New York State Assembly

SUBTRACTING PRISONERS FROM THE ADDRESS OF INCARCERATION
Preface

“Upon receipt of such information for each incarcerated person subject to the jurisdiction of the Department of Corrections and Community Supervision, the task force shall determine the census block corresponding to the street address of each such person’s residential address prior to incarceration (if any), and the census block corresponding to the street address of the correctional facility in which such person was held subject to the jurisdiction of such department.” (See Part XX of Chapter 57 of the Laws of 2010)

In keeping with the obligations under Part XX of Chapter 57 of the Laws of 2010referred to as part XX below, the Legislative Advisory Task Force on Demographic Research and Reapportionment determined the census block corresponding to the correctional facility in which such person was held on April 1, 2010. This determination was made using the information provided by the Department of Corrections and Community Supervision (DOCCS) as authorized by this same Chapter for this purpose. The result of this task allows for the subtraction of such prisoners from the census blocks of their incarceration and the reallocation of such prisoners to the census block corresponding to their street address prior to incarceration. Below is detailed the methodology and results of identifying the census blocks from which such prisoners are subtracted.

Locating DOCCS Facilities:
Using correctional facility addresses from the DOCCS Facility Listing, found on its website (http:// www.docs.state.ny.us/faclist.html) and a geographic point database created from this list by Cornell Universities’ Program on Applied Demographics, each DOCCS facility was located and the 

proper Census Bureau identification information (county, tract, and block number) was assigned to each facility. These blocks were further examined using GOOGLE Maps (satellite view) to determine what was physically present on that block. DOCCS provided inmate records for 68 facilities, though today there are 67 identified DOCCS facilities. One correctional facility has been closed since April 1, 2010, Lyon Mountain Correctional Facility located in the town of Lyon Mountain in Clinton County. The closure of Lyon Mountain Correctional Facility reduced the DOCCS Facility Listing from 68 facilities to 67 facilities.1 The total number of people identified by DOCCS as being under their jurisdiction on April 1, 2010 was 58,237. Each of those 58,237 was identified with a unique identification number in the lists provided to LATFOR.

Group Quarters
The Census Bureau released on April 20, 2011, information on what it calls group quarters which include adult correctional facilities including federal, state and local facilities, alternative to incarceration programs both state and local, military dormitories, college dormitories, group homes for people with developmental disabilities, etc. The Bureau provides a count of the number of people in different types of group quarters including the count forthe category “adult correctional facilities.” (Variable p042003) This census dataset does not include facility name or address identifiers but instead uses census geography to identify the block where the census has identified a group quarters. Moreover, the Census Bureau adult correctional facilities count (reported as Variable p042003) does not distinguish between state prison facilities, county and local jails, federal prisons, Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention facilities, and specialized facilities housing individuals held in facilities operated by New York State Office of Mental Health who have been deemed incompetent to stand trial because of mental defect or illness. The Bureau reported that 186 blocks (county, tract, block) have adult correctional facilities residents with a total number of residents of 117,717 people—not all of whom are covered by Chapter 57. (See below) Census group quarters data reconciliation with DOCCS prisoner and facility list and adjustment to affected block populations: Census bureau group quarters data, released on April 20, 2011 contains adult correctional population numbers (variable p042003) for 186 blocks in New York State. A visual examination of all 186 blocks was completed. This process included printing maps of all 186 blocks that included county, town, block and street lines as well as the

Although the minimum portion of Butler Correctional Facility was also closed in the same year, because the medium portion of Butler Correctional Facility remains in operation, no change to the number of correctional facilities occurs as a result of the minimum unit’s closure. In addition, up to seven correctional facilities shall close in the coming year.
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SUBTRACTING PRISONERS FROM THE ADDRESS OF INCARCERATION 

Cornell points and then comparing these maps to the DOCCS Facility Listing addresses to find a match. During this map analysis both the census reported adult correctional population and the DOCCS address derived facility population were considered and compared as a match was made between the census block and the DOCCS facility. Google Maps and address lookup tools were also used to help confirm the identity of the correctional facilities. This analysis identified 73 blocks as having either, a single DOCCS facility (59), multiple DOCCS facilities (2) or a partial DOCCS facility (12). Also identified were 3 blocks that contain the two federal prisons in New York State, with one facility on a single block (that also contains a DOCCS facility) and the other split between two blocks. The remainder of the 186 blocks were observed to be county and other local correctional facilities as well as other state and federal holding facilities or local correctional programs not subject to the provisions of part XX. A total of 68 DOCCS correctional facilities, which were the total number of state correctional facilities in operation on April 1, 2010 and two federal correctional facilities were identified amongst a total 75 census blocks. The 75 blocks are identified in the attached spreadsheet chart (see Exhibit 1 for chart [adult corr pop by census block.xls]) by their census County, Tract, Block codes appearing in columns A, C and D, respectively. It should be noted that in many cases it was found that the blocks the census bureau identified were not completely consistent with the list and location of DOCCS facilities. This was sometimes confirmed by the Cornell point database, but also occasionally the Cornell data was incorrect. Other mis-locations were identified using Google Maps and address look up tools. These mis-locations are not substantial and most often were a case where a neighbor block to the actual facility location was identified, an example being a parking lot identified versus the actual inmate housing buildings located on an adjacent block. In other cases, a facility covers multiple blocks and the census identified only one block with adult correctional population, an example being one housing building being assigned population while other neighboring housing buildings in adjacent blocks are assigned no correctional population. In all instances the mis-locations are not substantial. In no instance does any mis-location affect the results (The proper assignment of a DOCCS facility or Census Bureau adult correctional facility)to its correct Census block creates no change inany city, town, county, Assembly District or Senate district correctional facility. Also, the Willard Drug Treatment Campus was included in the Census group quarters numbers, the DOCCS website list, the inmate address list and this analysis even though it is not considered a prison as per §70.1(c) of the Correction Law. Although Willard residents are not prisoners, because they are included in the dataset provided by DOCCS, they are included in our amended dataset. The inmates were included and properly located, though we recognize Willard is not, in fact, a prison and the residents are not, in fact, inmates subject to part XX. The Willard Drug Treatment Campus is an alternative to incarceration program created by the Legislature in 1995 under the Omnibus Sentencing Reform Act of 1995. Willard provides a ninetyday program of intensive drug treatment services for persons who receive sentences of parole supervision pursuant to section 70.06 or 70.70 of the Penal Law and certain violators of parole
SUBTRACTING PRISONERS FROM THE ADDRESS OF INCARCERATION 

supervision. Willard is licensed by the Office of Alcohol and Substance Abuse and all Willard participants are under parole supervision. Thus, Willard participants differ from prison inmates in a number of regards, particularly in that they are sentenced to Willard as an alternative to being incarcerated in a prison. Inmates, on the other hand, are persons convicted and sentenced to an authorized term of imprisonment. A term of imprisonment may be imposed upon those who fail to follow the Willard program or the conditions of release to parole supervision thereafter. The aforementioned spreadsheet was created to record the matched information and to facilitate the population subtraction that is required for these census blocks. This spreadsheet is organized by census block and includes the block identification number (block id which includes the county, tract, and block identifiers), town name, Senate District (SD), Assembly District (AD), both the census reported populations (Column E) and DOCCS reported populations (Column L), the DOCCS and/or federal facility name (Column H) and a calculated final adjusted block population (Column O). All columns are clearly labeled. It should be noted that blocks with group quarters population may also have additional population assigned to it by the census bureau as in the previously mentioned case of local correctional facilities (county jails) and detention centers. The census reported population on a block with a group quarters can also include non-incarcerated individuals. For example, a prison location may also have population related to DOCCS personnel who reside in facilities available to the prison warden, prison guards, etc. Similarly, a prison location may also contain individuals who are in a group quarters not covered by Chapter 51 Part XX. For example, one prison location (block) covered by Chapter 51, Part XX also has a state psychiatric inpatient facility located on that same block not covered by Chapter 51 Part XX. The census group quarters adult correctional population is always either equal to or less than the census total population (reported in the PL94171 census redistricting dataset) for all 75 involved blocks. Part XX f Chapter 57 of the Laws of 2010 provides that the number of people reported by DOCCS in each facility should be used to reduce the reported population of the affected block. The DOCCS facilities population (Column L) calculated from the inmate address dataset is equal to (on 23 blocks) or lower than (on 39 blocks) the census adult group quarters population (Column F) except for six blocks where it is greater. Where the population reported by DOCCS is less than or equal to the population reported by the Bureau, the population of the specific block can be reduced in a straightforward manner. The six blocks that have greater DOCCS population than census adult correctional population have a total combined overage of 38 persons. Since this overage would reduce their adult correctional block population to a negative number—a conceptual impossibility—the adult correctional populations of those blocks are reduced to zero. There are six DOCCS facilities that the Bureau of the Census has assigned multiple census blocks. Those multiple block facilities are each found within a single town, within a single AD and within a single SD. DOCCS reports fewer inmates at three of these facilities (Fishkill, Clinton and Hudson Correctional Facilities) than the Bureau of Census total Adult Correctional Population assigned to the blocks associated with them. At Fishkill Correctional Facility, DOCCS population
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exceeds Census report by 12 inmates. At Clinton Correctional Facility, DOCCS population exceeds Census report by 9 inmates. And at Hudson Correctional Facility DOCCS population exceeds Census report by 3 inmates. In each of the three instances noted above, the DOCCS reported inmate population must be counted at the facility, presenting the problem of which of the multiple Census blocks to assign the remaining inmate population.). In these three instances, the residual inmate population was assigned to the lowest numerically identified Census block at each facility (noted in the Correctional Facility Population Adjusted column (N) in spreadsheet. In no correctional facility did the adjusted population result in a negative number. Part XX directs that federal prison inmates also be subtracted from communities hosting federal facilities. Adjustments reflecting Bureau of Census population counts at group quarters adult correction facilities identified as Federal Prisons were made by subtracting the Census totals from each block. There are only two federal correctional facilities operated by the federal Bureau of Prisons in New York State: the federal Otisville Correctional Facility (not to be confused with the contiguous DOCCS facility witho the same name) and the federal Raybrook Correctional Facility. One of these federal facilities is located on the same block as a DOCCS facility: federal Otisville is located on the same block as DOCCS Otisville Correctional Facility. The DOCCS dataset totals for Otisville Correctional Facility was deducted from the Census group quarters adult correction facility total provided for the block which contained the state and Federal facilities respectively. The result wis, upon belief, the population of the Federal correctional facilities of the block. Thus, referring to the attached chart (Exhibit 1), the census block containing the group quarters adult correctional population is identified by the census codes contained in columns A, C and D. The census total population for these blocks is contained in column E. The inmate population including DOCCS and federal inmates to be subtracted from column E is contained in column N. Column O contains the final population numbers for the census blocks from which all DOCCS and federal inmates have been subtracted. That is to say that Column O contains the final adjusted population which reflects the population adjustment called for in Chapter 57 Part XX for each of the 75 blocks identified by the Bureau as having people who reside in an adult correctional facility in New York.

Summary
The Census Bureau group quarters adult correction population totals identified 186 blocks as having such population. There were 68 New York State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision facilities in operation on April 1, 2010 in addition to 2 federal correctional facilities. Prisons, made up of many buildings on many acres, were assignedallocate by the Census Bureau too a total of 75 blocks. The Task Force staff used the addresses of correctional facilities on the DOCCS website and the addresses on the Federal Bureau of Prisons website to identify these correctional facilities on these 75 blocks. Staff then used the DOCCS dataset which enumerated 58,237 inmates and the name of the correctional facility in which each such inmate was housed, to come up with a total inmate population for each correctional facility on each
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Census block. In compliance with Part XX of Chapter 57 of the Laws of 2010, the total inmate population was then deducted from the total group quarters adult correction population, in the manner described above, to arrive at the adjusted population totals for these census blocks to all for the subtraction of such prisoners from the census blocks of their incarceration address prior to incarceration

SUBTRACTING PRISONERS FROM THE ADDRESS OF INCARCERATION