NANDU’S ROUGH GUIDES

Rough Guide to 3G and HSPA (Radio Part)
An Effort to Understand the Complexities of 3G/HSPA
Nandakumar Nair 10/24/2009 nandakumarcnair@gmail.com

This rough guide is an effort to help RF engineers who are interested in learning the basic principles of 3G/HSPA and apply in their daily work.

Contents
1. 2.
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

INTRODUCTION GENERAL CONCEPTS OF 3G/UMTS/WCDMA
3G : General Information UMTS Network Why do we need 3G? Is 2G not enough? What is the main difference between 3G and 2G? Why does 3G have less coverage compared to GSM900? Why is WCDMA called Wideband CDMA? What are the frequency bands used in 3G? QOS Classes in 3G What are the main services available (and used) in 3G/HSPA as of October 2009? Main difference in performance between R99 Packet and HSDPA

5 5
5 5 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8

3.
3.1 3.2 3.3

TECHNICAL CONCEPTS OF 3G/UMTS/WCDMA
Noise Floor Pilot Ec/No, RSCP

9
9 9 9 10 10 10 11 12 13 14

3.4 Codes What is the difference between Scrambling, Spreading and Channelization Codes? 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 Scrambling Codes Spreading Codes Spreading Factor Spreading and Processing Gain : What do they mean for us? Soft & Softer Handover

2

3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14

Power Control Achievable Speeds in 3G What factors affect the data rates available to a user? What are the main issues in a real 3G network? What is the difference between RAB and RB?

15 17 18 18 20

4.
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6

HSDPA
HSDPA – Techniques HSDPA Channel Structure Advantages of HSDPA over R99 What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Why is CQI important? Limiting factors of HSDPA

20
21 21 22 23 24 25

5.
5.1 5.2 5.3

EUL
EUL – Techniques EUL - Channels Achievable Speeds in EUL

25
25 26 26

6.
6.1 6.2

HSDPA & EUL
Resource Utilization in HSDPA and EUL Difference between HSDPA and EUL

27
27 28

7. 8. 9.

KPIS CAPACITY MANAGEMENT NETWORK ELEMENTS UTILIZATION

28 28 29 31

10. INTER-RAT & INTER-FREQUENCY HANDOVERS
3

10.1 10.2 10.3

Inter-RAT Handovers Inter-Frequency Handovers Compressed Mode

31 32 32

11.
11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4

WHAT NEXT AFTER HSPA?
HSPA+ MIMO Dual Carrier HSPA Continuous Packet Connectivity

33
33 34 34 35

12.
12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

APPENDIX
UE Categories Modulation Schemes SIB List UTRAN Protocols

37
37 38 39 39 40

Acknowledgements & References

4

only GSM is considered. Most of the topics covered are Radio related. R99 data and HS services 3GPP Releases Rel 99 Rel 5 Rel 6 Rel 7 Rel 8 Rel 9 Rel 10 3G UMTS HSDPA EUL HSPA + LTE. Core Network details are not explained. General Concepts of 3G/UMTS/WCDMA 2.2 UMTS Network UMTS can be considered as an evolution of GSM. UMTS networks in general have lesser coverage due to the fact that most of them operate at higher frequency bands. 5 . This is not a big issue as UMTS-GSM handover is possible. While UMTS has its own radio access network known as UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network ). who already have some experience with 3G. Prior knowledge will be helpful for deeper understanding of the material presented in this guide. Introduction This Rough Guide has been written with the objective of aiding those. usually UMTS and GSM/EDGE have a shared Core Network.1 3G : General Information UMTS – Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Provides mainly Speech. 2. Generally UMTS networks are built up on existing GSM networks and both networks co-exist.Rough Guide to 3G and HSPA 1. Please note that only WCDMA is considered in this guide and for 2G. WiMax and LTE/UMTS Interoperability LTE advanced 2. All IP network (SAE) SAES Enhancements. Video.

2G was mainly designed keeping in mind the requirements for Speech traffic. Fig 1: UMTS/GSM Network 2. 6 .Please note that the network below has a common core network for both 3G and 2G.3 Why do we need 3G? Is 2G not enough? 3G gives much higher data rates compared to 2G. Multiplexing of services with different QOS requirements on a single connection is possible with 3G. in addition to Speech traffic. 3G has been developed mainly to cater to data services.

25MHz. which gives them greater propagation capability. operators are given 5MHz Carriers and can have one or more carriers depending on the operator requirements as well as frequency band availability.Downlink (base station to mobile) 2110-2170 MHz Point to remember: Generally.4 What is the main difference between 3G and 2G? WCDMA 5MHz 1 Multipath diversity with rake receivers achieved with 5MHz bandwidth Load based Scheduling 1500Hz GSM 200kHz 1-18 Frequency Hopping Carrier Bandwidth Frequency Re-use Factor Frequency Diversity Packet Data Power Control Frequency Time Slot based Scheduling with GPRS 2Hz or lower 2. Lower frequency signals are attenuated less.2.6 Why is WCDMA called Wideband CDMA? WCDMA has a higher bandwidth of 5 MHz compared to IS-95(cdmaOne). 2. Hence. which usually works at the 2GHz band.5 Why does 3G have less coverage compared to GSM900? GSM900 works at a lower frequency band than 3G. 7 . for uplink and downlink. UL – Uplink (mobile to base station) 1920-1980 MHz DL . which has only 1. we have different frequency bands.7 What are the frequency bands used in 3G? FDD – Frequency Division Duplexing is mainly used for UMTS. 2.

10 Main difference in performance between R99 Packet and HSDPA R99 Packet service requires dedicated channels whereas HSDPA users have a shared channel Speeds of HSDPA are much higher compared to 3G(R99).Packet Switching with 64kbps dedicated channel – Packet Switching with 128kbps dedicated channel – Packet Switching with 384kbps dedicated channel . Background Traffic Class Basic Features Conversational (Real Time) .Request response pattern Background (Best Effort) -Destination is not expecting the data within a certain time -Preserve payload content web browsing -Preserve payload content emails Example of the application streaming video 2.Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream Interactive (Best Effort) ..whereas an average R99 user can get around 250.280kbps.2 kbps dedicated channel – Video Telephony with 64kbps dedicated channel .2. Interactive.8 QOS Classes in 3G CSIB – Conversational. 8 .High Speed Downlink Packet Access – shared channel Enhanced Uplink 2.Preserve time relation (variation) between information entities of the stream . compared to an R99 data user.9 What are the main services available (and used) in 3G/HSPA as of October 2009? Service CS12 CS64 PS64 PS128 PS384 HSDPA EUL – – Speech Service with 12.Conversational pattern (stringent and low delay ) voice Streaming (Real Time) . In real networks. an average HS subscriber gets around 5-8 times throughput. Streaming. We can easily say that an average HS user can get between 1100kbps to 2000kbps.

3 Ec/No. More details are provided in Handover and Pilot Pollution Sections. 3. whereas too-strong pilots will lead to overshooting and interference. Point to remember : In real networks Pilot power normally varies between 27-33dBm. which signifies all the signals (useful and interfering) present at the receiver side. pushing the signal under the noise floor. 3. Technical Concepts of 3G/UMTS/WCDMA 3. Too-weak pilot will lead to coverage holes.the mobile receiver will compare Ec1/No. Introduction of higher capacity UEs as well as higher modulation schemes will further increase the HS throughputs.1 Noise Floor Main idea of WCDMA is to spread the User signal over the whole band. 3. Any other receiver will see only the noise.2 Pilot Pilot coverage decides the coverage boundary for a particular site. Usually in urban areas Pilots have values between 27-30dBm. Proper Pilot power planning is very important. the better it is…. No is the noise floor. For example speeds of about 6Mbps was reported during random field tests in one of the networks in Kuwait. Hence the security is high. RSCP : Received Signal Code Power is the received power on one code after despreading. Ec2/No and Ec3/No and decide which pilot will be the best server. Ec/No = RSCP/RSSI 9 . For example: If there are 3 pilots present…. defined on the pilot symbols. Only a receiver with knowledge of the correct PN (pseudorandom noise) sequence can detect the signal. Please note that the existing receivers have rake receiver functionality which enables them to decode multiple pilots and use them accordingly based on their strength. RSCP Ec/No signifies the level difference between received pilot signal and the overall noise floor.Ofcourse. all these values depend on the configuration of the network. For example: A value of Ec/No= -8dB tells us that the spread signal is 8 dB below the noise floor Higher the Ec/No value.

Spreading and Channelization Codes? Spreading Code = Channelization Code Channelization Code/ Spreading Code DL – Separation of DL dedicated user channels UL – Separation of Data and Control channels from the same terminal Variable Depends on SF Scrambling Code DL – Separation of Cells (Sectors) UL – Separation of UEs Usage Length No: of Codes Fixed DL – 512 UL – Unlimited (Millions) Fig 2: Usage of Scrambling Codes and Channelization codes 3. Downlink primary scrambling codes are used for cell separation. secondary and alternative. is allocated for each cell.3. Alternative re scrambling codes can be used in compressed mode. Secondary scrambling codes are not used. 10 . One primary scrambling code.5 Scrambling Codes Downlink Scrambling Codes odes 3 types of scrambling codes are available in DL: primary.4 Codes What is the difference between Scrambling.

Only the long ones are used. RNC allocates the code. then all the codes below and above on the same branch are unavailable for service. Uplink scrambling codes are used for separating the different UEs in the same cell. Ideally they are orthogonal to each other. though due to multipath propagation. Channelization codes are managed with the help of a code-tree. then: 11 . some orthogonality might be lost. Fig 3: Code Tree for orthogonally spreading codes Example : Code management with the help of the code tree If code C2(0) in the Tree of orthogonal spreading codes (in the figure above) is allocated. Resource manager keeps track of the codes allocated so that orthogonality of the code tree is preserved. 3.6 Spreading Codes Downlink Spreading Codes (Channelization Codes) DL spreading codes differentiate the dedicated user connections/channels within one cell. if they do not descend from an already used code.How many Scrambling Codes are available in DL? – 512 Uplink Scrambling Codes 2 types of scrambling codes are available in UL : long and short. If a code is used. Basic rule is that codes are orthogonal.

5KHz which can interfere with the telephony voice frequency band. All codes above it in the same branch to root become unavailable. Spreading codes for all other downlink physical channels are allocated by the resource manager. data and control channels are not time multiplexed in WCDMA. To avoid audible interference to audio devices in UL. Continuous transmission is achieved with I/Q code multiplexing or by using parallel control and data channels. Why should we avoid pulsed transmission in the UL? During the silent periods. C1(0) and C0(0) cannot be assigned to any user . where as in UL. For example: DL SF for speech(AMR12. on the next level. 3. C4(1). lesser the spreading factor.7 Spreading Factor Higher the bit rate of the data service. Spreading codes of some channels (mainly Pilot and P-CCPCH) are fixed.2) service is 128. C4(2) and C4(4). A typical example is Power Control commands at 1. and so on. only information for link maintenance purposes are needed in UL direction. starting with C3(0) and C3(1).All codes below it in the same branch become unavailable. Service Spreading Factor Half Rate – AMR 256 Speech 128 CS64 32 PS64 32 PS128 16 PS384 8 HSDPA 16 Table giving DL spreading factors for different services Points to remember : Usually UL spreading factor for a service is half the value of that in the DL (when the RAB bearer rates are the same in both UL and DL). 12 . it has a SF of 64. C4(0). then. that is.

the baseband signal is spread using a spreading code… By spreading.8 Spreading and Processing Gain : What do they mean for us? In WCDMA. the C/I requirement is about 9-12dB. Point to remember : Spreading and despreading can be considered as a process of pushing the actual baseband signal below the noise floor and then retrieving it. This directly gives an advantage of about 20-25 dB for WCDMA.3. 1) Baseband signal is spread over the entire spectrum (3.84MHz). 13 .48Mcps / 12. Processing Gain = 10 log (chiprate / bit rate) To get a good service. since only a small part of the signal will be affected and data can be recovered with effective techniques 4) Effect of Multipath fading is also reduced 5) Higher the bit rate of the service. but the baseband signal is hidden below the noise floor and hence difficult to detect 3) Effect of Narrow-band interference is reduced. the WCDMA receiver can detect the speech signal). lower the SF (Speech SF = 128. By despreading 1) We get the baseband signal back and gain from the processing gain. with help of a spreading code 2) Overall noise floor rises. PS384 SF= 8) and lower the processing gain Despreading is done at the RX side.2Mbps) = 25dB Eb/No requirement for speech = 5dB (for good service) Rx sig level = 5 – 25 = -20dB (which implies that even if the received signal is 20 dB below the noise floor. the requirement is Rx Sig Level + Processing Gain > Eb/No Eg: PG for speech = 10 log ( 3. In GSM.

will use more than one radio link at a time Point to remember : SHO is kept in mind during the initial planning and ideally an overhead of 30-40% is assumed.. 1c and 1d. it is important to know Event 1a. Events Mobile sends Measurement Report to RNC. when certain thresholds are crossed. There are 3 types of Soft Handover 1) Handover between sectors in the same site (Softer Handover) 2) Intra-RNC SHO 3) Inter-RNC SHO Majority of Soft handovers are usually Intra-RNC SHO.3. Event 1a : addition of a new cell to the Active Set Event 1b: deletion of a cell from the Active Set 14 . RNC decides if the SHO should take place. UE sends a measurement report to the RNC. UE continuously measures the neighbouring signals and compares the measurement results with specific handover thresholds set by the operator. When the threshold is exceeded. Soft Handover is also called MEHO – Mobile Evaluated Handover Active Set : Set of cells which are in soft handover. Advantages of SHO: 1) Seamless handover without disconnection of RAB 2) Macro diversity gain. 1b. While in connected mode. For SHO.9 Soft & Softer Handover Soft handover is the condition in which the UE is connected to more than one NodeB at the same time.achieved in both UL and DL due to the combining of signals from different cells 3) Better performance in areas where a single cell is not strong enough Disadvantages of SHO 1) Increased consumption of radio resource as one UE in SHO.

When the maximum number of steps in a preamble cycle is used. the UE transmits another preamble with slightly higher power. Power control in common channels ensure that sufficient coverage is available to setup UE-originating and UE-terminating calls as well as data transfer on RACH and FACH. If this expected response. Power control is done on both common and dedicated channels. A single UE can create problems with excessive transmission in the UL. The process of ramping up preamble power continues till either a response is obtained from the NodeB or the allowed number of preamble steps are used. is not obtained. downlink transmitted power determines the interference and hence the air interface capacity.Event 1c: replacement of weaker cell in Active Set by another stronger cell (not in the Active Set) Event 1d : replacement of best cell in Active Set by a stronger cell (from Active Set. Power control in dedicated channels ensure that connection quality is maintained in terms of BLER (Block Error Rate) There are mainly 3 types of power control. So it is important to avoid excessive transmission in DL. which in turn is limited by a maximum number of preamble cycles set by the operator.10 Power Control Main purpose of Power control mechanism is to 1) maintain the quality of service 2) minimize the transmitted power in both UL and DL In WCDMA. 15 . AI (Acquisition Indicator). another preamble cycle is started. Monitored Set or Detected Set) 3. Power control mechanism takes care of this. 1) Open loop power control 2) Closed loop power control (Fast Power Control) 3) Outer loop power control Open Loop Power Control – When the UE accesses the system it first sends a preamble and waits for a response from the NodeB.

Based on the comparison. For example: if the received BLER is not meeting the expected quality. Fig 4: Power Control Mechanism 16 . by monitoring the BLER of the received signal. Outer loop power control aims to provide the required quality in both UL and DL. BTS/UE tells the UE/BTS to either increase or decrease the transmission power. Closed Loop Power Control (Fast Power Control) – setting of TX power based on SIR target (in NodeB). Done with a frequency of 1500Hz. number of preamble steps in a preamble cycle and the number of preamble cycles).Point to remember : Three parameters are controlled by the operator in the case of Open loop power control ( preamble step. the SIR target for the Fast Power Control is increased or decreased. UE and BTS continuously compare the actual SIR of the received signal with a target SIR. Based on the BLER. Outer Loop Power Control – setting of SIR target based on Frame quality (in RNC). then the SIR target is increased and if the received BLER is higher than the expected quality. then the SIR target is decreased.

3 codes with SF4 gives the max possible data rate.76 Mbps BUT. Data Rate = Net User Data + Channel Code Redundancy + Control Data After taking out Channel Code Redundancy and Control data. SF for PS384 = 8 Data Rate for one SF4 code = (3. 1 symbol = 2 bits Hence.84Mcps / 4 ) = 960ksps ksps = kilo symbols per second Since R99 uses only QPSK.92Mbps = 5. Data Rate = 480ksps = 960 * 2 bits = 1920kbps = 1.11 Achievable Speeds in 3G How do we get the speed of 2Mbps for R99 ? Data Rate = Chip Rate / Spreading Factor In R99. Data Rate = Net User Data + Channel Code Redundancy + Control Data After taking out Channel Code Redundancy and Control data.84Mcps / 8 ) = 480ksps ksps = kilo symbols per second Since R99 uses only QPSK. Data Rate for one SF4 code = (3. Data Rate = 480ksps = 480 * 2 bits = 960kbps BUT.3. Net User Data == 384kbps (max possible) 17 . Net User Data == 2Mbps (the above value is for one sector with one carrier) Point to remember : The code rate used in R99 is 1/3 Why do we have 384kbps as the max possible data for a single R99 Packet user in 3G? Currently PS384 is the highest RAB available in DL for R99 Packet users. 1 symbol = 2 bits Hence. data rate = 3 * 1.92Mbps For 3 SF4 codes.

which is impossible in actual conditions) 3. this is difficult to achieve. 1 QPSK code at SF16 = 480kbps 1 16-QAM code at SF16 = 960kbps 1 64-QAM code at SF16 = 1440kbps For HSDPA after applying ¾ coding rate 1QPSK Code = 360kbps 1 16-QAM Code = 720kbps 1 64-QAM Code = 1080kbps 10 codes with 16QAM = 720 * 10 = 7200 kbps = 7.12 What factors affect the data rates available to a user? User position in the cell Interference from other users and neighbouring cells Number of subscribers accessing the same cell Speed of the customer (if he is mobile) 3. 2 to 3 strong signals are still ok. then the UE gets confused and cannot correctly decode the 18 .2Mbps 15 codes with 16QAM = 720 *15 = 10.2Mbps (max per cell or sector) Theoretical max of HSDPA with one carrier = 15 Codes * 1440kbps = 21. since Soft handover will manage the situation. But if you have more signals coming at the same place with more-or-less equal strength.13 What are the main issues in a real 3G network? Pilot Pollution (Improper Pilot Power Planning) Main objective of Pilot planning is to have a dominant signal at a given place.How do you calculate maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Using the formula (data rate = chiprate/spreading factor). In practice.8Mbps (max per cell or sector) 15 codes with 64QAM = 1080 *15 = 16.6Mbps for a single carrier (assuming coding rate of 1.

Overall throughput of the data user will be affected due to unnecessary handovers/cell changes. Power. Soft handover does not take place and as a result Ec/No degrades. As a result the call drops when the new signal is about 15dB higher than the cells in the Active set. In Ec/No. A malfunctioning UE can cause many problems like Demanding too much power from the base station In-efficient channel switching Excessive transmission of power in UL IRAT HO Parameter Definition Improper definitions can lead to un-necessary handover between 3G and 2g. Tilt and Azimuths optimization mainly used to avoid pilot pollution. Cell Breathing With more and more users coming into a cell. Proper handover regions should be planned. Improper UEs Though not observed on a wide scale. to avoid any coverage gaps. So the overall coverage of the cell shrinks. When the UE is getting a strong signal which is not defined as a neighbour to the existing cells in the Active Set. This can be a problem especially for indoor customers using HSDPA or data services. Ec is good (as long as there is no pilot pollution). Cell breathing is more of a planning issue and has to be considered at the planning stage itself. 19 . Missing Neighbour Definitions This can be observed on Field with Tems or any monitoring tool (as Detected Set). No is interference. the new signal adds to the interference. this can be a problem. the actual power available for services is lesser than the power available in an empty cell. Points to remember: Strive to have ONE dominant Pilot signal at a given place.signals due to low Useful Signal-to-Interference ratio (Ec/No) and hence the call gets dropped.

3. HSDPA HSDPA has a fixed spreading factor of 16. In actual practice. it is better to have low sites with lower coverage areas.14 What is the difference between RAB and RB? RAB – Radio Access Bearer – Link between UE and Core (Radio + Iub + Iu) RB – Radio Bearer – Link between UE and RNC (Radio + Iub) 4. so as to make sure that chances for a handover is higher between certain cells. Multiple codes can be reserved for HSDPA at this SF level and depending on the number of codes available. When there is a shortage of codes. Details are given in the section What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Generally operators reserve 5 or 10 codes per carrier (out of the 15 available) for HSDPA service. CS64 and PS. It is possible to give higher priority for some cells than to other cells. This parameter can also be used to avoid handover in certain locations between certain cells to some extent. low sites are generally problematic as they overshoot and contribute to Pilot Pollution. Point to remember: Greater the number of codes you reserve for HS.Prioritizing Neighbours More efficient handover can be achieved by proper prioritization of neighbours. the speed varies. which implies that these codes are not available for other R99 services like Speech. due to higher traffic. Operator can decide how to distribute HS and R99 traffic in different carriers. There are different ways of code allocation for HSDPA. 20 . It is also possible to have a carrier fully allocated to HS. which implies that 15 codes will be available solely for HS and no other services will be possible in that carrier. Down-tilting of low sites can lead to coverage holes…(we should keep in mind that down-tilting is an efficient way of reducing overshooting). thinking mistakenly that since interference is to be avoided in UMTS. the operators can go for a second carrier. lesser the resources available for R99 services. Low Sites One major mistake RF planners did in the beginning was to install low sites for UMTS. and this varies from vendor to vendor. Improper allocation of priority can lead to bad handover decisions.

modulation technique) Fig 5: HSDPA Techniques 4.4.2 HSDPA Channel Structure In addition to the new downlink shared channel HS-DSCH. Mainly they are HS-SCCH and HS-DPCCH. 21 . some control channels are also required for HSDPA.1 - HSDPA – Techniques Shared Channel Transmission (enabling one user to have more than one code) Shorter TTI (2ms) Higher Modulation Technique (16QAM ) Hybrid ARQ Retransmission Faster Scheduling based on Radio conditions Better Scheduling Techniques(code rate.

leading to much lower RTT 22 .3 - Advantages of HSDPA over R99 Faster Retransmission (due to control in NodeB).Channel HS – DSCH Direction DL Content User Data Control information to address UEs and information for decoding the transport block. CQI SRB (Control signaling: RRC and NAS) in DL SRB and User data in UL HS-SCCH HS-DPCCH A-DCH DL UL UL and DL Table giving HSDPA Channels and related R99 Channels Fig 6: HSDPA Channels 4. UEs can see upto 4 HS-SCCH ACK/NAK.

Proportional fair scheduling takes into account. retransmission decision is taken in the RNC (RLC layer). in case of R99. the users are in. hence better response time and RTT 16QAM is not used in R99 Soft Combining of re-transmission Point to remember : There are mainly 2 types of scheduling in HSDPA – Round Robin and Proportional Fair. Round Robin scheduling. it was the preferred scheduler. In actual testing conditions. hence higher throughputs Shorter TTIs.Fig 7: Retransmission methods in R99 and HSDPA As seen in the picture above. whereas in HSDPA. the radio conditions also and tries to improve the overall cell throughput by giving slightly higher preference to users in better radio conditions. with most vendors. 4.11 23 . allocates resources to every user in a round robin manner regardless of the radio conditions. not much difference in overall cell throughput was observed between the two scheduling techniques and since Round Robin scheduling came free of charge. the retransmission decision is taken in NodeB (MAChs layer). This leads to a great reduction in overall RTT (Round Trip Time) More codes used by a single user.4 What is the maximum possible speed in HSDPA? Check section 3.

In all the 3 graphs above. 24 . Fig 8: Overall picture of how radio conditions affect HS Throughput and Power Requirement The figure above summarizes the tests conducted for a HS user in both bad and good radio conditions. NodeB scheduler allocates resources to the UE. the left side represents a user in bad radio condition and the right side represents a user in a good radio condition. indicates a reasonably good network. better the network. Depending on the CQI values. CQI values less than 17. An average CQI value of about 22 and above. indicates a low quality network and optimization is required.4.5 Why is CQI important? CQI is the feedback which the system receives from the UE and it mainly indicates the radio condition of the UE. Higher the CQI.

With R99. 5. CQI values should be high. Power. UE Category 5. 32 CEs are saved by using EUL. the user consumed much more power. - 4. Modulation Scheme. leading to increased capacity for the system.1 - EUL – Techniques Hybrid ARQ with Soft Combining Fast Channel Dependent Scheduling Multi-code Transmission 25 . though he got almost the same throughput as the user in good radio condition. Hence in this case. Points to remember : It is very important to have a HS user in good radio conditions. we need to have upto 32 channel elements. total CE requirement = 4 * 16 = 64 CEs. In bad radio conditions.A user in a very bad radio condition reports an average CQI of 14. Currently achievable peak individual user throughputs are around 1. movies) If EUL is used. Simultaneous users. since each 384UL RAB requires 16 CEs.4 to 2Mbps in EUL where as it is 384 kbps with R99.6 Limiting factors of HSDPA Channelization Codes. Channel Elements. since higher throughputs can be achieved with lesser transmitted power. EUL Main idea of EUL is to effectively use the interference headroom available in the uplink. assuming that they are using 384 RAB in uplink. For higher order modulations to work. EUL should give higher throughputs and greater capacity than R99. For example: Assume that 4 users want to upload big amounts of data…(let us say. Overall. whereas the same user in excellent radio conditions reported an average CQI of 26.

96Mbps Since 2 channels (2 SF4) are possible.92Mbps 26 .84/4 = 0.Channels Fig 9: EUL Channel Structure 5.- Power Control Soft Handover 5.96Msps 1symbol = 1bit since BPSK is used in EUL So.2 EUL . Data rate per channel = 3.96 * 2 = 1. Data rate per channel = 0. maximum rate = 0.3 Achievable Speeds in EUL Case 1: Assuming that the UE category available can support only upto 2 SF4.

46Mbps Point to remember: Above figure is the total bit rate achievable with EUL in one cell. the shared resource is UL interference and Channel Elements 27 .84/2 = 1. the shared resource is DL Transmission Power. 6.96Mbps Total data rate = (2*1.92) + (2*0. Data rate per SF2 channel = 3.32Mbps Why is it NOT beneficial to have 16-QAM in EUL ? Since UL is interference limited: It is better not to have power-inefficient higher-order modulation schemes Cost effective design of UE power amplifier is possible with lower-order modulation schemes.376Mbps Data rate at L1 (transport block level) = 1.96) = 5.92Mbps Data rate per SF4 channel = 3.76 * ¾ = 4.1 Resource Utilization in HSDPA and EUL In HSDPA.After taking out all FEC. HSDPA & EUL 6. Case 2: Assuming that the maximum channel capacity of 2SF2 + 2SF4 is available. when the maximum possible configuration is 2 * SF4 channels (and only BPSK is available).84/4 = 0.76Mbps Realistically with ¾ coding Max EUL Data Rate = 5. CRC. If we have SF2 available. since they have lesser PAR (Peak to Average Ratio) which in turn lead to lesser Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) generated by the UE. MAC-headers and L3 signaling. data rate at RLC level = 1. we will be getting higher UL throughputs. Channelization Codes and Channel Elements In EUL.

2 Difference between HSDPA and EUL Spreading Factor Soft Handover Power Control Modulation Scheme Link Adaptation HSDPA Fixed = 16 No (only A-DCH in SHO) No (Check RPA ) 16QAM & QPSK Rate Control EUL Variable from 256-2 Yes Yes BPSK Rate & Power Control 7. By doing this. Data Volume for PS/HS services Integrity – CQI for HS. If it has crossed a threshold. IRAT handover Retainability – Mainly Voice and HS drops. if there are 3 PS384 users in a cell and one of them moves into a bad signal area and requires more power to maintain the data rate. the user is downgraded from PS384 to PS128 or to PS64. Congestion Control tries to keep the usage of the system within reasonable limits. KPIs Accessibility – both RRC and RAB phases considered Mobility – Soft/softer handover (30-40%). Admission Control ensures that a new user will be connected only if there are enough resources available for him. Currently the practice is to monitor Minutes/Drop Traffic – Erlangs for Speech/CS64 services. channel element 28 . depending on the available power.6. the system checks the used DL transmitted power. Capacity Management Main purpose of capacity management is to provide sufficient QOS and coverage for users. BLER for R99 (if needed) 8. Admission Control and Congestion Control are the two main mechanisms used for capacity management. For example.

utilization is also reduced from 16 to 8(PS128) or 4(PS64). especially has a very lenient admission policy. Speech and video call users have higher priority over HS and PS users. Admission for speech and video calls have strict criteria. as connected users are allocated capacity based on availability and do not use other system resources. Speech/video call users are connected only if dedicated resources are available for them. Data services have easier admission policies. which includes HS power exceeds a threshold for a set period of time) Point to remember: Generally congestion control comes into play before admission control. Network Elements Utilization This section gives a rough idea of the parameters to be monitored to calculate the utilization of different network elements 29 . which effectively means that more speech users can be accommodated. Resources Monitored for Load Control: Parameters monitored and used for capacity management are Downlink Transmitted Carrier Power Downlink Channelization Codes Uplink Received Total Wideband Power Interference No: of radio links in compressed mode No: of serving HS connections No: of serving connections No: of non-serving connections Node B Hardware Utilization (mainly Channel Elements) 9. EUL. Congestion control is based on 3 parameters Downlink overload (when the downlink transmitted power is exceeding some threshold for a set period of time) Uplink overload (when RTWP –received total wideband power exceeds a threshold for a set period of time) DL HSDPA Overload (when total power.

channelization codes have become a major limiting factor in terms of resource utilization. - Spreading Factor 128 Bearer Data Rate (kbps) AMR 12.- RNC: Total Traffic. DL Transmit Power Channel Elements are one of the major hardware resource in NodeB to be planned and monitored carefully. 30 . The tables below give sample CE requirements for different services. R99 services use CE when required. Code Tree. Different services have different requirement of CEs. ATM connectivity. only the remaining codes are available for R99 services like Speech. Since atleast 5 to 10 codes are reserved for HS. Generally.2 32 64 128 Channel Element Requirement 1 2 4 8 4 384 16 Sample Table for UL Channel Element Requirement Channelization Codes : With the introduction of HSPA. total number of NodeBs which can be connected to one RNC NodeB: Channel Elements. In most of the vendors. HS requirements are not included in these tables. as they are different for different vendors. vendors go for a second carrier in case of code congestion.2 32 Channel Element Requirement 1 32 16 64 128 2 4 8 8 384 Sample Table for DL Channel Element Requirement Spreading Factor 64 32 16 8 Bearer Data Rate (kbps) AMR 12. CS64 and R99 Packet. there is a fixed allocation of CEs for HS services. Simultaneous number of HS users.

One of the main limitations if you have AAL2 switching is the number of CIDs available per VC. we have 10 times more speech users. We have to keep in mind that Packet users require more power compared to Speech users.1 Inter-RAT Handovers (event 3a) Required since 3G coverage is generally less compared to 2G. Case 1: If you assign just one VC. you have a total of 248 CIDs available… Case 2: If you assign 10 VCs. Different methods are available. We can say that Power == Capacity. Event 2d occurs when the 3G measured quality is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers measurement on IRAT or Inter-Frequency (depending on 31 . Inter-RAT & Inter-Frequency Handovers 10. It is important to have proper parameters defined for Inter-RAT handovers (mainly UMTS-GSM). since each Voice user needs 2 CIDs. downlink is power limited. we have a limitation of 128 speech users due to the definition of VC. Point to remember : Channel Element is a NodeB level resource. Total possible subscribers in case 1 = 248 / 2 = 124 speech users Total possible subscribers in case 2 = 2480 / 2 = 1240 speech users So in case1. you have 248 * 10 = 2480 CIDs available…. with the same capacity available as in Case1. separate CIDs are needed for Control purpose also. Channelization code is a cell level resource.DL Transmit Power : In WCDMA. Assuming only voice users in the network. For example: If you have one STM1 link with 155Mbps. Please keep in mind that the each HS user require 3 CIDs. Further. you can divide it into any number of VCs as you need. 10. In case2. assuming that we have enough resources like CEs and channelization codes. Hence it is important to monitor the DL power consumption. Iub: Proper planning should be done for VP/VC. even when there was more than enough capacity (155Mbps).

For example: In Ericsson you have to set either IRAT or IF HO. In some vendors both are possible.2 Inter-Frequency Handovers (event 2b) Required when 2 or more frequencies are implemented in a network. then event2b occurs. Compressed mode measurements on 2G start after event 2d. Event 6d occurs when the UL UE Tx power exceeds a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Event 3a (IRAT HO) or Event 2b(IF HO) follows. where as in Nokia it is possible to have IRAT and IF handovers from the same carrier. Compressed mode measurements on the 2nd frequency start after event 2d. if the measured quality of the 2nd frequency is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time. if the measured quality of 2G is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time. Depending on the settings. All ongoing HO attempts are aborted if DL Quality for both Ec/No and RSCP are good.Once event 2d is triggered. when event 2d occurs. Actual 3G-2G handover is triggered by event 3a. the system decides if IRAT or IF handover should take place . Event6b.3 Compressed Mode Compressed mode mechanism enables the UE to carry out measurements on another frequency. then event3a occurs. Event 2d occurs when the measured quality is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers measurement on IRAT or Inter-Frequency (depending on vendor). Point to remember : Event 3a : 3G-2G HO Event 2b : Inter-Frequency HO Event 2f occurs when the measured quality is above a certain threshold for a certain period of time and this triggers the stopping of IRAT/Inter-Frequency measurements. Actual IF HO is triggered by event 2b. 10. occurs when the UL UE Tx power is below a certain threshold for a certain period of time. No user data is lost as it is compressed in the time domain using one of the below 2 methods 32 . Certain idle periods are created in radio frames during which the UE can perform measurements on other frequencies. 10.vendor). Once event 2d is triggered.

- Halving the spreading factor so that the same amount of data can be sent in half the time Higher layer scheduling in which layer2 restricts the high bit rate TFC (transport format combinations) so that the user throughput is reduced temporarily Points to remember : Currently. What next after HSPA? 11. Compressed mode can be used for both UL and DL (depending on UE capability) The transmission/reception gap is always 7 slots (out of the total 15 slots in a frame) Fig 10: Transmission Gaps created with Compressed Mode 11.1 HSPA+ HSPA+ is a natural evolution to HSPA and can be considered as an upgrade to the existing HSPA system. It would be available soon. Many techniques are specified in HSPA+ for improved performance. They are MIMO Higher Order Modulation (64QAM) Multi-carrier HSPA Continuous Packet Connectivity 33 . compressed mode is not used for HS-DSCH or EUL.

HSPA aims to increase the available user data rates by merging 2 carriers of 5MHz each.3 Dual Carrier HSPA (also known as Dual Cell HSPA) DC. Higher Bandwidth available to a user = = Higher Throughput for the user Basic idea of DC-HSPA is to achieve better resource utilization by means of joint resource allocation and load balancing across the carriers. without the necessity for additional bandwidth or transmit power.2 MIMO Multiple Input Multiple Output involves using multiple antennas at both transmit and receive side which leads to significant increase in achievable throughputs. thus making available up to 10MHz carrier bandwidth for a user. 11. Some of the features for DC-HSPA are New MAC entity. MAC-ehs which supports HS-DSCH transmission/reception in more than one cell served by the same Node-B New UE categories required (Categories 21 to 24) Anchor Carrier : Carrier with all physical channels (as shown below) Supplementary Carrier: Carrier with just HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH 34 .- Enhanced Cell_FACH Voice Over HSPA Below sections will give you a brief idea of some of these features. Point to remember: HSPA+ Rel: 7 (MIMO) can theoretically support up to 28Mbps with a single 5MHz Carrier HSPA+ Rel: 8 (Higher Order Modulation + MIMO) can theoretically support up to 42Mbps with a single 5MHz carrier 11.

so as to avoid interference and reduce system resource utilization. So it will be good to avoid unnecessary transmissions during these idle periods.Fig 11: DC-HSPA Channel Usage in the Multiplexed Carriers Advantages of DC-HSPA are Higher data rates possible compared to the 5MHz single carrier. even if they are not doing anything for a majority of the time they are connected. User can be assigned resources dynamically either on the anchor or on the supplementary carrier Point to remember : Theoretical DL throughputs achievable with DC-HSPA without MIMO is around 43. 35 . CPC consists of two main features UE DTX/DRX and HS-SCCH-less operation. data users are expected to stay connected for long times. since a user can get all the code and power resources of both carriers in a single TTI Improved load sharing due to dynamic statistical multiplexing of users at connection management level Greater frequency selectivity and improved QOS due to joint scheduling.4 Continuous Packet Connectivity In future.2 Mbps 11.

require transmission of lots of small packets in DL.UE DTX (discontinuous transmission from UE) enables the UE to switch off continuous transmission of DPCCH (Dedicated Physical Control Channel) when there is no information to be transmitted in the uplink. This also leads to reduced battery consumption. when there is no data to be received in downlink. resulting in increased uplink capacity UE DRX (discontinuous reception at UE) enables the UE to switch off their receivers. Services like VoIP. This involves blind decoding of up to 4 different formats of HS-DSCH. 36 . the DL data channel. This leads to Reduced battery consumption Reduced interference. This leads to significant overhead due to the HS-SCCH control channel. One solution to this problem is to remove HS-SCCH transmission completely for the first HARQ transmission.

4 MIMO MIMO MIMO MIMO DC DC DC DC DC + MIMO DC + MIMO DC + MIMO DC + MIMO Table giving UE categories for HSDPA 37 . 16-QAM.7 0.3 42.9 1.76 0. data rate [Mbit/s] 1.4 0. 16-QAM and 64QAM QPSK.6 21. 16-QAM. Max.8 3.9 35.76 0.6 3.76 0.12.4 27. 64-QAM QPSK.8 1. 16-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM and 64QAM QPSK.4 27.1 14.97 0.9 70.1 UE Categories Knowledge of different categories of UEs available is essential to understand the achievable throughputs. 16-QAM. 16-QAM. 64-QAM QPSK.76 0.2 1. 16-QAM.2 1. Appendix 12.8 55.1 23. 16-QAM QPSK.6 84. 64-QAM MIMO Dual Carrier Code rate required to achieve max. 16-QAM QPSK. data rate 0. 16-QAM QPSK.6 7.76 0.3 42. 16-QAM QPSK.9 35. number of HS-DSCH codes 5 5 5 5 5 5 10 10 15 15 5 5 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 15 Category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 Modulation QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK and 16-QAM QPSK only QPSK only QPSK.2 7. 16-QAM QPSK. 64-QAM QPSK. 16-QAM QPSK.98 Max.76 0.2 23.82 0.75 0. 64-QAM QPSK.76 0.76 0.8 17.2 46.76 0.2 10.

Table giving UE categories for EUL 12.2 Modulation Schemes Fig : Constellation diagrams of different modulation schemes 38 .

Handover. Reselection.3 SIB List System information is broadcast regularly to the UE on the BCCH. System Information Blocks MIB SB1 SIB1 SIB2 SIB3 SIB4 SIB5 and SIB5bis SIB7 SIB11 SIB12 SIB18 Contents PLMN identity for serving cell. Timers and counters in Idle and Connected mode. Connected mode only Paging parameters. Any parameter change in the system information is notified to all UEs in the cell by a paging message or by a system information change indication message. The table below list the different SIB messages available. Cell selection and reselection parameters Measurement management PLMN identity for GSM neighbors listed in SIB11. Location and routing registration. It contains parameters related to Cell Selection. SIB Scheduling Information SIB Scheduling Information Paging parameters. LA and RA updating URA identity list Cell selection and reselection parameters Cell selection and reselection parameters. 12.12. Cell and common channel configuration Power control on common channel Measurement management. Power Control etc.4 UTRAN Protocols RRC : - Radio Resource Control Handles control plane signaling of Layer3 signaling between UEs and RNC NBAP : - NodeB Application Protocol (Iub) Signaling protocol responsible for the control of NodeB by RNC NBAP has two parts: C-NBAP and D-NBAP C-NBAP (Common NBAP) controls the overall functionality of the NodeB 39 .

Kuwait as well as Mobitel. Slovenia Material for this guide has been compiled from Author’s experience in 3G from year 2002 with Mobitel. Naveen Krishnapillai. Amol Rajan Pradhan .D-NBAP (Dedicated NBAP) controls radio links specific to UEs RANAP : - Radio Access Network Application Part (Iu) For signaling between Core Network( MSC or SGSN) and RNC RNSAP : - Radio Network System Application Part (Iur) Signaling protocol responsible for communication between RNCs Acknowledgements & References I would like to thank my colleagues at Wataniya Telecom. Slovenia for the support extended to me. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom. Iztok Saje. Kuwait Wataniya Telecom. Amin Sudhir Vasanth . Kuwait WCDMA for UMTS by Harri Holma and Antti Toskala Internet (especially Wikepedia) White Paper – Dual Cell HSDPA and its Future Evolution . I would like to thank specially. Santosh Tummala .Nomor Research GmbH Articles from different vendors. Slovenia and Wataniya Telecom. especially Ericsson and NSN - 40 . Wataniya Telecom. Kuwait Mobitel.

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