# Analog and Digital Meters Assignment

Caleb Ma Nov. 18, 2010 1. Explain how reading an Analog meter differs from a Digital meter. To read an analog meter is simple. It requires simple math calculations. For example, a meter has a range of 4.0 V, 20 V, and 40 V. I want to read it in the 40 V scale but it only goes up to the 20 V scale. So I would multiply the reading by 10 if it is on the 4.0 V scale. If it is on the 20 V scale, I would multiply the reading by 2 in order to read it as a 40 V scale. To read a digital meter is easier. The number is right on the screen. Some have auto-ranging meters which adjust to the proper range. Others require you to select the range. 2. Explain the following electrical units of measure symbols ( M, K, m, u ). M for mega or million ex. 20 MΩ, 20 mega ohms or 20,000,000 ohms K for kilo or thousandth ex. 20 KV, 20 kilo volts or 20,000 volts m for milli or one-thousandth ex. 20 mA, 20 milli amps or .002 amps u for micro or one-millionth ex. 2000 µA, 2000 micro amps or .000002 amps List three types of meters. -Voltmeters -Ammeters -Ohmmeters

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Describe how voltmeters are connected to a circuit. Voltmeters must be connected in parallel with the device or circuit so it can take some current. If connected in series, its high resistance would reduce circuit current and cause a false reading. The red lead is connected closer to the positive side of the battery. The black lead is connected to ground or the negative side of the circuit. Basically one lead is connected, while the other is connected over the resistor or bulb. 5. Explain how “meter loading” affects the circuit. “Meter loading” is the effect when a voltmeter is attached to a circuit. The total resistance of the circuit plus the impedance of the voltmeter determines this effect. Once attached, the total resistance of the circuit is reduced. The less resistance, the more current flow to the circuit. If the voltmeter has a resistance that is too low in comparison to the circuit, it will give a false reading. 6. Describe “meter impedance” and how it effects a circuit? “Meter impedance” is the voltmeter's internal resistance. The total resistance of the circuit and the relationship with the impedance of the voltmeter determines meter loading. The impedance of an analog voltmeter is expressed in “ohms per volt.” The amount of resistance the voltmeter gives to the circuit changes in relation to the scale. But digital voltmeters have a fixed impedance which does not change from scale to scale. 7. 8. List the fixed impedance value of a digital voltmeter. 10 MΩ or more.

Explain how the impedance of a digital meter differs from an analog meter. Most digital voltmeters have 50 times more impedance that analog voltmeters. So digital meters are more accurate when measuring voltage in high resistance circuits. For example, if you are using a low impedance (20,000 ohms per volt) analog meter on the 20 volt scale (the voltmeter represents 400,000 ohms resistance to the circuit) to measure voltage drop across a 1,000,000 ohm component in a circuit, two and a half times as much current is flowing through the meter than through the component. You are no longer measuring just that component, but the component plus your meter, giving you a false reading of the actual voltage drop across the component. That might lead you to believe the voltage at the component is low or that there is high resistance somewhere in the circuit or that the component is defective when it is just the meter you are using.

Use analog ohmmeters with care. apply less voltage to a circuit. Analog ohmmeters may apply a higher voltage to a circuit than a digital ohmmeter.autoshop101. because they are self-powered.com> . so damage is less likely. polarity (attaching the leads in a particular order) is inconsequential. causing damage to solid state components. Ohmmeters. Explain what precautions one should take while connecting an ohmmeter to a circuit. All the current must flow through the meter. Toyota Motor Sales. Describe how ammeters are connected to a circuit. Inc. 18 Nov 2010. never in parallel. USA. Unless the circuit is being measured contains a diode. It is connected by attaching the positive lead to the positive or battery side of the circuit. must never be connected to a powered circuit as this may blow a fuse in the meter and damage its battery. Ammeters must always be connected in series with the circuit. This compensates for changes in the state of charge of the internal battery. 10. Reference: Analog and Digital Meters. and the negative lead to negative ground side of the circuit. 11. An analog ohmmeter should be calibrated regularly by connecting the two leads together and zeroing the meter with the adjust knob. Explain how analog ohmmeters differ from digital ohmmeters in setup.9. <http://www. Digital meters on the other hand. 28 Mar 2001.