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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
If the organization considers the employees to be the human assets, training and development represents an ongoing investment in these assets and one of the most significant investments an organization can make. Training involves employees acquiring knowledge and learning skills that they will be able to use immediately; employee development involves learning that will aid the organization and employees later in the employees career many organizations use the term learning rather than training to emphasize the point that the activities’ engaged in as part of this developmental process are broad based and involve much more than straightforward acquisition of manual or technical work. Learning implies ongoing development and continuously adding to employees skills and knowledge to meet the challenges the organization faces from its external environment. A focus on learning as opposed to training emphasizes results rather than process, making such an approach more palatable to senior executives.an kind of employee learning that is not reinforced by the organizations reward system has little chance of impacting the employee behavior and performance. Employee training and development is increasingly becoming a major strategic issue for organizations for several reasons. First rapid changes in technology continue to cause increasing rates of skill obolescene.in order to remain competitive, organizations need to continue training their employees to use the best and latest technology available. Managing in such a turbulent environment has created the need for continuous learning among managers Second the redesign of work into jobs having broader responsibilities( tat are often part of selfmanaged teams)requires employees to assume more responsibility, take initiative and further develop interpersonal skills to ensure their performance and success. Employees need to acquire a broader skill base and be provided with development opportunities to assist with teamwork collaboration and conflict management. Third mergers and acquisition have greatly increased. These activities require integrating employees of one organization into another having a vastly different culture. When financial and performance results of merger and acquisition activity fall short of plans the reason usually rest with people management systems rather than operational or financial management systems. Fourth employees are moving from one employer to another with far more frequency than they did in the past. With less loyalty to a particular employer and more to the employees own careers, more time must be spent on integrating new hires into the workplace Finally fifth the globalization reason of business operations requires managers to acquire knowledge and skill related to language and cultural differences. These strategic challenges for training exist alongside standard types of training that are done for new organizational hires( orientation and socialization) and for those employees assuming new job responsibilities.in organizations that emphasizes both promotion from within and the career development of existing employees, continual training and development opportunities are critical. Employees must be updated in industry best practices and changing technology. For
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT an employer who hires a significant number of killed worker from outside the organization, new employees need to understand rules, policies,and procedures and be socialized into company operations and employee networks. New employee orientation can be daunting challenge for employers. New hires are often inundated (too many things to handle) with forms procedures and people but lack a strong sense of the business and operations in which they have begun to work. While new hire orientation programs can attempt to asset new employees in their transition into the workplace, if the program were not developed in tandem (one after another) with any strategic objectives or in concert with other hr program and /or critical operational areas of the organization they don’t have as significant impact on the new hires ability to fully understand the entire organization and their place in it. Exemplary new employee orientation training programs have been developed at black and decker and micro-strategy.
New employee training at black and decker
Towson Maryland based tool manufacturer black and decker have developed a new employee training program that literally puts employee to work. College grads who gain entry level professional employment in sales with B &D traditionally received their training via a three ring binder that provided information about B &D products .new employees would study and learn the material to assist them with their selling.estabilishing credibility was not part of the training equation and many trainees never even touched the product they were selling, let alone used them. B &D has recently revamped its sales training for new hires to combine classroom training, online courses and most important a training floor where new hires engage in hands on learning about construction and tool use. This program a component of B &D university enrolls 100 to 200 new sales and marketing employees annually B &D has a staff of 15 employees and an annual budget of 3 million $. As part of their training, sales and marketing trainee’s takes take an online course that explains the four basic applications of tools: cutting, removing, fastening and making holes. They then go to work in product training area where they must take use the tools to build things such as roofs moldings and stairs. Such experience allows them to go to retailers and fully explain product features and benefits.as a result of its program B &D has drastically reduced turnover, sent out more credible sales staff, enhanced the B &D name, and reported higher employee satisfaction and loyalty.
Boot camp at microstrategy
Microstrategy is a Vienna virgina based organization that provides data images services and has long held a spot on fotuntune best employers list. With a strong corporate culture based on the convictions and beliefs of its founders Michael saylor, microstrategy has developed new hire orientation program that attempts to infuse elements of its culture into employees from the first day of work. The program known as a BOOT CAMP goes beyond mere o orientation and is a written requirement in every employment contract for microstrategy employees, who work in 18 states and 35 countries.it is an 2|Page
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT intensive immersion into microstrategy culture to which saylor wants each employee exposed and committed. There are three different variations of boot camp each targeted to a different group of employees. The first is a three day general boot camp that concludes with a 20 to 25 questions exam that covers information such as microstrategy products and company structure. The second is a two week sales boot camp that culminates in a mock marketing presentation. The third is a given week technical boot camp that features continues testing. Despite its intensity employee feedback on boot camp has been very positive and only complaint heard is that it is too short. Another approach to new employee training is rotation. Rotational programs can have added benefits for new employees, particularly those who have limited full time professional work experience. Rotations allow new hires to sample different kinds of work within the organization and determine an optimal fit between their needs and interests and those of the organization. Rotation programs can be expensive in the short run but they represent a longer term investment in employees that can provide significant benefits to an organization Employer benefit in that rotation program allows more flexibility in work assignments. Employees who have been cross trained not only better understand how their individual jobs contribute to the whole but also can be reassigned as a business and organization conditions change. Rotational programs can also have the benefit of minimizing the chance that specialized knowledge will be vested in only one individual in the organization causing disruption’s when such an individual resigns, retires,, or otherwise leaves the organization.in addition to helping develop a knowledgeable and flexible workforce, rotation programs can enhance retention because the versatility they offer allows employees to pursue more opportunities within the organization. Organizations that wish to remain competitive must consider the types of employees they should hire and the skills and knowledge these employees will need to ensure optimal performance over time Ironically however training budgets and programs are actually one of the first expenses organizations’ cut in response to economic downturns. Many key decision makers consider these to be luxury expenditures for prosperous times instead of the necessary investment’s in the organization’s future that they are. Training and development activities are equally important to both employees’ and employers.one recent survey found that 96% of job applicants reported that the opportunity to learn new skills was very important when evaluating a prospective employer. Employers also see a bottom line benefit from strategically designed training activities Investment in training and development however remains a catch 22 f or employers. While additional training can improve bottom line operating results that same training can make employees much more attractive targets for competitor’s recruiting efforts. This is particularly true for technical employees, a majority of who view training primarily as an opportunity to obtain another job.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
BENEFITS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Training involves some kind of change for employees: changes in how they do their jobs ,how they relate to others, the conditions under which they perform or changes in their job responsibilities Although some employees may find any kind of change threatening, change that results from employee training and development has nothing short of win win outcomes for both employees and employers Strategically targeted training in critical skills and knowledge bases adds to employee marketability and employability security that is critical in the current environment of rapidly developing technology and changing jobs and work processes Organizations continue to seek out and employ knowledge workers rather than workers with narrowly defined technical skills. Organizations can benefit from training, beyond bottom line and genera efficiency and profitability measures, when they create more flexible workers who can assume varied responsibilities and have a more holistic understanding of what the organization does and the role they play in organization’s success. Providing employee’s with broader knowledge and skills and emphasizing and supporting ongoing employee development also help organization’s reduce layers of management and make employees more accountable for their results Everyone employees employers and customers benefits from effective training and development programs. The key strategic issue then becomes how to make training effective. In order for organization’s to provide effective employee training and development, key decision makers must consider employees from the investment perspective Training and development quit frequently involve short term costs( for design and delivery of the learning activities) and long term benefits Particularly with issues of employee development there may be no return on investment for the immediate time period.organizaitons that are bound by short term financial performance indicators are less likely to value training and less likely to create and support a culture that fosters employee development. organization’s that have a strategic approach to human resources can find that employee training can be much more efficacious(successful) as part of an integrated approach of hr. For example training and development are greatly assisted by having appropriate and well thought out staffing strategies, Judicious(sensible) recruitment and selection of new employees will not only allow more targeted training that addresses specific needs but also minimize the need to conduct any extensive or remedial(designed to improve one's skills ) training among new employees.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
PLANNING AND STRATEGIZING TRAINING
There are two keys to developing successful training programs in organzaitions.The first is planning and strategizing the training this involve four distinct steps Needs assessment The establishment of objectives and measures Delivery of the training Evaluation of the training A model for planning and strategizing training is presented and explained in exhibit 9-1
NEEDS ASSESSMENT The first step needs assessment involves determining why specific training activities are required and placing the training within an appropriate organizational context Needs assessment involves three levels of analysis 1. Organizational 2. Task 3. Individual At the organizational level that raining is considered within the context of the organization’s culture, politics, structue and strategy This analysis considers how the training will assist the organization or unit in meeting its objective’s and how the training may affect day to day workplace dynamics between and among different units.it also considers the cost of training relative to the benefits that may be expected ant considers the opportunity costs of foregoing(Cancel) the training. 2nd comes task assessment involves looking at specific duties’ and responsibilities assigned to different jobs and the types of skills and knowledge needed to perform each task. This level also considers whether the learning can or should take place on or away from the job, the implications of mistakes and how the job can be designed to provide the employee with direct feedback on his or her performance. This level also involves determine whether the training needs of certain jobs are similar to or different from the training needs of other jobs in the organization’s. 3rd the individual level of assessment considers the people to be trained.it requires an analysis of their existing levels of o knowledge and skills as well as factors relating to their preferred learning styles, personality interpersonal styles in interacting with others, and any special needs individual employees might have, such as any physical or mental condition that might need to be addressed in the design and deliver of the training. The three levels of needs analyses are summarized in exhibit 9-2 5|Page
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Exhibit 9-1: strategizing training
Assessment Organization Task Individual
objectives and measures
design and delivery . interference .on the job . transfer .off the job .online
Exhibit 9-2 levels of need assessment
Organizational level: How does the training relate to organizational objectives How does the training impact day to day work workplace dynamics? What are the costs and expected benefits of the training?
Task level: What responsibilities are assigned to the job What skills or knowledge are needed for successful performance? Should the learning setting be the actual job settings? What are the implications of mistakes? How can the job provide the employee with direct feedback? How similar to or different from the training needs of other jobs are the needs of this job?
Individual level What knowledge skills and abilities do trainees already have? What are the trainees learning styles? What special needs do the trainees have (any physical or mental conditions)
After training needs have been assessed, objectives for the training activities must be developed. These objectives should follow directly from the assessed needs described in specific,measureable terms
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Measures should be stated in terms of both desired employee behaviors as well as the results that are expected to follow such behavior. A common problem at this stage is that an organization’s objectives may be so vague that success in achieving them can’t be accurately measured or evaluated On the other hand an organization may have no plan for measuring objectives. Training programs that can’t be evaluated are of little value to the organization in the long run. One important source of information in setting objectives can be the data contained in the organization’s performance management system. Specific training objectives can be derived from the performance deficiency noted in the performance feedback process.both individual and group training can be developed around these measures. USING TRAINING TO FACILITATE A MERGER AT HEWLETT PACKARD When a computer giant hp and compaq completed their controversial merger in 2002 hp faced a daunting task of integrating the two organziations.training via e learning played a major role in ensuring that the merger went smoothly. The existing portal learn @hp,was used as a single gateway for employees in nearly 60 countries .the portal was redesigned to help define the new company identity and structure and to communicate hps new vision to employees. This helped to speed up the merger and saved the organization and estimated $50 million.learn@hp’s success in facilitating the merger has led to its continued growth and development as a critical management tool. From 2003 to 2004 e learning increased from 25% to 40% of the total time employees spent in training. A new agreement with Microsoft requires the retraining of 3000 hp Compaq employees’ learning not only reduced the training time for certification from eight to three weeks it also saved the organization an estimated $ 10 million.
DESIGN AND DELIVERY
After objectives and measures have been set, the next step is the design and delivery of the training itself. Two critical issues must be considered in the design of the training prior to its delievery.the first is interference .interference occurs when prior training, learning or established habits acts as an obstacle in the learning process. Anyone who learned to drive an automobile having an automatic transmission and later attempted to drive manual or standard transmission probably experienced interference in their learning. The more experienced someone has in behaving in a certain way, the more difficult it may be to modify the response they disply.when individual are stressed, they tend to revert (return) to conditioned behavior. The 2nd critical issue that must be addressed in design is transfer. Transfer refers to whether the trainee or learner can actually perform the new skills or use the new knowledge on the job.in other words transfer is the extent to which the trainee or learner is able to TRANSFER the learning to the actual job settings. Many training programs that are conducted away from the work site have been criticized for their lack of transfer because the conditions under which employees have been trained are vastly different from those in which they actually work
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT Obviously it is inefficient to conduct training and receive no benefit from it in terms of employee job performance; those responsible for training need to ensure that I provide maximum transfer. The delivery of the training should anticipate any interference that might be present and a strategy should be planned to overcome it and ensure transfer. Interference is not caused only by conditioned or learned behavior the attitudes of supervisors or peers may produce interference as well. Coworkers who publically express negative concern about the training may cause learners to be predisposed against the training When trainers examine the potential sources of interferences they need to look beyond the backgrounds skills and habits of the trainees themselves to the broader organizational context, which includes, culture, politics and organization structure. Training and development will not be effective unless it is conducted within a large supportive organizational environment. Having the ceo or other senior executives attend training sessions communicates strong organizational support of the training. Transfer can be facilitated by delivering the training in an environment that simulates the actual job conditions as much as possible.in some cases it may be feasible to provide direct, on the job training where the employee is trained under the exact working conditions in which he or she will be expected to perform. However in other cases on the job training may not be feasible and the delivery of the training should then replicate exact working conditions as much as possible. Airline pilots do not learn to fly by going up in an airplane and being told what to do .their training involves extensive exposure to simulated flight conditions on the ground, which tests their learning and ability to react to a variety of situations including crisis situations. On the job training may help to maximize transfer but it is obviously not feasible for all the jobs.in addition off the job training allows learners to focus on their learning by minimizing interruptions or distractions that might take place in the actual work environment An increasing amount of training is being conducted away from the workplace. This sort of training utilizes techniques that attempt to simulate what happens on the job. Instructional techniques that facilitates such simulation involve the use of case studies, role plays and interactive and experiential methods of learning Individuals being trained are asked to assume a role and the responsibilities that they might have on the job and then perform accordingly. An increasing amount of organizational training is being conducted online many organizations have entire training libraries consisting of skills related training and information and knowledge based learning that have been packaged into computer based instruction modules or programs. Colleges and universities are offering an increasing number of courses and even entire degree programs online as well.
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Computer based training at Qualcomm San Diego based QUALCOMM is unquestionably one of the leaders in computer based training for its employees. The 6000 plus employee organization, which invented the multiple access technology used in digital wireless communication worldwide offers more than 250 custom designed courses online. These courses include offerings in both technical and professional/management development areas and were initially designed for delivery to fit different learning schedules and different learning styles. Online courses are offered 24 hrs. a day seven days a week but certain courses are still available in traditional class room delivery settings for those who prefer this type of learning envrionment.probably most critical is the fact that the training is strategically focused. All instruction is developed in concert with QUALCOMM’s culture and business needs learning specialists are assigned to track the needs of various business units by attending staff meetings, meeting regularly with senior management and conducting group need assements.they are then charged with identifying raining needs and then working with vendors and management to define the course and create appropriate and unique content geared to the needs of the business units and QUALCOMM training at QUALCOMM is tightly integrated with the organization’s competency management initiative, my source.my source is an internet based employee development tool that allows employees to access their employment record and view their skill and accomplishmenets.individuals can map out career options and then entail in appropriate learning modules to facilitates promotion and skill development In moving to computer based training, QUALCOMM has saved millions of dollars from the cost of ineffective centralized training. More important its system successfully unleashes the full potential of its employees through training and skill development career planning and competency management. online computer based instruction provides number of benefits.it is self-paced allowing different individuals to learn and absorb material at their own level of comfort and nderstanding.it is adaptive to different needs and can be customized for different employees.it is also easy to deliver All an employee has to do is turn on a computer at a workstation or at home. There is no need to leave one’s desk or coordinate schedules with trainers or trainee. Nor a need to have trainers and trainees in the same physical space Computer based training is also usually less expensive to administer when different units in the organization are geographically dispersed. Finally training can be conducted whenever it is convenient for the employee.an employee who has finished assigned work early no longer needs to look busy or find a way to kill time. The training can be undertaken without any advance scheduling. The popularity of online training can’t be underestimated. A recent survey of 100 companies with an average of 15000 employees each found that 42% currently used online learning
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT applications. More important however 92% of the respondents planned to introduce or accelerate the volume of online training within 12 months. Despite its popularity there are some drawbacks to computer based instruction first learners must be self-motivated and take both initiative and responsibility for their learning Second the cost of producing online interactive materials can be quite high .the content of the learning can become outdated quickly and require revision and possible redesign of the entire online learning environment. Finally the lack of both interaction with others and two way communication may work against the needs and preferred learning styles of many employees, particularly adult learners consequently computer based training can either be advantageous for an employer or a waste of time, resources and money Clearly it needs to be considered within the larger context of the training objectives and the assessed organziaitonal, task,and individual considerations discussed previously.
E-LEARNING AT EMC CORPORATION
EMC is a Hopkinton Massachusetts based supplier of software, networks, and services for data, and information storage. Dramatic improvements in technology related to data storage and retrieval have made product life cycles at EMC increasingly short. This has prompted a need for continuous new product development and consequently training. The use of traditional classrooms to meet these accelerated training needs would have involved great expense as it required the building or leasing of physical space as well as the cost of moving employees of the field to the training site.as EMC expanded globally there was also a need to deliver more standardized training to prevent inconsistencies that were taking place in different locations relative to content and approach. In response to these challenges emc installed a single learning management system that moved training from a traditional instructor led process to an integrated e learning process. This move has allowed new employees to complete product training in five months, rather than the nine months previously required, and sales staff is now able to meet quotas in four months rather than nine to twelve months. Perhaps the biggest benefit has been realized with new product launches. Updated courses are available to coincide with a new products release, resulting in increased customer’s willingness to become early adapters. Customers also are now more prone to buy multiple products, knowing that online support is readily available for them .while EMC initially developed its e learning program with an eye on costs, the longer term investments in this area are also yielding significant productivity and revenue gains.
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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
After the training has been delivered it needs to be evaluated. This evaluation should be an integral part of the overall training program. The organization needs to receive feedback on the training and decide whether the training should be continued in its current form, modified or eliminated altogether. The ultimate evaluations criteria should also be assessed prior to training delivery to provide a comparison basis for post training assessment. Evaluation technique’s that are not developed when objectives are set will usually have little value to the organziation.the decision of how to evaluate training should be made at the same time the training objectives are set. A highly regarded model has been developed for training evaluation that suggests that evaluation can take place on four levels and that thee levels from a hierarchy meaning that lower levels are prerequisites for higher levels.in other words if one of the lower level measures is not affected than those measures that follow it will automatically not be affected as well. These levels are reaction, learning, behavior and results and are illustrated in exhibit 9-3 Reaction measures whether the employees like the training, the trainer, and the facilities; it is usually measured by a questionnaire. If employees have less than favorable reactions to the program, it is unlikely that other employees will have an interest in the training or that employees attending the training received anything of value from it .a favorable reaction in and of itself doesn’t ensure that the training was effective. Learning measures whether the employees know more than they did prior to undertaking the training. Knowledge based training can be measured by tests; skills based training can be measured through demonstrations or simulations. If employees did not learn anything, then obviously we can expect no change in their behavior on the job. For any change to occur as a result of training, the trainees must have learned something. Behavior measures what employees do on the job after the training. This measure allows organizations to assess not only whether transfer has taken place but also whether the employees are able to do anything differently (skills based training) or think or solve problems in a different ways (knowledge based training) .behavioral impact is usually measure through performance appraisal, which is done by those who are able to witness and observe the employee. If there is no change in behavior, we can’t expect employee’s performance to have been enhanced.
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TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT
Exhibit 9-3 Four Level Of Training Evaluation. LEVEL RESULTS QUESTIONS BEING ASKED MEASURES
ACCIDENTS, QUALITY, PRODUCTIVITY, TURNOVER, MORALE, COSTS, PROFITS
IS THE ORG OR THE UNIT BETTER BECAUSE OF THE TRAINING
ARE TRAINEES BEHAVING DIFFERENTLY ON THE JOB AFTER TRAINING? ARE THEY USING THE SKILL AND KNOWLEDGE THEY LEARNED IN TRAINING
PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL B SUPERIOR, PEERS, CLIENTS, SUBORDINATE
Written tests Performance tests Graded simulation
TO WHAT EXTENT DO TRAINEES HAVE GREATER KNOWLEDGE OR SKILL AFTER THE TRAINING PROGRAM THAN THEY DID BEFORE?
DID THE TRAINEES LIKE THE PROGRAM; DO THE TRAINERS, THE FACILITIES? DO THEY THINK THE COURSE WAS USEFUL? WHAT IMPROVEMENTS CAN THEY SUGGEST
evaluation of the result looks at the overall outcomes of the training and the impact the the training has had on producitivity,efficiency and quaity,customer services, or any other means the organization uses to measure contributions and performance of the employees. This can be assessed by budget and cost reports, sales figures, production ,customer surveys or any other means that corresponds to the organizations performance measures However results of training programs often not immediate. Training programs may be ongoing or involve employees developing a level of proficiency, which takes time to achieve and master. Although results based measures of training are usually the most meaningful and economically significant for an organization, undue reliance on them may cause key decision makers to abandon training programs that do not reduce immediate short term results. Consequently the evaluation for training should consider all four levels in conjunction with the organization’s overall strategic objectives.
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INTEGRATING TRAINING WITH PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND COMPENSATION
the second key factor in strategizing training programs is to ensure that desired results of training are reinforced when employees achieve or accomplish them.in larger oragnizaitons,it is not uncommon to see an entire dept. devoted solely to employee training and development this unit may be separated and autonomous from other human resource functions such as performance measurement (appraisal) and compensation and benefits administration.wen employees expend the effort to learn new skill and knowledge and are expected to implement such learning in their jobs, there should be some incentive to do so and some acknowledgement and reinforcement of that performance once it is achieved. However when training performance measurement and compensation a are administered separately and not integrated within a larger, integrated hr strategy there is less chance of that appropriate and necessary reinforcement. When employees are asked to learn critical new skills and or absorbs important new knowledge and apply this in their jobs, the means by which there performance is assessed must reflect these changes. The more critical the skills and knowledge to organization’s strategy, the grater the emphasis that should be placed on assessing them in the organization’s performance management system. Similarly compensation should reflect the results of training. if employees have learned new skills and knowledge and successfully implemented this learning to enhance the performance of the organziation.they should be compensated accordingly in a way that is significant to them. A training program that is not linked to the organization’s performance management and compensation systems as indicated in fig 9-4 has far less chance of success than one that does Training should be conceptualized designed and delivered within a larger strategic context and receive an organization wide commitment to ensure its success. fig 9-4 the link between training and performance management and compensation
STRATEGIZING TRAINING AND PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT AT ANHEUSER –BUSCH 13 | P a g e
TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT The past decade has seen a tremendous boom in the use of online training programs.one of the most comprehensive was developed by st louis based beer brewer anheuser busch.anheuser-busch has developed its wholesaler integrated learning(wil) program for its 13 company owned branch operaitons,12 breweries and 700 independent distributors the wil took more than a year to develop, starting with data collection related to employee skills, knowledge and attributes that was used to create a competency database, which in turn was used to create unique job descriptions based on almost 400 different competencies. The wil allows to access the company website from virtually anywhere to take advantage of eLearning opportunities and measure prophecies deemed critical for a given job description. Immediate feedback is offered and a gap analysis prepared that shows employee skill levels relative to those needed for a position along with specific suggestion’s which might include classroom training online training reference materials apprenticeships coaching and on the job training for bridging any gap. Wil is far from being a simple testing and assessment programs though the program also ties a comprehensive performance management system into its training components.wil analyzes employee performance relative to individual jobs and increases manager accountability y tracking when managers evaluate their employees, whether the manager has produced a development plan for each employeee,and how the employee acts on that plan throughout the year.
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