This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

ANALYSIS

MEEN 5330

Presented

By

Chaitanya Vudutha

Parimal Nilangekar

Ravindranath Gouni

Satish Kumar Boppana

Albert Koether

Pages-28

Overview

Introduction

History of CFD

Basic concepts

CFD Process

Derivation of Navier-Stokes Duhem Equation

Example Problem

Applications

Conclusion

References

Introduction

Since 1940s analytical solution to most fluid dynamics problems was

available for idealized solutions. Methods for solution of ODEs or PDEs were

conceived only on paper due to absence of personal computer.

Daimler Chrysler was the first company to use CFD in Automotive sector.

Speedo was the first swimwear company to use CFD.

There are number of companies and software's in CFD field in the world.

Some software's by American companies are FLUENT, TIDAL, C-MOLD,

GASP, FLOTRAN, SPLASH, Tetrex, ViGPLOT, VGRID, etc.

History of CFD

What is CFD?

Prediction fluid flow with the complications of simultaneous

flow of heat, mass transfer, phase change, chemical reaction,

etc using computers

Components of Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Statics

Fluid Dynamics

Laminar Turbulent

Newtonian Fluid Non-Newtonian Fluid

Ideal Fluids Viscous Fluids

Compressible

Flow

Incompressible

Flow

BASIC CONCEPTS

CFD Solutions for

specific Regimes

Rheology

Molecular Particles of Fluid

Basic fluid motion can be described as some combination of

1) Translation: [ motion of the center of mass ]

2) Dilatation: [ volume change ]

3) Rotation: [About one, two or 3 axes ].

4) Shear Strain

volumes no smaller than say (1*10

6 ÷

m

3

)

Compressible and Incompressible flow

A fluid flow is said to be compressible when

the pressure variation in the flow field is

large enough to cause substantial changes

in the density of fluid.

Viscous and Inviscid Flow

jj i i i

i

q p f

dt

dq

, ,

~

1

µ

µ

µ

+ ÷ =

In a viscous flow the fluid friction has

significant effects on the solution where

the viscous forces are more significant

than inertial forces

0 ) ( ) ( =

c

c

+

c

c

v

y

u

x

µ µ

Steady and Unsteady Flow

Whether a problem is steady or unsteady depends on the frame of

reference

Laminar and Turbulent Flow

Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids

In Newtonian Fluids such as water, ethanol, benzene

and air, the plot of shear stress versus shear rate at a

given temperature is a straight line

Initial or Boundary Conditions

Initial condition involves knowing the state of pressure

(p) and initial velocity (u) at all points in the flow.

Boundary conditions such as walls, inlets and outlets

largely specify what the solution will be.

Discretization Methods

Finite volume

method

Finite Element

method

0 = +

c

c

}} }}}

FdA Qdv

t

e

i i

Qdv W R

}}}

=

• Where Q - vector of conserved variables

• F - vector of fluxes

• V - cell volume

• A –Cell surface area

Ri=Equation residual at an element vertex

Q- Conservation equation expressed on element

basis

Wi= Weight Factor

Finite difference method

Boundary element method

0 =

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

+

c

c

z

H

y

G

x

F

t

Q

The boundary occupied by the fluid is divided into

surface mesh

Q – Vector of conserved variables

F,G,H – Fluxes in the x ,y, z directions

CFD PROCESS

Geometry of problem

is defined .

Volume occupied by

fluid is divided into

discrete cells.

CFD PROCESS cont..

Physical modeling is defined.

Boundary conditions are defined

which involves specifying of fluid

behavior and properties at the

boundaries.

Equations are solved iteratively

as steady state or transient state.

Analysis and visualization of

resulting solution.

post processing

The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial

differentials equations that describe the flow of incompressible

fluids.

Two of the alternative forms of equations of motion, using

the Eulerian description, were given as Equation (1) and

Equation (2) respectively:

( )

j ji i

j

j i

i

f q q

t

q

,

,

) (

o µ µ

µ

+ = +

c

c

.

1

, , j ji i j i j

i i

f q q

t

q

dt

dq

o

µ

+ = +

c

c

=

(1)

(2)

DERIVATION OF NAVIER-STOKES-DUHEM

EQUATION

If we assume that the fluid is isotropic ,

homogeneous , and Newtonian, then :

.

~

2 )

~

(

ij ij kk ij

p e + e ÷ ÷ = µ o ì o (3)

DERIVATION (Cont’d)

Substituting Equ(3) into Equ(2), and utilizing the Eulerian

relationship for linear stress tensor we get :

, , , ,

~

~

~

1

jj i ji j i i

i

q q p f

dt

dq

µ

µ

µ

ì µ

µ

+

+

+ ÷ =

(4)

( for compressible fluids )

For incompressible fluid flow the Navier-Stokes-

Duhem equation is:

jj i i i

i

q p f

dt

dq

, ,

~

1

µ

µ

µ

+ ÷ =

DERIVATION (Cont’d)

If the fluid medium is a monatomic ideal gas, then :

µ ì

~

3

2 ~

÷ =

Navier stokes equation for compressible flow of

monatomic ideal gas is :

, , , ,

~ ~

3

1 1

jj i ji j i i

i

q q p f

dt

dq

µ

µ

µ

µ

µ

+ + ÷ =

DERIVATION (Cont’d)

EXAMPLE PROBLEM

Neglecting the gravity field, describe the steady two-

dimensional flow of an isotropic , homogeneous,

Newtonian fluid due to a constant pressure gradient

between two infinite, flat, parallel, plates. State the

necessary assumptions. Assume that the fluid has a

uniform density.

The Navier – stokes equations for incompressible flow is:

jj i i i j i j

i

q p f q q

dt

dq

, , ,

~

1

µ

µ

µ

+ ÷ = +

Since the flow is steady and the body forces are

neglected, the Navier-stokes equation becomes:

jj i i j i j

q p q q

, , ,

~

1

µ

µ

µ

+ ÷ =

SOLUTION (Cont’d)

The no slip boundary conditions for viscous flow are:

0 =

i

q

at a y ± =

2

Using the boundary conditions ( q

2=

0 at y

2

=+/- a )

Thus, the first Navier-stokes equations becomes

1

2

2

1

2

dy

dp

dy

q d

= µ

SOLUTION (Cont’d)

Integrating twice, we obtain

( )

2 2

2

1

1

2

1

a y

dy

dp

q ÷ =

µ

The results, assumptions and boundary conditions of this

problem in terms of, mathematical symbols are as follows:

= µ Constant

0 =

i

f

( )

0 =

c

c

t

( )

0

3

=

c

c

y

( )

2 2

2

1

1

2

1

a y

dy

dp

q ÷ =

µ

SOLUTION (Cont’d)

HOMEWORK PROBLEM

Using the Navier-Stokes equations investigate the flow (q

i

) between

two stationary, infinite, parallel plates a distance h apart. Assuming

that you have laminar flow of a constant-density, Newtonian fluid

and the pressure gradient is constant (partial derivative of P with

respect to 1).

Types of Errors and Problems

Types of Errors:

Modeling Error.

Discretization Error.

Convergence Error.

Reasons due to which Errors occur:

Stability.

Consistency.

Conservedness and Boundedness.

Applications of CFD

1. Industrial Applications:

CFD is used in wide variety of disciplines and industries,

including aerospace, automotive, power generation, chemical

manufacturing, polymer processing, petroleum exploration,

pulp and paper operation, medical research, meteorology, and

astrophysics.

Example: Analysis of Airplane

CFD allows one to simulate the reactor

without making any assumptions about the

macroscopic flow pattern and thus to

design the vessel properly the first time.

Application (Contd..)

2. Two Dimensional Transfer Chute Analyses Using a

Continuum Method:

Fluent is used in chute designing tasks like predicting flow shape,

stream velocity, wear index and location of flow recirculation

zones.

3. Bio-Medical Engineering:

The following figure shows pressure

contours and a cutaway view that

reveals velocity vectors in a blood

pump that assumes the role of heart

in open-heart surgery.

Pressure Contours in Blood Pump

Application (Contd..)

4. Blast Interaction with a Generic Ship Hull

Results in a cut plane for the interaction of an

explosion with a generic ship hull: (a) Surface

at 20msec (b) Pressure at 20msec (c)

Surface at 50msec and (d) Pressure at

50msec

The figure shows the

interaction of an explosion

with a generic ship hull.

The structure was modeled

with quadrilateral shell

elements and the fluid as a

mixture of high explosives

and air. The structural

elements were assumed to

fail once the average strain

in an element exceeded 60

percent

Application (Contd..)

5. Automotive Applications:

Streamlines in a vehicle without (left) and with rear center and B-pillar ventilation (right)

In above figure, influence of the rear center and B-pillar ventilation on the

rear passenger comfort is assessed. The streamlines marking the rear

center and B-pillar ventilation jets are colored in red. With the rear center

and B-pillar ventilation, the rear passengers are passed by more cool air. In

the system without rear center and B-pillar ventilation, the upper part of the

body, in particular chest and belly is too warm.

Conclusion

Nearer the conditions of the experiment to those which concern

the user, more closely the predictions agree with those data, the

greater is the reliance which can be prudently placed on the

predictions.

CFD iterative Methods like Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel Method are

used because the cost of direct methods is too high and

discretization error is larger than the accuracy of the computer

arithmetic.

Many software’s offer the possibility of solving fully nonlinear

coupled equations in a production environment.

In the future we can have a multidisciplinary, database linked

framework accessed from anywhere on demand simulations with

unprecedented detail and realism carried out in fast succession so

that designers and engineers anywhere in the world can discuss

and analyze new ideas and first principles driven virtual reality

References

1. Hoffmann, Klaus A, and Chiang, Steve.T “Computational fluid dynamics

for engineer’s” vol. I and vol. II

2. Rajesh Bhaskaran, Lance Collins “Introduction to CFD Basics”

3. http://www.cham.co.uk/website/new/cfdintro.htm accessed on 11/10/06.

4. Adapted from notes by: Tao Xing and Fred Stern, The University of Iowa.

5. http://www.cfd-online.com/Wiki/Historical_perspective accessed on

11/12/06.

6. Frederick and Chang,T.S.,”Continuum Mechanics”

7. http://navier-stokes-equations.search.ipupdate.com/

8. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computational_fluid_dynamics#Discretizatio

n_method s, ”Discretization Methods”

9. McIlvenna P and Mossad R “Two Dimensional Transfer Chute Analysis

Using a Continuum Method”, Third International Conference on CFD in

the Minerals and Process Industries, Dec 2003.

10. Subramanian R.S. “Non-Newtonian Flows”.

11. Lohner R., Cebral J., Yand C., “Large Scale Fluid Structure Interaction

Simulations, IEEE June 2004”.

12. http://www.cd-

adapco.com/press_room/dynamics/23/behr.html,“Predicting Passenger

Comfort

13. http://www.adl.gatech.edu/classes/lowspdaero/lospd2/lospd2.html,

“Types of Fluid Motion”

Thank You

Questions are Welcome

Overview

Introduction History of CFD Basic concepts CFD Process Derivation of Navier-Stokes Duhem Equation Example Problem Applications Conclusion References

Some software's by American companies are FLUENT. etc using computers What is CFD? History of CFD Since 1940s analytical solution to most fluid dynamics problems was available for idealized solutions. Methods for solution of ODEs or PDEs were conceived only on paper due to absence of personal computer. SPLASH. FLOTRAN.Introduction Prediction fluid flow with the complications of simultaneous flow of heat. chemical reaction. mass transfer. TIDAL. GASP. Tetrex. . C-MOLD. etc. phase change. ViGPLOT. VGRID. Speedo was the first swimwear company to use CFD. Daimler Chrysler was the first company to use CFD in Automotive sector. There are number of companies and software's in CFD field in the world.

BASIC CONCEPTS Fluid Mechanics Fluid Statics Laminar Newtonian Fluid Ideal Fluids Compressible Flow Viscous Fluids Incompressible Flow CFD Fluid Dynamics Turbulent Non-Newtonian Fluid Rheology Solutions for specific Regimes Components of Fluid Mechanics .

volumes no smaller than say (1*10 6 m3) Molecular Particles of Fluid Basic fluid motion can be described as some combination of 1) Translation: [ motion of the center of mass ] 2) Dilatation: [ volume change ] 3) Rotation: [About one. two or 3 axes ]. 4) Shear Strain .

i qi .Compressible and Incompressible flow A fluid flow is said to be compressible when the pressure variation in the flow field is large enough to cause substantial changes in the density of fluid. ~ dqi 1 f i p. jj dt Viscous and Inviscid Flow In a viscous flow the fluid friction has significant effects on the solution where the viscous forces are more significant than inertial forces ( u ) ( v) 0 x y .

Steady and Unsteady Flow Whether a problem is steady or unsteady depends on the frame of reference Laminar and Turbulent Flow Newtonian Fluids and Non-Newtonian Fluids In Newtonian Fluids such as water. benzene and air. the plot of shear stress versus shear rate at a given temperature is a straight line . ethanol.

Boundary conditions such as walls. inlets and outlets largely specify what the solution will be.Initial or Boundary Conditions Initial condition involves knowing the state of pressure (p) and initial velocity (u) at all points in the flow. .

Conservation equation expressed on element basis Wi= Weight Factor .Discretization Methods Finite volume method Qdv FdA 0 t • Where Q .vector of conserved variables • F .vector of fluxes • V .cell volume • A –Cell surface area Finite Element method Ri Wi Qdve Ri=Equation residual at an element vertex Q.

Finite difference method Q F G H 0 t x y z Q – Vector of conserved variables F.y.G. z directions Boundary element method The boundary occupied by the fluid is divided into surface mesh .H – Fluxes in the x .

Volume occupied by fluid is divided into discrete cells.CFD PROCESS Geometry of problem is defined . .

Boundary conditions are defined which involves specifying of fluid behavior and properties at the boundaries. Physical modeling is defined. Equations are solved iteratively as steady state or transient state. post processing . Analysis and visualization of resulting solution.CFD PROCESS cont..

j f i ji . using the Eulerian description. Two of the alternative forms of equations of motion.DERIVATION OF NAVIER-STOKES-DUHEM EQUATION The Navier-Stokes equations are the fundamental partial differentials equations that describe the flow of incompressible fluids. dt t . j t (1) (2) dqi qi 1 q j qi . j f i ji . were given as Equation (1) and Equation (2) respectively: ( qi ) qi q j . j .

and utilizing the Eulerian relationship for linear stress tensor we get : dqi 1 f i p .DERIVATION If we assume that the fluid is isotropic . jj . ~ (3) Substituting Equ(3) into Equ(2).i dt ~ ~ q j . ji ~ qi . (4) ( for compressible fluids ) . and Newtonian. homogeneous . then : (Cont’d) ~ ij ( p kk ) ij 2 ij .

i q i .DERIVATION For incompressible fluid flow the Navier-Stokes- (Cont’d) Duhem equation is: ~ dqi 1 f i p. then : 2 ~ 3 ~ . jj dt If the fluid medium is a monatomic ideal gas.

jj .DERIVATION Navier stokes equation for compressible flow of (Cont’d) monatomic ideal gas is : ~ ~ dqi 1 1 f i p . dt 3 .i q j . ji qi .

Newtonian fluid due to a constant pressure gradient between two infinite. parallel.EXAMPLE PROBLEM Neglecting the gravity field. plates. Assume that the fluid has a uniform density. . flat. State the necessary assumptions. homogeneous. describe the steady twodimensional flow of an isotropic .

the Navier-stokes equation becomes: q j qi . j f i p. jj dt Since the flow is steady and the body forces are neglected. jj 1 . j ~ p.SOLUTION (Cont’d) The Navier – stokes equations for incompressible flow is: ~ dqi 1 q j qi .i qi .i qi .

SOLUTION (Cont’d) The no slip boundary conditions for viscous flow are: qi 0 at y 2 a Using the boundary conditions ( q2= 0 at y2=+/. the first Navier-stokes equations becomes d 2 q1 dp 2 dy1 dy2 .a ) Thus.

SOLUTION Integrating twice. mathematical symbols are as follows: Constant fi 0 t 0 1 dp 2 q1 y2 a 2 2 dy1 . we obtain (Cont’d) 1 dp 2 q1 y2 a 2 2 dy1 0 y 3 The results. assumptions and boundary conditions of this problem in terms of.

Newtonian fluid and the pressure gradient is constant (partial derivative of P with respect to 1). Assuming that you have laminar flow of a constant-density. . parallel plates a distance h apart.HOMEWORK PROBLEM Using the Navier-Stokes equations investigate the flow (qi) between two stationary. infinite.

Reasons due to which Errors occur: Stability. Consistency. Discretization Error. . Convergence Error. Conservedness and Boundedness.Types of Errors and Problems Types of Errors: Modeling Error.

automotive. chemical manufacturing. and astrophysics. Industrial Applications: CFD is used in wide variety of disciplines and industries. medical research. including aerospace. . pulp and paper operation. Example: Analysis of Airplane CFD allows one to simulate the reactor without making any assumptions about the macroscopic flow pattern and thus to design the vessel properly the first time.Applications of CFD 1. polymer processing. power generation. petroleum exploration. meteorology.

stream velocity.) 2.Application (Contd. Bio-Medical Engineering: The following figure shows pressure contours and a cutaway view that reveals velocity vectors in a blood pump that assumes the role of heart in open-heart surgery. wear index and location of flow recirculation zones.. 3. Two Dimensional Transfer Chute Analyses Using a Continuum Method: Fluent is used in chute designing tasks like predicting flow shape. Pressure Contours in Blood Pump .

Application (Contd. The structure was modeled with quadrilateral shell elements and the fluid as a mixture of high explosives and air. Blast Interaction with a Generic Ship Hull The figure shows the interaction of an explosion with a generic ship hull.) 4. The structural elements were assumed to fail once the average strain in an element exceeded 60 percent Results in a cut plane for the interaction of an explosion with a generic ship hull: (a) Surface at 20msec (b) Pressure at 20msec (c) Surface at 50msec and (d) Pressure at 50msec ..

With the rear center and B-pillar ventilation. influence of the rear center and B-pillar ventilation on the rear passenger comfort is assessed. . the rear passengers are passed by more cool air. in particular chest and belly is too warm. the upper part of the body. Automotive Applications: Streamlines in a vehicle without (left) and with rear center and B-pillar ventilation (right) In above figure. In the system without rear center and B-pillar ventilation.Application (Contd.. The streamlines marking the rear center and B-pillar ventilation jets are colored in red.) 5.

the greater is the reliance which can be prudently placed on the predictions. Many software’s offer the possibility of solving fully nonlinear coupled equations in a production environment. In the future we can have a multidisciplinary. CFD iterative Methods like Jacobi and Gauss-Seidel Method are used because the cost of direct methods is too high and discretization error is larger than the accuracy of the computer arithmetic. more closely the predictions agree with those data.Conclusion Nearer the conditions of the experiment to those which concern the user. database linked framework accessed from anywhere on demand simulations with unprecedented detail and realism carried out in fast succession so that designers and engineers anywhere in the world can discuss and analyze new ideas and first principles driven virtual reality .

2. 13. http://www. ”Discretization Methods” McIlvenna P and Mossad R “Two Dimensional Transfer Chute Analysis Using a Continuum Method”. Adapted from notes by: Tao Xing and Fred Stern.gatech. 10.. 4. Frederick and Chang.S.com/press_room/dynamics/23/behr.cdadapco. Lohner R.com/Wiki/Historical_perspective accessed on 11/12/06. Third International Conference on CFD in the Minerals and Process Industries. 7.htm accessed on 11/10/06. http://www. “Non-Newtonian Flows”. 12. Steve.”Continuum Mechanics” http://navier-stokes-equations.ipupdate. “Types of Fluid Motion” .edu/classes/lowspdaero/lospd2/lospd2.wikipedia.S.References 1.adl.T “Computational fluid dynamics for engineer’s” vol.cham. 11. Lance Collins “Introduction to CFD Basics” http://www. Klaus A. I and vol.uk/website/new/cfdintro.“Predicting Passenger Comfort http://www.org/wiki/Computational_fluid_dynamics#Discretizatio n_method s.co. 3. Hoffmann. The University of Iowa. and Chiang. 5. 9.html. 8. Yand C.search. 6. II Rajesh Bhaskaran..T..com/ http://en. IEEE June 2004”. “Large Scale Fluid Structure Interaction Simulations. Dec 2003..cfd-online. Subramanian R. Cebral J.html.

Thank You Questions are Welcome .

7.9 . &8390-4:3/.8.$ &% 439 / %03485-4:3/.4:814.70 6 .43/9438147.9 I.7.43/9438 6 .

9438-0..4208 / 6 /5 3 / / . %:8 901789.07 8940806:. .

43/94384198 574-0239072841 2.7.3 /5 6 .3/-4:3/.$ &% 439 / 3907.39 1 N N9 N N /5 6 .902.81448 8 4389.0 04-9.9.88:259438.82-48..939. 3 / %0708:98 .70. 3 / .

!.9." "%#%" :5.

:5.!.9.

1:.9366.7....50.:.9..33373.65:5:.62:8.6:..7.6.5..45...955.&.. ::45 .9..065:.5 ..3.65.36 8 /.

5...065:..3.9366.6. .45.

.531 .:065:.51..15:.65.6#.319.79::99. 9:70.5. 7..!.9..6 .15.

:7 $9.-9 4388903.9437747 43.3/4:3/0/3088 ..774784.8438/:094.51#96/34: %5084177478 4/037747 8.0703.709. 43807.07747 #0.0/3088.'7:69969:.

943 20/.3 .65: 8 :80/ 3 /0 .748.5308 .9:73 54207 574.0880 574507 90 1789 920 .-4:9 90 2..07485.7.3/ .507 4507.3/ 3/:89708 3.30 .8 .90 90 70.37730.0 5407 0307.. 14 5.0883 509740:2 0547.3/ 5.:94249.3:1.943 .7730.3/ 9:8 94 /083 90 ..884175.45....8 .. 20904744 ... 2.02.3 .947 94:9 2.88:259438 . 7080.0 .:/3 .99073 .709 41 /8.2503.9.48 430 94 82:.897458.943 5:5 .897458.65:6 51:.

%7.1 %4203843.04.8 .88:208 90 740 41 0. .65 65.943 41 14 70.3/ 4. 4393::2094/ :039 8 :80/ 3 .0 9.2 .4394:78 .38107:903.7730..:. . 330073 %0 1443 1:70 848 57088:70 . -44/ 5:25 9.808&83.04.:90 /0833 9.88 0 570/.7 3/0 ...50 8970.3/ .9 .93 14 8.:9..0.943 4308 4 0/.0.7.9478 3 .79 8:707 !7088:704394:78344/!:25 .9 70.9 .9 0.79 3 4503 0.

3/ / !7088:70.893907. .9 280.65 65.07.0 ....0 90 . 0020398 070 .9 280.3/ 90 1:/ . .85: . $:71.3/ .08 .9 280.!7088:70.1 .94341.8 24/00/ 9 6:. 29:70 41 0548..$5: %0 1:70 848 90 3907.0307.9439.88:20/ 94 1./7.3 054843 9 .3 002039 0.9:70 ... 85 : %0 897:.9 280. 80 0020398 . $:71.00/0/ 507.7730.039 #08:983..3 0548439.8 ..0307.3 3 . 0307.907.0 897.30147903907..7 %0 897:. .9:7.:95. 43.943 41 .0.

7 .79 41 90 -4/ 3 5.73 90 70.943 90 70.3/ -0 8 944 .943 90 :5507 5.03907.421479 8 .7 ..039.7 5.3/ 5.1 :94249.03907 .23083.7 .44 .7 .0 41 90 70.7 5.7 .3/ 5..7 .880/ - 2470 .7.7 .055.880307 .039.2308 2.0 1:70 31:03.7 .943 098 .7.039.039.7 .3/ 5.:.3/970.094:9 019 .-4.65 65.70 5.03907 .7 3 90 88902 94:9 70.8803078 .0.70 .03907 .03907 ..089 .4470/ 3 70/ 9 90 70.039.79.3/ 5.9438 $970.943 43 90 70.943 79 3 .3/ 5.880880/ %0 8970.7730.72 .

70 8 41107 90 5488-9 41 84.0 ..508 /7..9438 9 :3570.3/ 70.03 .6503:65 0..0 .53. .:7.3 1: 34330. 90 70.89 8:.70 .-..9438 907.79:..0880/ 1742 .3070 43 /02. 70.9438 3 . .3 90 ..80 30/ 17. .0 30 /0.3/ .3/ 82:.9.43.9 /083078 .3. 41 90 .7 /.9.3 -0 57:/039 5.43/9438 41 90 05072039 94 9480 . .79209.7 .3.3 .480 90 570/.3/ 0330078 .707 90 .:88 :80/ -0.425:907 .3/ 1789 573.9 2094/8 8 944 .770/ 4:9 3 1..9438 .79209. 574/:.073 90 :807 2470 .0/ 43 90 570/.0/0390/ /09.3/ /8.:88 .9.82 . 2:9/8...707 9.3070 3 90 47/ ..9 .2047 .907 8 90 70.7432039 3 90 1:9:70 0 .709.3/ .08843 84 9.700 9 9480 /..489 41 /70.:88 $0/0 094/ .3 /8.3 8419..943 03..4:50/ 06:. .7432039 03.0 094/8 0 .4- .9438 570/.8 .:80 90 .943 07747 8 ..

:.95'59:.6.7 01.4 06 2/:.65.553..506335: 5.:0: .196456.4..:/'.33115.9610..65.66.5191&.:2. ' 647.96 .65.00::165 1..5015.51.7.:. .%950: 64.5.5163 %.7 0.5&.40: 69559 : 63 .9.

. .7 01.

.690.75.54 0.79:70.51.6535 0642:.5' & 65.50: ..00::165 91902.9.3.

:.62:.

75. ..9.

62:.:.

#..61: 0355.61 '915..65 ..51 6::.3'9.4.65.3.65...5% & !65.90 771.75 271.365950655 . 064 .3:. 692647.4.61: :09.1% '645:65.6 5..51#960::51:.54 .3:: :5.5.31. 59...9:0 &/9.65: :.40::09.95.8..5:9.65.15..5.

!.65.536: !65.

65 &43.7 01..51 .9.331&.0.. 659% /9.65:5 .3 .95.90.9&0.

. .7 01.

5#.. .:::36:71.65 .7 .43 '7:631 6.. .0 103.::59 6469.966415.1.13 .9636:7136:71 .40:/9 .706 06479::.43 #910.

700.420 .34: ":089438.%.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd