Describe the OSI model.

(pronounced as separate letters) Short for Open System Interconnection, an ISO standard for worldwide communications that defines a networking framework for implementing protocols in seven layers. Control is passed from one layer to the next, starting at the application layer in one station, proceeding to the bottom layer, over the channel to the next station and back up the hierarchy. At one time, most vendors agreed to support OSI in one form or another, but OSI was too loosely defined and proprietary standards were too entrenched. Except for the OSI-compliant X.400 and X.500 e-mail and directory standards, which are widely used, what was once thought to become the universal communications standard now serves as the teaching model for all other protocols. Most of the functionality in the OSI model exists in all communications systems, although two or three OSI layers may be incorporated into one. OSI is also referred to as the OSI Reference Model or just the OSI Model.

Open System Interconnection an ISO standard for worldwide communications that defines a networking framework for
implementing protocols in seven layers.The seven layers & Functions are: Application (Layer 7) This layer supports application and end-user processes. Communication partners are identified, quality of service is identified, user authentication and privacy are considered, and any constraints on data syntax are identified. Everything at this layer is application-specific. This layer provides application services for file transfers, e-mail, and other network software services. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. Tiered application architectures are part of this layer. Presentation (Layer 6) This layer provides independence from differences in data representation (e.g., encryption) by translating from application to network format, and vice versa. The presentation layer works to transform data into the form that the application layer can accept. This layer formats and encrypts data to be sent across a network, providing freedom from compatibility problems. It is sometimes called the syntax layer. Session (Layer 5) This layer establishes, manages and terminates connections between applications. The session layer sets up, coordinates, and terminates conversations, exchanges, and dialogues between the applications at each end. It deals with session and connection coordination.

Transport (Layer 4) This layer provides transparent transfer of data between end systems, or hosts, and is responsible for end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It ensures complete data transfer. Network (Layer 3) This layer provides switching and routing technologies, creating logical paths, known as virtual circuits, for transmitting data from node to node. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer, as well as addressing, internetworking, error handling, congestion control and packet sequencing. Data Link (Layer 2) At this layer, data packets are encoded and decoded into bits. It furnishes transmission protocol knowledge and management and handles errors in the physical layer, flow control and frame synchronization. The data link layer is divided into two sub layers: The Media Access Control (MAC) layer and the Logical Link Control (LLC) layer. The MAC sub layer controls how a computer on the network gains access to the data and permission to transmit it. The LLC layer controls frame synchronization, flow control and error checking. Physical (Layer 1) This layer conveys the bit stream – electrical impulse, light or radio signal — through the network at the electrical and mechanical level. It provides the hardware means of sending and receiving data on a carrier, including defining cables, cards and physical aspects. Fast Ethernet, RS232, and ATM are protocols with physical layer components. Application Layers Usage Example : 7. Application Layer NNTP · SIP · SSI · DNS · FTP · Gopher · HTTP · NFS · NTP · SMPP · SMTP · SNMP · Telnet (more) 6. Presentation Layer : MIME · XDR · 5. Session Layer : Named Pipes · NetBIOS · SAP 4. Transport Layer : TCP · UDP · PPTP · SCTP · SSL · TLS 3. Network Layer : IP · ICMP · IPsec · IGMP · IPX · AppleTalk 2. Data Link Layer ARP : · CSLIP · SLIP · Ethernet · Frame relay · ITU-T G.hn DLL · L2TP · PPP 1. Physical Layer : RS-232 · V.35 · V.34 · I.430 · I.431 · T1 · E1 · POTS · SONET/SDH · OTN · DSL · 802.11a/b/g/n PHY · ITU-T G.hn PHY

data between two lightly used computers will be isolated from data intended for a heavily used server. Repeater: Forwards every frame it receives it is a generator. Switches: Switches are the same thing as Bridges. in ―auto sensing‖ switches that allow mixing of 10 and 100Mbps connections. This means they don‘t know anything about protocols. the slower 10Mbps transfer won‘t slow down the faster 100Mbps flow. Bridges are very useful for joining networks made of different media types together into larger networks. but usually have multiple ports with the same ―flavor‖ connection (Example: 10/100/10000BaseT). In a switch.not an amplifier(i. but the MAC (Media Access Control) address that is unique to each network adapter card. Switches can be used in heavily loaded networks to isolate data flow and improve performance. for example. Or in the opposite case. but just forward data depending on the destination address in the data packet. This address is not the IP address. and keeping network segments free of data that doesn‘t belong in a particular segment.What is the difference between a repeater. bridge. router? Relate this to the OSI model Bridges: (sometimes called ―Transparent bridges‖ ) work at OSI model Layer 2.e it removes noise & regenerates signal ) Bi-directional in nature Useful in increasing ethernet size/length Maximum of 5 Repeaters in an Ethernet Routers Links dissimilar n/ws not transparent to end stations acts on a network layer frame isolates LAN to subnets to manage & control traffic .

the proper term for this table is the bridge forwarding table. A switch is a vast improvement over a hub in terms of intelligence. for many reasons. v What is a VLAN? What is an ELAN? What is the difference? Short for virtual LAN. anything that comes in one port of a hub is duplicated and sent out all other ports of the hub that have devices attached. A switch switches Ethernet frames by keeping a table of what MAC addresses have been seen on what switch port.Describe an Ethernet switch and where it fits into the OSI model. this table is called the CAM table (content addressable memory). In general. it puts that MAC address in the table so that it won‘t have to flood next time. it can stay on the same VLAN without any hardware reconfiguration. hubs are rarely used or sold any longer. When it receives a response. it floods that frame to all switch ports. an ELAN (Emulated LAN) connects VLANs over a WAN. The most important of those reasons is how the bridge forwarding table works. its creation and configuration is done completely in software. Intelligent (smart) switches have made hubs obsolete because they can do more at the same cost of a dumb hub. Most routers can also function as bridges. VLANs are configured through software rather than hardware. You might be asking how a hub fits into this mix of devices. There is no intelligence to how a hub functions. A VLAN is a logical local area network (or LAN) that extends beyond a single traditional LAN to a group of LAN segments. a network of computers that behave as if they are connected to the same wire even though they may actually be physically located on different segments of a LAN. given specific configurations. The data link layer is where the Ethernet protocol works. For this reason. This is why bridges are no longer needed or manufactured. In other words. A hub is a multiport repeater. A switch is a high-speed multiport bridge. Switches do what bridges did faster and cheaper. One of the biggest advantages of VLANs is that when a computer is physically moved to another location. VLAN — Virtual Local Area Network ELAN — Emulated Local Area Network Difference between these two are as follows:Without going into the mechanics of ELANs and how they are configured. which makes them extremely flexible. The switch uses this table to determine where to send all future frames that it receives. A switch is a hardware device that works at Layer 2 of the OSI model – data link. . Because a VLAN is a logical entity. If a switch receives a frame with a destination MAC address that it does not have in its table. In Cisco terminology.

broadcasts are propagated across a VLAN . All the ports on a VLAN act as if they were all on the same wire. Ethernet frame minimal size is 64 = 72 bytes of frame – 7 bytes of preamble – 1 byte of SOF.and anything communication outside that VLAN must be routed or bridged. the min size was to make sure that it contains enough ethernet headers. Actually there is no strict requirements by used algorythms or standarts. host may finish transmission before receiving noise signal and can think that frame transmitted successfully. 2. For reliability min size was increased up to 512 (power of 2) and became 512 bits = 64 bytes. For 10 Mbps rate min frame size should be at least 500 bits – that‘s the only guarantee that collision can be detected anywhere in the cable.A VLAN (Virtual LAN) is a grouping of ports on switches which is considered as one broadcast domain./max. The ELAN is a mechanism used to link VLANs across a wide area network. size. Lower limit of frame size has the following reasons: 1. To make transmission error detection more easy – smaller size of binary sequence leads to lower reliability of error detection.2 Header + Data 4 bytes – FCS Min amount of bytes is 72. The ethernet frame size upper limit of 1500 bytes goes up to the history of DIX Ethernet – physical limit of memory size used in NICs because of it‘s cost. header. while another host sent collision notification. you could have 2 VLANs at different sites which are linked together via an ELAN. . and that multiple ELANs can be handled by one single WAN link. v Describe Ethernet packet contents: min. Therefore. forming one big broadcast domain. With ELANs. The advantage of ELANs over straight bridging is that membership into ELANs is dynamic. Ethernet frame consists of: 7 bytes – Preamble 1 byte – SOF Delimiter 6 bytes – DA 6 bytes – SA 2 bytes – Type\Length 46-1500 bytes – Data \ 802. The most important reason: If frame size is less than 64 bytes (512 bits). The ELAN links the two VLANs Together. ATM is a good candidate for ELANs. the max size also has something to do with the data written in the headers.

. Describe SONET ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) is a dedicated-connection switching technology that organizes digital data into 53-byte cell units and transmits them over a physical medium using digital signal technology. Even though some packets from the same message are routed differently than others.‖ v Describe ATM and what are its current advantages and disadvantages. These and other protocols are often packaged together with TCP/IP as a ―suite. ATM also stands for automated teller machine. Internet Protocol. Many Internet users are familiar with the even higher layer application protocols that use TCP/IP to get to the Internet.v Describe TCP/IP and its protocols. Individually. handles the address part of each packet so that it gets to the right destination. a cell is processed asynchronously relative to other related cells and is queued before being multiplexed over the transmission path. Except for ARP and RARP all protocols‘ data packets will be packaged into an IP data packet. Because ATM is designed to be easily implemented by hardware (rather than software). Telnet (Telnet) which lets you logon to remote computers. The prespecified bit rates are either 155. IP – Internet Protocol.520 Mbps or 622. TCP/IP is a two-layer program. The lower layer. a machine that bank customers use to make transactions without a human teller. Transmission Control Protocol. Microsoft who had originally developed their own set of protocols now is more widely using TCP/IP. The TCP/IP suite of protocols is the set of protocols used to communicate across the internet.080 Mbps. Along with Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and several other technologies. IP provides the mechanism to use software to address and manage data packets being sent to computers. at first for transport and now to support other services. faster processing and switch speeds are possible. ATM is a key component of broadband ISDN (BISDN). they‘ll be reassembled at the destination. and the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP). It is also widely used on many organizational networks due to its flexibility and wide array of functionality provided. The higher layer. manages the assembling of a message or file into smaller packets that are transmitted over the Internet and received by a TCP layer that reassembles the packets into the original message.  UDP – An unreliable connection less protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers. Each gateway computer on the network checks this address to see where to forward the message. the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). It is used for transport by some applications. Speeds on ATM networks can reach 10 Gbps. It is used for transport by some applications which must provide their own reliability.  TCP – A reliable connection oriented protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers. These include the World Wide Web‘s Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP).

coaxial or fiber-optic  Ability to connect LAN to WAN  Legacy LAN emulation  Efficient bandwidth use by statistical multiplexing  Scalability  Higher aggregate bandwidth  High speed Mbps and possibly Gbps ATM disadvantages  Flexible to efficiency‘s expense.  Cable can be twisted-pair. legacy technologies  Provides the best multiple service support  Supports delay close to that of dedicated services  Supports the broadest range of burstiness.  High evolution potential. video and data allowing multimedia and mixed services over a  single network. . although it will decrease with time  New customer premises hardware and software are required Competition from other technologies -100 Mbps FDDI. at present. That goes pretty much for everything up to and including CAT 7/Class Fa UTP. with all the promise of ATM‘s capabilities many details are still in the standards process v What are the maximum distances for CAT5 cabling? A good standard answer is 100 meters (300 feet) with patch cords. for any one application it is usually possible to find a more optimized technology  Cost.Advantages and Disadvantages of ATM  ATM Advantages  ATM supports voice. works with existing.90 meters (270 feet) without patch cords. delay tolerance and loss performance through the implementation of multiple QoS classes  Provides the capability to support both connection-oriented and connectionless traffic using AALs  Able to use all common physical transmission paths like SONET. 100 Mbps Ethernet and fast Ethernet  Presently the applications that can benefit from ATM such as multimedia are rare The wait.

It is used for transport by some applications. RJ-45 connectors Fast Ethernet. 10 base 5 Describe UDP and TCP and the differences between the two. 50 ohm impedance Thick Ethernet. (UTP = unshielded twisted pair) Gigabit Ethernet (over copper). RJ-45 connectors 100 Mbps 100 Meters UTP. . It is used for transport by some applications which must provide their own reliability. 10 base 2 Speed: Max Len: Cable: Speed: Max Len: Cable: v 10 Mbps 185 Meters RG-58 type coax. 50 ohm impedance 10 Mbps 500 Meters RG-58 type coax. 100baseT Twisted Pair Ethernet. UDP – An unreliable connection less protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers.Maximum cable lengh for ethernet depends on what kind of ethernet you are talking about! Here are some details on the most popular kinds of ethernet. 10baseT Thin Ethernet . TCP – A reliable connection oriented protocol used to control the management of application level services between computers. RJ-45 connectors 10 Mbps 100 Meters UTP. 1000baseT Speed: Max Len: Cable: Speed: Max Len: Cable: Speed: Max Len: Cable: 1000 Mbps 100 Meters UTP.

routing switch. Layer 3 switch.v Describe what a broadcast storm is. and each response results in still more responses in a snowball effect. Occurs as a result of a collision. The term multilayer switch seems to be the best and most widely used description of this class of product that performs both Layer 3 routing and Layer 2 switching functions.26 but you are NOT able to ping cnn. and there is no industry standard yet on nomenclature. Multilayer switching is new. A runt is a packet that fails to meet the minimum size standard. then there are network problems and you have NO problems if you CAN ping BOTH] You can then use nslookup to locate an alternate internal or external dns server that correctly resolves ‗cnn. A severe broadcast storm can block all other network traffic.224. [If you are NOT able to ping EITHER. IP switch. but not the WEBsite address then it is a problem with the DNS When u are not able to ping anything its network problem v Describe the principle of multi-layer switching.com‘ to it‘s ip address and configure your workstation‘s NIC for this static dns server until the problems with the DHCP assigned DNS server are fixed. . v How do you distinguish a DNS problem from a network problem? If you‘re able to ping 157. A giant is a packet that exceeds the size standard for the medium ussually grater then 1518 bytes . and wirespeed router. OR When u are able to ping the default gateway and the website address there is no problem in the network and DNS When u are able to ping the the gateway and the WEBsite IP. Layer 2 router.com . switching router. Broadcast storms can usually be prevented by carefully configuring a network to block illegal broadcast messages. a giant. and editors don‘t agree about the specific meaning of terms such as multilayer switch. resulting in a network meltdown. Ussually below 64 bytes. A state in which a message that has been broadcast across a network results in even more responses. v Describe what a runt. and a late collision are and what causes each of them. Multilayer switching is simply the combination of traditional Layer 2 switching with Layer 3 routing in a single product. Late collisions are packet collisions that occur after the window for a network collision closes. Vendors.166. Caused by malfunctioning equipment on your network. analysts. Then you‘re having a DNS problem.

The three timestamp . Network Troubleshooting v Explain how traceroute. The next three packets have a TTL value of 2. Traceroute works by increasing the ―time-to-live‖ value of each successive batch of packets sent. The following are some basic architecture approaches for the multiplayer switches: Generic Cut-Through Routing: In the multi-layer switching architecture Layer 3 routing calculations are done on the first packet in a data flow. route calculation and frame forwarding are handled very differently here. and so on. routing is not provided. ping. ATM-based cut-through routing offers several advantages such as improved support of LAN emulation and multi-vendor support in the form of the Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA) standard. and at lower cost than traditional software-based routers built around general-purpose CPUs. It is often referred to as packet-by-packet Layer 3 switching. VLAN segregation. normally the host decrements the TTL value by one. Then it redirects traffic away from the routers and switches it based on its Layer 2 addresses. which allow real-time switching and forwarding with wirespeed performance. In other words. and forwards the packet to the next host. The traceroute utility uses these returning packets to produce a list of hosts that the packets have traversed en route to the destination. Layer 3 Learning Bridging CIn this architecture. and tcpdump work and what they are used for? Traceroute. and multiple priority levels to assist in quality of service. The first three packets sent have a time-to-live (TTL) value of one (implying that they are not forwarded by the next router and make only a single hop). the host discards the packet and sends an ICMP time exceeded (type 11) packet to the sender. Instead. Products referred to as IP switches and tag switches generally fall into this category. Wirespeed Routing: Wirespeed architecture routes every packet individually. Using advanced ASICs to perform Layer 3 routing in hardware. When a packet with a TTL of one reaches a host. it uses IP ―snooping‖ techniques to learn the MAC/IP address relationships of endstations from true routers that must exist elsewhere in the network. it implements dynamic routing protocols such as OSPF and RIP. Following packets belonging to the same flow are switched at Layer 2 along the same route. In addition to basic IP routing. When a packet passes through a host. it supports IP multicast routing. ATM-Based Cut-Through Routing: This is a variation of generic cut-through routing which is based on ATM cells rather than frames.Multilayer switching is usually implemented through a fast hardware such as a higher-density ASICs (Application-Specific Integrated Circuits).

while link-state or topological databases may store all other information as well. Ping estimates the round-trip time. v What is a metric? Metrics is a property of a route in computer networking. The routing table stores only the best possible routes. Ping: It works by sending ICMP ―echo request‖ packets to the target host and listening for ICMP ―echo response‖ replies. etc.values returned for each host along the path are the delay (aka latency) values typically in milliseconds (ms) for each packet in the batch. IP does not guarantee that all the packets take the same route. Traceroute may not list the real hosts. Its mainly used to debug the protocol of the captured packet which in turn reveals the network traffic charachterstics. A Metric can include:  measuring link utilisation (using SNMP)  number of hops (hop count)  speed of the path  packet loss (router congestion/conditions)  latency (delay)  path reliability  path bandwidth  throughput [SNMP . but TCPDUMP is different its a NETWORK PACKET ANALYZER. tcpdump uses libpacp / winpcap to capture data and uses it extensive protocol definitions build inside to analyze the captured packets. and prints a statistical summary when finished. the hop will be skipped in the output. consisting of any value used by routing algorithms to determine whether one route should perform better than another (the route with the lowest metric is the preferred route). the second host at two hops. For example.query routers]  load . It indicates that the first host is at one hop. and records any packet loss. Also note that if the host at hop number N does not reply. generally in milliseconds. TCPDUMP: traceroute and ping work on the ICMP protocol and are used for network connectivity testing. a star (asterisk) is traditionally printed. If a packet does not return within the expected timeout window. Routing Information Protocol uses hopcount (number of hops) to determine the best possible route.

How WEP works WEP uses the RC4 algorithm to encrypt the packets of information as they are sent out from the access point or wireless network card. . v Describe how SNMP works. solve problem or even optimize it further. v Describe how WEP works and its strengths and weaknesses As you probably already know Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) is used by companies to secure their wireless connections from sniffing attacks. In the first part of this 2 part series I‘ll explain the inner workings of WEP and follow it up next month with why it‘s insecure. Do i need WEP at all? An authentic user. This ensures that if a hacker does manage to crack this packet key the only information that is leaked is that which is contained in that packet. She however knows that the ISP across the street has an access point which anyone can connect to and access the Internet. You‘ve probably also heard that it‘s not very secure. cost allocation and invoice processing. He has a wireless card in his laptop which automatically detects his ISP‘s wireless access point (WAP) just across the street. It is use to manage IP network devices such as servers. asset lifecycle management. As soon as the access point receives the packets sent by the user‘s network card it decrypts them. She plugs in her laptop and is soon downloading music from the Internet. Administrator can find or manage network performance. to block out Alice. It works at TCP/IP Application layer 5 (L5). inventory deployment tracking. WEP was designed to ensure that users authenticate themselves before using resources. Once he‘s connected to the WAP he can go ahead and check his Email. The network management system should automate the processes of expense management auditing. Let‘s see how it does this. routers. Each byte of data will be encrypted using a different packet key. MTU v What is a network management system? A Network Management System (NMS) is a combination of hardware and software used to monitor and administer a network Effective planning for a network management system requires that a number of network management tasks be folded in a single software solution. and allow Bob. The simple network management protocol (SNMP) use for monitoring of network-attached devices for any conditions that warrant administrative attention. Alice is a sneaky user who doesn‘t want to pay the ISP for access to the Internet. Bob uses his laptop to check his Gmail account everyday. switches etc.

what are the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6? IPv6 is based on IPv4. VoIP Describe how VoIP works. Instead of using a dedicated. So for instance if a . while some VoIP services only work over your computer or a special VoIP phone. Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP). a VPN is a private network that uses a public network (usually the Internet) to connect remote sites or users together.Simplified header format. QOS is Quality of Service: A set of metrics used to measure the quality of transmission and service available of any given transmission system Are you familiar with IPv6? If so. mobile. or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow. long distance. and international numbers. The security of RC4 comes from the secrecy of the packet key that‘s derived from the keystream. which does not include most of the options an IPv4 header can include. v Describe what a VPN is and how it works. Even though the IPv6 header contains two 128 bit addresses (source and destination IP address) the whole header has a fixed length of 40 bytes only. a VPN uses ―virtual‖ connections routed through the Internet from the company‘s private network to the remote site or employee. Some VoIP services may only allow you to call other people using the same service.The actual encryption logic in RC4 is very simple. real-world connection such as leased line. Describe methods of QoS. Options are dealt with in extension headers. is a technology that allows you to make voice calls using a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. other services allow you to use a traditional phone connected to a VoIP adapter. A VPN connection is the extension of a private network that includes links across shared or public networks. The main differences are: 1. Basically. This allows for faster processing. users. The plain text is XOR-ed with an infinitely long keystream. which are only inserted after the IPv6 header if needed. or data flows. Quality of service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications. but others may allow you to call anyone who has a telephone number – including local. it is an evolution of IPv4. Also. IPv6 has a fixed length header. So many things that we find with IPv6 are familiar to us. such as the Internet. VPN connections (VPNs) enable organizations to send data between two computers across the Internet in a manner that emulates the properties of a point-to-point private link.

3. . 10. authorization ad accounting (AAA) mechanisms are you familiar with? Which ones have you implemented?? RADIUS Server (Remote Access Dialin User Service) MS IAS (Internet Authenticaion Service) 14. IPv6 is 128 bits. the fragmentation header is inserted after the IPv6 header. Explain MAC Address? Difference between Private and Public IP. In a PIX/ASA. What is DHCP. IPv4 is 32 bits IP address that we use commonly. In IPSec VPNs.4.10 What authentication. This allows for hierarchical structure of the address space and provides enough addresses for almost every ‗grain of sand‘ on the earth. What two things are needed in a PIX/ASA firewall to allow traffic to pass from a higher security level to a lower security level? 19. 4. IPv4 can support up to 232 addresses. what is diffe helman? What is it used for? 20.56. Multicast Listener Discovery. what are security levels used for? 18. what is main mode? How does computer get IP from DHCP. and what is needed on a router interface to allow DHCP to function on a subnet? 15. Describe what a stateful firewall is? 16. 2.8. 3. can support up to 2128 addresses to fulfill future needs with better security and network related features. however the 32 bits IPv4 addresses are finishing to be used in near future. Autoconfiguration. Here are some examples of IPv6 address: 1050:0:0:0:5:600:300c:326b ff06::c3 0:0:0:0:0:0:192. Path MTU Discovery.Address extended to 128 bits.Enhanced Security and QoS Features. What is HSRP? Is this an open standard? 17.168. Important for security and new services/devices that will need multiple IP addresses and/or permanent connectivity. it can be 192.packet needs to be fragmented. In an IPSec tunnel. The basic set of extension headers is defined in RFC 2460. so IPv6 is developed as a replacement. whereas IPv6 means Internet Protocol version 6.1. IPv4 means Internet Protocol version 4.A lot of the new IPv6 functionality is built into ICMPv6 such as Neighbor Discovery.1.5 or other 32 bits IP addresses.

bridge and hub? Router. A gateway works in which layer? Transport layer of OSI model. switch. What is a gateway? A gateway acts a door for the packet to reach the ‘outside’ of the internal network. The main differences are: Router: A layer 3 device. data and network layer. Yet there are some differences among them.explain framing or channelizing a T1 what's a PRI what's PSTN? What is ping? Why you use ping? PING Stands for Packet InterNet Gopher. switch. Routers are always preferrable for routing services. can work on physical. Switch: A layer 2 device. bridge and hub are network devices. Routers work at which OSI layers? Router works at network layer for providing routing services between or among several networks. What are the differences among router. can work on data link layer . How can you check the connectivity of any network? By using ping command. PING is used for connectivity checking of any network or any host or device of any or other networks.

it's not wise to use hubs to support a huge network. IP of Class C: 193. When there are huge broadcast. the network gets problem time to time. switch or router are all correct. it's not so wise to use hub for a huge network. What is the major differences between a router and a switch? A router can divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. just a multi-port repeater and works on physical layer What is the range of class A address? 0-127 is the range of class A address.1 Why this is a class C address: Class C addresses have the range of 192 . router can also be used instead of a hub. Also tell why that IP is an class C address. if we use hubs then there creates huge broadcast domain.1. So.223 Name a device which can operate at physical layer of OSI model. hub is the device that can work only into the physical layer of OSI model. Router can communicate among different networks where as the switch can not communicate different networks. No. Tell an IP which has class C range. So. Hub.1. Hub: A layer 1device. can work on data link layer. . But switch. Note: Remember. Hub operates at which layers of OSI model? Is it wise to use a hub for huge networks? Why or why not? Hub operates at only physical layer of OSI model. But a switch can only divide the collision domain. all the answers hub. Hubs can't divide the broadcast domain or the collision domain. So.Bridge: A layer 2 device.

the starting of each word forms the layer. from top to bottom. are the Application. 7 layer model. Switch and router What is OSI model? OSI revers for Open System Interconnection Reference Model. . OSI seven layer model. Session. Why do you need to use a router? Router can easily divide the broadcast domain and collision domain. What is the second layer of OSI model? Data Link layer. Transport. The layers are: Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data link layer Physical layer Note: You can remember the seven layer model by a simple sentence. See.How many layers are in OSI model? Name them There are seven layers of OSI model. routers are used. It is an abstract model for layered communications and computer network protocol design. Network. Please Do Not Touch Steven's Pet Alligator. OSI model also referred as OSI layered model. OIS layered technology. There are seven layers of OSI model which. So. Data-Link. Name two network devices which can work as layer 2 device. OSI reference model. Presentation. to communicate among several networks. and Physical Layers.

UDP: Connection less protocol. . unreliable. Functionality of network layer: Path determination and logical addressing Data unit of network layer: Packet Which three layers of OSI model is treated as "Media Layers"? Physical layer. data link layer and network layer are treated as "Media Layers". acknowledged one. Point to point communication. less traffic What is the port no of DNS and Telnet? DNS port no: 53 Telnet port no: 23 What is the port no of SMTP and POP3? SMPT port no: 25 POP3 port no: 110 What is the functionality of network layer? Name the data unint of network layer.What is the data unit of Data Link layer? Frame What are the difference between TCP and UDP? TCP: Connection oriented protocol.

Advantages: Router can limit the collision domain and broadcast domain Router can function both on LAN & WAN. Increase latency due to greater degree of packet filtering. Disadvantage: Router is more expensive than any other networking devices like Hub. The implementation of a semaphore with a waiting queue may result in this situation. routers must be used. Routing updates consume some bandwidth. Mention the advantages and disadvantages of a router. Router can filter the broadcasts. Bridge & Switch.What is deadlock? Deadlock is a situation when two or more processes are waiting indefinitely for an event that can be caused by only one of the waiting processes. Routers function as software based and so it's slower compared to switch. Router only work with routable protocols. For communicating different networks. Different media & architectures can be connected among themselves through router. . Router can determine best path/route for data to reach the destination.

0 – 172.0.Mention the private IP address rannge of class B and C.255.168.255 What is the IP range of class C IP address? 240.255.0 Why do you need subnet mask? Subnet mask is required to divide a large network into several small networks.255.31. Which one is reliable: TCP or UDP? TCP is reliable and UDP is an unreliable service. Tell the full name: DNS.0.0. FTP DNS: Domain Name System FTP: File Transfer Protocol What is the functionality or ARP? ARP refers to Address Resolution Protocol.255. For Class B: 172.16.0 – 192.255 For Class C: 192.0 255. ARP is a computer networking protocol for determining a network host's link layer or hardware address when only its Internet Layer (IP) or Network Layer address is known.255 What is the default subnet mask of class C IP address? 255.255.0. .255.168.

Recommended Reading Cheat Charts of Networking Engineering Final words In this page. What is the difference between Layer 2 Switch and Layer 3 Switch? Layer 2 switch is based on MAC addresses which operates on Data Link Layer of OSI mode. This is used to describe how e-mail clients interact with mail servers. Ethics. the questions you ask a network admin candidate should check on seven aspects of what makes a good employee: Knowledge. Discretion. And Layer 3 switching is based on network topology table populated and works on Network layer. Honesty. I try to integreate some of the basic and useful questions which are really helpful for your networking related jobs.How DHCP works? DHCP works by four-steps: (1) IP request. Interviewing candidates for network administrators is a bit like opening up the door to a herd of Chihuahuas. Community. you can also add your own questions after interviewing your job in the comment section. We asked network specialists to share their favorite questions (and best answers) to help you eliminate those annoying Yippies. Sit them down and start talking and all you hear is Yip! Novell? Yip! VPN services? Yip! MCSE? Yip! CCNA? Yip! Yip! IT managers need to bring on the best talent to run their networks. Tinkering. What is POP3? Why you require POP3? POP stands for Post Office Protocol. (2) IP offer (3) IP selection and (d) Acknowledgement. you have a basic idea of the sample questions. It will helpful for others also. capable staff. How do you cut through all the Yipping? What questions do you ask to find that stately Shepherd amidst the dog pack? Whether you are a technical hands-on manager or a business-centric CIO doing that final “check for a fit with the company” job interview. The POP3 Server is a type of mail server used for incoming mail. . I personally suggest to read at least once before going to the written exam or interview of Networking related jobs or Network Engineer jobs. POP is only used to receive messages. One thing. and the all important Sanity Check. the company’s infrastructure relies on productive. Hope.

the answers you get to this question can provide more character insight than the candidate realizes. “When you are diagnosing network problems you have to understand the network or you don’t know what you are looking at. He has to do what is necessary to keep that elan for the work. Honesty Check: What was the Worst Mistake You’ve Made as a Network Administrator? .’ That is really an introductory question for a network administrator. and ISP support for K-12 schools.” he says. network. “But more often than not. determined a level of expertise. a Michigan nonprofit that provides desktop. Tinkerer Check: What is Your Home Network Like? A good employee manages his own mindset. Brockway can ask harder questions. Someone who wants to try out things at home. says Robert Brockway.” “Maybe one in 10 people get it right. he gives them high marks. “We had a candidate who went on and on about all the pirated software that he had. Perhaps the job candidate is using a wireless server for the family or maybe just trying out cutting-edge technology to see how it goes. Brockway adds. However.” says Scott Sherrill. What we’re looking for the most is someone who has a tinkerer’s mentality. especially on the days when you have to slog through one too many worst-case scenarios. sniffed through the resume looking for fudged qualifications. ‘Describe a three-way handshake. a system and network administrator at a software development company based in Toronto. libraries. and that troubles me. Only 5-10% of IT professionals have very strong technical skills. “And sometimes these [candidates] are for senior positions. “We’re looking for someone who can bring enthusiasm and curiosity to the office.” says Sherrill. The right answer? SYN SYN/ACK ACK. Of course. Any of those technologies are okay. you’ve asked a few questions. and found out how many years she has spent using the technologies on which your organization relies. senior systems engineer for the Regional Educational Media Center. says Sherrill. It’s not necessarily one specific technology that you should look for.” If someone gets the answer right.Knowledge Check: What is a TCP Three-Way Handshake? Let’s go right for the jugular. But do you know what your candidate really knows? Asking a simple question rather than a tough one can be revealing.” he says. A true love of technology helps. this is not to negate a person who has a healthy balance of home life and work. they get that question wrong. because they can’t get enough of the technology at work. The candidate can go into more detail.” Brockway says. but if the interviewee says that phrase. you also want people who don’t invest too much time into their home operation. By now. so right away we had the opportunity to ask: Is this the type of character we want in our organization? He was trying to score points by describing how big his network was and that sort of thing. “I would rather ask them. Maybe she’s turned an old laptop into a picture frame. That this person admitted to something like this in an interview means he is probably not going to be good for us. It’s more the mindset. and other local agencies.

“If I list 20 technologies and you claim to be experienced with all of them. or somewhere similar. president of IASSIST in Toronto. “I always ask if people belong to [these organizations]. the job candidate might explain a problem encountered on a network she managed – “how the guys at AT&T had exposed all this iPad stuff” and add. The League of Professional System Administrators (LOPSA).” says Nolan. If you’re not willing to say. Weeding out the hands-off managers is also key. “I look for a willingness to admit your own faults. The key aspect of a mistake is to learn from that mistake. For example. if not a security issue — and it does not bode well for the candidate’s trustworthiness. USENIX (The Advanced Computing Systems Association).” At one level the candidate is explaining a technical issue. “If someone had relayed that type of information who had worked in a financial institution. If the candidate can’t articulate a coherent project vision. “I told them and told them and they didn’t listen to me. That’s a breach of trust.’ then you are never going to learn from what you did. and people rarely say Yes. how do we make this better.All thieving aside.” he says. and you just told me what their problem was.” says David Nolan. I’m going to be worried. “It’s not about who’s to blame. SAGE. or had security problems. . how do we improve the process. They live according to a set of standards they have given themselves. Everybody makes mistakes. or had issues with data loss. ‘Here’s what went wrong. However. “You just told me who your client was. so is asking a candidate to give a detailed description of a project she worked on. a senior network engineer for a midsized global company in the Pittsburgh area. A code of ethics is often something you have to search for and adopt. While the above question is a good indicator. you’ve found a superficial show dog whose resume is a waste of ink. Ethics Check: Do You Belong to LOPSA. It has been my experience that only a small percentage of the people have given any consideration to the ethics of what they are doing. Discretion Check: What was the Worst/Strangest Network You’ve Managed? In addition to checking whether your candidate can bark out a clear narrative that tells the story behind a beyond-bizarre network and how its oddities were resolved.” says Brockway. and no one has asked them to do it. I would not want them to tell me the organization had (or even perhaps still has) a hole in their network.” Nolan also presents a list of technologies that his company uses asks the candidate which ones she knows. by asking this question helps you find out if the job candidate will blurt out the secrets of his previous employer. and the USENIX special interest group for system administrators known as SAGE all share a code of ethics. from high level to ground work. here’s what I did. a good check of a person’s honesty is finding how easily he will lie to make himself look good.” points out Terry Hamilton. It’s about how do we avoid this in the future. or USENIX? People with a code of ethics have given time and thought about the kind of person they want to be.

says Brockway. everyone came to the conclusion that he would not do well when things hit the fan. But an interviewee may say he is an oven because he likes to be where the action (and heat) is. there is a method to this madness. shows that the candidate is interested in technology. In addition to checking whether the candidate has a sense of humor. either online or offline? How plugged in is he to technologies that are gaining speed or losing momentum? Who or what is his sources of research and information? Belonging to a user group. says Damion Alexander. Better yet. a system administrator for Bard College in Annandale-on-Hudson. If they give the name of an appliance and can’t come up with at least a basic reason why. honor. “I’ve actually had a CIO candidate refuse to answer the question. There are clear warnings in people’s responses. especially a time-sensitive one. However.” The question also shows how a candidate views himself and how he operates.” says Brockway. I’ve come to the conclusion that ethics is extremely important. no office should be without one of those. This gives some measure of how they respond to a situation they’ve never seen or heard before. A nut-bar hunt requires drastic measures—even shock and awe tactics. Sanity Check: If You were a Kitchen Appliance. Since this question is rarely heard of (so far). NY. Granted.” “I rarely measure time [in answering the question]. your candidate can have it all. The first ‘liked to throw everything in and make it clean. we had two candidates for the same position give an answer of dish washer.” Alexander says.’ The second ‘liked to line everything up nice and neat. . and as we all know. it catches people off guard.” he says. he might say he is the coffee maker. Since he had pondered for a while before that. etc. And that’s one of the reasons why I’m a supporter of these organizations. garbage disposals.’” says Alexander. asking this may backfire and you can lose a good candidate. Electric knives. “For example. then I would worry if they would just spew answers to customers and coworkers with no comprehension of why they were giving that answer.“Consider how we use the Internet these days and everything we use it for. or the microwave because he is quick and convenient. Community Check: Do You Belong to Any User Groups? If your network administrator doesn’t know that answer to a problem. but if they give up easily that doesn’t fare well. character. But if they are a whack-a-doodle all that becomes moot. because the network administrator has that privilege and has that knowledge. integrity. What Would You Be? Wisdom. so that the water reaches every surface. The network administrator can spy on your traffic and can do so without anyone knowing. but you might just be better off without her if she can’t fetch an answer to this question. says Alexander. “The people who are passionate about something are the best at the subject.. he says. “I want to know if they can think on their feet. how does he solve it? Does the candidate have a network of peers to turn to. bread makers are all cause for alarm.

” . Compared to the first who seemed to accept some level of chaos. and how he said it. caused some concern because it gave a sense that he preferred a degree of order that our environment just couldn’t provide.“The second response.

74:9357494.075.09.0774:933...//708808  708500/#4:93 708500/..08 9-.70 925020398/3.9438174297:074:90789.9438584103/89.0  .0/$894 5071472.92:8908908007039030947 %03970/70.888936:..488:..!.093/.09 - 5./.80/4398.7/.3 &83.!74:93 98:554798 !2:9.//94394-.941807.2..8.3.7.9:7074:9080.07.3/#! 3.11./:.17429074:9078.943 .3/2:950574790..//7088 70.8 $!.90.85.3/89.0789..0894.9897.8974:93 '8070. 98419037010770/94..

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

574507941.09.425:907309473 .59:70/.9.594.250 #4:9331472.89470.39:7370.:0:80/-74:93.9 O5..59:70/5.9.98.74:903..44190.943!7494.7.09488 74:907.8:733:98. 097.090 .3.35..3/:808909038..4:39  O8500/41905.4792894/0907230090743074:9084:/ 5071472-099079./..057494..:/0 O20...90789.8  ..43889341.3:80/94/0-:9057494...88.4:39 3:2-0741 458 94/090723090-0895488-074:90  097..8903094797.943.098 982..3.904794544.11.0.-.-08947084390-0895488-074:908 0 3 89.4/0139438-:/38/094.34907 9074:9099040892097.490731472...33.943 :83$!  O3:2-0741458 45.8082.4308943.3.89057010770/74:90 %074:939..80 470.2097.4:80845.59:70/5.

43/9438  ..

99.9.3.3..078 74:9078 89.7/.70 84:943 %0309472.3:2-0741309472.9090574.7-04$!478  %08250309472./23897.0203957494.0809.0 .903.70:80/94243947..3.9903943 98:80942./238907./ O%& .3.8308419.020398890284:/.4.3.309472.:942.02039$8902 $ 8.970..05.02039.70.4 $! :8014724394734130947 .08147..3.333147.3.02039  3.94341.3.43/94389.3.947.0574-02470.08808410503802.313/472.0  84...088:.9.943.034592091:7907 9478..0309475071472.0!30947/0.0203988902 0947.3.03947/054203997.0//0.42-3.020399.489.3/..:/93 .3. /0.3/8419.0574.880910.309472.77..0203988902706:7089.3.98. /23897.9%!.-9 O5.4.02.9.  O5.3/3.39.O.9.30947 110..08.8807.0883  .3//9 O974:5:9$! 6:0774:9078( O4.3 .88-014/0/3.9-.

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

79 25479.2039.8094109038430.3 418./07 %0-.3/30807.3/ 43900.:79..897:.190790!.9:704190.0.8./0788/0130/3#   //70880903/0/94-98 %8.0..3914780./08034:.4814707./078380790/..//708808147..20390/ 9017.17.08.24890.3/574.9430.//708885.7.07 7.

089.9300/2:950!..3/./0.//708808.

           ...02039  !.2508 41!.42243 9..0/$0.705..088..80-478.4.3..04:25020390/ #&$$07.07843 070.//708808 !.943 .:79..07 !.0  $$ 3907309:9039.4:393  20.704:1.9:708 070.- 11 .3828.:79..943.//708808 40..38:55479:594.43$07.943 :9.7084200.8-98 .:9039./.38:55479:594 .9:708  !..3/3094770.383907309!7494.4.3039..9   49419030!.20.3-0       474907-98!.4.3/"4$0.79.07   3.8..90:80.//708808.90/10.4.8-98!.9 %&8..3&807$07.98-:9394!.07 #02490.943.9.4330.07843  !.70138394-0:80/330..//7088        .71:9:70 84!.//708808941:11:9:70300/89-0990780.383907309!7494.431:7.07 :94.:947..20.898903078..2.0790-98!.9..1:3.//70889.8:.4.475072.0    Jf¾..4308.8/0.0450/.8!.

9 f° f¾° °f ° €fn f.

9€°n°°f¾ ° "  ¾n ff¾f €€ f¾" Jf¾9" ¾¾f°½ °¾f° f " °f9O$ ff ¾ n  ¾¾ €" Jf°–¾f ° °f9O$€ fff€€n½f¾¾€¯f – ¾ n  f ¾ n  " °9 nI9-¾ f¾ €€  ¯f°"Jf¾¾ €" °f°9 n°°  f¾¯f°¯ "   ¾n¯½ – 9€¯.

.9  ½f°.

  ¾¾" €€  °n   °9f f° 9 n9  ½f°€f¯°–nf°° °–f@ f ¾f9 .

f ¾9@-"  Jf¾½°–"J¾ ½°–" 9-f° ¾€9fn ° - ½  9-¾¾ €n°° nn n°–€f°° f°¾ n €f° ° ¾    ¾f ff¾½ € f  €°–¾ n ¾  ¾fnf ¾"  ¾f° f €½ °–°–¾ n ¾  °f¯°–¾  f° ¾   –f f¾°nf " @f°¾½f €¯   nf°n n n°° n€f°° " ¾°–½°–n¯¯f°   Jf¾f–f f" –f ffn¾f € ½fn  fn #¾ #€ ° °f°   Jff   €€  °n ¾f¯°–  ¾n   – f°  "   ¾n   – f°  f °  n ¾    f ¾¯  €€  °n ¾f¯°– ¯ @ ¯f° €€  °n ¾f    f  n nf°°½¾nf  fff° ° f   n f  n nf°° ff°f   – f  n nf°° ff°f    f  n ©¾f¯ ½ ½ f f° ¾°½¾nff  .

Jf¾ f°– €nf¾¾f  ¾¾"  ¾ f°– €nf¾¾f  ¾¾  @ f°9nf¾nf¾¾.

f°– ¾ f9¾f°nf¾¾.

f  ¾¾  9€.

f¾¾.

    J¾¾fnf¾¾.

f  ¾¾ .

f¾¾.

f  ¾¾ ¾f  f°– €  -f¯ f n nnf°½ f f½¾nff €¯     -  ¯ ¯   ¾  n fnf°°° ½¾nff €¯   ¾n  nf°f¾ ¾ °¾ f €f  f  f°¾ ¾ ¾n f fn n   Jf¾ ¯f© €€  °n ¾  °f f° f¾n"  nf°    f nf¾ ¯f°f° n¾° ¯f°  f¾nnf°°   n¾° ¯f°  nf°n¯¯°nf f¯°– €€  ° ° ¾  f¾ ¾nnf°°n¯¯°nf  €€  °° ¾   ½ f ¾fnf ¾€¯ "¾¾ ¾ f €– ° ¾"J°"  ½ f ¾f°½¾nff €¯   -  ¾°¾¾ ¾  €f– °    ¾nf°     f nf¾ ¯f° n¾° ¯f°  € ¾  ¾ °  n f ¾–  f nf¾ ¯f° J °  f –  f nf¾   ° – ¾½  ¯¯ ¯   ¾°¾ ¾  ¾¾½½f– °     ¯f°f ¾f °¯ "-f¯  ¯ @  f ¾  °f ¾€¯  @ f ¾f  .

  ¾f°f ¾fn¯ €f  n¯¯°nf°¾f° n¯½ ° ½n ¾–° @   f ¾  °f ¾€¯ n €¯½ ¯ f  ½½nf° 9 ¾ °f°  ¾¾° @f°¾½ -  ff ° f° 9¾nff ¾  ¯ f¾ €  f¾f  ¯  f   n°– f ¯  ¾  °f ¯   €  °n ¯    Jf¾  ff°€ff°f " . ½½nf°f  9 ¾ °f°f   ¾¾°f  @f°¾½f  - f  ff°f  9¾nff  - nf° ¯ ¯  ¾  °f ¯  f¾¯½ ¾ ° °n 9 f¾ -@n  ° ¾9 –f   ¾f°–€ fn €¯¾ f   J ° ¾ f "  nf° f¾    f nf¾ ¯f°f° n¾° ¯f°  n¯¯°nf f¯°–¾  f° ¾  ¾f ¾   Jf¾ ¾ n° f €¯ " ff°f   -f¯ °  n ¾nnf°f¾f  n  nf°   Jf¾¯ "   ¾€½ °¾ ¯° n°° n° €  °n .

f¯   Jff   €€  °n   °@.

9f° D9" @.

9 .

°° n° ° ½n fn° – ° 9°½°n¯¯°nf°  D9 .

°° n° ¾¾½n ° f   ¾¾f€€n Jf¾ ½°€-f° @ ° " -½°  @ ° ½°   Jf¾ ½°€. ff ¾ " 9¾nff   ff°f f° ° f f  f f¾ .9@½°  99½°   Jf¾ €°n°f€° f "-f¯   ff°°€° f   °n°f€° f  9f  ¯°f°f° –nff  ¾¾°– ff°€° f  9fn   Jn f ¾€¯ ¾ f f¾ . ff ¾   Jf¾ f n" .@9f° 99" .

 €€  °¯ f fn n ¾nf° n°° n f¯°– ¯¾  ¾–    nf°  ¯°  ¾½f$ € ff fn   ¾°f°   nf°€   f nf¾¾  n¯¯°nf°– €€  °° ¾  ¾¯¾ ¾  ¾f f°f–    ¾¯  ½ °¾ f°f° ° °– n ¾    –  n   °f  ½n¾  °–½ f ¾n°¾¯ ¾¯  f°    °n f¾ f °n  – f  – €½fn  € °–   ¾€°n°f¾¾€f  f¾ f° ¾ ¾¾ n¯½f ¾n  . f n¾f¾f° °¯ ½n ¾¾ ¾f f°–° €° €f°  °fnf° nf¾  °° € f°–½n ¾¾ ¾ @  ¯½ ¯ °f°€f¾ ¯f½ ff°–  ¯f ¾°¾¾f°  . °° ½f 9f  ¾¾f°°– €nf¾¾ f° . °° f f°f– ¾f°  ¾f f°f– ¾€f    f°f– ¾    nf°¯ n¾° ¯f°f°  f nf¾ ¯f°  nf°€°n° °- J.

 .

f¾¾         .

.

f¾¾.

        Jf¾ 9f°– €nf¾¾.

9f  ¾¾"        Jf¾  €f¾ ° ¯f¾€nf¾¾.

9f  ¾¾"      J ° ¾ ° ¯f¾"  ° ¯f¾¾    ff– ° °¾  f¾¯f° ¾   @  €°f¯ - @9 - ¯f°-f¯ ¾ ¯ @9  @f°¾€ 9n  Jf¾ €°n°f9" 9 € ¾  ¾¾ ¾°9n 9¾fn¯½ ° °–½n€  ¯°°–f° ¾ ¾°f f f f  ¾¾ °°¾ ° ° f %9%- f f  ¾¾¾°°   Jn° ¾ f  @.

9D9" @.

9¾ f  f° D9¾f°° f  ¾ n   .

9¾" .

9¾ € ¾ ½¾ %%9  ¾ %%9€€ %%9¾  n°f° % %n° – ¯ °  .

.Jf¾99"J  99" 99¾f° ¾€9¾€€n 9n @¾¾¾  ¾n  ¯fn °¾° fn¯f¾  ¾ @ 99  ¾f½ €¯f¾  ¾ € °n¯°–¯f 99¾°¾  n  ¯ ¾¾f– ¾   Jf¾  €€  °n   °f nf° f n" f ¾n¾ f¾ °.

f  ¾¾ ¾n½ f ¾°ff°f €¯ ° f ¾n°–¾ f¾ °° ½–f  ½½f  f° ¾°- f     n¯¯ °  f °– .

 f.

f¾€- °–°–° °– °f ¾ °¾½f– ° – f ¾¯ €  f¾nf° ¾ € ¾°¾nf  f ½€€° °– f © ¾ ½ ¾°f¾–– ¾ f f  f¾°n  € –°–  ° f¯°  €- °– f © ¾- °–° © ¾ ½ f f f¾n f€ ¾f¯½   ¾°¾ ° °– nf°f¾f ° ¾°¾f€ °  °–© ° n¯¯ °¾ n°  ½€€ ¾f¾   °  °–nf°  f ¾€° f ¯°¾f¾¾f  ½ °°–½  f  €.

ff¾  ¯ °f° ¾ff°–f° f f¾ ½"- "½"I9-¾ n ¾"½".

"½".

.

-"½"½" @¯f°f– ¾°  °–°  ¾f °° ° ¾  n¯½f°#¾°€f¾n   ¾°½ n nf½f  ¾f€€  n–f  ½½°–"Jf ¾°¾ f¾€° f¾f  ½  f¯ ¾  –½fn" J  f f n°nff° ¾ °¯f°f– f ¾° ¾¾ n °n.

 °–f€°f#n n€f€ n¯½f°#© °     ¾°¾f¾ f° f ¯°nf°  f ¾ n n°¾  °f¾½ n¾€f¯f ¾f–  ¯½ ° – @° °– ° ¾ n¾ .

¯¯° ¾n ° f°   f¯½f°f°.

 n J f¾ ° ¾½ nf¾¾¾f  €f  ¾°¾%f°  ¾f°¾ ¾% ½ ¯°f ¾ f°°°–½½ ¾  ° – .

 n Jf¾f@.

9@ Jff° ¾f " .

 #¾––€ ©–f  ° # f¾ f€  ¾°¾ ¾°€€ –  ¾¯ °–€€ – f€nf°¾   ¯° f  € ½ ¾ f° €° ¯f° f¾¾ f¾¾½ °¾°–  n°– ¾°n–f°f°  ¾   °fnf°  f  f °¾"¾°–f¾¯½  ¾°f f°f–° nf°   f°–  °  €@½€ ¾¾°f¾f  ¾°– n°nf¾¾ ¾f¾  nf f¾¾ ¯f° ° f ¯°¾fff¾€f   ½¯ °n¯½f° f¾ °@° # f f¾ ¯ # ¾n f ff° ¾f #@f¾ ff°° n ¾°€f° f ¯°¾f # #.f ° °½ ½ – – # ¾f¾ #° ¾¯ ¯ ¾ ¾  nf°  f ¾ f €¾ °½¾°¾ #€¾¯ ° – ¾ f°¾ –  nfnf°f¾ f  ¾°¾ # ¯ € °f°°  – f ¾°°– f° f  ¾¯ # ¾f¾  @ –f°¾ "--$.

.

 @ nf°  f nf°–°¯  f  nff ¾  € °   ¾f¾f½f¾  – ¾ ¯–¯f¾  #J °f  f–°¾°–° ½  ¯¾f ° ¾f°  °  °#°ff °–f # nf¾f¾  @°  .

 n Jf¾¯ -  " –  ¯½ ¯f°f– ¾¾°¯° ¾   f¾ f¾° n ¾¾f ½f f°€    € n°– ½¾  ¾½ nf°  f¾ °f ¾––° ¯f°¾ nf¾ ¾n °f¾  #J # °–€¾¯ ° nf° °– °¾f¾¯f° n¾ €€n Jf # °–€ ¯¾¾¾¯ ° f¾f°  #¾¯ °f  ¯ ° f°¾°–¾f¯  nf¾  nf°#–  °–€  n°–f #¾f¾n  ¾ °¾¾ ¯¾ °–° €   –°f nf°f. f.

°  f.f ¾ #¾° f°  f½½°f½n €f¯ °€¾  n°– ¾f f #¾°° n ¾¾f° ¾½ n€n n°–f¾ € #¾¯  ¯° ¾   ¾f¾   €n¾ ¾¾°° –f f½ ¾°f¾f f ff°n €¯ € f°  f¾f°½ ½  °#° ¾¯n¯ ° ¯  ½ f°      f°¾ ¾– ¾ ¾°nf°½ ¯ nffn °¾–f° nf°  f  f ¾  #J f fnf°  f  °°f° °f f ½f ¾€f f f ¾–ff f  ½½°f¾ ¾¾ ½ €nffn   f°°–f°f°" f¾°–¾n ½°¾  ¾n °– –¾° f¾f° f¾€°– @f¾½ ¾°f ¯ ¾¯ °–  ¾°f°°  ¯ f°¾ ¾½ f °–°– – €¾ #¾f¾   ° ¾.n–f°°°½€f½ ¾ ¾½ °  f° 9¾½½€ ¾n¾  f ¾ f°  nff– °n ¾  9 f½¾ © nf°  f ¾¾°–f  ¾¾¾  € €f¯¯f ©¾°–n°– –  n°–¾ – ¾ .

 n Jff¾ J¾.¾f # .f f¾f-  ¯°¾f"  °–f¾ f– n n€f½ ¾°#¾° ¾¾€° °– f¾  ¯f ¯¾ €–  .

#€f°–° ¾¾f ¯°€f¾    ¯f ¾¯¾f ¾ @  f¾½ n€f¯¾f ¾ f°€¯f¯¾f €# °°– ¾f #  #¾f °°–   #¾f  # °f °  –°– f°€¯f  #¾f¾f -f° f¾ °°  °–° €f ¯ ¾ – fn¯½f°° 9¾ –f f ##¾°f #¾ f¯ #¾f   f ¾° €   ¯½  ½n ¾¾    ¯f ¾   # -f°f¾½ ¾ °¾f¾€ n°– ¾f¾n¯½f°¾ ¾f¾¾ nf°  f n° ¾¾ °¾ #€¾ n°– ¾f° nf¯  ½  °n f€ ¯ #¯–°–  #¾f¾-f°  J °– f° ¾ €€¯f°f– ¾¾f¾  J  f   ¾°¾f– ° nf ¾¾f¾°–fnf°  f – f f  ¾n½°€f½© n ¾  ° €¯–  –°  € nf°  f nf°#fnf fn  °½© n¾° # €° f¾½ €nf¾ –¾  ¾¯ ¾f f¾ €°  ¾n °.

f°f– " °f °n n°–  nf°  f nf° ffn f°ff f ¾ ¾ ° f ° f ° f° ¾  ¾    ¾  f¾°–¾ ¾° ½¾€° € © nf°  f   ¾ n ¾€¾½ ¾ ¯½    f¯½  © nf°  f ¯– ½f°f½  ¯ °n°  °f° ¾ ¯f°f–  # –¾f@ @f  ½¾ f¾9f ¾€€#f°  f #  ¯f°   ¯f°    °#¾ °¯ #°    nf°  f ¾ ½f°°–f n°nf¾¾    #©¾ ¯  n °f¾ f° ©¾ ¯ f ½  ¯f¾ #½°¾@ f¯° ½ ¾ °€@°@° @f#¾f  fn€¾ €°f¾ n ¾¾  f°   ¾°   € nf°  f #¾¾° ¾¾  #€¾¯ ° f  f f½ €°€¯f°f  °f€°f°nf°¾° ¾¯   ¾¯f  °f° ¯ ¯   –f°f°f %  °½ f½¾¾f¾%f ° °  f ¾ n½  ¯¾ f ¾¾ ¾ ff¾¾ # ¾f¾  n¾. n Jff¾ J¾$f°– ¾- # .

 n  °–9  D-O" 9 ½ fn € n¾f – °¯ f° –f  ° €½ ¾° f° @  fnn °–f¾ €¾f° f ¾ f – °  ¯¾  ¾ f° °° f¾f¾  ¯  n € n¾¾€ °¾¯ °–f ¾ fn€f° f ½ @  f– €9€ ¾¾°f¾ ¯  ¯°¾f¾%9% D-O%@  f°n .

¯½°–¾ ¯¾¾¾nf°% f°  D-O¾½ nf°  ¾–½€¾¾ ¯f ¯°¾f¾°°f¾ f¾f fn € n¾  #ff¾f¾€½ ½  °–  ¾ –f°f°¾ f° ½ ½ f ¾f ¾ f¾ °¯ ½  °n f°f¾¯f½ n °f– € ½ ½ f  – °f°n°¾ f°  n¾€f f  °– #¾f¾ nf  #.

°¾  ¾  ° °  ¾  f¾f°   °– ¾ € @ ° f ¯°¾fnf°¾½°f€€nf° nf° ¾f°°  °°–  nf¾  ° f ¯°¾ff¾f½ – f° f¾f° – # n¯  n°n¾°f n¾¾  ¯ ¯½f° °  f#¾° €  f¾°¾#¯f¾½½ € ¾ –f°f°¾ # ¾f¾  .

.

¯¯°.

 n  °–°D¾ ½¾" €° f ¯°¾f  ¾°#°ff°¾ f½  ¯  ¾½ nff¯ ¾ °¾ °   ¾ ¾ " ¾ nf°  f f f°  €½ ¾°   °° €€° "½–– °¾  n°– ¾ff –f°°–¾½ ¾°–¯¯ °¯"Jf¾¾¾n ¾€  ¾ fnf° °€¯f°" °–°–f¾ –½ ¾f¾ nf ¾¾f nf°  f ¾°  ¾ ° n°– #@ ½ ½ f ½f¾¾°f f ¾¯ °–f   ¾f  ¾ © n #¾f¾ nf  f°.

 n €  fn °½½f°n JfJ  " J¾ ¯ nffn  ° ° – nf°  f nf°f f  € f ffn f   ff n¯ ¾¯ ° f°  ¾ f¾n ¯ f¾ ¾  °¾nf° f fnn¾ f° f¾°–¾¯f fn€ f° nf°¾ f– nf°  f  ¯–©¾   €€ €¾  nf°#€ nf°f°¾ ¾ ¾°  @  f n ff°°–¾°½ ½ #¾ ¾½°¾ ¾  nn° ¾ –f f–  ¾½¾f¾   f ¯f ¾f fnf¾ €ff¯  f°°   ¯f¾f ¾f° ° nf¾   ¾    fn°%f°  f%¾  ¯nf  nf¾  ¾nf° n° ° °      ¯–¾f ¾ n€€ ¯f  f°  f¾ f° °€€n ¾  ° €¾       ¾f¯  ¾¯f ° ¾¾ ¾f¾f¯° f°  f¾¾ ¯f ¯°¾f€ f .

 – °°°f° f °  ¾° -  °f °n n°–   nf°  f f¾f¾ °¾ €¯  ¾f¾ #f°°€ nf°°° €  °n ¾ ¾°¾f  f € %¾€f% nfn ¾½ ½ €€–f @¾– ¾¾¯ ¯ f¾ €  ¾½° f¾f° # °  ¾ ° f  € # #f ¯ f¾ ¯  °f°¾ °–  ¾°  € – ½ f¾f  ¾°#€f   € –  °f¯ €f°f½½f°n f° nf°#n¯ ½ f f¾f f¾n f¾°  ° €  ©¾¾½ f°¾ ¾n¾¯ ¾f° n ¾°n¯½  °¾°€   –°– ff°¾  # f° ¾f¾  ## fnff f.

nf°  f  €¾ f°¾   ¾° °n  f ½°  €f  € f   ° nf¯  n°n¾°f   °   °°–¾ €f° # @  ¾°f¾¾¾fnf°  f  ¾¯¾ €f°  ½ f ¾ ¾f¾ f°   # f¯½  f nf°  f ¾€ ¾f¯ ½¾°– f°f°¾ € ¾f¾  @ €¾#   °–°f° ¯f n f° #@ ¾ n°  # °   °–½°n f° ° f ¾f f  fn ¾  ¾€fn  n ##¾f¾ f°   #@ ¾ n°  ¾½°¾ f°  ¾f  nf¾ ¾¯ n°n ° nf¾ –f f¾ °¾ f ½ €  f – € f °°¯ °©¾n °# ½ .

¯½f  €¾¾ ¯ fnn ½¾¯   €nf¾ # .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.