DSCI 320 Test 1 – Practice Tests Chs 1-8 (minus Ch 3) CHAPTER 1

Alphanumeric data is represented by numbers, letters, and other characters. TRUE The process of defining relationships among data to create useful information requires knowledge. TRUE Forecasting is used to predict the strength of hurricanes and possible landing sites, future stockmarket values, and who will win a political election. TRUE Processing devices include computer chips that contain the central processing unit and main memory. TRUE Procedures are the most important element in most computer-based information systems. FALSE – PEOPLE ARE THE MOST IMPORTANT Business information systems are often integrated in one product and can be delivered by the same software package. TRUE E-commerce is reserved mainly for consumers visiting Web sites for online shopping. FALSE – MAJOR VOLUME OF E-COMMERCE COMES FROM B2B The primary benefits of implementing an ERP system include easing the adoption of improved work processes and increasing access to timely data for decision making. TRUE A TPS can speed business activities and reduce clerical costs. TRUE MISs typically provide standard reports generated with data and information from the TPS. TRUE An executive support system helps top-level managers, including a firm's president, vice presidents, and members of the board of directors, make better decisions. TRUE An executive support system can assist with strategic planning, top-level organizing and staffing, strategic control, and crisis management. TRUE

Expert systems allow robots and other devices to "see," store, and process visual images. FALSE Natural language processing involves computers understanding and acting on verbal or written commands in English, Spanish, or other human languages. TRUE Outsourcing allows a company to focus on what it does best and delegate other functions to companies with expertise in systems development. TRUE The first two steps of systems development are systems analysis and design. FALSE – FIRST TWO ARE SYSTEMS INVESTIGATION AND ANALYSIS The goal of systems implementation is to gain a clear understanding of the problem to be solved or opportunity to be addressed. **FALSE – BUT I COULD NOT FIND IN THE BOOK** The purpose of systems analysis and design is to check and modify the system so that it continues to meet changing business needs. FALSE – THIS IS THE GOAL OF SYSTEMS MAINTENANCE AND REVIEW The term natural language refers to a knowledge of computer systems and equipment and the ways in which they function. FALSE Autonomics is the study of designing and positioning workplace equipment. FALSE – THIS IS ERGONOMICS A(n) ____ is a set of interrelated components that collect, manipulate, store, and disseminate data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. INFORMATION SYSTEM ____ consists of raw facts, such as an employee number, number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers, or sales orders. DATA ____ is a collection of facts organized so that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. INFORMATION ____ is the awareness and understanding of a set of information and the ways that information can be made useful to support a specific task or reach a decision. KNOWLEDGE

A(n) ____ is a set of elements or components that interact to accomplish goals. SYSTEM ____ is a measure of what is produced divided by what is consumed. EFFICIENCY ____ is a measure of the extent to which a system achieves its goals. EFFECTIVENESS In information systems, ____ is information from the system that is used to make changes to input or processing activities. FEEDBACK A ____ is a single set of hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information. COMPUTER-BASED INFORMATION SYSTEM A firm's ____ includes all the hardware, software, databases, telecommunications, people, and procedures that are configured to collect, manipulate, store, and process data into information. TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE ____ consists of computer equipment used to perform input, processing, and output activities. HARDWARE ____ is the electronic transmission of signals for communications. TELECOMMUNICATIONS ____ connect computers and equipment in a building, around the country, or around the world to enable electronic communication. NETWORKS The ____ is a network of links on the Internet to documents containing text, graphics, video, and sound. WORLD WIDE WEB A(n) ____ is an internal network based on Web technologies that allows people within an organization to exchange information and work on projects. INTRANET ____ include the strategies, policies, methods, and rules for using a CBIS, including the operation, maintenance, and security of the computer. PROCEDURES

A ____ is any business-related exchange such as payments to employees, sales to customers, or payments to suppliers. TRANSACTION A(n) ____ is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices used to record completed business transactions. TRANSACTION PROCESSING SYSTEM A(n) ____ is a set of integrated programs that manages the vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SYSTEM A(n) ____ is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that provides routine information to managers and decision makers. MIS – MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEM A ____ is an organized collection of people, procedures, software, databases, and devices that support problem-specific decision making. DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM The term ____ is used to describe a field in which the computer system takes on the characteristics of human intelligence. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE ____ give the computer the ability to make suggestions and function like an expert in a particular field. EXPERT SYSTEMS The expert system's ____ is the collection of data, rules, procedures, and relationships that must be followed to achieve value or the proper outcome. KNOWLEDGE BASE ____ is the simulation of a real or imagined environment that can be experienced visually in three dimensions. VIRTUAL REALITY ____ is the activity of creating or modifying business systems. SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT ____ determines how the new system will work to meet the business needs defined during systems analysis. SYSTEMS DESIGN

____ involves creating or acquiring the various system components (hardware, software, databases, etc.) defined in the design step, assembling them, and putting the new system into operation. SYSTEMS IMPLEMENTATION A(n) ____ is software or hardware that protects the computer system or network from outside attacks. FIREWALL ____ is the knowledge of how data and information are used by individuals, groups, and organizations. INFORMATION SYSTEMS LITERACY

The primary goal of a non-profit organization is to maximize shareholder value, often measured by the price of the company stock. FALSE CRM can help a company collect customer data, contact customers, educate them about new products, and actively sell products to existing and new customers. TRUE A virtual organizational structure allows collaborative work, in which managers and employees can effectively work in groups, even those composed of members from around the world. TRUE Value chains consist of the major understandings and assumptions for a business, corporation, or other organization. FALSE – THIS IS ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE Sustaining change can help an organization improve the supply of raw materials, the production process, and the products and services it offers. TRUE Disruptive change often harms an organization's performance or even puts it out of business. TRUE According to the three-stage approach for change, moving is the act of ceasing old habits and creating a climate receptive to change. FALSE – THIS IS UNFREEZING According to the three-stage approach for change, unfreezing is the act of learning new work methods, behaviors, and systems. FALSE – THIS IS MOVING

According to the three-stage approach for change, refreezing involves reinforcing changes to make the new process second nature, accepted, and part of the job. TRUE Reengineering can reduce delivery time, increase product and service quality, enhance customer satisfaction, and increase revenues and profitability. TRUE Diffusion and infusion often depend on the technology available now and in the future, the size and type of the organization, and the environmental factors that include the competition, government regulations, suppliers, and so on. TRUE A threat appears when entry and exit costs to an industry are low and the technology needed to start and maintain a business is not readily available. FALSE – TECHNOLOGY IS COMMONLY AVAILABLE Productivity is measured as follows: (Input / Output) * 100% FALSE – (OUTPUT/INPUT) X 100% Market share is the percentage of sales that a product or service has in relation to the total market. TRUE System operators primarily run and maintain IS equipment, and are typically trained at technical schools or through on-the-job experience. TRUE Data-entry operators convert data into a form the computer system can use. TRUE A local area network administrator focuses on planning, policies, and procedures regarding the use of corporate data and information. FALSE – THIS IS DATABASE ADMINISTRATOR With the increased use of the Internet and corporate Web sites, Web administrators are sometimes asked to regulate and monitor Internet use by employees and managers to make sure that it is authorized and appropriate. TRUE The role of the chief information officer (CIO) is to employ an IS department's equipment and personnel to help the organization attain its goals. TRUE Database administrators set up and manage the network hardware, software, and security processes. FALSE – THIS IS LOCAL ARE NETWORK (LAN) ADMINISTRATOR A(n) ____ is a formal collection of people and other resources established to accomplish a set of goals. ORGANIZATION

The term ____ is used to describe a series of activities that includes inbound logistics, warehouse and storage, production, finished product storage, outbound logistics, marketing and sales, and customer service. VALUE CHAIN ____ helps determine what supplies are required for the value chain, what quantities are needed to meet customer demand, how the supplies should be processed (manufactured) into finished goods and services, and how the shipment of supplies and products to customers should be scheduled, monitored, and controlled. SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT ____ programs help a company manage all aspects of customer encounters, including marketing and advertising, sales, customer service after the sale, and programs to retain loyal customers. CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT ____ refers to organizational subunits and the way they relate to the overall organization. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE A ____ is an organizational structure with a reduced number of management layers. FLAT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE In a traditional organizational structure, the positions or departments that are directly associated with making, packing, or shipping goods are called ____. LINE POSITIONS A ____ is centered on major products or services. PROJECT ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE The ____ is centered on work teams or groups. TEAM ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE A ____ employs individuals, groups, or complete business units in geographically dispersed areas that can last for a few weeks or years, often requiring telecommunications or the Internet. VIRTUAL ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE A ____ organization is geographically distributed, and uses information technology to communicate and coordinate work. VIRTUAL Organizational learning is closely related to organizational ____. CHANGE A(n) ____ represents change theories by identifying the phases of change and the best way to implement them. CHANGE MODEL ____ involves the radical redesign of business processes, organizational structures, information systems, and values of the organization to achieve a breakthrough in business results. REENGINEERING

The ____ specifies the factors that can lead to better attitudes about the information system, along with higher acceptance and usage of the system in an organization. TECHNOLOGY ACCEPTANCE MODEL The term ____ refers to the ability of a product (including services) to meet or exceed customer expectations. QUALITY ____ involves contracting with outside professional services to meet specific business needs. OUTSOURCING ____ involves rapidly responding to the organization's flow of work as the need for computer resources varies. ON-DEMAND COMPUTING ____ is a statistical term that means products and services will meet quality standards 99.9997% of the time. SIX SIGMA A ____ is a significant and (ideally) long-term benefit to a company over its competition, and can result in higher-quality products, better customer service, and lower costs. COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE The ____ model is a widely accepted model that identifies five key factors that can lead to attainment of competitive advantage. FIVE-FORCES ____ is achieved when a company delivers the lowest priced products and services. COST LEADERSHIP A(n) ____ is an agreement between two or more companies that involves the joint production and distribution of goods and services. STRATEGIC ALLIANCE ____ is achieved when a company delivers different products and services. DIFFERENTIATION ____ is achieved when a company delivers to only a small market. NICHE STRATEGY ____ investigates the additional profits or benefits that are generated as a percentage of the investment in IS technology. ROI – RETURN ON INVESTMENT A(n) ____ provides users with assistance, training, application development, documentation, equipment selection and setup, standards, technical assistance, and troubleshooting. INFORMATION CENTER

A(n) ____ is basically a miniature IS department attached and directly reporting to a functional area in a large organization. INFORMATION SERVICE UNIT A company's ____ is usually a vice president concerned with the overall needs of the organization, and sets corporate-wide policies and plans, manages, and acquires information systems. CIO – CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER ____ is a process for testing skills and knowledge that results in an endorsement by the certifying authority that an individual is capable of performing a particular job. CERTIFICATION

Application software is the set of programs that coordinates the activities and functions of the hardware and other programs throughout the computer system. FALSE – THIS IS SYSTEMS SOFTWARE The combination of a hardware configuration and systems software is known as a computer system platform. TRUE People using commercially available software are usually asked to read and agree to End-User License Agreements (EULAs). After reading the EULA, you normally have to click an "I agree" button before you can use the software, which can be one of two basic types: systems software and application software. TRUE System software has the greatest potential to affect processes that add value to a business because it is designed for specific organizational activities and functions. **FALSE – BUT I COULD NOT FIND THIS IN THE BOOK** Lotus Notes is an application that enables a workgroup to schedule meetings and coordinate activities. TRUE You can also boot a computer from a CD, DVD, or even a thumb drive that plugs into a USB port. TRUE The OS notifies the user if input or output devices need attention, if an error has occurred, and if anything abnormal happens in the system. TRUE Programmers must understand the inner workings of OSs in order to use APIs to create application software. FALSE – THE DO NOT HAVE TO UNDERSTAND OS Task management allocates computer resources to make the best use of each system's assets. TRUE

An OS with multitasking capabilities allows a user to run more than one application at the same time. TRUE Virtual memory allocates space on the hard disk to supplement the immediate, functional memory capacity of RAM. TRUE The OS manages files to ensure that those in secondary storage are available when needed and that they are protected from access by unauthorized users. TRUE Java provides directory software to track computers, programs, and people on a network, helping large companies to manage complex networks. FALSE – THIS IS NETWARE Red Hat Software offers a Linux network OS that taps into the talents of tens of thousands of volunteer programmers who generate a steady stream of improvements for the Linux OS. TRUE NetWare users can log on from any computer on the network and use their own familiar desktop with all their applications, data, and preferences. TRUE The z/OS is IBM's first 32-bit enterprise OS. FALSE – IT IS 64-BIT z/OS is a mainframe OS from Hewlett-Packard that is designed to support Internet, database, and business applications on server and mainframe enterprise systems. FALSE – IT IS FROM IBM AND IS AN ENTERPRISE SYSTEM Windows Embedded includes several versions that provide computing power for TV set-top boxes, automated industrial machines, media players, medical devices, digital cameras, PDAs, GPS receivers, ATMs, gaming devices, and business devices such as cash registers. TRUE File-compression programs can reduce the amount of disk space required to store a file or reduce the time it takes to transfer a file over the Internet. TRUE Proprietary software is always in the public domain. FALSE – IT IS NOT IN PUBLIC DOMAIN ISPs provide contract customization of off-the-shelf software and speed deployment of new applications while helping IS managers avoid implementation headaches. FALSE – ASP PROVIDES CONTRACT CUSTOMIZATION Database management systems can be used to track orders, products, and customers; analyze weather data to make forecasts for the next several days; and summarize medical research results. TRUE

PIM software assists individuals, groups, and organizations with organizing appointments, schedules, contacts, and to-do lists. **FALSE – BUT I CAN’T FIND THIS IN THE BOOK** The primary benefits of implementing ERP include eliminating inefficient systems, easing adoption of improved work processes, improving access to data for operational decision making, standardizing technology vendors and equipment, and enabling supply chain management. TRUE PHP was one of the first visual programming languages. FALSE – VISUAL BASIC WAS ONE OF THE FIRST One of the primary advantages of an object is that it contains reusable code. TRUE An interpreter produces a complete machine-language program. FALSE – IT DOES NOT PRODUCE COMPLETE PROGRAM Open-source software development is a collaborative process where developers from around the world use the Internet to keep in close contact via e-mail and to download and submit new software. TRUE Open-source software is often less reliable and less secure than commercial software. FALSE – MORE RELIABLE Shareware, freeware, and public domain software is often open source. FALSE – NOT IN OPEN SOURCE ____ are sequences of instructions for the computer. COMPUTER PROGRAMS ____ describes the program functions that help users operate the computer system. DOCUMENTATION The term ____ is used to describe software that enables users to improve their personal effectiveness, increasing the amount of work they can do and enhancing its quality. PERSONAL PRODUCTIVITY SOFTWARE A(n) ____ is a set of programs that controls the computer hardware and acts as an interface with applications. OPERATING SYSTEM The ____ is the heart of the OS and controls the most critical processes. KERNEL A(n) ____ allows people to access and command the computer system. USER INTERFACE A(n) ____ uses pictures (called icons) and menus displayed on screen to send commands to the computer system.

GUI – GRAPHICAL USER INTERFACE To run, applications request services from the OS through a defined ____. APPLICATION PROGRAM INTERFACE - API Virtual memory works by swapping programs or parts of programs between memory and one or more disk devices - a concept called ____. PAGING ____ software can permit one user to run several programs or tasks at the same time and allow several users to use the same computer at the same time. TASK-MANAGEMENT ____ is an OS developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991 as a student in Finland. LINUX The ____ of an OS is the part that controls the hardware, manages files, separates processes, and so forth. KERNEL ____ is a powerful OS originally developed by AT&T for minicomputers. UNIX ____ is a network OS sold by Novell that can support users on Windows, Macintosh, and UNIX platforms. NETWARE Windows ____ is an operating system designed for smartphones and PDAs. EMBEDDED ____ can check the status of all parts of the PC, including hard disks, memory, modems, speakers, and printers. HARDWARE UTILITIES ____ check the hard disk's boot sector, file allocation tables, and directories, and analyze them to ensure that the hard disk is not damaged. DISK UTILITIES ____ allows people and organizations to tap into unused computer power over a network. GRID COMPUTING ____ is a popular file-compression format used to store, transfer, and play music and audio files, such as podcasts - audio programs that can be downloaded from the Internet. MP3 The term ____ is used to describe software that allows different systems to communicate and exchange data. MIDDLEWARE A(n) ____ is a company that can provide the software, support, and computer hardware on which to run

the software from the user's facilities over a network. APPLICATION SERVICE PROVIDER - ASP ____ applications can be used to plan, schedule, allocate, and control people and resources (money, time, and technology) needed to complete a project according to schedule. PROJECT MANAGEMENT ____ applications provide a wide range of built-in functions for statistical, financial, logical, database, graphics, and date and time calculations. SPREADSHEET ____ allows spreadsheets to maximize or minimize a quantity, subject to certain constraints. OPTIMIZATION ____ applications are ideal for storing, manipulating, and retrieving data. DATABASE ____ help people, groups, and organizations store useful information, such as a list of tasks to complete or a list of names and addresses. PERSONAL INFORMATION MANAGERS A(n) ____ is a collection of single application programs packaged in a bundle. SOFTWARE SUITE ____ is designed to support teamwork, whether people are in the same location or dispersed around the world. WORKGROUP APPLICATION SOFTWARE ____ is a set of integrated programs that manage a company's vital business operations for an entire multisite, global organization. ENTERPRISE RESOURCE PLANNING SOFTWARE IS professionals work with ____, which are sets of keywords, symbols, and rules for constructing statements by which people can communicate instructions to be executed by a computer. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES ____ involves translating what a user wants to accomplish into a code that the computer can understand and execute. PROGRAMMING ____ is the set of instructions that signal the CPU to perform circuit-switching operations. PROGRAM CODE The primary function of a(n) ____ is to provide instructions to the computer system so that it can perform a processing activity. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE A ____ is a quantity that can take on different values. VARIABLE

____ was one of the first visual programming languages. VISUAL BASIC ____ use a graphical or visual interface for program development. VISUAL LANGUAGES ____ is an object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems that can run on any OS and on the Internet. JAVA Object-oriented programs often use ____, which are instructions to perform a specific task in the program. METHODS Fifth-generation languages are sometimes called ____ because they use even more English-like syntax than 4GLs. NATURAL LANGUAGES (ALSO INTELLIGENT LANGUAGES) The term ____ is used to describe software that is very inexpensive or free, usually for use in personal computers, but whose source code cannot be modified. SHAREWARE

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