Drupal handbook

This document offers a complete reference for those interested in Drupal, both novice and experienced Drupal administrators, Drupal users and Drupal developers. There is also a printable version of the manual available.

General information about Drupal
A dynamic web site platform which allows an individual or community of users to publish, manage and organize a variety of content, Drupal integrates many popular features of content management systems, weblogs, collaborative tools and discussion-based community software into one easy-to-use package. As an open source software project maintained and developed by a community, Drupal is free to download and use. If you like what you learn here, please work with us to expand and refine Drupal to suit your needs. A wide range of site configurations By enabling and configuring individual modules, an administrator can design a unique site, one which can be used for a combination of knowledge management, web publishing and community interaction purposes. So that you can better understand the many possibilities, the following list of features have been organized by common web platform characteristics: Content management. Via a simple, browser-based interface, members can publish to a number of available content modules: stories, blogs, polls, images, forums, downloads, etc. Administrators can choose from multiple theme templates or create their own to give the site a singular look and feel. The flexible classification system allows hierarchical classifications, cross-indexing of posts and multiple category sets for most content types. Access to content is controlled through administratordefined user permission roles. Site pages can display posts by module type or categorized content, with separate RSS feeds available for each display type. Users can also keyword search the entire site. o Weblog. A single installation can be configured as an individual personal weblog site or multiple individual weblogs. Drupal supports the Blogger API, provides RSS feeds for each individual blog and can be set to ping weblog directories such as blo.gs and weblogs.com when new content is posted on the home page.
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Discussion-based community. A Drupal site can act as a Slashdot-like news site and/or make use of a traditional discussion forum. Comment boards, attached to most content types, make it simple for members to discuss new posts. Administrators can control whether content and comments are posted without approval, with administrator approval or through community moderation. With the built-in news aggregator, communites can subscribe to and then discuss content from other sites. o Collaboration. Used for managing the construction of Drupal, the project module is suitable for supporting other open source software projects. The wiki-like collaborative book module includes versioning control, making it simple for a group to create, revise and maintain documentation or any other type of text.
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For a more comprehensive feature list, consult our feature overview. For live examples of possible site implementations, see the featured sites included with the Drupal case studies. Or visit some of the many sites that use Drupal. Basic installation requirements and initial configuration The Drupal core platform, additional plug-in modules, and many theme templates are freely available for download under the GNU GPL. Drupal, written in PHP and using either MySQL or PostgreSQL as the database backend, can run on many platforms, including Apache or Microsoft IIS web servers. More complete information and specific instructions about system requirements, installation and configuration are available in the administrator's guide. The Drupal community: development and support As a communication center and project management space, drupal.org includes members who use Drupal as a personal website solution; IT professionals implementing Drupal for clients; and programmers, writers and others contributing to the growth of the Drupal open source project. Members work together to maintain extensive development and support resources on site:
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Support. Users experiencing difficulties installing and configuring Drupal should first consult the administrator's guide, much of which is also available through help in the administration section of every Drupal installation. In cases where documentation fails to provide a solution, search the support forum and drupal-support mailing list archives. If the solution is not available, please write a detailed description of the problem, include the Drupal version number, and post it to either venue. Note: all support is provided on a volunteer basis and is dependent on the

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good will of community members; please be patient with any support requests. o Development. The Drupal developer's guide contains information on Drupal architecture, API specifications, guides for theme and module developers, and instructions for contributing your code to the project. The Bug tracker system should be used to submit bugs, ideas for new features, suggestions for improving drupal.org, and contributing ideas for usability and documentation. Those seriously interested in contributing to development should also consider joining the drupal-devel list. Learn more See the links below, the other sections of The Drupal Handbook, and the many discussions in the forums for more information.

Drupal aims
Mission: Building on and realizing relevant standards and open source technologies, Drupal supports and enhances the potential of the internet as a medium where diverse and geographically-separated individuals and groups can come together and collectively produce and share rich bases of information and expression.

Use Cases and Target Users
Drupal is designed to be flexible and powerful enough to meet a broad range of web technology needs, from simple informational postings to large organizational sites and collaborative projects. This said, there is acentral interest in and focus on communities and collaboration. Drupal aims to enable the collaborative production of online information systems and communities.

Principles
Collaboration. Drupal development supports open, collaborative information sharing systems and approaches (including systems such as community moderation of posts). o Standards-based. Drupal supports established and emerging standards. Specific target standards include XHTML and CSS. o Open source. Drupal is based on the open source philosophy of collaborative free software development. Drupal is itself open source and builds on and supports other open source projects. Specifically, Drupal is
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coded in the open source scripting language PHP and supports as primary data sources the open source database formats MySQL and Postgresql. Quality coding. High quality, elegant, documented code is a priority over roughed-in functionality. Ease of use. Drupal aims for a high standard of usability for developers, administrators, and users. Modular and extensible. Drupal aims to provide a slim, powerful core that can be readily extended through custom modules. Low resource demands. To ensure excellent performance, Drupal puts a premium on low-profile coding (for example, minimizing database queries). Drupal should also have minimal, widely-available server-side software requirements. Specifically, Drupal should be fully operational on a server with Apache web server, PHP, and either MySQL or Postgresql.

Usability Aims
For developers Drupal aims for a development system that is:
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well-tooled with a system of hooks that provide ready means to accomplish most foreseeable coding aims that involve interaction with core elements

For administrators, Drupal aims to provide solutions that are: easy to install and set up so that there is a minimalrequirement for specific technical expertise o intuitive and self-explanatory so that administrators caneasily find the configuration options they need o highly configurable so that site administrators can presentjust the interface they wish
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For users, all elements of the Drupal user interface should be: intuitive and self-explanatory so that users with minimal prior experience caneasily discover, navigate, and use functionality o uncluttered so that users are not faces with a difficult task of sorting the essential from the non-essential
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The Drupal community: structure and roles
This page presents the structure and decision-making in Drupal. There are various roles and responsibilities that people can assume in the Drupal project.

The Drupal Core
Founder and Lead Developer. Drupal was founded by Dries Buytaert, who retains primary control over the software and makes most decisions on proposed changes. In approving or rejecting proposals and patches, he gives special weight to comments made by individuals whom he trusts and respects based on their past contributions to Drupal. o CVS review team. A small team that reviews proposed changes and maintains code. They are the only ones who have write access to the core CVS repository. Current CVS review team members are Dries, Kjartan and Steven. o Maintainer. While not directly making decisions, maintainers have informal responsibility for a designated portion of the core (e.g., a particular core module). Individual areas of responsibility are listed in the file MAINTAINERS.txt. Maintainers are appointed by Dries. Core contributors who have made substantive contributions (particularly to a core component not individually maintained) may apply for Maintainer status by writing to Dries; Dries may also individually invite them. o Core contributor. Core contributors are those who contribute code patches or documentation for the Drupal core, contributions that are peer reviewed and then decided on by Dries or other members of the CVS review team.
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Contributions
Contributions repository manager. The CVS repository of Drupal noncore "contributions" (mainly, modules and themes) has a maintainer, who reviews and approves applications for CVS access, and one or more other team members who fill in when the Maintainer is unavailable or otherwise occupied. o "Contributions" contributor. "Contributions" contributors develop and maintain "contributed" code packages that are hosted on the Drupal site but not part of the Drupal core. A contributions contributor has applied for and received write access to the "contributions" CVS repository.
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Contributions contributors are improving the overall reach of Drupal by producing and sharing enhancements that can be used by others. Contributions contributors are generally listed in the README or CREDITS files included in module and theme downloads.

Documentation and Support
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Documentation and support is collaboratively delivered by people in all Drupal roles, mainly through drupal.org and the development mail list. Some drupal.org members have been granted rights to post and edit content and so directly author documentation like the Drupal Handbook.

Users
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User. Users are the people who use Drupal. Users aren't contributing code but may be submitting bug reports or feature requests through the issues system and participating in the drupal.org forums.

Download Drupal, modules, themes and translations Drupal 4.6 roadmap
This is a table that shows "who is doing what" on our road to 4.6. Using this table, we can group our efforts, and others can track what we are doing and how far we are. Please try and keep this page up to date as much as possible. If you join or leave a team, edit this page. If a status changes, please edit this page too. If you have long descriptions and documents you would like to add, please add book pages under this chapter.

Task Theme improvements More information in the civicspacelabs

Modules/Areas theme system; block system

Team of volunteers Neil Drumm Chris

status

WIP

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po files Content Construction Kit more information flexinode. locales Jose A Reyero Carl McDade WIP Bèr Kessels Adrian Rossouw Bèr Kessels Gerhard Killesreiter WIP Stefan Nagtegaal Jonathan Chaffer Bèr Kessels John WIP VanDyk Neil Drumm Matt Westgate Steven Done Translate interface Have a total of 7 translations released for 4.5 locale. node Search improvements Fix the search. of which at least 5 are templates or themes. 24iX Systems. 11. templates or styles.org.de Tel.de . themes Adrinux Bèr Kessels Mega Grunt WIP sepeck Stefan Nagtegaal Bert Boerland Bryght WIP End-user documentation drupal.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. help hooks Internationalisation i18n i18n. search hooks. Email: info@24ix.24ix. Alte Kirchstr.Task Modules/Areas Team of volunteers Messina Halfelven Stefan Nagtegaal status Design themes Design a total of ten 10 themes.

interface to vocabularies in ways other taxonomy system than simply a selectbox Publish/Subscribe: share and aggregate vocabularies among Drupal sites John VanDyk Mathias TODO 24iX Systems.module menu.org WIP Taxonomy system improvements Taxonomy: standardize vocabulary metadata. groupware TODO mindmap. open/closed vocabularies. block.module menu system.module book.24ix. 11. modules Team of volunteers Wittens Adrian Rossouw status TODO core. Email: info@24ix.module theme system TODO TODO TODO WIP Fund-raising and marketing drupal. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . modules (drupalCOM) Jose A Reyero TODO Bèr Kessels Uwe Hermann dikini Gerhard Killesreiter Magico Jonathan Chaffer Jonathan Chaffer Neil Drumm sandip Lapurd Bryght Bert Boerland project modules.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. purely corporate and mostly simple websites Move to project area Make Drupal able to act as a groupware and project management tool Improve content organisation Introduce and improve modules to organise and manage content Improve menu system Improve and fine grain permission system Improve block administration Modules/Areas search module core.inc.de Tel. core. menu.Task according to Install system Introduce an install wizard system Move to business area Make Drupal able to act as backend for "leaflet" sites.

Task Modules/Areas syndication system and API Team of volunteers Neil Drumm rkendall Eric Scouten status RSS improvements TODO Image module improvements image module. Drupal suits your needs well. publish some photos. Bad stories and comments are automatically hidden after enough negative votes. and maybe keep an organized collection of links. Incoming stories are automatically voted upon by the audience and the best stories bubble up to the home page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . Examples: urlgreyhot | Langemarks Cafe Aficionado Sites 24iX Systems. Examples: Debian Planet | Kerneltrap Personal Web Sites Drupal is great for the user who just wants a personal web site where she can keep a blog.inc WIP James Walker Drupal case studies Drupal meets the needs of different types of web sites: Community Portal Sites If you want a news web site where the stories are provided by the audience.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel.24ix. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. file. 11.

o Outsite of this page. 11. Email: info@24ix.de Tel. Example: Entomology Index International Sites When you begin using Drupal. you join a large international community of users and developers. there are many Drupal sites implemented in a wide range of languages.24ix. No longer do you have to wait for a webmaster to get the word out about your latest project. We provide a list of these people.Drupal flourishes when it powers a portal web site where one person shares their expertise and enthusiasm for a topic.org can mark themselves as providing Drupal-related services. and its easy web based publishing.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Examples: ia/ | Dirtbike Intranet/Corporate Web Sites Companies maintain their internal and external web sites in Drupal. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . Users can register and suggest new resources while editors can screen their submissions. Drupal works well for these uses because of its flexible permissions system. Visit the dirt bike and information architecture sites to see how they use Drupal. Thanks to the localization features within Drupal. Drupal suits your needs well. o Instructions for being listed on this page are at the bottom. Example: PUNTBARRA. any user on Drupal.COM | cialog Drupal hosting and services This page highlights people and organizations who offer services related to Drupal. o 24iX Systems. Examples: Sudden Thoughts | Tipic Resource Directories If you want a central directory for a given topic.

com Steven Wittens Gerhard Killesreiter o Drupal Hosting The following companies offer a web hosting platform suitable for running a Drupal site. For more information. o Services Moshe Weitzman Teledynamics Communications webschuur. We'll setup Drupal for free as part of our $99/year account. For more information on Drupal's system requirements. GrafiX Internet B.: 07000 7000 850 . CascadeHosting offers cheap web hosting ($99/year includes free domain registration) and web programming contract services. co-location.V. Alte Kirchstr. For Drupal hosting. We are most proud to be the 24iX Systems.de .Table of contents Hosting OpenSourceHost CascadeHosting Grafix Internet B.opensourcehost. and dedicated servers in Amsterdam and Rotterdam.com. provides transit. The Netherlands. we provide graphical installation instructions. as well as other open source software systems.V. GrafiX Internet B. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.com/ you will receive an additional 100 megs of space and 1 gig of bandwidth added to the hosting package of your choice. consult the system requirements page in the Drupal handbook. check their Drupal page. 11.de Tel. V. and if you take advantage of our special offer at http://drupal. Known hosting companies include: OpenSourceHost OpenSourceHost is a specialized web hosting company focusing on providing quality web space and support for open source content management systems.24ix. and answer any drupal related questions at drupal@cascadehosting. CascadeHosting A small webhosting company run from Portland Oregon.

24ix. our hardware). Services Consulting on Drupal installation. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. operating system. Dedicated Servers starting from 200 €/month (Our network. _exit().: 07000 7000 850 . Network. as well as some offspring projects such as www. Raw or managed transit capacity starting from 1 Mbps to gigabits per second. as a service provider for your drupal-based deployment! Contact us at sales@grafix. training.450170 We can offer: o o o o o Server co-location starting from 59 €/month (Our network. and _syndication().org. Drupal Services The following people or organizations provide services related to Drupal.org. and thus our web presence (www. and support.dedicated server provider of choice for www. It would honor us if you will consider GrafiX Internet B. and can complete custom projects with speed and quality. Alte Kirchstr.nl or by phone at +31(0)180 . and our name to pass mouth to mouth.grafix.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. We strive to make our combination of service and support legendary.drupaldevs. 11. Custom Drupal software development also provided.nl) is fairly humble. I have authored much of the o o o o Distributed Authentication e-mail handling official Maintainer of Drupal's user system Hooks such as _head(). 24iX Systems. and security consultancy. Rack (cabinet) space starting from 1/3 rack and up to entire datacenter cages.com Boston. your hardware). Moshe Weitzman weitzman @ tejasa.de . Qualifications I am intimate with Drupal's inner workings.drupal. We believe in 'medieval marketing'.V. MA USA. spread wide and far by our many satisfied customers.

This portal requires integration with a survey engine. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Marlboro College is integrating the Drupal authentication system with their own LDAP based directory. and more. This module was incorporated into the Civicspace project. contacts.de .org is deploying a portal site where patients complete surveys and receive instant graphical feedback about their mood state over time. Moshe delivered a flexible node module which could serve all these purposes at once. Alte Kirchstr. Music For America based their ambitious site on Drupal. The Drupal ldap_integration. Email: info@24ix. and asked Moshe to develop modules for tracking their artists. 24iX Systems. Planned enhancements include affiliate tracking and enhanced subscription features. Moshe delivered installation and webmaster training to Rowland. an events module. 11. University of Vienna is now running one of the most advanced Drupal pods in the world [staging site]. venues. and PHP graphing utilities. statistics application. along with ongoing support. Thanks Pixelworks.de Tel. They also share language translations across sites.24ix.o o o o o o o o o glossary module syndication module taxonomy_dhtml module folksonomy module poor mans cron cooking recipe scheduler organic groups significant system documentation Moshe's Recent Clients o o o o o o o Pixelworks is deploying Drupal in their intranet. These enhancements were donated back to the Drupal project.module is powering that integration. They contracted with me to write an LDAP. Moshe's design notes for this implementation are documented in this email (note: the stumbling block was solved). National Society of Hispanic Professionals is relaunching their web site using Drupal as a Content Management System and community engine. They maintain one Drupal site for many courses in their catalog. Moodcenter.: 07000 7000 850 . while maintaining a single user account across all sites. and an enhanced image. Rowland Institute at Harvard uses Drupal as an intranet for their community of scientists and technicians. Special planned enhancements include a powerful new calendar with deep taxonomy integration.module.

For more information. This work is being released back to the Drupal community.com is a small scaled company that builds content management system (CMS) driven websites. manufacturing and emergency response applications.: 07000 7000 850 . automatic MP3 data extraction. visit Teledynamics Communications' Drupal services page or check their Drupal related information. or for solid solutions for your companies web-presence: we can offer it! For more details please do not hesitate to get in touch with us. where anyone can create a public or private group. Bèr Kessels (ber@webschuur. o Finnish Broadcasting Company enables their users to create and grow organic groups.de . 11.CodeOrange is a thriving community site based loosly on current news. webschuur. Whether you are looking for cutting edge technology for your organizations web-based communication. Moshe is delivering custom modules for upload/download. These groups are similar to Yahoo Groups. Sympatico-Lycos and the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. but never made much money. Also. and users post messages to their group home page. o Teledynamics Communications Teledynamics Communications Inc is an internet and opensource consulting company based in Sauble Beach. from scratch or from an existing site.com) Turnhoutsebaan 34/3 2140 Antwerpen 24iX Systems. ecommerce and PayPal integration. o ShareNewYork is a community web site built around legal online sharing of music. Our portfolio includes community sites for military.de Tel. Moshe is working on a custom module which will publish a new home page evrry day based on moderation ratings submitted by the community. Ontario Canada. and hide troll posts. FBE has also sponsored Moshe to build photo gallery functionality based on a tagging system like Flickr and Delicio.24ix. Alte Kirchstr. Established in 1983. TCI has been involved in large-scale Internet portal research for over 10 years. Thanks FBE. It is a marketplace where users may upload songs and then receive commissions based on how many users download and purchase these songs. It is an innovative business model in a sector which has shown promise. FTP integration. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.com webschuur. We can provide the help and advice to create a dynamic website. Email: info@24ix. Moshe is currently enhancing Drupal's queue and moderation systems in order to highlight strong posts.us. and more.

6 I have worked on improving the search.org Freiburg. so I have intimate knowledge of the code and its features. In the past I managed to reduce Drupal's execution time by improvements to the database queries. which has a fully validating and accessible XHTML/CSS theme. Germany Gerhard is a freelance Drupal IT consultant. I created two of the original Drupal themes. and the listhandler module.but not limited to . I've also worked on making sure Drupal was Unicode/UTF-8 compatible.module. URLfilter) and core's Poll module.an access control module. custom extensions to existing and development of new modules according to the client's specifications. Qualifications: During my work with Drupal I have implemented solutions for a variety of problems including . I have authored most of the filter system (which handles transforming the user-supplied text into HTML).België Telephone ++32 (0)3 6632292 www. Services: Consulting on Drupal setup and training.de . I run my own Drupal site. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. several filtering modules (HTML Corrector. I have also been successfull in getting a significantly improved 24iX Systems.webschuur. 11.: 07000 7000 850 .net Bonheiden/Leuven. Smileys. Email: info@24ix. Recently I have been successfully trying to decrease Drupal's page execution time even further by caching some data structures.de Tel. Belgium Services: Custom Drupal development (modules) and design (templates and themes). For Drupal 4.org website (Bluebeach). I also designed the theme for the Drupal. he has closely followed and participated in Drupal's development for about three years. a remindme extension for the event module.24ix. Qualifications: I am a long-time Drupal core developer. which I also maintain. Contact me with your needs and specifics and we can work something out. Specifically. Alte Kirchstr.com Steven Wittens steven@acko. Gerhard Killesreiter killes@drupaldevs.

The screens for adding new articles are simple. If you have the time and expertise. especially beneficial for use on larger intranets. which will allow you to expand and improve your intranet over time. and the administrator of the system is given the ability to veto content submitted by contributing authors. a community record as much as it is a community forum. Drupal." [ read more ] o 24iX Systems. But Some Assembly Required ." [ read more ] o The Fuzzy Group: performance of open source portal software . Drupal.: 07000 7000 850 . and my favorite. The current page maintainer will then add your organization to this page. any of the variations of Slashcode. How to be listed on this page Send an e-mail to drupal-devel@drupal." [ read more ] o Teledynamics Communications: community plumbing for the web "Drupal is. and some packages even allow for categorization of entries. but it's also more than this. pointed out to me just how good the performance of Open Source applications can be ? when it is done correctly. Drupal has the latent ability to transform the web from a glut of brochures to a dynamic ecology of knowledge.de Tel. an infrastructure.module into the Drupal core for the 4.org with the appropriate details. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. as it claims. Drupal presentations and articles Intranet Journal. Alte Kirchstr."I have been a small part of the Open Source community since 1996 and I've been a regular Unix user since 1986. it's well worth getting to grips with the nitty-gritty of Drupal if you'd like to fully customize it's operation. 11." [ read more ] o K-logging: supporting KM with web logs . They allow individuals to publish content to a web site easily. These technologies. Email: info@24ix. which grew up on the Internet.locale. A recent experience with an Open Source portal application.24ix. Community Plumbing. These low-cost tools help knowledge workers with two core concerns of KM: knowledge creation and knowledge sharing. Most packages also permit authors to publish an XML feed of content. offer compelling benefits for most organizations."There are many robust web log tools that are inexpensive or even free."What Drupal does provide is an extensible framework. Radio Userland. a framework for building websites which serve a community of interest. Popular software includes MovableType.5 release and will work on achieving PHP 5 compatibility. Drupal: Powerful and Free.de .

11. Feature overview Sites that use Drupal Where does the name 'Drupal' come from? Drupal (droo-puhl) is the English pronunciation for the Dutch word 'druppel' which stands for 'drop'. it resembled a face.org was available. After some more work by Steven Wittens.: 07000 7000 850 . Steven Wittens (UnConeD) created a 3D drop.org community blog after Dries made a typo when he checked to see if dorp. It was featured as an "O" in a liquidish "Drop". hard to edit. an obvious matter was the choice and creation of a logo. a round nose and a mischievous smile. etc. . The inital idea was simple: a drop in a circle.. I like the idea that the infinity-eyes symbolise the infinite possibilities that Drupal offers :) See more versions of the logo in the marketing section. When put into a filled circle. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.. When the logo-issue had come up again. Kristjan Jansen (Kika) came up with idea of putting two side-way drops together to form an infinity-sign. When the community grew. Donating to the Drupal project 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix...de . That's the 'story' behind it. Of course it would have to do something with a drop. or water. but the idea didn't get too far mainly because 3D is hard to print.24ix. Alte Kirchstr. The word stuck.de Tel. The word drop was chosen for the drop. 'Dorp' is the Dutch word for village. the idea came up of a cartoony drop with a face.Druplicon (the logo) After Drupal had been created. the Druplicon was created: a stylised drop with the infinity eyes.

to save time and resources.24ix. these scripts are run ahead of time and the resulting pages are "cached" or stored on the server instead of being generated afresh with each visitor. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. where you can pay with an existing account or create a paypal account. a script runs on the web server. User's guide Designed for users of Drupal sites. Alternative methods If you are inspired to donate something. this non-technical guide offers "getting started" instructions and suggestions. photos. content like the text on pages is stored in a database. When visitors bring up a page.) 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . (Sometimes. querying the database and putting the content of the page into a template. Instead of being in pre-generated (static) files. 11. consider contacting someone listed on the Services page. When you click on that link/button you will be led to PayPal. Drupal is a "dynamic" rather than a "static" system. but do not want to use PayPal.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr. Tou find the button on each page. in the top bottom block. Pay for enhancements If you are willing to pay for particular enhancement. Basic concepts What is "content management"? Drupal is a "content management system".de . but also here below. Email: info@24ix. This means it's a system for managing website content--like articles. or other files.PayPal Drupal currently uses PayPal for receiving donations. please see this excellent HOWTO on donating to Open Source projects.

staff. o All this means that what you see on a particular Drupal site. and type content (articles. this user guide introduces some of the more common options and functionalities. You don't have to know HTML (the language web pages are written in). Email: info@24ix. o Drupal has a system of privileges that makes it possible to create different types of users . o The basic look and feel of a Drupal site can be changed through different "themes". Some modules come with every Drupal installation ("core" modules). partners . there are both core and contributed themes.) into forms that you submit. o Drupal is designed to be easily extended through "modules"--blocks of code that provide extra functionality or enhancements. and what you can do there.de Tel. you can see the administrator's guide and the Drupal forums.: 07000 7000 850 .de . depends to a very high degree on what the site administrator(s) have chosen to present.24ix. Registering and logging in Registering as a user 24iX Systems.for instance. This user guide explains the steps and gives you other background info. while others can be individually downloaded and installed from the Drupal website ("contributed" modules). So we can't give you a definitive guide here! Instead. Alte Kirchstr. Of variations and modules Drupal is not a single type of website--it is many. etc. members. you as a user don't have to write web pages. For more in-depth information. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. so the administrator of a site can turn on and off different capabilities and make many settings that change the look and functionality of a site.that each can see and do different things on the site. Instead. As with modules.So to create or edit pages. Drupal is highly configurable. all you usually have to do is: o o o register with a Drupal site log in (type in the user name and password you got by registering).

Changing your account settings As a registered user. a site administrator will add you as a user.To add or edit content on a Drupal site. you usually need to log in. If you haven't already done so. register as a user. you can change settings to control information about yourself and also your use and experience of a Drupal site.: 07000 7000 850 . Within a few minutes. enter a user name of your choice and an email address to which you have access and hit "submit". look for a small form called “User login” on the main page of the site you want to register with (usually on the right or the left of the page). Then check your email account. If so. Click the link that says "Create new account".) In some cases. usually you have to first be registered as a user. to register. Now you're ready to log in. when the new page loads it will include a new block with your user name at the top.24ix. in which case you can post them without registering. Assuming everything's working as planned. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. request that your site administrator register you). This will typically be on the left or right side of the page (it is a "block" in Drupal talk).de . To see what tweaks you can make to your account. Logging in Before you can add or edit content. 11. This is the menu you use to start entering and editing content. After reading them. you should get an automatically-generated email confirming your registration and giving you an initial password to use. The next page that comes up will generally have some information on the site's policies for registration. Otherwise. (Sometimes the site administrator has chosen to enable "anonymous" posts of things like comments. Then hit the main page of the site you're wishing to use and look for a "User login" form. log in and then follow the menu links: my account > edit account Account Settings 24iX Systems. Enter your user name and password and hit "submit". see above (or. they will send you a user name and password that you can use to log on.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. if applicable.

Different types of content 24iX Systems.de . time zone Your site administrator may allow users to set their time zone. theme A "theme" is the basic look and feel of a Drupal site. Sometimes a particular site will have more than one theme installed. Please see the profile module for more information on this. according to the offset you enter here. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. See the documentation for individual modules for instructions on how to use these additional options. block configuration The site administrator may make some blocks (chunks of content that are usually displayed in a left and/or right column) optional. This will cause all dated content on the site to display in local time.: 07000 7000 850 . If the site administrator has made more than one theme available. you're ready to start posting content. "Workplace". but may still be edited. You can enable and disable the display of these blocks by checking and unchecking the boxes next to them.24ix. you will be able to set a default signature.Different information is available to be edited here depending on what features your site administrator has installed. etc. signature If comments are enabled. different features will cause different fields to display on your user account page. Creating new content As a registered and logged-in user. so it is recommended that you change your password to something you can easily remember.de Tel. Drupal sends you a default password that is often hard to remember. password Enter in a new password in both fields to set it. Alte Kirchstr. This will be copied into new comments for you automatically. These are controlled by the profile module. you may also see additional tabs. titled according to the information they contain. 11. and allows you to enter more information about yourself. Additional Information Aside from the account settings tab. you will be able to select what you would like the default theme to be for your account. As mentioned at the beginning. Some examples might include "Personal Information". Email: info@24ix.

11. If this seems hard to relate to. they'll make the decision about whether it meets the criteria for posting. but it doesn't appear anywhere! Sometimes a Drupal site is set up so that when you submit a story it goes straight up on the site.de . When you're adding an article. In general. Click this to get a listing of the types of content you have permission to post. so that you can find similar things in the same place.24ix. you bring up a form. Often. A taxonomy has different "terms" that are used as categories for articles. you can think of a node as the content of a page. for instance. Many of these are organized into what are called "nodes". 24iX Systems. you choose where on the site to categorize your article.de Tel. o Submission queue I submitted a story. to find out what you can do: On your user menu (the collection of links that has your user name as a title). you can think of topics as being like folders on your hard drive--they help to organize content. By selecting one. Topics/categories/terms Content on Drupal websites is usually organized using categories through a system called "taxonomy". look for links at the bottom of an article. Basically. These links say things like "12 comments" (if there are comments that have been made on the article) and "read more" (if you're looking at a short version of an article). This means that articles submitted are marked for evaluation. and hit a button to submit the form. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. o Or else on a particular page.There are various types of content that you can post using Drupal. you might find a dropdown list of topics. you have permissions to edit that type of content. So to add an article. though. enter text into it (like the title and content of an article).: 07000 7000 850 . So don't worry! When a site administrator has had a chance to look over your submission. a Drupal site is set up with a "submission queue". If one of these links say "administer" or something like "edit this page". Content is added or updated through web page forms. look for a link that says "create content". an article. Permissions What types of content you can create or edit depends on the privileges that have been assigned to the "role" or user group you're a member of. This might be. Alte Kirchstr.

When you do log in. look for comment-related links at the bottom of the article. offering your own ideas. additions. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you may want to start in a word processing program. Adding "nodes" (stories.24ix. Click on the link and you're ready to comment away.Creating comments Comments allow you as a user to interact with the content on a site--to respond to an article. forum topics. you'll find a link called "create content". Email: info@24ix. Making comments When you bring up an article to read. 11. "Threaded" comments Comments in the Drupal system are "threaded". As with any communication. If you're not logged in.) At the top of your personal menu. Click this and you'll see a list of the types of content you can create. you should see something like "Add new comment". Alte Kirchstr. If you reply. your comment will be indented to show that it is part of that discussion. this might read "login or register to post comments". Potential advantages include: 24iX Systems.de Tel.de . This list reflects the privileges assigned to your user account or to the group ("role") your account is part of. This means you can comment directly on an article--or you can reply to an existing comment.: 07000 7000 850 . Preparing content Before posting directly to a site. etc. even harassing exchanges. it's important to try to ensure that your comments are respectful and constructive. Etiquette Comments can be a great way of enriching a community site--but they can also lead to unfriendly. or critique.

choose "Disabled". italics). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. Title 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . it is just a matter of filling in the form and posting it. you could also consider using an HTML editor. click "create content" on the Admin menu. This HTML is what you'll copy and paste into Drupal's input form. Depending on how much formatting you wish to do. This is a particular consideration if you're on dial-up. bold. Alte Kirchstr. Admin stuff At the top of the form is some administrative stuff. Access to spell-check and other editing features.g. Bring up the HTML (encoded) view of the text. Apply formatting as desired (e. You'll be presented with a list of types of content you can create. the "composer" that comes with Mozilla and Netscape. for instance.. Email: info@24ix. Otherwise.24ix. Notice that on the right-hand main page space is a description of each type of content--a handy reference. If your article is one that could be usefully commented on. keep the default "Read/write". 11. Steps: o o o Type or copy and paste your text into the HTML editor. From here. Click on "story" at the bottom of the "create content" menu. You'll get the "Submit story" form.o o Saving time online. If you're not sure what to do. Drupal supports discussion/comments on postings--but such comments are not always appropriate. just look at the "Allow user comments" bit. These include. to have formatted copy. Creating a story To get to the menu for adding content.de .

Try to be descriptive and catchy. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. with their structure. indicating that you are turning it "off"). first open a list with a "ul" tag (that stands for "unordered list").The title is straightforward enough. if you're a novice. don't worry--that's not as difficult as it sounds. Body The "body" field is where you put the main content of the page. for 24iX Systems.</p> To make bullets. 11. choose the appropriate section for your story and continue down the form.: 07000 7000 850 .24ix. Here's a quick primer: If you want something to be bold. This is the section your article will go in--or in the technical language of Drupal ("taxonomy terms"). Topics Next comes the "Topics" pull-down menu. For the most basic page. You can optionally format your entry in friendly old HTML. So. Alte Kirchstr.de . What you're seeing when you pull down the menu is all the sections available on the website. To make something italic. <p>This is a paragraph. just type and include double line returns (hit "enter" twice) at the and of each paragraph. Alternately you can just type straight in. enclose them in "p" tags. like this: <b>This text is bold</b> Note that there is always an opening tag (no forward slash) and a closing tag (a forward slash before the tag name. Email: info@24ix. If you've typed this into a word processor or HTML editor.de Tel. just copy and paste it into this field. But hey. put it in "i" tags: <i>This is in italics</i> To put things nicely in paragraphs. then put each list item in "li" (yes. just enclose it in "b" tags.

use "h2" (we're starting at 2 because these are really sub-headlines and shouldn't be bigger than the original page title). Here's how it looks: <ul> <li>This is the first bulleted item</li> <li>This is the second bulleted item</li> </ul> And to make headlines. using numbers as appropriate.de Tel. 11. for a first-level headline. You do this by typing in: <!--break--> The "teaser" will end at the point you put the <!--break-->. If you do nothing. to make sure the breaking point is appropriate. like at a paragraph return--but it's better to decide yourself. That is. Don't forget at the end to close off your list with a closing "ul" tag. use "h3". with a paragraph after it: <h2>This is the Headline</h2> <p>And here is the paragraph</p> That wasn't too painful. Email: info@24ix. was it? Decide where you want the "teaser" (the part of the main text used in links to the article) to end.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alternative ways to enter content 24iX Systems. the software will choose a breaking point for you. And you're set! You can preview the page you've prepared by hitting "Preview" (recommended.24ix. For a second-level headline. Alte Kirchstr."list") tags. use "h" tags. and sometimes required) or you can bravely or recklessly just go ahead and publish it by hitting "Submit". And so on! Example.: 07000 7000 850 .

Depending on what's available on your site. then for "Path" put the rest of the address. Email: info@24ix. If you've confirmed that blog support is enabled. 11.php". Cryptic question to ask: "Is the bloggerapi enabled?" If the answer is yes. When it comes time to set the "Blog Tool" selection.gworks. and have your content automatically loaded onto your site.php" part is the Drupal file that handles the blogging input. you might want to check in with an administrator on the site you're working on to make sure it accepts blog posts.ca/site/" you would put "www. The "xmlrpc.wbloggar. desktop program. This is explained in the w. Before trying out one of the blogging softwares. In fact. Set up a new account. it can allow you to post content easily and quickly to almost any part of a website using a simple. here's some steps to get going: o o Download the software from http://www.bloggar is outdated.bloggar w. If it's no. choose "MovableType" (and not "Drupal").de .bloggar help files. Alte Kirchstr. If this functionality is enabled on your site. Keep in mind that blogging software can be used for more than blogs. Drupal includes functionality for "blogging"--creating "blogs" or web-based journals.com/ and install. This is because (at time of writing) the Drupal support in w. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 .php" for Path. These include programs that run on your desktop and allow you to simply type in content.gworks. you might be able to enter new articles without ever logging on to the site. Posting and editing content with w. For "Host" put the domain of the website you're using. if any.de Tel. followed by "/xmlrpc.bloggar is a gratis software for Windows designed for "blogs" (web-based journals). you may be able to input and edit content using one of a number of "blog" softwares. hit a "post" button.24ix.ca" for host and "site/xmlrpc. without having to log on to a website and follow links to bring up a form. 24iX Systems. you're ready to roll. you could request that it be enabled to allow you quick update abilities. So if the address was "http://www.

Drupal is being developed with IIS compatibiliy in mind. or sometimes "edit this page".Now you're ready to start posting. PHP As of Drupal 4.x. Installation System requirements 1.3. 2. Successfully tested with version 2. When correctly set up. you can take advantage of the text formatting functionality w.bloggar offers.0. Alte Kirchstr. Look below the article (or article summary) for a link that says "administer". and IIS is reported to be working. Please note that PHP 5. When you click it. Email: info@24ix. Optional: IIS.de Tel. log in and then bring up the page you wish to edit.x. 24iX Systems. If you wish to delete the page. posting a web page from w.1+. look for a "delete" button near the bottom of the page.bloggar is as simple as opening the program.24ix. typing in some text.0 is not yet supported by Drupal. change the text or settings and then submit. Editing and deleting content To edit or delete existing content. Depending on your user permissions. 11. you'll get a second chande to confirm that you wish to delete the page--or to change your mind! Administrator's guide An administrator’s guide for installing and configuring a Drupal site.0. This guide includes extensive HowTo's for using all core modules.de . Development with version 1. In doing so. you might see this below all pages or only certain ones (like those that you yourself submitted).2. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. A Web Server that can execute PHP scripts Recommended: Apache. We recommend using the latest version of PHP 4. Clicking this link will bring up a page with a form for changing the page.x.6+.: 07000 7000 850 . selecting a category (the "taxonomy term" to use) and hitting post. Older releases will run on PHP 4. we require PHP version 4. To edit the page.

de . the windows version of PHP has built in support for this extension. Installation process // $Id: INSTALL. Experiences with other Databases are greatly welcome. if php is installed as an Apache module. A PHP-supported Database Server Recommended: MySQL. v3.ini-recommended starting with PHP 4.v 1. Currently.inidist / php. Alte Kirchstr. AllowOverride is not None.PHP XML extension (for {bloggerapi|drupal|jabber|ping}. Using a PEAR supported Database (see below) requires (of course) PEAR to be installed.6 2004/11/27 11:28:55 dries Exp $ 24iX Systems. MySQL 4 is fine.: 07000 7000 850 .cache_limiter none (we only mention directives that differ from the default php.save_handler user In addition.htaccess only works 1. with Apache (or a compatible webserver). ie.17 or newer (for our use of INNER JOIN's with join_condition's). PHP needs the following configuration directives for drupal to work: session. Optional: Any PEAR supported Database. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 2. however. only PostgreSQL is actively maintained and supported. though.24ix. See here for how to change configuration settings for other interfaces to PHP.23.module). 3.htaccess that ships with drupal. Email: info@24ix.de Tel. 3. if the .0.txt. Note. so you shouldn't need to set them explicitely. that setting php configuration options from . we recommend the following settings: session.6) These settings are contained in the default . This extension is enabled by default in a standard PHP installation.htaccess is actually read.

org.de Tel. RSS syndication.REQUIREMENTS -----------Drupal requires a web server.de .) INSTALLATION -----------1. 11.org/. you can print out your local PHP settings with PHP's phpinfo() function.net/). PHP4 (http://www.net/) and either MySQL.ini and can be overwritten in a . Jabber.24ix. OPTIONAL COMPONENTS ------------------. PostgreSQL or a database server supported by the PHP PEAR API (http://pear. DOWNLOAD DRUPAL You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.htaccess file.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. (More information can be found in the Drupal handbook on drupal.php. This extension is enabled by default in standard PHP4 installations. NOTE: The Apache web server and MySQL database are strongly recommended.cache_limiter none These values are set in php. other web server and database combinations such as IIS and PostgreSQL are possible but tested to a lesser extent. Email: info@24ix. you'll need mod_rewrite and the ability to use local .If you want support for clean URLs.To use XML-based services such as the Blogger API.save_handler user In addition. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you will need PHP's XML extension. SERVER CONFIGURATION -------------------Your PHP must have the following settings: session.php. . 24iX Systems.htaccess files. we recommend the following settings: session.

de Tel.x/* drupal-x.x/ containing all Drupal files and directories. At the MySQL prompt. In the following examples. you must create a new database for your Drupal site: $ mysqladmin -u dba_user -p create drupal MySQL will prompt for the dba_user database password and then create the initial database files.* TO nobody@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'password'. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 . Next you must login and set the access database rights: $ mysql -u dba_user -p Again. If you are using another database.x/. Email: info@24ix. 11.x.x.x. where 'drupal' is the name of your database 'nobody@localhost' is the userid of your webserver MySQL account 'password' is the password required to log in as the MySQL user 24iX Systems.x.tgz $ tar -zxvf drupal-x. enter following command: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON drupal.gz format and extract the files: $ wget http://drupal.x.htaccess /var/www/html 2. check the database documentation.Download the current tar.x.org/files/project/drupal-x.24ix. Alte Kirchstr.tgz This will create a new directory drupal-x.de . First. Move the contents of that directory into a directory within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory: $ mv drupal-x. CREATE THE DRUPAL DATABASE These instructions are for MySQL. you will be asked for the dba_user database password. You will need to use the appropriate user name for your system.x. "dba_user" is an example MySQL user which has the CREATE and GRANT privileges.

php' file within your Drupal installation. you can skip to the next section.24ix.com could be in 24iX Systems. LOAD THE DRUPAL DATABASE SCHEME Once you have a database. 0 rows affected to activate the new permissions you must enter the command flush privileges. The easiest way to create additional sites is to copy the 'default' directory and modify the 'settings.example. Additional site configurations are created in subdirectories within the 'sites' directory.mysql 4. each with its own individual configuration. Each site subdirectory must have a 'settings. CONNECTING DRUPAL The default configuration can be found in the 'sites/default/settings. Email: info@24ix.com".php' file which specifies the configuration settings.de . 11. Alte Kirchstr. MySQL will reply with Query OK. a single Drupal installation can host several Drupal-powered sites. Set $base_url to match the address to your web site: $base_url = "http://www. Before you can run Drupal. 3. If you don't need to run multiple Drupal sites. you must set the database URL and the base URL to the web site.If successful.php' file as appropriate. and then enter '\q' to exit MySQL. The new directory name is constructed from the site's URL. you must load the required tables: $ mysql -u nobody -p drupal < database/database. Open the configuration file and edit the $db_url line to match the database defined in the previous steps: $db_url = "mysql://username:password@localhost/drupal". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 . The configuration for www.example. In addition.de Tel.

site3/settings.'sites/example. if sub. using the first configuration file it finds: sites/www. Drupal will search for configuration files in the following order.com/settings.' should be omitted if users can access your site at http://example.com/).example.example.php sites/example.example.php sites/sub. For example.example.php sites/example. Sites do not each have to have a different domain. 11. simply create a 'modules' or 'themes' directory within the site configuration directory.com.com. and sub.php Each site configuration can have its own site-specific modules and themes that will be made available in addition to those installed in the standard 'modules' and 'themes' directories. To use site-specific modules or themes.dom has a custom theme and a custom module that should not be accessible to other sites. For example.de Tel.example.php sites/www.example.php' (note that 'www.example.de . The setup for a configuration such as this would look like the following: sites/default/settings.com.example. Alte Kirchstr.com/settings.example.com.com/settings.24ix.com/: settings.com.example.php sites/sub.php sites/sub.php sites/sub. You can use subdomains and subdirectories for Drupal sites also.: 07000 7000 850 .sub.php sites/example. example.sub.com/settings.php sites/default/settings.com/site3 can all be defined as independent Drupal sites.site3/settings.com. sub.php themes/: custom_theme 24iX Systems.php When searching for a site configuration (for example www. Email: info@24ix.com/site3). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.site3/settings. the setup would look like this: sites/sub.example.sub.com/settings.site3/settings.com/settings.

your Drupal website defaults to a very basic configuration with only a few active modules. CONFIGURE DRUPAL You can now launch your browser and point it to your Drupal site. one theme. CRON TASKS Many Drupal modules have periodic tasks that must be triggered by a cron job. The following example crontab line will activate the cron script on the hour: 0 * * * * wget -O . this will pass control to the modules and the modules will decide if and what they must do.: 07000 7000 850 . set some general settings for your site with "Administration configuration". 5. 6.de . Create an account and login. Email: info@24ix.de Tel. consult the Drupal handbook at drupal. Alte Kirchstr. Enable modules via "Administration configuration - 24iX Systems. To activate these tasks. For example.modules/: custom_module NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration settings.24ix. 11. and no user access rights. you must call the cron page. Example scripts can be found in the scripts/ directory. DRUPAL ADMINISTRATION --------------------Upon a new installation.org.-q http://HOSTNAME/cron.php More information about the cron scripts are available in the admin help pages and in the Drupal handbook at drupal.org. Use your administration panel to enable and configure services. The first account will automatically become the main administrator account. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

Alte Kirchstr. CUSTOMIZING YOUR THEME(S) ------------------------Now that your server is running. 3. 11.php. UPGRADING --------1.example.especially your configuration file (www.modules". Modify the new configuration file to make sure it has the correct information. each theme contains a PHP file themename. Customizing each theme depends on the theme. Most themes also contain stylesheets or PHP configuration files to tune the colors and layouts.org/.permissions".de . Run update.com/update. MORE INFORMATION 24iX Systems. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. read through the instructions which accompany the different configuration settings and consult the various help pages available in the administration panel. Several sample themes are included in the Drupal installation and more can be downloaded from drupal.com. Note that additional community-contributed modules and themes are available at http://drupal. Remove all the old Drupal files then unpack the new Drupal files into the directory that you run Drupal from.php by visiting http://www. In general. Email: info@24ix. 2. check the themes/ directory for README files describing each alternate theme.conf or includes/conf. User permissions can be set with "Administration accounts . Log on as the user with user ID 1. you will want to customize the look of your site. For more information on configuration options.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 .theme which defines a function header() that can be changed to reference your own logos. 4. Backup your database and Drupal directory .example.24ix.org.php). 5.

Alte Kirchstr. Linux specific guidelines Installing PHP. Make sure your $base_url in conf.de . please consult the Drupal handbook at http://drupal.php Change RewriteBase to: # Modify the RewriteBase if you are using Drupal in a subdirectory and the # rewrite rules are not working properly: RewriteBase /subdirectory Remove any #'s in front of the RewriteBase line in case it's commented out.de Tel.php is set correctly as well.htaccess file in Drupal's root. Installing Drupal in a subdirectory If you install Drupal in a subdirectory.---------------For platform specific configuration issues and other installation and administration assistance.: 07000 7000 850 . MySQL and Apache under Linux 24iX Systems.org/. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix. 11. You can also find support at the Drupal support forum or through the Drupal mailing lists. Change ErrorDocument to: # Customized server error messages: ErrorDocument 404 /subdirectory/index. Email: info@24ix. you need to alter the .

when using a Linux distribution that can handle RPMs.htaccess.htaccess file as well. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Make sure you include . Therefore.Installing MySQL shouldn't be too much of a burden. After the compilation process you have to set the DocumentRoot in Apache's httpd. To install Apache together with PHP and MySQL.de . just follow these simple steps: Copy Files Copy the files of your Drupal installation from the old directory to your new directory. Somewhat down httpd.de Tel.php in IfModule mod_dir.php Look for a line that begins with "$base_url = ".: 07000 7000 850 .mysite. The last thing to do is to add index.htaccess files so drupal can override Apache options from within the drupal directories. You might need to modify the . When configuring PHP do not forget to replace 'apache_1. Email: info@24ix.3.conf they ask you to set Directory to whatever you set DocumentRoot to. All you have to do is grab the RPMs from the MySQL website.x' with your version of Apache. update this so that $base_url equals the path to your new directory. Once MySQL has been installed. Make sure your Apache is setup to allow .com/development/ to the root directory of www.24ix. open the file includes/conf. set AllowOverride to "All" instead of "None". download Apache and PHP. Alte Kirchstr. and unpack them in the same directory. Moving Your Drupal Installation To A New Directory If for instance you need to move your installation from www. follow the "quick install"-instructions in the INSTALL-file located in your PHP directory. Save the file and close it. Please do note that you'll also need the MySQL client RPM. Change Path In your new directory.c behind DirectoryIndex. Apache will then look for index. not only the MySQL server one.mysite. 11. 24iX Systems.com.php in the DocumentRoot and will display it as its main page.conf to the path of your drupal-directory.

c:/php/pear"). Email: info@24ix. These functions seem not to work without minor modification to the Drupal source code. ini_set("include_path".24ix.. and create/delete tables. Add the following line to your includes/conf. please send a note to the drupal-devel mail list. If you are using a prior version.de Tel. it is now safe to delete the files in your old Drupal directory.Update Cron If you set up Cron on your old installation.. Once you have a proper database. Please post here if you find a way around this.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. make sure you update it to point to your new installation. o Note that the bottom of the database.. o o o 24iX Systems.mssql file contains function(s) which only work in SQL 2000.php with something similar to .mssql in your Query Analyzer. you currently cannot use the forum and tracker modules. 11. dump the required tables into your database by executing the file database.php file: ini_set("magic_quotes_sybase". Delete Old Directory Test that everything is working in your new installation. If so.GREATEST wherever you find GREATEST.4. you will need the following: o o o PHP with the MSSQL extension active PEAR must be installed and on your include path.mssql schema and get MSSQL working again.: 07000 7000 850 . Create a user who has may read/write data. You can set the include path in your conf. MS SQL Server Guidelines Update: with Drupal 4. MSSQL is not supported because we have no maintainer for this piece of the application. Specifically. ". In order to use MS SQL Server. If you wish to update the database. Alte Kirchstr. 1). Use Query Analyzer or Enterprise Manager to do the following: Create a database for your site. substitute dbo.

You'll need to be root (or sudo) to do this.conf (turn personal web sharing off. In httpd. or any combination of "Options".o Set the database options in includes/conf. Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . Can also be "All".php: $db_url = "mssql://username:password@hostname/dbname". then back on again. Edit the following line in includes/conf. 11.htaccess files in directories can # override.php so Drupal can access the database you have created. locate the following section and allow overrides. so that Drupal's clean urls will work (they depend upon rewrite rules in .: 07000 7000 850 . The stock version of Apache should be fine.24ix.htaccess). OSX Specific Guidelines Install and configure Mysql and PHP.conf (in /private/etc/httpd). # # This controls which options the . Don't forget to restart apache after modifying httpd. # "AuthConfig".de Tel. Email: info@24ix. and "Limit" # # AllowOverride None AllowOverride All 24iX Systems. PHP is also available from Marc Liyanage. Turn on "personal web sharing" in the sharing panel of System Preferences. Server Logistics provides nice precompiled packages and instructions. "FileInfo". or use /usr/sbin/apachectl restart).

Create a PostgreSQL database for your site. 11. All has gone well if there are no lines marked "Error:" printed to the screen.de . PostgreSQL specific guidelines 1. the following is displayed: CREATE DATABASE 2.de Tel. dump the required tables into your database: psql -u username dbname < database/database.Drupal goes into /Library/WebServer/Documents/. You should see a progress report as the tables are created. createdb -U username dbname where username is the owner of the database (this user must have permission to create databases) and dbname is the name of your database. Once you have a proper database. 3.php so Drupal can access the database you have created. On success. or ~/Sites. Email: info@24ix.php: $db_url = "pgsql://username:password@hostname/dbname". Alte Kirchstr. You will be prompted for that user's password. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Set the database options in includes/conf.pgsql You will be prompted for your database password.24ix. 24iX Systems. Edit the following line in includes/conf.: 07000 7000 850 .

org/guides/GUITools">PostgreSQL GUI's o Go ahead and create your database tables via phpPgSQL or via the command line as described here. the username for your DB is your windows login name and there is no password. See PostgreSQL on Windows for the options you have. It will save you frustation at the command line. After completing installation. Email: info@24ix. the apparently easiest choice for PostgreSQL on Windows is "UltraSQL by PeerDirect" mentioned at above link.postgresql. A more complete list of all known PostgreSQL GUI tools is available at <A href="http://techdocs. 11.24ix. See the README file enclosed in the download and Installing the PeerDirect PostgreSQL beta for Windows for more instructions. and MySQL in one easy download. As of this writing. PHP.: 07000 7000 850 . It is available from here. o Grab the latest copy of Apache and PHP. o Windows specific guidelines Several packages exist which install Apache. it's best to install PHP along the way because you'll be editing the same files for both of them.Installing PostgreSQL on Windows Postgres is easily installed and administered on Windows. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. see the guidelines below. Otherwise. have a look at Miniserver Foxserv PHPHome Installing Apache (with PHP) on Windows The first step to getting Drupal running on your Windows machine is to set up the Apache web server. o You might want to install phpPgSQL in order to admin your database. 24iX Systems. While you're at it. If you want to install them separately.de . Alte Kirchstr.de Tel.

24iX Systems. C:\Windows\Temp) o Use the Start Apache as a service icon in your Start Menu. make sure there are no spaces in the paths. In there is a file. 11. check for a php.html to DirectoryIndex index.exe' Find <Directory and change that value to <Directory 'C:/Drupal'> with the same path as your Documentroot value.html Change your Documentroot value to the folder where you unzipped Drupal.g. If you keep this.Run the setup files and install the packages. Oddly enough.ini.save_path to a valid temporary folder on your harddrive (e. Next. Remember to use forward slashes.phps ScriptAlias /php/ 'C:/php/' where the path points to the folder you installed PHP to. group. which you have to edit next: Search for ServerAdmin and change it to your e-mail address If you want to do local testing only.php AddType application/x-httpd-php-source .conf. Search for a section called [mail function] and fill in your outgoing mailserver (SMTP) and email-address. Alte Kirchstr. the Apache-Installer defaults to C:\Program Files\Apache Group\Apache. o o Everything should work fine now. locate the setup. Changing this to something like C:\progs\web\Apache and C:\progs\web\PHP will do just fine.24ix. Email: info@24ix.0. o Next.ini-dist and copy it. change ServerName to 127.php index. When prompted choose custom install. If there is no such file. Search for AddType and add the following lines: AddType application/x-httpd-php . o Go to the folder where you have installed Apache.exe. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel. you quite certainly will run into problems with cgi. httpd. go to your PHP folder and edit php. and execute it.0. It's best to do a full install. go to the section called [Session] and change the session. and under that you will see a folder conf.de .and php-scripts not finding paths. Installing MySQL on Windows o After downloading the latest stable release version of MySQL. When prompted for the directories to install the programs into. Action application/x-httpd-php '/php/php.1 Change DirectoryIndex index.

also chck that all the configurable options are correct in accordance to your computer. Alte Kirchstr. which is c:\mysql.exe Choose a username and password for yourself. click on the my. I recommend keeping to the default.org.24ix. mod_rewrite powers this feature.php.ini tab. Change session. If you get the PHP information page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.o o o o o o o Choose a path to install it. Change doc_root to your preferred work folder (''drive:pathtofiles''). In the my.address'' Change SMTP to 'your. For Apache sites.ini tab. and copy the php.save_path to a temporary folder (''drive:pathtotemp'') and make sure the temporary folder exists. since every page view is considered an error using this technique. Make sure it exists and is the same folder your specified in the Apache setup procedure. In the console.ini Make the following modifications: Change include_path to ''. 24iX Systems.mail. If not. and type in: http://localhost/test. Installing PHP4 on Windows o o o o o After obtaining the latest stable release of PHP.ini-optimized to php. You probably want to disable logging in IIS. ?> and save it in your work folder. use the same configuration as your email client uses.'' Change sendmail_from to ''your@email.smtp. extract the archive to c:\php or something similar. Close the admin console and restart it. Open your web browser. Copy php. for example test. and start winmysqladmin.php which contain the following: <?PHP phpinfo(). then everything is set up correctly. just go over the settings again for PHP to make sure everything is ok. you will use a custom error handler for this. For IIS. and choose "create shortcut in startmenu" option.de Tel. everything fine. Set register_globals to equal "On" Save the changes. Create a basic php file.ini file to your Windows directory.: 07000 7000 850 . pretty URLs like those at drupal. Go to the MySQL folder. and continue until done. Email: info@24ix. If admin program runs with a green light.service' If you don't know your smtp server.de . Select all components. 11. Using Clean URLs with IIS Drupal can display brief.

$arr). otherwise. paste the following code into the bottom of includes/conf. If you get into trouble. } $_GET["q"] = trim($parts["path"]. if any. $parts["query"].de . $url = array_pop($qs). and have to disable clean URLs later.". URL=/index. do so by editing the variable table directly. unset($_GET. $_GET = array_merge($_GET.php browse to index. $_REQUEST = array_merge($_REQUEST. strlen($sub_dir)). Alte Kirchstr.")) { $qs = explode(". "/").: 07000 7000 850 . You cannot just browse to a subdirectory if you happenned to install to a subdirectory. open your Internet Services Manager or MMC and browse to the root directory of the web site where you installed Drupal.= '?'. $parts = parse_url($url). $arr). set $sub_directory to "". If you are using Drupal in a subdirectory.php. // remove cruft added by IIS if ($sub_dir) { $parts["path"] = substr($parts["path"].24ix. $_SERVER["ARGV"] = array($parts["query"]). right click and select properties -> custom errors tab set the HTTP Error 404 and 405 lines to MessageType=URL. $_SERVER["QUERY_STRING"] = $parts["query"].o o o o o o make sure your Drupal is working well without clean urls enabled. $arr).php. // set to 1 if using clean URLS with IIS // CODE if ($active && strstr($_SERVER["QUERY_STRING"]. 11. parse_str($parts['query']. prepend your subdir before /index. If you aren't using a subdirectory. $_SERVER["QUERY_STRING"]). if ($parts["query"]) { $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"] . and press Submit.de Tel. use "" $active = 0. $_SERVER['QUERY_STRING']). } } ?> Installing Drupal on Windows 24iX Systems. ". Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $_SERVER["REQUEST_URI"] = $parts["path"]. then set $active=1 and enjoy! <?php // CONFIGURATION $sub_dir = "/41/". // enter a subdirectory. the first two lines should be edited. enable clean URLS.php?q=admin/system.

Scheduling Tasks VIII. preferably.de Tel. Connecting it All Together IV. Email: info@24ix. MySQL or PHP. NOTE: The Apache web server and MySQL database are strongly recommended.: 07000 7000 850 . 24iX Systems. this page should only contain windows specific guidelines that differ significantly from the general guidelines.[this page used to contain verbose windows installation guidelines. PHP4 (http://www. More Information ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Requirements ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drupal requires a web server.net/).net/projects/foxserv/). latter would be put so generally that we don't need anything here (eg.24ix.net/) and MySQL or a database server supported by the PHP PEAR API (http://pear. Drupal Adminstration V. Setting Permissions VI. Installation III. Upgrading an Existing Drupal Site X. and c) we don't want to maintain redundant documentation. other web server and database combinations such as IIS and PostgreSQL are possible but tested to a lesser extend. 11.)] Installing Drupal on Windows Ext ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table of Contents ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.de .php. I strongly recommend a complete web server packaged installer if you are at all new to Apache. Requirements II. There are many out there. they got removed because they were a) just a copy of the general installation guidelines. b) misleading ("start by extracting the archive to the PHP working folder"). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. My personal favorite (because it worked out of the box) is FoxServ (http://sourceforge. Optional Components IX. Customizing Themes VII.php. don't rely on "wget" and "tar" etc. Alte Kirchstr.

Downloading Drupal You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal.24ix.htaccess file (in the drupal directory) overridding whatever is set in the php. You can find this information out easily with PHP's phpinfo() function.x/ containing all Drupal files and directories. copy it to your "www.x.php page and modules directory in it. we recommend the following settings: session.picozip. For example. There is a very helpful function in PHP that gives you all the information about how PHP is setup on your server. Enter one line of text.cache_limiter none The php.save_handler user In addition.mydomain.com" or "localhost" directory and view it in a browser. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. ?> " and save the file to your server (where php is installed). Alte Kirchstr. This will create a new directory drupal-x.ini file.com/) because it is easy and supports a huge number of compression formats.php. Download the most current tar. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Installation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Step 1. Click the downloads link.ini file is usually found in the WinNT directory. This directory can be several directorys deeper than the unzipped directory. These can be set in the php.org/.gz format and extract the files.: 07000 7000 850 . " <?php echo phpinfo(). You may need a tool to uncompress the files. Be sure to have apache running when you test it. To find out about your PHP settings simply create a file called phpinfo. Move the contents of that directory into a directory 24iX Systems.ini file is located so you can make any changes there.de . I recommend picozip (http://www. Email: info@24ix. This function also shows you where your php. The directory we are concerned about has the index. 11.de Tel.Server Configuration Your PHP setup must have the following settings enabled. At the time of this writing it has a 30 day trial period.ini file: session. These settings can be set in .

de Tel.com/www" or "ftp://www.de/. I received an error that prevented the program to launch when I tried to "Launch Program Now" from the installation program but on a second attempt the Start > Programs > menu it launched successfully. First. Creating the Database with MySQL-Front If you are going to create a database from the command line skip to the next section. "C:\FoxServ\www\drupal". otherwise continue on here. At the time of this writing it is free. Email: info@24ix. NOTE: when copying files. on my local machine I copy the files to.within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory.Opening MySQL Front . Alte Kirchstr. To follow alongin the next steps you will need to login to your MySQL database with a user account that has the CREATE and GRANT privileges.htaccess file.: 07000 7000 850 . Tell the guy thank you and donate. ensure you also copy the hidden . If you are using another database and you know a little bit about databases you should be able to follow along quite nicely. On my local machine I created a directory of the name of the domain name it is part of. Step 2. You can goto and download MySQL-Front from http://www. 11. An Open Session window will appear. For example.mydomain. "D:\FoxServ\www\" (locally) or "ftp://www.mysqlfront. To do so: .exe from the command line to achieve the same thing. Be sure to check the database documentation for your specific database if you have any questions.mydomain. You will need to use the appropriate user name for your system. I would recommend copying it to a directory but if you are ready you can copy the files to root of the site which would be something like. Alternatively you can use MySQL.24ix. You can see hidden files in Explorer by going to the menu item Tools > Folder Options > View > Hidden Files and Folders > Show Hidden Files.com/var/www/html".de .Find and open MySQL-Front. For this part of the tutorial I am going to use MySQL-Front to create and setup our Drupal database. I will list the command line instructions after the MySQL-Front instructions. you must create a new database for your Drupal site. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 24iX Systems. Creating the Drupal Database These instructions are geared toward a MySQL database.

. Default Timeout is 30 seconds. Click OK to login to your mysql account. If you installed mysql yourself the username is "admin" or "root" and the password is blank (on a fresh mysql installation).Creating a New Connection Session .de Tel. If you dont know your're userid and password you will need to contact your hosting company or whoever set it mysql on your server and get a userid or send them these instructions. For this tutorial we will try to stay with menu commands. Assuming you login successfully you will be shown a list of databases attached to the mysql server. . 24iX Systems.Click the New button to create a new connection session for drupal. The default port for mysql is "3306". In this tutorial we will call it "Drupal Connection". .Switch to the Connection tab and enter the name of the server that has mysql running on it. I dont know what Connection Saver is. . Connection Saver is active by default.A New Database dialog appears. Otherwise enter your password now. You have the option to choose the database to startup in.Enter the name of your new drupal database.0. select Database > New > Database from the menu bar. Click the Ok button to save your new mysql session connection and to take you back to the Open Session window. There is also a toolbar icon that adds a new database.de/. A window will prompt you for your password if a password was not supplied (when you were creating the session connection). An Add Session window will appear. Enter "localhost" if you are running it locally. You will choose this at another time because we have not created our database yet.com" or an IP "127. Email: info@24ix.Select the new session you just made and click the OK button.Creating a New Database . .de . 11. Alte Kirchstr.To create our new drupal database.Switch to the login tab and enter the username that you setup when you installed mysql..mysqlfront.Login to MySQL . . This would be "www. Try what it says and if it doesn't work use the Command line method listed below or contact the authors of MySQL-Front at http://www.0. "drupal" or the same name as your domain.Under the Common tab enter the name for your connection.: 07000 7000 850 . .1".myserver. If you are running it on your local machine I would name it. If your password is blank you do not need to enter anything here. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. If you get any errors the program will let you know about it and sometimes offers accurate advice on what to do to fix it.24ix.

Substitute "myDomainName" with the name of of your domain. "dba_user".de Tel. If you are not then skip it.Next you must set the access database rights. . If successful you will get "O rows affected" in the MySQL-Front status bar. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Interpreted it says.* TO myUserId@myDomainName IDENTIFIED BY 'myPassword'. . . . To do this you must go to the "Importing the Drupal Database Scheme" section in the Command Line section or obtain an additional file called. 24iX Systems.In the Common tab enter the name of the new user.Click on the SQL Editor and copy this code into it: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON myDatabaseName."mydomainname". . If you are smart you will write your username and password down now. "localhost". An Add User window will appear. "I am german. "myPassword" with the password for your "myUserId@myDomainName" user ID.de . Substitute. you must load the required drupal tables into it. We are going to run a script in MySQL-Front's SQL Query. This will add a new user with permissions necessary to administer your drupal database. 11. Cancel out of that. If you are running drupal on a local machine enter. Let's skip this method.Importing the Drupal Database Scheme Once you have created your new database.: 07000 7000 850 . . No speeka englace.Let's verify that we created a new user. If you are smart you will write these down now. Click on Users in the Host tree and select View > Refresh from the menu bar. Right click on Users in the Host tree and select Database > New > User from the menu bar. If not then check the error messages. Email: info@24ix. go back and check for misspelling and incorrect syntax and try again. . . Finally substitute. I recommend using all lowercase in the names you specify to avoid case sensitive errors later on. In the password field enter a password.Substitute "myDatabaseName" with the name of your database. In this tutorial we will use.Creating a User with Access Rights .Select Database > Run from the menu bar. Alte Kirchstr.24ix. I dont seem to be doing something right here. "myUserId" with the name of the drupal account that will be responsible for administering your drupal database. If everything went hunky dory then we should see our new user listed." Ok. You will get an error in german if you enter the wrong hostname.Switch to the Hosts tab and enter "localhost" or the name of your session connection. MySQL will then create the initial database files.

(. The tool to do this is the mysql. This is called the command line. on my machine the directory to the "mysql\bin" folder is "D:\FoxServ\mysql\bin".org. You will be presented with a scary black window with a square flashy thing.Creating the Database . "Dir" lists the contents of the directory and "cd" changes the directory.Now enter the following where "dba_user" is the name of the user id that has database administration rights to create your drupal database and "drupal" is the name of the drupal database to create: 24iX Systems. Click the OK button.Right click on your new drupal database in the Host tree and select Import > SQL File. An Import Options window will appear. But whatever. This is a MySQL import compatible MySQL database.mysql" files which are the only kind included with drupal distribution. I made the file because I imported the database from the command line and once it was in MySQL-Front I exported it to "database. You gotta a lesson in "Running MySQL from the Command Line". Well.exe file that can be run from the command line. Ok I was going to explain this but if you are installing a web site then you dont need to know this. This is what people used to work in before graphical user interfaces available..exe" resides.sql" directory and select the file. You are a big boy now. . Enter "cd\" to get to the root of your hard drive and then enter "cd FoxServ\mysql\bin". 11. "database.de Tel.24ix. And ten seconds to import it to my test database. MySQLFront cannot import "*. It took 10 seconds to export it to ". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Click Ok and your database will be created.sql" file.de . Browse to the "[drupal install dir]/database/database. wait for it.Browse to the directory where "mysql..ok fine. "d:\FoxServ\mysql\bin>". To get to the command line goto Start > Run and enter "cmd". you can write me or request it from the HEAD team at drupal.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. This is the SQL script that will create your drupal tables. "dir" and "cd". It would be better to have them manage it. Alte Kirchstr. At the time of this writing the "database."database. .) Change directories to the mysql directory.You must create a new database for your Drupal site for it to work. Otherwise you aren't going anywhere buddy. (cue ghost sounds).sql". The two commands you use to browse are. If you did not receive any errors then you have just created your drupal database! Yea! Creating the Database from the Command Line If you have already created a database using MySQL-Front skip to the next section. .sql". .sql" is not included with the drupal distribution.sql". If you see something like that then pat yourself on the back. If you did everything right command prompt will look like this.

SQL will prompt you for the dba_user database password. Alte Kirchstr.Make sure we are in the same directory as before and enter the following where "dba_user" is the name of the user id that has database adminstration rights: mysql -u dba_user -p .mysqladmin -u dba_user -p create drupal . Enter the password and hit enter. 24iX Systems.de Tel.de .Next you must login into your new database and set the user's database access rights. Email: info@24ix.24ix. "localhost" is the server where MySQL is installed and running and "myDrupalUsersPassword" is the new password for "myDrupalUserID@localhost" required to log in as the MySQL user.Setting Access Rights . Enter it (or dont if you dont have one) and press enter. Enter the following and press Enter: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON myDrupalDatabase. 11. I'll keep going. .* TO myDrupalUserID@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'myDrupalUsersPassword'. This is a command prompt that mysql creates inside the bigger command prompt. where was I? Oh right. Calm down.) Ehem.Again. pretty isn't it? . You must include the semicolon at the end of the line for MySQL to evaluate your statement.At the MySQL prompt.Creating a new user with permissions . no NO! This wont work at all! That's it I quit. let's get that command prompt back up.Now we need to create a new user that drupal can use to have access rights to the database. enter following command where 'myDrupalDatabase' is the name of your new drupal database. You will now be at the mysql command line prompt which looks like "mysql> ". You can set it later. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. We still need to import the database tables and setup a user before we can go further.: 07000 7000 850 . you will be asked for the dba_user database password. If you receive no messages and are back to the command prompt then you have just created the your drupal database. What? You closed the command line window? No. (What drupal slave master? I am bound by the GPL to finish writing this on pain of death? Is it death by snoose snoose? No? Hmmm. Ok. "myDrupalUserID@localhost" is the new Drupal UserId. . . To do that we need to log into the MySQL command prompt. Note: if you just setup your mysql to run on your computer or server or whatever then you DO NOT HAVE A PASSWORD YET!!!! AAHHHHAHGGGG! That is ok. excuse me. For now just leave the password field blank and press the entertainme key. Fine.

de . waiting. Alte Kirchstr. waiting.. waiting.de Tel. When entering the userid remember to leave off the "@domainname" we specified in previous steps.24ix.mysql" is the path to the mysql database stored in the "[drupal install dir]/database/" directory. Now would be a good time to copy the database (using windows explorer) to the same directory where "mysql. If you receive absolutely no messages whatsoever then the drupal database was successfully imported. Email: info@24ix. ..You will be prompted to enter a password. . .Activating Permissions . To activate the new permissions you must enter the the following from the mysql command prompt: flush privileges. . Enter the password you created for your "myDrupalUserID" account. otherwise it just sits there.exe" resides (that is the directory you are in right now). To exit mysql command prompt type 'exit' and press enter.We must now exit the mysql command prompt to finish creating our database. This refreshes and applies the permission to the new user we just made. To do so enter the following from the command prompt: mysql -u myDrupalUserID -p myDrupalDatabase < database/database. Note: You must remember to include the semicolon at the end of every statement you enter at the mysql prompt. you must load the required drupal tables into it. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.If this attempt is successful. "myDrupalUserID" is the new MySQL userid you just created(without the "@locahost") for use with your new drupal database and "database/database. 11.08 sec >". It's was only necessary when we created a user but not used after that.Exit MySQL Command Prompt .where "myDrupalDatabase" is the name of your new drupal database.and press enter. .mysql . On my machine it is "D:\FoxServ\mysql\bin". That is called living by faith. 24iX Systems. You will be returned back to the command prompt. Believing it worked even when you see no sign.Once you have created your new database.You must activate the new permissions for MySQL to apply the last step to the current running databases. If you do receive an error then I suggest checking the specified the path to the database and spelling errors. MySQL will reply with "Query OK..Importing the Drupal Database Scheme . 0 rows affected < 0.: 07000 7000 850 .

Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 24iX Systems. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Connecting it All Together ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------We are almost done. But nothing else. The base URL is the location.php file.php file exists on your server. Drupal server options are specified in includes/conf. 11. . Setting the Path to the Drupal Database . the "conf.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr. On my second drupal install.Type "exit" and press enter to exit the command window.This step is essential. I have two duplicate sites on my server. "http://www.mysite.Set $base_url to match the address and directory of drupal on your web site: $base_url = "http://www.This step is also essential.php" file in a text editor. Remember how I said you can have multiple drupal sites running? Here is where you can configure that.24ix.com/drupal" then you would put the same thing here. "D:\FoxServ\www\test".mysite. Open the "conf.com". the directory where your index. If you've got this far then you can conclude that your drupal database was installed and setup successfully.php". .: 07000 7000 850 .php". my test site. On my machine the "conf.Close the Command Prompt window .php" file is located in "D:\FoxServ\www\mytestsite\includes\conf.php" configuration file (in whatever drupal install you are in) and edit the $db_url line to match the values we defined in the previous steps: $db_url = "mysql://myDrupalUserID:myPassword@localhost/myDrupalDatabase". So if you put your drupal files into a directory say.php" file is located in "D:\FoxServ\www\includes\conf. Before you can run Drupal. Before Drupal will work we need to setup a few more settings.Browse to the "includes" directory in your drupal server install directory and open the "conf. you must set the database URL and the base URL to the web site.de . Setting the Path to the Drupal Directory on your Server . If you dont get this you will only see the home page. The database URL creates a connection string to connect to your database.. This is the login script to get into your specific MySQL drupal database. I've copied the orginal files to both the root "D:\FoxServ\www" and the test directory.

Use your administration panel to enable and configure services. Alte Kirchstr. Upon a new installation. For more information on configuration options.php file we worked with earlier and rename it to "www. Note that additional community-contributed modules and themes are available at http://drupal. make a copy of the conf.configuration .24ix.configuration".org/. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.mysite. If everything is setup correctly you will be at the home page of your new Drupal site. Use only one that matches your specific configuration: $base_url = "http://www.com/directoryWhereDrupalIs".com. set some general settings for your site with "Administration . User permissions can be set with "Administration . 11.NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration settings. .Here are some more examples. To configure a virtual server host.php".yourdomainname. For example. one theme. Setting up more than one dupal site on one machine using Virtual Hosts Besides the method I've mentioned above Drupal also allows for multiple virtual host installations. consult the Drupal handbook at drupal. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Setting Permissions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24iX Systems. $base_url = "http://localhost/anotherDrupalSite". and no user access rights. read through the instructions which accompany the different configuration settings and consult the various help pages available in the administration panel. your Drupal website defaults to a very basic configuration with only a few active modules.org.accounts .: 07000 7000 850 . Make sure Apache and MySQL services are running. $base_url = "http://localhost".de . place this in your includes directory.modules". ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drupal Adminstration ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------You can now launch your browser and test your site! Browse to the root directory where Drupal is installed. Enable modules via "Administration .permissions". NOTE: This part of the instructions (setting up virtual hosts) is not not tested. Email: info@24ix.de Tel. If someone validates this and would include any steps I have forgot then i will add it here for the benefit of others.

This is the page to give users the permission to see the content on your site. To enable anonymous users to see your site content find a row called. If we are going to create a new adminstrator user account for ourselves we will need to change this. We can change this in the Permissions page.org. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Please note. we are one step away from creating our secondary adminstor account. You can go back and change this after you get familiar with Drupal (think a few months from now). Email: info@24ix. On this page enter the new account information and click Create Account. You can now log out of the adminstrator account (write down the password) and login with your secondary adminstrator account. Follow the on screen instructions to create an account and login. Enter "adminstrator" and press the Add button. Here is a table filled with options for all your different roles. Creating a New User Finally. anonymous visitor and authenticated user.: 07000 7000 850 . New roles have no permissions set. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Customizing Themes ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Now that your server is running. 11. Set your administrator account to have all permissions for now and click save permissions. Giving Permissions to a Role By default all the roles have very limited capabilities.Out of the box you will not have permission to do or view anything but the home page. Except in certain cases you will want to create additional roles for the different users that use your site. You can add additional adminstrator accounts at any time.de Tel. The first thing you need to do is create a master user account. Goto Administer > Accounts > New User. Several sample themes are included in the Drupal installation and more can be downloaded from drupal. "access content" check the checkbox.24ix. Write your user name and password to both down in a secure location. Alte Kirchstr. you will want to customize the look of your site. I recommend creating another account with administrative permissions for security reasons and using that from now on. The first account will automatically become the main administrator account for the site. 24iX Systems. You have to give them (an anonymous visitor) privileges to view your site.de . Goto Administer > Accounts > Permissions. For now go to Administer > Accounts > Roles and add "Adminstrator". Neither will anyone who visits the site. Creating the Administrator Role By default Drupal only has two roles.

Email: info@24ix. RSS syndication. This extension is enabled by default in standard PHP4 installations. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Scheduling Tasks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Many Drupal modules have periodic tasks that must be triggered at specific interviews.htaccess files.24ix. Most themes also contain stylesheets or PHP configuration files to tune the colors and layouts. Jabber. I dont know the Windows equivalent of this section.Customizing each theme depends on the theme. Example scripts can be found in the scripts/ directory. you'll need mod_rewrite and the ability to use local .) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Upgrading an Existing Drupal Site ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24iX Systems.de . To activate these tasks.If you want support for clean URLs. In general. 11. you must call the cron page. The following example crontab line will activate the cron script on the hour: 0 * * * * wget -O .de Tel.org. Please email me if you know.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. This is called a cron job and they are setup in the cron. this will pass control to the modules and the modules will decide if and what they must do.php page.theme which defines a function header() that can be changed to reference your own logos. each theme contains a PHP file themename.org. .-q http://HOSTNAME/cron. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Optional Components ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------. you will need PHP's XML extension.php More information about the cron scripts are available in the admin help pages and in the Drupal handbook at drupal. (More information can be found in the Drupal handbook on drupal.To use XML-based services such as the Blogger API. Alte Kirchstr. check the themes/ directory for README files describing each alternate theme.

net/) and MySQL or a database server supported by the PHP PEAR API (http://pear. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------More Information ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------For platform specific configuration issues and other installation and administration assistance. Customizing Themes VII. Upgrading an Existing Drupal Site X. Log on as the user with user ID 1. Run update.24ix. please consult the Drupal handbook at http://drupal. Overwrite all the old Drupal files with the new Drupal files.de .com. Requirements II.php by visiting http://www. Installing Drupal on Windows Ext ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table of Contents ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------I.php).org/.conf or includes/conf.: 07000 7000 850 . 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr. 4. More Information ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Requirements ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drupal requires a web server.net/). 5. Setting Permissions VI.example. You can also find support at the Drupal support forum or through the Drupal mailing lists.1. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Scheduling Tasks VIII. 3. PHP4 (http://www.com/update.de Tel. Connecting it All Together IV. Drupal Adminstration V. Backup your database and Drupal directory .example.php.php.php. Email: info@24ix. Modify the new configuration file to make sure it has the correct information.especially your configuration file (www. Installation III. 2. 11. Optional Components IX.

ini file: session. There is a very helpful function in PHP that gives you all the information about how PHP is setup on your server. Server Configuration Your PHP setup must have the following settings enabled. " <?php echo phpinfo().de Tel. There are many out there. Alte Kirchstr.24ix. MySQL or PHP. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. This function also shows you where your php. 11. These can be set in the php.cache_limiter none The php. I strongly recommend a complete web server packaged installer if you are at all new to Apache.save_handler user In addition.htaccess file (in the drupal directory) overridding whatever is set in the php. My personal favorite (because it worked out of the box) is FoxServ (http://sourceforge. For example.NOTE: The Apache web server and MySQL database are strongly recommended.ini file. Be sure to have apache running when you test it. other web server and database combinations such as IIS and PostgreSQL are possible but tested to a lesser extend. These settings can be set in . Downloading Drupal 24iX Systems. Enter one line of text.: 07000 7000 850 .de . copy it to your "www.com" or "localhost" directory and view it in a browser.ini file is located so you can make any changes there. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Installation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Step 1. we recommend the following settings: session. ?> " and save the file to your server (where php is installed).ini file is usually found in the WinNT directory. To find out about your PHP settings simply create a file called phpinfo. Email: info@24ix.php. You can find this information out easily with PHP's phpinfo() function.mydomain.net/projects/foxserv/).

Move the contents of that directory into a directory within your web server's document root or your public HTML directory.mydomain.com/www" or "ftp://www. I would recommend copying it to a directory but if you are ready you can copy the files to root of the site which would be something like.x. If you are using another database and you know a little bit about databases you should be able to follow along quite nicely. I received an error that prevented the program to launch when I tried to "Launch Program Now" from the installation program but on a second attempt the Start > Programs > menu it launched successfully.htaccess file. I will list the command line instructions after the MySQL-Front instructions.gz format and extract the files. For this part of the tutorial I am going to use MySQL-Front to create and setup our Drupal database.org/.You can obtain the latest Drupal release from http://drupal. This will create a new directory drupal-x. Alte Kirchstr.x/ containing all Drupal files and directories. At the time of this writing it has a 30 day trial period. At the time of this writing it is free.de Tel. 11. You may need a tool to uncompress the files.com/) because it is easy and supports a huge number of compression formats.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. I recommend picozip (http://www. Click the downloads link. On my local machine I created a directory of the name of the domain name it is part of. You can goto and download MySQL-Front from http://www. Download the most current tar.mydomain.php page and modules directory in it. Be sure to check the database documentation for your specific database if you have any questions. You will need to use the appropriate user name for your system. Tell the guy thank you and donate. This directory can be several directorys deeper than the unzipped directory.de/. NOTE: when copying files. "D:\FoxServ\www\" (locally) or "ftp://www. Creating the Drupal Database These instructions are geared toward a MySQL database. For example. on my local machine I copy the files to. The directory we are concerned about has the index. You can see hidden files in Explorer by going to the menu item Tools > Folder Options > View > Hidden Files and Folders > Show Hidden Files. Alternatively you can use MySQL.picozip. To follow alongin the next steps you will need to login to your MySQL database with a user account that has the CREATE and GRANT privileges. Email: info@24ix.de .mysqlfront. Step 2. 24iX Systems.com/var/www/html".exe from the command line to achieve the same thing. "C:\FoxServ\www\drupal". ensure you also copy the hidden .: 07000 7000 850 .

11. Enter "localhost" if you are running it locally. you must create a new database for your Drupal site. Connection Saver is active by default. An Open Session window will appear. Try what it says and if it doesn't work use the Command line method listed below or contact the authors of MySQL-Front at http://www. Email: info@24ix. I dont know what Connection Saver is. If you installed mysql yourself the username is "admin" or "root" and the password is blank (on a fresh mysql installation).24ix. Click OK to login to your mysql account.myserver.Select the new session you just made and click the OK button.de . You have the option to choose the database to startup in. If your password is blank you do not need to enter anything here. If you get any errors the program will let you know about it and sometimes offers accurate advice on what to do to fix it.Login to MySQL . This would be "www. An Add Session window will appear. To do so: . .Under the Common tab enter the name for your connection.Creating the Database with MySQL-Front If you are going to create a database from the command line skip to the next section.Find and open MySQL-Front.1". You will choose this at another time because we have not created our database yet. otherwise continue on here. The default port for mysql is "3306". . Otherwise enter your password now. 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . First. Default Timeout is 30 seconds.com" or an IP "127. . Alte Kirchstr.Click the New button to create a new connection session for drupal.mysqlfront. In this tutorial we will call it "Drupal Connection". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de/. Click the Ok button to save your new mysql session connection and to take you back to the Open Session window.0.Switch to the Connection tab and enter the name of the server that has mysql running on it.Opening MySQL Front . A window will prompt you for your password if a password was not supplied (when you were creating the session connection).Switch to the login tab and enter the username that you setup when you installed mysql. .0.Creating a New Connection Session .de Tel. . If you dont know your're userid and password you will need to contact your hosting company or whoever set it mysql on your server and get a userid or send them these instructions.

. "dba_user". Let's skip this method. "I am german.24ix. "myUserId" with the name of the drupal account that will be responsible for administering your drupal database. Right click on Users in the Host tree and select Database > New > User from the menu bar.: 07000 7000 850 .Creating a User with Access Rights .* TO myUserId@myDomainName IDENTIFIED BY 'myPassword'. Cancel out of that. . If you are not then skip it.Next you must set the access database rights.de Tel.Enter the name of your new drupal database.Assuming you login successfully you will be shown a list of databases attached to the mysql server. If you are smart you will write these down now.To create our new drupal database. No speeka englace. "localhost". There is also a toolbar icon that adds a new database. An Add User window will appear. "drupal" or the same name as your domain. I dont seem to be doing something right here. Email: info@24ix. 24iX Systems.In the Common tab enter the name of the new user. 11.A New Database dialog appears. If you are running drupal on a local machine enter. . "myPassword" with the password for your "myUserId@myDomainName" user ID. Finally substitute. In the password field enter a password. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. MySQL will then create the initial database files.de . For this tutorial we will try to stay with menu commands.Creating a New Database . .Substitute "myDatabaseName" with the name of your database. If you are running it on your local machine I would name it. If you are smart you will write your username and password down now. select Database > New > Database from the menu bar. We are going to run a script in MySQL-Front's SQL Query. . Alte Kirchstr. ." Ok. You will get an error in german if you enter the wrong hostname.Switch to the Hosts tab and enter "localhost" or the name of your session connection. . I recommend using all lowercase in the names you specify to avoid case sensitive errors later on. Interpreted it says. "mydomainname". .Click on the SQL Editor and copy this code into it: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON myDatabaseName. In this tutorial we will use. Substitute. Substitute "myDomainName" with the name of of your domain.

sql".. .de Tel. you must load the required drupal tables into it. Browse to the "[drupal install dir]/database/database. . This is a MySQL import compatible MySQL database. To do this you must go to the "Importing the Drupal Database Scheme" section in the Command Line section or obtain an additional file called. To get to the command line goto Start > Run and enter "cmd".mysql" files which are the only kind included with drupal distribution.org.sql" directory and select the file. "database. you can write me or request it from the HEAD team at drupal.Creating the Database . If not then check the error messages. If everything went hunky dory then we should see our new user listed. It would be better to have them manage it. You will be presented with a scary black window with a square flashy thing. (cue ghost sounds).de . 11. But whatever. Click Ok and your database will be created.: 07000 7000 850 . This is called the command line.Right click on your new drupal database in the Host tree and select Import > SQL File.sql". Click on Users in the Host tree and select View > Refresh from the menu bar.24ix.Importing the Drupal Database Scheme Once you have created your new database. MySQLFront cannot import "*. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Email: info@24ix. "database. Click the OK button.exe file that can be run from the command line. It took 10 seconds to export it to ". At the time of this writing the "database. This is the SQL script that will create your drupal tables.Select Database > Run from the menu bar. You gotta a lesson in "Running MySQL from the Command Line".sql". The tool to do this is the mysql.Let's verify that we created a new user. An Import Options window will appear. And ten seconds to import it to my test database.You must create a new database for your Drupal site for it to work. This will add a new user with permissions necessary to administer your drupal database. If you did not receive any errors then you have just created your drupal database! Yea! Creating the Database from the Command Line If you have already created a database using MySQL-Front skip to the next section. If successful you will get "O rows affected" in the MySQL-Front status bar. This is what people used to work in before 24iX Systems. go back and check for misspelling and incorrect syntax and try again.sql" file. . I made the file because I imported the database from the command line and once it was in MySQL-Front I exported it to "database. . Alte Kirchstr. Otherwise you aren't going anywhere buddy.sql" is not included with the drupal distribution.

"Dir" lists the contents of the directory and "cd" changes the directory. . You will now be at the mysql command line prompt which looks like "mysql> ". . pretty isn't it? 24iX Systems. "d:\FoxServ\mysql\bin>". Ok I was going to explain this but if you are installing a web site then you dont need to know this. Enter "cd\" to get to the root of your hard drive and then enter "cd FoxServ\mysql\bin".24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. "dir" and "cd".Again.de Tel. let's get that command prompt back up. Calm down. Ok. I'll keep going..) Ehem. you will be asked for the dba_user database password.: 07000 7000 850 . . Email: info@24ix.Make sure we are in the same directory as before and enter the following where "dba_user" is the name of the user id that has database adminstration rights: mysql -u dba_user -p . If you see something like that then pat yourself on the back. For now just leave the password field blank and press the entertainme key. Enter the password and hit enter. Well. You can set it later. where was I? Oh right.Next you must login into your new database and set the user's database access rights. (What drupal slave master? I am bound by the GPL to finish writing this on pain of death? Is it death by snoose snoose? No? Hmmm.exe" resides.) Change directories to the mysql directory.Setting Access Rights . wait for it. You are a big boy now. excuse me. Alte Kirchstr. The two commands you use to browse are. Fine. 11.Now enter the following where "dba_user" is the name of the user id that has database administration rights to create your drupal database and "drupal" is the name of the drupal database to create: mysqladmin -u dba_user -p create drupal .SQL will prompt you for the dba_user database password.. We still need to import the database tables and setup a user before we can go further. . If you did everything right command prompt will look like this.ok fine. This is a command prompt that mysql creates inside the bigger command prompt. What? You closed the command line window? No. If you receive no messages and are back to the command prompt then you have just created the your drupal database. on my machine the directory to the "mysql\bin" folder is "D:\FoxServ\mysql\bin".graphical user interfaces available.Browse to the directory where "mysql.de . Note: if you just setup your mysql to run on your computer or server or whatever then you DO NOT HAVE A PASSWORD YET!!!! AAHHHHAHGGGG! That is ok. Enter it (or dont if you dont have one) and press enter. To do that we need to log into the MySQL command prompt. (. no NO! This wont work at all! That's it I quit.

Once you have created your new database. Email: info@24ix.We must now exit the mysql command prompt to finish creating our database.Exit MySQL Command Prompt .Creating a new user with permissions . "myDrupalUserID" is the new MySQL userid you just created(without the "@locahost") for use with your new drupal database and 24iX Systems. 11. . "myDrupalUserID@localhost" is the new Drupal UserId. MySQL will reply with "Query OK.At the MySQL prompt.. Alte Kirchstr. You must include the semicolon at the end of the line for MySQL to evaluate your statement. . you must load the required drupal tables into it.de Tel. waiting.24ix. 0 rows affected < 0.: 07000 7000 850 . .* TO myDrupalUserID@localhost IDENTIFIED BY 'myDrupalUsersPassword'.08 sec >". This refreshes and applies the permission to the new user we just made. otherwise it just sits there. To exit mysql command prompt type 'exit' and press enter. Note: You must remember to include the semicolon at the end of every statement you enter at the mysql prompt. waiting. enter following command where 'myDrupalDatabase' is the name of your new drupal database. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. . You will be returned back to the command prompt. ..Importing the Drupal Database Scheme .where "myDrupalDatabase" is the name of your new drupal database. .Activating Permissions ..de . "localhost" is the server where MySQL is installed and running and "myDrupalUsersPassword" is the new password for "myDrupalUserID@localhost" required to log in as the MySQL user.and press enter. To do so enter the following from the command prompt: mysql -u myDrupalUserID -p myDrupalDatabase < database/database.If this attempt is successful. To activate the new permissions you must enter the the following from the mysql command prompt: flush privileges.mysql . waiting.You must activate the new permissions for MySQL to apply the last step to the current running databases. Enter the following and press Enter: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON myDrupalDatabase.Now we need to create a new user that drupal can use to have access rights to the database.

Open the "conf. On my machine the "conf. 11.mysql" is the path to the mysql database stored in the "[drupal install dir]/database/" directory. Remember how I said you can have multiple drupal sites running? Here is where you can configure that. On my machine it is "D:\FoxServ\mysql\bin". Drupal server options are specified in includes/conf.Browse to the "includes" directory in your drupal server install directory and open the "conf. you must set the database URL and the base URL to the web site. . Before Drupal will work we need to setup a few more settings. Before you can run Drupal. Now would be a good time to copy the database (using windows explorer) to the same directory where "mysql. That is called living by faith. If you do receive an error then I suggest checking the specified the path to the database and spelling errors.php" file is located in "D:\FoxServ\www\mytestsite\includes\conf. my test site. On my second drupal install.php" configuration file (in whatever drupal install you are in) and edit the $db_url line to match the values we defined in the previous steps: 24iX Systems.exe" resides (that is the directory you are in right now).de Tel. Email: info@24ix.Type "exit" and press enter to exit the command window.php".: 07000 7000 850 .24ix. I've copied the orginal files to both the root "D:\FoxServ\www" and the test directory. When entering the userid remember to leave off the "@domainname" we specified in previous steps.de . If you receive absolutely no messages whatsoever then the drupal database was successfully imported.php file. It's was only necessary when we created a user but not used after that.php" file is located in "D:\FoxServ\www\includes\conf. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Connecting it All Together ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------We are almost done.Close the Command Prompt window . The database URL creates a connection string to connect to your database. I have two duplicate sites on my server. Enter the password you created for your "myDrupalUserID" account. the "conf."database/database. "D:\FoxServ\www\test".You will be prompted to enter a password.php" file in a text editor. If you've got this far then you can conclude that your drupal database was installed and setup successfully.php". . Believing it worked even when you see no sign. Setting the Path to the Drupal Database . Alte Kirchstr.

de Tel. If everything is setup correctly you will be at the home page of your new Drupal site.com. 11. But nothing else. Alte Kirchstr. To configure a virtual server host. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. . If someone validates this and would include any steps I have forgot then i will add it here for the benefit of others.php file exists on your server.This step is essential. your Drupal website defaults to a very basic 24iX Systems.com/directoryWhereDrupalIs".com".com/drupal" then you would put the same thing here. .php file we worked with earlier and rename it to "www. Setting the Path to the Drupal Directory on your Server .24ix. Use only one that matches your specific configuration: $base_url = "http://www. Here are some more examples. make a copy of the conf.org. Make sure Apache and MySQL services are running.$db_url = "mysql://myDrupalUserID:myPassword@localhost/myDrupalDatabase".Set $base_url to match the address and directory of drupal on your web site: $base_url = "http://www. Setting up more than one dupal site on one machine using Virtual Hosts Besides the method I've mentioned above Drupal also allows for multiple virtual host installations.yourdomainname.mysite. If you dont get this you will only see the home page. consult the Drupal handbook at drupal. the directory where your index. This is the login script to get into your specific MySQL drupal database. $base_url = "http://localhost/anotherDrupalSite".mysite.NOTE: for more information about multiple virtual hosts or the configuration settings. . Upon a new installation.mysite.de . place this in your includes directory. $base_url = "http://localhost". ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drupal Adminstration ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------You can now launch your browser and test your site! Browse to the root directory where Drupal is installed. The base URL is the location.: 07000 7000 850 .php". "http://www. So if you put your drupal files into a directory say. NOTE: This part of the instructions (setting up virtual hosts) is not not tested.This step is also essential. Email: info@24ix.

You can go back and change this after you get familiar with Drupal (think a few months from now). read through the instructions which accompany the different configuration settings and consult the various help pages available in the administration panel. Enter "adminstrator" and press the Add button. Neither will anyone who visits the site. Except in certain cases you will want to create additional roles for the different users that use your site.configuration". If we are going to create a new adminstrator user account for ourselves we will need to change this. Note that additional community-contributed modules and themes are available at http://drupal. Set your administrator account to have all permissions for now and click save permissions.permissions".org/.de . New roles have no permissions set. and no user access rights. You have to give them (an anonymous visitor) privileges to view your site. Follow the on screen instructions to create an account and login. Alte Kirchstr.modules". Use your administration panel to enable and configure services.accounts . anonymous visitor and authenticated user. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Setting Permissions ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Out of the box you will not have permission to do or view anything but the home page. Giving Permissions to a Role By default all the roles have very limited capabilities. 11. We can change this in the Permissions page. User permissions can be set with "Administration . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The first account will automatically become the main administrator account for the site. set some general settings for your site with "Administration .24ix. Please note.configuration with only a few active modules. For more information on configuration options. Creating the Administrator Role By default Drupal only has two roles. For now go to Administer > Accounts > Roles and add "Adminstrator". This is the page to give users the permission to see the content on your site. 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix. You can add additional adminstrator accounts at any time. The first thing you need to do is create a master user account.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . Here is a table filled with options for all your different roles. For example. Write your user name and password to both down in a secure location. one theme. Goto Administer > Accounts > Permissions. Enable modules via "Administration . I recommend creating another account with administrative permissions for security reasons and using that from now on.configuration .

de Tel. Goto Administer > Accounts > New User. this will pass control to the modules and the modules will decide if and what they must do.de . Most themes also contain stylesheets or PHP configuration files to tune the colors and layouts. Please email me if you know. Customizing each theme depends on the theme.theme which defines a function header() that can be changed to reference your own logos. This is called a cron job and they are setup in the cron. "access content" check the checkbox.24ix. In general. You can now log out of the adminstrator account (write down the password) and login with your secondary adminstrator account.To enable anonymous users to see your site content find a row called. Email: info@24ix. 24iX Systems. Creating a New User Finally.org. 11. we are one step away from creating our secondary adminstor account. On this page enter the new account information and click Create Account. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . The following example crontab line will activate the cron script on the hour: 0 * * * * wget -O . you must call the cron page.php page. each theme contains a PHP file themename. Example scripts can be found in the scripts/ directory. Several sample themes are included in the Drupal installation and more can be downloaded from drupal.php More information about the cron scripts are available in the admin help pages and in the Drupal handbook at drupal. you will want to customize the look of your site.org. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. check the themes/ directory for README files describing each alternate theme. To activate these tasks. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Scheduling Tasks ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Many Drupal modules have periodic tasks that must be triggered at specific interviews.-q http://HOSTNAME/cron. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Customizing Themes ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Now that your server is running. I dont know the Windows equivalent of this section.

You can also find support at the Drupal support forum or through the Drupal mailing lists.com/update.example.php. you will need PHP's XML extension. please consult the Drupal handbook at http://drupal. 5. . 11.especially your configuration file (www. Email: info@24ix. 2. Jabber.conf or includes/conf. It is NOT suitable for use in setting up a Windows IIS server on the 24iX Systems. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 .org/. This extension is enabled by default in standard PHP4 installations. Modify the new configuration file to make sure it has the correct information. 3. Overwrite all the old Drupal files with the new Drupal files. Alte Kirchstr.To use XML-based services such as the Blogger API. (More information can be found in the Drupal handbook on drupal. Windows XP IIS development test system guidelines Note.de .) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Upgrading an Existing Drupal Site ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------1.php).de Tel.----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Optional Components ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.24ix. Backup your database and Drupal directory . Log on as the user with user ID 1. 4. you'll need mod_rewrite and the ability to use local .If you want support for clean URLs.org. this guide is for setting up a development/test site on a Windows XP system. Run update.php by visiting http://www.example.com.htaccess files. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------More Information ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------For platform specific configuration issues and other installation and administration assistance. RSS syndication.

It does not take into account basic steps in securing the underlying OS or an IIS server against outside hacking. Windows XP is NOT Suitable for site hosting on the Internet but is nice for a locally hosted development system. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.com/downloads/mysql/4.2 to C:\support\drupal\core Download Modules of interest to c:\support\drupal\modules 24iX Systems.com/downloads/mysqlcc.mysql.0.ugent.3.net/downloads. While your intention may only be to have one site.Internet. NOTE: It is a VERY BAD security practise to install a production IIS website with InetPub on the drive with OS (usually the C: Drive).de Tel.4 Download wget. practice good standards so that you may establish a habit of good practices.6 installer Download the MySQL installer to c:\support\mysql http://dev.9.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr.de .mysql.exe for Windows to c:\support\wget http://studwww. Download php to c:\support\php http://www.html This example uses 0. ============================================== Download the following in preparation. Assumptions of this document.0.4. do not rely on this.php. system name: COMP1 database name: site_drupal database user: site_user password: changeme Choose a naming convention of some sort. 11.php This example uses PHP 4.24ix.be/~bpuype/wget/#download Download Drupal 4. all downloads are downloaded to a c:\support directory applications are installed in a c:\app\ directory Web site is localhost and installed in the default location of c:\inetpub\wwwroot You are familiar with how to use Google to search for answers and perform troubleshooting in the appropriate forums.18 Download MySQL Control Center to c:\support\mysql http://dev. Even when testing.html This example uses 4.

advanced -find -select IUSR_COMP1 -click the write Allow box and ok Do the same for C:\app\PHP\uploadtemp directory Right click php. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.0 compatible) right click C:\app\PHP\sessiondata and select Sharing and Security -choose the security tab -Click add .24ix. Email: info@24ix.exe (and php4ts. 24iX Systems. Execute box is selected by default.: 07000 7000 850 .de .php -click ok and out Open up Explorer and browse to C:\Inetpub\wwwroot and delete everything in it.de Tel. ============================================== Now to the installs Run the php installer -when it asks for a directory location. php is now installed From your Administrative tools menu. install to C:\app\PHP -Accept all the defaults (allow IIS 4. Launch Internet Information Services Admin Go down to your Default Web Site -right click and select properties -select the documents tab and click add and add index. Windows components highlight Internet Information Services -select details -select World Wide Web service Click ok or finish Close out Control Panel Browse to http://localhost You should get the Welcome to Windows XP Server Internet Services page -if not. 11.============================================== Windows XP Go to add/remove programs.dll) select Properties -click the Security tab Add / advanced / Find now -select IUSR_COMP1 -The Read &. troubleshoot this problem before you continue. Alte Kirchstr.

: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. (we're only using it to create the my. mysql> /q. 11.============================================== Note: There are probably better ways to do this but this consistently works for me. mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES. right click on local and choose connect right click on Database and choose Create new database. Alte Kirchstr.exe log in as user root and leave the password blank.ini file) anyway. enter site_drupal right click on site_drupal and connect right click on the Users table -create new user Username: site_user Host: localhost Password: changeme 24iX Systems. ============================================== Install MySQLCC accept all the defaults.de Tel. let's set a root password.user SET Password=PASSWORD('changeme') WHERE User='root'. choose the my. If not. browse to C:\app\mysql\bin and launch winmysqladm.24ix.de . Install MySQL -change the install directory to c:\app\mysql Accept all the other defaults. c:\app\mysql\bin> mysql -u root mysql> UPDATE mysql. uncomment port=3306 choose save modifications close and relaunch winmysqladm MySQL should now be running and responding on port 3306. you can test by telnet localhost 3306. Now.ini tab. troubleshoot before proceeding. Launch MtSQLCC Name: local Host Name: localhost User Name: root Password: changeme Select Add. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

(If you use host headers it will adapt nicely to all of them). Installing a new theme is very straightforward: 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix. 11. $base_url = "http://". There may be consequences to it's use that I am unaware of. Alternatively you can replace it with this line that I found in the forums.mysql Enter password: changeme If you get a c: prompt. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.txt.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . alternatively you may download Cygwin of Microsoft's Services for Unix and use the tools in those packages.exe to schedule tasks with the Windows Scheduler.de . Installing new themes Once you get Drupal installed and you start to come to terms with it you will probably want to customize the way it looks. You are now at step 5 of Drupal's Install.php in an editor. There are several themes which you can download from the Drupal web site which should get you started. Choose the support forum accordingly.com as it has context highlighting for php amoung others but choose your favorite) Change line 17 per the Install. Open C:\Inetpub\wwwroot\includes\conf. but it is a bad habit to ignore it. so change it to your computer name $base_url = "http://comp1". If there were errors troubleshoot and solve before you move on. Line 31 will work as is. This is not a Drupal issue. (I prefer Crimson Editor www. Yours will depend on your site config. then there were no errors.txt $db_url = "mysql://site_user:changeme@localhost/site_drupal". $_SERVER['HTTP_HOST'].Check site_drupal Check All Privileges mysql -u site_user -p site_drupal < database. I do mine every four hour. You can view your success by using MySQLcc.crimsoneditor. this is a mySQL issue. You can use the downloaded wget.24ix. Alte Kirchstr.

If you want it to be the default theme for all users. version 4. 5.1. Download a new theme package. 5. Upload the contents of the package to a new directory in the themes directory in your Drupal site. 24iX Systems. the content of these pages will be left in ezxml.data field for use by drupal's profile module. Here are the sql and perl scripts I used. go to themes and enable the new theme (Drupal will auto-detect its presence). For example. I used phpMyAdmin to extract the entire ezPublish database. 4. 2. and created the first user. and update the content of the drupal database.4 themes do not work with Drupal 4. ezPublish maintains articles in ezxml. 3. I used a perl script to extract user's first and last names from ezPublish and package them into the users.de . 11. I used sql statements to extract articles. themes/box_grey. Alte Kirchstr.5 and reverse. Note that themes for different Drupal versions are not compatible. Go to the admin interface of your Drupal installation. Please note the following limitations: 1.24ix. I used a perl script to fetch each ezPublish article with LWP::UserAgent.: 07000 7000 850 . Doesn't know how to access ezPublish pages that require login. check the default box in the themes administration page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. extract the html-formatted teaser and body. 3. then installed it at the target site. and users from ezPublish and insert them into drupal database. Read any README or INSTALL files in the package to find out if there are any special steps needed for this theme. links. I performed a basic installation of drupal. Here are the steps: 1. 6. I modified ezPublish's "printer-friendly" article template to insert html comments showing the start and end of teaser and body. 4. Migrating from other weblog software to Drupal Migrating from ezPublish I've migrated an ezPublish site to drupal.de Tel. Edit your user preferences and select the new theme. Email: info@24ix. 2.

max(uid).).).teaser.sql The following is the content of migrate.)] mysql -ppassword drupal < migrate. select @ezp_url := "http://myezpsite.title.max(tid). 11. Alte Kirchstr.de .2. # # Insert all ezpublish articles as drupal "story" nodes # INSERT INTO node (nid.sql: select @uid := if(max(uid).com". > (&gt. select @tid := if(max(tid). links.comment.0) from term_data.status. article categories. promote. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.max(nid).0) from node. attributes. name. type. Doesn't fix internal links (links to other pages on same site). revisions.uid. 'story'.de Tel. Move ezp database content to drupal database [note from editor ax: you have to escape the special characters < (&lt. created. Email: info@24ix.0) from users. but does identify nodes containing them. select @role_authenticated_user := rid from role where name = 'authenticated user'. link categories. users.: 07000 7000 850 . and & (&amp. Doesn't do any content except articles. # nid # type # title 24iX Systems.body) select id+@nid.24ix. and users. select @nid := if(max(nid).

Alte Kirchstr. 0.eZArticle_Article where IsPublished. teaser. title. ''. 11.de . 'weblink'. 1. uid.: 07000 7000 850 . ''. created. contents # uid # status # comment # promote from ezp. Email: info@24ix.24ix. 1. status. # # Insert all ezpublish weblinks as nodes # select @weblink_nid:= max(nid)+1 from node. contents. name. type.1. ''. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. INSERT INTO node (nid. comment. revisions. attributes. 2. created. promote.de Tel. 1. 2. body) select id+@weblink_nid. 24iX Systems. users.

url)). spider_site #spider_url ) select id+@weblink_nid.de Tel. description. description from ezp. url. checked. change_stamp. created.: 07000 7000 850 .de .24ix. INSERT INTO weblink ( nid. 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix. refresh. threshold. click. Alte Kirchstr. weblink. ''.eZLink_Link.0. ''. ''. if (url regexp '://'. concat('http://'. #feed. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. monitor. #size.

0, 0, 0, 0, 21600, 40, 0 from ezp.eZLink_Link; # # Discover vocabularies for ezarticle and one for ezlink # (These established manually by drupal configure/taxonomy UI) # select @topic := vid from vocabulary where name = 'Topic'; select @link := vid from vocabulary where name = 'Link'; # # Insert ezarticle_category names as terms under topics vocabulary # INSERT INTO term_data ( tid, vid, name, description, weight )

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

select id+@tid, @topic, name, description, 0 from ezp.eZArticle_Category; # # The article categories (terms) are non-hierarchical # insert into term_hierarchy select id+@tid,0 from ezp.eZArticle_Category; # # Insert categories assigned to ezarticles # INSERT INTO term_node ( nid, tid ) select articleid+@nid, categoryid+@tid from ezp.eZArticle_ArticleCategoryLink ; #

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

# Insert eZLink_Category names as terms under vocabulary links # select @weblink_tid := max(tid)+1 from term_data; INSERT INTO term_data ( tid, vid, name, description, weight ) select id+@weblink_tid, @link, name, description, 0 from ezp.eZLink_Category; # # The link categories (terms) are non-hierarchical # insert into term_hierarchy select id+@weblink_tid,0 from ezp.eZLink_Category; # # Insert categories assigned to ezlinks #

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

INSERT INTO term_node ( nid, tid ) select linkid+@weblink_nid, categoryid+@weblink_tid from ezp.eZLink_LinkCategoryLink ; # # Insert users # INSERT INTO users ( uid , name , pass , mail , # # mode , sort ,

# threshold , # theme , signature , timestamp , status ,

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

timezone , # language , init , # data , rid ) select id+@uid, login, password, # encryption differs, so users will have to reset their passwords email, signature, 1074479825, 1, 0, # active status # timezone # init

email,

@role_authenticated_user from ezp.eZUser_User; # # drupal declares these table primary keys as auto_increment, but # in fact actually assigns them explicitly. Update drupal's idea # of what id to assign next for each table. # delete from sequences where name='users_uid'; insert into sequences (name, id) select 'users_uid', max(uid) from users;

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

delete from sequences where name='term_data_tid'; insert into sequences (name, id) select 'term_data_tid', max(tid) from term_data; delete from sequences where name='node_nid'; insert into sequences (name, id) select 'node_nid', max(nid) from node; # # Identify articles with internallinks (to be edited manually in drupal) # select nid from node where body regexp @ezp_url;

Parse ezxml (in perl, with LWP::UserAgent)
#!/usr/bin/perl -w use strict; use LWP::UserAgent; use HTTP::Request::Common qw(POST); use DBI; use Carp; sub parse; my $server = 'localhost'; my $database = 'drupal'; my $username = 'me'; my $password = 'foobar'; my $verbose;

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

de Tel. $id ). 24iX Systems. $password ) or croak "Can't connect to database". $username. my $update = $dbh->prepare( q/update node set teaser=?. body=? where nid=?/ ). while (my $id = $select->fetchrow) { my $ezpid = $id. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. print "$response\n\n\n". (my $teaser. my $uri = URI->new( $url ). # Send the request.24ix. # The following is the "printer-friendly" url for ezp article my $url = "http://mathiasconsulting. $dbh->{RaiseError} = 1. my $select = $dbh->prepare( q/select nid from node where type='story'/ ). "\n". [ ]. } else { print "Can't parse $url\n". $select->execute. # # print "******************\n". uc($url). my $req = POST $uri. 11. my $body) = parse( $response ).de .my $dbh = DBI->connect("dbi:mysql:$database:$server".com/article/articleprint/$ezpid/-1/0/". Email: info@24ix. "$teaser\n<!--break-->\n$body". receive the response my $response = $ua->request($req)->as_string. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . my $ua = LWP::UserAgent->new(). if ($teaser and $body) { $update->execute( $teaser.

ata=".tpl # sub parse { my $s = shift. 24iX Systems.} } # # Look for lines placed there by articleprint.de . Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. had to escape this with "&#100. } if ($s =~ /<!-. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. } Get ezpublish user real names for drupal profile.de Tel.24ix.body ends ->\n/ms) { $body = $1. my $body. } return $teaser.teaser ends ->\n/ms) { $teaser = $1. if ($s =~ /<!-.*?)<!-. i also wrapped the lines ("my $template=") at 80 chars to make this look better here .module [note from ax to cheryl: this code triggers "suspicious input" because it of "data=". $body.*?)<!-.body starts -->\n(.teaser starts -->\n(.hope i didn't introduce any bugs] #!/usr/bin/perl -w use strict.: 07000 7000 850 . 11. my $teaser.

s:5:"pass1".s:%d:"%s".s:13:"profile_state".\ s:0:"". my $password = 'password'. LastName from ezp.\ s:0:"".s:1 1:"profile_zip".a:0:{}}'. Email: info@24ix. my $dbh = DBI->connect("dbi:mysql:$database:$server".s:15:"profile_country".s:0:"". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.eZUser_User/ ).s:0:"".: 07000 7000 850 . my $verbose. my $username = 'me'. my $last) = $select->fetchrow) { 24iX Systems.s:0:"".de .s:5:"block". my $update = $dbh->prepare( q/update users set data=? where uid=?/ ).24ix. $password ) or croak "Can't connect to database".de Tel. my $first. $username. my $database = 'drupal'. my $select = $dbh->prepare( q/select ID. $dbh->{RaiseError} = 1.s:5:"pass2".s:17:"profile_biography".s:0:"". # difference between ezp user id and drupal uid (see @uid in migrate.\ s:0:"".use DBI. my $template='a:13:{s:16:"profile_realname".\ s:0:"". use Carp. Alte Kirchstr.s:0:"". my $server = 'localhost'.sql) my $iddifference = 1.s:0:"".s:12:"profile_city". $select->execute. while ((my $id.s: 16:"profile_homepage".s:11:"profile_job".s:1:"0" . 11. FirstName.s:11:"weblink_new".s:15:"profile_ address".

Email: info@24ix. title.body.changed. unix_timestamp(date) as changed.created. Geeklog subjects are lost: To preserve categories.dump' into table node (type. this data can be inserted into the database with load data infile '/tmp/stories. This is not a perfect transformation.de Tel. '' as users.my $name = ($first || '') . $id+$iddifference ).24ix. a quick way to do the transform is to dump the stories out into a format suitable for load data infile: select 'story' as type. 11. unix_timestamp(date) as created.: 07000 7000 850 . this creates the load file. $update->execute( $profile.revisions). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. '' as revisions from tc_stories into outfile '/tmp/stories. then create a script that would insert items from *_stories as mapped in the above example. } Migrating from Geeklog The partial migration of stories from Geeklog into story-nodes Drupal is a mapping of the *_stories table into the nodes table. my $profile = sprintf( $template. $name ). bodytext as body.teaser. ($last || ''). but it's a start. length( $name ).de . but then to fetch the nid node id number from the newly inserted record and do a 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr.dump'. after you've loaded the database script from the Drupal distribution.users.title. you would need to pre-load the topics in Drupal. ($first && $last ? ' ' : '') . introtext as teaser.

then insert the pair into the term_node table.. have as many styles are you wish. Migrating from LiveJournal In some respects. as such.. You may be happy with one of these. It's great. Interestingly. 24iX Systems. but I expect someone will post a comment explaining how to fix this.. You will rely upon the LJ commenting feature. If anyone see a mechanism for making their export system any better 1) email me. and you will have to create a suitable LJ style to make it work..de Tel.!! Import your LJ through an IFRAME held in a Book Page or similar Not ideal to be honest. Since the terms of our new site were only superficially similar to the categories we'd used in Geeklog. Alte Kirchstr.. one thing I can't offer here is the 'friends' feature. 11. although I did use this approach for a week or two. This posting is for people who wish to either include their LJ data in a Drupal site or to leave LJ behind and import their data wholesale into a Drupal Blog.I don't know that much about the inner workings of Drupal. we chose instead to fix up the categories later by doing keyword searches on stories to get a list of nid and then pairing those to the new topics by hand using SQL via mysql Bug: After inserting stories using the above method.24ix. there is no need to migrate from Livejournal. you may not be aware that you can. in fact. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. These are listed in order of best integration with Drupal. 'They' will not tell you this anywhere.. When I started playing with Drupal I tried to import my LiveJournal in several ways.de . Email: info@24ix. 2) email livejournal. but you can. A more serious bug is that the nodes do not appear in search results -.search on the term_data to get the tid number. the stories will be in the archives. and all the othe great stuff the LJ offers. but will not appear on the main page (use update node set promot = 1 to fix this for all or selected items).: 07000 7000 850 .

24ix.com/users/rowanboy/rss. You simply reference them (in an IFRAME) like this: <!-Setup journal --> <iframe src="http://www.livejournal. 11.com.de .You could have one style for people who view your journal directly at livejournal. I guess the advantage here is that you can still use LJ and yet (fairly) dynamically pull content into Drupal. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 ..Alternate content for non-supporting browsers --> Your browser won't work here. You'll need IE5.de Tel.xml This will work if imported into the newsfeeds section of your Drupal site. and another for your importing IFRAME.. Using provided Import Module You *could* use the 'import' module to connect to the RSS feed provided by LiveJournal for every PAID user. Use the Livejournal Module to import the raw data into Drupal Current Download: from my site I've written a module to import an entire LiveJournal into a Drupal Blog.com/customview.. A standard RSS feed is provided at a url similar to: http://www.livejournal.but the actual content will still live at LiveJournal.cgi? user=rowanboy&styleid=186838" width="100%" height=300" frameborder="0" scrolling="auto" allowtransparency="false"> <!-. you'll be told the style id to use. It's pretty good that LJ even bother with this. so I guess we have to be grateful.5+ </iframe> When you define your custom style at LJ. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Email: info@24ix.. Note that this will only work for paid users of LJ. 24iX Systems.

The process was fairly simple. Repeat for each month that you've been using LJ. I detailed the process here.de .. I had to make a couple of modifications to his code to get the thing working. Note: The module I've written will expect you to post this file on the 'net while you import it. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 . The final migrated Drupal site is now live at http://urlgreyhot. Save the resulting XML somewhere. but I didn't have the need to do anything fancy. Email: info@24ix. You can then decide whether to publish your entries or not. Worked quite well for me. moved here from a separate book page (and fixed the HTML). but once you see how this works.com. I'm working on a more dynamic approach. YOu'll find what you need to do this here. Sigh. moved here from a comment..is to export your LJ month by month to an XML file.de Tel.. If you have MT installed with a MySQL database I presume there might be an easier way to do this. such as bring over MT categories or comments. 24iX Systems. If LJ went bust. Alte Kirchstr.which I'll reiterate has *no content* . so I wrote a really quick perl script to parse the MT rss feed. [ax: cherylchase details on cowboyd's method above.] Senor Dude recommended using a modified Movable Type template to generate all the entries to be migrated as a single file of xml.24ix. The alternative to the RSS feed . and use it to directly generate inserts into the node table.] I used a different strategy. In essense.This kind of assumes that you're willing to bin LiveJournal at present. but this I worked this way because it was much quicker for me. it's my data. My site is now live using drupal. you'll probably understand my motives. but required a bit of work setting up index templates to export MT data as a MySQL dump with INSERT statements. [ax: cowboyd used another strategy. 11. Migrating from Movable Type I [ax: jibbajabbaboy] 've chronicled my experience migrating a MovableType site to Drupal. I prefered this approach as I now own my data. the module takes this file and stuffs it into a user blog. then cobbling together a quicky parser in perl with XML::SAX to generate mysql insert statements.

1 & CVS. Install the following as a new Movable Type template called Drupal Convert. in CVS and D4B) all incoming trackbacks (stored as comments) all your outgoing trackbacks (D4B only) all your trackbacks trackers (D4B only) keep all your old archives as url_alias.[jseng: mt2drupal is another trick you can use to migrate MT to Drupal. Email: info@24ix.net has a view of his experiences starting over again with Drupal. Alte Kirchstr. Extract Movable Type content as xml 1. excerpt. with drupal. His final site now at http://www.rdf specified as the Output File.4. <?xml version="1.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 .0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?> <items> <MTEntries lastn="1000" sort_order="ascend"> <item about="<$MTEntryLink$>"> <title><$MTEntryTitle encode_xml="1"$></title> <description><$MTEntryBody encode_xml="1"$></description> <link><$MTEntryLink$></link> <subject><$MTEntryCategory encode_xml="1"$></subject> <creator><$MTEntryAuthor encode_xml="1"$></creator> <date><$MTEntryDate format="%Y-%m%dT%H:%M:%S"$><$MTBlogTimezone$></date> 24iX Systems. it is stored as bodyextended and in D4B formatting rules are also preserved) all your comments (with anonymous support. 11. It will import o o o o o o o o all your bloggers all your defined categories all your entries including body.catdevnull. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. extended (in 4. It is written in perl as an MT plugin utilizing MT libraries to extract from the database and then feed it into the MySQL database directly. including your RSS feeds so permalink is preserved [aztek: John Downey has come up with his own conversion script modified from the one in this book.de .

org that explain in detail how to configure PHP template. this is not an article about stealing. as long as you understand the way drupal uses its themes.: 07000 7000 850 . After all. because. PHP template. you will be able to modify little things so that they /look/ like the MT styles. 24iX Systems. So bear in mind: do not steal. after all. Movable Type will offer to rebuild drupal. This article might help on the way in doing so. To do this.de Tel. read the shipped install text on how to do this.de . but do not have to be the same. 11. so that they can be used on the new drupal site. and I stick to the easiest method. The file will contain the last 1000 Movable Type entries. This document is not a tutorial on how to use PHP template. This will be helpful if you are turning them into drupal blog entries.24ix. go look for them yourself and use them to configure the template.rdf for you. There are numerous articles on drupal. and rebuild. Save the template. I will stick only to the drupal part of the story. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Moving your MT styles and templates Of course you want to make your new drupal site look and feel as much as possible like your old MT site. Alte Kirchstr.</item> </MTEntries> </items> 2. because drupal displays blog entries in reverse node id (database insert) order. so non-PHP programmers can re -create the old styles. in my opinion. It depends on your own preferences what theming method you choose. however is far out of the scope of this article. Creating a new template under PHPtemplate is as easy as copy-pasting one of the folders. sorted in ascending date order. you do not need to know PHP. its about how to port your own MT creations to drupal. Email: info@24ix. encoded as XML.! Drupal knows many methods for theming. The best is to copy the MoveableToDrupal folder and paste it as MyTemplate. but you do need to know at least basic CSS coding. This. That's not a too big problem. Since I do not know the way MT templates are built and created. Rename it to something you like: MyTemplate for example. The PHP template can be installed as any other theme. Luckily this is not too hard.

php files. but acts more like a layer. Drupal uses the id .24ix. Get it? No? Alright: Drupal has themes. It uses some fancy coding to create another templating system.Now some technical blabla on the way PHPtemplate works. Back to business: drupal can have virtually any HTML DOM. As said above: you will need CSS skills to do this. just the way most CMS-es do. well.node instead of . Alte Kirchstr. You can install a theme and the look and feel of your site has changed.theme is the actual theme. clients with loads of money) lying around you wish to get rid of. In PHP template .blog and it has some more differences. Some of them are styles.de . Some basic changes you should make are: MT selector Drupal PHP template selector #banner 24iX Systems. some images and a few are . we have sidebars and a main content. if you don't have those. They are the actual templates.de Tel. And ask if anybody is interested in receiving that money (or that something else) for the simple task of rewriting the MT CSS. or blue robot. But now over to the real stuff: using the style sheet(s) to re-create you MT design.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. but in general it is kind of similar to that of MT. But PHPtemplate is not really one of them. Email: info@24ix. If you know enough PHP just open them and move some of the code around. The big difference is that PHPtemplate is not just a theme. It allows you to create templates in the theme. post a message on drupal. The file phptemplate. So it is a template in a theme. Drupal knows themes. modules. tutorials. Got it now? So inside those sub-folders (for example the folder MyTemplate) there are some files. of course. like chameleon. 11.org or on the support list and tell you've got some money or something else (stories. All the folders inside the PHPtemplate folder are templates.

de . you should heave a look at the style sheet in MoveableToDrupal Template for MT entry and comment export and Drupal import To do: o o Automatically create accounts Export MT categories and import to Drupal taxonomy Limitations: o o o All comments are from the Anonymous user All comments are unthreaded The comment subject is made from the first five words of the comment 24iX Systems.. For all other stiles and selectors.24ix.node .blogbody (P) .header .node . Alte Kirchstr.node H2 (A) . Email: info@24ix.blog .sidebar-left or .title .side .sidebar-right #content .de Tel. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 .main-content H3.content These are some basic changes . that should get you on the road.

Alte Kirchstr.The import defaults to using uid 1. Email: info@24ix. Set the variables below the //set variable defaults comment to the correct values 13.24ix. the output will be a single sentence listing the number of entries and comments imported. i.e.de . // get next node number from sequences table 24iX Systems. 11. Create a new Movable Type Index template called Drupal Import with import.de Tel. the site admin (change the $uid variable to import to another user) o All posts are promoted to the front page o All comments have a published status o MT categories (Drupal taxonomy terms) are not exported o Instructions: 10. $username = "". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Cut and paste the following into the Template body textarea 12.: 07000 7000 850 . $password = "".php in your web browser If the import is successful. <html> <head> <title>Export</title> </head> <body> <?php //set variable defaults $hostname = "". $uid = 1.php specified as the Output File 11. Save and rebuild the template 14. Load import. $db = "".

<MTEntries lastn="1000" sort_order="ascend"> $node_title = <<<NT <$MTEntryTitle$> NT.$db).de Tel. $node_title = mysql_escape_string($node_title). $node_rows = mysql_num_rows($result)+1. $node_teaser = <<<NE <$MTEntryBody$> NE.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 .$link = mysql_connect($hostname. Alte Kirchstr.$password) or die("Could not connect to server"). $node_teaser = mysql_escape_string($node_teaser). mysql_select_db($db) or die("Could not select database ". } else { 24iX Systems. 11. $node_body = mysql_escape_string($node_body). Email: info@24ix. if ($status == "publish") { $node_status = 1.de .$username. $node_body = <<<NB <$MTEntryBody$><$MTEntryMore$> NB. $result = mysql_query("SELECT nid FROM node"). //get post status $status = strtolower("<$MTEntryStatus$>").

score. $comment_text = mysql_escape_string($comment_text).de . UNIX_TIMESTAMP('<$MTCommentDate format="%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"$><$MTBlogTimezone$>'). revisions. UNIX_TIMESTAMP('<$MTEntryDate format="%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"$><$MTBlogTimezone$>'). for($i=0. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 1.". users. $node_status. uid. 0.= $arr[$i]. 0. $arr = explode(" ". title. '<$MTCommentIP$>'. '$node_body'). timestamp. comment.i:0. ''. ''. } $comments_insert_query = "INSERT INTO comments (cid. '$node_teaser'. nid. hostname. $node_rows. status. pid. 0. <MTComments sort_order="ascend"> $comment_text = <<<CT <$MTCommentBody$> CT. $i<5. if (mysql_errno($link)) { echo mysql_errno($link) . '1/'. ": " . body) VALUES ('blog'. users) VALUES (NULL. mysql_error($link) . mysql_query($comments_insert_query). $uid. status. $i++) { $subject . comment. '$comment_text'.de Tel.24ix. // grab the first five words of the comment as the comment subject $subject = "".: 07000 7000 850 . "\n". created.$node_status = 0. } $comments_rows++. promote. 0. 'a:1:{i:0. 2. thread.}'). '$node_title'. subject. teaser." ". 11. UNIX_TIMESTAMP('<$MTEntryDate format="%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S"$><$MTBlogTimezone$>'). changed. Alte Kirchstr. } $node_insert_query = "INSERT INTO node (type. uid. '$subject'. </MTComments> 24iX Systems.$comment_text). Email: info@24ix.".

} </MTEntries> // echo the number of rows added to the nodes table echo($node_rows. "\n".de .// increment node_rows counter. mysql_query("INSERT into sequences (name. if (mysql_errno($link)) { echo mysql_errno($link) . } mysql_close($link). ?> 24iX Systems. mysql_error($link) . mysql_error($link) ." blog entries and ").: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. if (mysql_errno($link)) { echo mysql_errno($link) . mysql_query($node_insert_query).de Tel.$node_rows+1)"). if (mysql_errno($link)) { echo mysql_errno($link) . "\n". ": " .id) VALUES ('node_nid'.id) VALUES ('comments_cid'. } // echo the number of rows added to the comments table echo($comments_rows. ": " . ": " ."). mysql_query("INSERT into sequences (name. so we have the correct nid for the comment insert next time $node_rows++. 11. mysql_error($link) .24ix. Email: info@24ix.$comments_rows+1)")." comments inserted. "\n". Alte Kirchstr.

my $teaser_length = 600. use XML::SAX::Base. my $tagname = $element->{LocalName}. depending upon what parser it locates.6 is too old). package Node.de Tel. and because I added code to improve the generation of the teaser (the original code just put the whole body into the teaser).: 07000 7000 850 . sub characters { my ($self.$data) = @_. 5.= $data->{Data}. 24iX Systems. You'll need to install XML::SAX (easy enough with cpan). $element) = @_. my $handle = "start_$tagname". 11. } sub start_element { my ($self. I'm posting it here.de . @ISA = qw(XML::SAX::Base).8. Email: info@24ix. You'll need to have perl of a high enough version to handle the iso-8859-1 encoding (I used 5. my $type = 'blog'. $self->{_characters} . But because he didn't publish it in the Drupal Handbook. use XML::SAX::ParserFactory. This may takes quite a while to run. Alte Kirchstr.</body> </html> Parse xml into sql insert statements This code was originally published by Senor Dude. package ConversionFilter.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

: 07000 7000 850 . } 24iX Systems.24ix. } $self->SUPER::end_element(). } sub start_description { my $self = shift. } $self->SUPER::start_element($element).if ($self->can($handle)) { $self->$handle($element). } sub start_item { my $self = shift. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $self->clear_characters(). $element) = @_. } sub end_element { my ($self. Alte Kirchstr. } sub end_item { my $self = shift. $self->{_current_item} = new Node(). Email: info@24ix. print $self->{_current_item}->insert_statement(). 11. if ($self->can($handle)) { $self->$handle($element).de Tel. my $handle = "end_$tagname". my $tagname = $element->{LocalName}.de .

} sub clear_characters { my $self = shift. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. } sub end_title { my $self = shift.: 07000 7000 850 .sub end_description { my $self = shift.24ix. Email: info@24ix. 11. } sub start_title { my $self = shift. } sub start_date { my $self = shift. } sub end_date { my $self = shift. $self->clear_characters().de . $self->clear_characters(). $self->{_current_item}->{created} = $self>get_characters(). $self->{_current_item}->{description} = $self>get_characters(). } 24iX Systems. $self->{_current_item}->{title} = $self>get_characters().de Tel. $self->{_characters} = "". Alte Kirchstr.

sub get_characters { my $self = shift.de . $size)) { return substr($body. 11. Email: info@24ix. "</p>". $length). 0.de Tel. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. "<br>". } package Node. } if (my $length = rindex($body. return $self->{_characters}. $size)) { return substr($body. my $size = $teaser_length. } # Borrowed from node. 0. } if (my $length = rindex($body. $class. } if (length($body) < $size) { return $body. } if (my $length = rindex($body.: 07000 7000 850 . if ($size == 0) { return $body. $length). sub new { my $class = shift. Alte Kirchstr. return bless {}. $size)) { 24iX Systems.module sub node_teaser { my $body = shift.24ix. "<br />".

comment. $length + 1). } sub insert_statement { my $self = shift. $length + 1). } if (my $length = rindex($body.1. $size)) { return substr($body.24ix.2. " VALUES ('$type'.uid. created. Email: info@24ix. } if (my $length = rindex($body. $length).teaser.de Tel. 0.''.title.1. my $teaser = mysql_escape( node_teaser( $self>{description} ) ). $length + 1). $size).: 07000 7000 850 . ". my $body = mysql_escape($self->{description}). "! ". 0. mysql_escape($self>{title}). ". "\n". } if (my $length = rindex($body. 0. "(type. 11. $size)) { return substr($body. } return substr($body. 0. users. revisions.''. $size)) { return substr($body. } if (my $length = rindex($body.". $size)) { return substr($body.body)". promote.de .return substr($body. $length). attributes.''. return "INSERT INTO node ".status. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. 24iX Systems. 0. 0."'. "? ".1.'".

Insert content into drupal nodes The final trick is that the insert statements count on mysql's auto_increment feature."UNIX_TIMESTAMP('". my $handler = new ConversionFilter(). and bump the next node id that drupal intends to assign to be larger than that. $string =~ s/T/ /. $parser->parse_uri($filename).rdf >mt.pl drupal.to_mysql_date($self>{created}).'$body'). So after you run the generated mysql. Email: info@24ix. my $filename = $ARGV[0]. you'll need to find the maximum node id that mysql generated for you.de ."'). but drupal actually sets node ids explicitly.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. % /bin/perl . Alte Kirchstr.sql 24iX Systems. return $string. } package main. $string =~ s/(\'|\")/\\$1/g. my $parser = new XML::SAX::ParserFactory->parser(Handler => $handler).: 07000 7000 850 . return $string. 11.'$teaser'.\n". $string =~ s/\n/\\n/mg. $string =~ s/\+00:00$//.de Tel./convert. } sub mysql_escape { my $string = shift. } sub to_mysql_date { my $string = shift.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr.25 sec) mysql> select * from sequences.: 07000 7000 850 . The following attaches the term with term id 1 to all the nodes (whose node ids I determined by some characteristic of the nodes themselves.de Tel.24ix. %mysql -ppassword drupal 24iX Systems. 11.% mysql -ppassword drupal +----------+ | max(nid) | +----------+ | 83 | select max(nid) from node.00 sec) mysql> update sequences set node_nid = 84. +----------------+----+ | name | id | +----------------+----+ | users_uid | 8 | 2 | 8 | 6 | 3 | | vocabulary_vid | | term_data_tid | node_nid | comments_cid | | | +----------------+----+ 5 rows in set (0. You can do this by hand in mysql. Email: info@24ix.de . +----------+ 1 row in set (0. using a select statement). Setting terms for inserted nodes you probably want to assign terms to the inserted nodes.

footer. you can try this script which includes more instructions.userid.de Tel.nuke_users set name=uname where name=''.real_email. 1 from node where nid >= 6 and nid <= 83. Migrating from PostNuke I've written a MySQL script to migrate from a PostNuke database to a Drupal one.mysql> insert into term_node select nid. First.nuke_users. 24iX Systems. 11.uname.fake_email. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Both have similar functions for header.bio from phpnuke.: 07000 7000 850 . Drupal uses PHP-based themes mixed with HTML markup. Migrating users Migrating users: To migrate users from PHP Nuke to Drupal takes two simple MySQL commands. you need to be sure that the 'name' column in the PHP Nuke user table isn't blank. from within MySQL type: update phpnuke.femail. Alte Kirchstr. Migrating from PHPNuke Migrating themes Just like PHPNuke themes.24ix.de . The following examples are for going from PHP Nuke 5 to Drupal 3. copy the valid data from the PHP Nuke user table to the Drupal user table: insert into drupal.users(name. Second.email. box and story (node).url. If you find this intimidating.bio) select name. For example.url. Email: info@24ix.

More than one drupal site on one machine There are several possible configurations for running multiple Drupal servers on the same hardware. I wrote it to migrate Puntbarra.COM (the Catalan version of Slashdot) in early September. You can separate them by directories or by vhosts. Configuring mod_rewrite in . 11. It has been a bit complicated given the fact PostNuke database structure is horrible. Since the site has almost 2000 stories.24ix. Any suggestions would be helpful. Users.de . they can share configurations or split them or. have a mixture. The current PN default story url looks like this: modules. I know very little about mod_rewrite.htaccess be configured to rewrite the urls? The node ids will be taken from the current story id's.: 07000 7000 850 .Currently it migrates Themes. Stories. in some cases.htaccess rules will take those dead links and refer them to the home page instead of 404ing them. These were the only tables which I was interested in. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Can .htaccess for PN legacy URLs in I'll be migrating Kairosnews from PostNuke to Drupal CVS this weekend. Comments. Take it from my sandbox. I'm concerned about the fact tha any links to them from around the web will go dead. General Rules for Multiple Drupal Deployments 24iX Systems. so that part will not be a problem. Alte Kirchstr. but all of these methods have at their heart the . Some consolation is that the .de Tel./include/conf.php configuration file and the search-sequence where the Drupal program will search first for a configuration named for the current page and then to the current host before settling for the default. Email: info@24ix.php?op=modload&name=News&file =article&sid=1972&mode=nested&order=0&thold=0 so it seems like it could be rewritten to node/view/1972 Is this possible? Admittedly. Polls and Poll comments.

Alte Kirchstr.uri. each new configuration will result in a new host component for the username@<i>host</i> Drupal login ID (used when logging into a foreign Drupal server).com/travel/ and http://yourdomain. Email: info@24ix.com/~joe/ and http://yourdomain. For this case.de ./include/vhost. but you can also include assignments to override anything in the VARIABLES table. This might be useful if you want to setup multiple sites about different topics (e.com/sport/) or if you want to provide users on your system with a personal drupal site (e.Each of the possible multi-drupal scenarios is discussed in more detail in the sections that follow.net.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel.mysite. the site footer and contact email.com/~john/). if you have a directory partitioned host at drupal.mysite.mysite. This allows you to redefine the theme. As an example. but a second site may begin at DOCUMENT_ROOT/altserver./include/drupal.php Note how the path separator ('/') must be changed to a dot. the most common and minimal option is to set the $db_url that specifies the host. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. When using Unix/Linux as your host operating system.php Within that configuration file.php 24iX Systems. For example. database and login for the Drupal tables.php -rw-rw-r-1 drupal drupal includes/yourdomain. this can be best accomplished by using symbolic links: $ ls -l includes/*. the vhost drupal.g.~joe.net may have one primary drupal server at the DOCUMENT_ROOT location. 11.altserver. the configuration file would be .net/altserver.24ix. http://yourdomain. http://yourdomain. Multiple directories Drupal allows you to setup multiple drupal sites using different directories on top of one physical source tree.g.mysite. but the general form for the alternate configuration filename is: . even the name you use for anonymous. Drupal IDs When using multiple drupal servers on the same hardware.net/altserver your usename to login to some other Drupal server would be USENAME@drupal. blocks perpage limits.com.

yourdomain1.yourdomain2.php The only thing left to be done is to setup the corresponding vhosts in your Apache configuration file. $ ls -l includes/*. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.~joe.~joe.1 DocumentRoot /home/www/drupal ServerName www.0.de Tel. For a drupal site with URI http://yourdomain.com.php -rw-rw-r-1 drupal drupal includes/www.: 07000 7000 850 . ~joe If you want Joe to be able to configure his own drupal site. While running more than one engine (by using vhosts) can be very useful for development and testing purpose.24ix. we tried to support vhosts in the best possible way in order to make the life of any administrator easier. create a fake directory using symbolic links that matches the URI.Once you created the configuration file.0.php /home/joe/ Multiple domains or vhosts Multiple domains or vhosts using different databases Apache supports both IP.com 24iX Systems.and name-based virtual hosts (vhosts).php -rw-rw-r-1 drupal drupal includes/www. We do so by making it possible to run an unlimited amount of vhosts on the same physical source tree. Alte Kirchstr. Note that the DocumentRoot points to the same source tree twice: NameVirtualHost 127. Moreover.com.php available to Joe in his home directory: $ ln -s /path-to-drupal/includes/yourdomain. 11. it might even be more interesting for hosting companies.de .com/~joe/ use: $ ln -s . you can setup multiple configuration files in your includes-directory.com. though by using different configuration files.com. Email: info@24ix.yourdomain1. Therefore. create another symbolic link to make the configuration file includes/yourdomain.

de .com Multiple domains using the same database If you want to host multiple domains (or subdomains) on top of the same database (e. If you have something you can add.yourdomain.yourdomain.example. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. For example if the URL to your installation is http://www.php. Alte Kirchstr.php If your installation isn't in the root folder then you need to specify the path to the Drupal installation.com/). 11.htaccess file.drupal.com/drupal/ you would rename your conf.com".com.24ix.yourdomain2.example.cookie_domain correctly.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . http://yourdomain. set it to ".yourdomain.includes/yourdomain.php $ ls -l includes/*.com.g. Email: info@24ix.DocumentRoot /home/www/drupal ServerName www. you will need to set the value of PHP's session. This document is an attempt to compile into one place the many tuning tips that have proven beneficial to other Drupal users.com.php.com.com.com. If you want cookies to be shared between two sites.php includes/www. by all means please do! 24iX Systems.php lrwxrwxrrx 1 drupal drupal includes/www.php file to www.conf -rw-rw-r-1 drupal drupal includes/yourdomain. simply use symbolic links to setup the required configuration files: $ ln -s includes/yourdomain.com/ and http://www.yourdomain. Tuning your server for optimal Drupal performance There is quite a lot of tuning that can be done to your web server and its supporting software to increase the ultimate performance of Drupal. You can do this through Drupal's . In the case above.

de Tel. if you set output_handler to 'ob_gzhandler'. Additional resources: 24iX Systems. Overview: From the PHP FAQ "PHP is an HTML-embedded scripting language. For example." This functionality is further described here. Installation: Basic PHP installation is detailed here. The goal of the language is to allow web developers to write dynamically generated pages quickly. Setting an output handler automatically turns on output buffering. Email: info@24ix.1 and earlier) require PHP 4. output will be transparently compressed for browsers that support gzip or deflate encoding. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you can add the following to php.ini: output_handler = ob_gzhandler A comment in php. Earlier versions of Drupal (4.ini explains: "You can redirect all of the output of your scripts to a function.1 or later. Much of its syntax is borrowed from C. 11.de .: 07000 7000 850 .2+ requires PHP 4. Java and Perl with a couple of unique PHP-specific features thrown in. Tuning tips: 1.0. Drupal 4. Alte Kirchstr." Compatibilty: PHP can be installed on a wide variety of operating systems with a wide variety of web servers.24ix. If you have CPU cycles to spare.Tuning PHP Drupal utilizes the PHP Hypertext Preprocessing language.6 or later.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. including: o o o o o Turck MMCache PHP Accelerator Alternative PHP Cache (APC) After Burner Zend Accelerator Turck MMCache The Turck MMCache has been confirmed to work well with Drupal.de Tel. your web server must compile the PHP script into an executable format.: 07000 7000 850 . Turck MMCache typically reduces server load and increases the speed of your PHP code by 1-10 times. There are a number of PHP caches (aka accelerators) available. resulting in a quick and noticeable performance increase. so that the overhead of compiling is almost completely eliminated. A PHP cache can be installed to save and re-use compiled PHP scripts.o PHP Project Page PHP Caches PHP is a scripting language." 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr. Installation is quite simple. This results in an obvious amount of overhead each time a page is generated. Also it uses some optimizations to speed up execution of PHP scripts. 11.de . optimizer. Email: info@24ix. It increases performance of PHP scripts by caching them in compiled state. Each time a PHP script is run to generate a webpage with Drupal. encoder and dynamic content cache for PHP. Overview: According to the project's home page: "Turck MMCache is a free open source PHP accelerator. thus greatly reducing the amount of overhead required for Drupal to display a web page.24ix.

31 99. 24iX Systems.00 0.86 4. Email: info@24ix.44 95. The following sar snapshot taken from a dedicated Drupal server shows how the installation of MMCache can help reduce system load on even a heavilyoptimized web server (MMCache was installed around 12:00PM): 11:00:00 AM 11:10:00 AM 11:20:00 AM 11:30:00 AM 11:40:00 AM 11:50:00 AM 12:00:00 PM 12:10:00 PM 12:20:00 PM 12:30:00 PM 12:40:00 PM 12:50:00 PM CPU all all all all all all all all all all all %user 3. working with Apache 1.38 99.33 0.29 99.3.59 0.23.12 0. If no files are appearing. Alte Kirchstr. something is wrong.00 0.45 Troubleshooting: An easy way to tell if MMCache is working properly after following the installation instructions is to see if temporary files are being created in '/tmp/mmcache'.11 %idle 94. Once properly installed.52 0.50 0.15.1 and later.52 0. 2.11 99.58 95. you should immediately notice an improvement.0.00 %system 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.de .10 0.57 0.3 and Apache 2.00 0.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.1+: 2. 11.76 3.49 4.38 0. CPU Utilization: The sar utility from the sysstat collection gathers system activity numbers over time.88 96.12 0.05 3.79 0.36 0.44 %nice 0. compatible with PHP 4.24ix. Installation: Step-by-step installation instructions can be found here.00 0. or wherever you told them to be written with the 'mmcache.00 0. The following versions of MMCache have been tested successfully with Drupal 4.18 95.Compatibility: The Turck MMCache runs on Linux and Windows.36 0.01 99.cache_dir' directive.00 0.20 0.de Tel.85 0.00 0.64 95.71 3.3.

A site can even have multiple themes. be sure that PHP has properly loaded mmcache. try restarting your web browser to be sure the latest configuration changes have been made. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The look and feel of Drupal is primarily controlled by the theme you have applied to your site. If you created 'phpinfo. here are some things you can do to personalize the design and architecture of your drupal site.24ix. 24iX Systems. Create a short script on your web browser called 'phpinfo. o Choose a Theme.de Tel. Finally. and be sure that you modified the correct 'php. be sure to remove it when you're finished troubleshooting. Alte Kirchstr. A good first step is to go to administer > themes and set a new theme as your default.) Additional resources: o Turck MMCache Home Page Configuration This section of the administrators guide will help you through some common configuration processes. Verify that you installed 'mmcache.de .php' in a public place. Double check your 'Configuration File (php. (Note that the phpinfo() function call reveals a _lot_ of information about your system.First. 11. ?> Load that file in your browser to find a wealth of useful information. Also.php' as follows: <?php phpinfo().ini) Path' on that same page. Customizing the interface When launching a new drupal site. For security reasons it is very unwise to make this information available to the general public.ini' file. If it's not there. be sure to look in your web server's error log to see if there are any hints there. You can find more themes on the download page after the list of modules.so' into the directory specified by the 'extension_dir' directive. Email: info@24ix. then MMCache is not loaded. Search for any occurances of the word 'MMCache'.: 07000 7000 850 .

o Customize the Navigation. Each theme has an individual configuration page (listed at the top of the global settings page) as well. o Customize Text Strings You can also change the text strings throughout drupal using the locale feature. Many Drupal sites will need a more unique look than these prebuilt themes can offer. which was designed for running drupal in different languages. if you are using a theme that uses the PHPTemplate theme engine. Disable Login Block 24iX Systems. In fact. The primary and secondary links can be defined here. Unfortunately. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. many developers will want to write their own themes.24ix. The menus that are displayed on the top and bottom of the page are configured in administer > themes. you can replace a string like "create blog entry" with html markup such as references to graphics. Theme development requires a working knowledge of HTML/CSS and possibly some rudimentary PHP depending on the complexity of your theme. If the primary links are left blank your navigation will be created based on your installed modules. Here are some alternative ways of allowing contributors and administrators to login to you site. Alte Kirchstr. using straight HTML. then your navigation must be defined in that theme's individual theme area (see : primary and secondary link functionality is retarded). you can personalize almost all of the text in drupal.Once you download a new theme you will need to instal it on your system. Customizing user login In the default setup the Drupal login block is always displayed unless a user is logged in.de Tel. Select the configure tab and scroll down to Menu Settings. Therefore. o Create your own Theme.: 07000 7000 850 .de . Email: info@24ix. 11.

: 07000 7000 850 . This is the name the block is given in your block admin menu.</a>'. 11. then you probably don't want a large portion of your screen real-estate taken up with a login block that doesn't relate to them. Copy and paste the following code into the textarea: <?php global $user. 24iX Systems. Fill in the Block description. Dynamic Login Link If you still want users to be able to access the login from a link that is displayed on all pages you can create a custom login block. To disable the login block 1.It will not always be desirable to display a login block on your Drupal site. 7. 9. http://www. Alte Kirchstr. Goto the block configuration ( administer > blocks ) 2. if (!$user->uid) { // Change the following line's text to whatever you want. } elseif ($user->uid) { // The following line will display the username you are logged in as. You do not need to fill in the Block title unless you want this text to appear at the top of the block on your site. Deselect the check box for User login in the Enabled column Your regular content editors and administrators can still login to the site by directly accessing the login page. If you are using Drupal to create a site that has a very limited number of people actually logging into the system to create or edit content. } ?> 8. 3. 4. Select the add tab on the block administration page 5. $user->name.example.24ix. Enable the block and give it a weight. return '<a href="/user/login/">Login/create account. 6. Email: info@24ix.com/user. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Change the block type to PHP and fill out whatever title and description you want. return 'Logged in as ' . This also confuses the bulk of your users that will not have the option to login.de .de Tel. Deselect the "User login" block from the block administration page ( administer > blocks ).

and click 'Save configuration'. The link text 'Login/create account' text in the block code can be changed to whatever you want such as 'Contribute'. Enable the statistics module: To use the auto-throttle.module enabled.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. Please note: if you have complete control over the server that's hosting your website. so if you 24iX Systems. 11. it can be extremely difficult to prepare for unexpected loads. The access log writes an entry in a database table every time your site serves a page. 'Be a part of our community'. The auto-throttle utilizes this information to monitor how much traffic is hitting your site. the auto-throttle. 'Login to tell your own story' Congestion control: tuning the autothrottle Overview: This page will be of most benefit to Drupal users that have their websites hosted on a shared server. and walks you through its configuration. This greatly reduces the overhead associated with displaying a page to an anonymous guest. Alte Kirchstr.de . such as a link from Slashdot. database. go to your site's main configuration page at "administer > configuration" and check "Enabled" under the words "Cache support:".Voila! You now have a custom login link that doesn't display after your users login. The steps below describe Drupal's built in congestion control mechanism. Enable the Drupal cache: One of the most dramatic performance improvements you can make with Drupal is by enabling cache support. Tuning the auto-throttle: 1. you now must enable the access log. you will first need to enable the statistics module. You can find some tips here. and PHP. 3. then click "Save configuration. To enable the cache. Enable the access log: With the statistics. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you should first tune the operating system. go to "administer > configuration > modules > statistics" on your site.: 07000 7000 850 . webserver. Put a check mark in the status column. It is not important how long you retain access logs. When you have little or no control over how your webserver is tuned. and click "Enabled" under the words "Enable access log:".24ix. 2. To enable the access log. This can be found on your site at "administer > configuration > modules".

This block is only intended as an administrative tool. you should now see the "Throttle status" block. However. The auto throttle can be enabled on the throttle module administration page at "administer > configuration > modules > throttle". meaning that currently the auto-throttle is not turned on. Return to the module administration page on your site at "administer > configuration > modules" and put a check mark in the status colum. then you don't need to set up any permissions -. as there is some overhead involved in displaying this block in the form of 1 database query per page displayed. Configure "throttle status" block access permissions: It is not desireable to allow your site's users to view the "throttle status" block that we have just enabled.de .24ix. uid=1 has all permissions. Enable the "throttle status" block: In order to properly tune the auto-throttle on your website. Enable the auto-throttle: When you reload your website. The throttle module provides a block for this purpose. When finished. 6. If you are the only adminsitrator of your site. 5. 11. 7. then click 'Save configuration'. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. It is important to be aware that all users that are in this role will now see the "throttle status" block. do not check "custom" or "throttle". if you have multiple administrators or administer your site with a different user account. and enable the "Throttle status" block. You can quickly find this page by clicking the word "disabled" within your 24iX Systems. but feel free to adjust the "weight" and "region" for whatever you prefer. you can safely adjust this all the way down to 1 hour. you will need to give your administrative group the "acess throttle box" permission.: 07000 7000 850 .by default. Enable the throttle module: Now you need to enable the throttle module. Now click "Save blocks". Place a check mark in the appropriate role's column and click "Save permissions". 4. All it says at this point is "Throttle: disabled". Alte Kirchstr. and you adminster your site as uid=1. For this example. Go to the user permission administration page on your site at "administer > accounts > permissions" and locate the "access user list" permission. Go to the block administration page on your site at "administer > configuration > blocks".are only using this information for the auto-throttle and want to keep your database as small as possible. click "Save configuration". we need to have an understanding of how much traffic your site gets.

24ix. Email: info@24ix. so we will set the auto-throttle multiplier to "12 (0.36. RSS clients. Alte Kirchstr. In our example. 11. It is generally a good idea to set your auto-throttle multiplier to a number nearest how many pages your site serves on average when it is busy. at which time the auto-throttle level will be set to 5. In particular. including pages viewed by yourself. and cron. Should the site become twice as busy as normal and start serving 24 pages in a minute. the auto-throttle will adjust itself to be at level 1. you will need to monitor this block carefully. In our example.12. To properly tune the auto-throttle.48. (A quick shortcut is to click on the word "enabled" within your "Throttle status" block.: 07000 7000 850 . The first option is the "Auto-throttle multiplier".de Tel.) We will now adjust the two options within the "Auto-throttle-tuning" section of this page. Each of the numbers in the parenthesis is a "throttle level". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 9. and so on up to 60 being 5. you want to know how busy your site is on average at the busiest time of each day. we will assume that your site is serving between 10-12 pages a minute when it is busy. Monitoring the "Throttle status" block: You should now notice that there is more information displayed in the "Throttle status" block. search engine spiders/bots.de . we move up to level 2. registered users.60)". 12 being level 1. We will now use this information to tune our throttle." This means exactly what it says: during the past 60 seconds. getting a good feel for how busy your site is on average. click "enabled" underneath the words "Enable auto-throttle". 8. 24 being level 2. On the resulting administration page. with 0 being level 0.24. When our site starts serving 12 pages a minute. your Drupal-powered website has served 13 pages to visitors of your site. "This site has served 13 pages in the past minute. anonymous guests. Tuning the auto-throttle: Once again return to the throttle module administration page at "administer > configuration > modules > throttle". Each of these numbers is a multiple of the number 12 that we have selected."Throttle status" block. This continues until your site is serving more than 5 times a normal load (1 page per second). The only thing we're interested in at this time is the bottom section that should read something like. This includes all pages that have been served. and click "Save configuration". this was 12. 24iX Systems.

24iX Systems. By automatically disabling blocks. the blocks will be automatically restored. Be aware that the lower you set this value.: 07000 7000 850 . for any blocks that should be disabled when your site is under a severe load click the "throttle" checkbox. However. To throttle blocks go to the block administration page on your site at "administer > configuration > blocks". or being indexed by sometimes overaggressive googlebots. however for busy sites you may wish to set it lower.de . It is unlikely you'd want to set this to anything higher than 10%. 10. If you have an especially under-powered webserver. you may find your site choking. This fancily named configuration option is used to minimize the overhead of using the auto-throttle. it turns out that one of the primary bottlenecks on a shared server is the database. Email: info@24ix. Now. the longer your auto-throttle will take to detect a surge in load. 11. It is recommended that you select nearly all boxes. when your site comes under a heavy load. Under these heavy loads. the blocks will remain disabled. then we only perform the extra database query for approximately 1 out of every 10 pages displayed by your Drupal-powered site. it is possible to configure blocks to be automatically disabled when the auto-throttle reaches a maximum level of 5. Alte Kirchstr. so database queries are considered expensive. as each page viewed by a user has to be dynamically built rather than displaying them from the cache.The second option is the "Auto-throttle probability limiter". you may even wish to enable the throttle for the "User login" block so that users will be discouraged from logging in under heavy loads. usually reporting a MySQL error saying something like "Too many connections". You see. Now.4 and higher (or the latest CVS version). we adjust the "probability limiter" so that we perform our extra database query on only a certain percentage of page views. Thus. Auto-throttling blocks: In Drupal 4. the cost of generating pages on your site will require less database queries and thus your site will be able to better withstand a greater number of hits. indicating that your site is currently experiencing a severe load.24ix. all blocks that have "throttle" enabled will be automatically disabled. as it will be rare that the autothrottle actually causes them to be temporarily-disabled. As long as your site remains under a severe load. If you set this value to 10%. such as a link from Slashdot. to calculate the current throttle level this module has to perform a database query. When the load starts to decline. optimizing your page and helping to prevent your database from choking. This could happen for a number of reasons. or even an inentional DoS (Denial of Serive) attack. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. except perhaps "Navigation" and "User login".

and be sure that under an average busy load you're not going above level 2. pages and/or blocks that the module may have generated. throttling modules will usually have a larger affect than throttling blocks.de Tel. once again indicating that your site is currently experiencing a severe load. All aspects of the module will be disabled. optimizing your page and helping to prevent your database from choking. the modules will remain disabled.de . the more modules you will want to throttle. Auto-throttling modules: In Drupal 4. when your site comes under a heavy load.24ix. watch the "Current level" field. for any module that should be disabled when your site is under a severe load click the "throttle" checkbox. all modules that have "throttle" enabled will be automatically disabled.4 and higher (or the latest CVS version). disabling modules and seeing how this affects your site. Email: info@24ix. If you are. Slashdotted! Even with the auto-throttle enabled and configured. go to the module administration page on your site at "administer > configuration > modules". then you'll probably want to go back and adjust the "Auto-throttle multiplier" to a higher value as described earlier. Now. 12. Also note that over time your site's popularitly may change. 13. Generally speaking. Continuous auto-throttle tuning: Your site is now potentially able to deal with heavier loads. It may be that your shared webserver 24iX Systems. It is recommended that you experiment in your development environment. 11. then you'll probably want to go back and adjust the Auto-throttle multiplier" to a lower value. When the load starts to decline. if your site is always showing a "Current level" of 0. however it is important to continue to monitor the "Throttle status" block to be sure you have properly configured your site. including any links. In particular. you may find that when you actually get linked to by an extremely busy site such as Slashdot your own site still chokes.11. Deciding which modules to throttle can be more difficult than deciding which blocks to throttle. the modules will be automatically restored. As long as your site remains under a severe load.: 07000 7000 850 . So. The more under-powered your webserver. To throttle modules. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. On the other hand. Alte Kirchstr. what was a perfect throttle setting a few months ago may be too high or too low this month. it is also possible to configure entire modules to be automatically disabled when the autothrottle reaches a maximum level of 5. Now.

3. RSS) to your site Drupal has the ability to aggregate syndicated content (e. Enable "throttle" for all but the absolutely essential blocks. It is not advised to increase this value much beyond 10% however. and enable the aggregator module 2.. 11.g. Keep in mind that some news feeds are staring to instal throttling software that may prevent you from accessing their feeds too often. 4. Define the URL of the remote news feed. Add a new newsfeed To add a newsfeed or syndicated content to your Drupal site: 1. please read Drupal as a news aggregator for a more in-depth description of these services. Define the Title. and syndication. Talk to your web host about how they can better tune your webserver.com/coolnewsfeed. 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix.example. Only pull content as much as you actually need to. (this is perhaps the most significant suggestion) Hack your theme to be auto-throttle aware. Try adjusting the "Auto-throttle probability limiter" to a higher percentage. This will be the heading of the newsfeed throughout the site. Adding syndicated content (newsfeeds.rss 6. Select the add feed tab. such as http://www. again so that the auto-throttle is quicker to detect a surge. automatically disabling large images when your site comes under a heavy load. Enable "throttle" for all but the absolutely essential modules.24ix. 5. Set the Update interval. rss feeds) from multiple sources onto your websites. however don't give up too quickly. To learn more about this concept including such confusing terms as newsfeeds.module's "throttle_status()" function.de Tel. Here are a few more tips: Try adjusting the "Auto-throttle multiplier" to a lower value so your auto-throttle can detect a surge sooner. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Once you have enabled the aggregator module you will be able to go to the aggregator configuration page (administer > aggregator). Alte Kirchstr. rss.de . atom.simply can't handle the load. as this may have a negative impact on your site's performance. Goto the modules configuration page (administer > modules).. Refer to the throttle.

Enable this new block on the block configuration page (administer > blocks ). where 1 is the number of the newsfeed you have created. 4. Email: info@24ix. Goto the newsfeed config page (administer > aggregator) and select the add category tab.com/yoursite/aggregator/sources/1. o Individual display as blocks This method is described in the setup above o Display of newsfeeds in category blocks Newsfeeds can be broken up into categories. http://www.de Tel. 7. Once you have selected this option you must enable your newsfeed block in the blocks configuration page (administer > blocks) If you leave the Latest items block setting at it's default your users will only be able to access the news feeds through the aggregator URL.example.: 07000 7000 850 . If you already have news items updated on your site the category will not index them. then return to the newsfeed config page (administer > aggregator). Provide a Title and Description.example.7. 6. The options control the number of items displayed in this block. Alte Kirchstr. 3. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 2. To get the old news items into the new 24iX Systems. To make news feeds defined to this category appear as a block select a number of items from the Latest items block pull-down. Under Automatically file items select the checkbox next to the category you just created. The power of this feature is being able to bring multiple news feeds together under one category. 5. within categories which are also listed as blocks.de .com/yoursite/aggregator or http://www. If you want the items for this news feed to have a block then you must change the Latest items block selection from it's default. Configuring newsfeed display Newsfeeds can be displayed individually as blocks on your site. Now when new news items come in they will be displayed in the category block. 11. We will now need to add one or more news feeds to this category.24ix. To create a category: 1. Select the List tab and select the edit link in the row of the newsfeed item you would like to add to this category. or can be accessed through either method through the news aggregator link in the site navigation block.

category, click the list tab, click remove items from the newsfeed you want, and then click update items. This will update the items and index them into your new category. o Display under news aggregator link When you enable the aggregator module, drupal creates a link in your site navigation. Under this section your users can view all individual news feeds and news feed categories you have created. Relevant URLs in this section are: http://www.example.com/yoursite/aggregator - news aggregator home http://www.example.com/yoursite/aggregator/sources/# - index of individual newsfeeds where the number indicates the particular feed http://www.example.com/yoursite/aggregator/categories/# - index of newsfeed categories where the number indicates the category If you are looking for content, there are several sites that provide an index of news feed services on the internet including:
o o

Syndic8 Yahoo RSS Feeds

Database table prefix (and sharing tables across instances)
Simple usage
Some web hosts limit their customers to one database. Thus, no duplicate table names are possible. In order to assure that these admins can still use Drupal, and even use multiple installations of Drupal, Drupal offers table prefixing. In order to use this feature, you must currently edit your database/database.x script in order to create tables prefixed by the string of your choice. For example, change all statements from the format of
CREATE TABLE access to CREATE TABLE dr1_access.

24iX Systems, Alte Kirchstr. 11, 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix.de , Email: info@24ix.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850

Then use dr1_ (for example) as value of $db_prefix in your includes/conf.php file.

Advanced usage
Table prefixing may be optionally applied to some tables and not others. This has the effect that multiple Drupal installations can share common tables. One interesting application for this is to share the taxonomy tables (vocabularies, term_data). Another interesting use is to share users across Drupal installations. In order to use this capability, create two drupal installs in same DB using different database prefixes. In this example, one is prefixed 'master_' and the other 'content_only_'. Then edit the conf.php file of 'content_only_' so that it points some tables to the 'master_'. For sharing users, add the following:
$db_prefix = array( "default" => "content_only_", "users" => "master_", "sessions" => "master_", "role" => "master_", "authmap" => "master_" "sequences" => "master_" );

Super advanced usage
[tested only on mysql so far] It is possible to keep the multiple Drupal installations in different databases but still share common tables. To do this, specify the database name as part of the prefix. For example,
$db_prefix = array( "default" => "content_only.", "users" => "master.", "sessions" => "master.", "role" => "master.", "authmap" => "master." "sequences" => "master." );

In the example above, content_only and master are databases.

redirecting hostname.domain.tld to specific page
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It can be handy to have some subdomains for different purposes leading towards differnt pages on a website. A usefull subdomain might for example be downloads.example.com. Any user will understand what one can expect at such a domain. Things like this can be done via a name behind the domainname with drupal 4.3.x in the core or in 4.2 with the path module. In that case you can point your users to example.com/downloads and this page drupal will rewrite towards the download page. The way of rewriting these domains is rather neat, but having subdomains in stead of filenames might in certain case have a better image or be more usefull. The site drupal.org uses the shortcut hostname.example.com as well. For example to the documentation place, http://documentation.drupal.org leads to http://www.drupal.org/node.php?id=253. So how can you use this service? What follows is a short howto. Say you own the domain example.com (rfc2606); Say you have a drupal page example.com/node/view/nid You want to have a shortcut to this page labelled nid.example.com Now you have to do the following things: 1. Edit your DNS 2. Edit your .htaccess Regarding 1), editing your DNS How DNS works wont be described here , but if you have basic knowledge of DNS and adminster one or more domains, you should be able to add a hostname in your zone called nid(.example.com.). Please make sure you update the TTL. Another way of doing this is by adding a wildcard in your domain. This wildcard (*) makes that any hostname in your domain will automatically be resolvable. Now wildcards for toplevel domains might be considered very bad (see the rants against verisigns sitefinder service), having one in a domain might be considered bad as well.

Note that there is one very big disadvantage of having all hostnames resolved. Any word (and we do mean any word) will point to your site, wether you like the word or not. Together with the standard drupal behavior of not generating an

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error pages (e.g. a 404 page), this can lead towards very undesired results. For example http://i-think.drupal.org/rocks will give a valid page, as well as less flatering ones... Regarding 2) edit hour .htaccess Once you edited your zone with the new hostname and you tested from various places that this hostname resolves towards the right IP adress, you can edit your .htaccess file in the root of your webserver. This assusmes you are using apache. First make sure that you have mod_rewrite enabled in your apache webserver. There are more ways to make sure you have mod_rewrite as a module enabled in your webserver, an easy way is to make a small php file somewhere in your document root with phpifo in it
<?php phpinfo(); ?>

Now surf towards this php file and search for mod_rewrite in the page. If this module is not enabled, ask your hosting party or download the module your self and enable it. Once you have mod_rewrite installed we can edit the .htaccess file in the root of your webdirectory. Start your favourite editor and check if the line
RewriteEngine On

is there. If not, add the line. Now add the folowing entrys:
RewriteCond %{HTTP_HOST} ^nid\.example\.com$ [NC] RewriteRule ^(.*)$ http://example.com/node/view/nid [R=301,L]

Surf towards your new subdomain nid.example.com and see if you are going to example.com/node/view/nid. Check the error log in case things fail, you dont even have to restart the webserver. Having shortcuts this way can be very handy for taxonomy

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. Hope you enjoy your new shortcut! Have fun.

The tolerant Base URL
Instead of using a hard coded domain as your $base_url in the includes/conf.php file, you might want to use
<?php $base_url = 'http' . ($_SERVER['HTTPS'] == 'on' ? 's' : ''); $base_url .= '://' .$_SERVER['HTTP_HOST']; if ($dir = trim(dirname($_SERVER['PHP_SELF']), '\,/')) { $base_url .= "/$dir"; } ?>

This has the advantage that whatever domain the user used to get to the site, he will maintain throughout his session.
Warning

o

Email notifcations may be issued under the domain which is used by the poster. If you access your site using http://localhost, you could send emails with that invalid URL. The only module which behaves this way today that I know of is subscription.module from Contrib.

Drupal modules and features
The nodes below contain the help available for the Drupal modules.

A blog for every Drupal user
Drupal's blog module allows all registered users to maintain a personal weblog on site. Blogs can be used as an online journal or diary, where users post daily thoughts, poetry, boneless blabber, spiritual theories, intimate details, valuable experiences, cynical rants, semi-coherent comments, writing experiments, artistic babblings, critics on current facts, fresh insights, diverse dreams, chronicles and mumbling madness available for public consumption. From a more practical standpoint, blogs can be seen as a means of personal knowledge publishing, a place for researchers or enthusiasts to build and share knowledge about their

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interests. Or in project oriented sites, as a workspace for project members to post ideas for commenting by others in a group. For a more complete definition of blogging with links to resources and examples, see George Siemens' The Art of Blogging - Part 1 and The Art of Blogging - Part 2.

Configuring User Blogs
To implement user blogs on your Drupal site, simply turn on the blog module. Go administer » modules and check the box in the status column to the right of blog. Next, under administer » users » configuration » permissions, check the maintain personal blog box for each role you wish to maintain blogs. Once logged in, each user with the permission to maintain a blog will be able to click create content » personal blog entry and will see my blog (which displays blog entries as other people will see them) in the user navigation block. At the bottom of each individual blog post, the original blog author will find an edit this blog entry option. To add instructions for users on creating their blogs, return to Drupal site administration and select administer » settings » blog. Enter your instructions in the available text field. Note that you can use the Minimum number of words in a blog entry setting to specify a minimum length for all blog posts.

Making User Blogs More Accessible
Drupal provides a number of ways to make user blog posts accessible. You'll need to decide which ones work best for how your Drupal site is configured: A link in the navigation bar -- After activating the blog module, most Drupal themes will include a Blogslink in the header navigation bar. The user blog listing contains the most recent blog posts by all site users. If the site is using xtemplate, you'll need to create the link yourself. Go to site configuration » themes » xtemplate and add in the HTML to create the URL (to find the URL, switch your site theme momentarily to Marvin and the link will be present in the navigation header). o Making user blog listings the default home page-- Click administer » settings and set Default front page to blog. (You will have to type in the word "blog" without quotes.)
o

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This is how book.Users with blogs will see a blog it link option when viewing posts in the latest news page of the news aggregator. o Additional features Blog it -.Administrators using node as the Default front page setting can elect to promote any user blog posts to the front page. with the title. the user will be taken to the blog entry form. will have an icon in place of the textual blog it link. It is particularly good for manuals.: 07000 7000 850 . allowing you to have chapters.Click administer » content » configure » default workflow.Promoting individual blog posts -. 24iX Systems. o Auto-throttle: congestion control Collaborative book or documentation writing The book organises content into a nested hierarchical structure.24ix. and a link to the source already entered in the text input field. This will work if "node" is the Default front page. 11. select view recent blog entries). but you can insert nodes of any type into a book outline. To find the RSS feed for a user. Alte Kirchstr. o User Blog RSS syndication -. These nodes are usually of type book page.each individual user blog has their own RSS feed. Other news listings. ready for the user to add explanation. a link to the item. Every node in the book has a parent node which "contains" it. At any given level in the hierarchy. etc. view their personal blog (in their personal information. Then look for the XML icon at the bottom of their blog page. sections. then check the promote box in the personal blog entry column. When the blog it option is selected.Drupal also makes available a Blogs block under block management. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) and the like. Email: info@24ix.de . o A most recent blogs block-. o Promoting individual blog posts automatically -.module establishes its hierarchy. Select the administer link below each individual entry when viewing user blogs and check Promoted to Front Page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. such as RSS blocks.de Tel. A book is simply a collection of nodes that have been linked together. allowing other sites to syndicate their content.

let the community do it for you! In order to set up the FAQ. Email: info@24ix. The main benefit is that you don't have to write all the questions/answers by yourself . click on the create content » book page link. click on the "outline"-tab on the node's page. Give it a thoughtful title. Administrators should periodically review their books for orphans and reaffiliate those pages as desired. Maintaining a FAQ using a collaborative book Collaborative books let you easily set up a Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) section on your web site. reorganized. administrators may also export their books to a single. books use permissions to determine who may read and write to them. 11.24ix. Book pages contain a log message field which helps your users understand the motivation behind an edit of a book page. To do so.: 07000 7000 850 .a book can contain many nodes. Whenever you come across a post which you want to include in your FAQ. Then place the relevant post wherever is most appropriate in your book by selecting a parent. should that be desirable. Alte Kirchstr. Finally. Like other node types. you have to create a new book which will hold all your content. which are really just nodes whose parent is <top-level>. use the create content » book page link. To add a new node into your book. flat HTML page which is suitable for printing. This capability makes it easy to revert to an old version of a page. and deleted. book submissions and edits may be subject to moderation.de Tel. click on the administer link. There. They can have sections like 24iX Systems. Administrators may review the hierarchy of their books by clicking on the collaborative book link in the administration pages. depending on your configuration. Leave the log message and type fields blank for now.FAQ" is nice. Similarly. You may always edit these fields later. This enables you to place the node wherever you'd like within the book hierarchy. you are ready to begin filling up your book with questions that are frequently asked. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. it may leave behind child nodes. These nodes are now orphans. A title like "Estonia Travel . You will probably want to designate <top-level> as the parent of this page. This behavior may change in the future. To include an existing node in your book. Books are quite flexible. When a parent node is deleted. Then click on the edit book outline button at the bottom of the page. After you have submitted this book page. Each edited version of a book page is stored as a new revision of a node. and body. nodes may be edited.de . All these sibling nodes are sorted according to the weight that you give them. removed from book. Only administrators are allowed to create new books.

story. o If you don't see the administer link."<br>"."<br>". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Eating in Estonia and so on.). To get the data you submit from a form you can do this: print "variable1: " . o You may wish to edit the title of posts when adding them to your FAQ. As you get more experienced with the book module. If you are creating a post solely for inclusion in your book. o Printing PHP Variables from GET or POST Forms The collaborative book allows administrators to add PHP code to the page body for extra power. page. $_POST["size"] . weblog post. An administrator can give comment 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . you can reorganize posts in your book so that it stays organized. since much wisdom is shared via comments. story. This is done on the same page as the Edit book outline button. $_POST["product"] . etc. (eg: yoursite.com/page.24ix. Users can post comments to discuss a forum topic.de Tel. o Book pages may come from any content type (blog. print "product: " . You do NOT use the PHP tags ("<?php" and "?>"). This is a great feature. collaborative book page. Notes: Any comments attached to those relevant posts which you designate as book pages will also be transported into your book. then you probably have insufficient permissions. Clear titles improve navigability enormously. Alte Kirchstr. Remember that all future comments and edits will automatically be reflected in your book.de . print "size: " . etc. change $_POST to $_GET if you used GET as your form method or if you are using a URL to set the variables."<br>". the Drupal comment module creates a discussion board for each Drupal node.Flying to Estonia. 11. then use the create content » book page link.php?variable1=hello) Comment system When enabled. $_POST["variable1"] . Email: info@24ix.

o Expanded — Displays the title and text for each post. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . smileys and HTML that work in nodes will also work with comments. Additional comment configurations Comments behave like other user submissions in Drupal. o Moderate comments — Allows users to rate comment postings (see more on moderation below). in administer » comments » configure. o Post comments without approval — Allows users to directly post comments. The choice of which permissions to grant to which roles (groups of users) is left up to the site administrator. bypassing the moderation queue.: 07000 7000 850 . Administrators can set the default settings for the comment control panel. Administrate comments — Allows users complete control over configuring.de Tel. o Post comments — Allows users to post comments into an administrator moderation queue. 11. The following permissions: Access comments — Allows users to view comments. Users can control the chronological ordering of posts (newest or oldest first) and the number of posts to display on each page. and users can (optionally) edit their last comment. Email: info@24ix. assuming no others have been posted since. o o 24iX Systems. NOTE: When comment moderation is enabled. o When a user chooses save settings. Filters. editing and deleting all comments. users will have another control panel option to control thresholds (see below). Know that in a new Drupal installation. the comments are then redisplayed using the user's new choices. Administrators can control access to various comment module functions through administer » users » configure » permissions. along with other comment defaults.24ix. all comment permissions are disabled by default. o Collapsed — Displays only the title for each post.permissions to user groups. User control of comment display Attached to each comment board is a control panel for customizing the way that comments are displayed. o Flat — Displays the posts in chronological order. Alte Kirchstr. with no threading whatsoever. Additional settings include: Threaded — Displays the posts grouped according to conversations and subconversations.

enter the textual labels which users will see when casting their votes. the administrator must grant moderate comments permissions. Some administrators may want to download. There is a link to the recent posts page in the navigation block.Notification of new comments Drupal provides specific features to inform site members when new comments have been posted.de Tel. In the vote field. Visit the comment board for any node. Some examples are o o Excellent +3 Insightful +2 24iX Systems. users have an additional option in the control panel which allows them to set a threshold for the comments they wish to view. Then.de . they can apply a vote which affects the comment rating. each comment is automatically assigned an initial rating. Alte Kirchstr. install and configure the notify module. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. To enable moderation. The tracker module. Members which have logged in will see a notice accompanying nodes which contain comments they have not read. Those comments with ratings lower than the set threshold will not be shown.php be configured properly). This page is a useful way to browse new or updated nodes and comments. the administrator can turn over comment moderation to the community. Go to administer » comments » configure » moderation votes. a number of options in administer » comments » configure must be configured.: 07000 7000 850 . displays all the site's recent posts. Content which the user has not yet read is tagged with a red star (this graphic depends on the current theme). Email: info@24ix.24ix. At the same time. As users read comments. Drupal displays the total number of comments attached to each node. 11. With comment moderation. and tracks comments read by individual site members. Moderation votes The first step is to create moderation labels which allow users to rate a comment. disabled by default. Comment moderation On sites with active commenting from users. Users can then request that Drupal send them an e-mail when new comments are posted (the notify module requires that cron. and Drupal will display a red "new" label beside the text of unread comments.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.o o o Useful +1 Redundant -1 Flame -3 So that users know how their votes affect the comment. note that the Minimum score is asking you for the lowest rating that a comment can have in order to be displayed. NOTE: Comment ratings are calculated by averaging user votes with the initial rating. 24iX Systems.24ix. you'll have to create some comment thresholds to make the comment rating system useful. To see a common example of how thresholds work. When comment moderation is enabled and the thresholds are created. You can reset the thresholds in their comment control panel. Email: info@24ix. positive votes. When creating the thresholds. with negative votes at the bottom. these examples include the vote value as part of the label. 11. although that is optional. users will find another comment control panel option for selecting their thresholds.de . They'll use the thresholds you enter here to filter out comments with low ratings. Enter the values for the vote labels for each permission role in the vote matrix. Moderator vote/values matrix Next go to administer » comments » configure » moderation matrix. To encourage positive voting. If you do not assign any initial scores. Initial comment scores Finally. Alte Kirchstr. Drupal will assign a rating of 0 as the default. a useful order might be higher values. In administer » comments » configure » moderation roles you can assign a beginning rating for all comments posted by a particular permission role. you'll probably want to create more than one threshold to give users some flexibility in filtering comments. Creating comment thresholds In administer » comments » configure » moderation thresholds. Consequently.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel. Using the weight option. you might visit Slashdot and view one of their comment boards associated with a story. Setting the weight heavier (positive numbers) will make the vote label appear at the bottom of the list. you may want to enter some initial comment scores. The values entered here will be used to create the rating for each comment. Lighter (a negative number) will push it to the top. you can control the order in which the votes appear to users. at the top.

Drupal will try its best to run the tasks as close to the specified intervals as possible. Take a look at the example scripts in the scripts-directory. Whenever http://example.com/cron. cron is an ideal solution. Automating tasks is one of the best ways to keep a system running smoothly. weekly and monthly jobs (or anything with a period measured in seconds). use a browser like lynx or wget but make sure the process terminates: either use /usr/bin/lynx -source http://example. the more accurate cron will be. It can be used to control the execution of daily.php or /usr/bin/wget -o /dev/null -O /dev/null http://example. If your hosting company does not allow you to set up crontab entries. virtually any Unix/Linux machine with access to the internet can set up a crontab entry to frequently visit http://example. you can always ask someone else to set up an entry for you.de Tel.com/cron. The recommended way to set up your cron system is to set up a Unix/Linux crontab entry (see "man crontab") that frequently visits http://example.24ix. Cron Some modules require regularly scheduled actions.php.sh 24iX Systems.de . The more you visit cron. where n is the period of that task. Note that cron does not guarantee the commands will be executed at the specified interval. which stands for chronograph. behaviours including visual and operational settings. cron will run: it calls the _cron hook in each module allowing the module to run tasks if they have not been executed in the last n seconds. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.Cron system and crontab Drupal comes with system-wide defaults but the setting-module provides control over many Drupal preferences. However.php is accessed. is a periodic command scheduler executing commands at intervals specified in seconds. A good crontab line to run the cron script once every hour would be: 00 * * * * /home/www/drupal/scripts/cron-lynx.com/cron.com/cron. Make sure to adjust them to fit your needs. After all. Alte Kirchstr. When all the tasks are finished.php. Email: info@24ix. Cron.php. and if most of your administration does not require your direct involvement.php.: 07000 7000 850 . such as cleaning up logfiles. 11.com/cron. cron is done. For the Unix/Linux crontab itself.

this feature is perfectly capable of aggregating pings from all of your departmental drupal installations sites within an enterprise. do not run it using command line PHP and avoid using localhost or 127.24ix.Note that it is essential to access cron.de Tel. cooperate and advertise each other. In order to reduce server load and save bandwidth. Also note that your installation need not use drupal. Directory Server (Drupal Sites) The "Drupal" module features a capability whereby other drupal sites may call home to report their existence.php should be called using the domain name which you want to have listed at drupal.php.org as their directory server and report their existence. Only pages requested by "anonymous" users are cached. Drupal stores and sends cached pages compressed. Drupal administrators should simply enable this feature to get listed on the Drupal sites page. 11. 24iX Systems. instead it takes only one SQL query to display it.de .example. don't kick off cron by requesting http://127.1/cron. this enables a pod of Drupal sites to find. Then make sure that the field called Drupal XML-RPC server on the administer » settings » drupal page is set to http://www.org as its directory server.php. Note that cron. Cache Drupal has a caching mechanism which stores dynamically generated web pages in a database.0. slogan and mission statement on the administer » settings page.0.1 or some of the environment variables will not be set correctly and features may not work as expected.com/cron. and enable this feature using the dropdown directly below. For example.org. By caching a web page. Currently. This reporting occurs via scheduled XML-RPC pings. fresh Drupal installations can use drupal.0. Just set your site's name. By default. For example. the main application of this feature is the Drupal sites page. The listing of your site will occur shortly after your site's next cron run. In turn. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Instead. reducing response time and the server's load. e-mail address.org/xmlrpc.drupal. use a publicly accessible domain name such as http://www.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. Drupal does not have to create the page each time someone wants to view it.php. Email: info@24ix.0.php using a browser on the web site's domain.

"Please ask your questions here.de . Alte Kirchstr. then click administer » aggregator and enter the feeds that you choose. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Drupal also has a news aggregator built in as a standard feature. syndicate their most recent site content for others to display. To create a forum you first have to create a taxonomy vocabulary. For example: "troubleshooting" . Email: info@24ix. The syndicated content always includes titles.Discussion forums Creating a forum The forum module uses taxonomy to organize itself.24ix. If you fill in the description field. Simply enable the aggregator module in administer » modules. you can subscribe to feeds from other sites and display their content for your site users. You may use images of whatever size you wish. Each term will become a forum. Each headline acts as a direct link to the stories on the remote site. When doing this.: 07000 7000 850 . add some terms to it. choose a sensible name for it (such as "fora") and make sure under "Types" that "forum" is selected. such as AmphetaDesk. With it. These permissions can be set in the permission pages. especially news sites and weblogs. most sites typically provide either the first few paragraphs of the story or a short summary. for the newest published stories." When you are happy with your vocabulary. Many individuals use client-based news aggregators on their personal computer to aggregate content. Drupal as a news aggregator Thousands of web sites. 11. Along with the headline. Icons To disable icons. For users to access them they must have the "access content" permission and to create a topic they must have the "create forum topics" permission. users will be given additional information about the forum on the main forum page. also known as headlines. 24iX Systems.de Tel. There will now be fora active on the site. Once you have done this. but it is recommended to use 15x15 or 16x16. set the icon path as blank in administer » settings » forum. All files in the icon directory are assumed to be images. go to administer » settings » forum and set Forum vocabulary to the one you have just created.

Once there.The update interval is how often Drupal will automatically access the RSS URL for the site for fresh content. Some sites do not make their RSS feeds as easy to find. Example: http://slashdot.xml and . Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . obtain the full URL of the RSS page providing syndication. Drupal will then ask for the following: Title -. Often you need only look for a red XML button. here are some good introductions: o o Mark Pilgrim's What is RSS WebReference. As a general rule.The text entered here will be used in your news aggregator. within the administration configuration section. In that case.Here you'll enter the fully-qualified URL for the feed for the site you want to subscribe to.: 07000 7000 850 . Most weblog sites that offer syndication will have an obvious link on the main page.What do I need to subscribe to a feed? The standard method of syndication is using the XML-based RSS format. Or maybe you want to find a number of feeds on a given topic. such as the one Drupal uses for site syndication. Alte Kirchstr.rss.org/slashdot. use the web site name from which the feed originates.rdf. without extensively searching the web. o Update interval -. RSS stands for Really Simple Syndication.com's The Evolution of RSS NOTE: Enable your site's XML syndication button by turning on the Syndicate block in block management. To learn much more about RSS. Configuring news feeds To subscribe to an RSS feed on another site. . To syndicate a site's content. select the add feed tab at the top of the aggregator administration page. depending on whom you talk to. o URL -. try an RSS syndication directory such as Syndic8. Accessing another site's RSS page more frequently can be considered impolite because it requires the other site's server to handle your automatic o 24iX Systems. Common file tags for RSS pages are .24ix. The 1 hour default is typically the minimum you will want to use. RDF Site Summary. and as title for the news feed block.rdf.de Tel. click administer » aggregator. 11. or Rich Site Summary.

2. Otherwise.de . the categories which you can assign to each item. To take advantage of this feature. click "news aggregator" 10. Now every time you add a feed.requests.: 07000 7000 850 . note that cron. 11. Creating Categories in the Aggregator 6. you can select a category which the items will automatically appear under. then the category you wish to look at. click sources. Tagging Individual Items in the Aggregator 9. then a description. then the feed source you with to look at. check to see if it is working properly.24ix. If you do not see any items listed for that feed. Once you submit your new feed.php must be configured to have your feeds updated regularly. Here you have two options: 1. plus to the right. You will be presented with a list of items to categorize.de Tel. If you wish to have a block of the last x items from that category. 8. you can tag individual items in your aggregator to appear in a category. you can select more than one category for an item by holding down CTRL (PC) or CMD (Mac) and clicking on each category. Select update items on the main news aggregation page. Add a title to the category. go to administer -> blocks and look for the category you just created. Alte Kirchstr. you'll have to manually update feeds one at a time within the news aggregation administration section by using update items. Using the News Aggregator The news aggregator has a number of ways that it displays your subscribed content: 24iX Systems. click categories. then the categorize tab. edit the feed and make sure that the URL was entered correctly. To get to the categorization screen. Go to administer » aggregator then click on the add category tab. If you have the multiple-select option enabled in the aggregator configuration. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. Alternatively. To place the block on your sidebar. 7. Email: info@24ix. select the number of items in "Latest items block". in your sidebar navigation. then the categorize tab.

: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. The name of the source. o RSS feed blocks In addition to providing subscribed content through the news aggregator. The title acts as a link to an individual feed page. Also has an icon which acts as blog it link.de Tel. General terms Module A module is a piece of code which extends Drupal to provide a specific piece of functionality. o News Sources -. 11. A description. Theme 24iX Systems. which acts as a link to an individual feed page. The list of categories that the feed (or feed item) belongs to. Email: info@24ix. o News by Source -.24ix. Drupal automatically can create a block for every feed as well as every category. listing information about that feed and incoming content for that feed only. Enable any or all of the blocks using block management. the taxonomy and blog modules) and some others (eg.Organizes incoming content by feed. Drupal terminology As you start to read the Drupal documentation and learn how it works it will help a lot if you know what a few words mean. Some modules are part of the core Drupal system (eg.Displays an alphabetical listing of all subscribed feeds and a description. o News by Topic -.Displays all incoming content in the order received with The title of the original post. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. the first few paragraphs or summary of the originating post (if any). with a link to each category.Organizes incoming content by bundles.Latest News -. Also has an icon which acts as blog it link. though the administrator can choose whether or not a feed or category gets its own blocks by configuring the individual feeds and categories. displaying titles which link to the originating post. the weblinks and image modules) live in the contributions CVS repository and must be downloaded from there.de . displaying titles which link to the originating post. listing information about that feed and incoming content for that feed only.

The look of boxes can be controlled by each theme by defining the box($subject. $content. $content. Style A CSS file (or files) replacing the default CSS of a theme or engine. One special thing about them is that they can contain customized PHP code in order to make their content dynamic.24ix. $region = "main") method. Taxonomy Taxonomy is literally "the science of classification". There are additional themes available in the contributions CVS repository. Drupal uses taxonomy to describe the category system. Block Blocks are what are sometimes called "Slash Boxes". Each box has a title and some content. Almost all content in Drupal is stored as a node. $region = "main") method. Story Page 24iX Systems.A PHP file of functions which turn arguments into HTML markup.de Tel. which you can use to classify and organize content on your web site. Drupal modules define themeable functions which can be overridden by the theme file. Node Nodes are probably the hardest Drupal concept to grasp but they are really quite simple. Alte Kirchstr. There is additional information on the taxonomy system in the documentation. they are just a way of positioning data within a page.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Box Box is a container for content on Drupal pages. it could be a poll. Template A HTML-writer-readable file that is mostly HTML with special codes to substitute in values provided by a engine. Email: info@24ix. They are the navigational or content additions that live on the left or right side of a page when you view it in your browser. Engine A special type of theme that moves the HTML markup generation to template files (using any templating system). 11.: 07000 7000 850 . a book page an image etc. When people refer to "a node" all they mean is a piece of content within Drupal. The look of blocks can be controlled by each theme by defining the block($subject. Blocks are not nodes. a story. Also tells the theme selector what templates have been defined. Node types Site page Site pages are static pages which are typically (but not required to be) linked into the main navigation bar. Appears in the theme selection list with the same precedence as themes and templates.

An example of a collaborative book is the Drupal developer documentation. You can choose from a variety of form fields to appear on the profile entry page: o o single-line textfield multi-line textfield 24iX Systems. Originally only book pages could be a part of a book but these days all node types can be part of a book. Comments are what allow people to add comments to any other node that has been created. Comment Comments actually aren't nodes. Once a forum is created anyone can ask questions or comment on other peoples questions. Really the only special part about book pages these days is that like static pages they can contain PHP code.Story pages are the generic page type that most content management systems have. this allows you to add custom fields to a users database entry. This adds custom fields to the user's database entry. In addition it allows you to specify whether these new options are mandatory. private and if they are part of the new user registration process. or weblogs. they are their own special content type. Stories are generally used for information which is only relevant for a period of time (eg. New forums can only be created by administrators of the site and are generally dedicated to a particular topic or queestion. Blog Blogs. Alte Kirchstr. Extending user information (profiles) Drupal has a profile module for extending user information fields. news stories) and is expected to expire off of the page. Book Page Book pages are designed to be part of a collaborative book. public. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix. are another term for an online journal or diary. Email: info@24ix. Forum Forums are the same thing as online bulletin boards. About extending the profile module: The profile module can be extended to include additional information by adding in new form fields.de .de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . Poll A poll is where a multiple choice question is asked and users can answer and see other peoples answers to questions. They are a place where members of the community can write their own thoughts and not have to worry about being ontopic for the site.

How to extend the profile module: 8. In the Pictures settings. Many people love to see their web site showing a lot less English. and far more of their own 24iX Systems.24ix. public. most people are less comfortable with English than with their native language. Enable the profile module: In administer » modules select in the 'Enable' column where you see: profile | Support for configurable user profiles. 13. and primarily use English to interact with users.module. Click 'save configuration' Locale or internationalization support Most programs are written and documented in English. Alte Kirchstr. chmod to 755). for Picture support. Note: you must write in your directory name.: 07000 7000 850 . This is also true for a great deal of web sites.de . private. 10. Pictures (avatars) in the user.o o o o o checkbox list selection freeform list URL date You may also specifiy whether the profile options are mandatory. and 'save field'. and would prefer to use their mother tongue as much as possible. 11. 9. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.module Note that user pictures (or avatars) or pictures are part of the user.de Tel. Navigate to the administration area for user module configuration page under administer » users » configure 11. select Enabled (Enable picture support.) 12. Add in custom fields: Navigate to the administration area: administer » user configure » profile Select a form field type under 'Add new field' Follow onscreen instructions for configuring this field. not the profile module. and if they are part of the new user registration process. However. Email: info@24ix. Make sure the directory is created and make sure you have that directory has write permissions (that is.

24ix. Moderation. An easier. or to overwrite the default English texts. and specify their translations via simple web forms. 11. where you can search for untranslated strings. trust metrics and collaborative filtering. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. As each new piece of information competes for attention. Therefore.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. generating Portable Object files from your site strings. How to interface translation works Whenever Drupal encounters an interface string which needs to be displayed. and much less time consuming method is to import translations already done for your language. so you can look up untranslated strings easily. The export functionality enables you to share your translations with others. These are editable with quite convenient desktop editors specifically architected for supporting your work with GNU Gettext files.de Tel.de . worthwhile. people quickly tend to become overwhelmed and seek assistance in identifying the most interesting. Therefore Drupal provides a framework to setup a multi-lingual web site. we decided to develop a public system powered by a community that aims to bring quality content to everyone's attention and to filter out all junk: to sort the wheat from the chaff. Alte Kirchstr.language. bloated and disreputable. and should slide down the gullet far more easily. The import feature allows you to add strings from such files into the site database. The output should be something clean and homogenized featuring quality content. If a translation is not available. This is achieved by the use of GNU gettext Portable Object files. then the string is remembered. collaborative rating We like to experiment with moderation. First is the integrated web interface. it tries to translate it into the currently selected language. Drupal provides two options to translate these strings. Moderation queue 24iX Systems. valuable or entertaining items. Why? To help individuals and communities address the challenges of information overload. Not to mention the fact that readercontributed content and other levels of interactivity tend to become chaotic.

This lets people assign a score to a comment on how good they think the comment is or how visible they think it should be. the overall rating is just a simple average of all ratings. nodes that have been submitted.: 07000 7000 850 . flamebait and trolls. comments that gain the approval of participants will gradually move up through statistical effects and pointless comments will sink into oblivion. All registered users can access this list of pending nodes. Comments with high ratings are more visible than comments with a lower rating. Those registered users can vote whether they think the node should be posted or not. When more than one person rates a comment. comment moderation provides a technical solution to a social problem. Comment rating Anyone with a user account will be able to moderate comments. When enough people vote to post a node. their node is added to a queue. To hide or get get rid of spam.24ix.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The title of the poll should be the question. o o o o To create a poll a user needs the "create polls" permission. Email: info@24ix.Anyone who visits and has some news or some thoughts they'd like to share. Alte Kirchstr. can submit new content for consideration. the purpose of comment moderation is two-fold: o o To bring the really good comments to everyone's attention. then enter the answers and 24iX Systems. the node is pushed over the threshold and up it goes on the public page. 11. On the other hand. that is.de Tel. when too many people voted to drop a node. Hence. Click "create poll" in your user box. the node will get trashed. To view the results one needs the "access content" permission. Creating a poll is much like creating any other node. That way. but do not yet appear on the public front page. Polls or enquetes Users with the correct permissions can create and/or vote on polls. To vote on a poll question a user must have the "vote on polls" permission. In the latter. After someone has submitted something. To administer polls you need the "administer nodes" permission.

These are usually generated automatically by modules (e. recent forum topics). You can choose to let your users decide whether to show/hide certain blocks. You can also choose the time period over which the vote will run. but you can also create your own blocks. it currently implements the Blogger API. o Its function. The block management screen lets you specify the vertical sort-order of the blocks within a sidebar. Heavier ones "sink down" towards the bottom of it. Blocks can be configured to only show/hide on certain pages. Its path options. o User settings.g. Its throttle checkbox. Lighter blocks (smaller weight) "float up" towards the top of the sidebar.24ix. 11. Email: info@24ix. vote on them (if you haven't already) and view the results. Disabled blocks are never shown.de Tel. A block's visibility depends on: Its enabled checkbox. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Dynamic blocks (such as those defined by modules) may be empty on certain pages and will not be shown.: 07000 7000 850 . The Poll item in the navigation links will take you to a page where you can see all the current polls. Throttled blocks are hidden during high server loads. which can often offer richer functionality that online forms based editing. some both). Putting blocks with content in the sidebars Blocks are the boxes visible in the sidebar(s) of your web site. Post content using the Blogger API This module adds support for several XML-RPC based blogging APIs. and most of the Moveable Type API extensions. some right. Alte Kirchstr.de . The sidebar each block appears in depends on both which theme you are using (some are left-only. This allows users to contribute to drupal using external GUI applications. MetaWeblog API. o o o 24iX Systems.the "base" vote counts. Specifically. You do this by assigning a weight to each block. and on the settings in block management.

get.but.both.between.did.all.has. (Thanks to http://www.another. his.make. do.org/node/view/1202 for this and Dutch noise words. 11.for.it.at. Recommended settings are below. a description.many.have. Email: info@24ix.might. Each admin-defined block consists of a title. In the Search Settings (a submenu item under Home » administer » settings) page.here.had.can. and a body which can be as long as you wish.himself.as.php is running.he. Be sure cron.after. been.Administrator defined blocks An administrator defined block contains content supplied by you (as opposed to being generated automatically by a module).php You need to add: 00 * * * * wget -O .from.drupal.and.came.also.is. Recommended search settings: Minimum word length to index: 2 (the default) Minimum word length to search for: 2 (the default) Noise words: Here is a suggested list of noise words for English.into.more.php for each of your vhosts.like.by.an.) about.her.him. 24iX Systems.are.come. The Search box should now appear in your banner. they each will need a separate crontab entry.most.how.me. The normal entry looks like this: 00 * * * * wget -O .any.could.-q http://drupal/cron.be.if.-q http://vhost/cron. It updates the search keyword indexes.before. save the configuration.got. The Drupal engine will render the content of the block. Search configuration Check that the Search module is selected in Home » administer » settings.each.because.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. If you are using multiple virtual drupal sites with their own database instances in MySQL.being.: 07000 7000 850 .24ix.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr.in.

You can individually configure how many posts are displayed in each section. and the last stories read.than. this adds 1 database query for each page that Drupal displays.through. thus everything comes disabled by default.the. which can display the day's top stories.those.using HTTP referrer -each of your posts is viewed. o As with any new module. A configurable block can be added which can display a configurable number of the day's top stories.your Help text position: Link from above search output (on the Search Results page) Statistics. very.de .to. Email: info@24ix. same.way. and from where -. Logged information includes: HTTP referrer (if any). the statistics module needs to be enabled before you can use it.on.with.should.: 07000 7000 850 . as this module supports four separate permissions.these.said. 24iX Systems. top nodes and access log Introduction The statistics module keeps track of numerous statistics for your site but be warned.since. Once we have that count the module can do the following with it: The count can be displayed in the node's link section next to "# comments". and the last stories read. node being accessed (if any).our. Alte Kirchstr.of.some. the all time top stories. o o Notes on using the statistics: If you enable the view counters for content.what. the IP address of the user.under.we. 11.such. the all time top stories.now. user ID (if any).was.only.which.over. this adds 1 database query for each node that is viewed (2 queries if it's the first time the node has ever been viewed). them.there.were.see.you. The module counts how many times.where.never.still.out.take. and the time the page was viewed.up.well. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.then. statistical collection does cause a little overhead. Also refer to the permissions section.much.who.this.they. o If you enable the access log. o A configurable user page can be added.must.24ix.while.or.that.my.other. would.their.too.de Tel.

o Popular content block This module creates a block that can display the day's top viewed content. This log is used to store data about every page accessed. and the number of posts displayed for each can be configured with a drop down menu.allows you to configure how long an access log entry is saved. Enabling the log adds one database call per page displayed by Drupal. the all time top viewed content. If you disable all sections of this block. such as the remote host's IP address. an extra database query is added for each node displayed. Each of these links can be enabled or disabled individually.de .e. what node they've viewed.Configuring the statistics module There are some configuration options added to the main administer » settings » statistics section: enable access log -. To use this you need to run "cron.allows you to globally disable the displaying of node view counters. Don't forget to enable the block. You can also. after which time it is deleted from the database table. Support for static pages The page module is used when you want to create content that optionally inserts a link into your navigation system. Pages are also unique in that they shortcut the typical lifecycle of user generated content (i.php" o enable node view counter -. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.allows you to turn on and off the node-counting functionality of this module. not all themes support the link insertion behavior. User access permissions for pages 24iX Systems. o discard access logs older than -. and their user name. provide alternative mechanisms for link creation. and the last content viewed. like xtemplate. 11. Some themes.de Tel. however. o display node view counters -. submit -> moderate -> post -> comment).allows you to turn the access log on and off. At this time.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . create pages that don't have this link by skipping the link text field in the page form. it will not appear. where they came from (referrer). which increments a counter. If it is turned on.

users have various options for browsing category organized content. Once nodes are created and tagged. a web-based discussion community might have a vocabulary Topics with terms such as o o o o o Technology Politics Education Religion Sports An administrator might also choose to create multiple vocabularies for use with the same node type. Alte Kirchstr. Whether creating either very simple or extremely complex taxonomies. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Instead. Taxonomy (alias sections and categories) Unlike many content management systems. or vocabulary. You must enable this permission to in order for a role to create a page. administrators also choose with which Drupal node types to use these classifications.24ix. Email: info@24ix.de Tel.create pages: Allows a role to create pages. Vocabularies and Terms Each category group. Use this permission if you want users to be able to edit and maintain their own pages. Consider another vocabulary for use alongside of Topics. Drupal's flexible taxonomy system allows administrators to create a virtually unlimited number of separate classification schemes.: 07000 7000 850 . Drupal does much more than implement a simple category list for each content type. even if they are the authors.de . edit own pages: Allows a role to add/edit pages if they own the page. 11. for tagging content. They cannot edit or delete pages. or terms. one which classifies nodes in another way: Content with terms o o o o News Reviews Announcements Opinions 24iX Systems. For example. can contain multiple category entries.

Multiple select (Optional) -.New vocabularies can also be created or added to at any time. If an expected node is unavailable. check and make sure that the module for the specific node type has been activated.de Tel. Related terms (Optional) -. NOTE: When creating terms for a new vocabulary. Email: info@24ix. administrators might want to provide users with a catchall term. And do not worry. Drupal will prompt for: o o o o o o o o Vocabulary name (Required) -.: 07000 7000 850 .Allows a tree-like taxonomy (see Using Hierarchies below).Requires a user to select a term in this vocabularly in order to submit the node. So. Long before reaching Drupal's limits at handling very large classification schemes. Weight (Optional) -. but not book pages.A vocabulary may be associated with either a single or multiple node types. Alte Kirchstr. Drupal displays multiple vocabularlies in alphabetical order. Topics.A name for this vocabulary. 11. Setting a vocabulary weight heavier (positive numbers) 24iX Systems. Administrators can then review nodes tagged with Miscellaneous to see if a need exists for new terms. Description (Optional) -.Allows the administrator to set the priority of this vocabularly when listed with other vocabularies. Required (Optional) -. Once new terms are created. Otherwise. Creating a Vocabularly When setting up a vocabulary.24ix.Allows users to categorize nodes by more than one term. for example. when creating a node.A description of the vocabulary (this item may be used by some modules and feeds). Nodes may then appear on multiple taxonomy pages. Think of these as see also-references (this item not used by many Drupal modules). users would find large vocabularies and terms unwieldy to use and maintain. with as few or as many terms as the administrator may need. an administrator might select to have a vocabulary associated with stories and blogs. ambitious administrators can also update nodes with the new tag and remove the catchall category tag. Normally. Hierarchy (Optional) -. users will be offered a none option as the default for each vocabulary. such as Miscellaneous. when vocabularlies are left on the default of zero.de . Types (Required) -. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Useful for cross-indexing content.Allows relationships between terms within this vocabulary.

and other terms that have the same meaning as the added term. one synonym per line. note that the available options may depend on what was selected for related terms. Lighter (a negative number) will push the vocabularly to the top of the list. Example: Technology. acronyms. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. For more elaborate classification needs. a vocabulary must be populated with terms. Synonyms can be used for variant spellings. o Weight (Optional) -. unauthorized terms (this item not used by many Drupal modules).de . Email: info@24ix.The weight is used to sort the terms of this vocabulary (see explanation of weight above). Creating Terms Once finished defining the vocabulary. o o Advanced: Using Hierarchies For many users needing simple classification schemes. Hierarchies allow the creation of sophisticated taxonomies with categories and subcategories in a tree structure. but which are not explicitly listed in this thesaurus.: 07000 7000 850 .The name for this term.24ix. 11. the vocabulary Food could include the following categories and subcategories: o Dairy 24iX Systems. When creating a term. the examples above may be the only structure necessary for tagging site content. Alte Kirchstr. i. Useful for specifying which vocabulary a user sees first when creating a node.the branch of the hierarchy that this term belongs under (only required when heirarchy is enabled for the vocabulary). o Synonyms (Optional) -. Description (Optional) -. For example.Description of the term (this item may be used by some modules and feeds).Enter synonyms for this term.Select the term under which this term is a subset -.than other vocabularies will make the specific vocabularly appear at the bottom of the list. much like Yahoo categories or subject classifications used by libraries.de Tel.e. hierarchy and multiple select when creating the vocabulary: Term name (Required) -. o Parent (Required) -. consider the hierarchy option when creating vocabularies.

Lamb) can be controlled with the weight option. check out Langemarks Cafe's Categories page. Just select both parents when creating the term Milk. for a different term. single-node view. Using Vocabularies: Displaying Nodes by Terms When displaying nodes.de Tel.de .Milk o Drink Alchohol Beer Wine Pop Milk o Meat Beef Chicken Lamb o Spices Sugar Note that the term Milk appears within both Dairy and Drink. This is an example of multiple parents for a term. Beef. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. something like this taxonomy/page/or/2 24iX Systems. If the user selects any category term.g. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . both in teaser listings on the Drupal home pages and in full. 11. many Drupal themes display the categories applied to the node. For an example of a Drupal site which makes use of both multiple categories and heirarchies to classify hundreds of nodes. Don't forget that that the order of term siblings (e. The end of the URL should look something like this: taxonomy/page/or/1 And another Taxonomy URL. Email: info@24ix. Examine the Taxonomy URL for one such category listing. Drupal will then display a browsable listing for all nodes tagged with that term. Chicken.24ix.

: 07000 7000 850 . Each module provides a slightly different approach 24iX Systems. change the querystring parameter from "or" to "and": taxonomy/page/and/1.Note that Taxonomy URLs always contain one or more Term IDs at the end of the URL. Know that you can use the taxonomy section in Drupal site administration to find out any Term ID.24ix.de Tel.de . A user might only be looking for nodes which exist in both categories only. To create a boolean "AND" listing.2 The resulting listing includes all nodes tagged with either term. Just place the cursor over any edit term and look to the status bar at the bottom of the browser. tell Drupal which categories to display. listing all nodes for either term returns more than a user may need. Alte Kirchstr. Sometimes. Now combine the Term ID's above in one URL using a comma as a delimter taxonomy/page/or/1.2 . then has the querystring parameter. 1 and 2 above. and finally the term IDs. Email: info@24ix. Want to combine more categories? Just add more commas and numbers. 11. In addition to displaying Drupal nodes by category on site. Nor do administrators necessarily want to build custom blocks for users with links to each category listing. Drupal has category specific RSS feeds for other sites to access your site content. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. To significantly extend the means of accessing nodes by category. download and install the optional taxonomy_html and taxonomy_dhtml modules from the Drupal downloads page.2 Built like a Taxonomy URL. it starts with taxonomy/feed. See how the URL format for the RSS feed is very similar to the Taxonomy URL: taxonomy/feed/or/1. Then substitute the new Term ID's found there to create a different category listing. These numbers. Building individual Taxonomy URL's is not the most user friendly way to provide site users access to browseable listings.

Either will certainly increase each site user's ability to browse content More about Taxonomy Taxonomy is more than just a module in Drupal. Creating a Block with links belonging to certain taxonomy terms Question war_boar wrote: how to have a block of links to all terms which match taxonomy like Reviews: Anime Or Reviews: Movies without doing it manually it should be titled.24ix. Try both and decide which is best for users on your site. you want: $tax = array (3.6). You will then want to paste in the code below. It is also the study of classification and a research area of information science in the digital age. Reviews and underneath all blogs or stories which matched. Email: info@24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. named 'operator'. assuming the term ID for movies is '3' and the term ID for Anime is '6'. and customize the 'Physicians' subject and the $tax array. 11. as well as optional side blocks. $tax the list of tids that you are inetrested in. Answer As a demo. So in your case.de . can be and or or. Drupal admnistrators who want to push the limits of the Drupal taxonomy system might want to read about classification theory and application.net You will need to create a new Block of type=php. The third element. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. see the block named Physicians at Internists.to creating vocabularly and term listings pages for users. 24iX Systems. as well as how it applies to Drupal taxonomy module development.de Tel. "operator" => "or").

<?php // paste this code into a custom block of type=php // customize the $tax array and the $subject as needed $tax = array(1. although it is not enabled by default.24ix. while ($obj = db_fetch_object($result)) { $node = node_load(array('nid' => $obj->nid)). By following the recent posts link in the user block.: 07000 7000 850 . 11. Alte Kirchstr. $result = taxonomy_select_nodes($tax. $items). $node->nid).xml 24iX Systems. $operator = "or". $items[] = l($node->title. "node/view/". Email: info@24ix. URL aliasing Background A very powerful feature of Drupal is the ability to have control over all paths. An example of where a multiple aliases come in handy is creating a standard RSS feed URL: node/feed => rss. } return theme('item_list'. In other words you can have many different aliases map to a single path.de Tel. ?> Tracker The tracker module is a handy module for displaying the most recent posts. $operator).de . The path module is the tool that provides this functionality and is part of the basic Drupal installation. 2). a user may quickly review all recent postings. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Aliases have a many to one relationship with their original Drupal URLs. Some examples of remapping paths are: user/login => login image/tid/16 => store taxonomy/term/7+19+20+21 => store/products/whirlygigs node/3 => contact This functionality integrates seamlessly into node forms and also provides the administrator an interface to view all aliases that have been created.

Allows users to access the alias administration interface. So in our above example. if ($aliased != $path) { return $aliased. 'node/\1'. You might like to see completely different URLs used by Drupal. following this example: function conf_url_rewrite($path. allowing them to enter an alias for that node. Email: info@24ix. Drupal would use rss. Permissions Two permissions are related to URL aliasing: create url aliases and administer url aliases. in which case this feature is handy. $mode = 'incoming') { if ($mode == 'incoming') { // URL coming from a client return preg_replace('!^display/(\d+)$!'. Only an administrator with access to the website source code can set up this kind of aliases.de . 11.node/feed => index. $path).php. They will be able to edit/delete the alias after it is created using the same form. } } } 24iX Systems.xml as the default alias rather than index. You can define a conf_url_rewrite function in conf. administer url aliases . 1.24ix.rdf alias before rss. $path). Enabling this permission will display a path field to the user in any node form. Mass URL aliasing Drupal also comes with user defined mass URL aliasing capabilities.rdf. For example.rdf When Drupal generates links for a path with multiple aliases it will choose the first alias created per system URL. delete the aliases for node/feed and create the index. you can create an alias for a taxonomy URL or even remap the admin path (although the original admin path will still be accessible since aliases do not cancel out original paths). 'display/\1'.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr. or even URLs translated to the visitors' native language.: 07000 7000 850 . To change this behavior. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.xml. } else { // URL going out to a client $aliased = preg_replace('!^node/(\d+)$!'. This interface displays all aliases and provides a way to create and modify them. 2.Allows users to create aliases for nodes. This is also the location to build aliases for things other than nodes. create url aliases .

To get your Drupal site listed.: 07000 7000 850 . so if you have the 'contact' page alias from the example above. Weblogs. Drupal implements the XML-RPC interface of weblogs. weblogs. or to translate them to you own language.com when your site is updated.de .com.This function will shorten every node/$node_id type of URL to display/$node_id. You need extensive knowledge of Drupal's inner workings and regular expressions though to make such advanced aliases. Email: info@24ix. This is the job of the ping module and when installed. Incoming URLs however always work with the mass URL aliased variant. The ping module automatically notifies weblogs.gs notification Drupal can pings sites automatically to notify them that your site has changed.com and blo. performance data. The watchdog log is simply a list of recorded events containing usage data. the administrator doesn't have to do anything to participate in the Weblogs. errors. 24iX Systems. 11. It is vital to check the watchdog report on a regular basis as it is often the only way to tell what is going on.com must be informed about your site's updates.com. Watchdog The watchdog module monitors your web site. You cannot only use this feature to shorten the URLs. You can create a news section for example aliasing nodes and taxonomy overview pages falling under a 'news' vocabulary. technorati.com. capturing system events in a log to be reviewed by an authorized individual at a later time. To do so.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. It can ping the following sites: Weblogs. then the display/3 alias will not be effective when outgoing links are created. warnings and operational information. a web site that tracks and displays links to changed weblogs and news-oriented web sites.com system. thus having news/15 and news/sections/3 instead of node/15 and taxonomy/term/3. but also to add completely new subURLs to an already existing module's URL space. Only the 'incoming' and 'outgoing' modes are supposed to be supported by your conf_url_rewrite function. Individual URL aliases defined on the browser interface of Drupal take precedence. or to compose a bunch of existing stuff together to a common URL space.de Tel.

Weblogs. By default.de .readers of the site who are either do not have an account or are not logged in. moderator.com. login. authenticated user.the role assigned to new accounts on a Drupal site. Users assigned to the role. maintain user profiles.Com for RSS.: 07000 7000 850 .com. blo. and roles of different users. User management system Drupal offers a powerful access system that allows users to register. To do so. a directory of recently updated weblogs and tools for tracking interesting weblogs. such as the ability to create some types of content. the administrator doesn't have to do anything to participate in the the weblogs. etc. blo. The ping module automatically notifies Weblogs. are granted those permissions assigned to the role. Common examples of roles used with which you may be familiar include: anonymous user. To get your Drupal site listed. the administrator doesn't have to do anything to participate in the blo. Drupal implements the XML-RPC interface of blo. The ping feature requires crontab. allow you to fine tune the security. Email: info@24ix. and administrator. a way of assigning specific permissions to a group.Com for RSS must be informed about updates to your RSS feed. 11. Weblogs. To get your Drupal site listed.gs must be informed about your site's updates. o authenticated user -. use and administration of Drupal. Use the configuration tab to manage the access rules. Alte Kirchstr. a web site that tracks and displays links to recently changed RSS feeds in XML format. User management can be easily accessed in administer » users.gs when your site is updated.Com for RSS when your site is updated. or group. This is the job of the ping module and when installed.gs.com for RSS system. permissions. o The anonymous user role should typically have the least access to the site of all roles. The ping module automatically notifies blo.gs. logout. might be given more permissions. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.gs system. Authenticated users. This is the job of the ping module and when installed. Managing permissions with user roles Roles. in the spirit of services like Weblogs. If 24iX Systems. Drupal automatically defines two roles as a part of site installation: anonymous user -. blogtracker and blogrolling.de Tel.24ix. because they took the time to register.

de Tel. select the list tab and edit the desired user. Go to the user management screen ( administer » users ) and select the configure tab and then the permissions sub-tab to begin enabling or disabling permissions. the user will be able to edit and delete all content for that node type on the entire site. Your new role will be listed as a new column in the permission matrix. sometimes referred to as the "root user".24ix.Administer permissions. 24iX Systems. Once the role is added.de . Alte Kirchstr. editing and removal. including administration and content creation. when administer permissions are granted on modules associated with specific node types. 5. and must be manually added to that role through the user administration interface. Grant permissions to the new role. select the permissions sub-tab. For example. Email: info@24ix. Go to the user management screen ( administer » users ) and select the configure tab and then the roles sub-tab. you may be able to grant more permissions that way. These administration privileges grant users extensive control of the specific module(s) described by the permission title.administrator approval is required for new users. Enter a label for the new role in the available text field at the bottom of the current list of roles. 6. To do this. To add users to this role you will need to edit individual user accounts. or if they match certain criteria (such as having a company email address). always has full permissions for all Drupal activities. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. More trusted users might be granted special privileges through an administratorcreated role. Assigning permissions and users to roles Access to almost all Drupal modules can be controlled by either enabling or disabling permissions for a given role. Then you can add this user to your new role under the Roles section of the user edit page. To create new roles: 3. are usually reserved for the most trusted site users. Consider the following descriptions of permissions: o Administer -. You'll have to consider which permissions to enable. Reminder: you'll have to assign access administration pages rights to any role which also needs to configure site options in the administration menu.: 07000 7000 850 . 4. 7. the anonymous and authenticated users are configured with very minimal permissions during a site install. As a security precaution. such as "administer content" and "administer users". The first Drupal account created on a new installation.

When you enter a password it is also hashed with MD5 and compared with what is in the database. permissions for that module are unassigned to all roles.Permissions which grant access allow users read-only rights or general use of specific site modules. the prior saved environment is recreated. o Create -. these roles do not permit the creation of content. Most access permissions are safe to assign to any user role. the so-called session ID. When a visitor accesses your site. 11. Typically. the specified type of content.Access -. Drupal will check whether a specific session ID has been sent with the request. See distributed authentication for more information on this innovative feature. without any significant configuration privileges. Generally applies to node types. the user won't have to re-authenticate. as well as allowing the author of the submitted content to edit their own content. although giving access administration should generally be reserved for the most trusted users. User authentication Registered users need to authenticate by supplying either a local username and password. the username and password are correct. but not necessarily edit later. Drupal relies on PHP's session support. even if it is merely turned off and on. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The local username and password. or one from another Drupal website.: 07000 7000 850 . If this is the case. and until that session is over.de .de Tel. an administrator always needs to assign permissions to roles any time a module is enabled. hashed with Message Digest 5 (MD5).Allows users to create. User preferences and profiles 24iX Systems. o Maintain -. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr.These permissions generally enable a user to create content. Delphi. or a remote username and password such as a jabber. If you want to allow new site members to keep a weblog or work on the collaborative book. you'll need to enable maintain permissions for the authenticated user. To keep track of the individual sessions. A visitor accessing your website is assigned an unique ID. If the hashes match. Once a user authenticated session is started. are stored in your database. which is stored in a cookie. o Adjusting permissions after adding modules Whenever a module is enabled. For security's sake.24ix. As a security precaution. the cookie does not contain personal information but acts as a key to retrieve the information stored on your server's side.

e-mail address. username. This capability is called distributed authentication.: 07000 7000 850 . HTTP POST. and distributed authentication names. Module developers are provided several hooks for adding custom fields to the user view/edit pages. then we create a new drupal. Using distributed authentication Distributed authentication One of the more tedious moments in visiting a new website is filling out the registration form. There.de .com and his usual Delphi password. administrators may make profile and preferences changes in the Admin Center on behalf of their users. These hooks are described in the Developer section of the Drupal Handbook. Distributed authentication enables a new user to input a username and password into the login box. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. the software which powers drupal. This works because Drupal knows how to communicate with external registration databases. Joe may keep on logging into drupal. or SOAP) and asks: "Is the password for user Joe correct?". a user must be logged into reach those pages. Also. even if that user never registered at drupal. you do not have to fill out a registration form if you are already a member of Drupal. signature. Drupal informs Joe on registration and login screens that he may login with his Delphi ID instead of registering with drupal. Of course. Changes made here take effect immediately.com server behind the scenes (usually using XML-RPC. 24iX Systems. Drupal then contacts the remote.Each Drupal user has a profile. theme.org in the same manner. see the jabber_user() function in /modules/jabber. Alte Kirchstr. If Delphi replies yes.delphiforums. and many of them share their registration databases so that users may freely login to any Drupal site using a single Drupal ID. homepage. There are Drupal web sites all over the world. Here at drupal. lets say that new user 'Joe' is already a registered member of Delphi Forums. password.org.org. and a set of preferences which may be edited by clicking on the user account link. and is unique to Drupal. For an example. and logs in with a username of joe@remote. Drupal Drupal is the name of the software which powers drupal.de Tel. Joe likes that idea.delphiforums. and immediately be recognized.org. 11.org.module. language. users will find a page for changing their preferred time zone. For example.24ix. and he will always be logged into the same account.org account for Joe and log him into it.org. Email: info@24ix.

roles and permissions 24iX Systems.nodalpoint. please address your questions at proper places Upgrading from Drupal 2. I have also added some thoughts on the upgrade process in general.org/downloads/update.00 to 3. Upgrading from previous versions This chapter contains articles that discuss the upgrading process of your drupal installation.So please feel free to login to your account here at drupal. The script is available to download here: http://www. 11.tgz Notes on the script: The update script needs to be run under Drupal rc2 since it includes various Drupal functions. Alte Kirchstr. Some brief instructions are included in the download.de Tel. However the functions are simple enough that only minimal hacking should be required to upgrade from different table structures. Other considerations: Users. In it's current state it is only useful for upgrading from post node v2 Drupal. please note that comments are not meant to address problems you fund during installation.drupal. The format of a Drupal ID is similar to an email address: username@server.00 Upgrading your Drupal database can be tedious and sometimes painful.org. This may also be useful if you are considering switching from another CMS to Drupal v3.: 07000 7000 850 . I would like to make available to the Drupal community an update script to make this process easier. Email: info@24ix.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.org with a username from another Drupal site. Please keep in mind it is not perfect and only one possible solution. For problems with installation. An example of a valid Drupal ID is mwlily@www.24ix.

to Drupal please submit a revised copy of this page or anther book page. easy option.de Tel.00 to 4. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Note: same update script also allows to update your 4.0 database to the latest development version. To backup Drupal data. Check the insert statement in the update_users() function. Or if you would get fired if you lost it.php and follow the instructions. That is a good.php file. the technique for doing this is here.: 07000 7000 850 .de .24ix. Somewhat obscured on that page is a suggestion to just copy the right mysql files to another computer (the /data directory).0 has an automatic upgrade script what upgrates your database from version 3. Read about roles and permissions here. You might also wish to backup the conf. Alte Kirchstr. If others have useful information regarding how to move from dupal2/nuke/phpslash/slash etc. you need to backup your Drupal database. Backups It is a good idea to backup any data which you would be sad to lose. and any Drupal PHP scripts which you might have customized. Lastly: remember the usual caveats about backing up your data! Upgrading from Drupal 3. 24iX Systems. The script creates the collection.Users will need to be given a role when they are insert into the database.com/update. Sections vs Meta-tags In upgrading from sections to meta-tags. 11. just a simple way of dumping sections. Point your browser to http://yoursitename.0.0 to 4. Email: info@24ix. This is of course not the best way to utilize meta-tags. I chose to dump sections as meta-tags all belonging to the one collection.00 and later versions Drupal 4. If you use MYSQL.

Remove the index. If you don't find an answer here. Original posting .php first before index.htm" Error Solution by: Al Your Drupal directory contains both an index. Email: info@24ix.html. and everything should work fine.de Tel.de . Just delete them. "method POST is not allowed for the URL /index. 11.html file or configure your web server to look for index. Installation / Configuration "headers already sent" error [taken from http://drupal. and it tells you the error is near the end of the file. Check this FAQ or perform a search to find an answer. The extra whitespace being added probably is caused by a bad unpacking program and / or a windows editor adding it.html and index. especially when trying to log in. that probably means that there are extra spaces or lines after the closing ?> php tag. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.Troubleshooting FAQ Perhaps your question has been asked and answered already. ask your question in the Support forum.php file.htaccess page forbidden 24iX Systems.24ix. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 .org/node/view/653#2238 + edited slightly] If you ever get an error "headers already sent" with one of your files.

You can now hook up your own custom SMTP library to Drupal instead of using the default PHP mail() function.drupal. Alte Kirchstr. then ensure that the SMTP configuration is set properly in your php. 11. Make an include file that defines a user_mail_wrapper function: user_mail_wrapper($mail. $subject. 24iX Systems.de . For more people mail() will work just fine.24ix. Modify your configuration file (conf. ie use somethings like: Options FollowSymLinks -Indexes Original posting E-Mail from Drupal is Bouncing or not being Sent If you are not receiving any E-mails from Drupal. but for others this is a major problem and it does not work properly. If you continue to have problems. $message. with modifications. If you already have a favorite SMTP function you want to use you will have to create your own wrapper function. Email: info@24ix. Check out http://cvs.org/viewcvs/contributions/tricks/smtp/?cvsroot=c ontrib for an example.Solution: Add "FollowSymLinks" to the Options line to the . This function should take the parameters and pass them to the SMTP lib. the use the "user_mail_wrapper" option included with Drupal. Originally written by Kjartan on January 9. You will probably have to configure the SMTP lib in some way.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel.php) to include: $conf["smtp_library"] = "path/to/wrapper.ini. $header). 2002. If you just want to get started you will have to download a custom wrapper function from the Drupal contrib repository. or if E-mail sent by Drupal is bouncing.inc".htaccess file which by default only has "-Indexes".

Opera. Internet explorer. what I call "functional navigation".de .24ix. Netscape.inc from the repository above to ensure that the proper settings for your SMTP server are being used. Lynx has two Navigation block that look like this (assuming you have managed to add link 'Mypage' there by defining a 'page'): will show: * Navigation * home * news feeds * archives * blogs * books * forums * My Page * polls * search but also: Navigation * create content * recent posts * news aggregator Where the second one (create content etc. tweaked. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . altered or any other synonym. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Other themes do not have any version of generic navigation block. Each module -each function. That list could 24iX Systems.could add a link to a general list of links.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. In the poast drupal used to have a . 11. Themes: marvin and unconed have no generic navigation block but has the same links in the menu on the top of the page.) changes its name to name of the user after the user logs in. The theme: example. How can I adminstrate my navigation on my drupal site? A lot of questions come up about how navigation on drupal can be modified.Customize smtp.

But this one was not configurable. Alte Kirchstr. nowadays only very few do.then be displayed anywhere in drupal. ?> Please refer to the documentation on drupal.5. link_page() "<br />" ). For example in a custommade sideblock you can say: <?php return $output .5RC JonBob together with lots of others came up with a nice menu system. standard "navigation" block introduced. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. So as of 4. based on their function. even after I enable Navigation block in the configuration of blocks. So in drupal 4. or even hardcoded (D)html to make the navigation easy. But as of drupal 4.24ix. the list will then be something like blogs :: forum :: mypage :: weblinks Not all themes use this function. 11. Q: I like the first. Only modules could add items in that block.4 there was a general. You can print a list of linkes using for example: <?php $output . A: The links list is still present in drupal. blogs etc all have their own specific content-display and content navigation.de . generic Navigation block but most of the themes do not display it. link_page().de Tel. blocks. This is different in some releases of drupal! Q: What does the Navigation block in block config refer to? (which block displayed above is THE navigation block?) 24iX Systems. So you will need to add this manually somwhere. Email: info@24ix. For most of the CMS powered sites a functional navigation is the best method of navigation: forums. fully configurable.= theme("links". The list has only one level.= theme("links".org about printing vs returning in blocks. even in 4.3 people started inventing all sorts of navigation modules. " " ?> :: " ). with permissions and of course multi-levelled (as was the previous too). In fact.: 07000 7000 850 . These modules would use tabs. so subelements were not possible.

other than typing in the urls by hand. Alte Kirchstr. It offers multi-levelled navigation. So be carefull! Q: Where is the first (generic) Navigation block defined? What to look for if I want to add it to my theme? I like xtemplate so far so that's where I would like to have the generic navigation block. There are two solutions: The first one is very handy if you have mysql access. //Or something very similar ?> How do I unset the clean urls? After enabling the clean urls in configuration all content is inaccessible. You can disable this block.module for example). It is also a place where some modules place their navigation too (event. somewhere in this file.24ix.com/foo/bar with clean urls.php You should add the line $conf['clean_url'] = 0. 11. Email: info@24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . Clean urls are those fancy looking addresses: instead of www.= theme("links". Problem is that you cannot set it back. because the system you run drupal on. 24iX Systems. does not support (all) clean urls.server. because you cannot browse to the specific page anymore.' WHERE name = 'clean_url'.server. A: That is an implementaion of <?php print $output .de Tel.com/?q=/foo/bar you see www.de .A: That is the default drupal navigation blok. link_page() "<br />" ). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Run the mysql command: UPDATE variable SET value = 's:1:"0". but you will then not be able to get into your adminstration. And the next one is to modify you config file /includes/conf.

PHP Safe Mode Issue The error we all hate: warning: Cannot set time limit in safe mode in /home/virtual/site12/fst/var/www/html/cron.php on line 11. I've checked the status of the item and everything seems OK.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. 24iX Systems. It really is a great tool. If I click "logout" I get an empty page with the login box on the right and no content.php to show the correct location of PEAR This line looks like: # If required.de . 11. Alte Kirchstr.24ix.0 on Linux/Apache1. update PHP's include path to include your PEAR directory: // ini_set("include_path". The reasons: 1) Using a host that has Safe Mode enabled 2) PEAR is missing How to Fix it: 1) edit your includes/conf.1. I've created an admin user following the installation manual and posted a test story.3 and I'm trying to build my website. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. I just installed 4. If you can think of any otehr solutions please add them here. 2) Install PEAR and set the above line 3) Request your Host to install PEAR 4) Find a new host I hope this helps all those posts regarding the Safe Mode issue. Anyone can help? Thanks in advance. ".de Tel.no content on main page for non admin users Hi there! First of all thanks for the effort you put in Drupal.:/path/to/pear"). The story is visible on the main page (http://localhost/) only if I'm still logged in as admin.

23. 1)Is it possible to schedule when a node is to appear on the front page? I would like to great a node in advance and 24iX Systems.3.What is the minimum version of PHP? Which Version of PHP is required? I am running RedHat 6.html file.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.3.0.de Tel. when I do this I'm getting a parse error in page. I only get this when I select php from the list box.: 07000 7000 850 . Schedule and Expire Nodes Hello.php file). 11.0 and any help would be appreciated so kevin can get his site live. start your entry with ?>.51 Nodes cant create static php page In an attempt to find a temporary work around for kevinlebo's static page problem I created a directory called static in the drupal root directory and in that directory I created a an test. PHP content won't parse Are you getting errors like this? Parse error: parse error in /home/htdocs/drupal/modules/page.24ix. However.15 / MySQL 3. This is on Drupal 4.module. you must not include the <?php ?> tags around it. Thanks. If it's there please excuse the questions.2 / Apache 1. If you want to use a mix of PHP and HTML (like in a .module(105) : eval()'d code on line 1 When putting a piece of PHP code in pages/nodes. I have a question about nodes. Alte Kirchstr.12 / PHP 3. I didn't see anything about this in the manual. I then created a static php page in drupal that consisted of include() for the html file trying to avoid the large html file from being put in the database where I believe it is getting mangled. Email: info@24ix.

24iX Systems.php again don't process the old nodes (the ones which were in db before empty). How can I do to process those nodes again? Thanks! search multibytes language I am trying to setup a chinese portal website using drupal. then (trying to fix something) I empty the search index db.php.de Tel.org Search Search index db empty / incomplete Hi!. so it should not be a php issue.schedule when it is to appear.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. In my experimenting I seems to have problem searching chinese. In this repository you can add the code of your custom-made blocks. Blocks The block module outputs the boxes which typically appear beside the main content on drupal pages. 2)Is it possible to set an expiration date on a node so that it appears static on the front page until a certain date then loses the static flag? Thanks Joe Cotellese Clearstatic. 11.24ix. Alte Kirchstr. I run cron. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. I know the phpbb has no problem searching chinese. Now when I run cron. This module also presents an administrator page for managing these boxes. The ones you think are interesting for others. Custom Blocks Repository Drupal offers great possibilities for administrators to add custom HTML and PHP blocks. Does anybody have any clue? Thanks.de .

$node>nid). 11. n. but this way. without having to a apply for CVS access.ordered by creation date. n. so that we can keep comments for commenting the contributed codes Block to show all published content in a list. or even as phpfiles in the CVS. people have a space to add their code. but also images. n.de .module v0.status = 1 ORDER BY n. Alte Kirchstr. <?php $result = db_query_range("SELECT n.1. 2004-01-05 // (Based on latest. switch ($section) { case 'admin/system/modules#description': $output = t("Block that display the latest comments.changed FROM node n WHERE n. 10).de Tel. weblinks etc. } 24iX Systems.org/node/view/4587 <?php // latest_comments. A very simple block to show all nodes that are published in a list .nid.24ix.module v0. ?> latest comments From http://drupal. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.").1.0.created. "node/view/".: 07000 7000 850 .0.title.created DESC ". } return theme_item_list($output). while ($node = db_fetch_object($result)) { $output[] = l(check_output($node->title). Email: info@24ix. John Clift. PLease add them as book-pages and not as comments. 0.Of course we could add them as modules. break. Fredrik Jonsson. 11 Dec 2003) function latest_comments_help($section = "admin/help#latest_comments") { $output = "". Its very handy when you have journal that uses not only blog nodes.

$result = db_query_range("SELECT c. 11. and only works on 'story' nodes. 11 Dec 2003 // Module displays a block which lists the titles.cid FROM comments c ORDER BY c.$comment->cid). $result = db_query("SELECT n. } else { $blocktitle = t("Latest comments").title.changed FROM node n WHERE n. theme("block". [?php // ---.org/modules/codefilter/codefilter. // of the last five stories to be added or modified // Database query to get the latest story nodes // $nlimit sets the number of node titles to display function latest_nodes($type) { $nlimit = 5. Alte Kirchstr.// latest.0. } } ?> Latest stories block Here is a simple module which displays the titles of the last n changed stories in a block. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $nlimit). c.return $output. } // Database query to get the latest comments // $nlimit sets the number of comments titles to display function latest_comments() { $nlimit = 10. while ($comment = db_fetch_object($result)) { $items[] = l(check_output($comment>subject).nid. } // Function to display titles of latest comments in a block function latest_comments_block($op = "list".timestamp DESC ".1. John Clift. Needs to be topped and tailed with php script open and close angle brackets. It was made specifically for my site. $commentslist = latest_comments(). c.copy from here --. Email: info@24ix.de Tel.type = '$type' ORDER BY n. linked."node/view/".nid.module on line 28 "info\" = t("Latest comments"). c. $items). return $output.subject.: 07000 7000 850 .24ix. $commentslist). n. though it would be easy to change this. } $output = theme("theme_item_list". 0. while ($node = 24iX Systems. n.$comment->nid. return $blocks.de .changed DESC LIMIT $nlimit")."#".module v0. $blocktitle.timestamp. n. $delta = 0) { if ($op == "list") { $blocks0 Warning: Unexpected character in input: '\' (ASCII=92) state=1 in /home/www/drupal.created.

db_fetch_object($result)) { $output .= l(check_output($node->title), "node/view/".$node->nid) ." "; } return $output; } // Function to display titles of latest story nodes in a block function latest_block($op = "list", $delta = 0) { if ($op == "list") { $blocks[0]["info"] = t("Latest n Additions or Changes"); return $blocks; } else { $block["subject"] = t("Latest Changes"); $block["content"] = latest_nodes("story"); return $block; } } // --- end --- ?]

Submission queue block
Hi folks, Just in case anyone's interested, I have just written a small custom block which lists items in the submission queue. Create yourself a new PHP block and use this code:
global $user; if ($user->uid) { // get the links $queryResult = db_query_range("SELECT n.* FROM {node} n WHERE n.moderate = 1", 0, 10); while ($node = db_fetch_object($queryResult)) { if ($user->uid == $node->uid || field_get($node->users, $user->uid)) { // it's our own node or we've already voted $rows[] = l($node->title, "queue/$node->nid") . " (" . queue_score($node->nid) . ")"; } else { // it's someone else's node $rows[] = l($node->title, "queue/$node->nid"); } } return theme("item_list", $rows, "Submission queue") . "<div class=\"more-link\">" . l(t("more"), "queue", array("title" => t("List all queue entries."))) . "</div>"; }

Hope you find this helpful! Cheers, Mabster

How to show blocks only in certain pages
Hi all, I'm thinking on how to show blocks only in certain pages. I would like to know where to start from... The basic idea could be to show the home page with a

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very basic navigation block, that takes users to show for example stories, weblinks etc. When I choose stories, I would like to show a block for every vocabulary related to stories, and the same with weblinks, and so on...... Could you please suggest to me some code and where to put it ?? Thanks a lot Matteo

Polls
Polls allow you to create interactive questionaires that are living parts of your Drupal documents.

Are polls supported in Drupal?
Question: Does Drupal let you create polls? Yes. Enable the polls module.

Can a user vote more than once in a poll?
Question: Can a user vote more than once in a poll? In theory but it is actually quite hard. Polls are tied to the user's IP address so he would have to be using at least a different machine.

Miscellaneous How can I change Drupal's character encoding? (UTF-8 and Unicode)
Several people have asked how to specify the character encoding that Drupal uses. The short answer is: you can't, but you don't have to. Drupal uses UTF-8 for encoding all its data. This is a Unicode encoding, so it can contain data in any language. You no longer need to worry about language specific encodings for your website (such as Big5, GB2312, Windows-1251 or

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1256, ...). Also, when Drupal imports external XML data (such as RSS or XMLRPC), it is automatically converted into UTF-8 (iconv support for PHP will be required for most encodings). If you really want to change Drupal's encoding, you will experience a lot of troubles, because of the various ways Drupal can receive and send out data (web, e-mail, RSS, XML-RPC, etc).

How do I report a bug in Contributed modules
What is the procedure for reporting bugs in the separately downloadable modules? The bug system does not seem to include these.

Making a custom script work (independently) along with a Drupal setup
This is a doc which deals with running your own (custom) script, along with an existing drupal setup. Let us assume the file is called test1.php . To get it running, these are the steps which can be followed. 1)Create a new directory (say test), and put the file in it. Next, copy the .htaccess file from the drupal dir into the dir just created. Edit the .htaccess file to read session.save_handler files This is because Drupal uses a custom session handler, and this needs to be overridden back to default. 2)In case of an error like Fatal error: session_start(): Failed to initialize storage module. in /home/xyz/public_html/test1.php on line 24

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just do a ini_set('session.save_handler', 'files'); before session_start() in your custom script. This creates a new session for the script *only. (or follow step 1) 3)(Long method) Change the main .htaccess file (in the drupal dir)to read session.save_handler files NOTE: This however changes the global settings, meaning Drupal will NOT WORK, unless the setting is reverted back to user. The custom script however, will work. HTH, Viksit Gaur www.viksit.com me@viksit.com

Move existing site to new server
I have a drupal site setup on one server. However I want to move it to another server. New domain name, include files in different location, is even in a different country. Is there an easy way to achieve this without having to start from scratch. As in migrate all content and user accounts. Regards, Bawdo2001.

Moving your site to another url
If you want to move your drupal site to a new url it's a good idea to plan this well in advance. Firstly bear in mind that your new site will not yet be known to search engines, portals etc. You should also take the opportunity to inform people on the old site of the impending changes, giving them the opportunity to update their bookmarks. But I leave the organizational part up to you. For the benefit of this exercise I'll assume you have clean urls enabled on both sites, and the new site contains at least the same articles that you had available on your old site.

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Moving a site is not difficult, because apache can do most of the work for you using Redirect Directives. All you have to do is change the .htaccess in your old drupal root. That file should contain only the line: Redirect permanent / http://yournewdomain.com/ If you are running multiple drupal sites on one domain (e.g. drupal1.yourolddomain.com) you should use: Redirect permanent / http://drupal1.yournewdomain.com/?q= Upload the .htaccess and you're done. The old urls will point all users, bots and agents that respect a 301 http header (most do) to your new site. Some browsers will even modify your bookmarks I am told, but mine (firefox) does not.

My URL is wrong in the list of Drupal Sites
make sure you call cron.php with a fully qualified domain name (FQDN). Bad: http://127.0.0.1/cron.php Good: http://www.mydomain.org/cron.php

truncated fields / unable to login / php 4.2.3 bug
So I finally worked out some issues I had setting up a second mySQL database with my hosting service, and created the initial database for my site. In general, my preferred method of working is to set up a local copy of apache, install the software and misc. add-ons, and then export a copy of the database, which I then import into the database on the server. After doing this, when I tried to log in on the hosted copy, the page refreshed and showed only a portion of the username I'd typed, as well as a shorter password, and the message "I don't recognize that user." After clearing the auto-complete cache in Explorer and simply typing each field out by hand with the same result, I reverted to a "clean" copy of the database with no user info. The new account was created without incident; I chose the user

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name "Middle Brother", gave it my email address (webmaster@atlasisshrugging.org), and it spat back out "barnerd" as a password. When I tried to log in again, however, the same thing happened. The text fields showed "le Brother" and my password was something like "***". While I know very little about mySQL, I did check the new database and sure enough, the user name had been stored as "le Brother", my email address was "aster@atlasisshrugging.org", etc. I don't have a lot of work invested into the setup and so I'm not going to lose anything if I start over from scratch, which is what I plan to do next. But I'm worried that I'll run into the same problem. Does anyone have any idea what might cause this or how to fix it?

How to install a Patch?
I've read the "Diff vs. Patch" thread, but I guess I'm missing something. Perhaps that's because it's about creating a patch, not installing a patch. Could someone please explain: Does a patch patch the SQL tables? Is "patch" a MySQL command or just a descriptive suffix? If this affects the MySQL database, is there a way to install it using phpMyAdmin? o Does a patch patch the module file? o If so, how? Is it a php program? Do I ftp it and point to it with a browser? o (What is it I'm not asking that I should be asking?)
o o o

I've searched the posts and cannot find anything that speaks to my dim wits. Any clues would be much appreciated! FWIW, I'm using remote shared hosting (Debian), and, coming from older media, I am comfortable with (x)html and css but still very much learning PHP and know nada re MySQL. Thanks!

Contributor's guide
The Drupal engine is open source. It is possible for each and every user to become a contributor. The fact remains that most Drupal users, even those skilled in programming arts, have never contributed to the code even though most of us had days where we thought to ourselves: "I wish Drupal could do this or that ...". Through this page, we hope to make Drupal programming more accessible. The guide pages found here are collaborative, but not linked to particular Drupal versions. Because of this, documentation can become out of date. To combat this, we are moving most developer documentation into the Doxygen documentation

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o o CVS log messages Browse CVS repository Contributing to Drupal Drupal is a collaborative. Alte Kirchstr.. This means that the software and its supporting features (documentation.org website) are collaboratively produced by users and developers all over the world. Types of Contributions There are two basic types of contributions you can make to Drupal's code base: (a) "contributed" modules or themes and (b) contributions to the drupal "core". To make a contribution. by posting additions or updates to the Drupal Handbook or answering requests on user forums or issues). 24iX Systems. the drupal.24ix.g. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. o In contrast. doing so via a contributed module is in many ways the easiest way to begin. o "Contributions" are the community-produced modules and themes available on the Drupal site.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. changes to the Drupal core are made through a thorough consultative process to ensure the overall integrity of the software. community-driven project. o Provide financial support to Drupal development. produce your contribution.: 07000 7000 850 . If you have major enhancements you wish to contribute.they are approved. and then notify the contributions manager to request a review of your work before posting. you need to apply for contributor privileges.they do what they claim to and have some demonstrable benefit without unduly replicating alreadyavailable functionality . Contributed code has a relatively low set of requirements to meet. As long as contributions meet some minimal criteria . There are several ways to contribute to Drupal: Improve or enhance the software Provide support and documentation for other users (e.that is versioned by CVS and generated from the source code. 11.de . Look there for upto-date and version-specific information. o o This section focuses on the first of these three.

introducing or improving in-line comments.: 07000 7000 850 . Your bug reports play an essential role in making Drupal reliable.. and choose the project you think you have found the bug in. and doing upgrades for compliance with a new release version. you will need to choose a related component and you will be able to provide more details about the bug. While you can create your own issues. These changes respond to identified problems in the existing code. you can also begin by simply taking on existing tasks on the task list. send us the bug report and we will fix it provided you include enough diagnostic information for us to go on. Provide a sensible title for the bug. 11. Bug reports If you found a bug.Changes to the Drupal core are generally of three types: Bug fixes. New features. These changes are to improve the quality of the code or bring it up to date with changes elsewhere in Drupal. improving efficiency (e. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.g.org. This can include bringing code in line with coding standards. including the description of the problem itself. eliminating unneeded database queries).24ix. Note that you don't have to be logged in nor a member of drupal. After previewing the submission. Feature suggestions 24iX Systems.de . Alte Kirchstr. Email: info@24ix. and then see if the problem reproduces. You can submit a new bug via the submit issue form. Code maintenance. So you'll probably save us both time if you upgrade and test with the latest version before sending in a bug report.de Tel.org to submit bugs. The first thing we will do when you report a bug is tell you to upgrade to the newest version of Drupal. Please include any error messages you received and a detailed description of what you were doing at the time. These changes are enhancements on what is already available. Bug reports can be posted in connection with any project hosted on drupal.

org to suggest features.I wish Drupal could do that" or "I like the xxx feature. Task List The Drupal bug database contains many issues classified as "bite-sized" tasks -tasks that are well-defined and self-contained. You don't need broad or detailed knowledge of Drupal's design to take on one of these. and changes for which there is a high demand come before proposals that have gone relatively unnoticed..: 07000 7000 850 . Note that you don't have to be logged in nor to be a member of drupal. If you start one of these. Each task is something a volunteer could pick off in a spare evening or two. You can submit a feature request by creating a new issue connected to the component the feature is related to.org (of course. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. first choose the project it is related to and then after hitting preview set the other related options. Please note that there is a Drupal contributed module named 'Features' which is used on the feature page mentioned above. If you want to improve Drupal.How many times you have dreamed "Gee. ask the dev list or update the task (updates are sent to the list automatically). planning.de . Alte Kirchstr. Send the patch to the list when ready. but it should work better". 11. 24iX Systems. just a pretty good idea of how things generally work. Any potential change has to be considered not only on its own merits but in relation to the aims and principles of the project as a whole. To properly file a feature request. They are also made on a priority basis--fixes come before additions. If you have questions as you go.de Tel. The revision process Changes to the Drupal core are usually made after consideration.. Email: info@24ix. The core features provided by Drupal are listed on the features page. and familiarity with the coding guidelines. and thus the 'Feature' module is not the appropriate place to submit feature requests. You will be able to categorize the issue as a feature request with the Issue Information / Category dropdown. Every module has a feature request subcategory. send us you wishes as a feature suggestions. and thus suitable for a volunteer looking to get involved with the project.24ix. you should be subscribed to that list). Your suggestions play an essential role in making Drupal more usable and feature-rich. and consultation. please notify the other developers by mailing drupaldevel@drupal.

: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. Possible application of the patch. Revisions to address issues.org project system. It's all part of collaboratively building a quality open source project. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. starting out at the discussion level . 11. the proposal might be: o o o o Shelved as impractical or inappropriate. Posting an issue through the drupal. Discussion raising issues on the proposed direction or solution. Criteria for evaluating proposed changes The following criteria are used by core developers in reviewing and approving proposed changes: o o The changes support and enhance Drupal project aims. Superceded by another change. This can be a chance to gauge support and interest.de . please don't be discouraged! It doesn't mean that your ideas weren't good--just that they didn't end up finding a place. scope the issue.de Tel. If you're considering substantive changes.org forum. Producing a patch with specific proposed code changes. Rolled into another related initiative. but a typical cycle for a significant change might include: o o o o o o o General discussion of the idea.can save you a lot of time. Alte Kirchstr. Put off until other logically prior decisions are made.The particular stages that a new feature goes through vary. The discussion itself may have beneficial outcomes. for example through a posting in a drupal. Review of the changes and further discussion.24ix. Individual Drupal community members may vote for (+1) or against (-1) the change. If you submit suggestions that don't end up being adopted.rather than jumping straight into code changes . Especially for new features. which may include a real-time meeting through IRC. At any point in the process. and get some direction and suggestions on approaches to take. priority is usually given to development for the "HEAD" (the most 24iX Systems. The proposed changes are current. this voting system can help quantify support. The process of discussion and revision might be repeated several times to encompass diverse input. While informal.

At a minimum. The change will be used by a significant portion of the installed Drupal base as opposed being relevant only to a small subset of Drupal users. Ask yourself: Is the feature already implemented? Search the forums and issue tracker. The benefits of the change justifies additional code and resource demands. There may have been significant changes since the last release. Benefits of a change must outweigh these costs. make a good case. also referred to as the CVS version) as opposed to released versions. this means coding in accordance with the Drupal coding standards.g. issues that have been raised in the review process have been satisfactorily addressed. Every addition to the code base increases the quantity of code that must be actively maintained (e. Rather. added code increases the overall Drupal footprint through.. Email: info@24ix..de Tel. e. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.o o o o o recent development version of the code.24ix.g.org issues system or comments in forums or the drupal-dev email list. and testing your changes. Demand is indicated by. Also. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . so developing for the CVS version means that The proposed change doesn't raise any significant issues or risks. Specifically. But it also means that the coding is intelligent and compact. provide descriptions and illustrations. Could the feature be implemented as a contributed module rather than a patch to the core? Will the change benefit a substantial portion of the Drupal install base? Is the change sufficiently general for others to build upon cleanly? o Be explanatory. Don't count on others downloading. Elegant solutions will have greater support than cumbersome ones that accomplish the same result. added procedure calls or database queries. installing. e. updated to reflect new design changes or documentation approaches). comments on the drupal. The changes are well coded. There is demonstrated demand and support for the change. Tips for contributing to the core The following tips might improve the chances of your contributions being accepted: Take a step back and objectively evaluate whether the changes are appropriate for the Drupal core. 11.g.de .. show them in a nutshell what your changes would o 24iX Systems.

If you don't get any response right away. 11. update your changes to work with the current CVS version.: 07000 7000 850 . Be open to suggestions and to other ways of accomplishing what you're aiming for. provide screenshots.de Tel. view archive · search archive · mailman page Drupal-docs The place for non-programmers that want to contribute and work on documentation. don't necessarily give up. Alte Kirchstr.o o o o o mean. If appropriate. Respond. Mailing lists Drupal-support If you need help with installing. Acknowledge the effort others put in. find another way to present it. Anticipate and address questions or concerns. in a timely way. running or anything Drupal related this is the list to post your questions. If you're still convinced your idea has merit. requests.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. view archive · search archive · mailman page Drupal-cvs 24iX Systems.de . Email: info@24ix. view archive · search archive · mailman page Drupal-devel This list is for those who want to either take part or just observe Drupal development. to suggestions. Be friendly and respectful. Be persistent. If some time has gone by. Revise your work accordingly. or issues raised.

All CVS commits are posted to this list, a daily digest is also posted to drupaldevel though. view archive · search archive · mailman page Subscribe Mail address:
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Accessing the Drupal mailing lists using a news server
The GMane news server (http://gmane.org) archives mailing lists, and lets you access and post to them using a newsreader. If you find such an access convenient, point your news reader to nntp://news.gmane.org . Unlike other news servers, gmane offers aggresive anti-spam features, encrypted email addresses and only allows people to post after their email address is verified. As of today, (November 2, 2003), the following newsgroups on this server offer you access to the drupal mailing lists:
o o o o

gmane.comp.php.drupal.cvs gmane.comp.php.drupal.devel gmane.comp.php.drupal.support gmane.comp.php.drupal.user

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The best things in life are free! GMane is one of them. :)

Mailing of project issues
Every project issue for Drupal with patch status is emailed to the drupal-devel mailing list when updated. These are mailed to promote peer review of code potentially going into Drupal. Other issues are not emailed because it would make the mailing list less useful as email volume increases. You can subscribe to project issue updates for any contributed module, theme, or translation.

Coding standards Drupal Coding Standards
Note: The Drupal Coding Standards applies to code that is to become a part of Drupal. This document is based on the PEAR Coding standards.

Indenting
Use an indent of 2 spaces, with no tabs.

Control Structures
These include if, for, while, switch, etc. Here is an example if statement, since it is the most complicated of them:
if (condition1 || condition2) { action1; } elseif (condition3 && condition4) { action2; } else { defaultaction; }

Control statements should have one space between the control keyword and opening parenthesis, to distinguish them from function calls.

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You are strongly encouraged to always use curly braces even in situations where they are technically optional. Having them increases readability and decreases the likelihood of logic errors being introduced when new lines are added. For switch statements:
switch (condition) { case 1: action1; break; case 2: action2; break; default: defaultaction; break; }

Function Calls
Functions should be called with no spaces between the function name, the opening parenthesis, and the first parameter; spaces between commas and each parameter, and no space between the last parameter, the closing parenthesis, and the semicolon. Here's an example:
$var = foo($bar, $baz, $quux);

As displayed above, there should be one space on either side of an equals sign used to assign the return value of a function to a variable. In the case of a block of related assignments, more space may be inserted to promote readability:
$short = foo($bar); $long_variable = foo($baz);

Function Declarations
function funstuff_system($field) { $system["description"] = t("This module insert funny text into posts randomly."); return $system[$field]; }

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Arguments with default values go at the end of the argument list. Always attempt to return a meaningful value from a function if one is appropriate.

Comments
Inline documentation for classes should follow the Doxygen convention. More information about Doxygen can be found here:
o o

Document block syntax Comment commands

Note that Drupal uses the following docblock syntax:
/** * Comments. */

And all Doxygen commands should be prefixed with a @ instead of a /. Non-documentation comments are strongly encouraged. A general rule of thumb is that if you look at a section of code and think "Wow, I don't want to try and describe that", you need to comment it before you forget how it works. C style comments (/* */) and standard C++ comments (//) are both fine. Use of Perl/shell style comments (#) is discouraged.

Including Code
Anywhere you are unconditionally including a class file, use require_once(). Anywhere you are conditionally including a class file (for example, factory methods), use include_once(). Either of these will ensure that class files are included only once. They share the same file list, so you don't need to worry about mixing them - a file included with require_once() will not be included again by include_once(). Note: include_once() and require_once() are statements, not functions. You don't need parentheses around the filename to be included.

PHP Code Tags

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Always use <?php ?> to delimit PHP code, not the <? ?> shorthand. This is required for Drupal compliance and is also the most portable way to include PHP code on differing operating systems and setups.

Header Comment Blocks
All source code files in the core Drupal distribution should contain the following comment block as the header:
<?php /* $Id$ */

This tag will be expanded by the CVS to contain useful information
<?php /* $Id: CODING_STANDARDS.html,v 1.4 2004/10/27 11:55:32 uwe Exp $ */

Using CVS
Include the Id CVS keyword in each file. As each file is edited, add this tag if it's not yet present (or replace existing forms such as "Last Modified:", etc.). The rest of this section assumes that you have basic knowledge about CVS tags and branches. CVS tags are used to label which revisions of the files in your package belong to a given release. Below is a list of the required CVS tags: DRUPAL-X-Y (required) Used for tagging a release. If you don't use it, there's no way to go back and retrieve your package from the CVS server in the state it was in at the time of the release.

Example URLs
Use "example.com" for all example URLs, per RFC 2606.

Naming Conventions
Functions and Methods

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Functions and methods should be named using lower caps and words should be separated with an underscore. Functions should in addition have the grouping/module name as a prefix, to avoid name collisions between modules. Private class members (meaning class members that are intended to be used only from within the same class in which they are declared; PHP 4 does not support truly-enforceable private namespaces) are preceded by a single underscore. For example:
_node_get() $this->_status

Constants
Constants should always be all-uppercase, with underscores to separate words. Prefix constant names with the uppercased name of the module they are a part of.

Global Variables
If you need to define global variables, their name should start with a single underscore followed by the module/theme name and another underscore.

Filenames
All documentation files should have the filename extension ".txt" to make viewing them on Windows systems easier. Also, the filenames for such files should be all-caps (e.g. README.txt instead of readme.txt) while the extension itself is all-lowercase (i.e. txt instead of TXT). Examples: README.txt, INSTALL.txt, TODO.txt, CHANGELOG.txt etc.

PHP Code tags
Always use &lt;?php ?&gt; to delimit PHP code, not the &lt;? ?&gt; shorthand. This is required for Drupal compliance and is also the most portable way to include PHP code on differing operating systems and setups.

SQL naming conventions

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o Capitalization. 3. MODULE.. Email: info@24ix. Name every constraint (primary. DATE. References: 24iX Systems. TYPE. This got mysqldump'ed as KEY mid (mid) which resulted in a syntax error as mid() is a mysql function (see [bug] mysql --ansi cannot import install database).. eg. foreign.x.x PostgreSQL Reserved Words MS SQL Server Reserved Words Some commonly misused keywords: TIMESTAMP.23.may be o Naming Use plural or collective nouns for table names since they are sets and not scalar values.21. Indentation UPPERCASE reserved words lowercase (or Capitalize) table names lowercase column names Example: SELECT r. Even if this may work with your (MySQL) installation.. Alte Kirchstr.de Tel.o Don't use (ANSI) SQL / MySQL / PostgreSQL / MS SQL Server / . it may not with others or with other databases. Index names should begin with the name of the table they depend on. 3. . See also [bug] SQL Reserved Words.rid.x. ORDER BY name -.: 07000 7000 850 . p.de . Some references: (ANSI) SQL Reserved Words MySQL Reserved Words: 4. Reserved Words for column and/or table names.rid on one line with prev. DATA. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix. INDEX users_sid_idx. 11. unique keys) yourself. TIME.perm FROM {role} r LEFT JOIN {permission} p ON r. TYPES. Otherwise you'll see funny-looking system-generated names in error messages. This happened with the moderation_roles table which initially defined a key without explicite name as KEY (mid)..rid = p.

install a recent copy of CVS (if you are on Windows.de .SQL for Smarties: Advanced SQL Programming RDBMS Naming conventions SQL Naming Conventions CVS repositories CVS is a tool to manage software revisions and release control in a multideveloper. multi-group environment. CVS helps you if you are part of a group of people working on the same project. 11. Email: info@24ix. and by reading the mails everyone is kept up to date. it's usually necessary for more then one software developer to be modifying modules of the code at the same time. CVS helps to keep track of all changes. Additional references o o o o CVS book CVS docs CVS FAQ CVS guide from TLDP Drupal CVS repositories Main repository There are two ways to access the latest Drupal sources in the main CVS repository. you may check CVS front ends for Windows). follow these steps: o If you don't have it yet. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel.o o o o Joe Celko . Thus. 24iX Systems.Ten Things I Hate About You Joe Celko . it is all too easy to overwrite each others' changes unless you are extremely careful. Therefore. In large software development projects. use the ViewCVS web interface. In addition. If you need the complete source tree to study and work with the code.24ix. Without CVS. Alte Kirchstr. the CVS server has been setup to mail all CVS commits to all maintainers. multi-directory. If you just want to have a quick look at some files.: 07000 7000 850 . Thus. It comes in very handy to maintain local modifications. it does not require any effort to inform the other people about the work you have done.

txt for more information. 11. o o o To check out the latest drupal contributions. too). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. do 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix.drupal. run the command: $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs. -P: Prune empty directories .org:/cvs/drupal-contrib login The required password is 'anonymous' (without the quotes). As the Main repository. themes.: 07000 7000 850 . etc. use $ cvs update -dP in the source root dir to update all files to it's latest versions (-d: Create any (new) directories that exist in the repository if they're missing from the working directory.org/files/projects/drupal-cvs.drupal. you can browse it via the web interface.txt and README.org:/cvs/drupal-contrib checkout contributions To check out contributions for a certain Drupal version. translations. run the command: $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs. See the contributions FAQ. o o To check out the latest drupal sources. Contributions repository The Contributions repository is a seperate CVS repository where people can submit their modules.de . o o Once you have a copy of the Drupal source tree.de Tel.o o Login by running the command: $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.directories that got removed in the repository will be removed in your working copy. Alte Kirchstr.tar.org:/cvs/drupal checkout drupal This will create a directory called drupal containing the latest drupal source tree. If you can't or don't want to use CVS.24ix.org:/cvs/drupal login The required password is 'anonymous' (without the quotes).drupal.drupal. do the following: o o Login by running the command $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.gz. you can download nightly CVS snapshots from http://drupal. For anonymous (read-only) access.

shtml and install it. If you want to add your own modules. Right-click on it. o o To update your tree to the latest version. select the folder under which you want the Drupal source directory to live. etc.. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr.24ix.drupal. Email: info@24ix. 11. o Fill in the following fields: o Protocol: Password server (:pserver:) Server: [cvs. do $ cvs update -dP in the source root dir.de . you need CVS write access: CVS front ends for Windows TortoiseCVS TortoiseCVS lets you work with files under CVS version control directly from Windows Explorer. translations. themes. Download TortoiseCVS from http://www. o In Windows Explorer.tortoisecvs.org/download.]drupal.org Repository folder: /cvs/drupal (main distro) or /cvs/drupal-contrib (contributions) User name: anonymous Module: drupal (main distro) or contributions (contributions) 24iX Systems.o $ cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs. There are two new sections in the context menu .de Tel.org:/cvs/drupal-contrib checkout -r <version tag> contributions o where <version tag> is one of the tags listed under "Q: How do I control the releases of my module/theme?" here.CVS Checkout and CVS >.: 07000 7000 850 . It's freely available under the GPL. The following tutorial teaches how to use TortoiseCVS with Drupal. Select CVS Checkout.

o Hit OK. Enter DRUPAL-4-1-0 or DRUPAL-4-00 depending on the version you are using in the tag/branch field. follow the process described above. Enter anonymous and press "OK". so if you haven't installed these yet. but before hitting "OK" you need to: Click on the "Revision" tab on the CVS checkout dialog.CVS is installed as standard by the Apple Developer tools.de . o o The process above retrieves the freshest files from the repository (the so-called HEAD branch).and press "OK". 11.24ix.de Tel. A new directory (named like the module selected before) with the sources will be created. o If everything works. A log window which monitors the checkout process will appear.wincvs. Alte Kirchstr. You can download the latest version from http://www. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Enable "Get tag/branch". Email: info@24ix. right-click it and do a "CVS Update". o o o You can also generate patch files with TortoiseCVS.org/. Then right click into the CVS => Make Patch menu item. To get Drupal modules and themes that are stable and ready for production (which you can also download from the Drupal downloads page). o To bring your Drupal source tree up-to-date. select it's root folder ("drupal" / "contributions"). download the latest version and install it. These are sometimes unstable. Just select the files which you have patched in Windows Explorer. they also include a lot of other useful 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . The checkout / update process is similar to the one described above. You will be asked for password. CVS operation completed" at the end of the log. you will see the message "Success. Checking out the whole CVS repository will take a while. CVS On Mac OS X Step By Step CVS Step one to using any application is of course to install it . Then you may wish to read Creating and sending your patches WinCVS WinCVS is another graphical CVS client available for MS Windows and for Macs.

to make it easy to use them through the Apache server built into your system.de . 11.cvsignore (note the '. it will ask you if you want to save it .24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.DS_Store specifies which file types you want CVS to ignore Now press the keys: Control and x at the same time This closes the document you've just written. You've finished with the Terminal.stuff like Project Builder and File Merge (Developer Membership required. my one is called 'drupal_cvs'. and type the following: cd takes you to root of your account pico opens the Pico text application .de Tel.ch/software/cvl/ Setup Step three is to set CVS to ignore the invisible .press y for yes. You can name the folder anything you want. Email: info@24ix.sente.: 07000 7000 850 . but fortunately for Mac OS X users there's an excellent application called CVL which means that you don't need to go anywhere near the Terminal to make use of CVS! Step two is to download CVL and install it: http://www. Alte Kirchstr.') and press return. Step four is to create a folder to put the CVS files into. but free). then type in the name of the file . so you can quit it. The best place to do this is in the 'Sites' folder. 24iX Systems. To do this you need to open the Terminal (Application>Utilities->Terminal). CVL If you're new to CVS it can look a bit daunting.DS_Store files which OS X creates in each folder.

Select it and press Checkout. this is your Work Area. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. as the whole of the Repository needs to be downloaded . don't worry if you don't see anything at first. where you work on projects before uploading them to the repository for others to use..: 07000 7000 850 .. Wait patiently.de . When this is finished you will have a copy of the Drupal repository files in the folder you created on your hard drive.24ix. In Repository type choose pserver. Next go to Tools->Repositories->Show Repositories The Drupal repository is now listed in the Repositories window.org Path: /cvs/drupal (main distro) or /cvs/drupal-contrib (contributions) Password: your password (that you applied for CVS with) Click OK. CVS User: your Username (that you applied for CVS with) Host: drupal. 11... CVL usually thinks about what it's doing for a minute or two before taking action.Step five open the CVL application. Choose Module: drupal (main distro) or contributions (contributions) New work area location: Choose.you can see this happening if you open the console window (Tools->Console->Show Console). you now need to Checkout (download) the latest version of the Drupal CVS like this: Tools->Repositories->Add Choose a repository dialog box will appear. Press Checkout. select the folder you created in step four. Email: info@24ix. this may take some time. Alte Kirchstr. Checkout Module dialog box appears. 24iX Systems.de Tel.

CVS now shows any new files or folders that you have added (with a blue * in front). 11. You can use this work area in the same way you would any other folder on your hard drive .. To do this select the files and folders and Control+Click. select your files and folders and Control+Click.de . To upload your work to the Drupal repository. add new folders...it's just a regular folder. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . drag files to the trash. (or through the menu File->Commit. This Read Me file will also be automatically used by Drupal on the Downloads page.Using CVS / CVL You now have a Work Area on your hard drive which is a mirror of the Repository on the Drupal server. choose Add To Work Area (or through the menu File>Add To Work Area). but for this to work you need to be careful in how you create the file: File must be called README (with no spaces and in capitals) 24iX Systems.). Next you need to tell CVS to mark the files and folders for upload next time you send your changes to the Drupal repository. CVS will now add your work to the Drupal repository.create new files with BBEdit (or whatever you use). Once you've done some work you want to upload back to the Drupal server here's what you do: Update the CVS by selecting the folder the new work is in. You can see this by using the CVL menu Work Area->Open Recent and selecting the repository you just downloaded (drupal or contributions). Email: info@24ix. then Control+Click on the folder and choose Update from the contextual menu that pops up (or through the menu File->Update).24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you will want to include a Read Me file to give users a description and installation instructions.de Tel. delete folders .. Notes Read Me File If you create a Drupal module or theme. choose Commit.

For an up-to-date complete list of branches and tags.4.org:/cvs/drupal login ~cvs.org$ cvs co drupal This should leave you with a folder cvs. Whenever we release a specific version. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. The HEAD branch is special and is used to refer to the latest development version. so use something like BBEdit which lets you create files without extensions.de Tel. A branch specifies a major Drupal version.org.24ix. the tag DRUPAL-4-4-0 specifies all files at the time of the 4. all 4. but NOT Simple Text which will always add an extension.drupal.drupal. For example. For instance.x versions belong in the DRUPAL-4-4 branch. A tag is a marker which defines a snapshot of all the files in the CVS at a certain moment. In my case. This assumes you have successfully checked out the 'main' and 'contributions' repositories. and trim unused directories (-P). 11.File must not have an extension.drupal. Apply for contributions CVS access Using CVS with branches and tags To manage the different Drupal versions.4. Note that you don't need to specfiy the server at this point since the drupal directory contains a CVS folder that contains the repository and root information.: 07000 7000 850 .org/drupal$ cvs update -dP which will give you the latest copy. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.org/drupal directory and using the command ~/cvs.drupal. ~cvs. In Drupal's case. For example.drupal. you've made the CVS folder and here you check out your copy of the CVS version of Drupal.0 release. Here's a quick guide on using tags and branches. we use tags and branches.de .org$ cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@cvs.drupal. create any new directories that exist in the repository (-d). I usually make a folder in my home directory for each cvs server. 24iX Systems.org/drupal which contains the current CVS code. see "Show files using tag:" at ViewCVS (at the bottom). You can keep this up-to-date by going into the cvs. cvs. we create a tag.drupal.

11.: 07000 7000 850 .3. and you don't want to have to download the tgz file all the time. Once it's been checked out.org/contributions directory.drupal.org$ cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@cvs.drupal.3. Sorry. you don't need to worry about specifying it again. You could probably do this same thing on your windows box by installing one of the windows GUIs or using Cygwin.3. But now you want to have a nice copy of the 4.3 -r DRUPAL-4-3 drupal That's going to create a new directory cvs. The CVS maintainer has branched the drupal repository and tagged it to keep track of this release.You've also done this for the contributions.de .org:/cvs/drupal-contrib login ~cvs.0 directory has the tag information along with repository and root information like we saw before.drupal.3.drupal.drupal. Windows You may have noticed this was geared towards the linux user. I haven't used the windows clients for CVS.3. Available Branches The available branches currently are: o HEAD 24iX Systems.drupal. I'm sure they would work. If you download it directly with the release tag it's going to overwrite your drupal folder. Alte Kirchstr. ~cvs.0 that contains the 4. Just go into the drupal-4.org/drupal-4. a GNU/UNIX client for windows.0 branch up to date.drupal. Email: info@24ix.0 version. I just haven't tried them (for very long).org$ cvs co contributions Which leaves you with the latest contributions in the cvs. The CVS directory in the drupal-4.de Tel. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.drupal. Probably the easiest way it to use TortoiseCVS.org/drupal-4.org:/cvs/drupal -q checkout -d drupal-4.org$ cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@cvs. You probably want to keep it simple and use this command: ~cvs.3$ cvs update -dP to keep your copy of the 4.3 folder and execute ~/cvs.24ix.0 version.

11. We’ll work through an example here and explain these concepts as we go.drupal.org:/cvs/drupal export -r HEAD drupal 24iX Systems. you may be glad to learn that CVS can help make this easier. This is usually referred to as ‘tracking third-party sources’ and requires knowledge of the CVS concepts branching.: 07000 7000 850 . In this case we’ll export using anonymous CVS (we could also just download a tarball). Email: info@24ix.de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.o o o o o o o DRUPAL-4-5 DRUPAL-4-4 DRUPAL-4-3 DRUPAL-4-2 DRUPAL-4-1 DRUPAL-4-0 DRUPAL-3-0 The DRUPAL-4-3-0 tag we used above is a marker in the DRUPAL-4-3 branch. and the vendor tag. An Example Lets assume we’d like to track current Drupal CVS HEAD.org:/cvs/drupal login Then export the newest development version of drupal using the HEAD release tag: cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.24ix.de Tel. and start by downloading the source. Other tags for DRUPAL-4-3 are DRUPAL-4-3-1 and DRUPAL-4-3-2. Begin by logging in to the anonymous CVS server. the required password is ‘anonymous’: cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@cvs.drupal. release tags. Alte Kirchstr. If you’ve been modifying the Drupal source code for your own purposes (or developing a module or theme) and manually applying your changes to the Drupal source every time it updates. Tracking Drupal source with CVS Note: The following assumes you have both basic knowledge of CVS and your own local repository set up and working.

php *------------+ 1.1 + +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040110) +-----+ 24iX Systems. a module location/name of ‘sites/drupal’ (customize that to suit your own CVS repository). cvs commit We now have a drupal module with a special ‘vendor branch’ (identified by the vendor tag).1.org): cd drupal cvs import -ko -m "Import CVS HEAD on Jan 10th 2004" sites/drupal drupal HEAD20040110 Before we can customize we need to checkout into a working directory. Any files modified at this point are now HEAD on the main trunk of the module. whilst the unmodified files remain HEAD on the vendor branch (HEAD being what is produced by cvs update).Now that we have a local copy of the drupal source we can import it into our own CVS repository. which contains the drupal source files we imported. For an individual file (fileone.2 + \ +---------+ [Vendor Branch] + 1.: 07000 7000 850 . and a main trunk with our modified files.. Alte Kirchstr.modify a file or files.1.. Email: info@24ix. 11. Then we can modify a file or files and commit: cvs checkout drupal cd drupal .24ix.de . In this example we import with a log message including the date ‘-m "message text"’. a vendor tag of ‘drupal’ and a release tag of ‘HEAD20040110’. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.php) the version history now looks like something like this: HEAD +-----+ [Main trunk] fileone.de Tel... We also use the -ko option to prevent keyword expansion (this preserves the CVS $ Id $ tags used on drupal.

php * \ \ +---------+ HEAD +---------+ 24iX Systems.org. by the vendor (drupal. the new version becomes the HEAD revision: [Main trunk] filetwo. depending on whether it has been modified by us.org).1 + +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040110) +-----+ If the file was modified only by the vendor.php *------------+ 1.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.Updating the vendor branch At some later point the drupal source code will have been updated and we’ll want to add the updated version to our repository.: 07000 7000 850 . and import using the same vendor tag but change the release tag from ‘HEAD20040110’ to reflect the newer version: cvs import -ko -m "Import CVS HEAD on Jan 11th 2004" sites/drupal drupal HEAD20040111 This updates the vendor branch. If the file was modified only by us. Alte Kirchstr. or not at all. by both. Email: info@24ix.2 + \ \ +---------+ [Vendor Branch] + 1. we get a fresh copy of the source from drupal. our modified version remains the head revision: HEAD +-----+ [Main trunk] fileone.1.de Tel. a single files revision history can now appear four different ways. 11. We do this by repeating the process described above.de .1.

Leaving us with a new revision which becomes HEAD: HEAD +-----+ +-----+ [Main trunk] filethree. In fact. we need to merge the changes to remove this conflict: cvs checkout -jHEAD20040110 -jHEAD20040111 drupal Examine the merged file to ensure the changes CVS made were sane and then ‘cvs commit’ the changes back to the main trunk.1.1.1.1 +----------+ 1.1.3 + \ \ +---------+ +---------+ +-----+ +-----+ 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 .2 +-------+ 1.php *------------+ 1.php.24ix.[Vendor Branch] + 1.2 + +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040110) +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040111) And if the file was modified by both us and the vendor: HEAD +-----+ [Main trunk] filethree.1 +----------+ 1.1.de Tel.php remains the HEAD revision. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.1.1. during our import of the latest source CVS would have warned us of conflicts between the two versions of filethree. 11. Alte Kirchstr. but this is clearly not desirable since it doesn’t carry the latest changes.de .2 + \ \ +---------+ [Vendor Branch] +---------+ +-----+ + 1.php *------------+ 1.1. Email: info@24ix.2 + +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040110) +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040111) Our version of filethree.

1 +----------+ 1. instead of the development (CVS HEAD) version.: 07000 7000 850 . 3. It takes longer to find the set of files relating to one change if it is mixed in with 2 other patches. static pages.3. Split different set of patches into different directories. It is important to know if this is an early test. Try to keep some track of your reasoning too. Always document your changes. themes. Alte Kirchstr. whilst still tracking and importing updates to the drupal core.2). Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.1. o Maintain your customized sites with modules.1.[Vendor Branch] + 1. 11. o Branch your module to maintain several customized web sites off a single tracked branch of the drupal core.de . 2.1.24ix. Document the status of your patch. If I read in a README that change X wasn't a good idea after all it makes the reviewer wonder why.2 + +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040110) +---------+ (tag:HEAD20040111) Summary It should now be clear that using the CVS vendor tag to create a vendor branch in your own drupal module you can track changes to the drupal source code whilst also maintaining and developing your own customizations and new features for drupal. Additional Resources Article by Nick Patavalis: The mechanics and a methodology for tracking 3rd party sources with CVS o The section “Tracking third-party sources” in the CVS manual o The section “Tracking third-party sources” in a book on CVS o Sandbox maintenance rules 1. 4. or considered stable and workable but the author of the patch.g. o Reading the following resources is highly recommended. images etc all added to your CVS repository. 4. some examples: Track a specific release of Drupal (e. This example has been kept very simple for the purposes of explanation.de Tel.1. or 4. Keep the documentation current. but the basic process can be used to achieve many different things. 24iX Systems.

de .de Tel. Don't use a sandbox for developing modules. etc. This allows us to ensure that documentation is up-to-date. Email: info@24ix.4. 8. If you are using CVS then you can use diff (cvs -H diff) 9. 7. They are so much easier to check than compete files.: 07000 7000 850 . 11. Try to maintain patches in the sandbox. and sometimes a bit too strict. APIs and functions (Doxygen) If you are interested in developing Drupal modules or hacking away at the Drupal core then this is the place to find details about all the functions and classes defined in Drupal. It isn't perfect.5. but it will ensure some level of compliance with the coding standards. learning Drupal in the process.pl script. Is there a debugger for PHP where I can set breakpoints. If your patch is 4 lines long don't bother to put it in a sandbox. see values change. and to simultaneously track multiple versions of the documentation. 6.24ix. Please make sure your script passes the code-style.3.? Thanks for your help. We now use Doxygen to automatically generate documentation from the latest drupal sources. and include in the README when it was last synced. API Documentation is available for: o o o Drupal 4. Sandboxes should be for more extensive changes. There is a different directory structure for that.x Drupal CVS HEAD Doxygen Formatting Conventions 24iX Systems. PHP Debugger What do you folks use for debugging PHP? I'm getting $conf and header errors on my Drupal installation and would like to track them down. Small patches are quick to check and find out if work. Just mail it to the devel list and find out quicker if people like it or not.x Drupal 4. All patches should be against the latest CVS version of Drupal. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. */ 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix.Doxygen is a documentation generation system.de . Any mentions of functions or file names within the documentation will automatically link to the referenced code.v 1. so typically no markup need be introduced to produce links. Alte Kirchstr.inc. General documentation syntax To document a block of code.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . * * The theme system allows for nearly all output of the Drupal system to be * customized by user themes. There is an excellent manual at the Doxygen site.de Tel. The documentation is extracted directly from the sources. the syntax we use is: /** * Documentation here */ Doxygen will parse any comments located in such a block. The following notes pertain to the Drupal implementation of Doxygen. which makes it much easier to keep the documentation consistent with the source code. which controls the output of Drupal. 11. so as to keep the source legible. Our style is to use as few Doxygen-specific commands as possible. Documenting files It is good practice to provide a comment describing what a file does at the start of it.202 2004/07/08 16:08:21 dries Exp $ */ /** * @file * The theme system. For example: <?php /* $Id: theme.

Documenting functions All functions that may be called by other files should be documented. Each parameter should be listed with a @param directive. A longer description with usage notes may follow after a blank line. Alte Kirchstr. A function documentation block should immediately precede the declaration of the function itself. with a description indented on the following line. 11. */ function array2object($array) { 24iX Systems. * * @param $mail * A string containing an email address. See RFC 2822 for details. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Functions that are easily described in one line may omit these directives.The line immediately following the @file directive is a short description that will be shown in the list of all files in the generated documentation. a @return directive should be used to document the return value if there is one.: 07000 7000 850 . as follows: /** * Convert an associative array to an anonymous object. Further description may follow after a blank line. Email: info@24ix. private functions optionally may be documented as well. like so: /** * Verify the syntax of the given e-mail address. The first line of the block should contain a brief description of what the function does. After all the parameters. * * Empty e-mail addresses are allowed.24ix.de . * @return * */ function valid_email_address($mail) { TRUE if the address is in a valid format.de Tel.

$attributes = array()) { .de . we tag all themeable functions so that Doxygen can group them on one page. */ function blog_help($section) { This generates a link to the hook reference. * @ingroup themeable */ function theme_pager($tags = array().. * * . 11. $element = 0.de Tel. add a grouping instruction to the documentation of all such functions: /** * Format a query pager.: 07000 7000 850 . To do this. Documenting themeable functions In order to provide a quick reference for theme developers. Documenting hook implementations Many modules consist largely of hook implementations. reminds the developer that this is a hook implementation. } 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix.. and avoids having to document parameters and return values that are the same for every implementation of the hook. $limit = 10. Alte Kirchstr.The parameters and return value must be described within this one-line description in this case.. a shorthand documentation form may be used: /** * Implementation of hook_help()..24ix. If the implementation is rather standard and does not require more explanation than the hook reference provides. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

if your changes include both bug fixes and performance enhancements. separate those into two patches. make sure to create it in "unified diff" format. Justify your changes and try to carry enough weight. Alte Kirchstr. Note that we prefer technical reasoning above marketing: give us clear reasons why "this way" is good. Describe your changes: Describe the technical detail of the change(s) your patch includes and try to be as specific as possible.: 07000 7000 850 .24ix. This text is a collection of suggestions which can greatly increase the chances of your change being accepted. diff -u: Use diff -u or diff -urN to create patches: when creating your patch. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. not in any lower subdirectory. Make sure to create patches against a "vanilla". The easiest way to get set up for making and sending patches is to get CVS working. 11. To output it to a file.de . it is more likely to be rejected without further review and without comment.The same pattern can be used for other functions scattered across multiple files that need to be grouped on a single page. It is important to note the version to which this patch applies. or unmodified source tree. diff -F^f: Use the additional -F^f argument to diff to create patches that are easier to read. Creating and sending your patches If you don't know what a patch is. go: cvs diff -u -F^f [file to patch] > [outfile] Coding style: If your code deviates too much from the Code Conventions. Patches should be based in the root source directory. This will be the last function definition if the files adhere to the Drupal Code Conventions. as supplied by the -u argument to diff. check the diff and patch explanation. and a new module which uses that new API. F^f tells diff to include the last matching line in the header of the created patch. For a person or company who wishes to submit a change. Then you can just type: cvs diff -u -F^f [file to patch] to generate a patch. Separate your changes: Separate each logical change into its own patch.de Tel. separate those changes into two or more patches. Verifying your patch 24iX Systems. For example. If your changes include an API update. the process can sometimes be daunting if you're not familiar with "the system". Email: info@24ix.

de . Diff and patch Diff and patch are two complementary tools for recording and applying changes between two sets of files. Email: info@24ix. Please make their lives easier by assuring the following: Test your code! Make sure your code is clean and secure. then don't assign your issue to Patch status o o Submitting your patch: Patches should be submitted via the issue tracker. Create a bug report or feature request. Patches can be submitted via e-mail and in plain text.txt new. Why? Because diff and patch provide an immense amount of control. At its simplest. Alte Kirchstr.The CVS review team is overloaded reviewing patch submissions.24ix. We use them for content control even though we distribute our code via CVS. o Patch against HEAD. 11. attach your patch using the file upload form and set the issue's status to patch. It has the simple purpose to create a file called a patch or a diff which contains the differences between two text files or two groups of text files. then don't set your issue to Patch status. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Diff is the first command in the set. Patch is diff's complement and takes a patch file generated by diff and applies it against a file or a group of files.patch 24iX Systems. It allows maintainers to look at changes easily without blindly integrating them. If your patch is just a quick hack. Diff can write into different formats. The actual usage of diff and patch is not complicated.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . The patches this command generates are much easier to distribute and allow maintainers to see quickly and easily what changed and to make a judgement. maintainers can read and judge the patch before it ever gets near a tree. If you only have a patch against a prior revisision. a diff command for comparing two files would be: $ diff old. although the unified difference format is preferred. Setting the status to patch is important as it adds the patch to the patch queue.txt > oldnew.

: 07000 7000 850 . however. to create a patch against the CVS tree: cvs diff -u -F ^function foo.txt > oldnew.module > foo. we prefer patches in unified format. Alte Kirchstr. so the following form of the command is often used. A possible command to do so is: $ diff -ruN old new > tree. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you need a windows diff program. command line or visual) o Generic: 24iX Systems.patch It is helpful to keep a reference in the patch file to which function was patched. you should use: $ patch -p0 -u <tree.txt new.module > foo.de Tel.diff To unapply the patch. we could do: $ patch < oldnew. use: $ patch -p0 -R <tree. For example.24ix. if you have made a change in foo.exe built-in diff. Email: info@24ix.patch Or if you had downloaded Drupal instead of checking it out from CVS and were creating a patch against a local copy of foo.module.For drupal. the process of patching the file is even simpler. 11.diff Once a patch is generated. Based on our examples above. so we add -u to the command line: $ diff -u old.de .module: diff -u -F ^function foo.diff Diff and patch on Windows diff (against a cvs source with the cvs. a comparison of two source trees is often desired.module newfoo. do diff local files.patch Generally.patch Or if you want to patch entire tree.

examples: "1972-0924 20:05". file_to_diff.) and make sure it is in your PATH cd to your drupal root dir cvs diff -u [[-r rev1|-D date1] [-r rev2|-D date2]] [file_to_diff] [&gt. if you send a patch.patch] -u: unified format -r: revision(s) to diff no -r: compare the working file with the revision it was based on one -r: compare that revision with your current working file two -r: compare those two revisions -D: use a date_spec to specify revisions.. The resulting diff is output to the WinCVSConsole and can be copied and pasted.. "24 Sep 1972 20:05"..exe of your cvs package (WinCVS. 11. TortoiseCVS: CVS > "Preferences" > "External diff application"..patch: creates a patch . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . make sure it has the proper line endings see the CVS manual for a complete list of and additional options o via WinCVS GUI Just select the file you edited and right-mouse-click > "diff selection" (or press the "diff selected"-icon on the toolbar.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr. Email: info@24ix. file_to_diff: path to the file or directory you want to diff. . This program will be invoked by "CVS Diff . cygwin.24ix.saves the diff in file_to_diff. "Full diff options [are] available from the diff dialog"]. &gt." Some external visual diff programs for Windows: Araxis Merge (commercial) ExamDiff CSDiff for those who can live w/ java: Guiffy (commercial) 24iX Systems.3b11.find the cvs. This program will be invoked by the "Diff selection" when "Use the external diff" is checked. the output will include the diff of all differing files in this directory and all subdirectories. file_to_diff.patch instead of outputting it on stdout. TortoiseCVS. This brings up a "Diff settings" dialog box that offers some limited options as "revisions to diff" and "ignore whitespace/case" [update 2003-Feb-07: starting with WinCvs 1.: 07000 7000 850 . o via WinCVS/TortoiseCVS external diff WinCVS: Menubar > "Admin" > "Preferences" > "WinCVS" > "External diff program ". if you specify a directory. or do Menubar > "Query" > "diff selection").

) line endings: an issue with using diff on windows is that generated patches have windows line endings. specify a batch-file that calls the external diff with the u option.patch to unix line endings. patch 24iX Systems. You cannot specify the "-u" in the External diff preferences (eg "diff -u") as this will result in "Unable to open 'diff -u' (The system cannot find the file specified. unfortunately. It does unified format by default. which makes them impossible to apply on unix boxes [1][2]. there seems to be no way to convince "cvs diff" to output unix line endings*. every developers editor should be capable of this.update: TortoiseCVS lets you save patches. Note that this 'Make Patch' option can make recursive patches when applied to directories.patch | unix2dos -u > o convert: save "cvs diff"s output to a file: cvs diff [options] file_to_diff > file_to_diff. besides. or like cygwins's dos2unix / d2u): cvs diff [options] file_to_diff file_to_diff. non of them (as i can tell) allows to actually save the difference in unified format (most allow to save a standard diff. which allows for launching of special diff programs for certain file types.WinMerge you may find more here Notes: While these programs do a nice job in showing file differences visually. Another workaround is meta-diff.de Tel. there are many dos2unix versions that operate on files. A workaround for this is to. 11. so the only way for making a proper patch on windows that i see is to convert / filter the output from "cvs diff" to unix line endings: o filter: pipe "cvs diff"s output through some dos2unix tool (like the one from Robert B.patch and manually convert file_to_diff. Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. See its Make Patch option.)".24ix. side by side. Clark. though) . Email: info@24ix. in the preferences.de .: 07000 7000 850 .

de Tel. So I would recommend installing cygwin . Alte Kirchstr.it takes a while. Do help to review other peoples code as it will make your own code better.a UNIX environment for Windows.. Your time will come. * and i tried a lot: checking out all files with unix line endings. Do remind people nicely that it would be nice if someone reviewed your code.) 5. Might also teach you a trick or two you didn't know about. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.squirrel. It is a learning experience. please let me know Cygwin .nl/people/jvromans/tpj0403-0016b. check CVS and binary files diff and patch You can try also integrated diff/patch packages like a GNU diffutils for Windows Rules of reviewing patches 1. available from various places.de .that works. If you know of a Windows-GUI for patch. 8. It will make your more critical and likely to spot your own mistakes. so the only choice is a Windowsport of the unix-command-line-tool. 2. you have a nice unix environment . nothing. external diffs. 6. and not working properly.org/software/emacs/windows/faq11. Do this get good review: Do make sure the code actually works. 3. Some I've found: http://www. 11.html#patch o Note: I found many of the precompiled binaries having problems with pathnames etc.I haven't found any Windows-GUI for patch. but after that. for a discussion of this. Do not demand that your code gets reviewed. Working code is a big plus. 24iX Systems. Do give friendly suggestions on how a person can improve their code. 7. (It comes highly recommended. but only once a week. Do not take a review personally.. including many standard UNIX-tools (including diff and patch) o pre-compiled binaries. 4. patched cvs versions .: 07000 7000 850 .html http://www. Do not feel obligated to review others code even if people review your code. Email: info@24ix. various -kb options. Do review the code not the person.24ix.gnu. If you get a bad review deal with it and make your patch better.

de . Your project will also become available for download. Maintaining a project on drupal. apply for a CVS account and commit your project to the repository. 10. Do write documentation both in the code and for the users. Dowloads and packaging As soon your project page has been activated and given it is properly configured. Just do it. add tasks or request new features. fill in the form at http://drupal.org project (a contributed theme. people will be able to file bugs against your project. drupal. the contributions/modules/my_module module has the short name my_module.org. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Do give your vote (+1/-1) as to wether this should be included in Drupal.org nor can you offer your module for download at drupal. Feel free to refuse to review patches that don't apply nicely to Drupal CVS. Do make sure the code uses available support functions and doesn't re-invent the wheel.org/node/add/project_project/. 9. 11. module or translation) needs to be maintained in the contributions repository.org will automatically package your project and make it available for 24iX Systems. To get your project listed on drupal. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . Do this when reviewing: Do make sure the patch does everything in item 8. Email: info@24ix. Do comment on the user interface.Do make sure the patch is current with Drupal CVS. If you are not using the drupal. Make sure that the 'Short project name' matches the directory name in the CVS repository.org after it has been committed to CVS. you can't setup a project page on drupal. For example. Before creating a project page on drupal. Do comment on the general coding style.org infrastructure. Note that the newly created project will not be instantly available.24ix. Do make suggestions on how to improve the patch.org.de Tel. It will appear soon after you committed some code/updates to the contributions repository.org Creating a project Each drupal. Do look at the code and make sure it follows the Drupal coding standards. Once the project page became available.

If you found a bug that needs to be fixed in several releases of your project. As projects are only packaged once or twice a day. By default. make sure to commit the fix to the different branches unless you are no longer maintaining certain releases of your project. Proper communication is key so make sure to mark your project as orphaned.org will package the Drupal 4. Drupal. Alte Kirchstr. Managing releases Releases are handled using CVS branches.24ix. A list of valid branch names can be found in the contributions repository's FAQ. Branching and releases are restricted to the modules. if you branch your project using the DRUPAL-4-5 branch name.5 compatible release of your project.org. For this to work. However.txt.de . won't be packaged and can't get a project page on drupal.: 07000 7000 850 .download. If you found a new maintainer or if you are willing to maintain an orphaned project. The projects are packaged once or twice a day so it will not be available instantly. drupal. Email: info@24ix. 11. it might take up to 24 hours for new releases to become available on the website or for updates to propagate to the downloads. theme-engines and translations directories in the contributions repository. Orphaned projects If you are no longer capable of maintaining your project.org website: 24iX Systems. get in touch with a site maintainer so we can transfer maintainership. only the CVS HEAD version (development version) of your project is packaged and offered for download. themes. you must use the correct branch names.org site maintainers Below is an alphabetical list of users who have additional permissions to help maintain the drupal. please add a note to your project page and ask in the forums whether someone is willing to take over maintenance. Personal sandboxes in the sandbox directory can't be branched.de Tel. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

drop. JonBob 12. Goba 11. Email: info@24ix. Roland Tanglao@.org. jvandyk 13. drumm 9. adrian 2. 2.: 07000 7000 850 . TDobes 24.drupaldevs.1..org 15.24ix. Ok. 10.. Bèr Kessels 4. A more complete solution would be unit tests as proposed by Moshe Weitzman. Alte Kirchstr.. Drupal test suite Drupal is currently lacking some test suite to be run by developers before submitting important patches. Robert Castelo 20. FactoryJoe@civi. bryankennedy 6. 21. 11. sepeck 22. ax 3. Richard Eriksson 19. here is what I will do in the future: 1. killes@www. Boris Mann 5.. Steven 23. moshe weitzman 17. get in touch with Dries. Run wget -r --delete-after http://killes. kika 14. but they'd also be a lot more work.de Tel.de .org/ 24iX Systems. Dries 8. cel4145 7. The following setup isn't really a test suite but it is a start to avoid the most embarrassing errors. nedjo 18. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. walkah If you have been around for a while. and you want to help maintain Drupal. Enable the menu module and disable the 'log out' link. Kjartan 16.

Hence it can use all the functions and access all variables and structures of the main engine. 3. and continuity which in turn allows people to customize the site to their needs and likings.org/ and in the remainder of the Drupal developer's guide below. Note that this can take some time. If I want to test as an authenticated user I do wget -r --delete-after --cookies=off --header='Cookie: PHPSESSID=xxx' http://killes. A Drupal module is simply a file containing a set of routines written in PHP. o The Drupal developer guide provides guidlines as how to upgrade your modules (API changes) along with development tips/tutorials. http://drupaldocs. When used. Alte Kirchstr.org/ where xxx is my cookie that I got out of cookies.txt inside my . You can later have a look at the error logs and find out if any errors where caused. wget will access every Drupal page linked from the frontpage. Modularity better suits the open-source development model. In fact.drupaldevs.org is my development site.de .: 07000 7000 850 .org documents the Drupal APIs and presents an overview of Drupal's building blocks along with handy examples. a module is not any different from a regular PHP file: it is more of a notion that automatically leads to good design principles and a good development model. A modular design will provide flexibility. 11. You can add -wait=5 to the options if you don't want a free stress test. o Introduction to Drupal modules When developing Drupal it became clear that we wanted to have a system which is as modular as possible. the module code executes entirely within the context of the site.drupaldevs. Email: info@24ix.24ix. Module developer's guide Developer documentation can be found at http://drupaldocs.where killes. adaptability. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.mozilla directory. 24iX Systems.de Tel.

In places where hooks are made available. let's dissect the URL.txt 24iX Systems.txt cron.ico includes/ index.de Tel. Drupal's page serving mechanism A Walk Through Drupal's Page Serving Mechanism or Tiptoeing Sprightly Through the PHP This is a commentary on the process Drupal goes through when serving a page.e. Say your module is named foo (i.because otherwise you can't easily have people working in parallel without risk of interference. This is done by iterating through the modules directory where all modules must reside. the engine calls each module's exported functions.1/~vandyk/drupal/?q=node/1 A visual companion to this narration can be found here. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.php CVS/ database/ favicon. please look at the API documentation generated from the Drupal souce code. usually a web page. For an overview of currently supported hooks.: 07000 7000 850 . we will choose the following URL. which asks Drupal to display the first node for us. modules/foo. The drupal directory contains a checkout of the latest Drupal CVS tree. The idea is to be able to run random code at given places in the engine.0. the engine will call foo_bar() if this was exported by your module. I'm running on an OS X machine. 11.) http://127. The places where code can be executed are called "hooks" and are defined by a fixed interface.0. This random code should then be able to do whatever needed to enhance the functionality. For convenience. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. so the site I'm serving lives at /Users/vandyk/Sites/.24ix. you may want to print it out and follow along.module) and if there was a hook called bar.de . It looks like this: CHANGELOG.php INSTALL. (A node is a thing. Before we start.

the includes/bootstrap. and notifies interested modules that the request is beginning. sets up caching. Alte Kirchstr. Drupal checks for cases in which a Not Found or Access Denied message needs to be generated.php'. in the default case it will include 'conf.24ix.inc file is included. The first line of index. Apache translates that into index. Next. Simple. if no site-specific configuration file is found.inc file.php scripts/ themes/ tiptoe. which starts a timer. Let's take a broad look at what happens during the execution of index.: 07000 7000 850 .inc file is included. but it also executes code towards the end of bootstrap.php. etc.LICENSE. In the switch statement. There's a call to drupal_page_header(). Next." Next.de . It returns the name of the sitespecific configuration file. which looks very simple and is only a few lines long. eh? Let's delve a little more deeply into the process outlined above. The code in conf_init would be easier to understand if the variable $file were instead called 24iX Systems. it includes the named configuration file.html. Thus. which notifies all interested modules that the request is ending. form generation and validation. 11. Email: info@24ix. it calls conf_init(). One variable/value pair is passed along with the request: the variable 'q' is set to the value 'node/1'. First. bringing in all the functions that are necessary to get Drupal's machinery up and running.php. So.txt MAINTAINERS.txt update.php includes the includes/bootstrap.php xmlrpc. it destroys any previous variable named $conf.txt misc/ modules/ phpinfo. the includes/common. sets the variable $config equal to the string 'conf'. let's pick up the show with the execution of index. giving access to a wide variety of utility functions such as path formatting functions. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Drupal then builds its navigation menu and sets the variable $status to the result of that operation. and finally a call to drupal_page_footer(). First. This function allows Drupal to use site-specific configuration files if it finds them. Drupal closes up shop and the page is served. The call to fix_gpc_magic() is there to check on the status of "magic quotes" and to ensure that all escaped quotes enter Drupal's database consistently.php So the URL above will be be requesting the root directory / of the Drupal site.de Tel.inc.

the $conf variable is null and an empty array is passed in. Oddly.mysql. The last thing bootstrap. and $db_url are set. Since I am running as an anonymous user. and exits.24ix. We have a database connection. A call to PHP's session_start() function thus calls Drupal's sess_open() and sess_read() functions. and the $languages array (default is "en"=>"english"). the $user->roles array contains one entry.. the database. This function has two responsibilities.php) is now parsed. with the primary goal of initializing a connection to the database. in this include file the executable code is located at the top of the file instead of the bottom. 1>anonymous user. the most useful result of parsing database. First.inc file is included but no actual code is executed.inc does is to set up the global variable $conf. it's time to start a session by including the includes/session. Second.php and call drupal_page_header(). calls module_invoke_all() for the 'init' and 'exit' hooks. that is. the optional $db_prefix variable. a populated array of namevalue pairs is returned and assigned to the global $conf variable. It should be noted that name-value pairs in the per-site configuration file have precedence over name-value pairs retrieved from the "variable" table by variable_init(). In both cases. The includes/module.now it's time to get things set up for modules.: 07000 7000 850 . if caching has been enabled it retrieves the cached page.de .de Tel. 11. Alte Kirchstr. Email: info@24ix. If MySQL is being used. this populated array is passed in to variable_init(). Otherwise.inc file. where it will live for the duration of this request.. It does this by calling the variable_init() function. We're done with bootstrap. it starts a timer if $conf['dev_timer'] is set.inc! Now it's time to go back to index. $db_type. The database. an array of configuration options.inc files is brought in.inc is a global variable called $active_db which contains the database connection handle. The sess_read function creates a global $user object and sets the $user->roles array appropriately. Likewise $conf_filename would be a better choice than $config. If caching is not 24iX Systems.$potential_filename. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Although the global variables $db_prefix. a session has been set up. the pear database abstraction layer is used. setting the $db_url variable.inc file is now parsed. Now that the database connection is set up. The selected configuration file (normally /includes/conf. if Postgres is being used. What the code does is to tell PHP to use Drupal's own session storage functions (located in this file) instead of the default PHP session code. If a persite configuration file exists and has already populated the $conf variable. if you are keeping track of page execution times. the $base_url for the website.

all kept in one file for performance reasons. Although one would expect a quick check of whether or not this request is actually an XML-RPC call. If you remember that the URL we are serving ends with /~vandyk/drupal/?q=node/1.de .php. as well as the FILE_SEPARATOR.inc. Back at index. it simply exits and returns control to index. it prints the error message to the screen. common. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. common. In menu.inc file is included as well.enabled or the page is not being served to an anonymous user (or several other special cases. Given the paucity of code here. The next inclusion that common. The Content-Type header is now sent to the browser as a hard coded string: "Content-Type: text/html. This error handler creates a watchdog entry to record the error and. like when feedback needs to be sent to a user). Drupal's error_handler() does not use the last parameter $variables.de Tel. pager. containing functions that help behind the scenes with sortable tables. The constants FILE_DOWNLOADS_PUBLIC = 1 and FILE_DOWNLOADS_PRIVATE = 2 are set here.inc is file.php. This file is chock-full of miscellaneous utility goodness. They include theme. no such check is done here.inc. 11.php. apparently so that if this request turns to actually be an XML-RPC call. over 30 variable assignments are made.inc sets PHP's error handler to the error_handler() function in the common. which is \\ for Windows machines and / for all others. with all sorts of functions for dealing with XML-RPC calls. many constants are defined that are used later by the menu system. if any error reporting is enabled via the error_reporting directive in PHP's configuration file (php.inc makes is xmlrpc. we find an include statement for common. which is an array that points to the active symbol table at the point the error occurred. a performance boost could be gained by moving these into common.inc is redundant. charset=utf-8". The comment "// set error handler:" at the end of common.php includes some files on its own.inc itself. with includes finished. Alte Kirchstr. you'll note that the variable q has been set. Instead. Email: info@24ix. Drupal 24iX Systems. Finally. for theme support. The last include done by common.24ix. as it is readily apparent what the function call to set_error_handler() does.inc.inc file. An xmlrpc_init() function instead may help performance here? A small tablesort.ini).inc. But in addition to putting all these utility functions into our namespace.inc. which contains common file handling functions. they will be ready. and menu.: 07000 7000 850 .inc for paging through large datasets (it has nothing to do with calling your pager).

This sleight-of-hand happens before any modules see the value of q. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Cool. Module initialization now happens via the module_init() function. The filter module defines FILTER_HTML* and FILTER_STYLE* constants while being included. can be 24iX Systems. a module must (1) be enabled (that is. The strategy here is to keep the module list inside a static variable called $list inside the module_list() function.: 07000 7000 850 . The lesson learned here is that if you are writing a module and intend to return a value from a callback. by convention. it will simply return its static variable $list rather than rebuilding the whole array. Next.. In order to be loaded. We see that as we follow the final objective of module_init(). it determines whether the module is eligible by looking at the throttle column of the "system" database table. The full list of hooks available to module developers.g. with documentation about what they are expected to return. In this case the name of the function to call is "admin_init".de Tel. it looks at $conf["throttle_level"] to see whether the load is high enough to exclude the module. First. so it calls module_invoke("admin". it is simply module_list() and not $module_list = module_list()). and (2) Drupal's throttle mechanism must determine whether or not the module is eligible for exclusion when load is high. you must return it as an array. This string could be anything. if any. If the value of q is a path alias. that is. The returned $list is discarded because the module_list() invocation is not part of an assignment (e. 11. The module_invoke() function simply puts the two together to get the name of the function it will call. then. other modules are include_once'd via module_list(). system. if the module is eligible.now parses this out and checks for any path aliasing for the value of q. Once all modules have been include_once'd and their names added to the $list local array. to send all modules the "init" callback. First module_invoke_all() is called and passed the string enumerating which callback is to be called. In this case it is the string "init". it is simply a symbol that call modules have agreed to abide by. Drupal replaces the value of q with the actual path that the value of q is aliased to. user and watchdog modules. The first one is "admin".de . the status column of the "system" database table must be set to 1). To see how the callbacks work let's step through the init callback for the first module. The module_invoke_all() function now steps through the list of modules it got from calling module_list(). filter. Alte Kirchstr. This function runs require_once on the admin. Email: info@24ix. ends up in an array called $return which is returned after all modules have been invoked."init"). [Jonathan Chaffer: Each "hook" (our word for what you call a callback) defines its own return type. If a function by this name exists. the array is sorted by module name and returned. the function is called and the returned result. The next time module_list() is called.24ix.

xml. This seems very time-consuming.inc. This retrieves the user's permissions and stashes them in a static variable called $perm. we are an anonymous user with no theme selected. as an anonymous user. that's "en". creates a new object called xtemplate as a global variable. frameset. The last gasp of common. frame. Inside this object is an xtemplate object called "template" with lots of attributes. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. script. Cookie: the three places that unescaped quotes may be 24iX Systems. applet. "bypass input data check") within the $perm string. Email: info@24ix.found here: http://drupal. that would be a namespace clash with a callback of the same name). dynsrc. This finds out which themes are available. There is a check for suspicious input data. Thus. and then include_once's the chosen theme. embed. head. In our case. layer. datasrc. Alte Kirchstr. If the user's selected theme is not available. A comment indicates that someone is aware that this doesn't work. the two-character language key is returned.inc is to call init_theme(). blink. iframe. To find out whether or not the user has permission to bypass this check. the key of the single-entry global array $language is returned. Our $perm string.theme is include_once'd. data.. The "gpc" stands for Get. ilayer.html ] Back to common.inc's executable code is a call to locale_init() to set up locale data.de Tel. the value at $conf["theme_default"] is used.inc". is currently "0access content. In our case.de . lowsrc. alert. Whether or not a user has permission for a given action is determined by a simple substring search for the name of the permission (e. expression. which the user has selected. If the user is not an anonymous user and has a language preference set up.php! A call to fix_gpc_magic() is in order.org/doxygen/drupal/group__hooks. html. otherwise. I wondered why both the keys and values of the $_REQUEST array are examined. meta. ". Then there is a nonfunctional line where SetNullBlock is called.24ix. form. Now we're back to index. If any of these are matched watchdog records a warning and Drupal dies (in the PHP sense). object. style.g.inc. Post. It simply goes through an array it's been handed (in this case the $_REQUEST array) and checks all keys and values for the following "evil" strings: javascript. 11.: 07000 7000 850 . Also. the file themes/xtemplate/xtemplate. Why the 0 at the beginning of the string? Because $perm is initialized to 0 by user_access(). so the default xtemplate theme is used. would it die if my URL ended with "/?xml=true" or "/?format=xml"? The next step in common. The inclusion of xtemplate. The actual check for suspicious input data is carried out by valid_input_data() which lives in common.theme calls include_once("themes/xtemplate/xtemplate. user_access() is called. You'd think that for consistency this would be called theme_init() (of course.

not the magic. PHP's session handler still needs to tidy up. 11. The "q" variable (we usually call it the Drupal path) is matched against the available menu items to find the appropriate callback to use.de . local tasks. In my distribution of PHP. to drupal_page_footer in common. [Update: Jonathan Chaffer enlightens me: This step is crucial.ini). the switch statement doesn't match either case and we approach the last call in the file. and visible arrays. $_POST. It seems odd that the function is not called fix_gpc_magic_quotes. Much more information on this topic is available in the developer documentation. Alte Kirchstr. then sess_close() which simply returns 1. It calls sess_write() in session. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Back in index.inc to update the session database table. Then the system realizes that we're not going to be building any menus for an anonymous user and bows out.inc. 24iX Systems. If deemed necessary by the status of the boolean magic_quotes_gpc directive in PHP's configuration file (php. Although you may think we're done. The next step is to set up menus. The real meat of the node creation and formatting happens here. We're done. I'm not sure why we're setting up menus for an anonymous user. but also determines what function will be handed the responsibility of displaying the page. The menu system doesn't just handle displaying menus to the user. the magic_quotes_gpc directive is set to "Off".php. This sets up a $_menu array consisting of items.] We jump to menu_execute_active_handler() in menu. and $_REQUEST arrays.inc. but let's go ahead and follow the logic anyway. since it is the "magic quotes" that are being fixed.24ix.de Tel. so slashes do not need to be stripped. This takes care of caching the page we've built if caching is enabled (it's not) and calls module_invoke_all() with the "exit" callback symbol.: 07000 7000 850 . slashes will be stripped from $_GET. $_COOKIE. Email: info@24ix. path index. but is complex enough for a separate commentary.found.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de .de Tel. 11. Email: info@24ix.Tips for database compatibility 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr.24ix.

Once your query succeeds in all tools. with the addition of 2 required parameters at the end of db_query_range(). Don't use auto-increment or SERIAL fields. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Converting 3. You should test any complex queries for ANSI comptibility using this tool by Mimer If you are developing on MySQL. use it's ANSI compatibility mode If can install all database servers in your environment. The differences between each platform are slight . you should use the db_query_range() function instead of db_query().: 07000 7000 850 .24ix.In order to ensure that your module works with all comptible database servers (currently Postgres.we hope documentation on these differences will be forthcoming. it is helpful to create shell databases in each and then run sample queries in each platform's query dispatch tool.de . you'll need to remember a few points. Usually. If possible. Alte Kirchstr. and MS SQL Server). The syntax of the 2 functions is the same.0: function form($action. o o o o o o o o When you need to LIMIT your result set to cetain number of records. Email: info@24ix. provide SQL setup scripts for each supported database platform. congratulate self.0 Required changes Modified form function: Drupal 3. MySQL.0 modules to 4. Don't use '' when you mean NULL Avoid table and field names that might be reserved words on any platform. $options = 0) 24iX Systems. $from is 0 and $count is the maximum number of records you want returned. Use an integer field and leverage Druapl's own sequencing wrapper: db_next_id(<tablename_fieldname>) Updating your modules As Drupal develops with each release it becomes necessary to update modules to take advantage of new features and stay functional with Drupal's API.de Tel. $method = "post". Instead. 11. $form. Those parameters are $from and then $count.

Converting 4. $nid). $form). Email: info@24ix. Drupal 4.1 Required changes Modified block hook: Drupal 4.0 modules to 4.0: function *_block() { $blocks[0]["info"] = "First block info". $nid).de Tel.0: function form($form. // return array of blocks return $blocks. print form($form). $blocks[1]["subject"] = "Second block subject". $blocks[0]["content"] = "First block content". print form($REQUEST_URI. $options = 0) // Example $form = form_hidden("nid". $method = "post". $form = form_hidden("nid". } 24iX Systems.// Example global $REQUEST_URI.de . $action = 0. 11.24ix. $blocks[1]["info"] = "Second block info".: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. $blocks[1]["content"] = "Second block content". $blocks[0]["subject"] = "First block subject".

Email: info@24ix. &$tree. 11. $block["content"] = "First block content".} Drupal 4. case 1: $block["subject"] = "Second block subject". Alte Kirchstr. $delta = 0) { if ($op == "list") { $blocks[0]["info"] = "First block info". $key = "tid") 24iX Systems.de . $depth = -1. return $blocks. return $block.de Tel.24ix.0: function taxonomy_get_tree($vocabulary_id. return $block. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 . // return array of block infos } else { switch($delta) { case 0: $block["subject"] = "First block subject". $parent = 0.1: function *_block($op = "list". $blocks[1]["info"] = "Second block info". } } } Modified taxonomy API: Drupal 4. $block["content"] = "Second block content".

[dries] bit the bullet and converted every single URL in Drupal's code.de Tel. lm().php?mod=bla&op=blub. $depth = -1.1 modules to 4.Drupal 4.com/archive/2003/01/06.com/user/42. l("view node". $query = NULL]) similar. meaning. and so on. o o Take advantage of pager functions Move hardcoded markup from modules to themes. $anchor = ""]) became url("search/bla"). "op" => "bla"). http://foo. 11. http://foo. the second (typically) being the operation ($op)..$attributes = array(). which meant "module link" and used to be module.1. Email: info@24ix. with the first url part being the module.the result tree is now returned instead of passed by reference Optional changes o o Take advantage of new taxonomy functions taxonomy_get_vocabulary_by_name($name). taxonomy_get_term_by_name($name). is now l("title".there is no more a "parent" property.0 modules to CVS [updated and added to by ax]: o the big "clean URL" patch: Over the weekend. $attributes = array()]) became l("view node". array("op" => "view". $anchor = "".. "node"[.1: $tree = taxonomy_get_tree($vocabulary_id. "module"[. but "parents" which is an array . 24iX Systems.de . using theme_invoke Converting 4.24ix. $parents = 0. "id" => $nid).com/blog.: 07000 7000 850 ..2 Some points posted by Axel on drupal-devel on migrating 4. Alte Kirchstr. for the code: drupal_url(array("mod" => "search". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $key = "tid") Changes: . more arguments are handled differently per module convention.. "node/view/$nid"[. meaning we'll [can] have clean URLs like http://foo.

.. level).. [drupal-devel] theme("function") vs $theme>function() and [drupal-devel] [CVS] theme() o &lt. though: you do not add &lt. arg(3).see [drupal-devel] renaming 2 functions. 11. $comment->timestamp) please add / update / correct! 24iX Systems. adds a menu entry "new or updated posts" 1 level below "post overview" (admin/node/nodes) and 2 level below "node management" (admin/node) (ie. menu("admin/node/nodes/0". neither (you cannot build arbitrary menu-trees.. and i won't write more about this here. this first try resulted in poor performance and a not-so-good api.module&gt.de Tel. for the callback ("node_admin") . well. with a line "help" below the main heading._admin.() ." After fixing those functions. "help". this..see [drupal-devel] X-mas commit: administration pages.module&gt. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. "node_admin". as of time ax is writing this.see [PATCH] menus.module&gt. which meant "admin link" and used to be admin._settings() to the menu (they automatically go to "site configuration > modules > module settings" ."bla/blub/. see [drupal-devel] renaming 2 functions. you'll need to edit your _page() function and possibly others so that they get their arguments using the arg() function (see includes/common.inc.. "op".you only add &lt. "admin/bla/blub/.. and la(). so it probably will change again.php?mod=bla&op=blub. ask dries or zbynek one more note. 0). so it got refactored . Alte Kirchstr.. but is accessed via "site configuration > modules > modules settings" o the administration pages got changed quite a lot to use a "database driven link system" and become more logical/intuitive . o $theme->function() became theme("function"). isn't really satisfying._settings() . this: you use menu() to add entries to the admin menu._conf_options() became &lt. things. level. with a weight of 0 in the 3. now these same arguments must be accessed as arg(1).... "id" etc. some forms don't work (taxonomy > add term). "new or updated posts". Email: info@24ix. for example..module&gt..de . at the 3. o o o [from comment_is_new function lost] + comment_is_new($comment) node_is_new($comment->nid.24ix. note that doesn't get an extra menu entry... . These arguments used to be globals called "mod".).: 07000 7000 850 . is now l("title".").

(context sensitive help?) If the URL of the admin page matches a URL in a _help hook then the text from that _help hook is displayed on the top of the admin page.: 07000 7000 850 . $node->nid). so that the table prefix can be dynamically prepended to the table name. Alte Kirchstr." This patch requires all table names in SQL-queries to be enclosed in {curly brackets}. 11. there is a block of text displayed at the top of every admin page. Dries committed Slavica's table prefix patch which allows for a configurable "prefix to each drupal mysql table to easily share one database for multiply applications on server with only one database allowed.de Tel. $node->nid). eg.24ix. + db_query("DELETE FROM book WHERE nid = %d". Because Drupal matches URLs in order to stick "other" stuff in the _help hook we have taken to sticking descriptors after a "#" sign.Converting 4. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. db_query("DELETE FROM {book} WHERE nid = %d". This is the active help block. if there is no match the block it not displayed. Email: info@24ix.somehow -. After 4.2 modules to 4. New help system From Michael Frankowski message: There is a block of text placed at the top of each admin page by the admin_page function.3.de .3 Database table prefix On 2003 Jul 10. So far the following discriptors are recoginised: 24iX Systems.0 is out the door the function menu_get_active_help() should probably be rename/moved into the help module and be attached -. See the original feature request and the corresponding discussion at the mailing list for details.to every _page hook (probably in the node module) so that we can use this system through out Drupal but for right now.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. displayed on the admin/help page and through the modules individual help link. but there) -> The name of a module admin/system/modules#description -> The description found on the admin/system/modules page. admin/help# -> The modules help text. user/help# -> The help for a distrbuted authorization module.24ix. } In the template replace with the name of your module. IF you want to add help text to the overall administrative section. Alte Kirchstr. 24iX Systems. break. In the future we will probably recognise #block for the text needed in a block displayed by the help system. (admin/help) stick this inside the switch: case 'admin/help#': $output = t('The text you want displayed').: 07000 7000 850 . switch ($section) { } return $output. 11.admin/system/modules#name (unused.de . *** How to build up a _help hook: Start with this template -function _help($section){ $output = "". Email: info@24ix.de Tel.

*** How to convert a _system hook: There are three things that can appear in a _system hook: $field == "name" -> The module name. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. you want to add some text to the top help area. case 'admin/system/modules/': $output = t('Your new help text'). 24iX Systems.24ix. You have this kind of tree: + Administration | -> Your area | | | | -> Overall admin help. Alte Kirchstr.If you also want this same text displayed for an individual help link in your menu area.: 07000 7000 850 . | -> Your configuration -> help $field == "description" -> The description placed in the module list. An example. 11. break. it is at admin/system/modules/. Email: info@24ix. Change the function line to this: function _help($section = 'admin/help#') { Now that you have the template started place a case statement in for any URL you want a "context sesitive" help message in the admin section. you have a page that individually configures your module.de .de Tel.

de Tel. 11. } Ends with -function example_help($section) { 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 .").de . Alte Kirchstr.$field == "admin-help" this -> The help text placed at the TOP of modules individual configuration area.24ix. now place a "break. Replace the $system[] that is normally at the front of each one with $output. return $system[$field]. $system["admin-help"] = t("Can you believe that I would actually write an indivdual setup page on an EXAMPLE module??"). Take the text for each one and move it into the _help hook. An example: Starts with -function example_system($field){ $system["description"] = t("This is my example _system hook to convert for the help system I have spent a lot of time with. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. If $system is $system["description"] then case is case 'admin/system/modules#description': If $system is $system["admin-help"] then case is case 'admin/system/modules/': Then remove the _system function and you are done." after the line and a "case '':" before it where name is one of the following: If $system is $system["name"] then case is case 'admin/system/modules#name':.

24ix.de Tel. What a terrible thing for me to do. 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. case 'admin/system/modules/example': $output = t("Can you believe that I would actually write an indivdual setup page on an EXAMPLE module??").de . How do you convert it? It is not that hard. to find your text in a new location by changing the function call _auth_help() to _help("user/help#"). break."). switch ($section) { case 'admin/system/modules#example': $output = t("This is my example _system hook to convert for the help system I have spent a lot of time with. } *** How to convert an _auth_help hook: Okay. you have written your Distributed Authorization module. break. 11. } return $output.$output = "". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Email: info@24ix. There are two places you have to deal with: 1) The text inside the _auth_help hook needs to be moved inside the _help hook under the section "user/help#" and 2) You have to change the _page hook. which normally displays that help text. and given us a great help text for it and I had to go and ruin it all by changing the help system.

theme("footer").de .</p> <p>To learn about about Drupal you can <a href=\"www. theme("box". Alte Kirchstr. } function exampleda_auth_help() { $site = variable_get("site_name". return sprintf(t($html_output). exampleda_help('user/help#exampleda')).See. Email: info@24ix. theme("box". } 24iX Systems. Using this example you cannot login to <i>%s</i> because it has no _auth hook. $html_output = " <p>This is my example Distributed Auth help. theme("footer").24ix.</p> <p><u>BUT</u> you should still use Drupal since it is a <b>GREAT</b> CMS and is only getting better. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. exampleda_auth_help()). "this web site"). An example: function exampleda_page() { theme("header").drupal.de Tel. $site).: 07000 7000 850 . "Example DA". 11. "Example DA". } Ends with -function exampleda_page() { theme("header"). it is not THAT terrible.org\">visit the site</a></p>".

= "<p><u>BUT</u> you should still use Drupal since it is a <b>GREAT</b> CMS and is only getting better. Email: info@24ix.function exampleda_help($section) { $output = "". help text was being translated two or more times and that cluttered the locale/translation tables. switch ($section) { case 'user/help#exampleda': $site = variable_get("site_name". } return $output } *** So what's all this business with the %-signs and the array's?? Well.: 07000 7000 850 . $output .de .= "<p>To learn about about Drupal you can %drupal. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. propernames and titles only wasted space. Alte Kirchstr. break. t(). Using this example you cannot login to %site because it has no _auth hook.</p>". $output = t($output.org\">visit the site<a>")).de Tel. $output . $output .</p>".= "<p>This is my example Distributed Auth help.drupal. "this web site"). array("%site" => "<i>$site</i>". 11. then Dries Buytaert (Dries) only strengthen that point by mentioning that "t-wrapping". Gabor Hojtsy (Goba) raised a very good point. and I wanted to help ease the translators job 24iX Systems. "%drupal" => "<a href=\"www.24ix.</p>".

".1). providing additional functionality to your Drupal installation. Creating modules: post 4. array("%something" => )). A module is a collection of functions that link into Drupal. translate it only at the end of 'case' block. internal ones are l() calls. just before the "break. you 24iX Systems.url\">example text</a>" block. The nice thing about this if you are using the same URL again. see above example for a multiline block. For an example you can look above.e. "example/url") call. 11.24ix. it will tranlate all of them. So please pull out that type of text in your block of help text. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel.I replaced the text with %something and at the end of the help section I would place a line like this one: $output = t($output. Alte Kirchstr. and again you can use the same %something again and again and only place a single copy in your array area.3.: 07000 7000 850 . If you are doing a LONG block of help text.de . or an "<a href=\"http://Example.both an external one and an internal one. With all this in mind anything that was a proper name.3. After reading this tutorial.1 Introduction This tutorial describes how to create a module for Drupal-CVS (i. Email: info@24ix. a URL -. Where is an l(t("example text"). Drupal version > 4. or url() calls -.buy removing HTML links from the translations so that people didn't have to remember URLs.

24ix. This tutorial will not necessarily prepare you to write modules for release into the wild. records and SQL statements A working Drupal installation Drupal administration access Webserver access This tutorial does not assume you have any knowledge about the inner workings of a Drupal module. so having these well defined names means Drupal knows where to look. Email: info@24ix. Start your module by creating a PHP file and save it as 'onthisdate. including syntax and the concept of PHP objects Basic understanding of database tables. and retrieve information from Drupal nodes. nor does it elaborate on permissions or security issues. <?php ?> As per the [Coding standards]. 11. we'll start by creating a block module that lists links to content such as blog entries or forum discussions that were created one week ago. Alte Kirchstr.will be able to create a basic block module and use it as a template for more advanced modules and node modules. This tutorial will not help you write modules for Drupal 4.3. 24iX Systems. All functions in your module are named {modulename}_{hook}. Getting Started To focus this tutorial. The full tutorial will teach us how to create block content. use the longhand <?php tag. where "hook" is a well defined function name. It does not cover caching.de Tel. and not <? to enclose your PHP code.: 07000 7000 850 .module'. Use this tutorial as a starting point.de . Drupal will call these functions to get specific data. write links. This tutorial assumes the following about you: o o o o o Basic PHP knowledge.1 or before. and review other modules and the [Drupal handbook] and [Coding standards] for more information. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. fields.

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. The recommended way to process this variable is with a switch statement. The hook name for this function is 'help'. Until this 24iX Systems.24ix. so start with the onthisdate_help function: <?php function onthisdate_help($section) { } ?> The $section variable provides context for the help: where in Drupal or the module are we looking for help. and won't enable it properly when installed.". In particular. 11. } return $output.: 07000 7000 850 . output for "admin/help#onthisdate" will display on the main help page accessed by the admin/help URL for this module (/admin/help or ?q=admin/help).de . default: $output = "onthisdate". break. This is on purpose. Email: info@24ix. case "admin/system/modules#description": $output = "Display a list of nodes that were created a week ago. as the current version of Drupal CVS won't display the module name. break. } */ ?> You will eventually want to add other cases to this switch statement to provide real help messages to the user.de Tel.Telling Drupal about your module The first function we'll write will tell Drupal information about your module: its name and description. <?php /* Commented out until bug fixed */ /* function onthisdate_help($section) { switch($section) { case "admin/system/modules#name": $output = "onthisdate". break. You'll see this code pattern in other modules. Note:This function is commented out in the above code.

or your module may not work. Node modules generate full page content (such as blog. Be sure your permission strings must be unique to your module.de Tel. you can tell Drupal who can access your module. Telling Drupal who can use your module The next function to write is the permissions function. 11. Here. the permissions page will list the same permission multiple times. Email: info@24ix. give permission to anyone who can access site content or administrate the module. comment out your help function. We'll use the user_access function to check access permissions later. Announce we're have block content There are several types of modules: block modules and node modules are two. or book pages). At this point. If they are not. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . and not required to be) displayed along the left or right side of a page. <?php function onthisdate_perm() { return array("administer onthisdate"). forum. } ?> You'll need to adjust who has permission to view your module on the administer » accounts » permissions page.24ix. and you're going to do permission control. "administer onthisdate"). Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . you may want to define a new permission set. } ?> If you are going to write a module that needs to have finer control over the permissions. 24iX Systems.bug is fixed. You can do this by adding strings to the array that is returned: <?php function onthisdate_perm() { return array("access onthisdate". Block modules create abbreviated content that is typically (but not always.

we need to calculate the time (in seconds since epoch start.: 07000 7000 850 . the time of creation is stored in the database. This part of the code is Drupal independent. We'll just worry about the operation at this point. so let's start our next function: <?php function onthisdate_block($op='list'. First.php for more information on time format) for midnight a week ago.time. return $block. we care about the specific case where the block is being listed in the blocks page. Alte Kirchstr. $delta=0) { // listing of blocks. $delta=0) { } ?> The block function takes two parameters: the operation and the offset. and 11:59pm a week ago. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. <?php function onthisdate_block($op='list'. In particular. } else { // our block content } } ?> Generate content for a block Now. we want the content created between midnight and 11:59pm on the day one week ago. 11. such as on the admin/system/block page if ($op == "list") { $block[0]["info"] = t("On This Date"). The hook for a block module is appropriately called "block".We'll create a block content to start. In here. we'll demonstrate a basic way to access the database.net/manual/en/function. Specifically. or delta. In all other situations. A module can generate content for blocks and also for a full page (the blogs module is a good example of this). see http://www. When a node is first created.net/) for more details.de Tel.php. 24iX Systems. Our goal is to get a list of content (stored as "nodes" in the database) created a week ago.24ix. Email: info@24ix. see the PHP website (http://php. We'll use this database field to find our data. we'll display the block content. we need to generate the 'onthisdate' content for the block. and later discuss node content.de .

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. $today['year']). For this tutorial. 24iX Systems. created FROM " . $today['mon']. You can find more information on the Drupal website by reading the [Table Prefix (and sharing tables across instances)] page in the Drupal handbook. ?> Drupal uses database helper functions to perform database queries. this is okay. } } ?> The next step is the SQL statement that will retrieve the content we'd like to display from the database. ($today['mday'] .de Tel. This means that.. $start_time . title. etc. This is necessary so that your module will support database table name prefixes. for the most part. <?php $query = "SELECT nid. you can write your database SQL statement and not worry about the backend connections. $end_time . Email: info@24ix. "' AND created <= '". } else { // our block content // Get today's date $today = getdate().7). 0.<?php function onthisdate_block($op='list'. Alte Kirchstr.. // we want items that occur only on the day in question. 0. you would adjust the SQL statement to select specific types of content (by adding the 'type' column and a WHERE clause checking the 'type' column).24ix. Note: the table name is enclosed in curly braces: {node}. // 60 * 60 * 24 = 86400 seconds in a day . // calculate midnight one week ago $start_time = mktime(0. so calculate 1 day $end_time = $start_time + 86400. such as on the admin/system/block page if ($op == "list") { $block[0]["info"] = t("On This Date"). We're selecting content from the node table. forum posts.de . "{node} WHERE created >= '" . which is the central table for Drupal content.: 07000 7000 850 . We'll get all sorts of content type with this query: blog entries. return $block. For a real module. $delta=0) { // listing of blocks. "'".

you will want to provide an easy way for others (in particular.de . we return an array that has 'subject' and 'content' elements. which is what we want. This adjusts the URL to the installations URL configuration of either clean URLS: http://sitename/node/view/2 or http://sitename/?q=node/view/2 Also. $links>nid ) . This is what Drupal expects from a block function. // content variable that will be returned for display $block_content = ''. non-programmers) to adjust the content's layout.de Tel. $links->title . An easy way to do this is to include a class attribute in your link. url('node/view/' .24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. and db_fetch_object() to look at the individual records: <?php // get the links $queryResult = db_query($query). return $block. '</a><br />'. Email: info@24ix. but be aware of this issue when writing modules that others will use.= '<a href="' . } // set up the block $block['subject'] = 'On This Date'. If you are writing a module for others to use.e. 11. */ return. Putting it all together.We'll use db_query() to get the records (i. } // check to see if there was any content before setting up the block if ($block_content == '') { /* No content from a week ago. } ?> Notice the actual URL is enclosed in the url() function. If we return nothing. '">' . If you do not include both of these. $block['content'] = $block_content. our block function looks like this: 24iX Systems. the block * doesn't show. Let's ignore this for now.: 07000 7000 850 . the block will not render properly. Alte Kirchstr. the database rows) that match our SQL query. and not necessarily include the <br /> at the end of the link. while ($links = db_fetch_object($queryResult)) { $block_content . You may also notice the bad coding practice of combining content with layout.

$end_time . } // set up the block $block['subject'] = 'On This Date'.= '<a href="'.de . // Get today's date $today = getdate(). // calculate midnight one week ago $start_time = mktime(0. $delta=0) { // listing of blocks.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel. 0. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.url('node/view/'. '</a><br />'. 0. Email: info@24ix. created FROM " . // get the links $queryResult = db_query($query). Let's do that. while ($links = db_fetch_object($queryResult)) { $block_content . you can install your module and it'll work. return $block.<?php function onthisdate_block($op='list'. $links->title . $today['year']). enabling and testing the module At this point. return nothing. // we want items that occur only on the day in question. $start_time .'">'. } else { // our block content // content variable that will be returned for display $block_content = ''. return $block. } // check to see if there was any content before setting up the block if ($block_content == '') { // no content from a week ago. "{node} WHERE created >= '" . title. } } ?> Installing. ($today['mday'] . 11.24ix. return. $block['content'] = $block_content.$links>nid). and see where we need to improve the module. // 60 * 60 * 24 = 86400 seconds in a day $query = "SELECT nid. Alte Kirchstr. "' AND created <= '".7). 24iX Systems. so calculate 1 day $end_time = $start_time + 86400. such as on the admin/system/block page if ($op == "list") { $block[0]["info"] = t("On This Date"). $today['mon']. "'".

The file must be installed in this directory or a subdirectory of the modules directory. You'll then have the module name. Alte Kirchstr.: 07000 7000 850 . the block will display with links to the content. the blocks are displayed after the page has rendered the content. and this bothers you.. and you won't see the change until you go to new page. and won't use the help system./admin/system/modules or http://.module name extension./?q=admin/system/modules Note: You'll see one of three things for the 'onthisdate' module at this point: o o o You'll see the 'onthisdate' module name and no description You'll see no module name. comment out the help function for the moment. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. but no description.. as you will just enable the module. but the 'onthisdate' description You'll see both the module name and the description Which of these three choices you see is dependent on the state of the CVS tree.To install the module.. Navigate to the blocks administration page: admin/system/block or administer » configuration » blocks in the menus. 11. and navigate to the modules administration page to get an alphabetical list of modules.de Tel.module file to the modules directory of your Drupal installation. Enable the module by selecting the enabled checkbox for the 'On This Date' block and save your blocks. If you don't have content. we'll need to also enable it in the blocks administration menu and specify a location for it to display. you'll need to copy your onthisdate. either is okay. you'll need to 24iX Systems. your installation and the help function in your module. In the menus: administer » configuration » modules. or via URL: http://. and must have the .. If you have content that was created a week ago. Because the module is a blocks module.de . Be sure to adjust the location (left/right) if you are using a theme that limits where blocks are displayed. For this tutorial. Log in as your site administrator. head to another page. say select the module.24ix. Email: info@24ix. In some themes. Now. Enable the module by selecting the checkbox and save your configuration. If you have a description and no module name.

if we have a busy site. let's create a configuration page for the administrator to adjust this information. so we'll do our first permissions check of the module here: <?php function onthisdate_settings() { // only administrators can access this module if (!user_access("admin onthisdate")) { return message_access(). So. and you'll see a large number of links in the block. if your site has been around for a while. you can use that module's permission string. 11. and adjust the "Authored on:" date to be a week ago. } . ?> 24iX Systems. The configuration page uses the 'settings' hook. Alte Kirchstr. Alternately. // check the user has content access if (!user_access("access content")) { return message_access(). we might not want to display all the links to content created last week. content from a week ago might not be as interesting as content from a year ago. Similarly. If we have a site that has been around for a while. Create a module configuration (settings) page Now that we have a working module. we'd like to make it better. We would like only administrators to be able to access this page. forum topic or book page.fake some data.de Tel.. you may have a lot of content created on the day one week ago.: 07000 7000 850 ..de . The "access content" permission is a good one to check if the user can view the content on your site: <?php . Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www... You can do this by creating a blog.24ix. } } ?> If you want to tie your modules permissions to the permissions of another module.

For now.We'd like to configure how many links display in the block.")). as Drupal will do so for us. Navigate to the settings page: admin/system/modules/onthisdate or administer » configuration » modules » onthisdate. There are other form functions that will automatically create the HTML form elements for use. $end_time . $limitnum. "3").: 07000 7000 850 . $query = "SELECT nid. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. We don't need to worry about creating an HTML text field or the form. Of course. we'll need to use the configuration value in our SQL SELECT. ?> You can test the settings page by editing the number of links displayed and noticing the block content adjusts accordingly. Adjust the number 24iX Systems. variable_get("onthisdate_maxdisp". We use variable_get to retrieve the value of the system configuration variable "onthisdate_maxdisp". so we'll need to adjust our query statement in the onthisdate_block function: <?php $limitnum = variable_get("onthisdate_maxdisp". We also use the translate function of t(). "' LIMIT " . "onthisdate_maxdisp". } ?> This function uses several powerful Drupal form handling features. Email: info@24ix. Alte Kirchstr. 2. t("The maximum number of links to display in the block. accepting a maximum length of 2 characters. return $output. created FROM " . title. 2. We use the form_textfield function to create the form and a text box of size 2.24ix. we'll just use the form_textfield function. which has a default value of 3. "{node} WHERE created >= '" . 3).= form_textfield(t("Maximum number of links"). $start_time . "' AND created <= '".de Tel.de . } $output . so we'll create a form for the administrator to set the number of links: <?php function onthisdate_settings() { // only administrators can access this module if (!user_access("admin onthisdate")) { return message_access(). 11.

Alte Kirchstr. // Get today's date $today = getdate(). // get the links $queryResult = db_query($query).de . so calculate 1 day $end_time = $start_time + 86400. $end_time . We'll discuss below. Email: info@24ix.de Tel. // calculate midnight one week ago $start_time = mktime(0. there may be more links than the maximum we show. "'". $today['mon']. 'all'. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. title. let's create a page that lists all the content that was created a week ago.: 07000 7000 850 . while ($links = db_fetch_object($queryResult)) { $page_content . 0. you'll break the block. <?php function onthisdate_all() { } ?> We're going to use much of the code from the block function. The block displays a maximum number of links. // 60 * 60 * 24 = 86400 seconds in a day // NOTE! No LIMIT clause here! We want to show all the code $query = "SELECT nid. Contrary to all our other functions. 0. copy the code to the new function onthisdate_all(). If you enter "c" in the maximum number of links. We'll write this ExtremeProgramming style. we'll refactor it into a separate function. $today['year']).$links- 24iX Systems. For now. in this case. Adding menu links and creating page content So far we have our working block and a settings page. // we want items that occur only on the day in question.url('node/view/'.of links and save the configuration. 11. is not a Drupal hook. However. "{node} WHERE created >= '" . created FROM " . Note:We don't have any validation with this input. So. If we need to use it in a third place. "' AND created <= '".7).= '<a href="'.24ix. <?php function onthisdate_all() { // content variable that will be returned for display $page_content = ''. ($today['mday'] . and duplicate the code. Notice the number of links in the block adjusts accordingly. $start_time .

$page_content). } . } print theme("page".'">'. Themes control the look of a site. // check to see if there was any content before setting up the block if ($page_content == '') { // no content from a week ago. which may confuse the user. This is bad. This is a change from previous 4. "No events occurred on this site on this date in history. It is. This is preferable to showing an empty or blank page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. We use this with the theme() function. $content_string). so for now..de . we need to send the page content to the theme for proper rendering. however. When creating pages. but we want to do a little more with it than just return it. '</a><br />'. } ?> We have the page content at this point. the topic of another tutorial. <?php function onthisdate_all() { .").24ix.3. As noted above.>nid). the function we just wrote isn't a 'hook': it's not a Drupal recognized name. let the user know print theme("page".. Note that we are responsible for outputting the page content with the 'print theme()' syntax. and should be avoided. we'll include the formatting in our content: <?php print theme("page".x themes. We need to tell Drupal how to access the 24iX Systems.. } ?> Letting Drupal know about the new function As mentioned above. return.: 07000 7000 850 . Alte Kirchstr. $links->title . we're including layout in the code. Email: info@24ix. ?> The rest of our function checks to see if there is content and lets the user know. 11.de Tel..

<?php function onthisdate_link($type. ?> 24iX Systems."))) . "onthisdate_all". l(t("more"). Add these lines just before that $block['subject'] line. arg. we can link to it from the block with a "more" link. Make this "0" if you want the user to see the link in the side navigation block.de . but we're going to use only 'system' in this tutorial./onthisdate). page title.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . The title of the page will be "On This Date".function when displaying a page. Adding a more link and showing all entries Because we have our function that creates a page with all the content created a week ago. t("On This Date"). "onthisdate". } } ?> Basically. func called for page content. 11. we're saying if the user goes to "onthisdate" (either via ?q=onthisdate or http://. The final "1" in the arguments tells Drupal to not display the link in the user's menu. 1 = don't disp menu menu("onthisdate". We do this with the _link hook and the menu() function: <?php function onthisdate_link($type. the content generated by onthisdate_all will be displayed. $node=0) { if (($type == "system")) { // URL."</div>".. adding this to the $block_content variable before saving it to the $block['content'] variable: <?php // add a more link to our page that displays all the links $block_content . $node=0) { } ?> There are many different types. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Email: info@24ix. 1. Alte Kirchstr. array("title" => t("More events on this day. Navigate to /onthisdate (or ?q=onthisdate) and see what you get. 1).de Tel..= "<div class=\"more-link\">".

56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. You should now have enough to get started writing your own modules. providing better help for the user.24ix. not just administrative pages. it can be entertaining. Menu system The Drupal menu system has been extended to drive all pages. Further notes As is. or using the menu callback arguments to adjust what year you look at the content from. consider expanding the menu and page functions. Alte Kirchstr. and node systems.3 modules to 4. Instead of using the block function. this tutorial's module isn't very useful.4 Since Drupal 4.: 07000 7000 850 . you'll want to provide more details in your code. Alternately. Email: info@24ix. you can write a filter or theme. You'll also want to expand the help function. adding menus to specific entries or dates. which 24iX Systems.de .3. Please check the [Drupal Handbook] for more details on these two subject.3. If you start writing modules for others to use.de Tel. Try modifying the select query statement to select only nodes of type 'blog' and see what you get. you could get only a particular user's content for a specific week. Follow the Drupal [Coding standards]. Alternately. And we're done! We now have a working module. Comments in the code are incredibly valuable for other developers and users in understanding what's going on in your module. Converting 4. However. menu. It created a block and a page.This will add the more link. especially if you're going to add your module to the project. We recommend you start with a block module of your own and move onto a node module. 11. Two topics very important in module development are writing themeable pages and writing translatable content. Most themes and modules will require some changes. with a few enhancements. major changes have been made to the theme. This is continuing the work done for Drupal 4.

The menu system examines the current URL. if the current URL is example/foo/bar/12. menu("example/foo". and finds the "best fit" for the URL in the menu. a module could define: <?php function example_link($type) { if ($type == "system") { menu("example". 12) to get invoked. The _link hook in all modules is called. print theme("page". To convert former _page hooks to the new system as simply as possible. For example: <?php function example_foo($theString. "example_page". } ?> The following points should be considered when upgrading modules to use the new menu system: o The _page hook is obsolete.$theNumber. " .de Tel. just declare that function as a "catchall" callback: <?php menu("example". t("example"). Pages will not be shown unless they are declared with a menu() call as discussed above." . t("example"). "example_foo").de . } } ?> 2. 0. the above menu() calls would cause example_foo("bar". so that modules can use menu() to add items to the menu. when you learn to create one.integrated the administrative menu with the user menu. t("foo"). The flow of page generation now proceeds as follows: 1. 3. and then printing the return value of theme("page").24ix. Email: info@24ix. $theNumber) { $output = $theString. you know how to create the other. This will usually involve preparing the content. "example_page"). 11.: 07000 7000 850 . The callback is responsible for printing the requested page. We now have consistency between administrative and "normal" pages. Alte Kirchstr. 24iX Systems. $output). For example. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The callback may set the title or breadcrumb trail if the defaults are not satisfactory (more on this later). 4. For example.

see converting 4. $breadcrumb should be a list of links beginning with "Home" and proceeding up to. or by passing the breadcrumb to theme("page") as a parameter. Email: info@24ix. If the default one needs to be overridden (to present things like forum hierarchies). o Theme system For full information on theme system changes. so page content does not need to be wrapped in a theme("box") to get a title printed. $output).: 07000 7000 850 . In the new system. $output).de Tel. $title. ?> The trailing MENU_HIDE argument in this call makes the menu item hidden.3 themes to CVS. The following points are directly relevant to module development: o All theme functions now return their output instead of printing them to the user. If the default title is not satisfactory. administrative and normal callbacks alike are responsible for printing the entire page. $title. but not including. Old theme() usage: <?php theme("box". 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. the current page. 11. Old administrative callbacks returned their content. it can be changed by calling drupal_set_title($title) before theme("page") gets called.MENU_HIDE). o The title of the page is printed by the theme system. o The breadcrumb trail is also printed by the theme.de . Alte Kirchstr. this can be done by calling drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb) before theme("page") gets called. so the callback functions but the module does not clutter the user menu. or by passing the title to theme("page") as a parameter. ?> New usage: <?php print theme("box".24ix. ?> 24iX Systems.

Modules that define their own theme functions should also return their output. project. o The naming of theme functions defined by modules has been standardized to theme_&lt. array(1. Module developers should use the theme("page") function which wraps the content in the site theme. In its place.2. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www._&lt. The full syntax of this function is <?php theme("page".de Tel. Alte Kirchstr. o The theme("header") and theme("footer") functions are not available anymore.3)). modules that define nodes should use _node_name() and _help(). ?> where $title and $breadcrumb will override any values set before for these properties. o 24iX Systems. o The _node_name() function should return a translated string containing the human-readable name of the node type. as theme() will do this automatically.24ix. $title. } print theme('example_list'. This will allow some of the more convoluted code in. $list).: 07000 7000 850 . When using a theme function there is no need to include the theme_ part.module to be tidied up. $output.module&gt. 11. The _node() hook has been deprecated. for example. Example: <?php function theme_example_list($list) { return implode('<br />'. Node system The node system has been upgraded to allow a single module to define more than one type of node. Email: info@24ix.. ?> Theme functions must always be called using theme() to allow for the active theme to modify the output if necessary. $breadcrumb).name&gt.de .

o Modules wishing to use the new ability to define multiple node types should see the Doxygen documentation for hook_node_name() and hook_node_types(). A module that provides filtering functionality should implement: <?php function example_filter($op. It is meant to give filters the chance to escape HTML-like data before it can get stripped. case "settings": // Generate $output of settings return $output. 11. o Filter system o The various filter hooks ('filter'. case "prepare": // Do preparing on $text return $text. Common examples include filtering pieces of PHP code. and &gt. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. should return a translated string containing the description of the node type. and should return a friendly name for the filter. 'conf_filters') have been merged into one 'filter' hook. mathematical formulas. This means. case "process": // Do processing on $text return $text. This is an extra step that is performed before the default HTML processing. If you don't need 24iX Systems. It is not allowed to do anything other than escaping in the "prepare" step. If your filter currently performs such a step in the main "process" step. Email: info@24ix. when called with parameter "node/add#modulename". it should be moved into "prepare" instead. } } ?> "name" is new. etc. Alte Kirchstr. "prepare" is also new..: 07000 7000 850 .The _help() function.24ix.de . $text = "") { switch ($op) { case "name": return t("Name of the filter").de Tel. if HTML tags are allowed. to convert meaningful HTML characters like < and > into entities such as &lt.

24ix. Email: info@24ix. with the 'filter#short-tip' section identifier. If your filter provides configurable options. $main = 0) { if ($main) { theme("node".: 07000 7000 850 . which now supports short tips to be placed under textareas. only the teaser is filtered. although none of those should have been called from modules. Hook changes Other than those mentioned above. $node. Otherwise. your filter should simply return $text without processing in this case. you should return them here (using the standard form_* functions). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. ""). It also has an extra parameter. o Node filtering is optimized with the node_prepare() function now. $main). Normal filtering is performed here. $page. which only runs the body through the filters if the node view page is displayed.de . Alte Kirchstr. but more advanced functionality exists in the core. that indicates whether the node is being viewed as a standalone page or as part of a larger context.any escaping.module) is not supported anymore. "settings" is the equivalent of the old "conf_filters" hook. $breadcrumb[] = l(t("foo"). } else { $breadcrumb[] = l(t("Home").module. The form_allowed_tags_text() function is replaced with filter_tips_short(). and thus most of the filter function names changed. o The _compose_tips hook (defined by the contrib compose_tips. "foo"). Any module can inject short tips about the filter defined via the _help hook. This is important because nodes may change the breadcrumb trail if they are being viewed as a page. o The filter handling code has been moved to a new required filter. and the changed $text is returned. You can emit extensive compose tips related to the filter you define via the _help hook with the 'filter#long-tip' section identifier. 11. "process" is the equivalent of the old "filter" hook. 24iX Systems. the following hooks have changed: o The _view hook has been changed to return its content rather than printing it. The compose_tips URL is thus changed to filter/tips. Old usage: <?php function example_view($node. The check_output() function is still available with the same functionality.de Tel.

If you don't update such calls. You can add JavaScript code or CSS to the HTML head part with the drupal_set_html_head() function instead. Calls to url() or l() that have '#' in the $url parameter need to be updated. o The _head hook is eliminated and replaced with the drupal_set_html_head() and drupal_get_html_head() functions. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $main.de . o See also the description of the _compose_tips hook changes below. $node."<br />". Instead. Alte Kirchstr. } } ?> New usage: <?php function example_view($node. check the story. has been removed. typically used to print submission guidelines.$node->body = theme("breadcrumb".de Tel. $page = 0) { if ($main) { return theme("node". o The _search hook was changed to not only return the result set array. $main). } else { if ($page) { $breadcrumb[] = l(t("Home"). $node. For examples. This provides more precise control over result group titles. "foo"). drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb). $page). $node->body. Drupal's path aliasing won't work for URLs with # in them. but a two element array with the result group title and the result set array.: 07000 7000 850 . ""). $breadcrumb) . $node.24ix. forum or blog module. Email: info@24ix. 24iX Systems. $breadcrumb[] = l(t("foo"). $main = 0. $page). 11. } } ?> The _form hook used by node modules does no longer take 3 arguments. $main. } return theme("node". the help should be emitted using the module's _help hook. theme("node". The second argument $help. o Emitting links o The functions url() and l() take a new $fragment parameter.

. The new features include: The administrator may now customize the menu to reorder.. 'error')). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. remove. For example: Any module that outputs an RSS feed without using node_feed() should be updated. 'error') unless used to print an error message below a form item. <?php drupal_set_message(t('failed to update X'.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr." which will by default be displayed as tabs on the page content. Also modules using node_feed() should provide an absolute link in the 'link' key. o 24iX Systems.4 modules to 4. You do this using a parameter in your call to l() or url() Status and error messages o Modules that use theme('error'.. . The status() function has been removed. set the second parameter to 'error' ?> // o Modules that print status messages directly to the screen using status() should be updated to use drupal_set_message().. and add items. Any module which send email should be updated so that links in the email have absolute urls instead of relative urls. please use node_feed() instead.24ix. o Menu items may be classified as "local tasks.5 Menu system The Drupal menu system got a complete rewrite. o The menu API is much more consistent with the rest of Drupal's API.. <?php drupal_set_message(t('updated X')). ?> Converting 4.: 07000 7000 850 . Note: this is discouraged. Email: info@24ix.o Drupal now emits relative URLS instead of absolute URLs. 11. if any. Contributed modules must be updated whenere an absolute url is required.de .) to print error messages should be updated to use drupal_set_message(.

if ($may_cache) { $items[] = array('path' => 'node/add/blog'. 24iX Systems. $node = 0. 'access' => user_access('access content'). 'type' => MENU_DYNAMIC_ITEM). Email: info@24ix. } } ?> becomes: <?php function blog_menu($may_cache) { global $user. but will no longer be called with the "system" argument. The hook reference in the Doxygen documentation details all the specifics of this new hook. 0. menu('blog/'. t('RSS feed'). MENU_HIDE). MENU_SHOW. 'title' => t('RSS feed').24ix. The old hook_link() remains. user_access('access content') ? 'blog_feed' : MENU_DENIED. MENU_FALLTHROUGH. 'type' => MENU_CALLBACK). 'callback' => 'blog_page'. 'access' => user_access('maintain personal blog'). menu('blog'.: 07000 7000 850 . 1.The menu() function is no more. $user->uid. $main) { global $user. $items[] = array('path' => 'blog/'. rather than making many calls to menu() in your hook_link() implementation. 'access' => user_access('maintain personal blog')). 'title' => t('blogs'). we have hook_menu(). $items = array(). t('my blog'). menu('blog/feed'.de . } return $items. MENU_HIDE. Alte Kirchstr. user_access('maintain personal blog') ? MENU_FALLTHROUGH : MENU_DENIED. user_access('access content') ? 'blog_page' : MENU_DENIED. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 'callback' => 'blog_feed'. As an example. t('blog entry'). In short. 'access' => user_access('access content'). t('blogs'). MENU_LOCKED). In its place. 0. $items[] = array('path' => 'blog'. the old pattern: <?php function blog_link($type. 11.de Tel. $user->uid. you will implement hook_menu() to return an array of the menu items you define. 'title' => t('blog entry'). if ($type == 'system') { menu('node/add/blog'. 0). MENU_LOCKED). $items[] = array('path' => 'blog/feed'. 'title' => t('my blog'). 'type' => MENU_SUGGESTED_ITEM).

and the calling code will take care of sending the result to the theme. and should no longer return an error array.module to inject HTML elements into the view of nodes safely. hook_nodeapi() was extended to respond to the 'view' operation. which prints a 403 page (the analogue of drupal_not_found(). To set an error. Email: info@24ix. however. To accommodate this. This will have the effect of the menu item being hidden.} ?> Drupal now distinguishes between 404 (Not Found) pages and 403 (Forbidden) pages. Most modules o o 24iX Systems. Instead. check the links printed by your code. the hook can just modify $node as it sees fit (including running $node->body and $node->teaser through the filters. Use this instead of adding that information to the field description. Most significant is that paths of the form "node/view/52" are now "node/52" instead. Instead of calling theme('node'. and also preventing the callback from being invoked by typing in the URL.24ix. 11. Alte Kirchstr. o In order to allow modules such as book.de Tel. call form_set_error(). Node modules' hook_form() implementations no longer take an "error" parameter" and should not worry about displaying errors. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.: 07000 7000 850 . It simplifies the forms and validation code. which prints a 404). they should set the "access" attribute of their newly-declared menu item to FALSE. while "node/edit/52" becomes "node/52/edit". Path changes Some internal URL paths have changed. Error handling of forms (such as node editing forms) is now done using form_set_error(). modules should abandon the practice of not declaring menu items when access is denied to them. All of the form_ family of functions can take a parameter that marks the field as required in a standard way. Modules may also want to take advantage of the drupal_access_denied() function. Node changes The database field static has been renamed to sticky. This operation needs to be invoked after the filtering of the node.de . it does change the node API slightly: The _validate hook and the _nodeapi('validate') hook of the node API no longer take an "error" parameter. $node) and returning the result as before. as before). The same applies to hook_nodeapi('form_post') and hook_nodeapi('form_pre'). so hook_view() was changed slightly to no longer require a return value.

as the return value from the hook is just discarded. n.de . The filter system was changed to support multiple input formats. A value should only be returned from this hook if the node module needs to override whatever access is granted by the node_access table.' AND foo'). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The check for $node->status should be removed.: 07000 7000 850 . Email: info@24ix. node_access_join_sql() . the node module takes care of this check. 11. Each input format houses an entire filter configuration: which filters to use.status = 1 AND '. Node listing queries need to be changed as well. but the $node parameter is now required to be passed by reference (this was common but optional before). in what order and with what settings.de Tel. o We have node-level access control now! This means that node modules need to make very small changes to their hook_access() implementations.nid. The filter system now supports multiple filters per module as well. Check_output() changes 24iX Systems.24ix. ?> See node access rights in the Doxygen reference.nid. Queries of the form <?php db_query('SELECT n. node_access_where_sql() . Alte Kirchstr.status = 1 AND foo'). so that they properly check for whether the user has access to the node before listing it. See the hook API for details.will just work under the new semantics.' WHERE n.title FROM {node} n WHERE n. Filtering changes This change affects non-filter modules as well! Please read on even if your module does not filter. ?> become <?php db_query('SELECT n. n.title FROM {node} n '.

de Tel. the default format will always be used."). $delta = 0. then you need to do two things: Pass $node->format as the second parameter to check_output() whenever you use it. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Store the format ID with each content item (the format ID is a number). o Add a filter format selector to hook_form using a snippet like: o <?php $output . $node->format).= filter_form('format'. Check the API documentation for these functions for more information on how to use them. $text = '') { switch ($op) { case 'list': return array(0 => t('Filter name')). you can decide if you want to support multiple input formats or not. ?> The node system will automatically save/load the format value for you. It's best to start with the following framework: <?php function hook_filter($op. 24iX Systems. you must: o o o o Provide a selector for input formats on your forms. case 'description': return t("Short description of the filter's actions.de . If your module uses the node system and passes content through check_output(). If your module provides content outside of the node system.24ix. $format = -1. Filter hook The _filter hook was changed significantly.: 07000 7000 850 . using filter_form(). if your module accepts input through the browser. /* case 'no cache': return true. Alte Kirchstr. 11. If you don't. it is strongly advised to support input formats! To do this. Validate the chosen input format on submission. using filter_access(). Pass the format ID to check_output(). However.Because of the multiple input formats. Email: info@24ix. a module which implements content has to take care of managing the format with each item.

return $text. This allows the setting to be set separately for each input format. you can normally ignore the $delta paramter: it is used to have multiple filters inside one module. it should return nothing for the settings.de Tel. the filter system now includes caching. add your filter to two different input formats and give each instance different settings. 'process' and 'settings' operations still work the same as before. A filter does not need its own on/off toggle. Alte Kirchstr. uncomment the 'no cache' snippet.. rather than a message like we did before. If your filter's output is dynamic and should not be cached. Filter tips Filter tips are now output through the format selector. 11. default: return $text. Beware of the filter cache when developing your module: it is advised to uncomment 'no cache' while developing.*/ case 'prepare': $text = . Only do this when absolutely necessary. If your filter has a setting "myfilter_something".. return $text. Finally. case 'process': $text = . you should now include the $format parameter in the variable names for filter settings. Verify that each input format retains its own settings. Email: info@24ix. } } ?> When converting a module to 4.24ix. To check if it works correctly. because this turns off caching for any input format your filter is used in. case 'settings': $output = . Modules no longer need to call filter_tips_short() to display them. Unlike before.. However.: 07000 7000 850 . with only small changes. A module's filter tips are returned through the filter_tips hook: 24iX Systems. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.. the 'settings' operation should only be used to return actually useful settings... return $output. because there is now a separate overview of all enabled filters. The 'prepare'.. If a filter has no configurable settings.de . it should be changed to "myfilter_something_$format".5. but be sure to remove it again if it's not needed.

If a submission was rejected. o When processing a form submission. Alte Kirchstr. Modules which have configurations for their blocks should move those into hook_block().5 modules to HEAD Block system Every block now has a configuration page to control block-specific options. } } ?> As in the filter hook you can ignore the $delta parameter if you're upgrading an existing module. modules will still be compatible with Drupal 4. 11. $long tells you whether to return long or short tips.5. Email: info@24ix. Messages set with drupal_set_message() will be saved across the redirect. but simply print out the form along with error messages. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $long = false) { if ($long) { return t("Long tip"). you should use drupal_goto() to redirect to the result if the submission was accepted. If your filter's tips depend on its settings.de Tel. Other changes In addition to the above mentioned changes: hook_user() was changed to allow multiple pages of user profile information.<?php function hook_filter_tips($delta. The only required changes to modules implementing hook_block() is to be careful about what is returned. } else { return t("Short tip"). make sure you use $format to retrieve the setting for the current input format. 24iX Systems. The new syntax of the hook is given in the API reference. Do not return anything if $op is not 'list' or 'view'. you should not use drupal_goto(). $format. and "view" operations. Pay particular attention to the "categories". Once this change is made. o Converting 4.: 07000 7000 850 . "form".24ix. This prevents a double post when people refresh their browser right after submitting.de .

: 07000 7000 850 . which will contain the submitted form data for saving. Email: info@24ix.module) can still do so.If a specific block has configuration options. please refer to the documentation of hook_search and hook_update_index. The implmentation of 'configure' should return a string containing the configuration form for the block with the appropriate $delta. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. RIGHT OUTER and each requires an ON clause to let the RDBMS know what fields to use joining the 24iX Systems. Content indexing now uses the node's processed and filtered output. LEFT OUTER. There are three types of join There are 3 kinds of join INNER.de . All instance of check_query should be renamed to db_escape_string. Modules that implement custom. its example node module is a good tutorial. which means that any custom node fields will automatically be included in the index (as long as they are visible to the enduser who views the node). However. 'save' will have an additional $edit argument. Modules that implement hook_search and hook_update_index just to have extra node fields indexed no longer need to do this. Writing efficient database JOINs posted by Craig Courtney on 6/21/2003 to the drupal-devel mailing list. specific search forms (like project. For detailed changes. In particular. Alte Kirchstr. implement the additional $op options in your module.24ix. Database backend The function check_query was renamed to db_escape_string and now has a database specific implementation. the standard search is still limited to a keyword search. Search system The search system got a significant overhaul. Writing a node module This information is superseded by the Doxygen documentation.de Tel.

message FROM a LEFT JOIN b ON a. Very Cool Linux.de .24ix. 'Very Cool' 2.message FROM a INNER JOIN b ON a. name 1. Very Cool Linux. 'Debian' Table B fid. The syntax being the following {left table} {INNER | LEFT | RIGHT} JOIN {right table} ON {join criteria} An INNER JOIN returns only those rows from left table where they have a matching row in right table based on the join criteria.tid = b. It is recommended that you no use right joins as your query can always be rewritten to use left joins which tend to be more portable and easier to read. A LEFT JOIN returns ALL rows from the left table even if no matching rows where found in the right table. 'Linux' 2.tables. b. tid.tid = b. 1.name. 'What an example' Query 1: SELECT a. Alte Kirchstr.tid Result 1: Linux. For each join there are two table the left table and the right table. So it would return all rows in the right table regardless of matching rows in the left table. <null> 24iX Systems. b. 1.name. With all of the joins if there are multiple rows in one table that match one row in the other table will result in that row getting returned many time. 11.de Tel. What an example Query 2: SELECT a. message 1.tid Result 2: Linux. Email: info@24ix. What an example Debian. Any values selected out of the right table will be null for those rows where no matching row is found in the right table.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. For example: Table A tid. A RIGHT JOIN works exactly the same as a left join but reversing the direction.

Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. It does not include menu caching.Hope that helps in reading some of the queries. 11. Alte Kirchstr. Drupal's menu building mechanism (Note: this is an analysis of the menu building mechanism in pre-4.de .24ix.5 CVS as of August 2004.: 07000 7000 850 .) 24iX Systems.

This continues our examination of how Drupal serves pages. Email: info@24ix.de Tel.de . We are looking specifically at how the menu system works and is built. 11.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. from a technical 24iX Systems.

Then it sets up two main arrays within $_menu: the items array and the path index array. Alte Kirchstr. which is a predefined array in PHP lore) and calls _menu_build() to fill the array. we immediately set the $menu variable by calling menu_get_menu().inc) An array called $menu_item_list is populated by sending a 'menu' callback to all modules with 'menu' hooks (that is. Email: info@24ix. Diving in from menu_execute_active_handler(). The latter function declares the global $_menu array (note the underline. where menu_execute_active_handler() has been called. We begin in index. The $node variable into which it was loaded then goes out of scope. the _menu_build() function actually reinitializes the $_menu array. and the path is something like 'node/1' as it is in our present case. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. It is interesting that when the node module receives the menu callback through node_menu().php. 11. Although menu_get_menu() initializes the $_menu array. so the node is gone and needs to be rebuilt 24iX Systems. For an excellent overview of the menu system. Each entry contains the following fields: Required fields path title type Optional fields access pid weight callback callback arguments boolean integer integer string array name of the function to be called if this menu item is selected string string integer the partial URL to the page for this menu item the title that this menu item will have in the menu a constant denoting the menu item type (see comments in menu. it means a 'super global'.perspective. The items array is an array keyed to integers. see the documentation.24ix. then returns $_menu.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel. the complete node is actually loaded via the node_load() function so it can be examined for permissions.de . they have a function called foo_menu() where foo is the name of the module). So each module has a chance to register its own menu items.

This seems like a golden opportunity for the node module to cache the node. Since node/1 is present in the path index. Now I get sort of lost. The path index array entries generated from the database can be recognized because their values are strings.: 07000 7000 850 . it is blasted away.inc for menu_get_menu(). and execution is passed off to node_page() through the call_user_func_array function. Note: the $temp_mid and $mid variables seem to do the same thing.de Tel. cannot only one be used? The path index array contained 76 items when serving out a simple node with only the default modules enabled.de . Then _menu_build_visible_tree is a recursive function that builds a third subarray inside $_menu. See also the comments in menu. In the items array of the $_menu array. It looks like the code is looking at paths to determine which menu items are children of other menu items. In fact. read all the comments in menu. As each entry is examined. the menu item entry is checked for callback arguments (there are none) and for additional parameters (also none). to be precise. type and weight entry. Next the menu table from the database is fetched and its contents are used to move the position of existing menu items from their current menu ids to the menu ids saved in the database. syntactically. but there must be a bug in the Zend IDE because it shows item -44 as null.24ix. the menu id is used as the key and the entire array entry is the value. 24iX Systems. It is called visible and takes into account the access attribute and whether or not the item is hidden in order to filter the items array. Why. If an equivalent path is already there in the path index array. all items but the Navigation menu item are filtered out. whereas up til now the values in the path index array have been integers. Anyway. The path index of this menu item is then added as a key with the value being the menu id. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The comments says "reassigning menu IDs as needed. The $menu_item_list array is normalized by making sure each array entry has a path. the path index array of the $_menu array is checked to see if the path of this menu item exists.completely later on. to go along with items and path index. As an anonymous user." This is probably to detect if the user has customized the menu entries using the menu module. Alte Kirchstr.inc! Now the path is parsed out from the q parameter of the URL. 11. we successfully found a menu item. It points to menu item -44 in our case.

de Tel. 11. Email: info@24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.5 CVS code in August 2004.de . Alte Kirchstr.) 24iX Systems.24ix.Drupal's node building mechanism (This walkthrough done on pre-4.

Email: info@24ix. sets $op to arg(1) which in this case is the '1' in node/1.The node_page controller checks for a $_POST['op'] entry and. Alte Kirchstr.de .: 07000 7000 850 .24ix. but in this case it doesn't ('1' is the end of the URL. failing that. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. A numeric $op is set to arg(2) if arg(2) exists.de Tel. remember?) 24iX Systems.

uid.: 07000 7000 850 .picture. Alte Kirchstr. we succeed in the 'view' case of the switch statement. and we continue pell-mell into node_load using the default $revision of -1 (that is. and $revision. 0 = 24iX Systems. That doesn't stop us. u. u.. The data field from the users table is serialized. We now have a complete node that looks like the following: Attribute Value body changed This is a test node body 1089859653 comment 2 created data 1089857673 a:1:{s:5. for which we use _GET['revision'].other conditions can be defined to further restrict the upcoming database query) for which we use arg(1). Thus.uid WHERE n = '1' We get back a joined row from the database as an object. and are shunted over to node_load(). so it must be unserialized. 11. u.24ix.de Tel. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. How does this relate to the user_roles table? Note that the comment "// Unserialize the revisions and user data fields" should be moved up before the call to drupal_unpack(). This data field contains the user's roles. though. The actual query that ends up being run is SELECT n. the current revision). Email: info@24ix.de .data FROM node n INNER JOIN users u on u. (serialized data) moderate 0 name nid picture promote admin 1 '' 1 revisions '' roles array containing one key-value pair. The function node_load() takes two arguments.*. u.so the $op is hardcoded to 'view'. $conditions (an array with nid set to desired node id -. The 'revision' key of the _GET array is unset so we need to make brief stop at error_handler because of an undefined index error..name.

: 07000 7000 850 .de . 11. We return to node_load(). 'load') call. which will be added to the node above. Email: info@24ix. The page_load() function turns out to be really simple. So now we have a node loaded from the database. so the page. The 'format' column specifies whether we're dealing with a HTML or PHP page. where the format. link and description columns from the page table. If the name of the node type has a hyphen in it.'2' score status sticky teaser title type uid users votes 0 1 0 This is a test node body Test page 1 '' 0 All of the above are strings except the roles array. Now it's time to call the node_invoke_nodeapi() function to allow other modules to do their thing. In this case.de Tel. It just retrieves the format. We check each module for a function that begins with the 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr.g. E. the node type is a page. We do this via the node_invoke($node. however. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. It's time to notify the appropriate module that this has happened. To that extend. The module called via this callback may return an array of key-value pairs. The node_invoke() function asks node_get_module_name() to determine the name of the module that corresponds with the node's type. if the node type is page-foo. link and description key-value pairs are added to the node's definition. and the specific name of the function we'll call is page_load(). the core themes no longer use this information (unlike some older themes in the contributions repository). the left part is used. the page module is used..module is the one we'll call.24ix. those will be deprecated with the improved menu system. The 'link' and 'description' fields are used to generate a link to the newly created page.

this doesn't match any of comment_nodeapi()'s symbols in its controller ('settings'. we're ready to get down to business and actually produce some output. Finally.) 'Status' field values for nodes and comments Just documenting the status field for the following tables NODES o o 0: not published 1: published 24iX Systems. in this case. $op. arg = 0). Our second hit is node_nodeapi(&$node. $arg = 0). Note that the node is passed in by reference so that any changes made by the module will be reflected in the actual node object we built. We hit paydirt with the comment module. if present as an attribute of $node. The $op argument is 'load'. as all the work that may have been done by modules is summarily blown away if a revision other than the default revision is found.module's name and ends with _nodeapi(). So nothing happens. updates and deletes. This is done with the statement print theme('page'. no symbols match. Email: info@24ix. the node is replaced with the appropriate revision of the node. However. 'validate' and 'delete' match). no symbols are matched in the controller so we just return. (Not yet done. $arg = 0) in the node. And what that statement calls is complex enough to again warrant another commentary. Alte Kirchstr. Next. Again. 'fields'. 'form admin'. back in node_page(). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. We'll try again with taxonomy_nodeapi(&$node.de . $op. $op.: 07000 7000 850 . the taxonomy module is concerned only with inserts. which has a function called comment_nodeapi(&$node. arg(3)). $node->title). node_show($node.module itself. not loads. It is odd that this occurs here. Again.24ix. 11. Note that any of these modules could have done anything to the node if they had wished.de Tel.

COMMENTS o o o 0: published 1: not published 2: deleted Writing themable modules Note: this page describes Drupal's theming from the code side of things. Email: info@24ix. You can leave blocks out. mytheme_forum_display().: 07000 7000 850 . Theme functions defined by modules include theme_forum_display() and theme_node_list(). if the currently active theme is "mytheme". $output .24ix. Drupal invokes these functions indirectly using the theme() function. For example: <?php $node = node_load(array('nid' => $nid)).de Tel. layout and even the position of most blocks (or boxes). Each theme function takes a particular piece of data and outputs it as HTML. then mytheme_node($node) will be invoked instead.de . $node). functions named: mytheme_error(). move them from right to left. Moreover. corresponding to the default theme functions described above. Alte Kirchstr. mytheme_node_list(). thus allowing any module to add themeable parts to the default set provided by Drupal. For example. At the basis of this are Drupal's theme functions. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 24iX Systems. mark-up. etc. this will call theme_node($node). and this theme has defined a function mytheme_node(). mytheme_table().= theme("node". up and down until it fits your needs. You can accommodate rather major changes in overall appearance and significant structural changes. Custom themes can implement their own version of these theme functions by defining mytheme_something() (if the theme is named mytheme). Drupal's theme system is very powerful. However. Some of the basic theme functions include: theme_error() and theme_table() which as their name suggest return HTML code for an error message and a table respectively. The default theme functions are all named theme_something() or theme_module_something(). 11. ?> By default. you control all aspects of your drupal site in terms of colors.

Email: info@24ix. we have implemented mechanisms on top of this: so-called template engines can act as intermediaries between Drupal and the template/theme.65em. you should read this page.css . stylesheets and PHP.php .5em solid #FFF. because direct PHP theming is not ideal for everyone. More information about this can be found in the Theme developer's guide.css 24iX Systems. However.css .24ix. This way. border-bottom: 0. Here's how some existing themes are built: Theme Pushbutton Box Grey Box Cleanslate PHPTemplate Bluebeach Engine (PHP) Template (XHTML) Style (CSS) XTemplate .5. padding-left: 0. The template engine will override the theme_functions() and stick the appropriate content into user defined (X)HTML templates. Alte Kirchstr. specifically the Theming overview.stick { border-left: 0px !important.: 07000 7000 850 . no PHP knowledge is required and a lot of the complexity is hidden away. templates.tpl. Theming overview Note: this page describes the theme system from a themer's perspective. 11.php .css .top th { border-bottom: 2px solid #D8E8F5. Drupal's theme system is very flexible.de .This simple and straight-forward approach has proven to be both flexible and fast.xtmpl . If you are a module coder looking to make your module themable. } table#themeoverview tr td. } As of version 4. Theme developer's guide This section of our handbook documents aspects of our theme system that will be of interest to theme developers.tpl.de Tel. table#themeoverview tr. The new structure makes it easy to plug components together to form your theme: templating engines. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

11. Marvin.xtmpl.).theme file containing overrides for theme_functions: e.css themes/chameleon/marvin/style. . it will also be used.css themes/chameleon/chameleon. Email: info@24ix.: 07000 7000 850 .theme .engine themes/pushbutton/xtemplate.css themes/box_grey/box_cleanslate/style.g. You can also make CSS-only themes by making a subdirectory in any theme directory and placing a new style.tpl. Finally.php themes/bluebeach/style.tpl.Chameleon Marvin Chameleon. .css .css Themes and templates are placed in their own subdirectory in the themes directory.css themes/box_grey/page. Box Cleanslate o The directory structure for the example above looks like this: themes/engines/xtemplate/xtemplate. PHPTemplate.engine themes/engines/phptemplate/phptemplate. Creating custom themes If you want to create a custom theme.css file in it.php) for a templating engine (XTemplate.xtmpl.tpl. Drupal will combine the new stylesheet with the template it belongs in. you can either customize an existing theme or start from scratch..php themes/box_grey/style.. Pushbutton. .tpl.theme themes/chameleon/style.24ix. .css file is present. Bluebeach o Style sheet for an existing template or theme: e. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. If a style. 24iX Systems.css themes/bluebeach/page.css A 'theme' is now an abstract thing which can be formed in several ways: PHP . The theme engines will scan every subdirectory for template files (. if there is a screenshot.g.tmpl themes/pushbutton/style. This is how the Marvin and Box Cleanslate themes work.de .png file in the theme directory.de Tel.. Chameleon o Template file (.php.): e. Alte Kirchstr.. Drupal will show it in the theme administration screen. and make it available as a new theme.g.

but is harder to use and maintain than template-based themes. Templates are located in the themes directory of a Drupal installation: /themes/ Once a template exists in the themes directory.css file in a subdirectory of the theme: it will appear as a new theme in Drupal.de . Drupal comes with the XTemplate theme engine. It separates logic (PHP). and style (CSS). If you're not a programmer. 11. If you want to start from scratch.de Tel.theme-file based. then the easiest solution is to use one of the template engines. Drupal themes used to be coded directly in PHP. Alte Kirchstr.g. which requires you to create an (X)HTML skeleton with special markers. structure (XHTML/HTML). just copy it to a new directory in themes. and makes it available for selection to administrators: administer -> themes Drupal is distributed with two XTemplate templates included . XTemplate auto-detects it.: 07000 7000 850 . there are several ways to go. CSS. XTemplate templates are directories which contain all the XHTML/HTML. By default. Then modify the copy as much as you want. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. As explained above. then just place a new style. you can use PHP or XHTML/CSS to modify it. See the XTemplate documentation for more info. This method is still available. PHPTemplate). making it easy for designers to create or modify templates by working on XHTML/HTML and CSS without having to worry about any PHP coding. Depending on whether the theme is template or .To customize an existing theme. image and JavaScript files that a template uses. Creating a new template 24iX Systems. There are other template engines available in the contributions repository (e.Bluemarine and Pushbutton. if you only want to alter the CSS of a theme. Email: info@24ix.24ix. XTemplate theme engine The XTemplate theme system uses templates to layout and style Web pages.

24ix. The xtemplate.de Tel. for instance: /themes/rembrant Once you create a template in this directory.xtmpl file. and should all be included in the template directory to make the template easy to maintain and portable between Drupal installations. such as Default or Pushbutton. then the subdirectory becomes a new theme. There are two kinds of template place holder tags. The easiest way to create a new template is to make a copy of an existing template. section tags and item tags. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. All other files in the template are optional. The only file required in a template directory is xtemplate.: 07000 7000 850 .xtmpl file can be edited in DreamWeaver. and you will not need to add an explicit @import or <link /> for it. These can include CSS. Section Tags 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix. which is a regular HTML or XHTML file containing some XTemplate tags that Drupal substitutes with content when a page is served. the xtemplate. Alte Kirchstr. image or JavaScript files. create a directory in your Drupal installation at this location: /themes/ Whatever you name the new directory will be used as the name of your new template.xtmpl file. with content from the database. BBEdit or any other application you use to work on HTML/XHTML.de .css file. Template Basics xTemplate creates Web pages by substituting place holder tags in a template. and are linked to from the xtemplate. If you make a subdirectory within your template.xtmpl. and start making changes to the files.css. it will appear on the theme selection page as the "rembrant" template. using the XHTML from the first template. Note that if you name your stylesheet style. containing another style. it will automatically be picked up by Drupal. 11.To make a new XTemplate template. GoLive. but with a different stylesheet.

BEGIN: node --> {title} <!-. and are XHTML/HTML comment tags which look like this: <!-. who the page was submitted by.END: comment --> Section tags can be nested.de . Alte Kirchstr. or the main content of a page.24ix. while the {title} tag below is the title for the comments on a page.: 07000 7000 850 . for instance: <!-.Section tags deal with the structure of a Web page.BEGIN: comment --> {title} 24iX Systems. such as the title of a page. will be repeated.END: title --> Some section tags mark areas were the content. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.BEGIN: title --> <!-.BEGIN: comment --> <!-. Email: info@24ix.END: node --> Item Tags Item tags are place holders for content items. and it's structure. 11. <!-. so that one set of section tags can be contained by annother: <!-.BEGIN: title --> <!-.BEGIN: node --> <!-.END: title --> <!-.END: node --> The {title} tag above is the main title of a page. marking areas of the page. For instance the comment section may be repeated more than once depending on how many comments are on a page: <!-.de Tel. Item tags look like this: {title} {submitted} {content} Item tags are associated with the section tag that surrounds them.

it also holds the top part of the Web page .0 Strict//EN" "http://www. DOCTYPE The DOCTYPE element tells a browser two things.the area designers usualy refer to as the "Header". fail to display the page.0" encoding="utf-8"?> Unfortunately there are many browsers that handle the XML prolog badly.END: comment --> Header Section The Section The xTemplate Header section starts and ends with these tags <!-. and specify encoding in a ContentType element in the <head> of your template (which Drupal does automatically). Although the <head> element is included in the Header section.w3.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr.dtd"> 24iX Systems.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict.: 07000 7000 850 .<!-. or display it incorrectly. which XML language the document is using. 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.END: header --> Don't confuse the Header section with the XHTML/HTML <head> element.BEGIN: header --> <!-.24ix. for instance: <?xml version="1. Email: info@24ix. which usually consists of a horizontal bar with the site's logo and some navigation links. and where the DTD (Document Type Declaration) of that language is located. This is an example of a DOCTYPE element: <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1. It is therefore recommended to leave out the XML prolog. and either crash.de . Prolog The WC3 recommends that all XHTML documents should start with an XML prolog specifying the encoding of the document.

read: Fix Your Site With the Right DOCTYPE! by Jeffrey Zeldman {head_title} Content of the <title> element. or you may get unexpected results in some browsers. if you have a default stylesheet.: 07000 7000 850 .de .de Tel. Used as the window title by browsers. {head} Filled in with the following: <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. it 24iX Systems. and as the page title in search engine listings. Alte Kirchstr. To learn more about the DOCTYPE element. 11.com/" /> <style type="text/css" media="all"> @import url(misc/drupal. but make sure to remove spaces or line breaks between this and the DOCTYPE or XML prolog elements. </style> {styles} Declarations for the current style: <style type="text/css" media="all">@import "themes/bluemarine/style.There should be absolutely nothing in your document before the DOCTYPE or XML prolog. Email: info@24ix. and which version would suit your needs best.</style> Add this tag to allow your template to take advantage of the Drupal theme system's style-switching ability. as it will be removed by Drupal before sending the page to the browser.BEGIN: header --> is OK.css". The xTemplate tag <!-. charset=utf8" /> <base href="http://yoursite.css). Note that.24ix.

de Tel. configurable by the Administrator in the text box in the Drupal theme administration section.END: site_name --> The current site name.BEGIN: logo --> <!-.BEGIN: site_name --> <!-. 11.END: site_slogan --> The current site slogan.de .css and be located in the same directory as your xtemplate.xtmpl file.24ix. configured by the Administrator in the text box "Name" on Drupal page: administer->settings (Display of this item is optional.) {site_name} The site name section begins and ends with these tags: <!-. Alte Kirchstr. (Display of this item is optional. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.) {site_slogan} The site slogan section begins and ends with these tags: <!-.END: logo --> The filename for the site logo. Email: info@24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . {logo} The logo section begins and ends with these tags: <!-. {onload_attributes} The page attributes for the <body> tag. configured by the Administrator in the text box "Slogan" on Drupal page: administer->settings 24iX Systems.should be named style.BEGIN: site_slogan --> <!-.

de . 11.) {secondary_links} {primary_links} These tags hold whatever the Administrator inputs into the text boxes "Secondary links:" and "Primary links" in the Drupal theme administration section. a site message. the title of the site.END: mission --> {mission} 24iX Systems.(Display of this item is optional. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. an image or anything else they require.: 07000 7000 850 .BEGIN: mission --> <!-. Search Box The Search Box section begins and ends with these tags: <!-. Alte Kirchstr.END: search_box --> {search_url} The form action: "search" {search_description} The alt text description of the search text box: "Enter the terms you wish to search for. If the Administrator does not specify any "Primary links"." {search_button_text} The value of the search submit button: "Search" Mission The Mission section begins and ends with these tags: <!-.BEGIN: search_box --> <!-. Email: info@24ix. Drupal will automatically generate a set of links based on the currently-enabled modules. The Administrator could use these tags to input links to the main sections of the site.24ix.

24ix. the path from Home Page to the current page.BEGIN: title --> <!-. appears only on the Home Page. {breadcrumb} The breadcrumb trail of the page. and is configured by the Administrator in the text box "Mission" on Drupal page: administer->settings Title The Title section begins and ends with these tags: <!-.END: title --> {title} The title of the node Tabs The Tabs section begins and ends with these tags: <!-.END: tabs --> {tabs} Draws the Drupal "local tasks" for the current page. Email: info@24ix. Help The Help section begins and ends with these tags: <!-. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11.de Tel.BEGIN: help --> <!-.: 07000 7000 850 .BEGIN: tabs --> <!-.de . Alte Kirchstr.The text of the site mission statement.END: help --> {help} 24iX Systems.

the class is set to "node ".END: node --> {sticky} Sets the class to "node sticky" if a node is "stickied" at the top of lists.e. for instance after updating or deleting a page. the image is linked to the poster's profile. {message} The text of the message. Message The Message section begins and ends with these tags: <!-.BEGIN: message --> <!-.de Tel.xtmpl) contains the main content of the page. Picture Picture contains an image representing the user who posted the content of a node.: 07000 7000 850 . (i. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Email: info@24ix. This is also sometimes called an "avatar".24ix.BEGIN: picture --> <!-. 11. if a teaser for the page is always to be displayed on the home page) If the node has not been set to be sticky.END: picture --> 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr. Picture begins and ends with these tags: <!-. and begins and ends with these tags: <!-.END: message --> Message appears when Drupal confirms the results of an action by the user.Contains any help information which exists for a particular page.BEGIN: node --> <!-. Node Section The Node Section The node section (xtemplate.de .

" >Username</a> on 16 February.de .BEGIN: title --> <!-. {submitted} The username of the person who submitted the node content. Email: info@24ix. "node/31" in the example above.23:46. the title is output as: <h1 class="title">Node Title</h1> On the Home Page.de Tel.{picture} Outputs the following: <a href="user/1" title="View user profile.gif" alt="Username's picture" /></a> Title The title of the main content of the page (node). Taxonomy 24iX Systems.yoursite/files/pictures/picture-1. Alte Kirchstr. tags begin and end: <!-. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. outputs: Submitted by <a href="user/1" title="View user profile.24ix. "Node Title" in the example above."> <img src="http://www. {title} Outputs the text of the node title. 2004 . each node title is output as: <h2 class="title"><a href="node/31" >Node Title</a></h2> {link} Outputs the link to the node .: 07000 7000 850 . 11.END: title --> On a node page.

BEGIN: links --> <!-.BEGIN: taxonomy --> <!-. and the visitor history of the node.de .de Tel." >add new comment</a> | <a href="admin/statistics/log/node/8">662 reads</a> Comment 24iX Systems. "add new comment".END: taxonomy --> {taxonomy} Outputs a taxonomy term that the node belonds to: <a href="taxonomy/term/30">Taxonomy Term</a> {content} The main content of the node. Tags begin and end: <!-.24ix.">printer-friendly version</a> | <a href="comment/reply/8#comment" title="Share your thoughts and opinions related to this posting.A list of links to taxonomies which the node belongs to. Alte Kirchstr. Links The control options for the node: "printer-friendly version".END: links --> {links} Outputs the following (depending on the viewer's permisions): <a href="book/print/8" title="Show a printer-friendly version of this book page and its sub-pages.: 07000 7000 850 . 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. tags begin and end: <!-. Email: info@24ix.

de Tel. the image is linked to the poster's profile.drupal.BEGIN: avatar --> <!-.The Comment Section The comment section (xtemplate.BEGIN: title --> <!-.: 07000 7000 850 .site/files/avatars/avatar-1.END: comment --> The content of this section creates the code for a single comment.END: avatar --> {avatar} Outputs the following: <div class="avatar"> <a href="user/1" title="View user profile. Email: info@24ix.24ix. and is automaticaly repeated for as many times are there are comments. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.jpg" alt="username's avatar" /> </a> </div> Title The title of a comment.de .xtmpl) contains all the comments associated with a node. Avatar Avatar contains an image representing the user who posted the content of a node. Tags begin and end: <!-. Alte Kirchstr."> <img src="http://www. 11. Avatar begins and ends with these tags: <!-. and begins and ends with these tags: <!-.END: title --> {link} 24iX Systems.BEGIN: comment --> <!-.

and "edit".BEGIN: new --> <!-. changes the comment title into a link to the comment. Submitted {submitted} Displays the username of the comment poster. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . linked to their profile.24ix. Tags begin and end: <!-. 04/19/2008 . Links Displays control links for comment. 11.11:56. {content} The comment text. and the date and time the comment was posted. such as "reply". Content Displays the content of a comment. This is the output: Submitted by <a href="user/10" title="View user profile.de Tel. {title} The text of the comment title.">username</a> on Mon. Alte Kirchstr. Used when displaying comments in certain views. Email: info@24ix. Tags begin and end: 24iX Systems.END: new --> {new} Adds the word "new" to a comment.: 07000 7000 850 . New Indicates if a comment is new.If required. "delete".

<!-. Email: info@24ix. Blocks sections can be configured to appear on the left or right of a page. 11. The section begins and ends with this code: <!-. Blocks The Section The blocks section contains the column of boxes which can be used to display various navigation and feature options. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. such as Forum Topics.: 07000 7000 850 .END: links --> {links} Displays the control links.BEGIN: block --> <!-. {delta} 24iX Systems. Block The block section defines the structure of each block.END: block --> {module} The name of the module who's block is being displayed.BEGIN: links --> <!-.<!-.de .24ix. or on both sides. and Syndicate.BEGIN: blocks --> <!-. Who's Online.de Tel. note the 's' in block/blocks.END: blocks --> {blocks} This tag is replaced by whatever blocks have been switched on in the Administration page (admin/system/block). Blogs. this is added to a CSS class and ID which can be used customise the look of the block.

The section begins and ends with this code: <!-. so that each block has a unique ID even if a module displays more than one block.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.BEGIN: message --> <!-.BEGIN: footer --> <!-. 11.Adds a number to the ID of a block. Email: info@24ix.24ix.de Tel.de .END: footer --> Message This area holds the mark-up around the message posted by the Administrator. Footer The Footer Section The footer section appears at the very bottom of each page. {footer} 24iX Systems. The section begins and ends with this code: <!-. it's content can be specified by the Administrator (admin/settings). {content} The content of a block. {title} The title of the block.END: message --> {footer_message} Displays the actual content defined through the field "Footer message" in the "Settings" Administration page (admin/settings). Alte Kirchstr.

Email: info@24ix.xtmpl) in Adobe GoLive.module) Editing With Golive Set Up To edit xTemplate template files (xtemplate. 24iX Systems. go into source mode and delete "{onload_attributes}" from: <body{onload_attributes}> Remember to add "{onload-attributes}" back once you are finished editing. Drupal will automatically load your style.: 07000 7000 850 .css" /> Remember to remove this line when completing work on the template. performance statistics from devel. (i.xtmpl.e. then click on the "+" button to create a duplicate. 5. however. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Change the suffix of the duplicate html to ""xtmpl" 7. If all you see after opening a template is "body onload-attributes". 4. 11. click on the "File Mappings" tag.Outputs footer messages generated by Drupal modules. Click on "html" to select it. you may wish to add the following line temporarily: <link type="text/css" rel="stylesheet" href="style.de Tel. follow these simple steps: In the GoLive menu select "GoLive" then "Web Settings" The Web Settings window will appear. If you do not. In the File Mappings window open the "text/" directory Scroll down until you see "html" in the Suffix column.css. Editing If when opening a template file GoLive asks you which encoding to use. Drupal will not be able to switch between various styles for your theme. if one exists.24ix. in the {styles} tag. select "UTF-8". That's it you're done! 1. 2. 3. 6.de . Alte Kirchstr. In xtemplate.

you need to create a file called page. If you don't know PHP. PHPTemplate is an excellent choice for theming if you know a bit of PHP: with some basic PHP snippets.de Tel. you can create advanced themes easily. sidebars and a footer. Creating a new PHPTemplate To create a new PHPTemplate. Simply copy them into your theme/mytheme directory and edit them.php): theme a block in sidebar theme('box') (box.tpl.PHPTemplate theme engine PHPTemplate is a theme engine written by Adrian Rossouw (who is also behind the theme reforms in Drupal 4. You can create files to override the following functions: o o o o o theme('page') (page.tpl. Email: info@24ix.tpl. then PHPTemplate can still be a good choice because only small bits of code are involved. Note that you will need to visit administer > themes for PHPTemplate to refresh its cache and recognize any new .tpl.php): theme a generic container for the main area theme('comment') (comment. Every file contains an HTML skeleton with some simple PHP statements for the dynamic data. for example themes/mytheme. Currently it lives in the Contributions CVS repository.5).php in that directory.tpl.php files to theme Drupal's theme_something() functions.php): theme a node The PHPTemplate package contains example template files for all of these. but it will be available as a downloadable package soon.php): theme a comment theme('node') (node. Thus.24ix.tpl. Alte Kirchstr. along with all the extra decorations like a header. 24iX Systems. They can just be copy/pasted into your template.: 07000 7000 850 . breadcrumbs. 11.php): theme a page theme('block') (block. create a new directory under your themes directory. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Then. This is the only file which is absolutely required. tabs. which outputs the final page contents. It uses individual something.tpl. It overrides the theme('page') function.tpl.php files.de .

or Right(1) column.tpl. $block->status : Status of block (0.: 07000 7000 850 . 11.php. Email: info@24ix. $block->path : The path that matches whether or not a block is displayed. Default template The default block.php. and can be overridden by copying the default template and modifying it.tpl.php Lays out content for blocks (left and/or right side of page).tpl. This template is optional. Alte Kirchstr. $block->throttle: Throttle setting.de Tel. $block->delta : The number of the block. in the module. Available variables o $title: The title of the box. ?>"> <h2><?php print $block->subject ?></h2> <div class="content"><?php print $block->content ?></div> </div> Box. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. $block->content : The html content for the block. which can be found at themes/engines/phptemplate/block.php Prints a simple html box around a page element. 24iX Systems.tpl. Block. For instance: The comment view options are surrounded by box. $block->subject : The block title. <div class="<?php print "block block-$block->module" ?>" id="<?php print "block-$block->module-$block->delta". you need to provide an override yourself. Available variables o $block (object) $block->module : The name of the module that generated the block.de .tpl.php.24ix.If you want to theme a function other than the defaults listed here. or 1). $block->region : Left (0).

tpl. main.) . $comment(object) : Comment object as passed to the theme_comment function. This doesn't have anything to do with comment threading.o o $content: The content of the box. if display is enabled and picture is set. $region: Region. $content : Content of link. $date : Formatted date for post.php Define the HTML for a comment block. $links : Contextual links below comment. 11. $title : Link to the comment title. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de . if the comment is infact new. left or right. $author : Link to author profile. just the actual comment. $submitted : Translated post information string. Default template <div class="comment <?php print ($comment->new) ? 'comment-new' : '' ?>"> <?php if ($comment->new) : ?> <a id="new"></a> <span class="new"><?php print $new ?></span> <?php endif.: 07000 7000 850 . $picture : User picture HTML (include <a> tag. Default template <div class="box"> <h2><?php print $title ?></h2> <div class="content"><?php print $content ?></div> </div> Comment. Alte Kirchstr.de Tel. Available variables o o o o o o o o o $new : Translated text for 'new'. ?> <div class="title"><?php print $title ?></div> <?php print $picture ?> <div class="author"><?php print $submitted ?></div> <div class="content"><?php print $content ?></div> <?php if ($picture) : ?> <br class="clear" /> 24iX Systems.24ix. Email: info@24ix.

24ix. and not a summary.de . ?> 24iX Systems.<?php endif. 11. $content : Node content. $taxonomy (array) : array of taxonomy terms. Email: info@24ix. and a node summary. $picture : HTML for user picture. $name : Formatted name of author. teaser if it is a summary.tpl. o $page : True if on the node view page. o $submitted : Translated text. Available variables $title : Title of node. if enabled. $node (object) : The node object. ?> <div class="links"><?php print $links ?></div> </div> Node. o o o o o o o o o o o o Default template <div class="node<?php print ($sticky) ? " sticky" : "". $date : Formatted data. if the node info display is enabled for this node type.: 07000 7000 850 . 0 otherwise. $main : This variable is set to 1 if the node is being displayed on the main page. $sticky : True if the node is sticky on the front page.de Tel. $links : Node links. $terms : HTML for taxonomy terms.php This template controls the display of a node. Alte Kirchstr. $node_url : Link to node. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. ?>"> <?php if ($page == 0): ?> <h2><a href="<?php print $node_url ?>" title="<?php print $title ?>"><?php print $title ?></a></h2> <?php endif. ?> <?php print $picture ?> <div class="info"><?php print $submitted ?><span class="terms"><?php print $terms ?></span></div> <div class="content"> <?php print $content ?> </div> <?php if ($links): ?> <?php if ($picture): ?> <br class='clear' /> <?php endif.

mostly for admin pages. to allow for autoexecution of attached scripts. help: Dynamic help text. always filled in. site_name: The site name of the site. breadcrumb: HTML for displaying the breadcrumbs at the top of the page. search_url: URL the search form is submitted to.de . 'left'. ie: themes/box_grey or themes/box_grey/box_cleanslate logo: The path to the logo image. messages: HTML for status and error messages. search_description: Translated description for the search button. directory: The directory the theme is located in . site: The name of the site. site_slogan: The slogan of the site. 11. title: Title. as defined in theme configuration. empty when display has been disabled. 'right' or 'both') differently. layout: This setting allows you to style different types of layout ('none'. empty when display has been disabled. ?> </div> Page. primary_links (array): An array containing the links as they have been defined in the phptemplate specific configuration block. to be used in the header. secondary_links (array): An array containing the links as they have been defined in the phptemplate specific configuration block.<div class="links"><?php print $links ?></div> <?php endif. different from head_title. tabs: HTML for displaying tabs at the top of the page.24ix. depending on how many sidebars are enabled. 24iX Systems. search_button_text: Translated text on the search button. search_box: True(1) if the search box has been enabled. Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.php This template defines the main skeleton for the page. as this is just the node title most of the time. Available variables o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o head_title: The text to be displayed in the page title.tpl.: 07000 7000 850 . head: HTML as generated by drupal_get_html_head() (needed to dynamically add scripts to pages) onload_attributes: Onload tags to be added to the head tag.de Tel. language: The language the site is being displayed in. Email: info@24ix. to be displayed at the top of the page.

to give you an idea of the layout of the file. This prints out the style tags required.w3. for any dynamic javascript that needs to be called once the page has already been displayed. content: The HTML content generated by Drupal to be displayed.dtd"> <html xmlns="http://www.0 Strict//EN" "http://www. ?> <?php if ($logo) : ?> <a href="<?php print url() ?>" title="Index Page"><img src="<?php print($logo) ?>" alt="Logo" /></a> <?php endif.?> <?php if ($site_slogan) : ?> 24iX Systems.24ix.w3. closure: Needs to be displayed at the bottom of the page. mission: The text of the site mission.php.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en"> <head> <title><?php print $title ?></title> <meta http-equiv="Content-Style-Type" content="text/css" /> <?php print $head ?> <?php print $styles ?> </head> <body <?php print theme("onload_attribute"). ?> <?php if ($site_name) : ?> <h1 id="site-name"><a href="<?php print url() ?>" title="Index Page"><?php print($site_name) ?></a></h1> <?php endif. Default template Here is the contents of the box_grey template's page.o o o o o o o o styles: Required for stylesheet switching to work. footer_message: The footer message as defined in the admin settings. sidebar_left: The HTML for the left sidebar. Alte Kirchstr. <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1. 11.tpl. is_front: True if the front page is currently being displayed. Used to toggle the mission.org/TR/xhtml1/DTD/xhtml1-strict. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. sidebar_right: The HTML for the right sidebar.: 07000 7000 850 . ?>> <div id="header"> <?php if ($search_box): ?> <form action="<?php print url("search") ?>" method="post"> <div id="search"> <input class="form-text" type="text" size="15" value="" name="keys" /><input class="form-submit" type="submit" value="<?php print t("Search")?>" /> </div> </form> <?php endif.de . Email: info@24ix.

end main content --> </td><!-. Alte Kirchstr. ?> <?php if ($messages != ""): ?> <div id="message"><?php print $messages ?></div> <?php endif. ?> <?php if ($tabs != ""): ?> <?php print $tabs ?> <?php endif.de . Email: info@24ix. ?> <?php if ($help != ""): ?> <p id="help"><?php print $help ?></p> <?php endif. ?> <!-. ?> </ul> <?php endif.24ix. ?> </ul> <?php endif. ?> <?php if ($mission != ""): ?> <p id="mission"><?php print $mission ?></p> <?php endif. 11.start main content --> <?php print($content) ?> <!-.de Tel. ?> 24iX Systems.: 07000 7000 850 .?> <br class="clear" /> </div> <div id="top-nav"> <?php if (is_array($secondary_links)) : ?> <ul id="secondary"> <?php foreach ($secondary_links as $link): ?> <li><?php print $link?></li> <?php endforeach. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.mainContent --> <?php if ($sidebar_right != ""): ?> <td class="sidebar" id="sidebar-right"> <?php print $sidebar_right ?> </td> <?php endif.<span id="site-slogan"><?php print($site_slogan) ?></span> <?php endif. ?> <?php if (is_array($primary_links)) : ?> <ul id="primary"> <?php foreach ($primary_links as $link): ?> <li><?php print $link?></li> <?php endforeach. ?> </div> <table id="content"> <tr> <?php if ($sidebar_left != ""): ?> <td class="sidebar" id="sidebar-left"> <?php print $sidebar_left ?> </td> <?php endif. ?> <td class="main-content" id="content-<?php print $layout ?>"> <?php if ($title != ""): ?> <h2 class="content-title"><?php print $title ?></h2> <?php endif.

box. including translating the parameters to 24iX Systems.de . Alte Kirchstr.?></p> <?php endif. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.?> </body> </html> Overriding other theme functions If you want to override a theme function not included in the basic list (block. To do this. We will use theme_item_list() as an example.de Tel. along with stubs for the theme overrides.: 07000 7000 850 .w3. page). and redirect through the template api */ function phptemplate_item_list($items = array().org/css-validator/check/referer">CSS</a>. ?> Validate <a href="http://validator.php. you need to locate the appropriate theme function to override. These stubs instruct the engine what template file to use and which variables to pass to it. You can find a list of these in the API documentation. you need to create a template. This file should contain the required <?php ?> tags.w3. The function definition for theme_item_list() looks like this: <?php function theme_item_list($items = array(). like this: <?php /** * Catch the theme_item_list function.</tr> </table> <?php if ($breadcrumb != ""): ?> <?php print $breadcrumb ?> <?php endif. </div><!-. you need to tell PHPTemplate about it. 11.php file in your theme's directory. $title = NULL) { ?> Now you need to place a stub in your theme's template. node.footer --> <?php print $closure. comment. First. $title = NULL) { // Pass to phptemplate. Email: info@24ix.org/check/referer">XHTML</a> or <a href="http://jigsaw. ?> <div id="footer"> <?php if ($footer_message) : ?> <p><?php print $footer_message.24ix.

To create a PHP theme. you can override any of these functions. Some of the basic theme functions include: theme_error() and theme_table() which as their name suggests.theme file. create a directory in your themes directory (we will assume themes/mytheme in this document). and inside that directory create a mytheme. Email: info@24ix. define the function mytheme_something() in your . To override the function theme_something(). } ?> We replaced the word theme in the function name with phptemplate and used a call to _phptemplate_callback() to pass the parameters ($items and $title) to PHPTemplate. It is easiest to start with Drupal's function. nodes.de Tel. you can create a item_list. array('items' => $items. Theme functions defined by modules include theme_forum_display() and theme_node_list(). This function should have the same definition as the original...24ix. The element names are the names that the variables // will be assigned within your template. Note that you will need to visit admininster > themes for PHPTemplate to refresh its cache and recognize the new file.theme file. which will be used to theme item lists. return HTML code for an error message and a table respectively. 'title' => $title)). This function should follow the same logic as the original theme_item_list(). Now. return _phptemplate_callback('item_list'. . Alte Kirchstr.an associative array. but you can theme anything from lists to links if you desire.tpl. A PHP theme consists of overrides for Drupal's built-in theme functions. The default theme functions in Drupal are all named theme_something() or theme_module_something().). 11.php file in your theme's directory. You will most likely only override the basic theme hooks (pages.de . thus allowing any module to add themeable parts to the default set provided by Drupal.: 07000 7000 850 . Plain PHP themes PHP themes are the most direct way of themeing Drupal. This file is a regular PHP file. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. and apply your changes there: many 24iX Systems. blocks. In your .theme file. so make sure it contains <?php ?> tags.

In your code. logo.). Aside from theme functions.24ix. it is best to mark the changes between the original Drupal function and your customized version. . you can reapply to your customizations if the original was changed.de Tel. If you are planning on releasing your theme to the public... it is advised to implement all Drupal features. The logo can be turned on/off The site name can be turned on/off The search box can be turned on/off The site slogan can be turned on/off The mission statement can be turned on/off The primary navigation bar can be turned on/off/ The secondary navigation bar can be turned on/off The theme can optionally display user pictures next to nodes The theme can optionally display user pictures next to comments logo toggle_logo toggle_name toggle_search toggle_slogan toggle_mission toggle_primary_links toggle_secondary_links toggle_node_user_picture toggle_comment_user_picture Here's the _features() function from the standard chameleon. there is one function that you need to include. Available features are: A logo can be used. Email: info@24ix. 11. marking the features your theme supports (e. you can retrieve the value of these settings though theme_get_setting(). search box.theme functions contain code logic within them.: 07000 7000 850 . The theme system will provide toggles and settings for these features in the administration section. so others can customize your theme.de . The theme should check the settings default_logo (boolean) and logo_path (string). Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.theme: <?php function chameleon_features() { return array( 24iX Systems. called mytheme_features(). mission statement. This function should return an array of strings.g. To avoid problems when upgrading Drupal in the future. That way.

and be correct. some hints: o o o o o o indent with 2 spaces match the indentation of (long) opening and closing block html tags distinguish between php and html indentation. just as we have rules for indenting code .: 07000 7000 850 .. you need to rename its directory. o o but function header($title = "") { ?> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.theme file and its functions inside the . Suggestions for theme coding style [from the cvs log message of a developer sick of fixing strange spacing and indentation] it would be nice if theme authors would care a little more about spacing and indentation. 'toggle_secondary_links'). 'toggle_slogan'. 'toggle_name'.org/TR/html4/strict. its .de . } ?> Note that unlike templates and styles. maintain.. If you want to clone a PHP theme.24ix..because this makes it easier to understand.org/TR/html4/strict.theme file. the same should apply for themes and included html.de Tel.w3. not function header($title = "") { ?> <!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.dtd"> 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr.. 'toggle_primary_links'.01//EN" "http://www.dtd"> <html . 11.w3. themes are tied to their directory name. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.01//EN" "http://www.'logo'. Email: info@24ix.> .

") ) .node: \$node->title\ -->\n".: 07000 7000 850 . format_date($node->created. but also makes it much easier to find matching opening and closing tags defined in functions with different indentation. $main = 0) { print "\n<!-. $main = 0) { ?> <!-.de . print "<div class=\nodetitle\>$node->title</div>".. format_date($node>created."</span>". "small"). ?></div> <div class="nodebody"> <span class="nodedate"><?php print $this->links( array(format_name($node). "&nbsp.. o o o o o prefer php in html over html in php.") ). PHP is a HTML embedded scripting language . Alte Kirchstr. Email: info@24ix. o o but function node($node. 11.24ix. $this->links( array(format_name($node). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www... "small").node: "<?php print $node->title.. this not only saves the superfluous leading spaces.and not the other way round ..<html . print "<div class=\nodebody\><span class=\nodedate\>".> .de Tel. ?>" --> <div class="nodetitle"><?php print $node->title. not function node($node. ?></span> after all. Updating your themes 24iX Systems. "&nbsp.

Converting 3.As Drupal develops with each release it becomes necessary to update themes to take advantage of new features and stay functional with Drupal's theme system. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix. you should use a more complex syntax: if ($title) { 24iX Systems.". ""). variable_get("site_slogan".: 07000 7000 850 .sitename.site slogan. Email: info@24ix. Now the page title can be dynamic . instead print variable_get("site_name".for example when displaying single node. So. Changes in function header() o Function header() takes now an optional parameter $title. the page title can be note title . "drupal") .0 themes to 4. Instead function header() { you should use function header($title = "") { o Previously all pages in Drupal site had the fixed page title: sitename ." .0 Required changes Changes in class definition Theme class definition uses now a different syntax: Instead class Theme extends BaseTheme { you should use class Theme_themename extends BaseTheme { where themename is name of your theme in lowercase.de Tel. Alte Kirchstr.de . 11.

} of if you want to use compact version of the same construction: print $title ? $title. } else { print variable_get("site_name". Login box placement is controlled in Administration > blocks page from now on and theme_account() is no longer used. it outputs site name and slogan. variable_get("site_slogan". This piece of code checks if $title is present. not $node->name. "drupal") ." .". "drupal") . So instead plain simple 24iX Systems." .de . Changes in function node() o format_name() accepts now parameter $node. if not. Also $node->timestamp is replaced with $node->created. So. Email: info@24ix. "drupal"). o node_index() is no longer used because Drupal 4.print $title . array("%a" => format_name($node). you should use print strtr(t("Submitted by %a on %b"). ""). ""). If yes." . variable_get("site_name". instead print strtr(t("Submitted by %a on %b"). "%b" => format_date($node>timestamp))).". array("%a" => format_name($node->name). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. variable_get("site_name".0 meta tags." variable_get("site_slogan".0 has more sophisticated classification system than Drupal 3. "drupal") : variable_get("site_name".". "%b" => format_date($node->created))). it outputs $title and site name. ". 11. Alte Kirchstr.de Tel. o If you used theme_account() function (what outputs login/membership box) in header(). please remove it.: 07000 7000 850 .24ix.

Alte Kirchstr. not $comment->name.: 07000 7000 850 . Instead print strtr(t("Submitted by %a on %b"). } } print $this->links($terms). $main)) { print $this->links($links).24ix. you should use 24iX Systems. if (function_exists("taxonomy_node_get_terms")) { foreach (taxonomy_node_get_terms($node->nid) as $term) { $terms[] = l($term->name. } you should use if ($links = link_node($node. "%b" => format_date($comment>timestamp))). array("or" => $term->tid). Email: info@24ix. Instead if ($main) { print $this->links(link_node($node)).de .print node_index($node). 11. o o o Function link_node() accepts an optional parameter $main.de Tel. array("%a" => format_name($comment->name). you have to use $terms = array(). "index"). 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. } Changes in function comment() o format_name() accepts now parameter $comment.

return $system[$field].1 Optional changes theme_head 24iX Systems. $system["description"] = "description of the theme". Changes in function footer() o If you used theme_account() function (what outputs login/membership box) in footer() function.: 07000 7000 850 . Optional changes New function: system() o o o o o o Optionally theme can have a system() function what provides info about theme and its author: $system["name"] = "theme name".24ix. Email: info@24ix.de . "%b" => format_date($comment>timestamp))). } function system($field) { Converting 4. $system["author"] = "author name". please remove it. 11.0 themes to 4. all Drupal 4.0 themes should also work in Drupal 4. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.print strtr(t("Submitted by %a on %b").de Tel. Login box placement is controlled in Administration > blocks page from now on and theme_account() is no longer used. array("%a" => format_name($comment).1 Required changes There is no required changes. Alte Kirchstr.

/head&gt.de Tel.Insert a function theme_head() inside your theme.de . 11. CSS and more.. "mytheme_sidebar"..24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . variable_get("mytheme_sidebar". array( "none" => t("No sidebars"). ?> > Optional changes Take advantage of settings() hook Themes can now populate settings to adminstration pages using the function <em>themename</em>_settings(). Converting 4. Example: function mytheme_settings() { $output = form_select("Sidebar placement". tags such as Javascript. This change allows modules to incorporate custom markup inside &lt. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 24iX Systems. Alte Kirchstr. Email: info@24ix. "left" => t("Sidebar on the left"). tags.head&gt.meta&gt. tag: <html> <head> <?php print theme_head(). ?> . "right" => t("Sidebar on the right")). right after the HTML's &lt. &lt.2 Required changes Add a theme_onload_attribute() to a <body> tag: <body <?php print theme_onload_attribute(). &lt.head&gt. "right").1 themes to 4.

php" alt=""&gt. as such. mytheme_comment(). mytheme_system()) is no longer used. This function follows the same semantics as the regular module _help hook: o <?php function mytheme_help($section) { 24iX Systems.} Direct you site logo to index.3 themes to 4. mytheme_node(). a theme is a collection of functions. or even &lt. This will make Drupal theme development feel much the same as Drupal module development. Email: info@24ix.3 modules to 4. Examples: mytheme_page(). you no longer have to use a class for your theme. this cell also has an image which you can override in your theme->image directory (most images are overridable in this way)."&gt.4.24ix.a href=""&gt.3 No changes are required :) A few more CSS classes are available to you if you wish to use them.4 For more information on how the interaction between themes and modules has changed. Converting 4.&gt. o mytheme::system() (or in the new parlance.?php print path_uri().a href="&lt. Alte Kirchstr. Converting 4.php If you theme has the logo and you have made it to link &lt. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. The theme description used on the theme administration page should instead be returned by a new function called mytheme_help().de Tel. The theme system is no longer built on PHP's object model. then please replace these instances with a simple &lt. see converting 4. The BaseTheme class is no more and.a href="index.2 themes to 4. Instead.de . 11. Prefix your theme function with your theme's name.: 07000 7000 850 . A nonexhaustive list is o o read-more: affects the formatting of the 'read more' link cell-highlight: affects the cell in the table header which is currently the sort key.

24ix. $title = NULL. } ?> This function should return the HTML code for the full page. instead of just using the values provided as parameters. Alte Kirchstr. Most themes use the following new code-snippet in their page function: 24iX Systems. drupal_get_messages(). The page theme function should override the title and breadcrumb trail retrieved from Drupal. drupal_get_breadcrumb()). menu_get_active_help(). footer and sidebars (if any). and drupal_get_breadcrumb(). for example. o Themes now have the responsibility of placing the title. a mytheme_page() function is introduced instead. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. o The mytheme_header() and mytheme_footer() functions and no longer used. o <?php function mytheme_page($content.. status messages. The breadcrumb trail is returned from the latter function as an array of links. A theme can obtain the values set before by calling the functions drupal_get_title(). It is now expected that mytheme_page() will return these elements. and help text for each page.de Tel. place the breadcrumb trail above the title or in the footer.: 07000 7000 850 . } } ?> All theme functions now return their output instead of printing them to the user. This way modules acting on the title or breadcrumb values can use the real value when generating blocks for example.de . This gives them the flexibility to. Note that it is important to set the title and the breadcrumbs for Drupal with the setter functions as suggested above. } if (isset($breadcrumb)) { drupal_set_breadcrumb($breadcrumb).switch ($section) { case 'admin/system/themes#description': return t("A description of mytheme"). in case some explicit value is provided in the function parameters (see above). including the header. Email: info@24ix.. breadcrumb trail. $breadcrumb = NULL) { if (isset($title)) { drupal_set_title($title). it can be formatted into a string by using theme("breadcrumb". There should be no print or echo statements in your theme. 11. } .

24ix. } return $output. then the title of the node should not be printed.= "<div>". $page = 0) { if (!$page) { $output = "<h2>" . t("Status") . } if ($help = menu_get_active_help()) { $output . $content. } if ($main && $node->teaser) { $output . $output . drupal_get_breadcrumb()). $type) = $message. $main = 0. "</div>". The old has become function theme_block($subject.= "<div class=\"help\">$help</div><hr />". as it will already have been printed by theme_page. Alte Kirchstr. theme_block() has been changed.<?php if ($title = drupal_get_title()) { $output .: 07000 7000 850 . If $page is true. Example: o <?php function mytheme_node($node.de .= "<div>". Otherwise only the teaser will be filtered for performance reasons.= "<strong>". therefore the HTML head part should include the return value of drupal_get_html_head() instead of the return value of theme("head"). $page.= "<h2>$title</h2>". Also note that the node body will only be filtered with the configured filters if the node page is displayed. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. } ?> o o To improve block themeability. 11. $output .= theme("breadcrumb". that indicates to the theme whether to display the node as a standalone page or not. "</h2>". $node->teaser . o The theme_node() function takes an extra parameter now. Email: info@24ix. } ?> The _head() hook is eliminated and replaced with the drupal_set_html_head() and drupal_get_html_head() functions. "</div>". } else { $output . $node->body . $region = "main") 24iX Systems. } foreach (drupal_get_messages() as $message) { list($message. $node->title ."</strong>: $message<hr />".

4 themes to 4. A typical location is below the page title.de . theme_blocks() has been improved to allow themes to hook into (change) the blocks before outputting them.5 will identify templates based on their filename and send the appropriate listings to the theme system. drupal_get_breadcrumb()). Themes are responsible for printing these. 24iX Systems.function theme_block($block) with $block being an object containing $block->subject.5.a. 11. Make sure you read through this entire guide. By default. these are rendered as a set of tabs. as an outdated theme will prevent you from accessing vital parts of your site. etc. so that <?php if ($title = drupal_get_title()) { $output . See the doxygen doc for details and for how you can style blocks with CSS. For example. the old Xtemplate pushbutton template has moved from themes/xtemplate/pushbutton to themes/pushbutton.css (as mentioned below in the "Styles" section).k. while templates simply are placed in subdirectories of themes. o Also. Directory structure Templates are now seen as themes unto themselves. Template engines now reside in subdirectories of themes/engines. rather than hiding behind their template engine. and your default stylesheet must be named style. your template must be named xtemplate.de Tel. $block>content. Template engines compatible with Drupal 4. Converting 4.xtmpl. Alte Kirchstr. Local Tasks) Drupal now separates out menu items that are "local tasks". For xtemplate templates. functions to be performed on the current location.5 Note: the theme system changed significantly in 4.: 07000 7000 850 . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. See this cvs log message for details. Email: info@24ix.24ix. Tabs (a.= theme("breadcrumb".

BEGIN: title --> {breadcrumb} <h1 class="title">{title}</h1> <!-. } if ($help = menu_get_active_help()) { $output . 11.$output . Before: <!-.= $tabs.= "<small>$help</small><hr />".de .END: tabs --> <!-. } ?> becomes <?php if ($title = drupal_get_title()) { $output .= "<h2>$title</h2>". } ?> For xtemplate templates. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel. drupal_get_breadcrumb()). $output .BEGIN: tabs --> <div class="tabs">{tabs}</div> <!-.24ix. Email: info@24ix.= "<small>$help</small><hr />".BEGIN: title --> {breadcrumb} <h1 class="title">{title}</h1> <!-.END: title --> After: <!-.: 07000 7000 850 . } if ($tabs = theme('menu_local_tasks')) { $output . } if ($help = menu_get_active_help()) { $output . Alte Kirchstr.END: title --> Status Messages 24iX Systems.= theme("breadcrumb".= "<h2>$title</h2>".

11. If your theme uses special styling for this type of post.5. t("Status") . Additionally. we now use the theme_status_messages() function.= theme_status_messages(). Themes now call theme_user_picture.= "<strong>". array("%user" => $node->name ? $node->name : t(variable_get("anonymous". Avatar vs. User Picture In Drupal 4. "user/view/$node->uid".de . t("%user's avatar". $output .24ix. Email: info@24ix. "avatars" have been renamed to "user pictures". Sticky In Drupal 4.The theme_page function is no longer responsible for rendering each status message. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. "Anonymous")))) . "static" posts have been renamed as "sticky" posts. } else { $avatar = file_create_url($avatar). } ?> After: <?php $output . Before: <?php foreach (drupal_get_messages() as $message) { list($message. if (empty($avatar) || !file_exists($avatar)) { $avatar = variable_get("theme_avatar_default". } if ($avatar) { $avatar = "<img src=\"$avatar\" alt=\"" ."</strong>: $message<hr />". array("title" => t("View user profile. "\" />". you'll want to change any references from "static" to "sticky". Before: <?php if (module_exist("profile") && variable_get("theme_avatar_node".: 07000 7000 850 . the method by which themes display avatars has changed. ?> Static vs. $type) = $message. "").de Tel. 24iX Systems. if ($node->uid) { $avatar = l($avatar. 0)) { $avatar = $node->profile_avatar."))). Alte Kirchstr.5. which returns the appropriate image and link HTML. Instead.

BEGIN: avatar --> <div class="avatar">{avatar}</div> <!-. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. blandit non.de Tel. body: Morbi id lacus. for some extra menu items: aggregator. Enable the following modules.: 07000 7000 850 . Vivamus vestibulum felis <a href="#">nec libero. Create the following story node: title: Donec felis eros.BEGIN: picture --> {picture} <!-. simply replace: <!-.png in each directory. Etiam malesuada diam ut libero.24ix. Sed blandit.} $output . Nunc venenatis pretium magna. follow these instructions: 1. Donec dolor. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes.de . $node). Log in as administrator user. 11.= $avatar. node. 24iX Systems. } } ?> After: <?php $output . nascetur ridiculus mus. Alte Kirchstr.= theme('user_picture'. tracker 3. ?> For xtemplate templates. vitae.END: picture --> Theme Screenshots The new theme selector looks for a screenshot of each theme with the filename screenshot. 2. nunc nulla iaculis elit. page.END: avatar --> with: <!-. blog. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra. To create a screenshot which matches those in core. per inceptos hymenaeos. Screenshots are optional and themes without screenshots will simply display "no screenshot" on theme selection pages. Email: info@24ix. justo nec euismod laoreet. Duis lobortis</a>. story. Donec dictum ultrices massa.

png" in theme (or style) directory. Below is a table of values for the _features hook. this function should return an array of settings which the theme supports. Centralized Theme Configuration The theme system now has the ability to store certain common configuration items for each theme. title. dolor. However.: 07000 7000 850 . To implement each of these functions. and a code snippet of the appropriate theme_get_settings call. ipsum. Donec eu lectus et elit porttitor rutrum. Try to show useful page elements (menu. Aenean justo. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. porttitor sed. Applied a plain 'sharpen' filter to the thumbnail. themes / theme engines should call the theme_get_setting function. Look at the node.= " <h1 class=\"site-name ti l(variable_get('site_name'.= " <a href=\". porta non. Donec vestibulum porttitor purus. 6. which will return data regarding the administrator's setting for this particluar theme. Phasellus augue tortor. 5. Save as "screenshot. and make sure the tabs are visible./\" customization title=\"Home\"><img src=\"$logo\" alt=\" /></a>". 'drupal'). some themes may not wish to utilize all of these settings. If there are no settings for the current theme. Sed ultricies bibendum ante. " "</h1>".24ix. links). global values will be returned. mattis nonummy. a description of their function. } 'toggle_search' 24iX Systems. fermentum id. of site logo } ?> 'toggle_name' theme allows site name to be switched on/off theme allows search box to be switched <?php if (theme_get_setting('toggle_name')) { $output . In each theme / theme engine.de Tel. Email: info@24ix. 11. aliquam euismod. cursus eget. tabs. 7. Mauris nibh ligula. so a theme_features hook has been introduced. Maecenas rhoncus tincidunt eros. _features hook value Description theme_get_settings call 'logo' <?php if ($logo = theme_get_setting('logo')) { theme allows $output . } ?> <?php if (theme_get_setting('toggle_search')) $output . Alte Kirchstr.de . Take a screenshot. Cut out a piece about 420x254 resized to 150x90 (35% zoom).= search_form().4.

24ix. Email: info@24ix.de .. array("%a" format_name($node). $nod $output ." <?php if (theme_get_setting('toggle_comment_user_ && $picture = theme('user_picture'. Alte Kirchstr. $com $output .= $picture.= theme_get_setting('primary_li ?> 'toggle_secondary_links' <?php $output .= theme_get_setting("toggle_node_info_$nod ? t("Submitted by %a on %b. 11. '') .on/off theme allows site slogan to be switched on/off theme allows site mission to be switched on/off theme allows primary links to be customized theme allows secondary links to be customized theme allows node user pictures to be switched on/off ?> 'toggle_slogan' <?php if (theme_get_setting('toggle_slogan')) $output ."</div> } ?> 'toggle_mission' <?php if ($mission = theme_get_setting('missio $output . "%b" => format_date( >created))) : ''.= $picture. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.= theme_get_setting('secondary_ ?> 'toggle_node_user_picture' <?php if (theme_get_setting('toggle_node_user_ && $picture = theme('user_picture'.: 07000 7000 850 .de Tel.".= " <div class=\"site-slogan variable_get('site_slogan'.. } ?> N/A (Global Setting) <?php $output . ?> 24iX Systems. } ?> theme allows comment user pictures 'toggle_comment_user_picture' to be switched on/off Allow admin to specify which node types should display "Submitted by. } ?> 'toggle_primary_links' <?php $output .= $mission.

".\n". $output .css\" /&gt.de Tel.5 themes to HEAD 24iX Systems. rather than on a separate page. ?> Notice how the reference to common. It can be removed if desired.css file in a subdirectory of the theme. The "default" style for each theme (the stylesheet in which you define color scheme and other general presentation items) should be renamed to style. but are now placed in a group on the appropriate theme's tab. themes should add a call to theme_get_styles() within their <head> block. Email: info@24ix. 11.= " &lt./head&gt. For example: <?php $output . $output .message Note that all of these settings are optional.= theme_get_styles(). you need to add the {styles} tag add the end of your <head> section. Converting 4.= "&lt. Alte Kirchstr.= drupal_get_html_head().link rel=\"stylesheet\" type=\"text/css\" href=\"themes/chameleon/common. but recommended. (If the default style is selected) For xtemplate themes.de . _help hook The theme_help hook is no longer used.: 07000 7000 850 . They are still read from the theme_settings. Theme-specific settings are still possible as well. Each "style" is defined by a style. In order to accomplish this style switching. This allows individual styles to override your common CSS rules (if you use any). You should also remove any references to it from your theme or template.24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Styles The theme system now allows for switching between different "styles" for each theme.css is listed before theme_get_styles(). Drupal will reference it in theme_get_styles().css and placed in your theme directory. $output .

Donec dolor. story. it needs to be altered. and make sure the tabs are visible. page. justo nec euismod laoreet.png placed in the theme/template/style directory. Class aptent taciti sociosqu ad litora torquent per conubia nostra. Sed blandit. Etiam malesuada diam ut libero. Sed ultricies bibendum ante. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes. Nunc venenatis pretium magna. Donec vestibulum porttitor purus. Donec eu lectus et elit porttitor rutrum. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. but instead are passed as an array in $node->links. Template-based themes shouldn't need any changes. aliquam euismod. Create the following story node: Donec felis eros. PHP-based themes will need to be updated to pass this array through theme('links'). Vivamus vestibulum felis <a href="#">nec libero. nascetur ridiculus mus. blog. Alte Kirchstr.Search form If your theme implements a search form. nunc nulla iaculis elit.24ix. Look at the node. 2.5+ needs a screenshot in the form of a screenshot. vitae. fermentum id. blandit non Morbi id lacus. cursus eget. tracker. Node links Node links no longer use the link_node() function.de . porta non. 11. Take a screenshot. Phasellus augue tortor. ipsum. Duis lobortis</a>. node. mattis nonummy. Email: info@24ix. It is best that screenshots are consistent.: 07000 7000 850 . Theme screenshot guidelines Every theme for 4. Mauris nibh ligula. dolor. per inceptos hymenaeos. 4. 24iX Systems. The guidelines for core theme screenshots are (starting from a blank Drupal site): 1. 3. The search box <input> tag should have the name attribute set to edit[keys] rather than keys. Maecenas rhoncus tincidunt eros. Enable the following modules.de Tel. Donec dictum ultrices massa. porttitor sed. for some extra menu items: aggregator. Log in as the first user. Aenean justo.

6. links). in paletted colorspace to cut down on size. Once you are approved.org. you will be able to check your theme into the Drupal CVS repository. Create a project and the download will be created for it automatically. Apply a standard 'sharpen' filter to the thumbnail for clarity. in which you explain why you wrote the documentation. You will have to set the correct parent to page. 11. Try to show only useful page elements (menu. Documentation writer's guide How and when do I add a page? It's very easy to add a page. You will need to apply for a CVS account. Alte Kirchstr. Optionally you can add a log message if you please.org To add your theme to Drupal.de Tel. Cut out a piece about ~420x254 resized to exactly 150x90 (~35% zoom out). select it under Parent drop-down menu. users will likely post suggestions. title. 24iX Systems. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.24ix. and generally desire that you keep the theme up to date with current versions of Drupal.: 07000 7000 850 . 7. If you do add your theme. Do not include images or other copyrighted works that you do not want to see re-used or otherwise altered. in the CVS repository. When you feel like writing a piece of documentation about a problem that hasn't already been addressed. file bugs.de . Themes are tracked the same way that code is.5. tabs. Email: info@24ix. Example: Adding your theme to Drupal. it must be GPL. Save as a PNG. just click on click "create book page" link in your login menu (you have to be logged in to see it) and type away. Don't include browser chrome.

Your post will be queued and reviewed by an Administator. You preview and finally commit. It isn't something static that we provide and can't be changed or updated. As with adding any post. The pages with a less heavy weight will stay at the top while pages with heavy weights will sink deeper. if not thousands of people. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Voila. click edit this page at the bottom of the book page. If noone approves the change. You'll see the current page in an HTML form and you can start adding/changing. you have to preview to see if everything went OK. So the main thing is that there aren't any limits to the documentation anymore.Finally you give your piece of documentation a weight.org requesting a review. What is this book about? Frankly. then do something about it. Email: info@24ix. and think that you can do better by rewriting it completely or adding/changing some things. you and the rest of the community decide what will be included.de . To do so. How and when do I update a page? Update a page when you find that a piece of information isn't written too well. or you think it could have been written better. not maintained by one or a few but handed out to hundreds. This books provides a way of easily sharing solutions with the rest of the world Adding screenshots Screenshots in Drupal. that's all there's to it. 11.: 07000 7000 850 . you might want to send email to webmaster at drupal. and then Submit. Alte Kirchstr. Since you are the ones that run into problems and often find the answers to them. This book is all about improving FAQs and information. This book is a way of dynamicly contributing to documentation so it grows and improves When you read a piece of documentation here and you don't like it. After submitting your update it may go in a submission queue where an administrator will review and approve the change.org must follow these standards: 24iX Systems.de Tel.24ix. You can rewrite/update the pages in this book.

module that enables you to share translations through the use of PO files. please download the Drupal POT translation templates.0. Keep only the URL address bar and make sure it is long enough that current URL won't be hidden. Drupal includes an extended locale. Email: info@24ix. Size: It is preferred that image size do not exceed 700 x 700 pixel size. Alte Kirchstr. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. custom links etc. If you operating system or capturing utility supports this. please turn off cooltype font smoothing when taking screenshots under XP. PO files are files containing translations as used by the GNU gettext program. GIF is denied because on licencing issues. remove all distracting items from your browser application .Format: PNG-8 PNG is preferred because its lossless compression and small file size. If this is the case.de Tel. not entire desktop (otherwise you have to crop it in image utility manually). 11. If your language is not present. When preparing to capture.: 07000 7000 850 . 24iX Systems. It will cover most aspects of translating Drupal's user interface. Google bars.24ix.5. For reference.it leaves artifacts and its 24-bit color depth is unneccesary when dealing with screenshots. User contributed PO files for various languages can be found on the download page. As of version 4.de . Windows XP If you can. toolbars. JPG is not suitable . You can get a PO file editor and start translating. Browser window All screenshots must include entire browser window eg title bar and scrollbars. tabs.sidebars. you might want to start a translation yourself. Most people don't have this feature and it increases the filesize somewhat. These programs are usually quite well documented. try to capture only the browser window. see Screenshots in GNOME Documentation Translator's guide This is the Drupal translator's guide. It will not cover the use of the various programs that can be used to do a translation.

Make sure to fill out the header section of each file and rename them from .pot to .: 07000 7000 850 . 11. A script will generate a merged id.de Tel. and your translation becomes available on the download page Translation templates Translators should start by downloading the tarball and translating the files to their language of choice. ask in drupal-devel. Note that the Drupal team will not check contributed translations for accuracy or errors. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Once you have completed a reasonable part of the translation. which is what others will download from this site. you will be made the maintainer.24ix. You should only put the individual translated files in this directory.de . Programs to use for translation Recommended PO file editors are (in no particular order): o o o o XEmacs (with po-mode): runs on Unices with X GNU Emacs (with po-mode): runs on Unices KBabel: runs on KDE poEdit: cross-platform 24iX Systems. Some helpful developer will then come by and put them in CVS for you. create an issue on the Translation templates project and upload your PO files. The translated files should be stored in contrib-cvs/translations/id where id is the ISO 639 language code. Email: info@24ix. If you don't know your code. In any case a project for your translation will be created. Alte Kirchstr. The individual files are automatically packaged into one large file per language in the CVS repository.po file.po.You should translate the individual PO files (per module) rather than one big file. If you have write access to the contrib CVS you can commit your files yourself. If you do not have a CVS account. create an issue for this project and attach your files to it.

In this way they can avoid using different translations for terms that occur in both files. certain guidelines need to be agreed upon by the translator community for a particular language. Translators should take care to populate their started translation with the strings from the general. Email: info@24ix.pot. event. he.php script which comes with the core PO files to generate a POT file on their own.pot extension.g.poEdit is said to not yet support multiple plural forms.module gets an event. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Instructions for running the script can be found in the README that comes with the core POT files. A non-Drupal example for the bengali language can be seen here. Translations should be added to the same directory. The generated POT file should be named as the module. but re-use existing ones from an existing translation project. multiple plural forms are a recent addition to the gettext standard. Translation of contributed modules Translatable strings from contributed modules are not included in the Drupal core POT files. This file should be placed in a suddirectory po.g. es. but with a . 24iX Systems. the po subdirectory of event.pot file. Module authors can use the extractor. Alte Kirchstr.module currently contains the following files: de.po. Distributing the translation effort To facilitate easier handling of a community translation effort. hu.po file for their language using msgmerge. Be sure to get a recent version for all editors. It will be helpfull to not set up a new word list. event.de Tel.: 07000 7000 850 . Such guidelines should include a wordlist for words that occur in Drupal's strings. 11.po. Other areas which need guidelines will differ from language to language. E.po.24ix. the Drupal POT file is split up into small files that do not contain doubly occurring strings. e.de . Translation guidelines To achieve translations that are consistent throughout a whole Drupal site.po. Please add those guidelines as child pages to this book page.

de Tel. An example would be German where your can translate you either as Du or Sie depending on the audience of your site. Email: info@24ix. Status overview Language 4.de .pot file. some coordination among the project members is still needed to ensure the quality of the translation. files that have ten or less translatable strings will not get their own POT file. then it is possible to create PO files that only change those strings. Also.pot file. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. 11. This ensures that those strings are translated to the same string. Status of the translations The table below presents an overview of the status of each translation project.5.: 07000 7000 850 .All strings that occur more than once in the Drupal core distribution are put into the general. Alte Kirchstr. This page is updated daily by the package script: it was last updated 2 hours 29 min ago.24ix. but those strings will be appended to the general. If a language has several options on how to translate some strings. Of course.0 ar ca cs de eo es eu fi fr hu id 35% (797 missing) 100% (complete) 96% (56 missing) 77% (236 missing) 46% (621 missing) 63% (564 missing) 34% (959 missing) 49% (116 missing) 75% (277 missing) 75% (277 missing) cvs 77% (236 missing) 70% (309 missing) 80% (306 missing) 45% (805 missing) 14% (1163 missing) 14% (1163 missing) 98% (4 missing) 93% (97 missing) 86% (200 missing) 96% (56 missing) 24iX Systems.

done Some PO editors already include this feature. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.it ja nl pl pt-br ro ru sq zh-hans 99% (7 missing) 100% (complete) 84% (228 missing) 6% (1306 missing) 23% (862 missing) 99% (6 missing) 100% (complete) 85% (223 missing) 6% (1306 missing) 23% (862 missing) 99% (1 missing) 83% (217 missing) 39% (687 missing) 62% (514 missing) 73% (338 missing) 39% (687 missing) 62% (514 missing) Checking your translation status To see how many of the strings in the PO files you already translated you can try this: for i in *.po | msgattrib --no-fuzzy o nl. Alte Kirchstr.po [^g]*. Make a single file from the loose . Recycling old translations 24iX Systems. $ msgcat --use-first general. 11.po Off course you should change nl into your own language code.po.po files. the following commands will do (*nix only). You should execute this. msgfmt --statistics $i .de Tel. do echo $i . while being in the folder with the .: 07000 7000 850 .24ix.po files from CVS If you want to make a single po file from a CVS folder containing all the small po files.de .

Let us assume you have an Italian translation. do msgmerge --compendium /path/to/it. We will split the single. First. done After a while (yes this will take a few minutes) you should have a directory of small PO files that have the matching strings inserted. Then go to the empty directory and execute the following command from the command line: for i in /path/to/drupal-pot/*. If you use Windows. To do this they first need to export their translation from the localization manage languages screen (export subtab). Here we collect some of the more common issues found. please file bug reports against the project in question. 11.24ix.po /dev/null $i . several problems can occur. Weird characters or question marks Symptom: After importing a translation you find all kind of weird characters or question marks on your site. To use this file as a basis for a new translation. i. Alte Kirchstr. 24iX Systems. The above mentioned process will create an it.pot . check if your PO editor doesn't have a function for this.Drupal users with existing translations might want to add those to the translations download page. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Then create an empty directory where you want to keep your new small PO files.de . If you think you found a bug in either a translation or in Drupal's locale module.de Tel. This guide assumes a Unix/Linux environment. large PO file into the smaller files that the Drupal translation Project requires. Email: info@24ix.pot`. If you have a more general question you can ask it in the translations forum.e. put the small PO files into a subdirectory drupal-pot and your it.po -o `basename $i . you treat it as a PO compendium. Troubleshooting When doing translations or importing them. a library of pre-translated strings.po file into another one.: 07000 7000 850 .po file for you.

you can ask those in the forums. that can be used for promotion of Drupal.de Tel. Please note that if you have questions concerning any content in this section. marketeer or a writer you can be of help here too.org to discuss the use. You can change the charset of a PO file using GNU msgconv. Email: info@24ix. amount and shipping costs. If you want to aquire printed paper versions. If you think you can write a nice text on why people should choose drupal for their itsolutions. Alte Kirchstr.24ix. this might be the place to look. Please file a bug against the translation in question. or if you have a nice drupal logo you can create a book page here. Marketing resources This section provides resources for people who want to market drupal. Whether you want to publish a story with a logo on your website. Solution 2: You do not have the correct font installed to display the language in question. 24iX Systems. 11.Solution 1: The translator did not use UTF-8. Drupal is fully UTF-8 aware and expects translations to be supplied in that character set as well. If you are a designer.de . The comments under the bookpages can be used to discuss the contents of that page.: 07000 7000 850 . print a leaflet or need some texts for a report. you can get in contact with drupal on info@drupal. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Booklet Here you can preview and download a drupal PDF booklet.

: 07000 7000 850 . you can use following logos (all logos use RGB color): Bitmap versions 24iX Systems. 11.de .de Tel. Alte Kirchstr.The booklet in PDF format A collage of the booklet Druplicon If you wish to use or edit the Druplicon.24ix. Email: info@24ix. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

: 07000 7000 850 .de . 11. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.de Tel.PNG version PNG version 3D cellshaded Vector formats EPS version Other formats 24iX Systems. Email: info@24ix.24ix. Alte Kirchstr.

11. One combination to try is CMYK 91. 119.jasc. linked to drupal.3.com). Alte Kirchstr. There's no 1:1 match in RGB and CMYK color.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . please add an issue Logo colors Web color Main drop color: #0077C0 Light-shade color: #81CEFF RGB color Main drop color: 00. you can use the following buttons.27.2.Paint Shop Pro version (www. Email: info@24ix.de .org. 192 Light-shade color: 129.3. so it's difficult to bring out corresponding color values. Default Dark version Light version 24iX Systems.de Tel. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Powered by Drupal logos If you wish to display the Druplicon on your Drupal website.0 for main drop color and 47. if you can provide other useful formats.0 for highlight. 206. 255 CMYK color CMYK color is used in 4-color printing and prepress industry.

Reviews Drupal in the media getting the attention it deserves. contact the (copyright( owner if it is okay to scan the page(s) and put them online. you might post some information about the site it was posted on (language. Alte Kirchstr. Please post the URL of a drupal review here and if the article is printed.org/viewcvs/contributions/docs/marketing/presentations/. Besides the URL of the review. so that we can add those modifications here. please feel free to submit these. translate or improve the poster. 11. Posters Drupal has some nice looking posters that can be used for promotion of drupal.drupal. Email: info@24ix. Presentations Drupal presentations are stored at http://cvs. And if you are able to modify. feel free to do so and of course give feedback. Feel free to download them in PDF format.24ix. influence. etc) and your opinion about the review. 24iX Systems.de Tel.Looks even more like the napster fellow Steal These Buttons 1 Steal these Buttons 2 If you have more.: 07000 7000 850 .de . 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www.

11.Linux Tag poster in EPS format (default) Linux Tag poster in EPS format (small) Linux Tag poster in PNG format Wing poster in Gimp XCF format Wing poster in EPS format Wing Poster in PNG format About the handbook Commenting on the handbook pages Please read the following points carefully before submitting your comment to the Handbook. Comments are hard to maintain.de . We try to keep the handbook clean and up to date.de Tel. and will confuse readers. often unvalidated. it will be rejected by one of the editors. Email: info@24ix. If your post falls into one of the categories mentionedhhere.24ix.: 07000 7000 850 . thus. 56414 Steinefrenz Web: www. Alte Kirchstr. the following kinds of comments are discouraged: 24iX Systems.

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