You are on page 1of 31


Bacolod, Jonna
Sanchez, Keno
• As a normal consequence of being alive,
every cell in the body produces metabolic
wastes includes excess water and salts,
carbon dioxide and urea. Urea is a toxic
compound that is produce when acids are
used for energy. The process by which
these metabolic waste are removed from
the body is called excretion.
The job of the excretory system is to remove various
produced by the body. The removal is known as
excretion. It is important for the body to remove these
various waste, also known as toxic, because toxic
build up can lead to severe death.
About sixty percent of your body contains water. A
portion of the water is in the tissues and cells. The
water contains salt. the salt needs to be kept at the
right concentrations. If there is little salt the body
feeds it more, if there is too much salt the body gets
rid of the salt not needed. This is the task of the two
Small, dark red organs with a kidney-bean
shape lie against the dorsal body wall in a
retroperitoneal position (beneath the parietal
peritoneum) in the superior lumbar region. An
adult kidney is about 12 cm (5 inches) long, 6 cm
(2.5inches) wide, and 3 cm (1 inch) thick, about
the size of a large bar soap. It is convex laterally
and has a medial indentation called the renal
hilus. Several structures, including the ureters, the
renal blood vessels, and nerves, enter or exits the
kidney at the hilus. Atop each kidney is an adrenal
gland, which is part of the endocrine system and
is a distinctly separate organ functionally.
is a homeostatic organ which maintain
the purity and constancy of our internal
A fibrous, transparent renal capsule
encloses each kidney and gives a fresh
kidney a glistening appearance. A fatty
mass, the adipose capsule, surrounds each
kidney and helps hold it in place against the
muscles of the trunk wall.
Three distinct regions
renal cortex -the outer region, which is light in
color, which is the. (The word cortex comes from
the Latin word meaning “bark.”)
renal medulla- is a darker reddish-brown area.The
medulla has many basically triangular regions
with a striped appearance, the medullary
pyramids. The broader base of each pyramid
faces toward the cortex; its tip, the apex, points
toward the inner region of the kidney. The
pyramids are separated by extensions of cortex
like tissue, the renal columns.
Medial to the hilus is flat, basinlike cavity, the renal
pelvis. The pelvis is continuous with the ureter leaving
the hilus. Extensions of the pelvis, calyces, form cup-
shaped areas that enclose the tips of the pyramids. The
calyces collect urine, which continuously drains from the
tips of the pyramids into the renal pelvis. Urine then
flows from the pelvis into the ureter, which transports it to
the bladder for temporary storage.
Blood Supply
The arterial supply of each kidney is the renal artery. As
the renal artery approaches the hilus, it divides into
segmental arteries. Once inside the pelvis, the
segmental arteries break up into lobar arteries, each of
which gives off several branches called interlobar
arteries, which travel through the renal columns to reach
the cortex. At the cortex-medulla junction, interlobar
arteries give off the arcuate arteries, which curve over
the medullary pyramids.
Small interlobular arteries then branch off the arcuate
arteries and run outward to supply the cortical tissue.
Venous blood draining from the kidney flows through
veins that trace the pathway of the arterial supply but in
a reverse direction – interlobular veins to arcuate veins
to interlobar veins to the renal vein, which emerges from
the kidney hilus. (There are no lobar or segmental
Nephrons and Urine Formation
Each kidney contains over a million tiny structures called
nephrons. Nephrons are the structural and functional
units of the kidneys and, as such, are responsible for
forming urine.
Each nephron consists of two main structures: a
glomerulus, which is a knot of capillaries, and a renal
tubule. The closed end of the renal tubule is enlarged
and cup-shaped and completely surrounds the
glomerulus. This portion of the renal tubule is called the
glomerular, or Bowman’s, capsule. The inner (visceral)
layer of the capsule is made up of highly modified
octupus-like cells called podocytes. Podocytes have long
branching processes called foot processes that
intertwine with one another and cling to the glomerulus.
Because openings, the so-calle
If a kidney is cut in half, two distinct
regions can be seen, the inner part is called
the renal medula, the renal cortex, and the
renal cortex contains the nephrons, the basic
functional units of the kidneys. Each
nephrons is a small independent filtering unit.
In each kidney are about 1 million nephrons.
Each nephrons has its own blood supply: an
arteriole, a venule and a network of capillaries
connecting them. In addition, each nephrons
has its own collecting tube, which leads to the
ureter. As blood enters a nephrons through an
arteriole, impurities are filtered out and emptied
into the collecting tube. Purified blood leaves
the nephrons through a venule. The actual
mechanism of blood purification is rather
complex, involving two separate process-
filtration and reabsorption.
The principal function of the urinary system is
to maintain the volume and composition of
body fluids within normal limits. One aspect of
this function is to rid the body of waste products
that accumulate as a result of cellular
metabolism, and because of this, it is
sometimes referred to as the excretory system.
The parts of the nephron unit include:

The renal arteriole carries blood to the nephron.

The Bowman’s capsule surrounds a cluster of capillary

loops called the glomerulus. The glomerulus is the
actual filter, which filters out water, glucose, and

The proximal tubule reabsorbs glucose, some

electrolytes and water.
The loop of Henle secretes urea, reabsorbs
electrolytes and water.
The distal tubule secretes ammonia, some
electrolytes; some drugs, and also reabsorbs
some electrolytes.

The collecting duct reabsorbs electrolytes and

urea. It also secretes ammonia and
electrolytes. It is now concentrated urine.

The renal venules then return the blood to the

The ureters are two tubes 10-12 inches in
length and one half inch in diameter. They are
composed of smooth muscle tissue, and they
extend from the renal pelvis of each kidney to
the posterior portion of the urinary bladder.
Their function is to conduct urine from the
kidneys to the urinary bladder. At the junction
where the ureters join the bladder, a valve-like
structure prevents the urine from flowing back
to the ureters.

The bladder is a muscular bag-like organ that

is located in the front center of the pelvic
cavity. Its purpose is to store and expel urine.
Normal storage capacity is about 250 ml.,
although it can hold up to 1000 ml. When the
bladder fills, nerves in the muscular wall are
stimulated, thus the urge to urinate. Micturition
and to void are terms that also mean urination.

The urethra is a tube about l to 1.5 inches in length

in the female, which extends from the bladder to the
outside of the body. An opening called the urinary
meatus is located immediately in front of the vagina.
The function of the female urethra is to transport
urine to the outside.
The urethra of the male is an S-shaped tube
between 8 to 10 inches in length, which extends
from the bladder, through the penis to the outside.
The function of the male urethra is to transport urine
and sperm to the outside.
Urine is formed in the nephron units of the
kidneys. Each minute, approximately 600 ml. of
blood enters each kidney through the renal artery
supply. As the blood is filtered, water, glucose,
vitamins, amino acids, and salts are reabsorbed
back into the bloodstream. Active transport is the
process by which urine is made. Normal urine
consists of 95% water, and the remaining
ingredients include waste products from the
breakdown of protein, hormones, electrolytes,
pigments, toxins, and any abnormal components.
A urinalysis is an assessment of the urine to
determine composition of urine. This test
assesses the following:

Color, which is normally clear and yellow, to

amber or straw, colored. Cloudy urine may
indicate mucus or pus in the urine. Dark urine
may indicate the presence of blood or bile.
Alkaline urine, which contains calcium, may
appear cloudy
Renal calculus, or a kidney stone, is composed
of uric acid and calcium salts. The cause of
renal stones is not known, although diminished
fluid intake and high intake of especially
Vitamin C may contribute to the condition.
Extreme pain in the area where the stone is
blocked is the most common symptom.
Treatment depends on the location and size of
the stone. Pain management, lithotripsy
(extracorporeal shock waves to disintegrate
kidney stones), or perhaps surgical removal is
among the treatments used for renal calculi.
As blood enters a nephrons through an arteriole,
it flows into a small network of so separate capillaries
known as a glomerulus. The glomerulus is encased in
the upper end of the nephrons by a cup shaped
structure called Bowman’s capsule. Because the
blood is under pressure and the walls of the capillaries
and Bowman’s capsule are permeable. Much of the
fluid from the blood filters into Bowman’s capsule.
This process is known as filtration.
The materials that are filtered from the
blood are collectively called filtrate. The
filtrate contains water, urea, glucose,
salts, amino acids and some vitamins,
because plasma proteins, cells and
platelets are too large to pass through
the membrane, they remain in the

Almost 180 liters of filtrate pass from the

blood into collecting tubules each day. This
volume is equivalent to 902-liters bottles of
soft drink, and needles to say, not all of the
180 liters is excreted. Most of the material
removed from the blood at Bowman’s capsule
makes it way back into the blood by a process
known as reabsorption.
• Cystitis (sis-TIE-tis): Inflammation of the urinary
bladder caused by a bacterial infection.
• Glomerulonephritis (glah-mer-u-lo-ne-FRY-tis):
Inflammation of the glomeruli in the renal corpuscles
of the kidneys.
• Kidney stones: Large accumulations of calcium
salt crystals from urine that may form in the kidneys.
• Pyelonephritis (pie-e-low-ne-FRY-tis):
Inflammation of the kidneys caused by a bacterial
• Urethritis (yer-i-THRY-tis): Inflammation of the
urethra caused by a bacterial infection.
• Urinary incontinence (YER-i-nair-ee in-KON-
tinence): Involuntary and unintentional passage or
is the inflammation of the glomeruli in the renal
corpuscles. It is generally caused by a bacterial
infection elsewhere in the body, mostly in the throat
or skin. In children, it is mostly associated with an
upper respiratory infection, tonsillitis, or scarlet
Kidney cancer
Kidney cancer develops when cells in certain
tissues in the kidneys become abnormal and grow
uncontrollably, forming tumors. Kidney cancer
accounts for 3 percent of cancer cases in the
United States. The disease occurs most often in
men over the age of forty. Men are twice as likely
as women to suffer from this type of cancer.
B. Other Excretory organs
1.) Skin- excretes excess water and salts
as well as a small amount of urea in the form of
2.) Lungs- Carbon hydrate breakdown
produces carbon dioxide and water as its waste
products; these are removed from the body
through the lungs during expiration.
3.) Large Intestines- organ that removed
4.) Lever- forms urea and bile