthropogenic activities. 4. This cause heavy damage to ozone. industrialization. The halogens are used in fore extinguishers and CFC are extensively used in air conditioners and refrigerators. 2. mining. 6. thus maintaining equilibrium. 5.Environmental Science and Engineering Green House Effect and Global Warming: The raise of earth‟s surface temperature due to intense green house effect is called global warming. which cause rise in sea level Change the climate and rainfall – reduction in food production The biological productivity of ocean also decreased due to warming of earth‟s surface With more carbon dioxide in the air.
People over – population: When there are more people than available food. desertification.e. Early human societies used to consume much less resources.Environmental Science and Engineering 6. More consumption of resources lead to high waste generation – greater is the degradation of the environment.) per capita consumption is high. Population size is smaller but the resource consumption is high due to luxurious life style (i. This can be done by growing grasses and shrubs To reclaim the land/soil. water logging also degrade land Wastelands can be reclaimed by the following way Conserving the soil – land is brought under vegetal cover. voluntary agencies and government is very important Consumerism and Waste Products Consumerism refers to the consumption of resources by the people. effective participation of the people. The waste land do not fulfill their life sustain potential wasteland contributes about 20. Population has increased tremendously. Low Developed Countries (LDC) are more prone to these conditions. According to Paul Ehrlich and John Hodlren model Overall environmental impact = no. Destruction of aquatic life Waste land reclamation: Any land which is not put to optimal use is defined as waste land. 2. Two types of conditions of population and consumerism exists. Consumerism is related to both population size and increase in demands due to change in life style. of people x per capita use of resources x waste generated per unit of resources Page 54 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .17% of the total geographical area of India. Reasons for formation Over grazing and over exploitation Toxic effluent discharged from sewage and industrial wastes Mining activities destroy forest and cultivable land Use of pesticides also produce wasteland Erosion. 1. But the consumerism has increased to a very large extent. There is less per capita consumption although the overall consumption is high. water and other resources in an area – causes degradation of limited resources – poverty and under nourishments. Consumption over – population: These conditions occur in more developed countries (MDC). World Bank estimates our population to reach 11 billion by 2045.
3. Some are as follows Page 55 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . of people MDC low LDC High Low Low Per capita consumption of high resources Waste generated high Over all environmental impact of these two types of consumerism may be same or even greater in case of MDC. Comparison of consumption and waste generation Parameter Global value % USA Population Production of goods Energy use Pollutants and wastes CFC Production 4. 1986 CG is to take action to protect and improve environment and SG to co ordinate actions. Std of quality of ]air. 1986 SPCB is to follow the guidelines provided in schedule VI. CG to set up 1. 6. water or soil Maximum permissible limits of concentration of pollutants (including noise pollutant) procedures and safe guard for handling hazardous items Prohibition of using hazardous items Prohibition and restriction of certain industries in certain area Procedure and safe guard for prevention of accidents Environment (Protection) Rules.Environmental Science and Engineering Parameter No. 2.7 21 25 25 22 India 16 1 3 3 0.7 Environment (Protection) Act. 4. 5.
Section 19 provides for SG to declare „air pollution control area‟ in consultation with SPCB 7. Direction of PCB can be appealed in the appellate authority. Encourage recycling and reusing the wastes 3. 1981 Salient features 1. 2. 1976 the powers are transferred from state to central government. control and abatement of air pollution 2. Maintenance and Restoration of Quality – surface and ground water Establishment of central PCB and state PCB Confers powers and functions to CPCB and SPCB The act provides for funds. [I B of W L] was created in 1952 in our country which after WLA. budgets. Noise pollution – inserted in 1987 4. accounts and audits of the CPCB & SPCB The act provides penalties for the defaulters and duties and powers Wildlife [protection] act. 1972: Land mark in the history of wildlife legislation. Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act 1974: Maintaining and restoring the wholesomeness of water by preventing and controlling its pollution. 3. liquid or gaseous substance (including noise) in the atmosphere in such a concentration that may be or tend to be harmful to human being or any other living creature or plants or property or environment. Encourage recovery of biogas. Discharge of effluents and emissions into environment is permitted by SPCB after taking into account capacity of the receiving water body 5. Page 56 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . To emphasize clean technology to increase fuel efficiency and decrease environmental pollutants The act provides for environmental Audit for checking complying with the environmental laws and regulations. 1972. CPCB & SPCB similar to water pollution board 5. Prevention.Environmental Science and Engineering 1. energy and reusable matter 4. Advises industries for treating the waste water and gases – use of technology – achieve prescribed std. Section 20 provides for emission std to auto mobile 6. 2. The salient features and provisions of Act are summed as follows. 4. took up the task of setting National parks and sanctuaries. 5. Air (Prevention & Control of Pollution) Act. 1. Air pollution has been defined as the presence of any solid. 3.
2. mining etc. Page 57 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Illegal non-forest activity within a forest area can be immediately stopped under this act. Tigers 1973 Crocodile . 9 Provide captive breeding programme for endangered species. 4 List of endangered species is provided. wild life sanctuaries etc. Many conservation projects for endangered species were started under this act. wildlife warden. 1992 Amendment: 1. State government can use forest only forestry purpose. 5 Guides central 200 authorities. However construction in forest for wild life or forest management is exempted from non forestry activity. Advisory committee appointed for funding conservation 3. 1980 It deals with conservation of forest and includes reserve forest. seismic surveys. Non forest activity means clearing land for cash-crop agriculture. Provision for conservation of all types of forests. 8 Provides legal proves to officers to punish the offenders. 6 Provides grants for setting up of national parks. 2 Provide appointments of advisory Board. their powers & duties etc. exploration drilling and hydro electric project in forest area without cutting trees or with limited cutting of trees – prior approval CG to be sought. Salient features 1. 7 The Act imposes ban on trade & commence of scheduled animals.Environmental Science and Engineering Wildlife [protection] Act 1 Defines wild life related terminology. protected forest and any forest land irrespective of ownership. Deer 1981. 3 Prohibition of hunting of endangered species [was first] mentioned. Forest (conservation) Act. Lion 1972. This amendment allows transmission lines.
Environmental Science and Engineering 2. control or abatement of pollution Laboratories for analysis of water. rubber. 2. 6. 6. Has this may create imbalance to ecology of the forest. Constitutional Provisions: Added in 1976 – Article 48A – “The state shall endeavor to protect and improve the environment and to safeguard forests and wildlife of the country” Article 51A (g): “It shall be the duty of every citizen of India to protect and improve the natural environment including forests. 4. 5. Advices CG in matters – prevention and control of water pollution Co ordinates SPCB and provide technical assistance and guidance Training programs for prevention and control of pollution by mass media and other ways Publishes statistical and technical details about pollution Prepares manual for treatment and disposal of sewerage and trade effluents Lays std for water quality parameters plans nation-wide programs for prevention. National parks etc. 3. There after every year 5th June is celebrated as Environment Day. 3. oil yielding trees.r. trees of medicinal values are also prohibited in reserved forest area with out prior approval from CG. Central and state pollution control Board: Central pollution control Board (CPCB): 1. Tusser (a type of silk yielding insect) cultivation in forest area is allowed since it discourages monoculture practices in forests and improves biodiversity. Environmental Legislation 1972 June 5th – Environment was first discussed as an agenda in UN conference on Human Environment. 4. tea (cash crop). Proposal sent to CG for non-forestry activity must have a cost benefit analysis and environmental impact statement (EIS). Plantation of mulberry for rearing silk worm is prohibited. By these two articles one constitution makes environment protection and conservation as one of our fundamental duties. rivers and wildlife and to have compassion for living creatures”. Wild life sanctuaries. location of any industry that might pollute Page 58 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . sewage or trade effluents State pollution control Board (SPCB): SPCB has similar functions as SPCB and governed by CPCB 1.t. 7. fruit bearing trees. lakes. are prohibited from exploration except with CG prior approval. SPCB advises state government w. 5. 8. Cultivation of coffee.
Review Questions 1.) inhabitants of forest are left by the act Instead of attracting public support (tribal) it has intrigued in the human rights. 3. Government should provide subsidy for small units. Pollution control laws not backed up by policy pronouncements or guidelines 7. Draw backs of wild life (protection) act Fall out of Stockholm conference not localized Ownership certificate of animals article – illegal trading Trade through J & K. mining. This act not applicable to J&K Offender to get just 3 years imprisonment and or Rs. Chairman of PCB – political nominee. then the unit is neglected 3. Define the term environmental ethics. Hence political interference. 6. Protection of trees. 2. What are the effects of global warming? Increase the sea level Negative effect on crop production and forest growth Decrease the water resource Increase the drought 3. Draw backs of the forest (conservation) act 1980 Inheritance of exploitative and consumerist elements of the British period Tribal people (i. 1. Samples taken are analysed at recognized labs. Explain the factors affecting watershed Overgrazing. birds and animals have marginalized poor people. Environmental ethics refers to the issues. If the sample is not confirming to the water quality std.fine. construction activities degrades watershed Page 59 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Enforcement of environmental legislation – major issues Target of 33% of land to be covered by forest not achieved Rivers turning to open sewers Big towns and cities polluted Wild life endangered EFP (Effluent Treatment Plant) or Air Pollution Control devices are expensive – leads to closure of units. Every industry to obtain consent from PCB before commencing an effluent unit by applying in prescribed form with fee. Involving public in decision making envisaged by policy statement of the ministry of environment and forest (1992) is only in paper. wells or trade effluents or sewage passing through an industry. 5. 8. principals and guidelines relating to human interactions with their environment 2. 4.Environmental Science and Engineering 2.e. deforestation. Lays std for effluents to take samples from streams.25000/.
Damage genetic materials in the skin cells which cause skin cancer.Environmental Science and Engineering 4. What is meant by Environmental audit? Environmental audits are indented to quantify environmental performance and environmental position. What are the state enactments of environmental legislations of India Smoke control Landuse Pest control Water pollution Page 60 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . plastics 6. What is waste land reclamation? The restoration of disturbed land to ecologically stable condition. To make the land more productive for agriculture 7. Affect the aquatic forms Global warming Degradation of paints. 5 Write the consequences of ozone layer depletion.
5. In Japan and Sweden 77-77. People started living with good sanitation food and medical facilities increase in population exponentially. economic inequity and environmental abuse. 2.9 developing countries. Infant mortality: % of infants died out of those born in a year last 50 years. education and prosperity. It is a known fact that the increase of population is playing vital role of all environmental damage.6 and 23.4% per year. 14 th century A. Increase in birth rate in developed countries due to illiteracy 2. 4. Therefore.3 in 1900 & 60.5 years. Population characteristics and variation among nations: 1. Exponential growth: 1. Life expectancy: The average no. Population explosion: Population explosion means the tremendous increase in the number of people. outbreak of diseases lead to human deaths. Most of our natural resources are under threat because of the population growth. The life expectancy of global males and females has risen from 40 to 55.4 & 82-84 years.5…… If a quantity varies by a fixed % 10^1. Invention of modern medical facilities reduces mortality rate. Science and technological advancement has increased the expectancy of human.Environmental Science and Engineering UNIT 5: HUMAN POULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT Population growth: Stone age – quite stable Droughts. 10^2 etc. Family welfare programme: Population explosion must be differenced Population is not controlled will deplete all resources Family planning Page 61 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Doubling Time Td = 70/r 2% 3.7 in developing countries and 2 in developed countries. In agriculture based families children are said to be assets who help the parents in fields. Replacement level: Under low life expectancy and high infant mortality 2. the resources will be exhaust shortly.D experienced large scale mortality due to plague – about 50% of people in Asia and Europe died due to the disease. of years a new born baby is expected to live. Reason for population explosion: 1. If the exploitation of resource is going on in this trend.3 and 60. 6.3. Population explosion increase disease. Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is 1. In India 22. in developing countries the population increase is at a rate of 3.5 in 2000.7 developing countries and 6. Therefore we need population stabilization to achieve good health.1 in 1950 4.
Every one of these has implications for the health of the individual as well as society as a whole. association. liberty. Poverty and population leads to violation of human rights. diseases caused from improper disposal of solid wastes and also due to noise pollution. air and landscape pollution. air pollution. 5. right to form or join union. security. -one out of 3 lack fuel for cooking -1/5 is desperately poor -every year 40 million people die due to contaminated water 7. Human rights: 1. use of pesticides in agriculture etc. lacks clean drinking water. 300 million couples not assessed to family planning Environment and human health: Environment is defined as man along with his surroundings. which consists of biotic. right to health care. when we cause danger to these components. which surrounds us. knowledge and benefits of their small family to people Education in held and family welfare system Sex education awareness WHO estimated 50% of worlds married couples adopted family planning measures. Human rights means that a human being must enjoy on this earth 2. freedom of thought. abiotic and sociological components. Foundation of human was laid in 13th century. Health hazards may be arising from: water contamination or pollution. use of pesticides enters through food chain. 6. But positive hopes for all people for a happy. Acute scarcity of employment Page 62 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . deforestation. lacks hygienic conditions and health facilities.Environmental Science and Engineering Allowscouples to describe their family size and also time spacing of their offspring Provide importance. The environmental dangers created by man are many: Population explosion.1948 3. UNDHR defines specific rights to life. radiation effect of nuclear water. creating water. education etc. Universal declaration rights are universal but disparity between developing and developed countries. desertification. Therefore. freedom of movement right of equal pay for equal work. It highlights on protection to all individuals against injustice and human right violation 4. WHO estimates -One out of every five is malnourished. unregulated urbanization. dignified and secured living condition wee raised only after “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR) by UNO on 1012. they in turn affect our health. None can be ignored because the scale of potential calamity is increasing day by day.
Merit of universal education and child labour prevention is of much less importance than his struggle for existence 9. Life based upon good principles is an essential requisite. peaceful and harmonious society.a sense of commitment towards the management of the resources in a sustainable way so that our children and grand children too have a safe and clean planet. generous and tolerant so that they can move towards more harmonious. aommunity development and environment. Value education increases awareness about our national history. Education should give overall development of the student personality. self centered and over ambitious. It is crucial to the retention of national identity. Developed and developing country give importance only to „respect to human rights‟ and „non social – economic rights‟ respectively. The principles of ecology and fundamentals of environment help to create a sense of earth citizenship and a sense of care for the earth and its resources . Value Education: Education is one of the most important tools in bringing about socioeconomic and cultural progress of a country. Value education help in arriving value based judgements based on practical understanding of various natural principles. helpful. enjoyable and sustainable future. Value based environmental education: Environmental education is something that every person should be well versed with. But in the drive to development man has become too materialistic. The scientific and technological advancements have shrunk the world into a village. Page 63 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Good citizens are the only hope for the progress and prosperity of the country. Education does not simply mean acquiring information but using the resources within the limits of ethical value. constitutional rights and duties. national pride. Therefore moral education should be included in the school curriculum. The objective of education should not be merely coaching the students to get through the exams with good results and get some good job.Environmental Science and Engineering 8. Value education shall prepare individuals for participation in social life and acceptance of social rules. The main of education is to produce citizens with sound character and health. peace loving. our cultural heritage. Value based education has a very significant role in providing proper direction to youth to inculcate positive attitude and to teach them the distinction between right and wrong. It teaches them to be compassionate. Schools should provide a healthy environment for sharing responsibilities of community life and relationships. peaceful. The curriculum should provide enough opportunity for pupils to acquire a considerable amount of knowledge that is essential for morally responsible living in our democratic society. national integration.
reduction of wants etc. education can bring about a total transformation of our mind set. 2.Environmental Science and Engineering Following the Supreme Court directives 1998 environmental education has been included in the curriculum right from the school stage to university level. This will reduce our consumerist approach If the mentioned values are incorporated in env. Immune deficiency means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of immune system HIV-Human immuno deficiency virus cause AIDS disease. 3. Global values: Stress on the concept human is part of nature and all natural processes are inter linked and they are in harmony. 5. HIV/AIDS AIDS-Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Acquired means disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent. tolerance. Social values like love. Spiritual values: highlights on self contentment. neck Page 64 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .semen Transmission of AIDS Prostitution Homosexual activity Use of contaminated syringe in blood transfusion and drug addicts Maternal-fetal transmission Symptoms: Persistent fever Fatique. Education. Let us see how environmental education can be made value based one.virus is passed through iinfected blood. Education. If this harmony is disturbed it may lead to imbalance in ecology and catastrophic results. Education should stress on earth centric views rather than human centric view such that it include the ethical values. our attitudes and life style to protect nature. Env. This will help to nurture all forms of life and biodiversity. Preparation of text books materials on environmental education – to built a positive attitude towards environmental factors. 6. compassion can be woven into env. Cultural and religious values: Our culture and religions teach us not to exploit nature – but to perform such functions which project and sacred nature. discipline. weekness Diarrhea Wait loss Low number of T cells in blood Swelling lymph nodes. The objective of it is to make everyone environment literate. Value based env. 4. education. conservation can be easily attained. the goal of sustainable development and env. Therefore these values can be added up with env. 1.
1. Instruments for monitoring and analysis of meteorological parameters. the acoustic sounding system. is used for waste water analysis. attached with powerful computers to facilitate easy manipulations. Unknown parameters can be stimulated by computer techniques 3. Comprehensive administrative system can be developed by using computer network techniques. EIA(Environmental Impact Assessment) problems can be analyzed 4.Environmental Science and Engineering Susceptible to infections Treatment: AZT-Azidi thymidine DDI – Dideoxyinosine Screening test: ELISA-Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbant Assay Western blot Polymer chain reaction Saliva and urine test Branched DNA test Immuno fluorescent antibody assay The major precautions to avoid AIDS education prevention of blood borne HIV transmission primary health care counseling services drug treatment Role Of Information Technology In Environment And Human Health: Computer based instruments for environment studies: There are several on-line use instruments by which data can be collected automatically at fixed interval of time. Inventories of emission sources are compiled and maintained 5. Application of computers in the field of Environment & human health: 2. 3. Inductive coupled plasma spectrometer (ICPS). statistical analysis and the status of environmental pollutions can be high lighted 6. Net-work analysis. Eg. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) – performs complex chemical and heavy metal analysis in water and waste water. Page 65 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . radar is used 2.
Environmental Science and Engineering Remote sensing-Graphical Interface System are useful for coral reef mapping and ocean resources. vegetables. What is silicosis and asbestosis? Silicosis is caused due t contamination of free silica Asbestosis is due to asbestos fibres deposited in lungs 5.. List any four vector borne disease Malaria Dengue Filaria Encephalitis 6. cold drink 8. What are the two primary strains of HIV HIV-1 Strain HIV -2 strain Page 66 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . What do you mean by carrying capacity of population? The maximum popu. This is a water borne disease.e. caused by amoeba i. Entameoba histolytica and charecterised by liquid stools with mucous and blood Source. food chain-fruits. Review questions: 1. 7. contaminated drinking water. What are the reasons for population explosion? Improved sanitary conditions Better heath care increase in productivity of agriculture and industry 3. They are also useful to access the loss of biodiversity/hot spots etc. What is ameobiasis?Give its source. What are the factors influencing human population Unwanted fertility To increase the income for family and support Lack of knowledge on population control methods 4.lation size that an ecosystem can support under particular environmental condition 2.
List any two drugs used in treatment of AIDS AZT-Azidothymidine DDi-Dideoxyinosine 10. Differentiate between genetic diversity and species diversity Genetic diversity – diversity within species ie. trees. Consumers. 3.Environmental Science and Engineering 9. 4. Net work of food chain – Food web – if one species gets affected. it does not affect other tropic levels so seriously. ECOSYSTEM AND BIODIVERSITY 1. List any two applications of information technology in environment Data on environmental degradation will help to restore the conditions Geographic information system by application of information techniology will help in environmental conservation FIVE YEARS ANNA UNIVERSITY EXAM QUESTION AND ANSWERS UNIT 1: ENVIRONMENT.Climatic adaptations and physical structure. This set of Ecosystem is called Biome (Small ecosystem) A group of Organisms Interacting among themselves and with environment is known as ecosystem. 2..diversity between different species.is the basic functional unit of Ecology. Define the terms producers and consumers Producers – depend on their food themselves through Photosynthesis. The sum of varieties of all the living organisms at the species level is known as species diversity. Eg. variations of genes within the species. All green plants .. animals eating species. What are ecological pyramids? Page 67 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . 5. Plant eating species. Species diversity . if one species gets affected or becomes extinct. Define: Food chain and Food Web In linear food chains. then the species in the subsequent tropic levels are also affected.depend directly or indirectly on the producers eg. Differentiate between a biome and an ecosystem On earth there are many sets of ecosystems which are exposed to same climatic conditions and having dominant species with similar lifecycle. .
2. How solid wastes are disposed ultimately? Landfill. 3. What is marine pollution? Marine pollution is defined as the discharge of waste substances in to the resulting in harm to living resource. Define biodiversity. What are the effects of noise pollution? Interferes with man‟s communication Hearing damage Physiological and psychological changes 4. 7. b) COD:-COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) is the amount oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using some oxidizing agent like K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4. hindrance to fishery and impairment of quality for use of sea water.incineration. Ecology – study of interactions among organisms or group of organisms with their environment (Biotic and Abiotic Organisms) 9.composting 5. Define a) Decibel b) COD a) Decibel:-Decibel (dB) is defined as the one tenth of the longest unit Bel. Define ecology. UNIT 2:ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION 1. hazards to human health. Biodiversity – the variety and variability among all groups of living organisms and the ecosystem in which they occur. 6. 8. What is ecological succession? The progressive replacement of one community by another till the development of stable community in a particular area is called ecological succession. What are the causes of water pollution? Domestic sewage Industrial effluents Page 68 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Define “Hot spots of biodiversity” The hot spots are the geographic areas which possess high endemic species.Environmental Science and Engineering Graphical representation of structural and function of tropic levels of an ecosystem is called ecological pyramids.
8.NO2------HNO3/NO3 Page 69 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Environmental Science and Engineering Synthetic detergents Agro chemicals Oil Thermal pollutants Run off from land fills 6.SO2 another to form new pollutants Examples: NO. cyclone. landslide. practices. earthquake and Tsunami 7.g. flood. materials. Differentiate between primary and secondary air pollutants with examples: Primary pollutants Secondary pollutants These are emitted directly in the These are pollutants in which atmosphere in harmful form some of the primary air pollutants may react with one Examples:CO.. products or energy that avoid or minimize the creation of pollutants and waste or environmental disturbances and reduse risk to human health Pollution control The proper control measures practiced to minimize the pollution level.NO. Differentiate between pollution prevention and pollution control Pollution prevention It means using processes. What is disaster? Give few examples Disaster is a geological processes and is defined as the sudden calamity which brings misfortune and miseries to human community e.
4. Write any two adverse effects caused by overgrazing. What are the reasons for deforestation? Page 70 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Reason-deforestation.overgrazing 5. Distinguish renewable and non-renewable sources of energy Energy renewable Advantage Disadvantage Energy non renewable Wide availability Unreliable supply Low cost Produced in small Decentralized power quantity production Difficult to store Low pollution Cost more Available for the future Available in high highly pollution concentrated form Available only in few places Easy to store Reliable supply High running cost Lower cost Limited supply and will one day get exhausted 2. without exhausting resources. 3. What is sustainable development? Sustainable development is defined as meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Give any six air pollutants Sulphur dioxide Nitrogen oxides Sulphur trioxide Carbon dioxide Hydrocarbons Carbon monoxide UNIT:3 NATURAL RESOURCES 1. beyond the foreseeable future. Desertification means degradation of one fertile land to desert like land. overgrazing. What is desertification? Give any two reasons for it. Land degradation Loss of useful species.mining. or extending progress.Environmental Science and Engineering 9.
manganese 9. essential for defence. Land degradation means process of deterioration of soil or loss of fertility of soil.g. increasing industrial activity. What does strategic metals and minerals mean? These are the metals and minerals that a country uses but cannot produce itself. 7. increasing demands for wood resources 6. lower the surface water level Land subsidence Salt water intrusion Climate change 11. The management of rainfall and resultant run off is called watershed management 2. cobalt. Define Land Degradation.. What is an aquifer? A highly permeable layer of sediment or rock containing water 8. What is green house effect? Green house effect may be defined as the progressive warming up of the earth‟s surface due to blanketing effect of man made carbondioxide in the atmosphere 3. What is water logging and how it is prevented? Saturation of soil with irrigation water or excessive precipitation so that the water table rises close to surface.iron.Environmental Science and Engineering Deforestation means increasing agricultural production. Prevent excessive irrigation Subsurface drainage and bio drainage by trees like Eucalyptus trees are adopted Leakage from water pump are detected 10. What are the advantages of rainwater harvesting? Reduction in the use of current for pumping water Mitigation by effects of droughts and achieving drought proofing Page 71 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering . Write any two effects of ground water depletion. e. List any four adverse affects of mining. Define watershed management. Scarring and disruption of land surface Land subsidence Smelting causes air pollution Acid mine drainage contaminates ground water UNIT 4:SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT 1.
bridges and fences.semen. Define “Human rights”. HIV-Human innuno deficiency virus cause AIDS disease. What are the objectives of watershed management? To minimize the risk of foods. Differentiate between HIV and AIDS. sex and language. 5. monuments. What are the effects of acid rain? Acid rain corrodes houses. density. biomass. which are possessed by all human being irrespective of their caste. Deteriorate the paint and stone 6. AIDS-Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome Acquired means disease is not hereditary but develops after birth from contact with a disease causing agent. pest and disease. 6. 5. statues. What are the major precautions to avoid AIDS? education prevention of blood borne HIV transmission primary health care counseling services drug treatment 4. droughts and landslides To develop rural areas in the region with clear plan for improving the economy To generate huge employment opportunities To protect the soil from erosion by run off To rise ground water level UNIT 5 : HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT 2. What is population explosion? The enormous increase in population due to low death rate (mortalityt) and high birth rate (natality). Human rights are the fundamental rights. is termed as population explosion. Write any two applications of information technology in environment.Environmental Science and Engineering Increasing the availability of water from well Rise in ground water level Minimizing the soil erosion and flood hazards 4. forest fire.virus is passed through iinfected blood. Immune deficiency means that the disease is characterized by a weakening of immune system 3. What is acid rain? The presence of excessive acids in rain water is acid rain. nationality. Land and water management Information on type. Page 72 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .
What are the reasons responsible for population explosion? Invention of modern medical facilities reduces the death rate and increases the birth rate. death and marriage encourage late marriage and later child birth constrain the spread of AIDS/HIV Page 73 of 73 ©Einstein College of Engineering .Environmental Science and Engineering 7. What are the major objectives of family welfare programme in India? reduce infant mortality rate to below 30/100 infants achieves 100% registration of birth. Improve the integral growth of human being create attitude and improvement towards sustainable lifestyle to understand about natural environment. Write the value of education to the society. Increase of life expectancy Illiteracy 8. 9.
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