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PROF. JOHN K. TILTON
Cornell University Library
A manual of gothic moldings: with direct
3 1924 015 673 217
Cornell University Library
original of this
the Cornell University Library.
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the United States on the use of the
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS .
M.. AUTHOR OF "A MANUAL OF GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE. A.A. CLEVELAND: CAEL WENDELIN KUEHNY. MDCCCCII tr . lUoatrsteii bg aptoatius of (Six Utmiuxb (BxnmplzB. ETC.. By W. FAWCETT. FELLOW OF ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. M. By F. PALEY.A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS: DIRECTIONS FOE COPYING THEM AND FOE DETEEMINING THEIE DATES.A. " SIXTH EDITION. M. WITH NUMEEOUS ADDITIONS AND IMPEOVEMENTS. FELLOW OF SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 3554 ATTICA EOAD.
LONDON .PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN BY WOODFALL AND KINDER.
—Bases XI. Early English Moldings VI.12 26 32 38 47 61 71 76 89 III. .98 103 107 . Perpendicular Moldings Plans of Gothic Columns IX. . . Hood-Moldings and String-Courses . IV. . page Introductory 1 II.— CONTENTS Section I. . —Decorated Moldings VII.— Capitals X. Early Moldings in general V. VIII. XII.— Conclusion Descriptions of Plates . The General Principles Copying Moldings of Formation ...
amendments have also Professor Willis's Nomenclature is now so difficult to obtain that one or two extracts have been made instead of the mere reference given in the former editions. and also by arranging the plates so that they are Several small more easy been made. As a sixth edition of Mr. Paley's work is required. the Editor has endeavoured to improve it by inserting more examples in the text. .PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. The Editor has been careful to keep the book within the same limits as to size so as not to increase the cost. for reference. this edition will and trusts that meet with the same approval which has been bestowed on its predecessors.
the Editor has been its careful to keep the book within present limits. Paley. The Author has employed the terms "Early English. and give the it work that practical character which he wished to have. and it are. at the request of Mr. it has undertaken to prepare always difficult for for the Press. many of them cannot now be tained with certainty. A Thied Edition of the Manual of Gothic Moldings having been called for. and. as these were taken from the Author's note-books when the ascer- work was first published." and " Perpendicular" throughout. the present Editor. that the Editor felt would have been undesirable to attempt any alteration. so generally understood. the . examples in the plates have been indexed but. lest he should change its whole character from an elementary treatise to one of an entirely different class." " Decorated. The chiefly additions *and alterations that have been made have at the been done by way of further explanation where anything . Though it is one person to carry out satisfactorily the work of another. the Author was of opinion that the revision of a professional man would secure accuracy. as far as practicable. But the student should . A considerable number of woodcuts has also been inserted by way of additional localities of the illustration. besides. might not previously have seemed clear to a student same time. and these are so thoroughly engrafted into the work.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.
very An ture accurate knowledge of Moldings is indispensable to any one professing even an amateur's acquaintance of architec. as scale has a very important of Moldings. Elizabethan." &c. hardly an old Church existing without it . in Moldings. must be Several careful that he knows the dates to which they new terms have been proposed. as &c. also such terms "early thirteenth century. but he who attempts to practise as an architect (however freely he may use his knowledge) must study them thoroughly. perhaps. Cambridge . first charming little variations may The be found. which at sight would hardly be suspected. already in common use . 1864." "late fourteenth. the student refer. not merely by reading a work like this (though that may be of great assistance). are frequently employed.PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. but those here employed them. and locality at which certain kinds of do not Now the two latter of these terms therefore. remember that the work fulfil object to be attained in nomenclature is to define clearly the date prevailed. and have the advantage of being precise. 1st December. therefore. but by actually going about observing and measuring them himself . F. something worth sketching in and often. to attain a true knowledge of the science of Gothic Moldings. W. in using this condition. M. on the character There is. feels that he cannot do better than advise those who wish carefully. for very little can be learnt without effect measuring. but to sketch them and to measure them accurately. and them. not merely to read about them. . have become so generally adopted that no others have succeeded in displacing of Mr Fergusson has proposed the adoption Edwardian and Plantagenet in a manner analogous to Tudor. Editor.
Cambridge. " Tales of my Grandfather " —he the being . was commonly said that he was plucked in one of the college examinations in Paley's " Evidences " because he wrote at the foot of his paper. Master.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. and to it will be probably of interest to our readers. He was born on 14th January. In due time he was sent to Shrewsbury. and in 1834 he came up to John's College. as well as respectful his memory. 1815. of which parish his father was Vicar. and took his degree in 1838. near his life. at York. and naturally became a member of the Cambridge Camden Society. a grandson of Archdeacon Paley who wrote "Evidences of Christianity. Butler was then the Head St. and so was not It eligible to enter in the lists for Classical honours. true or not the tale of the While at Cambridge he was much interested in Architecture." is certainly characteristic Whether man. classical scholar as That such a ripe he was should not have appeared in the strange all . where Dr. Tripos seems a out in little but at that time every one going first honours at was obliged to appear in the not Mathematical Tripos. Paley either could not or would take the trouble to do this (probably the greater part of the latter). Since the last edition of this work was issued its talented Author has passed away. He held the office of Secretary from 1841—2 to its . if in the Preface to the new edition I give some account of Easingwold.
consider rather dry and . was certainly a characteristic of and this quality may account for the somewhat remarkable fact that an amateur should give such close attention to a subject that the majority of students. I measured and sketched moldings as one important part of think that my studies. merged into the Ecclesiological The first form of this book was that of papers written among the notices of which we find that on 13th February. and on 5th March the same notice appears. and collecting examples of moldings of various dates. Society. and fair only finishing with "Part II. As a young student of Church Architecture. which fortunately were singularly good and interesting buildings of every date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. amongst other Architectural books. A keen and close observation my brother. Paley. Norman and Early English " . F. E.xii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.' avidity." He had taken had had considerable opportunity of getting a them. Paley read a paper " On for the Society. and developing into a systematic and careful study of the subject. Gr. says — " I well remember going home to my father's the Styles from his brother. Eickman's ' Attempt to Discriminate of Architecture in England." "Part I. A. read this work with the subject of and became extremely interested in English Architecture. professional or otherwise. Mr. My brother. Decorated Styles. knowledge of A letter to me : Lancaster. when it dissolution in 1845. and I like to my brother's early interest in this work (not usually much taken up by amateurs) thus commenced. near Stamford (about 1839 to 42). Mr. of Eectory at Gretford. the pleasure to send I had of him from time to time several the examples that appear in the book. fortunately eventuated in the publication of his book on Moldings. the Moldings of Pointed Architecture. and Perpendicular great interest in these details. 1844. and taking with me. I recollect well. and frequently accompanied visits to me in my examine and sketch the neighbouring churches.
— I was truly gratified by the receipt of your letter. Paley 's powers as a Greek scholar were first proved in 1844 by his edition of the Supplices of iEschylus. will be of the greatest time. This was followed at intervals by editions of all the other plays of iEschylus. —indeed speak the foundation and groundwork of the art. Webb. Augustus Welby Pugin. written about this time." This letter shows clearly that he was his paper before the fully qualified to when he read in 1844. G. " Welby Pugin. Cambridge Camden Society Mr. "Believe me. There are few men whose In fact I appreciation I should desire more than your own. as therefore better received by a host of intermediate men who could not swallow strong drink. service to me at the present Would it be trespassing on your goodness to ask for a ' few tracings from the give Bestiary ' in the Library ? I want to some outlines of animals. which you so kindly sent me. " In later life he devoted himself almost entirely to Greek . and I The Ecclesiologist its is am the more reconciled to it not being quite so strong as you and I could wish. Your tracing. and is evidently too interesting to be omitted here : " kind My dear Sir. Paley has also sent me a letter to our Author from is Mr. yours most sincerely. uninteresting." "Mr. though really of the first xiii importance. does an infinity of good. which displays not only his knowledge of the language and of his author.— PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. though undated. have never met with any one who entertains more correct views of Church Architecture than yourself and our friend Mr. E. but are exceedingly useful to the cause as far as they go. but his power of emendation. which.
that it may be as well to remind the critical reader that the mass of illustrations were taken from Mr. 9th December. and he published editions of Euripides. 1888. and for strict and absolute ." knowledge of the Latin language by editing But he was not idle on the subject of Architecture. and also published a translation of Pindar. and several It has new illustrations inserted. in 1847. left the dissolution of the Cambridge Camden Mr. He gave most attention to the vexata qu<estio of the authorship of the Homeric poems. (2nd 1856) . and showed bis Propertius. Hesiod and literature. siologist's Guide to Churches near Cambridge " (1844) " The Eccle" Re. Paley's note-book when he himself was studying the subject. a fair. and was always re- garded as one of the most careful Classical Tutors. of his architectural works besides this book on Moldings. become so much it lately a text-book for students. The " Manual of Gothic Architecture " (1846) . other authors with English notes. Restorers list a Tale. Notes on Cartmel Priory Church" (2nd 1872) Churches round Peterborough " (1860) " Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts " : edition.xiv PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. Since the dissolution of that establishtill ment he resided at Bournemouth." are. " Architectural . joined the Church of Rome. and if Church complete. This edition of his work on Moldings has been carefully revised by the Editor. a manual for the amateur. Paley. and Cambridge. . where he remained he passed away. marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral " edition. which he always seemed to take up as a change whenever time could be found. returned to In 1860 he Cambridge. rather than what originally was. " Notes on . after Soon Society. Twenty Parish " The not the Introduction to . on Sunday. He remained until he accepted the post the of Professor of Classical Literature at newly-formed Roman Catholic College at Kensington. I believe.
self to How far an artist should confine himis copying the moldings. &c. . xv accuracy the student must measure for himself and not depend on small scale sketches.PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. of ancient work for himself. he is sure to find great value in a thorough acquaintance with the experience and work of those who have gone before him. but whatever a matter each must decide freedom he may 'allow himself in his work.
INTBODUCTOKY. No person can have devoted much time and it pains to the in- vestigation of Christian architecture. ecclesiastical the length and breadth of the land. or. But whence these forms arose. well known to and admitted by all who have paid any attention to the subject. or from some real or pretended secret of freehrasonry. from mere accident or caprice. Again. and were dispensed by authority through the country. or were assumed by some tacit agreement on the part of the masons themselves. with varieties rather of combination or disposition than of the component members. without feeling the im- portance of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Moldings. have never yet been made much investigation.* That certain conventional forms or certain periods. so far as the author the subjects of aware. details were in use at and were uniformly adopted and in the constructive secular. how far the same forms were arbitrary or obligatory in ancient freemasonwork.A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. perhaps. has been adopted after Professor Willis. the ancient orthography of the word. as this country during the was practised in Middle Ages. are curious questions. equally * This. are equally interesting speculations. throughout decoration of all edifices. SECTION I. is which. lastly. though. is an undoubted fact. B . how far they emanated from some particular source. whether from a natural process of gradual develop- ment.
or almost every ancient church would exhibit details new and strange varieties in the of its moldings. it and even to ridicule the restraints of strict rule. and no one ever dreams of employing others than these providing them . this general resemblance all and uniformity. arid a considerable degree of them . to a certain extent. to determine. is seen in is London which diversifying found in common that. with varieties. that certainly does appear strange and unaccountable. caprice in adorning of these indeed. these enough of licence and variety to give scope for occasional localisms. was at once a fashion and a mono- poly in architecture and a solecism in moldings would have seemed fault as is to the ancient Churchman is as striking and offensive a a solecism in dress now considered ? . may have been. it is quite certain that a strict intercourse must have been kept up between the members of this body of artisans. Perhaps this it the most rational and probable view but then is one so very different every professor from is modern architectural practice. but in parts the still and features of Church architecture. in designing and executing Or can this acknowledged uniformity be referred to no more ? recondite cause than fashion Can it be said. as hatters and tailors. must appear There is in all more surprising. and to make it probable that each architect worked. or other article of dress. his apt very freely to indulge own pleasure. or coat. use at York. that as the same kind of hat. When the difficulty which then existed of constant and speedy communication between distant parts of the country is considered. independently. difficult However this . and even when he pretends to imitate. is such resemblance it and decided system adherence to as to make evident that some must have been observed both them. in so there . .2 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in which at liberty to design just as is he pleases. not only indeed in moldings. and yet there rule. and as all things are ex- clusively in the hands of certain bodies.
" Architectural Parallels. and printed in different tints. Why should so much pains be taken investigating these comparatively copied in our insignificant minutiae why should they not be new churches without writing books about them. (London." folio.. and the for attaining amount of observation and research necessary knowledge of their a history and true theory. or a want of sufficient data. They are all the province of the antiit is quary rather than the architect. Esq.INTRODUCTORY. all 3 these questions are quite foreign to the object of the present work. and F. in six parts 4to. delay and difficulty copying them with minute accuracy. Charing Cross. It may in : possibly be said. 1871.* These are causes at once sufficient to render a first attempt imperfect. being a series of examples. and practically important department Probably a fancied uncertainty and obscurity of the study. contains a large number of reduced outline plans and sections of moldings of the * Since the above finest period. N. have all tended to deter even the treatise most competent from writing a complete on the subject. and so turning an amusing pursuit into a hard lesson. and to induce the reader to pardon any errors or deficiencies which he may notice in the course of the present work. especially as the writer difficulty incompetent to give any solution of the involve. or ignor- ance of the exact periods at which buildings were erected. so as to be readily distinguished. which they it is But this may little reasonably -be observed.A. M. and as such to out of place is say anything more about them. b 2 .. by imposing on beginners so to learn ? much The answer is. arranged according to their dates. reduced (for the most part) to one-third size. an important work on Gothic Moldings has been published by Edward Sharpe. E. that moldings are of the greatest was written. However. Spon. Sharpe's fine work.) Mr. that to be regretted that so has yet been done in reducing to a science this interesting of Gothic architecture. and the apparent anomalies and inconsistencies which seem often to occur. To the these may be added the tediousness of making any considerable collection of drawings and of sections of moldings.
It is gratifying to find such rapid improvement and so much increased attention on the part of our present architects. Cambridge. as a is to first map of the study of geography. on the first revival of the true principles of Gotbic architecture. and their uniformity of type. tension. of their designs. the acter and char- of which were completely lost or perverted by is some violation of leading principles. There was but little discrimination of styles. or of architectural members they are just as essential to a knowledge of architecture. is surprising. the smallest and humblest churches carefully show very pretty and worked moldings. too. In practice. "the very grammar of the certain. is partly Early English and partly debased Perpendicular . that some years ago. minor differences. correct moldings to the as well as to the distinctive character. ing the dates of buildings.* This in striking contrast with often ancient practice . may either contain a great collection best examples.". No one has the any claim to the name architect who thinks science of moldings beneath his notice. the * As an new composition of the late Mr. In structures of that period^ even of considerable preit was but too common to find the most wretched and spirit meagre imitations of ancient examples. with. A work on moldings It may have any one of the three following of the ends in view. They are by far the most and very frequently the only guides in determin. and a general poverty of appearance prevailed. who are fully sensible of the great importance of effect. It must be confessed. accurately reduced to a scale. apparently an original instance. in the details of their moldings. Hickman's.4 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. they are of the importance. even by architects of repute. of course. that they have rightly been art. : possible importance called so much so. . John's College. very serious. especially in the working of capitals and bases. or accompanied by cloister to the molding of the archway in the centre of the buildings of St. and indeed surprising mistakes were frequently committed.
own resources in examining and investigating is Such. INTRODUCTORY. sive resources the author does not profess to possess nor can he even assert that every one of the examples he has given. and that illustration attempt a complete would require many hundreds of engravings. but the observation and collections of many and from all places where Gothic architecture has prevailed. who may often be unable to procure in their immediate neighbourhood any available models or. Such exten. The first could perhaps be satisfactorily accom- plished only by a professional man. and on the differences observable in each style. The last alone seems capable of being tolerably well treated by an amateur. secondly. of architects and the best method of supplying require not only very considerable The second would years. made the eye alone. acuteness and ingenuity. and to point out . who has himself seen the want of some work on the subject. it may profess to be a complete and elaborate exposition of the theory of moldings. and taking a comprehensive view of the whole subject through the Komanesque treatise.. 5 measurements. or. is at different times and places by of that perfect and minute accuracy which full-sized might have been obtained by a laborious reduction of outlines to one and the same scale. medium of the Classic and it may be an elementary intended only to convey plain and easy information on the most ordinary forms. then. dealing with principles rather than with bare facts. and being thrown entirely upon his it. simple and practical as far as It is obvious that the number to of examples given might be absolutely unlimited. from a collection of a few hundreds of full-sized sections. so as to form a magazine of reference. who might be supposed to know the wants them. and aboutas many drawings. and thus supply the wants of practical men. and a judicious selection out of thousands of drawings. the aim and object of the present work. of is which the method of treatment possible. lastly. The object being to exdifferences plain details and formations. varieties .
and arranged by is certain laws of combination. 6 MANUAL. will learn to He pronounce with some degree of confidence the date of the merest fragment of sculptured stone. actively in he amply repaid. . the study of Gothic itself moldings as curious and interesting in as it is it important in will its results. the shadows. in and a general interest Church he architecture. nooks. that every member fact is cut by rule. * Most of the woodcuts. rather than examples of rare exceptions to the general practice of the ancient architects. is unnecessary.* The specimens engraved are mostly those of ordinary occurrence. almost imperceptibly. and the examples in the been reduced from actual measurements. really in The curves. viewed without under- standing. this ex- rather than to furnish models for treme faithfulness of delineation. Any one who engages effect. OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. if only by the enlarged views he will acquire of the ancient principles of arrangement and composition. ever observing and adding to his store of facts and examples. Viewed as an inductive is science. and tracing out to his own satisfaction the forms and processes through which he conceives moldings to have passed in the various stages of their development. they may seem only an unmeaning cluster of hollows. Many persons. and the blending forms. Let him only enter upon it. be led on by his subject from step to step. are not aware that every group can be analysed with perfect ease and certainty . But such surely the case and a knowledge of the should convince the student of the reasonableness of the study. and con- he will be rewarded for his pains. and favourites of a familiar eye : soon become the though. will Possessed of these simple qualifi- cations. modern imitation. are will themselves extremely beautiful. though of desirable. A broken have last five plates. only occasionally added. and shapeless excrescences. course highly and was in the present case quite For the same reason the measurements are impracticable.. The only necessary ditions are a tolerable idea of delineation.
that although earlier styles were occasionally imitated in completing or altering buildings at a later period. an undescribed The learner must understand that the best work on Gothic moldings which could possibly be written will do no more than set him in the right way to obtain' a knowledge of the subject by his own research. may not even be recognized in the other. explained how the engravings are to be under- Supposing a molded archway were to be taken down. 7 dug up on the reputed site of an ancient building. " The assimilating process never tion of To however great an extent the earlier poran edifice may have been subsequently copied. — Architecture." p. will tell style him of what and date the fabric was. Brandon have pointed out the interesting fact. and with the light and shade upon it. He will find the same satisfaction examining which a botanist finds in a rare plant. — it for he will be sure to find in very demolition shattered peculiar facilities for research. He will regard every arch with a in new attention. that the same form seen in the one It is here. of which so insignificant a remnant alone remains. The look of a molding is so very different in section. these important members were always worked in strict conformity with the ordinary system prevalent at the time of their construction. a herald or a geologist in in an ancient escutcheon. are as nothing.* He will ever and anon meet with overturning clearly re- some new and singular conformation. projected in a reduced size its on paper. or a door-jamb. however dilapidated or defaced. —perhaps its ducible to and confirmatory of them.INTRODUCTORY. He will look at every ancient building. fossil. piece of a capital. the moldings of the respective. a string-course. eras were always most faithfully preserved. . 10. therefore. and any * The Messrs. from effects of appearance in perspective reality. Introduction. perhaps some of his previously formed theories. with a more searching eye. all once for stood." " Analysis of Gothic extended to the moldings. if A few examples in the page of a book he does not apply in practice that which he has learned from them.
and then after- a pencil were to be carried along the wall-line first. the uniformly that which has been followed in the plates illustrating the present work.. in such a manner that the wall-line. parallel to one side . does not give so clear a view of the forms of architects is the separate members. same as the which is used templet or mold. and wards in and out of each cavity and round each projection. by the sharp edge of the mold- ing. sife. his ings in order to understand them. or wood. sheet of one of the arch-stones placed upon a large square the stone paper. Each example is. and shaded on the part which represents the side or bed of the stone. flat end or upper face.8 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. . Northampton. How to do this. XII. fig. will Without the never be practically perfect. though its general appearance much more like the reality. should he and the soffit or inner with the end of the paper nearest to you. But the student must not only knowledge observe . he must copy moldlatter. by workmen in marking out the stones previously to cutting them out. a thin plate of zinc. at right angles with it. 15. lies in surface. and shading the cavities tions. or a a piece of paper inserted capital or base down the middle. or part of which parallel the plane of the outer wall. The shaded portion of PL.to a small size (say a scale of half an inch flat to a foot). The method adopted by in fact. Again. if a string-course were to be sawn across. The usual popular way of engraving Gothic moldings is to give a perspective sketch of a stone or slice cut out of the arch. 5. and and marked off in the crevice. showing at once the Beoorated door-jamb. the outline thus. V. and so up a portion of the soffit-plane . obtained reduced. Maxey. and the molded and projecfig. this would in the same way represent the shaded sections of these details. tin. as in the woodcut and PL. is a good illustration of a templet. would form a diagram exactly similar to our illustrations. is certainly But this.
that though certain lines. taken from the in Bristol in Prof. * Nothing is better adapted for a pedestrian tourist than a block sketching book. '+ side. And if the true form is it not attained by the first stroke. of the Quarto Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. some of the it is names of moldings have been recovered and to be hoped they terms." being Part 7. will be revived. and measurements may be drawn by the in all cases to assist the process. by explaining some of the It various at methods which have been practised. . can scarcely be caught without considerable practice. . planes. with the. will 9 shortly be shown. ancient In this treatise. who was born in 1415. It will be found with fuller explanations Willis's treatise. and the objection to having a " number of loose sheets is The Architectural Nomenclature Vol. must be understood. the en- deavours to improve the student's prising first will seldom be very successful." for ruling These are to be obtained parallel and rectangular lines. Perhaps it is attempts will result in failure readily a practised but sur- how well and how hand can copy in a few minutes a most complex group. especially in the present dearth of As this work is not is easily obtainable. because the exact curves. Itinerarium of William of Worcester. so that they form a book when complete. . difficult to and ensure general fidelity. of the Middle Ages.INTRODUCTORY. A small note-book should be kept exclusively for copying moldings by the eye. should be kept. in the pocket of which a small " T-square. the outset. leaves fixed on one obviated.* For the mediaeval nomenclature of moldings. 1. they are somewhat copy accurately eye. the learned and useful work lately published by Professor Willisf supplies an authentic source of information. which are not always geometric. It is the following Schedule and diagram here inserted. the measurements and name of place being duly registered with each example.
O. A few expressions used in the present work it will be neces- sary clearly to define before entering upon the subject. if cut through by a plane at I. is called the elevation of figs. fig. C.—A felet. M. T. would present the appearance of fig. 24.—A felet. U. A and drawing which represents the outline of these projections recesses. 5. I. fig. K. 22. A. I. felet. felet. . 8 . is called the section or profile of a molding. F. -I P. — A cors wythqute. A Ij. 40.— A boutell. —A double ressaunt. I A felet. —A ressant.— A felet. —A boutel. PL. its Thus PL. Bristol. being it the appearance right angles to would present bearing. if cut across A b. as in PL. North Door of St. to A drawing which represents these lines as they would appear if the eye projected on a vertical plane placed opposite to them. Any architectural it member is said to be molded.A S. 'A I —A ressant. —A casement with Levys. —Yn'the my. Stephen's Church. G. a molding. H. X.ides of the door a boutelle. Facsimile of William of Worcester's drawing.—A felet. D. —A casement with trayler of Levys. R. filet. A casement. . —A casement. "R. — f A boutel. B. — A bnwtelle. N. —A casement. when the edge or surface of jections presents continuous lines of alternate pro- and recesses. 10.—A felet. 1 to 5." 10 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.—A felet.
upon the consideration varieties of detail. I. to be able to draw or " take " moldings. 11 A mold." As it is necessary for every student in this science.INTRODUCTORY." and 7 of "three hollow-cham- fered orders. standing prominent or isolated. the combinations and more minute . 5. and. series com- signifies the entire which ornaments a jamb or but it is here generally used in the sense of a particular of such series. either full-sized or reduced to a scale. as generally find a them . An so arch of two or more orders. fig. each placed it. is one which is recessed by many successive planes or retiring sub-arches. reckoning from the Thus PL. or molding (the former is the ancient term). behind and beneath the next before outer wall line. with tolerable precision. part or member Members are we group is when placed or in combina- tion. first to understand the general principles of formation. is is the section across an arch of "two orders. fig. said to be grouped. monly arch . but separate A bunch of moldings members. either on a shaft or between two deep hollows. these preliminary points will be before entering explained as simply and of briefly as possible. secondly.
There are some who contend that Gothic moldings are derived. that any two styles working independently of each other from the same beginnings and elemental forms. the transitions so easy. or at least are very partially styles . mediately indeed. and. Again. as might be expected. some coincidences of form exist between them. if at it this or that period. is But the convincing argument this : that in Gothic molding all the links in the process of formation are connected and complete. and not confined to this or any other particular country in Europe. from the consideration that the mediaeval architects of this little country* could have known they had. that in the Norman call style (in England at which was most closely connected with the Classic. could hardly arriving at least at fail of some of the same results. from the time of St. and indirectly borrowed from the Classic although. as * It is true that the Freemasons were an ecclesiastical body under the Pope. from Koman . a new member was introduced. yet very decidedly. and one which appears scarcely tenof Italian architecture. forms of the moldings which we and entirely undeveloped . a supposition hardly probable in itself. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. the Gothic are merely nascent.12 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It seems certain that all the forms of Gothic Moldings are the peculiar and genuine offspring of Christian architecture. It is also true that the intercourse - . with Eome was always frequent." page 48. from the first and rudest origin to the most elaborate develop- ment . and the steps are so natural. when we observe least). SECTION II. Augustine downwards. This is also the opinion of the authors of the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. Still it is impossible to trace in pure Gothic buildings the least symptom of Italianizing either in composition or details. and if able. we cannot suppose they would have cared to copy in its details what they altogether repudiated in its kind.
mind to see beauty in an entirely and to enlarge its capacity of designit ing according to the requirements met with.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. (i. if every Gothic form can be shown to be an improvement or modification of a preceding one. from the debased Classical. and though can hardly be said that the early Gothic forms are mere copies of Classic or Eastern ones. About that time must be remembered that the whole of first Western Europe was engaged in the it Crusade. a 13 it new letter added to the alphabet. from the Byzantine . there is such a general resemblance in the character of the work. in its origin eclectic. And it is undeniable that several forms and combinations of the ogee curve are nearly identical in Classic and in Gothic buildings. we find new for the first time. forms. rather than sought for in the resem- blance which an Italian molding may happen is to bear to it ? However. some of which may be traced to foreign sources all : the Early English base is it allowed by to have been borrowed be demonstrated from the Attic that such . the offspring of one and the same progressive In truth. Arabian). why should not be attributed to invention. Gothic architecture grew up under peculiar circumstances. an and some leading features were then introduced Also in matters of mere detail. as to have caused it to be classed it under the one title of Komanesque. it must be concluded that the whole series is art. Still. naturally be to accustom the different class of forms. it adapted details from Saracenic or Moorish. and will hereafter clearly was the case. From the time of the formation of the first Christian Basilica to the middle of the twelfth century. is That the whole tone of Architecture was then altered undoubted fact. as the determina- does not in the least affect the facts of which this work treats. from Norman. were. the discussion of this question rather for those who have tion of it to do with the "theory of moldings. and to satisfy special wants .e. the effect of travel would.
horizontal moldings occur in water-tables and string-courses. Gothic architecture. if the expression may be used.changes climates. and arcades. both internal and external. and the For December. and peruse. lines. differ as widely as possible The former are repeated to almost any extent. and descriptions. and in capitals and bases. a Grecian molding by * its lights. and from Italian. The combinations great fixed . we read. or nearly earlier styles. the Gothic roughened and encrusted them with carving. so as to contrast and display the predominant principles of a sweep. In their use also Gothic moldings from Classic. that is. half Greek in design. Its truly one of " evolution " of successive . of form and taste modifications or produced by various national genius. or in projecting curves away by degrees into shadow. especially in composed of the same members. and are carried under windows of buttresses. or. and ex- An intelligent and thoughtful writer in the English Review* has the following remarks on the differences between Grecian and Gothic moldings : "Where the Grecian delighted in broad level surfaces. though the forms themselves are in the latter both are absolutely defined. each group being so. measure arbitrary. and vertical ascending may so far perhaps be regarded as lingering ves- tiges of the Classic usage. in which posi- tions they invariably form subordinate lines. material. 1844. the The latter are few in number. so as entirely to occupy the large recessed spaces in arches. the The former In run principally in vertical latter in horizontal. and very limited of the one are in a in their application. They are also used very effectively to divide lofty walls into stages. catching the light in masses. round the weatherings tensively in base-courses. and numerous other influences. . jambs and They are repeated too in groups. and Komanesque history is edifices of all dates . And it on which dies thus in general we measure.14 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Lombardic. churches.
vertical moldings are . unbroken undulaits the Gothic fractures lines. melt and slide insensibly into each other those of the Gothic are planted together in strong and bold contrast In rare. since . &c. the Grecian delights in convex lines. thereby producing the same result as in Gothic. the Grecian in broad lights. though they are in effect identical. vertical moldings are most frequent are horizontal. Gothic by its 15 shadows. though with a different effect zontal . such as the dog- tooth. othei> being subdued and rendered secondary and subordinate to the vertical principle. gently along in sweeping. divisible into . the continuous . the ball-flower. and fell on each side in vertical lines into the horizontal. horizontal entablature of the Grecians. and perplexed with innumerable intricacies. by means of the arch.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. Grecian moldings are simple and easily Gothic are entangled in labyrinths. but also the plain continuous lines of light and shadow . the cornice moldings were carried around it. For instance. the When Eomans broke up. that the vertical moldings are regulated. lines continuing to predominate. horiin the. and they overrule and determine those which And parts . the Gothic in narrow. Again : view. in the one case." the two classes of ficial " Of the differences between some may be detected by a supermolding. is the purest Grecian buildings. Hori- zontal moldings form the leading lines and it by these. the Gothic endeavours to bury it in deep recesses. The Grecian leads tions . the Gothic in concave. Gothic architecture revelled in the use of moldings. and may indeed be traced to a still earlier period in the sides of doorways and similar positions. even in later and degenerated specimens. and combines them in angles and curves. The lights and shadows of the Grecian . The Grecian throws out projections to catch the it eye ." The notion of ascending moldings is coeval with the intro- duction of the arch. In the Gothic. not only what are usually called ornamental moldings.
label. it . not the essentials. that no ordinary pains are requisite in examining any considerable moiety of them gating their principles. different indeed in their kind. an attempering of bare prominent outlines. It is probable that they were generally worked out after the completion of a building. And yet moldings are merely the ornamental adjuncts. if master the subject there had not been a system of molding. monial. Of course the effect produced by so free and extended a use of them was Construction gained thereby a magnificent in the extreme. there would have been nothing to investigate. rich perspective. internal or external. string.* first the former are nothing more or less rounded and modified from the window. but serrated ridges. Some a buildings of the best periods were quite devoid of moldit ings. of architecture. process. t The mediaeval term for what we now call mulUon. may . a depth of shade. so little did the mediaeval But masons depart from the conventional an abbey or a cathedral.f every edge. a fine tone. or an arch-mold is often found of perfectly the same profile in village church at the other * This so that we occasionally be seen. It quite their was ambition to work them wherever they could possibly find means and opportunity. whence perfect is evident that they are not necessary even to design.16 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. vertical or horizontal. that a capital. Hence it is that such a vast quantity every- where remains. Boldness and simplicity produce effects. forms. which arrested the eye. groin-rib. every arch. when the molding was left for some reason or accident partially uncut. whether of wood or stone. and made it dwell on certain parts of higher pretension and more exquisite elaboration than others. Every door. and in a end of the kingdom . But the power of moldings was it is appreciated to the fall by the ancient architects. and evident that they delighted in their extensive use. band. for the purposes of investi- If the uniformity in their use had not been tolerably to strict. was generally molded. a base. and jamb. roof. yet not less solemn and striking than richness of detail. had indeed been a hopeless task ever indeed.
at Burgh Marsh. Lincolnshire. must appear a very wonderful fact. when it is considered. be anxious to enter upon the subject at once. This may often be met with. beginning with very to discover the origin of the early buildings. for though the same forms will be found at the same date as in stonework. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. the student would do well to notice those in other materials. such as wood. iron. Although the examples given here are in nearly every case from stonework. I. screen Woodwork. especially in relieved is. the monial t. Bottisham. and endeavouring and then gradually trace the progress of development been analyzed and classified according until the forms have all to their respective dates.1 . Dear Cambridge. is Stonework. as in PL. in the annexed examples. however. be sides. 2. but has more members and will in it. they are on a more delicate scale. The reader this point will perhaps be tired of this preliminary chapter. Burgh. &c. perhaps nothing more be found than a rude square-edged aperture in a plain wall. only half the size of the stone one from Bottisham. as in fig. in small belfry-arches. according to the fine- ^IBF B i ness of the material thus. it And at may be well to proceed. the long narrow opening has a very wide splay inside and a very small one on c . And this. it and rude country churches. 1. On examining the plan of a will Saxon window or doorway.. trom the le . fig. practice. So in an ordinary Early English lancet window. even considerably later. that and expanded by splaying off on one or both by sloping or chamfering the edges. 17 might almost suspect that the very same working drawing had been used for both. It may.
arches The same at is observable in several of the Transition Buildwas Abbey. but was * off at the impost. without the least change of form. it or a was carried continuously down to the ground. or simply as in fig. the outside. especially in pier arches. or under-rib. or of two orders or retiring is members. for the sake at once of was not uncommon security. 1. the abbey church of St. 4. to add. which is observable in many continental Romanesque churches. And is the chamfer may be which is common in Early the case in the chancel- English and Decorated arches. hollow. This sub-arch rested projecting impost. when worked on a small scale. with some improveIn ments of form and detail. chamfering off each arris. . is often corbelled jambs being left square. I. the plan at once obtained which was most con- stantly used. 18 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Alban's. near Cambridge. of this aper- which now becomes recessed. which are continued from the ground with the intervention: of a mere band or string-course at the impost. with a small shaft at the angles. we shall find the germs of a usage which ever afterwards prevailed. made a In arching over the upper part of an aperin a thick wall of loose rubble masonry. PL. if the wall be very thick each one retiring behind the other. Of course. the inner order. In practice. the nave and transept-arches are constructed of two rectangular sub-ribs. 5). 7. and was much in TOgue from about 1260 to 1320.* or either on a pillar at each side.. Now in this rude arrangement. ornament groinfig. but no alteration of principle. fig. or soffit-pilasters. and sub-arch. or square edge. there may be two or more sub-arches. This arch at Cherry Hinton. the sub- arch was no longer a separate constructive formation. like the as rib of a vault. for centuries afterwards (PL. and IV. molded. the In Transition arches. without any interruption or change of shape. III. or sub-arch. f Potter's Monastic Remains. f By ture. constructed of fine-jointed ashlar. ture as it fig. however. fig. that is. 3.
These bold early moldings are generally called " edge-rolls. as 1 of the same belfry arch of latter Morcot Church. before." Seventh Edition. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. land .fYork- and illustrates this arrangement. In this the square edge is Lincolnshire. but occasionally double. fig. In Norman doorways every nook formed is by the receding under-ribs. Here the howtell formed by rounding the edge as side. 12 is an Early English pier-arch at Skirbeck." Part VII. 13 bowtell becomes attached only by a narrow neck. In considering the origin of the cylindrical first roll or bowtell. in the same county. detached column. Now this column seems at first to have borne a square-edged member or sub-arch. fig. I. and arch-molds of this kind are of constant occurrence in the Norman and Transition styles. XXI. as side. already described. the element of moldings. Rutfig. They are commonly plate. and 14 from Clee. as in this style.* bearing the date 1192 period. 8. both in Lincolnshire.20 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. . + See " Churches of Yorkshire. the PL. and the other is of very nearly the same Both these are good examples of the same principle ." because they occur at the external angles of the receding ordei's. 2. triple roll. The pier- arches in the nave of Peterborough Cathedral are molded precisely in the t same manner. and are yet not extended on each single. occupied by a PL.. still In the latter church a Dedication inscription . XVIII. near is Boston. shire. was very usual is from Great Grimsby. is From fillet this arrangement derived the double roll and of which forms the central member PL. worked into a shallow Fig. 158. * Facsimile given in Eiokman's " Gothic Architecture. from which this exampleis borrowed. fig. an arch from Seaton Church. 15. is from Adel Church. fig. remains. the influence of jamb-shafts must be taken into account. p. and cutting a deep three-quarter hollow on each Thus the Fig.
The pointed shaft. is the «^ p' r ^r pointed bowtell. fig. 13. this case the under-edge -is In withdrawn at the point. and in truth very frequently found in the Transition period. at Clee and fig. of very Fig. Hence occurrence in Early Gothic is may be expected. hereafter to be Fig. which occurs frequently the Transition Norman and Early English periods. 19 shows use in an Early English arch at St. date. singular form. Benet's. resembling. without either cutting off away or rounding example from the square edge. Staffordshire. near Cambridge. as at a. Norman arch in This member arose from as in a desire to decorate the angles of recessed arches. which seems the origin of what explained. the introduction of the pointed arch. pier. however. Yet something closely resembling this member often occurs in Norman work. 16. Lincoln. in Another form. between two cylindrical halfits bowtells. will be spoken more fully in treating of capitals and shafts generally. is of constant occurrence in Early English work. fig. 24 shows this form more at large.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. The western porch Ely is . Ely. 21 exactly where the jamb cases. which projected above the impost receded below it. 17 is a triple respond or . is the plan of a late Mary's Church. I. yC/^ which St. is called the scroll-molding. Norman doorway moldings of is Hauxton. in some correspond in form and size rounded off so as to itself. with the column This at may very clearly be seen in an Early Hence. Its formation may be seen in PL. and coeval with. by omitting altogether the impost or capital. the annexed its it Croxden Abbey. and is generally a mark of its early The clustered columns at Byland and Whitby Abbeys flanked by (the former circa 1190) exhibit the pointed shaft alternating at with the circular. and which was afterwards. This subject. the idea of continuous obtained. the plan of which may be described as a spherical triangle engaged at the base. though not in the pure Norman.
2 is a doorway at Ludborough. 25 is an Early English arch at Little Casterton.out of the solid Soffit block solely by removing plane. that the groups lie in the planes of the uncut blocks. figs. first all in Lincolnshire. edges and sinking hollows. The three exhibit the use of the pointed bowtell. XVIII. I. Undoubtedly this form clustered columns of pointed shafts." which are so well known by the name of the " roll-and- As a general rule. fig 1. The student perceived. (Brandon's Analysis.. PL. New Shoreham. 22 a groin-rib from Eobertsbridge Abbey. 12 and 23.) crescences on a plane surface secondly. 18 is at the a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. 4. and in consequence. and fig/ 5 the jamb of the archway of the south porch at Great Grimsby. PL. and ex- must never be regarded as Nave Arcade. fig. the manner the adopted sections. and afterwards led to. the outermost . where the fillet is end or central point. at fig. Sussex. is a pier-arch Middle Easen. will already have from here first. Fig. where both sides are thus Fig. the filleted shaft and bowtell. on the principle of continuous moldings already alluded to. of drawing all that these moldings are formed. it may be stated that a shaft may it take almost any form to suit the primary molding which sustains on its capital. filleted. existed earlier than. PI. II. show the cylindrical and the pointed fillet bowtells with the addition of a small is at one side. Vol. PL. where there are three fillets. Of all these varieties more will be said hereafter. II. of very Early English date. is the jamb of a lancet window Abbey. 22 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. And fig. 3 the chancel-arch at Langtoft. 8. at the east end of Rivaulx This is one of the comat the angles of monest moldings Early English window-jambs. fillet. Fig.
are represented facts in our engravings by dotted lines. or other feature. . forty-five degrees. the that is. which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° and as the style advanced towards the . the easy. or uncut square surfaces. It may be . one at right angles to it. 10. or parallel with the . During the earlier portion of the Decorated Gothic period. be- fore the moldings were cut. The planes. which first appears at sight impossible to copy with anything like readily disentangled. the wall-plane soffit. it of the process becomes comparatively and the most complex and extensive combination. accuracy. which may be called the soffit-plane and the third. Without attending to these facts. may be and sketched with precision. It is clear that by sinking hollows in any one of these surfaces. will be found to one parallel with the outer wall. or the chamfer-plane. but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer-plane. which we shall designate . b the soffit-plane. that is. the moldings shared in the pre- . first point is to lay down on paper the various planes.* that Early English * " In the Anglo-Norman stylo the jamb-molds were almost always worked in the wall and soffit planes and this continued to be the general arrangement throughout the Early English Gothic period. In PL. which was generally (not invariably) done at an angle of about fig.alleged. although we occasionally find the jamb molded on the chamfer-plane. not being cut away of it. rest When this is done by accurate measurement. II. era of decided architectural debasement. all attempts to do so will be futile. edge of each 23 member touching original the rectangular or chamfered so as to fall below or short surface. In considering any series of moldings previously to copying them. as a general rule. to ascertain the plan of the arch. c the wall-plane. a group of moldings would be developed. the wall and soffit planes still continued to be most generally used. There are three planes in which moldings lie . the plane formed by chamfering an edge. analyzed. These two must be regarded as fundamental canons in the arrange- ment of moldings. a is the chamfer-plane.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OE FORMATION.
24 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. PL." —Brandon's Analysis. by no all means uncommon to meet with moldings of the styles in which some of the members are withdrawn considerably below the plane of the others. Stamford. a pier-arch. according to their kind. These are Early Decorated. was less and less rigidly adhered to as the it and in the latest. . was frequently entirely lost. a pier-arch at All Saints'. Cherry Hinton. 19 is a very fine molding from the inner door of the south porch. 11. fig. II. are instances moldings not uniformly falling upon the regular planes. plane. fig. If some members seem to fall short of one . 9 is a doorway. is an Early English molding from the Fig. that Decorated. 14 is a door- both from Over. and if they fall on the segment of a circle. fig. however. fall either on these. and 6 the northern doorway of the same church. 13 a window-jamb. (The semicircle round the central group represents the capital of the jamb-shaft. they will generally be found referable to some other. and fig. II. PL. of Early English PL. fig. the inclination must be determined by bending a ruler or piece of lead across them. figs. 50. without correctness of composition. 2 and 3. It is obvious that this is the . CamFig. .The arrangement of moldings on the original block-planes styles progressed. Fig. lie on the planes rectangular. which is much more rarely the case. It is. or on the chamfermoldings plane alone lie and that Perpendicular moldings almost always on the last. 7. and fig. because more has to be cut away from the solid block. 12 bridgeshire. 'Fig. II. 8 is interior of the chancel door. way at Madingley. is if the distorted and inaccurate form it would probably assume to attempt an unpractised and untaught draughtsman were it to copy by the eye. as in PL. most expensive kind of molding. p. truly copied according to the above rules. III. is an example of a molding from Over.) Fig. near Camany reference to vailing desire to produce a meretricious effect. 15. or Third-pointed. 16 one at Trumpington.
we need not now consider. or con- sists of three orders. since the architects of the period seem to have affected representations of the mystic number three. and we only mention as an opinion entertained by some. circumstance immediately removes the principal This section illustrates a very common peculiarity of its style. Early English and Decorated moldings very often consist of three groups. or (as a writer in the English Review. This molding consists of three distinct groups. This is not an easy example to copy by the eye. showing the capitals of the two jambshafts. The observation of this difficulty. Clement's Church.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. bridge. the central member but falls on the line of the chamfer. though symbolism may have had its influence. is Occasionally each member has three fillets. as in fig. if It is however. imagines) suggested by philosophical principles of effect. for in each group does not extend to the angle. . that an archway has two sub-arches. Too much stress has frequently been laid on the it theory of architectural symbolism. 5. that there clear. the angle of each will naturally form a group of three rolls with a hollow on each side. Cambridge. each group having three members. so a triple triplicity in the entire composition. already quoted. Fig. 18 a magnificent arch-mold from the doorway of St. which may be called the triplicity of moldings. 25 is These are both pure Decorated. Whether con- structive or symbolical.
how- seldom available. it is clear. the members. or some level surface If this should happen. voussoirs. that their relative position to each other. groin- and other molded may be found in every old abbey. confused or altogether and the copy is incorrect and worth- . are but These methods. that if the molding extends over a con- siderable space. SECTION III. or by a pencil. First. The best and simplest by inserting the paper in a loose joint. are lost. By these means alone a be made. and may be traced off with a pencil. COPYING MOLDINGS.26 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. But many fragments stones. is almost unavoidably bent in transferring it to the paper. on the ground. and these may readily be placed upon sheets of paper for the purpose of tracing their . There of all is are several ways of doing this. the edges sufficiently clear and sharp to trace their outlines by pressure against them. there are many difficulties to over- come. In to this process. A thin flexible rolled into riband of this metal. the true bearings of is. by its extreme pliability and great weight. which requires both pains and practice ensure tolerable accuracy. and here care should be taken not to damage or destroy any portion of the little that is left. however. and laid upon a sheet of paper. shape it it retains the exact has received. or by applying a and left large sheet of paper where a stone has been removed. may be By being manipulated and impressed upon the moldings to be copied. a coil so as to be easily portable. flat which must be spread nearest at hand.outlines. the tape. large collection of very valuable specimens may Another way is by the use of the leaden tape. ribs. about a yard in length. and thence carefully removed. of monials. ever. except in ruined buildings.
or the sharp and rounded edges. from being so far As Early English moldings are been broken the lead undercut that portions of the projecting members have fallen or off. molding at once is. moss. to size. and whitewash must be scraped clear away from the part to be copied. by the aid of the measure. or con- tains deep fitted into is and wide hollows with a narrow neck. Sharp edges and angular hollows cannot be closely copied with the leaden tape. cannot truly be ascertained. is A pair of compasses with the ends bent inward very useful in obtaining the breadth of the members . on the whole. &c. or the planes in which the members respectively lie (that a full-sized plan first by measurement of the block. and curvature. In the first instance. the rough draught of the pencil must invariably be corrected by close comparison with the original. so that these especially must be supplied by the eye . it better to copy only eight or ten inches of the . In using the tape. process similar in its nature and results to the . or slide affixed one leg and passing undercut through the other. may frequently be manipulated into a part which is entire. the lead when them cannot be withdrawn. and to if furnished with a segmental scale-bar. dirt. the depth of the hollows. first In all cases. jamb or arch) to may be them mine . where the molding is much undercut. and afterwards drawn upwards or down- wards till it finds exit at a broken place. bearing. marked out on the paper.. and subsequently to detertheir breadth and width by inserting a measure into them. is rather tedious. so clumsy that it can hardly be recommended to the student. There is a to produce such a result. 27 Secondly. often mutilated. pro- and every separate member should be tested as jection. is advisable to carry the tape merely over the necks of the hollows. and the tape adjusted it in the second case. the width of bowtell the neck of each may be exactly marked. COPYING MOLDINGS. less. it is though the tape has in some cases been successfully used. is An experienced hand required for making an accurate copy and the process.
It is described and and Architects' Journal. . and is very successful where the mold- much undercut. and for ordinary purposes much the best and scale. By pouring plaster of Paris into the matrix thus formed. the form of which thus and accurately obtained.28 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and the whole operation is tedious. though the convex and concave surfaces are of course reversed. has drawn them for the most part with the compasses. little No. that the instrument. is an inconven- appendage to the equipment of a pedestrian. or the planes and bearings will be incorrect. 58. the difficulty is here insurmountable. and that with great accuracy. This is technically called clay. in giving the full-sized sections of moldings from Tintern Abbey. and in this case no doubt correctly. simplest way. clumsy. A beautiful moldings and ingenious instrument has been invented by Professor Willis. on a reduced the mason. they certainly were often so cut by Mr. or practised hy applying wet a composition purposely prepared of wax and some other inis gredients. which ings are not too squeezing. and called by him the Cymagraph. and of the full size. is use of the leaden tape. . by which illustrated in the Engineers' may be copied with the most perfect accuracy. molding is exactly But in the case of undercutting. plaster. and the most extensive and complex its aid. though by no ient means large. * If not so designed by the master. Geometric methods both of copying and reducing moldings are fallible libera . and that only . and only fit to be applied when a model is necessary. the original copied. to the part to readily he copied. Potter. often drawn manu* especially in earlier so that very consider- able deviations from geometric precision must be expected in pbserving ancient examples. Another. is to copy by the eye alone. It can be successfully used with a very practice. about a foot's width of a molding can be taken at once a so that number of separate pieces of paper must be pinned together on the spot. for the members and curves were very work . moldings can be taken by The only disadvantages are.
3. it is obvious that the double groove or hollow chamfer in the centre cuts off a less portion of the projecting angle than the diagram represents line . and thus a great degree of accuracy in time attained. By adding fied. and the soffit parallel to the side. It is indeed. already pointed out. it is well to adopt uniformly the plan. with in two or three minutes. III. a perfect copy of the ordinary and plainer moldings. fig. may be made In be way also moldings which are quite out of reach may if sketched very tolerably at the distance of planes in which they lie many to. measurements of each member are required. in For example. In this.COPYING MOLDINGS. as PL. any inaccuracy of proportion resulting from a hasty sketch will readily be recti- should the molding be adopted in practical architecture. fig. The depth plane to which hollows are sunk from the surface of any may readily be added. 22. figs. 20. 12. as in PL. it is apt to produce a complex diagram. of drawing the outer wall-line parallel with the bottom of the page. as in 29 PL. whole breadth or width of a series of mold- which simple and easy when they lie in one plane. 21. an Early English Doorway at Louth. is of the greatest importance in acquiring a sound acquaintance with the subject. Generally. For the sake of neatness. to give the is enough ings. 3. measurements. is This is rather a troublesome process. soffit they should be given in respect of wall and planes. and II. the measurement serves to correct the drawing. as in other cases. indispensable. in copying moldings. tha be carefully attended . all fig. The eye fre- becomes perfectly familiar with every kind and variety by quently contemplating new examples and collections previously is made and their this . as before stated. 1. XVII. the measurements of the parts. for the marked 3f inches is nearly as long as that marked 7. VIII. adding the measurements of each If the particular face. feet. PL. as in PL. fig. The practice of copying moldings by the eye alone. I.
marked by a as in the illustrations of the pre- sent work. may of is be remarked. in his tectural " Archiof Nomenclature. this. by which the angle can however small the copy be accurately transferred to the paper. as they will tend very much to correct the eye for sketching. Another the use of a triangle of wood or brass. In copying the moldings of capitals. the over Both these a are easily taken by dropping a small bullet is plummet (a string. and frequently show important deviations from geometric forms which are liable to be overlooked at first sight. the only difficulty is in the hinge of the rule. II. which will prevent it being placed close against the wall. But as this is by no means invariably the to case. with angles of forty . measure the depth from the top of the abacus to the under side of the neck- molding abacus . It with a very close approximation to truth. with best) from the outer edge of the abacus. 15). the planes in which moldings relative proportions of the parts. These two points. and the projection of the shaft. that in the example given by Professor Willis. the plane line. it is advisable in every instance put it to the test. and applying the It foot rule and triangle. and the must be invariably observed. has been observed that edges are frequently chamfered at an angle of forty-five degrees. and the practised eye will seize the outline almost instinctively. One is by bending the measure at its joint (PL. fig." from the Journal William Worcester. lie. he must be careful not to neglect to get full- sized details whenever he has the opportunity. There are several simple and effective means of doing. Though the student should always carry his sketch-book and pencil with him. may fey be -.30 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
the splay will be obtained correctly. five 31 degrees. . is to measure along the wall and soffit-planes. whether the walls are at right angles or not. which may generally be easily done very by placing the rule against one it plane and sighting the end of line with the other. V. 12. All other methods require both time and Every member may be reduced compass and scale . the direction of the is obtained. the end just meeting the other. Where the rule is placed against one plane. by applying the hypotenuse of which to the chamfer the two sides will be respectively parallel to the wallplane and the soffit-plane. as to a in diagram. however. See PL. forty-five. care. if the chamfer is . Full-sized moldings are reduced by the use of the well- known instrument separately by called the Pentagraph. the cross measurement be taken. The best plan.COPYING MOLDINGS. either the dimensions a b or b c may be obtained . in addition. and re- peated of the proportionate size in the same positions on the reduced drawing. and thus chamfer If.fig. at an angle of but not otherwise. inclosing certain portions of the copy. and the enclosed angle being a right angle. means of the or circles may be drawn.
Thus. both in groin-ribs and pier-arches. 14. A square-edged rib became a semi-cylindrical bowtell by first chamfering. chancel-arch at Wittering. an exact parallel to which occurs in a doorway of of Theodoric at the Bomanesque palace . This last example. of a square projecting with the angles chamfered so as to form a semi-hexagonal projection. fillet. XVI. generally semi-cylindrical. a plain easily flat surface." Parti. its fig. EAKLY MOLDINGS IN GENEKAL. St. Cambridge. and other churches of that date. Gaily Knight's " Italian Architecture. The first and rudest attempts at molding which are found in this country. the theory formations of moldings must now be considered more fully. Cambridge. Northamptonshire.32 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Bavenna and. indeed. affords. and of setting . an excellent illustration of the first idea of off the parts forming rounds by removing edges. Having thus far explained the general principles and the of the methods of drawing moldings in first section. for instance. are the rough and coarsely chiselled members. PL. From Mr. Norman string-courses often consist off. the very nature of the case would lead us to conclude that the earliest element arose out of a desire to relieve. such as occur in the Ante-Norman III. 10. PL. to which must be added the very curious and antique attempt at a molded architrave on the impost of the belfry-arch at Barna:ck. Benet's. by coarse irre'gular channelling. SECTION IV. and then removing indefinitely the remaining angles. the balustre shafts in the tower of St. Sepulchre's Church. fig.
PL. circa 1200 rolls. 4. or into pointed rolls. which an arch at Keymerston. 33 thus rounded. 85 of Professor Willis's "Canterbury. or some edges were chamfered. 2.. figs. a square-edged arch with at its sub-arch or soffit-rib was either worked into rounds fig. and PL. a which semi-Norman arch fig. IV." where the Contrast j^tffc between ^j^. the eye being unable to penetrate to the depth of the dark hollow. 1. by sinking a small channel or furrow on each side a little below the surface. From Winto . PL. PL. IV. XXI. the Norman edge-mold is b and Transition bowtell A with side hollows well shown. 8. is a very Early English pier-arch. "Canterbury. IV. by which the contrast of light and shade was obtained. The deep rounded hollow (as contrasted with the mere notch). then. as . others worked into and the subfig. 7 and are groin-ribs of common circa profile in . at Barnack. which was not developed period. in fig. was an after-thought. till the Early English when it was carried to an extravagant excess. 85. early Norman : both roll- clearly satisfactorily exhibiting the formation of the molding or bowtell. D . rising in succession above and behind each other. each independent and unconnected. . Norman work the one from Glastonbury. 5." p. each angle. 1. which the first ap- pearance of the deep hollows may be traced. thus bearing the effect of a series of detached arches or ribs. arch cut away into a broad semi-cylindrical rib. as in represents. Norfolk. The accompanying example of a similar kind is engraved in p. Lincolnshire.EARLY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. Thus. so that roll-moldiDgs were extensively undercut or attached only by a small neck of stone . 1200 and the other from Peterborough. is fig. at Barholme.
. at the point of the interior angle. represents its such a stone. the outline to be followed in working out the hollows . but is rather characteristic of the work of the first two Edwards. Still. so that this view is hardly correct. multiplication naturally implies reduction in so that. being applied to every stone to be worked. alternately dark and hollow and prominent. it The roll-molding being once to multiply it became natural as an ornamental feature to an unlimited extent and to prevent sameness of effect many modifications in the forms of the projecting members were introduced. VI. with a free hand. size . Now. but and no doubt. From and these two points both the hollow the bowtells may have been extended each no space was left way. 34 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.. till unoccupied. Deeply recessed archways consist of several courses of molded . fig. '>i '. IV. coincided with perfect accuracy. corresponding to the bowtell at the exterior rectangle of the sub-arches. diagram and PL. and without hollows of any great depth. principle. and thus a great width was covered with minute members. as in fig. 7. VII. so that the pieces. and PL. to a certain extent. effect. 10. we find a whole series of minute and skilfully diversified members. and PL. this inner hollow at the angle is not very observable in the earliest arches. It three-quarter circular hollow might appear probable that the true origin of the deep must be looked for in the wish to edge or point of the form a cutting inwards. caprice. afforded exactly the same shape for each. designed not on any exact geometric regulated by taste. in place of two or three heavy round moldings placed at the angles only. with the profile scratched or marked on face. sur- The templet. as well as considerable variety in the size and depth of the alternating hollows. when put together. established. 3. by We may suppose the architect to have drawn on a board or a stone. light. fig.
was reserved The invention of the pointed bowtell. stones. of these is the eoll-and-fillet. In later times. if so. it is essential to mark the joints The grouping and multiplying of members was greatly facili- tated in its development by the Gothic principle of distributing weights and thrusts under a number of different supports. Thus each group way is of arch-molding in an Early English door- borne by a detached jamb-shaft below the impost. or. having its joint being overlapped own independent by the stone next construction. 20. all all more or less referable to this common first and used with the most refined taste in varying the members by of complex Early English grouping. fig. They paid so much tion to surface sculpture and shallow ornamental Ip work in the fiat faces of their arches. a doorway in the precinct of Lincoln Cathedral. In taking a of molding of the former kind. I. of new forms. each order-. The and far the most important and PL. the arch generally consists of a single row of voussoirs. . that the Jp jj§ Coton. contemporaneously with the general use of the pointed arch. but with latest period the roll-moldings small pseudo-capitals and bases attached after the real columns.EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. similar to the annexed example from Coton. notion of alternate hollows and projections does not appear to have been fully comprehended by them. back of When the moldings are meagre. for the period of Transition to effect this. 4. 35 or sub-arch. The introduction of this new feature may be said to have wrought a complete revolution in the system d 2 . PL. fig. the different courses. opened the way to a great number origin. the shafts were engaged in the wall. II. was found to be incompatible It with the enrichment by detail in Bas-relief. to the and each it. manner of The Norman architects never got much beyond atten- the plain cylindrical edge-roll and shallow hollow. and at the were often continuous.
Sepulchre's Selby. and Little Casterton. and in Norman work was used and in other places. String Nave. and in . m cu t surface of the Wall. as in PL. in the abaci of capitals. St. however. being merely the unOvolo and Fillet. or as PL. to produce- more prominent As. This appears to be an acci- dental one. feature was itself a common enough down from Classic times. 9). A certain analogy may is be traced in the and that from Selby simply the ordinary roll-and-fillet used as a string. fig.. most commonly. It is the keynote of almost all the of molding. with the chamfer-plane. Great Shelford. Rutland. It. afterwards. fig. 9. the It is not certain at fillet what precise period. Cambridge. Or it may be cut that. subsequent set It may be defined to be a first flat band on the surface of a roll-molding. or as in PL. Shelford. 17. Cambs. II. with a slope or ogee curvature. 18. II. fillet. the or fine edge was either (PL. formations. of this kind have probably suggested the use of the idea of a fillets with the roll. 19. as at Great. fillet it will be found in the earliest examples that this frequently falls in a line figs. An example 12. of a single side to the roll is figured PL. I. I. or from what. was first added to the cylindrical bowtell. so as effect. a fig. Forms first. cause. 15. IV. annexed examples . surface-line having been feather suggested by the off pointed bowtell. as at Little Casterton. at with a square under-edge. a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey.36 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. was throated or widened. in strings.. fig.
introduced for the sake of contrasting and diversifying the members 8 of a group. instances of its use Perhaps. examples are not not intended to wanting in much insist earlier molding . by the general analogy of The position of diagonal projection is undoubtedly . fig. till towards the end of the thirteenth century. as well as in making them the die into or spring out of plain surfaces. But all these are mere conjectures. For example. or joining rolls at right angles. left is it may possibly . the ordinary one throughout the Early English period and the fillet is not often found coincident with either of the other fig. the earliest may be traced to the obvious propriety of forming sharp and hard edge-lines instead of mere round mem- bers in positions in which. in mitering. fig. So also and the juxtaposition of these two forms may be noticed other instances. but without satisfying himself with any of the theories given above.. roll-and-fillet in many Another plausible account of the origin of the may be offered. Its occurrence in early groin-ribs cannot have escaped the notice of the observer. the addition of fillet presents important advantages in neatness of con- struction. though the first seems the most probable. indeed. 8. The author has devoted considerable pains and attention to the discovery of the true origin of this very important feature. planes. PL. as in a pier-arch from Cherry Hinton. Still. II. . . fig. from their distance. One that it worthy of notice in the use of the roll-and-fillet commonly occurs in alternation with the pointed bowtell it whence would appear to be merely a variety of the latter. EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENEEAL. 5. 37 6. have been as a standing portion of the uncut surface certainly borne out a view which molding. the eye would otherwise have an ill-defined and imperfect outline. the north doorway at Cherry Hinton. has in the central group a filleted roll between two pointed ones. so that it is on this theory of fact is its origin. Again.
figs. which comprise a great variety of pointed and clustered. they fTjkw |Mj assume a great number of capricious forms. FROM THE ACCESSION OF RICHARD A. Ripen Cathedral.^ ^ ^^^ graph. 3.D. fig. as shown PL. The characteristics of the moldings of this style may be de- fined as deep undercut hollows between prominent members. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. the second the pierEa^English Arch. I. The m_™. 1189 TO 1272. 5. P roJ ec ting parts.— 38 . 2. TO DEATH OF HENRY III. 2 and 3. . were taken ^. and are reduced to a scale of half an inch to a foot. III. a great depth or extent of molded surfaces and the general arrangein ment in rectangular faces. filleted bowtells. The annexed section will also serve as an illustration of the ordinary forms of Early English moldings. %'^^^K* hollows an(^' are seldom true circles ^ie ^ e PL. archeS in the choir ° f g^ E ty Cathedral.arch \at Plymouth. would alone be quite sufficient to convey to the eye an idea of the general first is method. MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and repeated at certain intervals . The plain bowtell or edge-roll. The pointed The bowtell. . The scroll-molding (rare). llilli^ -. roll-and-fillet. II. The the belfry.( W/a Early English ^ e sa moldings may Wmit / ' llllllp' ^ *° comP r i se *ne following p V members: \ \ r~\ ~ 4 1. isolated. SECTION V. 4.
in consequence of a slight hollow immediately below. naturally produces. VII. 13. and was the favourite form during the reigns of the first two Edwards. This is of frequent occurrence even in semicir- cular arches. 90 of Professor Willis's " Canterbury " (fig. VII. PL. pier-arches of the choir. . each side of which is undercut by a deep hollow. and fillets. figs. Sometimes there are two cut from Ripon. The is roll-and-triple-fillet (PL. the other on the side. are varieties of very frequent occur- PL. PL. II. 5. figs. It will be right. . as in the PL. side has attached (PL. 9. and Ripon Cathedral. figs. from a ridge (PL. therefore. rence. 12. 18 and 19. The ordinary fig. and ways of that may be found in doorkind in many of our abbeys. 37). leaving a more particular investigation to the student's own exertions. of irregular character. as at Fountains. 3. this 12). the edges being sharp on each side. fig. 5. one at the top. V. briefly to point out some of the most com- monly occurring varieties. PL. IV. 25 . The other forms to assign chiefly consist of modifications of the roll- and. It will be observed in PL. 12. VI. and therefore probably compound molding. V. PL. 5. 1. figs. 3. XVIII. 6. PL. a fillet Sometimes only one I. 8. a. fig. fig. It is illustrated also in Doorway. A plain bowtell or or roll very often stands forward upon a short ridge neck in Transition moldings. IV. 11 and 13. 23).EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. suggested. consisting of chamfered ridges and inter- vening projections. II.fillet. roll-and-fillet projecting fig. is a form often found in labels. fig. I. as fig. fig. PL.) much used in the more advanced buildings of the style. 39 Angular forms. 7. which are so capricious as almost to defy any attempt them distinct names and formations. p. Fountains Abbey. figs.
which is quite invaluable in showing the curves and geometric formations of early moldings.40 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. are examples. IV. rolls which seldom the case in this Three pointed placed together. Lincolnshire. III. at Ludborough. closely approaches the character of the roll-and-triple-fillet. varieties of shape. Fig. It may often be found between the detached shafts in of large doorways. fall wholly on the chamferis PL. the latter also illustrates the it as were depressed into the roll. Fig. In Decorated work the fillet became extremely broad. fillet both from Lincoln Minster . Northamptonshire. that resemblance to the head of a fleur-deit is difficult to disconnect the idea of full size. If set square on the roll. the combination of the roll-and-fillet having been once suggested. IV. 19. 5. figs. with many minor fig. it 21. III. 11. as in style.* form a combination of very frequent occurrence. somewhat in the form of a fleur-de-lis. it is generally a sign of early work. in PL. often as it much as three. near Cambridge. are groin-ribs from Robertsbridge Abbey . the beautiful Decorated window-jamb at North- borough. as at Peterborough and Ely. which shows some other in fact. Potter's Monastic Remains. they seem to have been used together with the utmost licence. and PL. fig. II. as in those to the east of the octagon at Ely. PL. as PL. in The members plane. 15 is a groin-rib from Furness Abbey. fig. PL. PL. 5 and 6 Abbey. But in Early English it is almost always a narrow edge-line. fig. and indeed In some cases any position. In this case may be said to lose its original character. fig. of work. 9 is the arch-mold of a double piscina with from Histon. IV. * There lis is See the outline diagrams in sometimes so close a in this complex molding. York. An example is given. V. or even four inches. XIII. It contains an immense number of moldings —a of the finest era and the richest design. and which every lover of Gothic architecture ought to possess. 4 and 7. where very often occurs. the one from the other. especially in it clustered piers. Tintern Abbey. 11 is the chancel doorway varieties. PL. 6. its capital are fragments from Tintern and St. 1. fig. we may here observe. Mary's Fig. .
is It may be described as a cylinder. fig. peaked. little withdrawn. figs. PL. Benet's. is —the latter an arcade in Lincoln Minster. 6. fig. also occurs. might be found and catalogued by a careful observer. bination of the scroll-molding and the PL. fig. elaborate group its marks . of end of Castle Eising Church. or shifted a behind It is almost universally used in the abacus and neck of Decorated capitals. Hunts. XVII. from proof of this. the in Decorated. haps in an accidental or undeveloped form. and very often in strings and basemoldings. 41 The depressed %and elongated forms on each side of first 11 are principally found in later buildings. It I. It is represented in PL. St. the under half of which the upper. shape. represent the jambs of the immense Early Decorated and Geometric windows in the south aisle of Grantham Church. grooved at the end. in respect of size. IV. fig. 14. fig. is a PL. in PL. The presence of the scroll-molding in any approach towards the Geometric age. 19. which. Almost every conceivable modifica- tion of the plain roll.* the sceoll-molding so called from its resemblance to a roll of thick paper. depressed. Bowman's account of that church in his Specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture. * It occurs. and that geo- metric accuracy was avoided in a rather remarkable manner the irregular shape. It has been before stated that a great degree of licence is observable in the forms of Early English roll-and-fillet moldings. elliptical. See PL. VII. the latter in perpendicular. an Early Decorated door- way at Yaxley. in the moldings of the very elaborate triplet at the east PL. together with the contiguous sections. It is certain that this form was known and in use even in the pure lancet architecture of 1200-1240. generally considered distinctive of Decobut not very is uncommon . Here seen the unusual comside-fillet. IV. An rated. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. fig. and the freely undulating curve. and composition. 6. Lincoln. XVIII. important form. for example. the outer edge of which overlaps upon the side exposed to view. 4 and 9. perII. VIII. PL. 11 and 16.. in advanced Early English work. 3. and in figs. engraved in Mr. having been commonly preferred.
probably from occasionally turning the combination of the two forms.d. It left may perhaps be regarded as a it roll-and-fillet with one side sight. Ha Roche Abbey. with a long neck it . forms are probably identical. so as to make it a little sharper. the rich and circa a. The earliest pointed bowtell was simply the new form of the pointed arch used as a molding (as at Roche this and Byland). as in uncut.42 fig. 5. is MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. stood more isolated. as in these examples from Barnwell and Ely. line where it most constantly occurs. Ely. ing close to the edge. we find . as to leave but little doubt on the subject. and. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. Byland. either because was removed from capitals. When it worked in with more deeply cut moldings Rivauix. but was soon modified by having a slight sinkBarnwell. Cambridge. its likeness to from the section of a ship show- ing the form of the keel. Fig. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the origin of this molding. 7. exhibits the scroll form on the interior order. The shadowed edgeroll- was presented by the scroll-molding as well as by the . 1270. may be traced from one form to the other through such gradual changes. and-fillet and the principles of effect which suggested both Ik. But it is more probable that It it was derived from the pointed bowtell. This form has been called the keel molding. or afforded a more effective drip in strings and weather- ings. beautifully molded doorway at Northborough.
as at fourteenth Elsworth. . which we immediately obtain the form in regular scroll-molding it . anciently or double-ressant. in a position in P. and those in the choir arches of Ei' ^^^^^^^k f. Cambridge. Hr' ^mBi might naturally be J ° expected. : . from 6. Mary s. > \ \aulx Abbey are an early | example. figs. fig. show also. jjlf 2 . ^Ujimli' IS jj| ^mm-- The scroll-edge is somein- times. from St. XVIII. J|jj| that the is with- i|» ^ll |j| Ilk drawn surface placed Jm ** Warmington. though so rarely. Elsworth. and Tintern Abbey. ' llllL 7. Cambridge. so that their respective to fillets are at / right angles each other. (PL. Though the under edge rounded. as in some of the bases at Tintern Abbey Wm St. as be found both in early work. as in 43 PL.EAKLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS the edge to one side. as to the middle of the at Warmington. § JSt> r Tintern. near Cambridge. XIV. ™^ uppermost. 1 and 10.2*| which the pointed bowtell Hil _ Jt* St.* —one of the commonest * Professor "Willis says this molding is sometimes called a brace. as it was called. Two |||L rolls-and-fillets conjoined at their bases. which is a and in this case it will be observed that pairs off with a pointed bowtell. Mary's Abbey. verted. Michael's. 33). fig. shadow was desired it but this can hardly be considered as a is to criterion of date. York. The annexed examples. and down century. Northants. how closely allied the two Jj| <Wm forms are. of it is of the scroll-molding is usually frequently to be found cut square where sharpness . York. constitute the ™™ double-ogee. from . Northants.
We there find a hollow of three-quarters of a circle. the same from Benington. V. fig.) . of Early English and Decorated piers. 1845. in the angle of every receding subarch. II.44 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Norfolk. which 12. Early English arch-moldings are so easy to distinguish all others. And must be particularly observed as the real division. fig. of the rich and complex examples on a reduced numerous deep and dark hollows constitute the most characteristic difference between the moldings of this and those of the succeeding style. 3. IV. But the extravagant is display of deep cavernous undercutting lost in Decorated moldings. from Bottisham. PL. or to give a great of examples. accurately formed with the compasses. See also PL. PL. the inner doorway of the south 12. rare in Early English. Proceedings of the Archseological Institute. VI. fig. 1. fig. r-*-N. and apparently the result of accident it rather than fig. of pure Early English detail. Deopham fig. ." p. number copy They are by far the most difficult of all to with exactness. from figs. renders it . as in PL. Cambridgeshire. is a decorated molding of sufficiently common form the occurrence (as in the belfry shafts archway at Trumpington). 11. porch at . and their great extent. resemblance to a printer's bracket ("History of Winchester Cathedral. the west doorway at Hingham. is the west doorway of Llandaff Cathedral. where the set together so as to which carry the capitals are double-ogee. that it is not necessary either to say more in explanation of their peculiarities. 2. in which most of the forms already enumerated will be found to recur. 14 and 15. 6. And the same may be constantly observed in the common arrangement PL. often many The an extremely tedious process to draw any scale. Lincolnshire and PL. from the irregular and capricious forms of the curves and undercuttings feet across. It is moldings of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. 17. intention fig. VII. 60. The capitals hear the two moldings in question are marked in outline. XVII. as in PL. IV. when does occur. these hollows its fig.
love for the art above the sordid considerations of cost. an Early English doorway is often a wonderful piece of art. How beautifully. imparting life and vegetation to the very stones ! abundance of doorways of this style which exhibit the most . as if they had overgrown their original and proper limits.EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. lurking in the dark furrow of a label or chancelled recess see the end of to some inconvenient member got where it rid of by throwing a flower across the point suddenly stops or dies into the wall . are truly admirable. The exquisite skill. of the orders of moldings when they all lie 45 on the chamfer-plane. too. to admire the floriated boss and the foliaged capital intruding their luxuriance upon the moldings and hollows. minimum The deepest hollows are church as all as cleanly and perfectly cut details . in the Early English individual members. tendency the Decorated moldings were developed. that in the Decorated they divide groups. taste. are usually of larger size than the Early and there is this general difference in their use. are circumstances of much interest. and in correcting this Still. and patient labour invariably evinced in the working of Early English moldings. The ingenuity that was never at a loss in any difficulty of finish or constructive irregularity. the knots of pierced like and hanging leaves extend filigree some petrified garland or bower of work round the and almost There are arch. however It is little it may attract the attention of ordinary observers. The Decorated hollows English . But there was evidently a feeling that the designs had become weakened by the use of a large number of small members of much the same size massed together so that the eye did not readily distinguish the different groups. as the village most prominent and conspicuous and in the much so as in the most glorious cathedral. dividing the plainer moldings into groups. and the minuteand show a ness with which even the most concealed and darkened parts were executed. most pleasing to notice the long trails of dog-tooth .
fig. a doorway immediately opposite. 7. Many trails of the more elaborate groups of Early English moldings contain several successive of this decoration. PL. or rather across. 6 foot. fig. nail-head as the by cutting incisions on side. t the southern fig. a is west doorway at Binham the curious variety of dog-tooth set in hollows of such depth. would be 3. from Beaulieu Abbey. t From 10 from the same. Norman each shows. II. 7. Some examples occur at Bolton and Furness five or six feet in width. 2.* fig.' Abbeys. so that useless to multiply illustrations. PL." These latter examples (6. 8. 10) show the method of insert- ing the tooth ornament in. the Chapter The entrance doorway of example of the House at Lichfield is a very fine molding of this style. often of different sizes. and groupings . delightful varieties in their forms always. the same. Fig. 9 is borrowed from Brandon's " Analysis of Gothic Architecture.of our cathedrals have Early English doorways of amazing magnificence. is Plate XVIII. But almost every cathedral and every it ruined abbey will supply good specimens. that the eye cannot tooth the \\\/^j§ i/^jilfjJ! | fathom the point of attachment. Bowman's illus- . . fig. VIII. is from the east window of Castle Kising Church. shape and planes of projection. 5 is a ruined doorway at Bivaulx Abbey. hollows. molding is The of an evident development f^plll|| Dog-tooth. Norfolk. both on a an inch to one Fig. yet never. In the very beautiful Priory. in the south scale of half aisle of the nave. Vol. triplet of the Eefectory an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. a doorway in the cloisters at Peterborough fig. whose arch-moldings extend The west fronts of several . are taken from Mr. accompanying illustration * This and trations of that church.46 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. II. Weale's Quarterly Papers. .
The eye must be familiarized to the profile and general appearance of moldings of different dates. it would be impossible to say whether a molding is of the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. with the addition of some new members. 47 SECTION VI. it analyzing the group. are Sometimes moldings than we should have . of examining the separate details. the latter found to produce an entirely different though in description the distinction may appear very trifling. without dismembering. as it were. much greater geometrical precision observed in drawing both the hollows and the may be projecting mem- bers than prevailed in the preceding style.DECORATED MOLDINGS. Generally. though there is quite enough of uniform system to enable us to apprehend the broad distinctive principles which obtained in the different periods. will be And effect. so that. 1272-1377. and several important modifications of grouping. without the aid of such marks. DURING THE REIGNS OF THE FIRST THREE EDWARDS. DECORATED MOLDINGS. and the size of the . The student will bear in mind that the details of Decorated moldings are in great measure identical with those of the preceding style. though can hardly be asserted that all the differences of style admit of being reduced to unvarying and infallible rules. And this may be done with a considerable it degree of certainty by practice and attention. In fact. then. this science does not appear capable of more than general treatment . met with of much earlier or later date expected from other characteristic marks in the building and there are not a few instances in which. and. may discern at a glance the style to which any example belongs.
is no extravagant isolation of small and unimportant undercutting The roll-and-fillet is formed with as figs. The reason is. 2. that each stands WgUm. bowtells. 9. which is but imperfectly remedied by the free use of quaint. during the reign of Edward III. for the ogees. but also in kind . both concave and convex. and fanciful members. that frequently the . only just enough is hollowed away at the sides to develop the outline. though much less striking. I between two deep hollows. It was not until the Flowing. that they cannot alone be taken as decisive of this or that date. little : as possible. Rich Decorated moldings are of rather rare occurrence. first. and. an avoid- ance of strong and violent contrasts of light and shade. Now the composition of Deco- roii-and-fiiiet. and there was a softness of blending. indeed. numerous members do not vary materially in size . XVII. rated moldings is essentially different. so that tbe entire group looks like a mere alternation of dark and \ light. Very often plain chamfers are used in . in size. which brought about the surrender of the its and many varieties. and wide shallow casements of the Perpendicular period. Segments of circles. secondly. 10 in fact. For the not only do the members vary deep hollows are principally confined to the inner angles. is.48 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Early English arch-moldings have sometimes a monotonous effect. 3. very slightly from those of pure Early English so slightly. which imparted a more pleasing. and there parts.). that these moldings took the characteristic turn roll-and-fillet. were much used. great A many of the finest buildings in this style scarcely afford as good examples of molding as small and humble churches of the Early English age. repeated with little change several Ww§ Decorated Jill times over. as in PL. effect.Decorated era (that is. is members somewhat larger. In the Geometric-Decorated age (that first in the reign of the differ two Edwards). irregular. a delicacy and gentleness of grouping. the moldings of arches and jambs .
form only a step preparatory to molding. doorways. a window at Hingham. VII. The monials stand near the PL. sedilia. which. 20. doorways. all 49 the windows. which Decorated may generally be referred it though there are many examples which difficult might be to assign to any one of them.— DECORATED MOLDINGS. without any edge-lines to relieve them. VII. 20 and 21. such as bases. and pier-arches . * In the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk this is the rule. fig. the plain chamfer of two orders perhaps most commonly found. and stopping short of that ulterior process. fig. fig. Frequently. sepulchral recesses. and the east window at so. while minor parts.* And again. is one degree richer than this. we must look (PL. I. and windows. though of equally plain character. There appear to be three moldings distinct kinds to . entirely omitted. as figs. properly speaking. exception. 19.: a The plain. so that the jamb-moldings are. as it were. capitals. the tracery of good Decorated windows stands quite flush with the wall. indeed. and separated from or recessed behind it only by a single order with a plain or hollow chamfer. the monials and tracery often consist of merely chamfered planes. outer surface of the wall. 5) is Windows how- especially are often singularly meagre in their moldings. Norfolk. ever rich their tracery may be. have fine and elaborate details. PL. two orders being intro- duced in the monial. the sunk and the hollow chamfer of two or more orders. and the like. from the scarcity of stone in those parts. These are : m ><. and not the i E . It is in this kind of work that style. Trumpington. for the best moldings in the Decorated In arches. 1.
V. it which pro- duces a very bold and good might be difficult to name a better example than the west doorway of St. bined. in all jambs and archways (especially if they be continuous. seems proper to regard 1. as in diagrams PL. fig. other words thus of the chamfer 11.-. are sometimes intermixed. molding. though.. 16. and PL. divided by hollows of three- quarters of a circle. VII.50 2. PL. fig. And as they rarely occupy it any other position than the chamfer-plane. Their distinctive peculiarity con- in the repetition of the same members varieties fig. at Attleborough. figs. as we have observed. 4. PL. A succession of double ogees. In such cases there are often trails of ball-flowers. as in Norfolk. Ely. or other quatrefoil paterae. in principle and arrangement. VI. is similar ^%?v. 14. or quarter-circles." The plain or hollow chamfer is extremely common style. 8. Here the chamfers are hollow. and both of these are exceedingly It is not common moldings in unusual to find these two varieties comfig. or have no imposts or jamb-shafts). The wave -I ^Bllfe this style. VI. effect. 11. three-quarter hollow. Norfolk. XVII. Koll-and-fillet moldings. might be double-ogee order between . divided by three-quarter hollows all lying in the chamfer-plane of 43° . i ''[ . 12. MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 12 a door- — way 3. nearly resembling. in each order. is either left solid. as figs. 9. the Early English method. in kind. PL. them as virtually the plain chamfered edges of class their flat sists slightly relieved from and naked form. II. in the Early Decorated The inner angle which divides the orders (and which has been called the re-entering angle). or cut into a deep Of this latter arrangement. twenty-three inches. with hollows between each member. total width across. 6. c — the belfry-arch at Deopham. described in : —" A Thus PL. roses. ornamental leaf-work disposed at regular inter- . two hollow chamfer orders. Mary's.
XVII. 51 and repeated in rows in two or more of the chamfers. bridge. Eutland. Norfolk . the chancel door at Willingham. PL.. Sometimes moldings of are combined with those of the third. 7. the roll-and-triple-fillet. ham. are all a monument is. Church. Cambridgeshire. early in the all. PL. dtjyjjk members. While moldings of the second kind are generally borne by b 2 . Suffolk. 8 . and the neck single is wider from the hollows between the less deeply undercut.£/h from the beautiful Decoi-ated archway of the south porch at Over. fig. fig. a many informs a member of very monument in the choir In large size. and PL. near CamFig. the priest's door at Hingham. DECORATED MOLDINGS. XX. V. is Fig. There however. VII. from Grantham this class "wll window-jamb. VII. The second kind style . stances the roll-and-fillet as PL. fig. not set square on the roll. fig. The members doorway fig. 3. Early English and the Decorated In the later style the fillet "is broader. vals. 11. 15. PL. 8. fig. See PL. is generally. V. . a window-jamb." 7. . 12. . being The ar- capricious and irregular forms of the earlier style are no longer found. VI. a perceptible difference in the shape of the roll-and-fillet. at Boston. XVII. over. is in this case usually fall in squares (that on the wall-planes and soffit-planes in succession). fig. figs. and the gently bulging ogee Je t e 00 ate d F 1 curvature predominates throughout. 3. VII. of Bolton Abbey. as PL. fig. as in the west at Trumpington Church. PL. from the south porch of Bottisham Church. Fig. 1. XX. 10. but not always. near Cambridge fig. 10 is H/ . is generally one fl member "of the group. and it is perhaps the most perfect and beautiful of is. PL. a doorway at Burfield. ranged upon rectangular lines. 5 is from a doorway at Langof the Geometric age. 2 . PL. 17. of this second kind.
3. fig. the west doorway fig. V. VI.* except in pier-arches. in forms an angle of 45°. fig. . VI. as a bowtell or threeis quarter round. A compound molding either composed of . This is properly the character of the ogee itself. " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. such as PL. So. 68. fig. Norfolk. 4. gives a very to find deep and rich effect to a doorway. the wall). a double ogee or involves a profile of reflex or double curvature. PL. in which case they are stopped by the capitals. as seen in PL. We may further observe on PL. that if the sides of the re-entering is angle are equal. the angle of the chamfer-plane sides of the central nook. two or more distinct parts. VII. those which are continuous on the chamfer-planes.— 52 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. those of the first third are almost always continuous. which is formed by a segmental inward curve conjoined continuously with a similar outward * In doorways the moldings borne by the jamb-shafts always lie on the rectangular planes. as PL. fig. PL. of four or five of these together. ascertained by measuring the two Sometimes the group appears to have been designed on the principle of a series of squares. is a pier-arch at Trumpseries ington .e. as a roll-and-fillet. is PL. the untouched portions of the rectangular nook) almost invariably stand at right angles with each other. 12. VII. fig. one at Hingham. a. and not detached from. Sometimes a fig. 3. Thus. XVII.. where they constantly occur." p. the chamfer-plane that is. is A simple molding a plain single form. 2. must be particularly observed that in the third class of fillets Deco- rated moldings the on each side of the three-quarter hollows (i. at Attleborough. now engaged and jamb-shafts. the principle of which is shown at PL. V. fig. 3. it the diagonal of a square. VII. Exceptions. 3. complete in itself. or those of one order of different size from the others. It is not uncommon one member of a double ogee considerably larger than the It other. as in the Early English style (though in. are seldom found in ancient moldings. Moldings are either simple or compound.
forming a central . Varieties of wave . VII. 18. sometimes projecting forward beyond the edges. the form is shown in the accom- panying outline sometimes found. quently occurs with a hollow between. 17. and in PL. or later Decorated." from Garsington Church . Scarcely any method of molding is and so common in._ bulge or entasis. IV. this style. Inigo Jones applied See "Architectural Nomenclature. or so It fre- characteristic of.* figs. or the It is wave-molding. The latter is not improbable on the analogy of the earlier and later (that is. especially of the Flowing. being simply somewhat less undercut. which may be compound ogee. XXIV.. 333. curve. the other half being . bourhood of Oxford. |_ It composed of two ogee curvatures. chamfer. 9. VII. PL. from represented in is its gently undulating outline. and elsewhere. * Professor "Willis calls this the stuelled the term ivave to the ogee. The formation of this detail may the be traced either to ordinary edge-roll Tib \M Triply filleted roll. Halt roll-andfillet. as PL. several (Early There are modifications of it. . half of a triply filleted roll. fig. the square fillet. 19.molding . 10. the edges at the points of junction being rounded instead of sharp and abrupt. PL." § 16. near Cambridge. 17.shaft into a rectangular nook. It occurs in \~] the sedilia at Elsworth Church.DECORATED MOLDINGS. fig. considered as undeveloped. or merged in the block or to the insertion of a quarter. and rounded) forms of the roll-and- Indeed. and is represented in the " Guide to the Neighp. " Buildwas of Potter's Abbey" English). or to the Sll Edge-roll. 53 Of the same kind is a very important and universal called the Decorated form. c. to which era its use was principally confined. but usually in the same plane with them.
8. The former It most common in so Decorated. PL. It may be called down a double wave-molding. of other proofs. It is not of is may be termed common occurrence the . V. circa 1240. The formation is shown in PL. V.* Sometimes. in the form approximating to the outline diagram in p. fig. dicular. and shallower in early than in late work . fig. or there is a small width of as the chamfer-plane . XIX. indeed. See PL. VII. XIX. Isle of Ely.54 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as PL. fig. 13. the wavy line as to fig. 16. instead of scooping out in an ogee curve. edges. 16. XIX. It is clear from PL. It will be seen that the early form involves the equilateral. 50. It also occurs. as the edges PL. figs. much more in default common in Decorated work. fig. 5. 3. 23. one member. It is also wider is. PL. figs. 281. It is generally a mark of Transition to Perpen- A rare to form is exhibited in PL. and in the east window of the south aisle at Bottisham. By cutting the central hollow an angle (as shown in the shaded part). are either sharp. and the central entasis less is so faint bulging. 1. and the sunken This very chamfer. a double ogee would be the result. and PL. flat fig. VII. sunk between two raised fig. VII. be scarcely different from the plain chamfer. a doorway from Landbeach case Church. 11 PL. that the side hollows are less deep. 1 and 2. In this the concaves is is are sometimes slightly undercut. Another variety is shown in PL. from Headington Church. a. * fig. a very good specimen engraved in the " Oxford Guide. be taken as a presumptive evidence of the style. 2. ." p. 17. bridge. XX. Cambridgeshire. And sometimes we lowest order of find nothing more than a VII. XX. fig. uncut on each side. the later the obtuse triangle. in an archway at Croxden Abbey. This molding occurs in the Decorated belfry- arch at Stretham. near Camhave arisen from cutting down to an end of the angle. left fig. that its occurrence may. a window-jamb from This appears to Quy Church. Cambridgeshire. the latter in Perpendicular. surface b. that this form was not unknown in Early English architecture.
is (fig. whenever the ogee occurs in Decorated moldings. were there not abundant opportunities of self-development presented by the varieties of the roll-and-fillet. 2. the quirked ogee (see edifices..DECORATED MOLDINGS. or a roll-and-fillet. PL. that it might be supposed was thence imported into the Gothic. however. in In its most ordinary position a window-jamb. the always suggests to . or short the rectangular plane. 1. however. in fig. Since. that its almost impossible to do more than point out characteristics. as PL. fig. scarcely. between two wave-mold- ings. because they would otherwise have been too large. formation whereas the we can roll-and- gradual from . Cambridgeshire fig. in England at whatever may be the case in the Komanesque edifices in other countries. and so explain fully in origin and varied relations. it actually corresponds to a perfect roll-and-fillet in the ^ monial. 2. XVII. of. mind the idea of one side of a roll-and-fillet the convex portion being much larger than the concave. It is believed that the ogee Norman architecture. from the outer archway of the south porch inner) of the (fig. so common part identical form with this difficult of a monial far the 3). if ever. PL. 11 . occurs in least. It should be especially noted that it very sparingly used. In fig. it seems extremely to decide how form was introduced from' this or that suggestion. XVI. the rolls-and-fillets within. 3 being the fall same church. 2). VII. and here it must. of course. this latter case. The ogee molding difficult to it is is a form its so extensively used. 10. style Its occasional appearance in the Early English it is has been already mentioned. 9. it prevalent in the Classic styles. is . where. general the ogee easily and leading curve is so In respect of its origin. is found in Decorated work. from the north porch of Bottisham Church. in Classic be regarded literally as half of that member. the earliest But in forms would be found of Classic character with actually trace the its large concave portion. 55 A plain bowtell. figs.
VII. or swelled chamfer. having at first the roll the predominant portion. fig. is The bowtell. So also PL.— . a very fine fig. date. 8 6 - Scro11 molding. <mm ^ m I ' 5^m : I «jj . and PL. VI. VII. Sometimes a semicircle sunk in the chamfer-plane is found. V. VI. This detail is the most usual in Transition to Perpendicular. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. 13. in which the bowtell occupy- ing the centre forms an engaged shaft. . in Decorated work. used. fig. Ogee and fillet. Norfolk . Norfolk . b. When this is the case. 8. are the principal forms found in : Decorated moldings 1. ti^k. fig. is a doorway of Transition Swanton Morley. it was extremely common in Perpendicular. therefore. 16. / gjj • jflnP 2. a window Hing- ham. VII. or ressant lorymer. Wave-molding. or three-quarter round. Plain or hollow chamfer. &^m^W _ Vi Double ogee. 14. fig. and the hollow gradually gaining in importance in later work so that for it would not perhaps be saying too much to vindicate Gothic architecture the self-development of the ogee. 18. 14. rather it than refer to an imitation of uncongenial Classic details. Sunken chamfer. Rife The roll-and-fillet. PL. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Norfolk. 4. PL. at PL. a door- way at Deopham. VII. and perhaps it is not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render a particular term desirable. or double ressant. 56 fillet. The following. circa 1360—80. It is difficult to give a fig. Other minor varieties might be added of forms which are principally found in Decorated work. . as PL. 6. fig. archway at at Hardingham. and PL. Roll-and-triple-fillet. l*^ 7. 5. fig. but rather sparingly. V. 2. name to the form shown in PL. 9.
fig. position with the sunken semicircle. which. as merged into one another. is . of of principal and secondary monials. for jamb . VI. This occurs also in jambs and arches. 5. 1. 6. . VI. is a sure indication of approach to Perpendicular. XVI. parallel with the wall-plane. 5. 1. all of which are late in the style. 4. the fig. which this example belongs. XVII. fig.* Sometimes the bowtell seen in juxtafigs. of members constituting the separate sub-arches for the face of the smaller * All the examples in PL. 1. The moldings course. In drawing the section of a window- jamb. to detail of Decorated moldings of the second See also PL. as in PL.3. same 15.the fig. fig. fig. figs. V. 1. architects generally in these examples. is 5. II. and PL. are Late Decorated. VII. This should be noticed as a very characteristic class. figs. . 48. 3. PL. show the method are. except in very advanced work. V. of the east window at Heckington PL. a window at Fen Stanton. a small tongue- shaped member projects from the inner side of the principal roll-and-fillet. V.' 9. PL. When a window has primary and secondary monials. coincident in every part of the tracery in the corresponding parts or planes of the and monials. VI. PL. may of course be also taken to represent one side of the monials. V. 4. as in figs. as PL. fig. the monial-members may be represented by lines across. 5.DECORATED MOLDINGS the fillet 57 is seldom wanting. The occurrence of the small three-quarter round. 14. as being identical in detail. extremely fig. is part of a window in the chancel at Boston . 14. inner jamb 14. A combination in common in labels and capitals is shown PL. it is obvious that they carry distinct planes or orders of moldings. Thus the outer edge represents the actual profile of the jamb. But the plain roll appears in PL. In PL. draw double monials. 15. V. and so that. Leicestershire. shortness' sake. the group . Yet these orders are not always of the same nature as those we have before described as such —namely. from Stoke Golding.
5 PL. especipri- when the < 1 ' JJ M y / - '. In Decorated windows the face of the monials flat is generally roll- edge or is fillet . they are different in section above the Ordinary windows. but in round. bat this point must be See PL. for this would in most cases give too great thickness to the monials themselves. it stilted bases in the jamb. capitals. 8. follow the principle of continuous archways. on the other hand. Wells Cathedral. In these cases the moldings tracery t of the ^^'IjIf Sleaford. in PL. is The difference of inclination sometimes very slight. some and early is examples a molding carried all furnished with is small in bases resting on the cill. . This produces a very fine ally effect. carefully fig. Many Decorated windows have shafts in the jambs and monials both internally and externally.. both the monials combined carry (properly speaking) the same order. doorways. or fig. member of a group. that is. 58 -MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. with that on which members are arranged. This roll-tracery very common Perpendicular windows and sometimes. the slope or inclination of which must of course be the same on both sides of each aperture or light. VI. a fig. Thus. follow the *' common law of pierarches and shafted . VIII. attended to in copying moldings. the second- '<fm W l < ary a single shaft. 14. !i mary monials j carry a triple. falls monial often within or behind that of the larger only by a single retiring step. but different members of it. XX. . as in the last example. The plane the monial in which the outer moldings of the jamb lie is seldom coincident. as has small at the west end of King's College Chapel. .
6. or is 59 rear-rib. Nomencla- . feet across from outer face of the label to the fine. afford most beautiful instances of shafted window- . in fact. 4 is the molding of the pier-arches in the same church. and the south choir-aisle of St. of unusual and decidedly early character. V. doorways at Little Ellingham. The interior arch. but in the neighbouring edifices. The and they are wiry and poor in their effect. that to very important compare their moldings with other parts of the same church. There fig. VI. windows St. a close resemblance in the a composition of this and of 1. as in PL. 57. The labels or hood-moldings of the date of Edward I. Mary's Church. fig. the north doorway at ham . fig. It This latter example un- usually bold and deep. PL. Fig. Willis's " Architectural * Called anciently. And monuments especially it is were so often inserted subsequently. 8. It closely resembles PL. fig. ture. VI. because a strong presumption of coeval date is thence to be derived. the soffit at a. and II. character of these two examples is rather late . is a doorway at Great Ellingham. form a very essential part in the composition of the more elaborate. 4 is is the inner doorway of the south porch at Boston. Norfolk. 7 from a monument at Boston. of Early English and Geo- metric windows generally borne by a shaft. though of rather late Decorated date. Fig. from being cut away too deeply and widely from the block surface. 1 and 10. Fig. betraying the hand of the same This resem- blance should always be attended to.DECORATED MOLDINGS. and the effect is remarkably at Fig. Stafford. at Hardingham. 5 is the interior of a window jamb Sleaford. in the same church. sunk in the Hingis surface of the wall. not only in the same church." p. the rear-shaft. 2. in these styles. The aisles and clerestory in the nave of Alban's Abbey. figs. and fig 13. are often undercut by a three-quarter circle. plain and inexpensive buildings. monument artist. measures three soffit.* except in very Shafts.
4. a good and effective composition. PL. fig. style. 7. 8 the interior of a window-jamb at Heckington. Fig. Thurlby. Fig. is the interior of a window-jamb at Bennington. fig. is . 10 is from Clipsham. Fig. a Decorated window from the chancel Lincolnshire. the south doorway at Langtoft. HeckingIt is ton. 15. the precinct. Fig. which almost rivals St. Hunts. Lincolnshire. . VII. and is 10 the exterior of the same. Peterborough is an effective decorated group. in Decorated This also is is a very common form windows. Its edge-lines are sharp and deli- and the profile beautifully relieved it is by the deep side- hollows with which necessarily connected. 16. * This example is badly copied. Suffolk. immediate neighbour. Fig. fig. 21 is a window from the Decorated chancel at Keddington. 13 is one side of the belfry-arch at West Keal. to illustrate the difference in appearance exists between the same molding exhibited in section and in elevation. from Horbling. Fig. 22. Lincolnshire. Lincolnshire. V. XX. fig.* PL. 23. near Market Deeping. with double jamb-shafts. fig. shown which in perspective. V. borough. and must not be depended upon. It is taken from Yaxley. The roll-and-triple-fillet produces a fine effect in moldings of this cate. a very fig 8. a fine doorway from West Keal fig. fig. Kutland — window which elegantly enriched by a trail of ball-flowers in is the hollow chamfer of the outer order. is the outer archway of the west entrance to . 13 from the outer porch doorway at North- Fig. 12 11. is an archway in the cloisters at Peterborough. the celebrated This molding is Andrew's. from a fine Decorated tomb at Ewerby Church. or Ketton. Fig. the molding at the angle of a piscina. a groin-rib from Rivaulx . PL.a 60 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Abbey. PL. at Over. 5. 9 common is plan of a Decorated window. Fig. Lincolnshire its a noble structure.
commencing the latter with the reign of Henry VII. to death of henry viii. perpendicular moldings. gives a flatness which unpleasing to the eye in comparison with the rectangularly recessed grouping of the two preceding styles. would have been separate moldings . there work of it is such a mass of really high art in the this period. The mold- ings of this style frequently die into a basement composed of the simple - uncut in chamfer plane. are all con- spicuous characteristics. occupying spaces filled which.. in indulging any he may have formed for earlier work.d. with groups of hard wiry edges in place of rounded and softened forms. 61 SECTION VII. . in early work.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. Large and coarse members. debasing influence will at once In the moldings of this style a be perceived in the comparatively meagre save-trouble method of working them. Add to these. 1485. with little of minute and delicate detail. which case the outer edges of each molding of course coincide with it. and general shallowness of cutting. since it is only by Fireplace. At the same time. wide and shallow hollows. Wells. cutting channels that the moldings are developed from it Three peculiarities are so * This might fairly be divided by the student into Perpendicular and Tudor. which a marked is feature of the Perpendicular period.* 1377 to 1546. Vicar's Close. that their general arrangeis ment on the chamfer-plane. ii. that the student must be careful not to slur predilection over. from the accession of richard a.
Of many forms which the casement assumes. The latter result may be observed in the windows of St. figs. of bowtells. Frequently. 11. and in those of the older portions of St. and often used as such of the double ogee. it is. The constant use circle. VIII. is gained at the sacrifice of depth. — MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.. . usually occupying the centre of the group. The casement alluded by which width it is to may undoubtedly be regarded as an elongation or extension of the Decorated three-quarter hollow. as in PL. of early Perpendicular generally a is mark work when the casement deep and narrow. 3. fig. It is very common XX. VIII. in the same group with the great casement or central hollow. 13. and PL. of three-quarters of a 3. resembling small shafts. VIII. and sometimes. so stretched as to become flat surface. XX. in the chancel of figs. 10. G2 common 1. of late when wide and shallow. sunken but little below the chamfer-plane. however. IX. or beads. or hollow. and if the student . he will per- ceive the importance of assigning this feature as a peculiarity . 14. in Perpendicular moldings. compares the three plates of Decorated moldings. perhaps generally. 2. fig. PL. or external line of the group. and equal to about one-third of the width 2. 3. as seen in PL. the arch-mold of the nave of Lancaster fig. that their absence almost forms the exception to general Tisage. 14. Cambridge. to find one or both ends of the hollow returned in a kind of quasi-bowtell. and of debased when almost or quite a as it were. 16. as PL. Church. These are : A wide shallow casement. figs. 4. Accordingly. or PL. the most frequent are those represented in PL. 2 and 15. Botolph's Church. VIII. IX. and IX. John's College. The frequency and some varieties of it peculiar to the period. IX. the ends are sharp and angular. The three-quarter hollow also occurs in this style. and PL. The bowtell will be observed in every example given in some form or other in almost PL. fig. fig. a window Grantham Church.
as PL. 3. . the earlier ib* -^^ vm J||lllllS> form. as in — all contain examples of the cylindrical bowtell. 5. the . an ogee combined with a quarter-circle. is extremely com- mon in Perpendicular moldin j OP fig. peculiar to the style. 4 and 5. figs. figs. . 7. figs. Other varieties. are the double ogee with a bowtell in the centre. XX. ings.* fillet c . PL. as before stated. All these may be considered as dis- tinctive criteria of the style. PL. * This is one of the commonest and most decisive combinations in Perpendicular moldings. always represents the profile of the half of a roll-and-fillet. fig. stands like is an excrescence on the surface of a plane. fig. forming a section more like the letter S— see PL. 10. u. PL. 16. figs. it some assumes in the later style. formed from a plane by sinking a channel on each PL. an ogee with a small bead or figs. XX. fig. 17 . IX.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. fig. near Camhridge . 13. in than in Decorated moldings. VIII. 9 . it . 6. figs. where the depth of the hollows generally conclusive. the Perpendicular appears rather to be composed of a semicircular hollow continued in a bowtell. VIII. IX. 1. 8. from Rivaulx Abbey Fig. b. IX. from a small doorfig. as PL. It is often side. western doorway at Newtown Church. 6. fig. 63 In PL. 3. both from Bolton Abbey fig. a small double bowtell forms the central member. 10. as departure 5 but this a from the usual practice. 5. IX. Occasionally fig. as well as from the true principle of moldings. 11 and 12. way in the choir of : Grantham Church and a "doorway in Ripon Minster. . The double ogee the form which is much more common There is in Perpendicular difference. 1. fig. of the Perpendicular. XVI. double ogee. too. and especially the \-/ Perpendicular members. However. at the base. For whereas the Decorated ogee. and the combination exhibited in is 15. an ogee with a bowtell forming one side of the great casement. 10 and 14 PL.
the breadth of the The shape.fillet in a debased form as in 'Ijjljl' fig. that of the diagram between figs. doorway at Fountains Abbey. it usually springs from the capital of a small bowtell. however. was not extensively used. fig. window-jamb from the south . a doorway from Bolton Abbey. as in 14 PL. it in fact. as in aisle PL. English work. 7. capitals. varieties of the Per- pendicular roll-and-fillet. VII.V Ijjp grams the upper English. A half roll-and-fillet a frequently occurs. 13. In PL. ways and windows. The pointed fig. however. Transition period. Sometimes we the roll-and-triple. 64 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. of the bowtell mold. fillet will of the ogee curve and be found to follow the rules laid down. PL. usually rather of dooris small. with in a the roll or bowtell plain and not filleted. When' most remarkable -features in the moldings of the does occur. that is. exhibited in In the annexed diarepresents the V'^. The double ogee is sometimes of large and clumsy In Decorated. fig.. VIII. one of the late Gothic. other corrupted varieties 16. . XX. is very rare in this style it is shown in and it The absence of the roll-and-fillet. 3. IX. the inner doorway of it is the south porch at Great Shelford. fig. . The debased form fig. of the nave at Eipon Cathedral bowtell * is. properly a late Decorated combination. VIII. and is principally confined to the outer members PL. . this is The form of the roll-and-fillet. the figure Early Other two. PL.* 10 and 11. A roll-and-fillet between two ogees II. it is size in Perpendicular arch-moldings. The form represented in outline in the preceding woodcut is It occurs in Early found in all the styles. fig. 9. prevalent in it style. fig. IP Cambridgeshire. 16. IV. except in a very corrupted form. is also jBjlllI Jjjjl peculiar to the style it is much used in basefind ment moldings and PL. 3. are Two fig. of the before 1400. near Cambridge. the belfry arch at Haslingfield. 21. in which.
at Leverton. from the isolated tower at Dereham. Having pointed out these facts (which deserved to be regislittle tered as essential and characteristic differences). most examples but of three or four very ordinary members. Fig. represents the almost universal plan of Perpendicular windows. for many points may be found. and trate the remarkable uniformity which prevailed in the use of moldings. at Uffington. illus- 12 and 18. Rich and good Perpendiconsisting cular moldings are not very common.. fig. jamb fig. 1. early in the Fig. though the tracery is generally set deeper in the wall than in the preceding style. PL. encroaches so is left for much upon the group that room more than a double ogee on the outside" of : and the monial-members on the inside — by which term those moldings of the coincide with the monials. figs. near Stamford. however. offer nothing while in the two pre- ceding styles there is ever something singular. which form groups of considerable delicacy. comprising the first order. Norfolk. Stamford. and. or ingenious in the treatment of the moldings. IX. consequently. which either novel or interesting to the view . 3 the same. from Fig. or beautiful. PL. are taken from different churches.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. 4 from Fishtoft. Saham Toney . such as the jamb-shafts in deeply recessed doorways. 65 occurs in the aisle windows at the west end of St. But Perpendicular work is by no means to be despised. without any casement in the angle. VIII. John's Church. are meant which Sometimes. externally. 12. 6 F . Lincolnshire. little it. or hollow. Window-moldings are usually extremely meagre. to arrest our attention and add to our store of knowledge. is from the west doorway style. But the great casement. PL. in the from the east window same county fig. 5 is .. to be said remains on this part of the subject. 2 is the same. we find the double ogee and the monial-members occupying the next. especially in earlier examples. fig. VIII. a larger space is available for the pur- pose.
fig. . from the examples given. from Messrs. Martin's. . fig. All Saints . 17 a doorway. 6 the west doorway. and fig. VIII. 3 the same from St. many cases the chamfer-plane is either . Stamford . 15 a molding of constant occurfig. The two moldings. a window-jamb. 14 from a niche Great Gransden. coln fig. . Hampshire form . Martin's. 9 the north doorway at Harlton. 12 from the south Choir Chapel. 10 the east window at Chesterton. near Cambridge St. while it is seldom undefinable in Decorated moldings. 13 at an arch in Sepulchre's Church St. as PL. fig. fig. 16 from St. Fig. 5 is from a pier-arch in the noble church of fig. near Stapleford. 21 from Louth. fig. fig. PL. 14 the south 18 doorway rence . Lincoln Cathedral . common fig. 20 the pier-arches of the same church. 16 from Great Shelford Colchester . 8 is from the chancel door at fig. St. fig. near Neots . more or less fig. It will be observed that the distinction of the orders is often completely lost in this style. 19 a doorway at St. 66 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. tban 11. Cambridge fig. fig. . IX. 4 from the Bede House in that town fig. near Cambridge . fig. . John's Church. fig. Rutland. . Yorkshire. Albans. . 9 from an oriel window fig. two parallel planes are taken * for the basis of the arrangement. from Histon. 2 the west doorway of the same . 17 a pier-arch from Holy Trinity.. fig. Stamford. 12 a window of . and of Yorkshire. a window. The former has large sculp- tured paterae in the central casement. fig." figs. 13 the belfry-arch at Haslingfield . 7 a window. 11 from Basingstoke. are borrowed from the " Churches 11 and 16. 1. Skirlaugh. 10 the south doorway. is from the east window of . that in It also appears. 18 the same from Long Melford. an angle of 45° and that occasionally. near Cambridge Skirlaugh. fig." figs. .* fig. 8 from in Lin- Stewton. Suffolk fig. Stamford . 15 the east window at . from Partney fig. fig. Brandon's excellent work. fig. fig. the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. from Byhall. 7 from Louth. 8 and 10. fig. at Grantchester fig. both doorways fig. and .
6. the centre being U|| occupied by a different one. and probably the **^ll \:lass and actual effect. figs. Students of the present subject will find a very valu- able series of illustrations West doorway. with a repetition of the same the custom of ending members which commenced the group. in the arch-jamb of a doorway or window. the variation of the same feature. especially in late ones. This is a great fault.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. of weakening the jamb. and on arch moldings are often arranged. i'tafto itt ' One principle of composition may sometimes be This is traced in moldings. Norfolk. 77 of Professor Willis's " Architectural History of Win- chester Cathedral. 3. In early work the jamb shafts carrying their is frequently formed with detached these capitals elaborate own capitals. The casement is 67 sometimes so extravagantly hollowed as to give the appearance. and in author. always produces a very unsatisfactory result to the eye which desiderates the idea of perfect and substantial support. IX. 1845. An The ° instance may be noticed in the west w window of Grantchester Church. for instance. many other accounts of cathedrals by the same The question of composition involves that of the grouping of molding. capital. 76. GranteTeste^ch^b Ki«." published by the Archaeological Institute. as. of base. Overstrand. This may be illustrated by 8 or by PL. the annexed cut. In the annexed example from p 2 . and archx molds of the three styles in pp. or of the arch and column in an arcade.
Scale. and it will be noticed that the fore- most of the angles jamb are in position immediately «# 1 below the re- entering angle of the arch- mold. Scale. . in Norfolk this is clearly shown. 1 in. Lincolnshire. Heacham. Inner door. In this example the square of the stone out of which moldings cut is the are dis- tinctly seen. to 1 ft. 2 in. Heacham.68 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Heckington. south porch. Norfolk. to 1 ft. Even in this case the chamfer forming the inner member close to the Priests' door.
bridge. mere beads. Scale. King's College Chapel. from College CamSomeindeed. In Decorated work the plain octagon shaft carries the sub their hollow chamfer or other mold- and main arch-molds with . door itself is 69 continuous.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. Cambridge. inner door. south porch. but we in the frequently find considerable variety jamb and arch-mold. they become Portion of Arch and Jamb. As the styles developed the detached were superseded by still engaged columns. This is shown in the annexed . 1 in. example from Heckington Church. The Early English columns in an arcade with the detached shafts carried arch moldings which at first sight seem to have but little connection with the shaft as an example. Lincolnshire but frequently much larger proportion common to both. times. a of the moldings are continuous and When we mon and invariably tinuous. to 1 ft. The same as- sertion of the continuous molding is found in other positions as the styles advanced. in the annexed example KiDg's Chapel. being the same in the jamb and in the arch-mold. it get into Perpendicular work we find the fiat case- ment very comwas con- The larger of shafts are smaller and a number members the are as continuous.
in the name of tracery but beyond this the moldings are wonderfully hands of the master designer. .70 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. all the different orders. so as in accompanying diagram. but work we find the molding continuous. branch out and break into the different forms known under the plastic. and where a member which seemed only in it sufficiently strong tracery a mullion looked heavy in was frequently thinned down. when we get to later ings. contained in it. will and these so well . The real master of his craft never hesitated to make his moldings exactly what he thought best suited for the position they were in. In tracery also the mullion will have or rather sub-orders. excepting for small shafts which carry a varied arch-mold. much and so was thought of little real artistic effect of what one may term cast-iron regularity.
diamond-shaped. . was the patin. since piers or columns more or less partake of the details of the arch-moldings. were respec- tively pillars. examples at Waltham Abbey (which. clature. not involving a of aggregate parts. 71 SECTION VIII. support the eastern transept walls at Peterborough Cathedral. III. detached or engaged. Complex. or parallelogramic simple or complex. the See Professor Willis's "Architectural Nomenplinth. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. And of these the bases and capitals will generally afford the surest indications. The earliest form of column is the circular. many and other places. and these forms are either when composed number of one plain member. Cathedral. columns." pp. London bably the earliest piece of and by similar Norman architecture in England).PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. The . Polygonal Norman of vast size strength. The general plan of the columns which support the nave or other principal arches is either square. And these simple forms continued in common use throughout the Transitional. octagonal. Simple. undoubtedly Church. and shafts. whether is Harold's Church or not. and piers. or footing of and verges.* This subject the forms of falls properly under the head of Moldings. 39-41. when consisting of a core surrounded by smaller shafts. as is proved by (pro- those in the ancient chapel in the White Tower. St. Early English. A few sections have been given for the purpose in PL. early). at Norwich Sepulchre's Cambridge. that is. circular. But it is one of such extensive scope that only a few general rules can here he given for dis- tinguishing the styles. chapiters. capitals. and Decorated * The mediaeval terms for columns.
six. but they by a were frequently brought down to the ground flat with the rectangular plan. which. by molded bands or or of fillets. except for tombs and the beds of sepulchral brasses. more so. But or a very common arrangement derived from it . 8). though liable to disintegrate. is that of the square plan. but much more sparingly afterwards. than those of any other style. like the arch it was sometimes and sub-arch. The Purbeck limestone. a beautiful and common device. it They are so varied in arrangement that would be impossible in this general characteristics^ place to do more than notice their which consist principally in the number of smaller isolated shafts clinging to a central column. smaller detached shafts. times disposed alternately. XIX. was much used in the thirteenth century. and bases worked out in one large A circular are very column.* of stone than are often some other kind the central pillar. and these recesses were cut with angular soon filled with small shafts. where the face of the pier was continuous with that of the wall ing the sub-arch was often obtain. These complex Early English piers are often extremely beautiful . being part of the "Wealden formation. to which they are at intervals attached in reality as well as in appearance. Examples common the choir-aisles at Ely. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. during the Early English period. a regular clustered shaft. The clustered capitals piece. . was brought to a wonderful degree of lightness and elegance. the fig. perhaps. and the member also carry- made into a semicircular form. in construction at least. surrounded by four. forms thus recesses. and taking a fine polish. Thus we though in a heavy and simple form. Lady Chapel of Fountains Abbey (PL. where they are some- periods in ordinary parochial churches. .72. With circular columns the vaultcapitals ing shafts were commonly stopped above the corbel. is . and many parts of West- * It is a curious fact that the mediaeval English architects appear never to have used any foreign marbles. or in opposite rows. These shafts are generally of native marble. or eight. composed of comminuted freshwater shells (whence it is called lumachella marble).
worked into annular separately to The shafts are not always style. Fig. III. ^m^-^-^---^ Bowman^s Half of a illustrations of that church. . still The lower part of a similar one. as in the round nave of the Temple Church. with some varieties. fig. is PL. . XIX. figs. have this kind of compound cases the column is pillar. 11. is Rutland. 73 In some made up of several shafts. as in PL. that is. 12 from St. The annexed from Rus. and die into the bell of the capital. is an instance of attached shafts so deeply undercut that they have the appearance of complete quisitely graceful feature isolation. York . Stamford . The square being set to the cardinal the addition of the shafts changes the outline to the diamond form. near York and this is a very common form Early English and Decorated piers. of constant occurpoints. as fig. is and are some- times worked into smaller pointed beads. Fig. or bonding-stone. is a beautiful example of the ^>Wg. from Skelton. applied. 8. though usually so in the pure lancet PL. Peter Gowt's. fig. . III. 5. generally four. 16. kington Church. 13 from Ruskington. after Towards the Geometric 1240.\^'^ is wS^ HP Ruskington. 17. V. stands in the vestibule of St. and there is a very good example at Exton. minster Abbey. PL. Rutland. and in PL. from All Saints'. placed close together. and reduced from the section given in Mr. 40. the corners of project. Lincolnshire. It forms an ex- in the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. fig. In this case there is always a fillets midway band the shafts. Mary's Abbey. without any central core. rather later in date. 6 from Grantham is w/ ^jIlP m^^ / Church.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. era. fig. X. Lin17 of colnshire is and fig. rence. the shafts or . roll-and-fillet set on each which side of a square. 15. at Lincoln. \M \ former style. fig. The fillets running up the face of each shaft usually pass over or round the astragal. from Stretton Church.
the whole dia- metric section being worked out of one block. being suppressed. is entirely different. or attached to the central mass. therefore. being usually continuous. Essex. The construction. erected at the above period. which are seldom found but in small shafts in Perpendicular work.which bear the innermost order." p. 14 is from Utterby. from Saffron Walden. . real or apparent. as engaged. Norfolk. " Brandon's Analysis. 4. and remarkable for the hollow faces. almost universal method. 18. PL.. PL. 14 and 16. where vaulting shafts arealso added on the northern and southern faces.* in the choir of the This will be seen Temple Church. the rest. isfrom Attleborough. figs. John's. so that a clustered column nelling the surfaces of the lights in reality formed by chan- mass in lines and hollows of graceful and shadows. detached or banded into clusters. 2. the longitudinal direction extending from north to south. or soffit-moldings. Mary's. PL. are among the commonest forms in cathedrals but the richness and extent of the great piers it and abbeys would require a volume is to set forth. Stamford. Decorated piers always have their is shafts engaged. including the great casement or hollow. ( iitl III. XIX. began to be generally verges. Fig. On the east and west sides half. they were anciently called. Cam- bridge. of the arch . and became mass the bands. instead firmly compacted into a — . PL.shafts are attached. III. III. fig. fig. for the sake of greater strength. no longer of any use. of late Decorated date. a plain but good illustration of this fig.74 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Very good examples exist at Great St. from St. Lincolnshire. without the interruption of any impost. The principle which led to this form was the desire to obtain width in the direction of the thickness * Shafts ceased to stand of the wall. . . Perpendicular piers are generally of oblong or parallelogramic plan. 15.
This is usually of later date than the parallelbgramic plan. in the second. The example tical is taken from Bowman's " Specimens of Ecclesias- Architecture. IV. Still. 7. the Martin's. built about. carries an engaged shaft. they become nothing more nor less than exaggerated monials with shafts attached to carry the subarch. the angles being cut away into the wave-molding. XIX. the second from St. however. combined with the least possible bulk. 19 and 20. The nave columns in this church consist of a square. or rather before. examples are \ / IP Long Ashton. PL. re- . Swavesey. In this they followed the . which is first shown from in St.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. 1 Another form. 20). the angles are chamfered away face . Mary's. In these the or each ground-plan angle (as fig. 19). and each face (as in fig. Stamford. occurs not 'infrequently in Perpendicular columns. Ensham Church. In the first case. which runs continuously round the arches. figs. with a three-quarter circular shaft engaged on each face. 1400. near Cambridge. a hollow is sunk in the between the shafts. PL." PL.wise. as at Swavesey. is a square. not wanting of early Perpendicular character. III. in some late H fo/K churches. fig. plan of window monials in fact. as in Long Ashton Church. Somersetshire. if set diamond. 75 and the greatest span j& between the columns. Wood Ditton Church.
but not until the close of the The woodcuts on the previous page represent such a column from "Wood Ditton Church. SECTION CAPITALS. columns. in the various periods of architecture. a great square stone would naturally pillar or post. or broad footing of masonry. to mistake the details of a Decorated for those of a Perpendicular archway . on which erect. but no one moderately acquainted with the subject could hesitate in pronouncing the style of a capital or base. Again. presents a column of good Decorated date in the crypt at Gran- tham. than any other kind of moldings. IX. given in " The Oxford Architectural Guide. even for an experienced eye. near Newmarket. provided it possessed any character at all. Ensham Church. and immovable. To go very rapidly through the history of a column. And they have the peculiar advantage of being more definitely marked. we may suppose that an upright post planted in the earth was found to sink. The moldings of capitals and bases form not the least in- teresting. by a great superincumThis failure suggested the necessity of a plinth.76 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. in which the same principle of formation is exhibited. extensive. it bent pressure. and that from c. This arrangement we may often observe in the construction of wooden sheds or rustic homesteads of rude timber-work. 139. might stand firm. The parallelogramic plan is sometimes found in Decorated style. 1400. and important part of the study. It.is by no means impossible." p. or decline from the perpendicular. as the be placed upon the top of the bed or .
shown in PL. X. In the Norman period. so that we have positive fact to guide belfry arches at us instead of mere theory.CAPITALS. . It was felt that these angles were not but the mediaeval builders preferred to decorate what as yet they did not wish to cut away. Examples fully as rude as this do actually exist in English ecclesiastical architecture. 77 cushion to receive the superstructure. Bolton Abbey. Mary Bishophill Junior. Transition' Norman Capitals. the highest and lowest members only. respectively called the abacus and the plinth (anciently the patin) were square. Even in the advanced Early English columns in Westminster Abbey instances of floriated bases may be observed. and extend to is the otherwise vacant and superfluous angles of the plinth. worthy of observation. and it is seen in the ordinary form of what has been called the cushion capital. the parts immediately below the one and above the other being rounded shape of the shaft. in the tongue-shaped leaves or other grotesques which are often seen to issue from the circular moldings of Transition-Norman bases. necessary . resting upon and surmounted by rude and clumsy blocks of stone. It was from such an origin that the highly elaborated Gothic base and capital arose. The lingering re- luctance to get rid of the square plinth. York. with a great many others of probably much have square pillars on each side. The ante-Norman later date. fig. when the shaft was round. off to suit the How this was done in Norman capitals is Cushion Capital. whether arch or entablature. Barnack and St. 2.
and examples may also be seen in Potter's " Illustrations of Buildwas Abbey. we obtain the circular capital and base of the first and second Gothic periods. is also Tbe lowest member. from which was transferred. is The upper member. practical fact. to both kinds . molded and or abacus. fig. as it member. the others being only decorative adjuncts. gular nooks were cut in the angles of the square abacus. In the Transi- . corresponding to the graduation of the sub-arch. by becoming recessed Hy left . as soon as the pier-arch. Classic styles. But the simple square was sure to undergo some changes. or involving a sub-arch (PL. 4). a portion bearing surface unemployed and superfluous. and either by removing angles indefinitely. in were. common but in floriated capitals foliage covers the intermediate space. From the former came the octagonal. 6. In the more elaborate and this took place first in capitals. [form . and. and is the relic of the rude impost which it first surmounted the stone post. Gothic capitals floriated.78 MANUAL OK GOTHIC MOLDINGS. may be divided into two kinds. through the medium This seems. I. by adopting the shape of the shaft. or. with its accompanying moldings. but this method of relieving and lightening the massive impost does not seem to have occurred to the Komanesque builders. called the neck or astragal. the sides were cut out or curved inwards —a feature some- times seen in Perpendicular octagonal capitals . as in the accompanying cut. is which otherwise occupied by the overhanging and undercut member called the bell. more probably. common to both. But capitals became octagonal and similarly octagonal plinths were retained long after circular capitals had become universal. They either cut off or cut out the corners. to of the Classic to the Christian styles." process pi. before plinths . be the primary and essential. ^^ That ^^ of the rectanis.
the Norman capitals at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. Lincolnshire. as is well it tion-Norman and Early English. the is known. as in interesting Early English capitals in the south transept north porch of Wells Cathedral. Occasionally (in Norman work commonly) Of some subject is grotesquely sculptured below the abacus. floriated In Perpendicular. as used in capitals.* some very and the Or a subject is intermixed with the foliage." p. or rather transversely. however. among others. 110. seem clearly to be. and in the choir of Wingfield Church. however. carrying off a The Decorated capitals in Oakham Church exhibit the same design. overhanging foliage of the being only a shallow kind of surface ornament. 79 foliage.CAPITALS. . as in the belfry-arch of Great Shelford. and other ornacapitals. the nail-head. near Cambridge. very worked. and not unfrequently in parochial churches (as at Barnack). are also frequently found. as the author has suggested in the " Manual of Gothic Architecture. while a chained ape one of the capitals (which are Decorated) a fox is laying hold of it behind. round the capital. leaves. But of floriated or sculptured work It is it is not at present our of province to speak. will have is it that On goose. Classical in general features. mental moldings. Mary's Church. Suffolk. the ball-flower. Others. as in Great St. arranged vertically. or crestings of minute battlements (occasionally floriated). from the deep earlier styles. The dog-tooth. are set like studs at intervals round the shaft above the neck. enough to observe that the origin foliage is probably Classical.. in the Decorated twines horizontally. But the vine differently and the strawberry leaf is sometimes seen. since in the Bomanesque we find the style of it. or the Ionic volute Transitional for example. Cambridge. or capitals are rare . this there is a very curious example at West Keal. sometimes occur in and in later work the Tudor flower. very closely approaching the . This kind of capital may be called Pictorial. Even angels' heads with spread wings are sometimes found. more frequently small patera. and almost so in their * details. Corinthian acanthus.
Hence. or even the arm. the others carried by shafts. II. may be passed round them. is particularly the case in Perpendicular piers and arches.—"Willis's "Architecture. it from whence was subsequently transferred to other parts of buildings. the outer being continuous is while in Early English doorways the soffit generally con- tinuous. Again. 18 Norman and Early English. less prominent. II. i. The moldings would in reality remain in their places as well without as with the bearing shafts. of the column. 80 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. This. in PL. . as may be observed in the porches and doorways of King's College Chapel..* In many cases the moldings are partly continuous and partly stopped by the capitals . as described in Section VII. they are stand isolated in the latter so far that the hand. apparent construction. forming at the same time deep lines of division between the groups of arch-molds above and the separate jamb-shafts below. engaged. the shafts In Decorated. . In some cases a member of the same projection and diameter as * By what is called decorative. And in Perpendicular they become entirely subordinate. in pure Gothic architecture. certain groups being borne while the intervening hollows are continued to the ground. they must away at the spring (in which case they are called discontinuous) or be abruptly stopped by a projecting impost. by shafts. There can be little doubt that the influence of both prevailed in the introduction of foliage into Gothic capitals. to receive the at the clusters of arch-molds which are stopped by summit For. figs. when the arch-molds wholly identical with those of the either die jamb or column." Chap. as we before remarked. less important in the apparent work of support. . by an ulterior debasement. as in and 19. to speak is it constructively.e. and merely decorative. Here the soffit or innermost moldings are borne by a shaft. are furnished with quasi-capitals and bases. mere bowtells. is the origin of the foliated capitals rather from the East. The use of capitals. and not conare not tinued down to the ground. fewer in number.
yet judi- ciously subordinate to both arch into one the bundles of shafts and pier. 16. for example. Take. but the lower edge- . at first the fillet was large in proportion. The moldings capital or of pier-arches . as a may be omitted or added mere matter of decoration. 78. at will. and the under edge rather plainly flat chamfered or cut into a ovolo . PL. Lincolnshire . Norfolk. both bell. Gothic capitals consist of three parts the abacus. they intercept and at the same time form a satisfactory termination to the vertical lines above and below. . and figs. is A good Gothic capital a feature of remarkable beauty. XII. they seem to bind which form the column. Cambridge- The most certain evidence of date is furnished by the mold- ings of the abacus. or the woodcuts on pages 77. It be observed that Gothic capitals fig. as shire. and gave a heavy appearance. X. And these parts are distinctly visible in block capitals. b the the neck. by their reversed or horizontal outlines. continuous only in very late work and the reason that the idea of a impost is essential to that of an isolated column. fig. the shafts themselves. or those in which the members have not been worked in village churches. will Hera a is the abacus. The earlier forms of the abacus had the upper edge always left square. the bell. 3 from fig. complex and graceful in their members. but slightly varied in form and profile. Small in 11 and 15. from Great Abington. those of the piers in the nave of Trumpington Church. became entirely is. PL. may generally be reduced to this outline. and 5 from Walesby. the bowtell is 81 (if continued above this quasi-capital the term be allowable). projection. while in the jambs of doorways and entrance arches. and therefore the impost. Such may occasionally be met with fig. and the neck. Hingham. Laceby. while. out. Fig.CAPITALS. 4 from Middle Rasen. c in the ' same county. Cambridge. 1 shows the two uppermost members in their is rudest state.
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
mold gradually became more important, and was frequently cut
into a hollow chamfer,
and sometimes quirked and finished also
with a bead, as at Heacham, Norfolk.
i I s \ I 4
Cant. Oath. Blatherwick, Byland. IXorthants. Crypt.
abacus was obtained, which held
far into the
seen at the Eefectory, Eivaulx, &c.
But then they began
away the upper
edge, the projec-
was made greater, and the under side was cut or hollowed
out, so that
overhang the bell just as the bell does
the shaft, and with the
profile, consisting of
the half of a
The Decorated abacus has the
with a cylindrical
rather less size below
38 and 39, represent these peculiarities, and an examination
of the sections of the capitals of both styles will
mark is wanting.
In Early English capitals the
sometimes quite plain, as
17, from Thurlby,
from Frieston, Lincolnshire.
In the reign of Edward
a peculiar molding occurs, something between the two, which
be called an undercut
from Stickney, and
from Lincoln Cathedral, and
considered a characteristic of Transition from Early
of the bell are generally kept within the limits
but in very minute work exceptions are someat
the capitals to the small shafts on the moni-als of some of the
windows have the
quite beyond the abacus.
Crowiher's " Churches
foliage is introduced
projected a long
and a molding
and bases appear frequently
for treating a
In Early English capitals the
moldings, which gives a very handsome
28, from Tintern
22, from Furness
24, from Bolton.
Capitals occur in their greatest perfection in shafts.
elaborate or so decidedly marked.
In these the abacus
member which affords any sure indication of date. The distinguishing feature of Decorated capitals has been
ninety-nine out of every hundred
capitals presenting the
Early English date.
It is believed
Decorated Capital, Grantham.
scarcely ever occurs in pure Deco-
seldom so prominent or so deeply undercut in this
as in the preceding style.
rule, the projection
the relative diameter to that of the shaft) became gradually
both in capitals and bases, as the styles advanced.
above cut furnishes an exception to the rule.
pendicular work, when the shafts became, as
Thus, in Perwere, mere parts
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
Decorated capitals preserve the happy
of the entire groups of moldings, both these features
minute and subordinate.
the clumsiness of constructive members, and
In this their remarkable
beauty really consists, in that they occupy the truest and most
consistent position as architectural parts of the whole.
respect to their details, the moldings of the bell present the
but these are generally some modification or
corruption of the roll-and-fillet.
part of the bell
Very often the under
composed of an
figs. 3, 8,
and PL. XI.
It is still
more frequently formed by the compound
in the cut, and in
examples of Decorated
PL. XI. and XII. ten of them have the
bell thus formed,
slight variety of
It is seen in elevation
15, the beautiful capital of the nave-piers at
Decorated capitals seldom have double moldings to the
than in the Early English
Three examples are given, PL. XI.
from Yaxley, Hunts,
very early in the style, as appears by the abacus,
and the annexed
from Harringworth, Northants.
or astragal, forms
mining the dates of
the Early English
a heavy and bold annular molding, of a stilted or oval shape, or
more than half
or the semi-hexagon
the prevailing form.
rated neck is almost always the scroll-molding
but both the
Early English forms, with
be found to occur.
nearly identical in
capitals of both styles are
general character and principles of formation, that a practised
may now and
then be deceived in their date.
here important to remark, that though the vast majority of
capitals in all English buildings will be found to fall in with the
in this work, anomalies do occur which present
any attempt to
them and the same
Perpendicular capitals present very marked features, which
are seldom liable to be mistaken.
angular, meagre, and few.
Neither abacus nor bell
a fact similar to that already stated with regard to
the arch-moldings of this style, that the distinction of orders
Frequently the abacus appears so far blended
into the other part of the capital as hardly to be a separate
member, and the
wholly vanishes or
part of the abacus
sloped off to a sharp edge, like the chamfer of an angle
section of the
molding below resembles the
ogee formed by a bold concave returning into a
nearly always octagonal, while that
of the preceding styles is
shaft, however, is circular in Perpendicular
while octagonal capitals only occur in the other
styles in the case of large
the same shape,
Early English arcading shafts with octagonal
capitals, as in
Histon, near Cambridge, the west front of
Peterborough Cathedral, and in the choir-aisle of Fountains
which induced the
latter architects to
prefer sharp edges and abrupt lines in their moldings to the
X. 1 and 2. the bell remains. Another form. an arrangement which in the preceding style. 22. Its form seems capricious. fig. 7. as in figs. rare The Lancaster Church. is either a ^ & j^ in of deba8fld scroll-molding with the upper edge chamfered. and the neck bell of fig. XY. that shown PL. which occurs in the abacus of 'M fig. figs. and octagonal as in below. though the profile is often much the same as in Decorated work. XIII. com- mon to both members. 21. in This debasement of the molding is separately shown PL. 10. is 26. we see nearly the same form as roll.86 soft MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 29. specified. 20. VIII. by a meagre 3 and Sometimes. undercut of & ill fig. capital is often produced the projection slope. 15. The section of the Perpendicular abacus is a mere corruption figs. . 8. in its however. p j ain ^^ is astragal. 16. are from Frieston. numerous sections of capitals and bases A few only of the most remarkable shall be thus figs. we obtain scroll- 15. generally circular upper members. Perhaps greater license was taken in general in designing the moldings of this style than in any other. and reducible to no certain rule. resembling a coarse keel-mold. made them revert of the circular. XIII. PL. . and blending Decorated forms. Lincolnshire. PL. IV. XII. 8. the 5. of the Decorated scroll-molding. m The with its overhanging and moldings having vanished. 7. is to the octagonal capital to the rejection The base. 21. PL. however. as in the abacus. figs. Perpendicular embattled. and 12. in the Decorated and by omitting the under the ordinary profile of fig. Thus in PL. as figs. or neck. 22. in stating the It will not be necessary to occupy much space places from which our are taken. as capitals are often PL. but not very often.
16.CAPITALS. a noble capital from Stickney. fig. with the nail-head in the hollow above the elevation of the Fig. 4 is a fine capital of very unusual size and depth. and 2.* Fig. XL figs. in a chapel used as the Fig. * for Fig. 9 from Sibsey. 14 is is not uncommon in Transition caSindge. 87 Here the this bell is of rather unusual form. fig. XII. drawn on a large scale. 40 is the most ordinary form in shafts and clustered piers. are from Yaxley . very rich and elevation. bell. Isle of Wight. 23. 11. 12 Stickford. 6. Cambridgeshire. rather late. from Furness Fig. 37 is from Bolton Abbey. 29 Abbey. foot .' The student many beautiful capitals again referred to Potter's illustrations of this abbey and bases. 18 fig. figs. is from Aswardby. 16. and 13 . 15. as in more so in than in the next fig. 18 is from Kuskington. 13 from Waltham. the style. Fig. figs. late in 9. 7. Of the same date and character from the Chapter House of . same county. 30 from Saffron Walden. all 10 from Fig. 15. the latter Fig. Fig. of large size from Legburn. Lincolnshire. are mostly from churches in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. 22 shown in by studying which. the former from Lincoln Cathedral. from Leverton. is 17. Lincolnshire. . fig. as appears from the undercut scroll-abacus. Figs. Fig. The sections of Decorated capitals in PL. from Arreton. This the form of the pier capitals at Heckington. 26 are from Bolton Abbey. and has the double bell Abbey. of much larger size than usual. X. 17. from Fletton. PL. 3 is vestry in the church at Boston. from Tintern. PL. 10 is from the are 12 same place. depth one is 22 from Abington. is 11 from Partney in the — in Lincolnshire. XI. perhaps style. and almost identical. Furness Abbey. 28 is Fig. are all from Lincolnshire. * . those who are unacquainted with the details of the styles may form a correct idea of the leading It is characteristics of the capitals of this period. Figs. 24. 1 PL. 19 from Tintern is fine in its profile. Hunts fig. fig. and remarkable in is its profile. 9. (15 inches in depth) fig. Fig.
Northamptonshire. fig. XII. 14 from Harston. The rest of the sections in this plate are Perpendicular. 1. fig. 16 from Dry Drayton. .88 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. This and the next illustrate the methods of obtaining the plane of the moldings. fig. XII. from Colchester . and Louth at (see PL. and the double ogee below. PL. Fig. near Cambridge. . XL 28). XIII. the abacus. 23. near Stamford.* Norfolk . similar feature is the wave molding. figs. 18 is octagonal. in Stamford. and fig. fig. Norfolk. in the Decorated capitals of the nave columns at Dunchurch. 12. from Fen Ditton is 17 from Mat- Here the abacus Fig. Lincolnshire. Warwickshire. 24. near Cambridge Toney. to Perpendicular at it occurs at Maxey. 29 from the Bede House. Louth . . fig. from Els worth Hall. in the A same position. PL. John's. which in this style should be attended to. * fig. Martin's. is from Careby. fig. fig. Suffolk . fig near Cambridge tishall. is from Uffington. all 26 and 27 from 28 from St. fig 13. 19 from Saham An interesting specimen. . 13 is from a fine monu- ment Little Shelford. 9. This has a battlement above. 19. St. is from Long Melford. of a moated mansion of the Fifteenth Century. Figs. 16. the bell and . 22. 4 from figs. George's. 8. fig. PL. neck circular. are from St. very little known.
the base often resembles the capital inverted in some instances. of at least two distinct members —the plinth. in early work. which the character of a base may be said principally to In shafts. the one might be substituted scarcely for the other with any perceptible change of appearance. The earliest examples of bases must be looked for in the rude monolith blocks which support the pillars or pilasters in the Ante-Norman churches. the is plinth. but octagonal in later and the base-moldings. or tables. taking the form of the column.BASES. generally square . like the after styles. and forming an ornamental junction between the shaft and its essential constructive member. a series of annular rolls. X. the plinth usually divided into heights. and consisting only of the single member thus presented to view. or lower step. . 89 SECTION BASES. near Stamford. The form are not numerous and as they do not involve it complex moldings. of solid masonry. direct the attention of the will be sufficient to student to the upper members. Often a bold . in Norman architecture first adopted a more regular method constructing the footing of a column. and from that arrange- ment those of the subsequent styles are readily deduced. in early work. Bases consist. In Decorated and Perpendicular columns. Of Norman bases varieties of it is not necessary to treat at length. The Classic pillar was evidently the prototype of all these. in consist. These are often mere shapeless lumps. . such and others already mentioned. stages. slopes. as at "Wittering. by gradually spreading courses. laid down as they were raised from the quarry. each separated from the next by a plain or molded chamfer. or hollows.
where only a the present bases were cut from a very small piece. from Fountains Abbey. few inches wide. Fig. Huntingdon. early part . fig.90 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. XIV.. roll. Sepulchre. j- and with one from fig. not in all From Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. 01 e . This occurs in St.1 tJie twelfth century. XIV. however. Sepulchre's. XXI. with an intervening hollow separated fillets. we shall find them rather uppermost identical with than similar to the Classic. from the is Chapter House of the same place." and Nothing developed approaching isolated to tinct gradations St. or first member at the lower exif tremity of the shaft. figs. a concave above a convex below. members and diswas known ." p. 3. 10 is a little later. 76. figs. is divides the shaft from the plinth. 9. fig. A very common form shown in PL. The moldings of the earliest Norman ally bases are frequently " and gener"little better than scratches upon the surface. from them by If we compare this form with some of the early Italian-Gothic bases. Mary's. and this is more like Classic work than English archif tecture generally. omitted in most * Willis's " Canterbury. annular quirked on the under side (as seen iu PL. a modification (often trifling with very departure from the Classic) of the Attic base was introduced. IU the ."* consist of two reverse curves. . Yorkshire. It consists of two rounds. 8. from the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. Canterbury Cathedral j (date about 1180). St. 4. Cambridge. figs. A little before the Transition period. Cambridge. was. PL. derived. HelmsloyCh. 3. The fillet and curve. XIV." % Canterbury Cathedral has a very French character in the work of William of Sens. which alone remained in the eight massive columns of the circular part. 5. 7). from which the Early English is is directly The Attic base given in PL. 1 and 2.
and by far the most common. so that it is capable of containing water. are naturally formed the feather edges seen in Transition fig. shortly after some extensive excavations had revealed a great part of the ground- plan and lower portions of the columns of that once splendid church.BASES. It is found in the Transition work of William of Sens at Canterbury. f There are two kinds of Early English bases. to the was very much vogue. " 91 cases . X. above and below the hollow. The filleted rolls on each side. and as may commonly early as be met with in pointed Norman work. the form given in PL. the bases of the choir columns in Eivaulx Buildwas * The bases of the pointed Nornian columns in the nave Abbey are nearly identical with this. which may often be observed standing in exterior bases. ordinary Early English base 12). or plinthiform member. 76. — of f Willis's " Canterbury.e. in place of the descending three-quarter It must be perfectly remembered that first this water-holding base is contemporary with the dawn of the Transition style. i. altogether. 9. 12 . PL. See Potter. place by another f > 12 •*' . as fig. and the form in in fig. or even by an IIIIIIf IPPwK* u interposed square edge. hollow 11. V ("" similar roll. the chief peculiarity of which consists in the intermediate hollow being cut downwards rather than sideioays." p. 1160 or 1170. 6. fig. is The first. the other seems to be derived either from as omitting in figs. the side-hollow of circle 1 — the lateral semicircle. 15. and extended from half to three-quarters of a circle. from Peterborough Cathedral. 7. XIV. taken from the great central piers of Byland Abbey. by cutting example off 3. . of the Attic base.* This example leads us at once (fig. as fig. Here we most distinctly recognise the peculiar feature fig. the 10. and JSm. A valuable of the base is fig. iBI JBm ttmJlm thus bringing the or from supplying rolls its into contact.
annular double. the hollow again approaches that of the is Attic base. fig. figs. at rolls. 25. is an example. of the most ordinary from the revestry or chapter-room at Kipon Cathedral. 35. 30. is remarkable omission of the hollow in in elevation. Fig. and little Abbey. .92 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Fig. figs. XXI. omitted in the upper roll. or nearly so. 18. * These engravings are slightly incorrect.* The spread of the base generally equals that of the capital. or even triple. from Ely. tbis intermediate roll is rather smaller. In fig. 26. PL. Peterborough Cathedral. for the Fig. Generally. often a depressed inwardly. fig. seldom found except in tbe more advanced or the Early Englisb. from the shaft not standing true in the centre. 20. 33. the former from Tintern. fillet is as PL. XIV. PL. the latter from Furness Abbey. from the beautiful Galilee at Ely. near York. lights florid period of when geometric windows of two or more had begun to supersede the single lancet. in is the base a pier Lincoln Cathedral. from Furness Abbey. In very rich Early English bases there are often double hollows between filleted rolls — after the analogy of the double row of moldings to the bell in capitals. Tbis It is base occurs almost invariably in Westminster Abbey. 4. of XIV. great 18. will convey a correct idea of the general appearance. Sometimes the fig. 27 from Skelton. from Lincoln Cathedral. occur other series of very bold single. And below these. Hence was at once derived the ordinary Decorated base. 34. The examples given 28 and 29. of great richness and considerable spread. some distance. as fig. Fig. a fine piece of detail. where the bases are worked out of hard Purbeck marble. the upper member. is Fig. and have all been elaborately polished. 16. form. 7 is from York Cathedral.
or in the same .. generally a fig. There is something extremely elegant in the form of . from the doorway in the same place . XIV. 35. Here we usually find either the scroll-molding flat . as it will almost invariably be Probably the desire of forming a better weatherinfluence in the change. moss. so that it overhangs base of the beautiful central column in the Chapter fig. the cut away. 16. surprising to notice the uniformity vails and it is. commonest Decorated bases 35 . is bers between which the deep hollow worked out of the block. is that shown in PL. when fig. as the uppermost a is fig. 40. or earth. an elegant base from the library of York Cathedral. This is almost invariable and it is mentioned particularly with reference to Decorated bases. the number 34. more- which everywhere pre- hoth in (figs. 5. from 42. 21) may possibly have gradually difficult superseded the more elaborate. Not few modifications of this form occur but they are seldom very complex. plane. 39 there are four . 37. mark of late or florid Early English. In fig. near Cambridge) or a the nave-piers at Trumpington it under-edge. by which the shaft is fastened. as PL. 15. is also to be remarked that the which forms the lower of the two memis placed. or because the hollow was exter- nally apt to be filled up with standing water. of rolls being generally three. it and the capital of this period. but often only two. XXI. . ing had dirt. as fig. 93 this. . or the part of the base below clear. from St. at Wells . and internally with dust and found to be. where a marked difference in this part is observable. (fig. Fig. it much In Early English bases large spreading roll.BASES. with which it usually stands flush. York. found in work of the thirteenth century. 39. either from the and complex work of the latter. One of the fig. from Fishtoft. The plainer form 10. as fig. Mary's This is Abbey. from Coton. Lincolnshire. 43 is from the nave-pillars at Bottisham. the more usual kind of Early English base over. 45. but of lead. 17. House fig. by a quirk or angular nook. 11.
it is from the chancel at Over. 1 6. Here the lower It is . Fig. but often the first. 3. one member. 8. member is the roll-and-fillet. 40. partially developed 41. Ripon . and sometimes these faces are In the Decorated columns support- ing the vault of the Lady Cbapel at Wells. Transition to fig. 33. so as to form an ogee curvature. from Over and Histon its an of example which retains a singular trace in the side hollow of the Attic base. in what might be called the inverted wave-molding. upper member fig. a Decorated base from the nave of a Perpendicular base from York Cathedral. Perpendiculav. or polygonal. is from the nave-piers at Tintern — already noticed as a specimen of the inverted scroll- molding. worked in Purbeck marble. 36 (from the Lady Chapel. is PL. as those under the western tower at Ely. Hence the bell-shaped base of and 2) was immediately derived.94 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 38 is from the arcade in the Lady Chapel at Ely. the plinth being very large and high. Compare PL. as before described. as in the columns which . This form is not unusual late in the style. with fig. with the plinth formed by graduated stages or tables. Decorated bases are often stilted. the uppermost eight feet from the ground. XIV. is not uncommon. as it were. and the to the moldings approximating Decorated profile. This is seen in PL. . the base-moldings are raised a considerable height from the floor. the principle of stilting the bases may be seen. near Cambridge fig. in This principle was carried to an extravagant excess . is sometimes. of un- usual profile . XIV. XV. Instead of the three half-rounds which ordinarily constitute the Decorated base. the next style in some instances. which in fig. generally the second. or raised above the floor. XXI. PL. fig. In the choir at * the Temple Church (1240). figs. the next style (PL. is member stands six or even The lower part of Decorated bases sometimes octagonal. XV. Ely). scooped out in the middle. and 42. support the octagon at Ely fluted or hollow-chamfered. figs. 44 is from Boston.
BASES. 95 The sharp under-edge is of the second member in the former example a peculiar feature. of figs. . being a natural It does not appear to occur in early. according to the rules already laid down. But few examples of Decorated bases have been any important varieties sufficiently frequent occurrence to render given. or geometric Decorated. They are very chaste and elegant often standing but a little above the floor-line. The prevailing- a large bell-shaped spread in the upper part. as Lancaster. often rest- ing on a cushion-like member. and forming with it the contour of a double ogee in section. 1 and from Crosby Hall. $he capital always is. 2. They are for the most part of decided character and where any difficulty occurs in determining their date. in the bases. It will be particularly is observed that the lower part almost invariably octagonal. XV. and give a representation the correct most ordinary kind. are PL. an inspection of the capital. but rather in degrees of richness and the number of gradations than in difference of form in the principal characteristic is members. because from the forms described are not of it necessary to illusin profile . though sometimes. From the great size and height of the best examples. however. the upper being generally round. decisive of Decorated work. The bases of Perpendicular columns are various . they are not so . especially in shafts. that some pure Decorated bases may occasionally be found which would have been equally correct in a Perpendicular column. Cathedral. trate them. and thus of modest and unpretending contour. will readily remove it. octagonal. are the two forms. So similar. . This ogee curve seems to be derived from the several rolls which we have seen variation to avoid were used repetition.
" § 39 The word leggement simply implies lying but as all tables are horizontal the epithet cannot be in this case applied in its general sense. to guide the student under ordinary circumis Fig. and the wall thereto wythyn and without as it ought 8 to be well and duly made. Edward's. venture to supply as follows : XXXIII. . then he shall haf vj 11 xijj iiij d . At the end of the Fotheringhay contract it is covenanted that the mason. to the legement-table. the basement moldings are described under this epithet. as I shall show. is often the The following note : taken from Willis's "Architectural Nomenor horizontality . . 17. Stamford fig. . Cambridge fig. however. Kent. XV. to begin. 17 from Haslingfield fig. 13 from All contains enough specimens stances. Saints'." etc. . and d. 18 from Holy Trinity. — full . This passage shows that the legement-table was immediately above the ground-table. 20 from St. "The ground of the same body and isles to be maad within the erthe under *he ground-table-stones with rough stone and fro the ground-table-stone (to the legements and alio the remanent of the said body and isles unto the bight of the said Quire. 16. * resembling the neck This is the uppermost member. the whole mass of which lies on the ground below the wall and this is confirmed by the two examples of Fotheringhay and Eton. and we may therefore assign b. 6. . All Perpendicular bases have an annular of capitals. stages. . PL. figs. clature. from Louth . to the- — ground-table. " when he hath hewyn and set his ground-table stones and his Ugements. fig. The ancient name' for the lower member was the ground-table* (especially when for applied to mural basement moldings). as figs. . 21 from s Heme. sloping off Almost every Perpendicular base has either one or more by a hollow ledgement or -chamfer. as 5. Colchester fig. in which. roll. or by a second bell-shaped slope." The directions for these members in the body of the contract are unfortunately interrupted by an illegible portion. . in adjoining example. shall be paid by instalments as the work rises. which I shall . but may fairly be taken in the more limited one of a basement. Horwode. 14. 15.— — MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.. 5 . 96 . ' easily engraved iu a small space. with clene hewen Asshler altogedir in the outer side unto the full hight of the said Quire and all the inner side of rough stone except the bcncli-table-sloncs. thus. W.
or the debased scroll-molding. almost every point being carefully rounded off. fig. 4 from the Lady Chapel. 14 from St. 97 21.. There is a peculiar naknedess in the straight unbroken line of the lower or ground-table. fig. "VIII. 10 from Mattishall . . fig. but the bell of remarkably graceful form. 6 from fig. rising. . . debased roll-aud-fillet shown in PL. . 1 5. as in is PL. This feature almost invariable. It is singular that edge lines occur less in Perpendicular than in any other bases. 16 from Albans . is and perhaps few to that of will prefer the contour of PL. XV. 18. as it does. 11 from Swanton Morley fig. XV. as in PL. 12. 29 or 32. fig. 9 from Norwich Cathedral fig. figs. as in the interior of King's College Chapel. PL. fig. 15. abruptly from the floor to the height of two feet and more. Peterborough fig. John's. 22 from Saffron Walden. figs. Carbrook 7 from Saham . Fig. XV. is . Stamford fig. . from Colchester St. BASES. 1 and 2. XIV. fig. and is not found in the same isolated form in any other style. — all in Norfolk figs. fig. 8 from Dereham .
as they. tower-stages. SECTION XI. series of PL. breaking playfully from the horizontal. though the form may be arbitrary. they rise in graduated and rectangular heights. It has been before observed that string-courses may be regarded as the successors of the horizontal lines by which . defined in details Of the immense diversity of forms only for capricious some of the most ordinary can be enumerated . Yet. seem reducible to no certain rule. or the one continued . and in cornices.wn the principles of a system. irregularities constantly occur.from the other). divided into three parts. HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. Classical is principally distinguished from Gothic architecture and the importance of them that all will be felt when it is remembered masonry is made up of successive layers. . hardly claim a place in laying do. used as dividing lines to set off one particular portion as distinct from another. both within and without . they are of the greatest possible importance in imparting a character to a building. carried below windows. the character is generally maintained. Sometimes. being in fact very. and are almost essential to the feeling of repose. Though subordinate. round buttresses and other angular projections . illustrating the three styles. parapets. and seemingly insignificant. the varieties and peculiar characteristics of the styles being as well hitherto described.98 MANUAL.OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. contains a moldings of this sort (for hood- moldings and string-courses must be classed together. so that they • form a most genuine piece of decorative construction. This is by no means an unimportant branch of the study of such as in any Gothic moldings. They consist of pro- jecting ledges of stone. XVI. often identical. and other parts of edifices. details. which.
* at St. The. 8. is frequently found. XIX. and 9. The commonest Early English. Not less. cannot he . now dying now. viz. XVL. Giles's. as it were. Sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch into the wall . said to have any real use but they form a decorative finish of too important a kind to be neglected with impunity. the the hatched or serrated molding. by it. and of course adapts to this end. and the like. shadows caused by undercutting the lower surface. or square is bead with chamfered angles. one of the commonest forms. They follow the of same changes as the * Rebuilt in the South Aisle new Church. and. with varieties scarcely perceptible and merely accidental. 25. instead of being weathei*ed off. 15. passing into some interrupting projection. 18.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. Figs. and binds into a whole the geemjngly detached portions of a rambling and irregular construction. weathering. The semi-hexagon. and playing the most fantastic tricks before again descending relieves a string-course at once naked masonry. 22. reappearing on the other now starting aloof into a window-label. erected before the year 1100. . 6. 8. especially in windows.than eleven of this form. cases they are adorned with style. as the billet. XVI. 10 and 12 may also very often be found. are given in PL. The upper edge is often left square. h 2 . plain half-hexagon. figs. strings are those given in 13. In most cases. Two or three only are given in figs. latter is from the chancel- arch. PL. when used internally. of Potter's work on Buildwas Abbey. some sculptured decoration of the chevron. its it forms a real drip or upper surface especially Hood-moldings. Cambridge. 7.. The as specimens of the kind. PL. 99 . nothing baffled side . Norman profile string-courses are generally of heavy and massive In most — full of edges or hard chamfered surfaces. grooved or worked on the middle of the outer face similar to that in fig. and the wide but shallow form presents an though not relieved by the dark appearance suiting well with the massive character of the work and the low relief decoration.
Early English. on abaci of capitals of which several successive forms are given page 77. 49. in which even the characteristic Perpenfig.* PL. Fig. 11 from Furness Abbey 19 from Eivaulx latter is curious . 71). 100 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 44. Fig. its late fig. 41 is gene- rally found in Transition to Perpendicular. The scroll-moldiDg with it. or of the first The rounded form weathering. is from All Saints'. 36. In this respect a i so string-courses follow the prin- ciple of the abacus of capitals. a half-round next below the same as is in the abacus of capitals of this period. Fig. 26 the Both are equally common in Decorated I. fig. House at Wells. Fig. 24 fig. 53. com- in late Decorated buildings. Decorated. 43 is from the vestibule of the Chapter early in the style. work. as fig. is characteristic two the angular or chamfered of the last this peculiarity is also very —although mon Tradition strings.. Stamford. . from Furness. Fig. of the upper edge is began in this the most all is but the undercutting striking characteristic of this. 23 is from Lincoln Minster. as of other moldings of the style. is The most perhaps also very figs. 25 has the scroll-molding. figs. may * Early English strings are often continued from the abaci which perhaps accounts for this fact. 17 from Tintern 21 from Byland. 28 generally marks the time of Edwards frequent and II. . Fig. roll-and-fillet complete. 20. XVI. It is peculiarly elegant. The same remark applies to fig. The from form (see fig. 52 and 55. Figs. though the date is about 1200. are common. near Cambridge 45 from Bottisham. very Fig. The rounding style. dicular ogee of 4 occurs. . Over. 50 is from fig. styles . fig. Fig. of capitals. Decorated form 35 or 48. and of frequent occurrence. of the upper side. characteristic.
62. has already been remarked. 68. 16. Perpendicular strings and hood-moldings are generally marked by the sloping plane figs. same another example. as 67. as in the cornice of the aisles at Cromer Church. without this. from Grantham Church. 44. it is better to draw the parts of the wall above and below perpendicularly on the paper. rather a characteristic fig. 71. as in 66. In copying string-courses. and the combination of the ogee with the figs. The angles of the chamfers can best be attained by bending a piece of lead across them. yet. 61. 64. but also because the as" fig. are so 60. 57. as figs. . and thus the exact angle can readily be transferred to paper. a small bowtell in the lowest part. or even overhangs. 32. XX. and indeed ought. 77. 101 it Undercuttings. may be bent against the wall and the under part. Much more might. as in figs. . and This i others. is p t Perpendicular Strings. under side of half a square proalso a jecting diagonally. under fillet. 51. Norfolk. 56. 71. Perhaps the most ordinary forms are PL.. as in 58. occur principally in the time of Edwards I.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. 18 is a string-course from the place. XVI. PL. is left quite indefinite. not only for a guide to show the direction of inclination or projection. Fig. is more or less clearly developed. The details of it the parts underneath to varied as to render like a almost impossible give anything complete account of them. wall often recedes above the string. of the upper surface. nuare. XVI. therefore be pronounced late in the style. as fig. A semicircle sunk in the fig. 61. already described. figs. Fig. they will generally merous as they be found to recur with Usually there is tolerable uniformity. is common variety. Embattled string-courses occur now and then in this style.. mark i of the style. The 60. as PL. double ogee. to be said on the subject . and II. often occur. Sometimes a foot-rule fig. 78 exhibits the peculiar Perpendicular form already pointed out. which. 59. 68.
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
of moldings, were
the intention of the writer to attempt any-
thing like a complete essay.
For example, there yet remain
Basements, weatherings of
wholly unnoticed several important cases of the application of
moldings in Gothic architecture.
cappings of parapets
and battlements, plans of and other wood-work,
groin-ribs, timbers of roofs,
interesting varieties of ornamental
well deserving of the closest attention.
But a great book
as a philosopher of old has
has been the wish of the author rather to win
the attention of the reader, by pointing out the way to copy and
observe, than to deter
the uninviting form of a grave
and heavy book.
Quite enough has been said,
to illustrate the really essential principles of the science.
no one need
difficulty or perplexity in
details of the styles,
will take the trouble to apply the rules
in this little work.
In studying the history and development of moldings in the
ancient buildings in this country there is
interest to the antiquary, but that interest is very
when the student
learning not only what
has been done heretofore, but,
himself make in the future.
Whatever building he may have the opportunity
so sure to find himself requiring
some ornament of
kind, that the study of the subject will assist
his design to a successful issue.'
class of building
wishing to make
its solid character, or
its delicacy of
render this by the
broad moldings of the Norman period,
or the deeply cut and sharply defined molding of the Early
English period, or the softer and rounder outlines of the
later work, his
knowledge of what
has been done, and his experience of the
more surely than anything
to set out such
the effect he is aiming
Whether, again, he limits his aims
whether he uses his study
has powers to do
his knowledge of
to design, as far' as
he indulges in mere inventing,
what has been done must be of value
things to be considered in
brings an example of what I mean, though
a very simple
illustrates the ordinary square angle,
and shows that
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
order to prevent the probable chipping and breaking of
a fine edge, the angle was simply rounded
he says, this
was not Art
was only when the angle was
1 M A m
either as a simple bead or a
more enriched molding, that the
and yet the use of
would have a
of the artist stepped in
to obtain a surface that
retaining its form without damage.
throw the water
off the building
running down and staining the wall
and care should be taken
not always thought of in modern
Take, again, the case of the ordinary Arcade found in almost
wall carrying the
so as to extend the area of the floor into the aisles
done simply by leaving square piers and rectangular arches,
the value of
and therefore the
columns were reduced in section and the strength maintained
by making them
solid stone instead of
of the Artist
at the base so that there is the
same support from the founda-
and where the
formed to receive the arch, and
again where the arch
divided into its various parts to
work harmoniously with the
accomplishing these ends
be varied immensely.
the methods used in ancient work are described above, and the
object of the Artist is so to bring all these parts together, that
while gaining the utmost utility the design forms one harmo-
this there are one or two points
should be carefully studied.
place, moldings should
be designed with a careful attention to the position from which
they will be most commonly seen.
surface of the base
that the upper
and the lower
side of the capital should be
those molded seems too obvious to need pointing out
same principle should be carried out where
obvious, and where
not quite so
instance of this in
old work, I
a purlin which was
taken down in Pembroke College, Cambridge.
natural tendency of the draughtsmen in
would be to
set out the
symmetrically, the roll being placed so that the hollow molds
on each side were alike
but the Artist who built Pembroke
noted the fact that the upper side would be
than the lower when viewed
widened the upper side thus.
will continually occur,
from should be continually pre-
scale, is also
a most imporidea, until they
Few have any
startled with the appearance of their finished work,
a molding looks
when executed and placed
a few feet from the
had seemed very
nothing but actual measurement of executed work, new or
old, will ever fix this
on the mind.
remains that of 'whether the work will be coarse from an over
attempt to be bold, or weak from a too intense desire to bo
MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS.
scope and emphasize a feature by a
draw attention by an exceeding
the knowledge of the Artist which study and experience alone
principles of design are beyond the scope of
this little book, but
has been thought well to note a few
useful to the student and those
their career, in the
when they look back
years on their early work, they
find that they have learnt to discover
by study and observation what others have had
the experience of failure in obtaining
the results they were
ZelX&tji. Paternoster Bow.. London..i! sc.Plate 1 J. Gurney & Ja-dkaaa.if. .
Lincolnshire 18. 17. Lincoln Cathedral — Doorway in Precincts. Tintern 19. Clee. 15. 25. 23. Little 7. of Chamfer. 3. Adel. Clee. 12.PLATE I. Abbey —Respond. Early English Pier Arch. Cambridgeshire c. Ely. near Leeds. do.Chamfered. Bobertsbridge Abbey — Groin Bib. —Groin Eib. of Thirteenth-Century of Sub-arch. Rutland. . St. . 11. Benet's. Plain Saxon "Window (Diagram). Example Example Diagram Do. Fig. 19 enlarged. do. 22. Lincolnshire Norman Pier Arch. Great Grimsby. 16. Broach Stop. Friesland. 1. 20. 2. Skirbeck. 24. Casterton Horningsea. 8. 9. Mary's. Chamfered Window. 6 enlarged. do. 21. 5. Lincolnshire. Waterbeach. 1190. Little Casterton — Transition Norman Arch. 6. Fig. Cherry Hinton— Cambridgeshire — Chancel Arch. — 14. Little Casterton. Diagram of Pointed and Side Filleted Bowtell. —Arch Mold. St. 4. Lincoln. 13. — 10.
&uni«y * Jaiiceoii.Plate 11 4 i m# f- j § ul Ulsii 3Hifii_ London. Paternoster Row .
Over. Do. All Saints' 16. . 9. 15. 10. Jamb. Cherry Hinton— Inner Door. Clement's — South Doorway. Madingley. do. Do. — — — Interior. 6. Ludborough. —Pier Arch. Great Grimsby. Chancel Arch. do. do. do. Lincolnshire Doorway. Cambridge. Chancel Door. Doorway. do. 14. South Porch. South Porch. 2. 5. Over. Tintern Abbey— Groin Bib. b Soffit Plane.— PLATE II. Cambridgeshire North Door. 3.do. Cherry Hinton. 18. Do. Middle Basen Early English Pier Arch. Cambridgeshire —Doorway. 1. Trumpington. 7. Window Jamb. do. Cambridgeshire. Pier Arch. Langtoft. 19. 8. 11. Diagram of Planes a Chamfer Plane. 13. St. c Wall Plane. do. Stamford. . 17.
J ^HW J.S3 Plate Fiji m ml im • l _ m mm K 1 * ' A HI 1 k Hi V '.: Gurney & Jackson..Ze A' i.:r jr London. Paternoster Row.If. .
Martin's. 10. St. Attleborough. St. Histon. — — —Arch over Piscina and Capital. 9. Stamford. St. do. Mary's Abbey. 12. Louth Early English Doorway. 18. near York. York Fragment. 1. do. 7. 11. 14. — — — — — — — 8. John's. Stamford. Tintern Abbey Fragment. 20. Choir. 15. 5. Ely Cathedral Pier Arches. do. Peter Gowts. Skelton. 13. 17. 4. Furness Abbey Chapter House. 16.PLATE III. St. Norfolk. Robertsbridge Abbey Groin Rib. Mary's. 6. St. 3. Wittering. 2. Euskington. Lincolnshire. Utterby. . Eobertsbridge Abbey Groin Bib. Plymouth Belfry Arch. Common form of Decorated Pier. All Saints'. 19. Cambridgeshire Northants Chancel Arch. Lincoln.
.BARXT EWGLISH. Paternoster Row. jOP^'lS Lon&tm: Girrney* Jaclnjoiv.
Ludborough.) 13. 22. Yaxley. Do. — — and do. 1200— Groin Bib. 9. 4. Diagram Do. 21. Lincoln Cathedral Arcade. variety of Scroll Molding. Scroll Molding. Hunts Furness Abbey Groin Bib. Do. Diagram of first sketch of Mold. of common form. 19. 7. — Chancel Doorway. Do. Diagram Diagram of possible first formation of Fillet.} 14. — 10. 11. of Boll Fillet. Diagram of Boll Molding. Lincolnshire Lincoln Cathedral. 15. Beymerston. Peterborough Cathedral— Groin Bib. 16. 2. Broad 20. Fillet. . Boll and Triple Fillet. 5. 18. . Norfolk. Fleur-de-lis Molding.PLATE IV. Trumpington Belfry Arch. 17. —Doorway. 1. 3. Glastonbury— c. 8. 12. Do. Barnack Early English Arch. — — 6. Barholme semi-Norman Arch.
Paternoster Row. Lantfon: Oaww * Jackson. .DECORATED.
—Inner Doorway. Variety of 16. Do. Exterior Jamb of Window. 5. Cambridgeshire. — 4. Attleborough. . South Porch. Attleborough Doorway. 17. Northants—Window Jamb. Variety of Decorated Pier.PLATE V. Lincolnshire — Interior of Window Jamb. 10. Great Ellingham Doorway. 8. Interior of Window Jamb. Norfolk — Boston Heckington. West Keal. do. 6. 2. 11. do. Boston Monument. East Window. — — 13. Benington. 7. 9. Hingharn. Inner Jamb. Hingharn —Window. —West Doorway. 12. Decorated Pier. Northborough. Norfolk Chancel Doorway. Ewerby— Monument. —Belfry Arch. Stretham. Lincolnshire 14. 15. 1. Benington. do. 3.
ff.ZcfiTctucso- London. Qurncy .DECORATED J.. Paternoster Row. . tc Jackson.
Do. —-Window Jamb. 6. Double Ogee and Hollow. 12. 1.PLATE VI. —West Door. 14. 5. Ellingham. 8. — — — — — 15. Boston Monument in Church Hingham North Doorway. Norfolk Doorway. Double Ogee and Hollow. Soffit). Norfolk Archway. 10. 9. Little 11. Pier Arch. Hingham. 3. Deopham Inner Doorway. . Norfolk Do. Boston—Pier Arch. Lincolnshire South Porch. Stoke Golding. Little Ellingham. Hardingham. Leicestershire. 4. 13. South Porch. — Doorway. — — — (a. Benington. Boston East Window. Norfolk 2. Sleaford do. 7. Deopham Doorway.
. London.DECORATED.Qurney tc Jackson. Paternoster Row.
17. Lincolnshire — a Shallow Wave — . 5. Eivaulx. 21. west entrance Yaxley. Hunts 8. Mold. Horbling. Llandaff Cathedral — — — 6. Northborough. Swanton Morley. Norfolk. Window. c Deopham Belfry Arch. —Window. Trumpington West Doorway. 7. Suffolk — Chancel Window. Yorkshire Fragment. 15. Keddington (or Ketton). Diagram. 1. West Keal Doorway. 3. Over. 14-. Wave Molds and Hollow. Butland. Fen Stanton. Clipsham. Trumpington do. do. Double Chamfer. — — to precincts. 23. Northants Doorway. 11. 13. West Doorway. Groin Eib. b Sunken Chamfer. Eivaulx Fragment. 2. 12. 18. Langtoft. Do. _ Do. Hingham. Northborough Outer Porch Doorway.PLATE VII. 20. Pier Arch. 22. Lincolnshire — Piscina. Peterborough Outer Archway. 4. 10. —East Window. 16. Cambridgeshire Window in Chancel. Thurlby. — — — — — 19. Lincolnshire. South Doorway. 9. Hunts Window.
London.er Row. Fa. .temoet. Qnrney & Jaokaorv..JILZcSkuo. so.
Staplefprd. 16. 9. Stewton. Window Jamb.PLATE VIII. 18. 15. —West Doorway. Colchester Pier Arch. do. Pier Arch. do. Neots. 17. Inner Doorway. Lincolnshire. Sepulchre's. Leverton. Louth. do. — 20. do. — do. Doorway. Great Shelford. Uffington.' Hunts Niche. 21. 8. 19. Holy Trinity. Lincoln— Oriel Window. Do. Dereham. 1. 7. East Window. St. Cambridge Arch. Partney. 12. St. near St. near Stamford 2. Stamford — Doorway. 4. Cambridgeshire East Window. Doorway. 14. — — — — Long Melford. Cambridgeshire East Window. Chesterton. do. Norfolk —West Doorway in isolated Tower. —West Doorway. Suffolk-Pier Arch. South Porch. 3. do. Martin's. Louth. Saham Toney. 5. Lincoln Cathedral South Choir Chapel. . 6. 10. Great Gransden. Fishtoft. 13.
. jt so.H. . J.7 KfiPENDICULAB. Landaxt: Oanuy * JacTcson. . Paternoster How. £$ JO-t.
Ed HTsuas.: in? a =fT' J. Paternoster Sow.Y ENGLISH CAPITALS. . sc- Qumey & Jackson.EATU. ^ Londbn.ff.
Frieston. Tintern Abbey. 30. 24. Walesby. 40. Decorated Abacus. Arreton. Chapter House. Laceby. 38. Do. 9. do. Great Abington. Lincoln Cathedral. Bolton Abbey. Middle Basen. 7. . do. Saffron Walden. do. 37. 4. do. 13. Do. Kuskington. 1. 19. Early English Abacus. 22. Cambridgeshire. 28. ' < Do. 39. Early English Capital. do. 16. 23. 5. 8. Tintern Abbey. do.PLATE X. 18. Lincolnshire.. Stiekney. 3. 26. Diagram of rudimentary Capital. Furness Abbey.. Essex. 29. Furness Abbey. 17. do. Thurlby. 10. Bolton Abbey. Do. Isle of Wight. Lincolnshire. do. Yorkshire. 12.
. Rov . toiidon: \XBCBxy k Jackaon PateragaJSP.. BE C ORATED CAPI TAL S £ITJ.eZe.'J«.«K.
Aswardby. Partney. do. Lincolnshire do. 9. • Boston. Sibsey. Cambridgeshire. Waltham. do. Abingtbn. 13.PLATE XI. Do. 22. 6. do. 18. do. Louth. do. 2. Stickford. — Chapel used as Vestr* Do. 4. Hunts. do. 3. 10. 1. 28. . Hunts. 11. Fletton. do. Leverton. do. Legburn. Yaxley. 7. 12.
.London. Jackson Pat ernoster Row. . Onrney A.
Stamford. J 26. 19.' St. John's. Nave Monument. Norfolk Nave Piers. Martin's. . Northamptonshire. J-St. 29."\ 27 28. 1st. 14. Trumpington. 15. 23. 11. Pier. — 16. Cambridgeshire Little Shelford.PLATE XII. George's. — Capital of do. 24. Uffington. Careby. 13. Hinghan. Bede House. do. 22. Maxey. -I do. Lincolnshire. do. do.
Paternoster Row . London: Qurxicy 6c Jackeon.PERPENDICULAR CAPITALS..
18. 19. 14. 16. Mattishall. Elsworth Hall. k 2 . do. do. }-Colchester. 9. Suffolk. Louth. 1. Lincolnshire. Dry Drayton. 4.PLATE XIII. 12. do. do. Fen Ditton. Norfolk. J 13. Harston. Saham Toney. 17. Long Melted. Cambridgeshire.
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Wells Cathedral Doorway. Peterborough Cathedral. Cambridgeshire Nave Piers. Trumpington Nave Pier. 42. Bivaulx Abbey — - — 16. Chapter House. 27. '37. 3. Base. do. Cambridgeshire. Ely Cathedral. Skelton. Base of Great do. 6. 41.PLATE XIV. Ely Cathedral— Galilee. do.' Lincolnshire. — — — Boston. a /Attic i}' 4. 17. 44. Tintern Abbey. Central Column. Do. By land Abbey v 7. 20. Furness Abbey./ 5. York. 33. 45. 30. 8. 43. Choir Columns. Tintern Abbey Nave Piers. near York. Do. 40. do. Coton. Over and Histon. Fishtoft. . Do. Mary's Abbey. 36. Furness Abbey. 39. do. 26. 9. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. — 38. 28. Bottisham. — Piers. 29. Cambridgeshire. St.\Italian Gothic Bases. Central Piers. Lincoln Cathedral 18." Canterbury Cathedral. Do. 35. from Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages.
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John's. Walden. 9. Louth. — — 6. 14. Norfolk. Sahara. Alban's Abbey. Stamford. Do. 1. Dereham. Mattishall. St. 21. 22. Colchester. Kent. Cambridgeshire Chancel. Essex. Swanton Morley. Edward's. Crosby Hall. do. Norwich Cathedral. 16. Carbrook. 17. 10. Norfolk. All Saints'. do. Over. Colchester. Saffron . St. 3. Heme. Haslingfield. do. 12. do. St. 2. 20. 13. 11. 7. 8.PLATE XV. Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel. Colchester. Cambridge. 18. 4. Cambridgeshire. do. 5. Holy Trinity. 15.
3. London. jr.: Qurnajr tk Jaeltoon. Paternoster Row. .ZeJJ!ewx:. J.STRINGS -AND LABELS..
from various sources. Hood Molds. &c. Examples of Strings. / 'd ^ .PLATE XVI.
.: Quinsy it Jackson.Plate XV11 LanSaa. Paternoster Row. .
Grantham -Window Jamb.PLATE XVII. Grantham South Aisle Window. do. Inner Doorway. Do. Eutland Doorway. 3. Do. 8. 9. 1. South Porch. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. 5. 2. North Porch. do. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. Grantham. Grantham. Langham. 6. Cambridgeshire — — — — — — — . 4. South Porch. Bottisham. Cambridgeshire South Porch. 10. Over.
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PLATE XVIII. Castle Bising. Beaulieu Abbey South Transept Befectory. . 6. 8. East Window. 5. 4. do. Castle Bising. Peterborough Cathedral —Doorway Nave Doorway : opposite in Cloister South : Aisle of half-inch scale. do. Buined Doorway. 3. 2. Norfolk — — — 10. 7. 1. Bipon Cathedral Choir. Norfolk. half-inch scale. Bivaulx Abbey. Do. Bivaulx Abbey— Window Jamb. Do.
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^Diagrams showing the formation
Saffron Walden, Essex.
— East Window,
Grantham, Lincolnshire. Do. do. Crypt. Fountains Abbey Lady Chapel.
Tvrnbuil sc. Patornoatoi- Row.: Currier & Jackson. .T. London.
Ripon Cathedral. Bolton Abbey Monument. 5. Grantham. Grantham Chancel Window. 12. Bolton Abbey. Window. Landbeach. 7.PLATE XX. . 6. Peterborough Cathedral Archway in Cloister. 4. do Guy. Cambridgeshire Chancel Door. 10! 11. Bipon Cathedral Window Jamb. Do. do. — — — — — — — — — — . 15. South Aisle. Bolton Abbey Doorway. Newton. 2. 3. 9. Eivaulx Abbey. 13. Cambridgeshire Doorway. Grantham Choir Doorway. near Cambridge West Doorway. WOlingham. 16. Lancaster Arch Mold of Nave. 14. 17. 1. Grantham. 18.
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5. Do. do.PLATE XXI. 6. Moroot. do. Nave. do. do. — 9. Chapter House. York Cathedral—Library. Ripon Cathedral. 4. Do. Ripon Cathedral Revestry or Chapter Room. Fountains Abbey. Rutland. Do. 1. 8. 7. . 10. 2. Seaton.
LONDON. LONG ACRE. .PAINTED BY WOOD FALL AND K1NDEB.
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