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485.P18 1902

A manual of gothic moldings: with direct

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Cornell University Library


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the Cornell University Library.

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— Capitals X..— CONTENTS Section I. Early English Moldings VI. Hood-Moldings and String-Courses . page Introductory 1 II.. .98 103 107 . The General Principles Copying Moldings of Formation . XII. IV.— Conclusion Descriptions of Plates . .—Bases XI. . Perpendicular Moldings Plans of Gothic Columns IX.12 26 32 38 47 61 71 76 89 III. Early Moldings in general V. —Decorated Moldings VII. . VIII. .


this edition will and trusts that meet with the same approval which has been bestowed on its predecessors. As a sixth edition of Mr. for reference. . Paley's work is required. and also by arranging the plates so that they are Several small more easy been made. amendments have also Professor Willis's Nomenclature is now so difficult to obtain that one or two extracts have been made instead of the mere reference given in the former editions.PREFACE TO THE SIXTH EDITION. the Editor has endeavoured to improve it by inserting more examples in the text. The Editor has been careful to keep the book within the same limits as to size so as not to increase the cost.


Paley. The chiefly additions *and alterations that have been made have at the been done by way of further explanation where anything . the present Editor. examples in the plates have been indexed but. the . and it are. as far as practicable. at the request of Mr." " Decorated. A Thied Edition of the Manual of Gothic Moldings having been called for.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. Though it is one person to carry out satisfactorily the work of another. and these are so thoroughly engrafted into the work. and. and give the it work that practical character which he wished to have. lest he should change its whole character from an elementary treatise to one of an entirely different class." and " Perpendicular" throughout. so generally understood. many of them cannot now be tained with certainty. The Author has employed the terms "Early English. as these were taken from the Author's note-books when the ascer- work was first published. the Author was of opinion that the revision of a professional man would secure accuracy. that the Editor felt would have been undesirable to attempt any alteration. might not previously have seemed clear to a student same time. But the student should . it has undertaken to prepare always difficult for for the Press. A considerable number of woodcuts has also been inserted by way of additional localities of the illustration. the Editor has been its careful to keep the book within present limits. besides.

and locality at which certain kinds of do not Now the two latter of these terms therefore. Elizabethan. very An ture accurate knowledge of Moldings is indispensable to any one professing even an amateur's acquaintance of architec. which at sight would hardly be suspected. have become so generally adopted that no others have succeeded in displacing of Mr Fergusson has proposed the adoption Edwardian and Plantagenet in a manner analogous to Tudor. already in common use . therefore." &c. as &c. Editor. the student refer. but by actually going about observing and measuring them himself . not merely by reading a work like this (though that may be of great assistance). perhaps. M. F. for very little can be learnt without effect measuring. and them. something worth sketching in and often. as scale has a very important of Moldings. are frequently employed. hardly an old Church existing without it . also such terms "early thirteenth century. first charming little variations may The be found. must be Several careful that he knows the dates to which they new terms have been proposed. . but those here employed them." "late fourteenth. W. but he who attempts to practise as an architect (however freely he may use his knowledge) must study them thoroughly. remember that the work fulfil object to be attained in nomenclature is to define clearly the date prevailed. in using this condition. 1st December. in Moldings. not merely to read about them.PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION. on the character There is. feels that he cannot do better than advise those who wish carefully. to attain a true knowledge of the science of Gothic Moldings. 1864. but to sketch them and to measure them accurately. Cambridge . and have the advantage of being precise.

Master. He was born on 14th January. and to it will be probably of interest to our readers. In due time he was sent to Shrewsbury. where Dr. as well as respectful his memory.EDITOR'S PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. Since the last edition of this work was issued its talented Author has passed away. 1815. near his life. at York. if in the Preface to the new edition I give some account of Easingwold. Tripos seems a out in little but at that time every one going first honours at was obliged to appear in the not Mathematical Tripos. He held the office of Secretary from 1841—2 to its . " Tales of my Grandfather " —he the being . a grandson of Archdeacon Paley who wrote "Evidences of Christianity. Paley either could not or would take the trouble to do this (probably the greater part of the latter). and took his degree in 1838. classical scholar as That such a ripe he was should not have appeared in the strange all . and in 1834 he came up to John's College. Butler was then the Head St. and naturally became a member of the Cambridge Camden Society. true or not the tale of the While at Cambridge he was much interested in Architecture. was commonly said that he was plucked in one of the college examinations in Paley's " Evidences " because he wrote at the foot of his paper. of which parish his father was Vicar. and so was not It eligible to enter in the lists for Classical honours." is certainly characteristic Whether man. Cambridge.

the Moldings of Pointed Architecture. and Perpendicular great interest in these details. A keen and close observation my brother." He had taken had had considerable opportunity of getting a them. which fortunately were singularly good and interesting buildings of every date from the eleventh to the sixteenth centuries. Mr. Paley read a paper " On for the Society. I measured and sketched moldings as one important part of think that my studies. and frequently accompanied visits to me in my examine and sketch the neighbouring churches. Gr. of Eectory at Gretford. Eickman's ' Attempt to Discriminate of Architecture in England. Mr. fortunately eventuated in the publication of his book on Moldings. and fair only finishing with "Part II. and on 5th March the same notice appears. and I like to my brother's early interest in this work (not usually much taken up by amateurs) thus commenced. amongst other Architectural books. E. was certainly a characteristic of and this quality may account for the somewhat remarkable fact that an amateur should give such close attention to a subject that the majority of students. I recollect well. F. consider rather dry and . Paley. the pleasure to send I had of him from time to time several the examples that appear in the book. and collecting examples of moldings of various dates. Society. professional or otherwise. says — " I well remember going home to my father's the Styles from his brother. and taking with me. and developing into a systematic and careful study of the subject. Norman and Early English " ." "Part I. when it dissolution in 1845. merged into the Ecclesiological The first form of this book was that of papers written among the notices of which we find that on 13th February. A. read this work with the subject of and became extremely interested in English Architecture. near Stamford (about 1839 to 42). 1844. Decorated Styles. knowledge of A letter to me : Lancaster. As a young student of Church Architecture. My brother.xii PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION.' avidity.

though really of the first xiii importance. Your tracing. will be of the greatest time. " In later life he devoted himself almost entirely to Greek ." "Mr. and is evidently too interesting to be omitted here : " kind My dear Sir. Webb. which displays not only his knowledge of the language and of his author. and I The Ecclesiologist its is am the more reconciled to it not being quite so strong as you and I could wish. which. " Welby Pugin. Augustus Welby Pugin. written about this time. G. service to me at the present Would it be trespassing on your goodness to ask for a ' few tracings from the give Bestiary ' in the Library ? I want to some outlines of animals. uninteresting. does an infinity of good. This was followed at intervals by editions of all the other plays of iEschylus. E." This letter shows clearly that he was his paper before the fully qualified to when he read in 1844. There are few men whose In fact I appreciation I should desire more than your own. as therefore better received by a host of intermediate men who could not swallow strong drink. but are exceedingly useful to the cause as far as they go. have never met with any one who entertains more correct views of Church Architecture than yourself and our friend Mr. Cambridge Camden Society Mr. though undated. which you so kindly sent me.— PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. —indeed speak the foundation and groundwork of the art. but his power of emendation. yours most sincerely. — I was truly gratified by the receipt of your letter. "Believe me. Paley has also sent me a letter to our Author from is Mr. Paley 's powers as a Greek scholar were first proved in 1844 by his edition of the Supplices of iEschylus.

of his architectural works besides this book on Moldings. and Cambridge. The " Manual of Gothic Architecture " (1846) . " Architectural . Hesiod and literature. on Sunday. " Notes on . other authors with English notes. a fair. (2nd 1856) . . 1888. and several It has new illustrations inserted. returned to In 1860 he Cambridge. and if Church complete. that it may be as well to remind the critical reader that the mass of illustrations were taken from Mr. a manual for the amateur. and was always re- garded as one of the most careful Classical Tutors. This edition of his work on Moldings has been carefully revised by the Editor. and he published editions of Euripides. after Soon Society. I believe. marks on the Architecture of Peterborough Cathedral " edition. He remained until he accepted the post the of Professor of Classical Literature at newly-formed Roman Catholic College at Kensington. Since the dissolution of that establishtill ment he resided at Bournemouth. which he always seemed to take up as a change whenever time could be found. become so much it lately a text-book for students. joined the Church of Rome." are. He gave most attention to the vexata qu<estio of the authorship of the Homeric poems. left the dissolution of the Cambridge Camden Mr. siologist's Guide to Churches near Cambridge " (1844) " The Eccle" Re. Paley's note-book when he himself was studying the subject. Twenty Parish " The not the Introduction to . and also published a translation of Pindar. where he remained he passed away. rather than what originally was." knowledge of the Latin language by editing But he was not idle on the subject of Architecture.xiv PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. 9th December. in 1847. Notes on Cartmel Priory Church" (2nd 1872) Churches round Peterborough " (1860) " Illustrations of Baptismal Fonts " : edition. Restorers list a Tale. Paley. and for strict and absolute . and showed bis Propertius.

he is sure to find great value in a thorough acquaintance with the experience and work of those who have gone before him. but whatever a matter each must decide freedom he may 'allow himself in his work. . self to How far an artist should confine himis copying the moldings. &c. xv accuracy the student must measure for himself and not depend on small scale sketches.PREFACE TO THE FIFTH EDITION. of ancient work for himself.


details were in use at and were uniformly adopted and in the constructive secular. as this country during the was practised in Middle Ages. are curious questions. SECTION I.A MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. whether from a natural process of gradual develop- ment. perhaps. so far as the author the subjects of aware. without feeling the im- portance of acquiring an accurate knowledge of Moldings. INTBODUCTOKY. with varieties rather of combination or disposition than of the component members. and were dispensed by authority through the country.* That certain conventional forms or certain periods. have never yet been made much investigation. from mere accident or caprice. though. is an undoubted fact. is which. Again. or from some real or pretended secret of freehrasonry. But whence these forms arose. throughout decoration of all edifices. how far they emanated from some particular source. No person can have devoted much time and it pains to the in- vestigation of Christian architecture. lastly. well known to and admitted by all who have paid any attention to the subject. or. or were assumed by some tacit agreement on the part of the masons themselves. the ancient orthography of the word. has been adopted after Professor Willis. ecclesiastical the length and breadth of the land. are equally interesting speculations. B . how far the same forms were arbitrary or obligatory in ancient freemasonwork. equally * This.

or coat. it and even to ridicule the restraints of strict rule. difficult However this . or other article of dress. . that as the same kind of hat. or almost every ancient church would exhibit details new and strange varieties in the of its moldings. this general resemblance all and uniformity. independently. use at York. but in parts the still and features of Church architecture. with varieties. was at once a fashion and a mono- poly in architecture and a solecism in moldings would have seemed fault as is to the ancient Churchman is as striking and offensive a a solecism in dress now considered ? . in which at liberty to design just as is he pleases. as hatters and tailors. and even when he pretends to imitate.2 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. is seen in is London which diversifying found in common that. and yet there rule. in so there . that certainly does appear strange and unaccountable. to a certain extent. not only indeed in moldings. these enough of licence and variety to give scope for occasional localisms. and no one ever dreams of employing others than these providing them . and as all things are ex- clusively in the hands of certain bodies. arid a considerable degree of them . caprice in adorning of these indeed. to determine. it is quite certain that a strict intercourse must have been kept up between the members of this body of artisans. is such resemblance it and decided system adherence to as to make evident that some must have been observed both them. his apt very freely to indulge own pleasure. and to make it probable that each architect worked. Perhaps this it the most rational and probable view but then is one so very different every professor from is modern architectural practice. must appear There is in all more surprising. in designing and executing Or can this acknowledged uniformity be referred to no more ? recondite cause than fashion Can it be said. may have been. When the difficulty which then existed of constant and speedy communication between distant parts of the country is considered.

and practically important department Probably a fancied uncertainty and obscurity of the study. Spon. or a want of sufficient data. delay and difficulty copying them with minute accuracy. (London. in six parts 4to.. b 2 . that to be regretted that so has yet been done in reducing to a science this interesting of Gothic architecture.* These are causes at once sufficient to render a first attempt imperfect. contains a large number of reduced outline plans and sections of moldings of the * Since the above finest period.A. However. " Architectural Parallels. by imposing on beginners so to learn ? much The answer is.. an important work on Gothic Moldings has been published by Edward Sharpe. Esq. N.) Mr. and as such to out of place is say anything more about them. and the apparent anomalies and inconsistencies which seem often to occur. especially as the writer difficulty incompetent to give any solution of the involve. and to induce the reader to pardon any errors or deficiencies which he may notice in the course of the present work. Charing Cross. M. and so turning an amusing pursuit into a hard lesson." folio. Why should so much pains be taken investigating these comparatively copied in our insignificant minutiae why should they not be new churches without writing books about them. and the for attaining amount of observation and research necessary knowledge of their a history and true theory. To the these may be added the tediousness of making any considerable collection of drawings and of sections of moldings. Sharpe's fine work. or ignor- ance of the exact periods at which buildings were erected. They are all the province of the antiit is quary rather than the architect. and printed in different tints. that moldings are of the greatest was written. being a series of examples.INTRODUCTORY. all 3 these questions are quite foreign to the object of the present work. have all tended to deter even the treatise most competent from writing a complete on the subject. which they it is But this may little reasonably -be observed. It may in : possibly be said. arranged according to their dates. 1871. so as to be readily distinguished. and F. E. reduced (for the most part) to one-third size.

they are of the importance. on the first revival of the true principles of Gotbic architecture. or of architectural members they are just as essential to a knowledge of architecture. : possible importance called so much so. may either contain a great collection best examples. of course. "the very grammar of the certain. is partly Early English and partly debased Perpendicular . too.4 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. that they have rightly been art. the smallest and humblest churches carefully show very pretty and worked moldings. ing the dates of buildings. In structures of that period^ even of considerable preit was but too common to find the most wretched and spirit meagre imitations of ancient examples. and indeed surprising mistakes were frequently committed. . It must be confessed. Cambridge. No one has the any claim to the name architect who thinks science of moldings beneath his notice. tension. and a general poverty of appearance prevailed. very serious. minor differences. In practice. who are fully sensible of the great importance of effect.* This in striking contrast with often ancient practice . the acter and char- of which were completely lost or perverted by is some violation of leading principles. and their uniformity of type. A work on moldings It may have any one of the three following of the ends in view. as a is to first map of the study of geography. of their designs. accurately reduced to a scale. apparently an original instance. It is gratifying to find such rapid improvement and so much increased attention on the part of our present architects. the * As an new composition of the late Mr. in the details of their moldings. John's College. correct moldings to the as well as to the distinctive character. They are by far the most and very frequently the only guides in determin. or accompanied by cloister to the molding of the archway in the centre of the buildings of St.". even by architects of repute. that some years ago. with. is surprising. especially in the working of capitals and bases. There was but little discrimination of styles. Hickman's.

the aim and object of the present work. and on the differences observable in each style. but the observation and collections of many and from all places where Gothic architecture has prevailed. varieties . and a judicious selection out of thousands of drawings. The last alone seems capable of being tolerably well treated by an amateur. it may profess to be a complete and elaborate exposition of the theory of moldings. The object being to exdifferences plain details and formations. of is which the method of treatment possible. or. who might be supposed to know the wants them. and that illustration attempt a complete would require many hundreds of engravings. made the eye alone. simple and practical as far as It is obvious that the number to of examples given might be absolutely unlimited. and aboutas many drawings.. medium of the Classic and it may be an elementary intended only to convey plain and easy information on the most ordinary forms. 5 measurements. so as to form a magazine of reference. and being thrown entirely upon his it. who has himself seen the want of some work on the subject. Such exten. INTRODUCTORY. sive resources the author does not profess to possess nor can he even assert that every one of the examples he has given. from a collection of a few hundreds of full-sized sections. dealing with principles rather than with bare facts. acuteness and ingenuity. lastly. who may often be unable to procure in their immediate neighbourhood any available models or. then. own resources in examining and investigating is Such. The first could perhaps be satisfactorily accom- plished only by a professional man. of architects and the best method of supplying require not only very considerable The second would years. and taking a comprehensive view of the whole subject through the Komanesque treatise. and to point out . secondly. and thus supply the wants of practical men. is at different times and places by of that perfect and minute accuracy which full-sized might have been obtained by a laborious reduction of outlines to one and the same scale.

this ex- rather than to furnish models for treme faithfulness of delineation. The only necessary ditions are a tolerable idea of delineation. actively in he amply repaid. Many persons. ever observing and adding to his store of facts and examples. the shadows. OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. almost imperceptibly. and shapeless excrescences. and the blending forms. be led on by his subject from step to step. are not aware that every group can be analysed with perfect ease and certainty . the study of Gothic itself moldings as curious and interesting in as it is it important in will its results. rather than examples of rare exceptions to the general practice of the ancient architects.* The specimens engraved are mostly those of ordinary occurrence. and tracing out to his own satisfaction the forms and processes through which he conceives moldings to have passed in the various stages of their development. only occasionally added. will learn to He pronounce with some degree of confidence the date of the merest fragment of sculptured stone. viewed without under- standing. Any one who engages effect. they may seem only an unmeaning cluster of hollows. modern imitation. in and a general interest Church he architecture. * Most of the woodcuts. and arranged by is certain laws of combination. though of desirable. But such surely the case and a knowledge of the should convince the student of the reasonableness of the study.. and the examples in the been reduced from actual measurements. Let him only enter upon it. Viewed as an inductive is science. and con- he will be rewarded for his pains. are will themselves extremely beautiful. and favourites of a familiar eye : soon become the though. will Possessed of these simple qualifi- cations. is unnecessary. that every member fact is cut by rule. course highly and was in the present case quite For the same reason the measurements are impracticable. 6 MANUAL. really in The curves. if only by the enlarged views he will acquire of the ancient principles of arrangement and composition. nooks. . A broken have last five plates.

* He will ever and anon meet with overturning clearly re- some new and singular conformation. therefore. Brandon have pointed out the interesting fact. perhaps some of his previously formed theories. however dilapidated or defaced. 10. . all once for stood. the moldings of the respective. piece of a capital. with a more searching eye. eras were always most faithfully preserved. an undescribed The learner must understand that the best work on Gothic moldings which could possibly be written will do no more than set him in the right way to obtain' a knowledge of the subject by his own research. " The assimilating process never tion of To however great an extent the earlier poran edifice may have been subsequently copied. The look of a molding is so very different in section. He will regard every arch with a in new attention. 7 dug up on the reputed site of an ancient building. these important members were always worked in strict conformity with the ordinary system prevalent at the time of their construction. of which so insignificant a remnant alone remains. Introduction. a string-course. —perhaps its ducible to and confirmatory of them. and any * The Messrs. if A few examples in the page of a book he does not apply in practice that which he has learned from them." " Analysis of Gothic extended to the moldings. are as nothing. — it for he will be sure to find in very demolition shattered peculiar facilities for research. that the same form seen in the one It is here. fossil. He will find the same satisfaction examining which a botanist finds in a rare plant. or a door-jamb. — Architecture. from effects of appearance in perspective reality. explained how the engravings are to be under- Supposing a molded archway were to be taken down. a herald or a geologist in in an ancient escutcheon." p. will tell style him of what and date the fabric was. He will look at every ancient building. and with the light and shade upon it. may not even be recognized in the other.INTRODUCTORY. projected in a reduced size its on paper. that although earlier styles were occasionally imitated in completing or altering buildings at a later period.

or a a piece of paper inserted capital or base down the middle. his ings in order to understand them. will Without the never be practically perfect. showing at once the Beoorated door-jamb. or part of which parallel the plane of the outer wall. Maxey. Again. at right angles with it. and shading the cavities tions. 15. . obtained reduced.. sife. does not give so clear a view of the forms of architects is the separate members. the outline thus. in such a manner that the wall-line. But the student must not only knowledge observe . fig. a thin plate of zinc. parallel to one side .8 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. tin. the uniformly that which has been followed in the plates illustrating the present a small size (say a scale of half an inch flat to a foot). and so up a portion of the soffit-plane . The usual popular way of engraving Gothic moldings is to give a perspective sketch of a stone or slice cut out of the arch. 5. lies in surface. though its general appearance much more like the reality. and shaded on the part which represents the side or bed of the stone. as in the woodcut and PL. same as the which is used templet or mold. How to do this. XII. by the sharp edge of the mold- ing. The shaded portion of PL. sheet of one of the arch-stones placed upon a large square the stone paper. and and marked off in the crevice. or wood. flat end or upper face. and then after- a pencil were to be carried along the wall-line first. should he and the soffit or inner with the end of the paper nearest to you. this would in the same way represent the shaded sections of these details. and the molded and projecfig. by workmen in marking out the stones previously to cutting them out. would form a diagram exactly similar to our illustrations. and wards in and out of each cavity and round each projection. Each example is. is certainly But this. he must copy moldlatter. if a string-course were to be sawn across. The method adopted by in fact. V. is a good illustration of a templet. Northampton.

which are not always geometric. the en- deavours to improve the student's prising first will seldom be very successful. of the Quarto Publications of the Cambridge Antiquarian Society. the outset. should be kept." being Part 7. It will be found with fuller explanations Willis's treatise.* For the mediaeval nomenclature of moldings. will be revived. the learned and useful work lately published by Professor Willisf supplies an authentic source of information. difficult to and ensure general fidelity. so that they form a book when complete. It is the following Schedule and diagram here inserted. the measurements and name of place being duly registered with each example. by explaining some of the It various at methods which have been practised. 1. of the Middle Ages. Perhaps it is attempts will result in failure readily a practised but sur- how well and how hand can copy in a few minutes a most complex group. who was born in 1415. they are somewhat copy accurately eye. .INTRODUCTORY. leaves fixed on one obviated. ancient In this treatise. * Nothing is better adapted for a pedestrian tourist than a block sketching book. '+ side. especially in the present dearth of As this work is not is easily obtainable. must be understood. in the pocket of which a small " T-square. ." for ruling These are to be obtained parallel and rectangular lines. Itinerarium of William of Worcester. will 9 shortly be shown. and the objection to having a " number of loose sheets is The Architectural Nomenclature Vol. . And if the true form is it not attained by the first stroke. A small note-book should be kept exclusively for copying moldings by the eye. that though certain lines. can scarcely be caught without considerable practice. planes. some of the it is names of moldings have been recovered and to be hoped they terms. taken from the in Bristol in Prof. because the exact curves. with the. and measurements may be drawn by the in all cases to assist the process.

O. to A drawing which represents these lines as they would appear if the eye projected on a vertical plane placed opposite to them. I. I A felet. Facsimile of William of Worcester's drawing. as in PL. filet. T.—A felet. —A casement. M. —A double ressaunt. Any architectural it member is said to be molded.A S. K. if cut through by a plane at I. . 40. D. -I P. C. a molding. felet.—A felet. 'A I —A ressant. fig. —A boutel. X. Stephen's Church. F.— A boutell. "R. 8 . its Thus PL. 1 to 5. — A cors wythqute. N. A Ij. —Yn'the my. being it the appearance right angles to would present bearing. A few expressions used in the present work it will be neces- sary clearly to define before entering upon the subject. would present the appearance of fig. is called the elevation of figs." 10 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 5. —A casement with Levys. felet. B. —A casement. A casement. PL. U. . I. 22. 24. R.—A felet. North Door of St. —A casement with trayler of Levys. — A bnwtelle. if cut across A b. A. H. when the edge or surface of jections presents continuous lines of alternate pro- and recesses. Bristol. is called the section or profile of a molding. A and drawing which represents the outline of these projections recesses. — f A boutel.ides of the door a boutelle.—A felet. 10.—A felet. —A ressant.— A felet. fig. G.

and. but separate A bunch of moldings members. 5. behind and beneath the next before outer wall line. is is the section across an arch of "two orders." As it is necessary for every student in this science. as generally find a them . secondly. either full-sized or reduced to a scale." and 7 of "three hollow-cham- fered orders. to be able to draw or " take " moldings. fig. An so arch of two or more orders. is one which is recessed by many successive planes or retiring sub-arches. with tolerable precision. reckoning from the Thus PL. these preliminary points will be before entering explained as simply and of briefly as possible. monly arch . standing prominent or isolated. fig. 11 A mold.INTRODUCTORY. I. each placed it. the combinations and more minute . either on a shaft or between two deep hollows. first to understand the general principles of formation. part or member Members are we group is when placed or in combina- tion. said to be grouped. upon the consideration varieties of detail. or molding (the former is the ancient term). series com- signifies the entire which ornaments a jamb or but it is here generally used in the sense of a particular of such series.

and not confined to this or any other particular country in Europe. is But the convincing argument this : that in Gothic molding all the links in the process of formation are connected and complete. or at least are very partially styles . forms of the moldings which we and entirely undeveloped . Still it is impossible to trace in pure Gothic buildings the least symptom of Italianizing either in composition or details. if at it this or that period. and. could hardly arriving at least at fail of some of the same results. from Koman . from the time of St. as might be expected. that in the Norman call style (in England at which was most closely connected with the Classic. from the first and rudest origin to the most elaborate develop- ment .12 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. with Eome was always frequent. yet very decidedly. from the consideration that the mediaeval architects of this little country* could have known they had. Again. and if able. some coincidences of form exist between them. and the steps are so natural. that any two styles working independently of each other from the same beginnings and elemental forms. the Gothic are merely nascent." page 48. and indirectly borrowed from the Classic although. the transitions so easy. There are some who contend that Gothic moldings are derived. a supposition hardly probable in itself. a new member was introduced. Augustine downwards. It seems certain that all the forms of Gothic Moldings are the peculiar and genuine offspring of Christian architecture. as * It is true that the Freemasons were an ecclesiastical body under the Pope. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. SECTION II. This is also the opinion of the authors of the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. we cannot suppose they would have cared to copy in its details what they altogether repudiated in its kind. and one which appears scarcely tenof Italian architecture. It is also true that the intercourse - . when we observe least). mediately indeed.

as the determina- does not in the least affect the facts of which this work treats. and though can hardly be said that the early Gothic forms are mere copies of Classic or Eastern ones. an and some leading features were then introduced Also in matters of mere detail. if every Gothic form can be shown to be an improvement or modification of a preceding one. is That the whole tone of Architecture was then altered undoubted fact. a 13 it new letter added to the alphabet. rather than sought for in the resem- blance which an Italian molding may happen is to bear to it ? However. naturally be to accustom the different class of forms. were. we find new for the first time. from Norman. mind to see beauty in an entirely and to enlarge its capacity of designit ing according to the requirements met with. from the debased Classical. Arabian). And it is undeniable that several forms and combinations of the ogee curve are nearly identical in Classic and in Gothic buildings. as to have caused it to be classed it under the one title of Komanesque. About that time must be remembered that the whole of first Western Europe was engaged in the it Crusade. Still. the offspring of one and the same progressive In truth.e. and to satisfy special wants . and will hereafter clearly was the case. the discussion of this question rather for those who have tion of it to do with the "theory of moldings. Gothic architecture grew up under peculiar circumstances. some of which may be traced to foreign sources all : the Early English base is it allowed by to have been borrowed be demonstrated from the Attic that such . in its origin eclectic. there is such a general resemblance in the character of the work. From the time of the formation of the first Christian Basilica to the middle of the twelfth century. it must be concluded that the whole series is art. (i. forms. why should not be attributed to invention. the effect of travel would.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. from the Byzantine . it adapted details from Saracenic or Moorish.

both internal and external. the The former In run principally in vertical latter in horizontal. Lombardic. each group being so. that is. jambs and They are repeated too in groups. especially in composed of the same members. we read. or nearly earlier styles. or in projecting curves away by degrees into shadow. and vertical ascending may so far perhaps be regarded as lingering ves- tiges of the Classic usage. so as entirely to occupy the large recessed spaces in arches. half Greek in design. Gothic architecture. the The latter are few in number. and arcades. differ as widely as possible The former are repeated to almost any extent. of form and taste modifications or produced by various national genius. and very limited of the one are in a in their application. the Gothic roughened and encrusted them with carving. in which posi- tions they invariably form subordinate lines. 1844. and are carried under windows of buttresses. and the For December. material. though the forms themselves are in the latter both are absolutely defined. catching the light in masses. a Grecian molding by * its lights. Its truly one of " evolution " of successive . and descriptions. In their use also Gothic moldings from Classic. lines. and peruse.14 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. if the expression may be used. and Komanesque history is edifices of all dates . and numerous other influences. churches. The combinations great fixed . horizontal moldings occur in water-tables and string-courses. And it on which dies thus in general we measure. round the weatherings tensively in base-courses. and ex- An intelligent and thoughtful writer in the English Review* has the following remarks on the differences between Grecian and Gothic moldings : "Where the Grecian delighted in broad level surfaces. They are also used very effectively to divide lofty walls into stages. or. and from Italian. so as to contrast and display the predominant principles of a sweep.changes climates. measure arbitrary. and in capitals and bases. .

Again : view. lines continuing to predominate. though with a different effect zontal . and may indeed be traced to a still earlier period in the sides of doorways and similar positions. and fell on each side in vertical lines into the horizontal. is the purest Grecian buildings. In the Gothic. that the vertical moldings are regulated. Gothic architecture revelled in the use of moldings." the two classes of ficial " Of the differences between some may be detected by a supermolding. unbroken undulaits the Gothic fractures lines. The Grecian leads tions . othei> being subdued and rendered secondary and subordinate to the vertical principle. such as the dog- tooth. though they are in effect identical.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. even in later and degenerated specimens. horizontal entablature of the Grecians. The lights and shadows of the Grecian . thereby producing the same result as in Gothic. For instance. the cornice moldings were carried around it. the Gothic in narrow. in the one case. the When Eomans broke up. divisible into . gently along in sweeping. the ball-flower. and combines them in angles and curves. The Grecian throws out projections to catch the it eye . vertical moldings are . melt and slide insensibly into each other those of the Gothic are planted together in strong and bold contrast In rare. by means of the arch. &c. Gothic by its 15 shadows. the Gothic endeavours to bury it in deep recesses. and perplexed with innumerable intricacies. Hori- zontal moldings form the leading lines and it by these. not only what are usually called ornamental moldings. vertical moldings are most frequent are horizontal. the Grecian in broad lights. horiin the. since . the Grecian delights in convex lines. Grecian moldings are simple and easily Gothic are entangled in labyrinths. but also the plain continuous lines of light and shadow . the Gothic in concave. the continuous ." The notion of ascending moldings is coeval with the intro- duction of the arch. and they overrule and determine those which And parts .

a depth of shade. t The mediaeval term for what we now call mulUon. it . when the molding was left for some reason or accident partially uncut. and evident that they delighted in their extensive use. an attempering of bare prominent outlines. every arch. string. a base. band. and made it dwell on certain parts of higher pretension and more exquisite elaboration than others. groin-rib. forms. for the purposes of investi- If the uniformity in their use had not been tolerably to strict. and jamb. different indeed in their kind. Boldness and simplicity produce effects. not the essentials. roof. And yet moldings are merely the ornamental adjuncts. vertical or horizontal.f every edge. It is probable that they were generally worked out after the completion of a building. so little did the mediaeval But masons depart from the conventional an abbey or a cathedral. which arrested the eye.* first the former are nothing more or less rounded and modified from the window. label. monial. Hence it is that such a vast quantity every- where remains. It quite their was ambition to work them wherever they could possibly find means and opportunity. or an arch-mold is often found of perfectly the same profile in village church at the other * This so that we occasionally be seen. had indeed been a hopeless task ever indeed. rich perspective. and in a end of the kingdom . But the power of moldings was it is appreciated to the fall by the ancient architects. process. may . whence perfect is evident that they are not necessary even to design. that a capital. Of course the effect produced by so free and extended a use of them was Construction gained thereby a magnificent in the extreme. was generally molded.16 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. if master the subject there had not been a system of molding. but serrated ridges. there would have been nothing to investigate. of architecture. internal or external. a fine tone. Some a buildings of the best periods were quite devoid of moldit ings. yet not less solemn and striking than richness of detail. whether of wood or stone. Every door. that no ordinary pains are requisite in examining any considerable moiety of them gating their principles.

screen Woodwork. Burgh. must appear a very wonderful fact.. in small belfry-arches. as in PL. and endeavouring and then gradually trace the progress of development been analyzed and classified according until the forms have all to their respective dates. Lincolnshire. And this. On examining the plan of a will Saxon window or doorway. iron. for though the same forms will be found at the same date as in stonework. the long narrow opening has a very wide splay inside and a very small one on c . according to the fine- ^IBF B i ness of the material thus. the monial t. is Stonework. as in fig. in the annexed examples.1 . the student would do well to notice those in other materials. 2. 17 might almost suspect that the very same working drawing had been used for both. however. it And at may be well to proceed. trom the le . It may. 1. Although the examples given here are in nearly every case from stonework. practice. The reader this point will perhaps be tired of this preliminary chapter. THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. Bottisham. such as wood. perhaps nothing more be found than a rude square-edged aperture in a plain wall. especially in relieved is. but has more members and will in it. only half the size of the stone one from Bottisham. that and expanded by splaying off on one or both by sloping or chamfering the edges. be anxious to enter upon the subject at once. fig. be sides. I. it and rude country churches. even considerably later. This may often be met with. beginning with very to discover the origin of the early buildings. when it is considered. &c. Dear Cambridge. So in an ordinary Early English lancet window. at Burgh Marsh. they are on a more delicate scale.

the nave and transept-arches are constructed of two rectangular sub-ribs. or sub-arch. that is. especially in pier arches. I. like the as rib of a vault. ornament groinfig. when worked on a small scale. chamfering off each arris.. or of two orders or retiring is members. f Potter's Monastic Remains. for the sake at once of was not uncommon security. fig. which are continued from the ground with the intervention: of a mere band or string-course at the impost. 4. if the wall be very thick each one retiring behind the other. the inner order. without the least change of form. And is the chamfer may be which is common in Early the case in the chancel- English and Decorated arches. however. which is observable in many continental Romanesque churches. the abbey church of St. the plan at once obtained which was most con- stantly used. we shall find the germs of a usage which ever afterwards prevailed. there may be two or more sub-arches. arches The same at is observable in several of the Transition Buildwas Abbey. f By ture.* or either on a pillar at each side. ture as it fig. 5). . or soffit-pilasters. molded. and sub-arch. it or a was carried continuously down to the ground. with a small shaft at the angles. 7. Of course. or under-rib. but no alteration of principle. 3. but was * off at the impost. 1. hollow. near Cambridge. PL. with some improveIn ments of form and detail. the In Transition arches. 18 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. This arch at Cherry Hinton. made a In arching over the upper part of an aperin a thick wall of loose rubble masonry. without any interruption or change of shape. the outside. the sub- arch was no longer a separate constructive formation. or square edge. and IV. fig. to add. or simply as in fig. This sub-arch rested projecting impost. of this aper- which now becomes recessed. is often corbelled jambs being left square. Now in this rude arrangement. for centuries afterwards (PL. In practice. Alban's. III. and was much in TOgue from about 1260 to 1320. constructed of fine-jointed ashlar.

lllatS .

the element of moldings. + See " Churches of Yorkshire. In Norman doorways every nook formed is by the receding under-ribs. detached column. and 14 from Clee. the influence of jamb-shafts must be taken into account. and the other is of very nearly the same Both these are good examples of the same principle . 12 is an Early English pier-arch at Skirbeck.* bearing the date 1192 period. both in Lincolnshire. in the same county. Here the howtell formed by rounding the edge as side. Rutfig. In this the square edge is Lincolnshire. an arch from Seaton Church. They are commonly plate. as 1 of the same belfry arch of latter Morcot Church. from which this exampleis borrowed. already described. remains. 158. as side. XXI. land ." Part VII. was very usual is from Great Grimsby.. . triple roll. * Facsimile given in Eiokman's " Gothic Architecture. shire. as in this style. fig. 15. and arch-molds of this kind are of constant occurrence in the Norman and Transition styles. near is Boston." because they occur at the external angles of the receding ordei's. In considering the origin of the cylindrical first roll or bowtell. 13 bowtell becomes attached only by a narrow neck. still In the latter church a Dedication inscription . Now this column seems at first to have borne a square-edged member or sub-arch. XVIII." Seventh Edition. 2. p. the PL. is From fillet this arrangement derived the double roll and of which forms the central member PL. occupied by a PL. an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. before. fig. I. and cutting a deep three-quarter hollow on each Thus the Fig. but occasionally double. The pier- arches in the nave of Peterborough Cathedral are molded precisely in the t same manner. worked into a shallow Fig. fig. and are yet not extended on each single. is from Adel Church.fYork- and illustrates this arrangement. These bold early moldings are generally called " edge-rolls. fig. 8.20 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.

24 shows this form more at large. 21 exactly where the jamb cases. this case the under-edge -is In withdrawn at the point. Hence occurrence in Early Gothic is may be expected. fig. fig. will be spoken more fully in treating of capitals and shafts generally. The pointed shaft. The western porch Ely is . 19 shows use in an Early English arch at St. and which was afterwards. of very Fig. Lincoln. 16. which occurs frequently the Transition Norman and Early English periods. I. date. Its formation may be seen in PL. near Cambridge. Norman arch in This member arose from as in a desire to decorate the angles of recessed arches. by omitting altogether the impost or capital. and in truth very frequently found in the Transition period. is the plan of a late Mary's Church. though not in the pure Norman. the idea of continuous obtained. at Clee and fig. without either cutting off away or rounding example from the square edge. the annexed its it Croxden Abbey. resembling. hereafter to be Fig. which projected above the impost receded below it. in some correspond in form and size rounded off so as to itself. as at a. however. in Another form. the introduction of the pointed arch. is called the scroll-molding. 17 is a triple respond or . This subject. Yet something closely resembling this member often occurs in Norman work. yC/^ which St. between two cylindrical halfits bowtells. Ely. Norman doorway moldings of is Hauxton. 13. Benet's. and is generally a mark of its early The clustered columns at Byland and Whitby Abbeys flanked by (the former circa 1190) exhibit the pointed shaft alternating at with the circular.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OP FORMATION. with the column This at may very clearly be seen in an Early Hence. which seems the origin of what explained. and coeval with. Staffordshire. is of constant occurrence in Early English work. singular form. the plan of which may be described as a spherical triangle engaged at the base. is the «^ p' r ^r pointed bowtell. pier.

Sussex. I. and ex- must never be regarded as Nave Arcade. on the principle of continuous moldings already alluded to. filleted. Fig. show the cylindrical and the pointed fillet bowtells with the addition of a small is at one side. The three exhibit the use of the pointed bowtell. 8. PI. is a pier-arch Middle Easen. of very Early English date. 12 and 23. is the jamb of a lancet window Abbey. The student perceived.. PL. where there are three fillets. 2 is a doorway at Ludborough. will already have from here first. 3 the chancel-arch at Langtoft. the filleted shaft and bowtell. 22 a groin-rib from Eobertsbridge Abbey.) crescences on a plane surface secondly. that the groups lie in the planes of the uncut blocks. and afterwards led to. the outermost . at fig. 18 is at the a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. fig. New Shoreham.out of the solid Soffit block solely by removing plane. And fig. II. PL. first all in Lincolnshire. it may be stated that a shaft may it take almost any form to suit the primary molding which sustains on its capital. edges and sinking hollows. Undoubtedly this form clustered columns of pointed shafts. and fig/ 5 the jamb of the archway of the south porch at Great Grimsby. where both sides are thus Fig. 25 is an Early English arch at Little Casterton. Fig. existed earlier than. figs. 4. fig 1. Vol. at the east end of Rivaulx This is one of the comat the angles of monest moldings Early English window-jambs. PL. fillet. 22 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. of drawing all that these moldings are formed. (Brandon's Analysis. the manner the adopted sections. where the fillet is end or central point. and in consequence. II." which are so well known by the name of the " roll-and- As a general rule. XVIII. Of all these varieties more will be said hereafter.

It may be . II. b the soffit-plane. forty-five degrees. may be and sketched with precision. will be found to one parallel with the outer wall. the moldings shared in the pre- . which at this time was in most cases worked exactly at an angle of 45° and as the style advanced towards the . In PL. a group of moldings would be developed. are represented facts in our engravings by dotted lines. The planes. that is. analyzed. which was generally (not invariably) done at an angle of about fig. . a is the chamfer-plane. one at right angles to it. rest When this is done by accurate measurement. or other feature. During the earlier portion of the Decorated Gothic period.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OE FORMATION. the plane formed by chamfering an edge.* that Early English * " In the Anglo-Norman stylo the jamb-molds were almost always worked in the wall and soffit planes and this continued to be the general arrangement throughout the Early English Gothic period. or parallel with the . the wall-plane soffit. first point is to lay down on paper the various planes. all attempts to do so will be futile. c the wall-plane. which may be called the soffit-plane and the third. the easy. which first appears at sight impossible to copy with anything like readily disentangled. the wall and soffit planes still continued to be most generally used. which we shall designate . 10. Without attending to these facts. although we occasionally find the jamb molded on the chamfer-plane. not being cut away of it. or uncut square surfaces. edge of each 23 member touching original the rectangular or chamfered so as to fall below or short surface. or the chamfer-plane. as a general rule. be- fore the moldings were cut. it of the process becomes comparatively and the most complex and extensive combination.alleged. to ascertain the plan of the arch. era of decided architectural debasement. These two must be regarded as fundamental canons in the arrange- ment of moldings. accuracy. the that is. It is clear that by sinking hollows in any one of these surfaces. but then in tolerably frequent connection with the chamfer-plane. There are three planes in which moldings lie . In considering any series of moldings previously to copying them.

a pier-arch. the inclination must be determined by bending a ruler or piece of lead across them. p. is if the distorted and inaccurate form it would probably assume to attempt an unpractised and untaught draughtsman were it to copy by the eye. truly copied according to the above rules. II. It is obvious that this is the . way at Madingley. 8 is interior of the chancel door. that Decorated. as in PL. II. It is. and 6 the northern doorway of the same church. Cherry Hinton. or on the chamfermoldings plane alone lie and that Perpendicular moldings almost always on the last. a pier-arch at All Saints'.24 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. plane. are instances moldings not uniformly falling upon the regular planes. Fig. 16 one at Trumpington. most expensive kind of molding. CamFig. near Camany reference to vailing desire to produce a meretricious effect. If some members seem to fall short of one . is an example of a molding from Over. ." —Brandon's Analysis. which is much more rarely the case. 9 is a doorway. figs. . 7. or Third-pointed. fig. PL. however. 12 bridgeshire. fig. These are Early Decorated. is an Early English molding from the Fig. fig. was frequently entirely lost. Stamford. fall either on these. was less and less rigidly adhered to as the it and in the latest. PL. and if they fall on the segment of a circle. without correctness of composition. and fig. 14 is a door- both from Over. II. 15.) Fig. 'Fig. because more has to be cut away from the solid block. according to their kind. by no all means uncommon to meet with moldings of the styles in which some of the members are withdrawn considerably below the plane of the others. 2 and 3. 11. 13 a window-jamb.The arrangement of moldings on the original block-planes styles progressed. and fig. 19 is a very fine molding from the inner door of the south porch. 50. (The semicircle round the central group represents the capital of the jamb-shaft. they will generally be found referable to some other. lie on the planes rectangular. III. of Early English PL. fig.

5. Clement's Church. Cambridge. for in each group does not extend to the angle. Too much stress has frequently been laid on the it theory of architectural symbolism. The observation of this difficulty. the angle of each will naturally form a group of three rolls with a hollow on each side. though symbolism may have had its influence. This is not an easy example to copy by the eye. already quoted. This molding consists of three distinct groups. is Occasionally each member has three fillets. showing the capitals of the two jambshafts. that an archway has two sub-arches. . if It is however. each group having three members. Whether con- structive or symbolical. circumstance immediately removes the principal This section illustrates a very common peculiarity of its style. so a triple triplicity in the entire composition. and we only mention as an opinion entertained by some. or (as a writer in the English Review. Fig. bridge. 18 a magnificent arch-mold from the doorway of St. or con- sists of three orders. we need not now consider. imagines) suggested by philosophical principles of effect. the central member but falls on the line of the chamfer. since the architects of the period seem to have affected representations of the mystic number three. as in fig. 25 is These are both pure Decorated. Early English and Decorated moldings very often consist of three groups.THE GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF FORMATION. which may be called the triplicity of moldings. that there clear.

outlines. or by applying a and left large sheet of paper where a stone has been removed. ribs. of monials. however. By these means alone a be made. a coil so as to be easily portable. the tape.26 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. the edges sufficiently clear and sharp to trace their outlines by pressure against them. and thence carefully removed. In to this process. But many fragments stones. and here care should be taken not to damage or destroy any portion of the little that is left. large collection of very valuable specimens may Another way is by the use of the leaden tape. are lost. are but These methods. and may be traced off with a pencil. shape it it retains the exact has received. or by a pencil. A thin flexible rolled into riband of this metal. except in ruined buildings. voussoirs. which requires both pains and practice ensure tolerable accuracy. and laid upon a sheet of paper. that their relative position to each other. or some level surface If this should happen. the members. is almost unavoidably bent in transferring it to the paper. it is clear. First. There of all is are several ways of doing this. the true bearings of is. SECTION III. groin- and other molded may be found in every old abbey. may be By being manipulated and impressed upon the moldings to be copied. that if the molding extends over a con- siderable space. there are many difficulties to over- come. and these may readily be placed upon sheets of paper for the purpose of tracing their . flat which must be spread nearest at hand. The best and simplest by inserting the paper in a loose joint. how- seldom available. on the ground. ever. confused or altogether and the copy is incorrect and worth- . about a yard in length. COPYING MOLDINGS. by its extreme pliability and great weight.

so that these especially must be supplied by the eye . &c. or slide affixed one leg and passing undercut through the other. pro- and every separate member should be tested as jection. is An experienced hand required for making an accurate copy and the process. often mutilated. or con- tains deep fitted into is and wide hollows with a narrow neck. and afterwards drawn upwards or down- wards till it finds exit at a broken place. dirt. on the whole. the lead when them cannot be withdrawn. marked out on the paper. may frequently be manipulated into a part which is entire. so clumsy that it can hardly be recommended to the student. the depth of the hollows. and to if furnished with a segmental scale-bar. In using the tape. Sharp edges and angular hollows cannot be closely copied with the leaden tape. bearing. jamb or arch) to may be them mine . is A pair of compasses with the ends bent inward very useful in obtaining the breadth of the members . cannot truly be ascertained. and the tape adjusted it in the second case. COPYING MOLDINGS. is rather tedious. process similar in its nature and results to the . from being so far As Early English moldings are been broken the lead undercut that portions of the projecting members have fallen or off. first In all cases. and subsequently to detertheir breadth and width by inserting a measure into them. There is a to produce such a result. is advisable to carry the tape merely over the necks of the hollows. or the sharp and rounded edges. and curvature. molding at once is. the rough draught of the pencil must invariably be corrected by close comparison with the original. In the first instance. moss. it is though the tape has in some cases been successfully used. by the aid of the measure. to size. the width of bowtell the neck of each may be exactly marked.. where the molding is much undercut. 27 Secondly. or the planes in which the members respectively lie (that a full-sized plan first by measurement of the block. less. and whitewash must be scraped clear away from the part to be copied. it better to copy only eight or ten inches of the .

is an inconven- appendage to the equipment of a pedestrian. has drawn them for the most part with the compasses. or practised hy applying wet a composition purposely prepared of wax and some other inis gredients. little No. By pouring plaster of Paris into the matrix thus formed. molding is exactly But in the case of undercutting. This is technically called clay. in giving the full-sized sections of moldings from Tintern Abbey. though the convex and concave surfaces are of course reversed. though by no ient means large. often drawn manu* especially in earlier so that very consider- able deviations from geometric precision must be expected in pbserving ancient examples. and is very successful where the mold- much undercut. . clumsy. or the planes and bearings will be incorrect. the original copied. about a foot's width of a molding can be taken at once a so that number of separate pieces of paper must be pinned together on the spot. and for ordinary purposes much the best and scale.28 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. for the members and curves were very work . is use of the leaden tape. that the instrument. they certainly were often so cut by Mr. and the most extensive and complex its aid. and that with great accuracy. and that only . 58. and the whole operation is tedious. Potter. to the part to readily he copied. on a reduced the mason. It can be successfully used with a very practice. and called by him the Cymagraph. and in this case no doubt correctly. Geometric methods both of copying and reducing moldings are fallible libera . the difficulty is here insurmountable. It is described and and Architects' Journal. the form of which thus and accurately obtained. . is to copy by the eye alone. * If not so designed by the master. and only fit to be applied when a model is necessary. moldings can be taken by The only disadvantages are. simplest way. by which illustrated in the Engineers' may be copied with the most perfect accuracy. plaster. Another. A beautiful moldings and ingenious instrument has been invented by Professor Willis. which ings are not too squeezing. and of the full size.

VIII. for the marked 3f inches is nearly as long as that marked 7. to give the is enough ings. as before stated. 1. as PL. the measurement serves to correct the drawing. it is obvious that the double groove or hollow chamfer in the centre cuts off a less portion of the projecting angle than the diagram represents line . measurements. whole breadth or width of a series of mold- which simple and easy when they lie in one plane. For the sake of neatness. is of the greatest importance in acquiring a sound acquaintance with the subject. any inaccuracy of proportion resulting from a hasty sketch will readily be recti- should the molding be adopted in practical architecture. It is indeed. Generally. a perfect copy of the ordinary and plainer moldings. as in PL. III. feet. 22. soffit they should be given in respect of wall and planes. may be made In be way also moldings which are quite out of reach may if sketched very tolerably at the distance of planes in which they lie many to.COPYING MOLDINGS. and II. as in PL. as in 29 PL. 3. fig. of drawing the outer wall-line parallel with the bottom of the page. tha be carefully attended . with in two or three minutes. already pointed out. is This is rather a troublesome process. adding the measurements of each If the particular face. The practice of copying moldings by the eye alone. it is apt to produce a complex diagram. figs. In this. and the soffit parallel to the side. all fig. XVII. in copying moldings. The depth plane to which hollows are sunk from the surface of any may readily be added. By adding fied. measurements of each member are required. 21. The eye fre- becomes perfectly familiar with every kind and variety by quently contemplating new examples and collections previously is made and their this . an Early English Doorway at Louth. it is well to adopt uniformly the plan. PL. and thus a great degree of accuracy in time attained. 3. fig. 12. indispensable. in For example. as in other cases. fig. the measurements of the parts. I. 20.

has been observed that edges are frequently chamfered at an angle of forty-five degrees. the plane line. he must be careful not to neglect to get full- sized details whenever he has the opportunity. in his tectural " Archiof Nomenclature. measure the depth from the top of the abacus to the under side of the neck- molding abacus . and applying the It foot rule and triangle. Though the student should always carry his sketch-book and pencil with him. and frequently show important deviations from geometric forms which are liable to be overlooked at first sight. may of is be remarked. and the must be invariably observed. marked by a as in the illustrations of the pre- sent work. II. that in the example given by Professor Willis. But as this is by no means invariably the to case. the only difficulty is in the hinge of the rule. Another the use of a triangle of wood or brass. the over Both these a are easily taken by dropping a small bullet is plummet (a string. with angles of forty . In copying the moldings of capitals. as they will tend very much to correct the eye for sketching. by which the angle can however small the copy be accurately transferred to the paper. There are several simple and effective means of doing. and the practised eye will seize the outline almost instinctively. this." from the Journal William Worcester. may fey be -. with best) from the outer edge of the abacus. It with a very close approximation to truth. fig. One is by bending the measure at its joint (PL. These two points. 15).30 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. lie. the planes in which moldings relative proportions of the parts. and the projection of the shaft. it is advisable in every instance put it to the test. which will prevent it being placed close against the wall.

the cross measurement be taken. and the enclosed angle being a right angle. five 31 degrees. which may generally be easily done very by placing the rule against one it plane and sighting the end of line with the other. means of the or circles may be drawn.COPYING MOLDINGS. 12. the splay will be obtained correctly. by applying the hypotenuse of which to the chamfer the two sides will be respectively parallel to the wallplane and the soffit-plane. Where the rule is placed against one plane. Full-sized moldings are reduced by the use of the well- known instrument separately by called the Pentagraph. forty-five. care. however. the direction of the is obtained. The best plan. is to measure along the wall and soffit-planes.fig. in addition. V. the end just meeting the other. if the chamfer is . inclosing certain portions of the copy. and re- peated of the proportionate size in the same positions on the reduced drawing. whether the walls are at right angles or not. as to a in diagram. See PL. either the dimensions a b or b c may be obtained . . All other methods require both time and Every member may be reduced compass and scale . and thus chamfer If. at an angle of but not otherwise.

St. From Mr. PL. fillet. and of setting . an exact parallel to which occurs in a doorway of of Theodoric at the Bomanesque palace . the theory formations of moldings must now be considered more fully. XVI. Sepulchre's Church. 14. Cambridge. an excellent illustration of the first idea of off the parts forming rounds by removing edges. Northamptonshire. Having thus far explained the general principles and the of the methods of drawing moldings in first section. The first and rudest attempts at molding which are found in this country. such as occur in the Ante-Norman III." Parti. for instance. of a square projecting with the angles chamfered so as to form a semi-hexagonal projection. PL. the very nature of the case would lead us to conclude that the earliest element arose out of a desire to relieve. indeed. 10. SECTION IV.32 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. and other churches of that date. a plain easily flat surface. Gaily Knight's " Italian Architecture. A square-edged rib became a semi-cylindrical bowtell by first chamfering. EAKLY MOLDINGS IN GENEKAL. to which must be added the very curious and antique attempt at a molded architrave on the impost of the belfry-arch at Barna:ck. This last example. chancel-arch at Wittering. Norman string-courses often consist off. the balustre shafts in the tower of St. are the rough and coarsely chiselled members. Bavenna and. Thus. generally semi-cylindrical. both in groin-ribs and pier-arches. affords. its fig. Benet's. and then removing indefinitely the remaining angles. fig. Cambridge. by coarse irre'gular channelling.

5. in fig. From Winto . The accompanying example of a similar kind is engraved in p. 1. as . 8. others worked into and the subfig. as in represents. arch cut away into a broad semi-cylindrical rib. was an after-thought. D . Lincolnshire. rising in succession above and behind each other.EARLY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. a which semi-Norman arch fig. the eye being unable to penetrate to the depth of the dark hollow. which was not developed period. till the Early English when it was carried to an extravagant excess." p. 2. at Barholme. 85 of Professor Willis's "Canterbury. 85. then. which an arch at Keymerston. PL. 1200 and the other from Peterborough. Norfolk. thus bearing the effect of a series of detached arches or ribs. which the first ap- pearance of the deep hollows may be traced. XXI. 33 thus rounded. circa 1200 rolls. The deep rounded hollow (as contrasted with the mere notch). . PL. a square-edged arch with at its sub-arch or soffit-rib was either worked into rounds fig. 4. and PL. is fig. PL. by which the contrast of light and shade was obtained. at Barnack. each independent and unconnected. Thus. is a very Early English pier-arch. Norman work the one from Glastonbury." where the Contrast j^tffc between ^j^.. IV. 1. early Norman : both roll- clearly satisfactorily exhibiting the formation of the molding or bowtell. or some edges were chamfered. each angle. so that roll-moldiDgs were extensively undercut or attached only by a small neck of stone . by sinking a small channel or furrow on each side a little below the surface. figs. IV. or into pointed rolls. "Canterbury. 7 and are groin-ribs of common circa profile in . IV. the Norman edge-mold is b and Transition bowtell A with side hollows well shown.

so that this view is hardly correct. sur- The templet. multiplication naturally implies reduction in so that. the outline to be followed in working out the hollows . fig. . established. 10. effect. 7. '>i '. being applied to every stone to be worked. but and no doubt. VII. by We may suppose the architect to have drawn on a board or a stone. Now. it The roll-molding being once to multiply it became natural as an ornamental feature to an unlimited extent and to prevent sameness of effect many modifications in the forms of the projecting members were introduced. and without hollows of any great depth. IV. light. coincided with perfect accuracy. 34 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. afforded exactly the same shape for each. and thus a great width was covered with minute members. as well as considerable variety in the size and depth of the alternating hollows. so that the pieces. size . VI. when put together. and PL. Deeply recessed archways consist of several courses of molded . designed not on any exact geometric regulated by taste. this inner hollow at the angle is not very observable in the earliest arches. corresponding to the bowtell at the exterior rectangle of the sub-arches. 3. caprice. alternately dark and hollow and prominent. fig. to a certain extent. with a free hand. we find a whole series of minute and skilfully diversified members. and PL. in place of two or three heavy round moldings placed at the angles only. at the point of the interior angle. From and these two points both the hollow the bowtells may have been extended each no space was left way. with the profile scratched or marked on face. represents its such a stone. till unoccupied. It three-quarter circular hollow might appear probable that the true origin of the deep must be looked for in the wish to edge or point of the form a cutting inwards.. as in fig. but is rather characteristic of the work of the first two Edwards. Still. diagram and PL. principle.

but with latest period the roll-moldings small pseudo-capitals and bases attached after the real columns. I. the arch generally consists of a single row of voussoirs. contemporaneously with the general use of the pointed arch. notion of alternate hollows and projections does not appear to have been fully comprehended by them.EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENERAL. of new forms. was reserved The invention of the pointed bowtell. Thus each group way is of arch-molding in an Early English door- borne by a detached jamb-shaft below the impost. 20. II. They paid so much tion to surface sculpture and shallow ornamental Ip work in the fiat faces of their arches. for the period of Transition to effect this. 4. opened the way to a great number origin. . of these is the eoll-and-fillet. each order-. manner of The Norman architects never got much beyond atten- the plain cylindrical edge-roll and shallow hollow. The and far the most important and PL. back of When the moldings are meagre. 35 or sub-arch. was found to be incompatible It with the enrichment by detail in Bas-relief. if so. to the and each it. fig. fig. that the Jp jj§ Coton. similar to the annexed example from Coton. In later times. stones. all all more or less referable to this common first and used with the most refined taste in varying the members by of complex Early English grouping. The introduction of this new feature may be said to have wrought a complete revolution in the system d 2 . a doorway in the precinct of Lincoln Cathedral. the shafts were engaged in the wall. having its joint being overlapped own independent by the stone next construction. PL. the different courses. it is essential to mark the joints The grouping and multiplying of members was greatly facili- tated in its development by the Gothic principle of distributing weights and thrusts under a number of different supports. and at the were often continuous. In taking a of molding of the former kind. or.

fig. Cambridge. annexed examples . as in PL. a fig. as at Little Casterton. afterwards. Shelford. This appears to be an acci- dental one. at with a square under-edge. 15. with the chamfer-plane. A certain analogy may is be traced in the and that from Selby simply the ordinary roll-and-fillet used as a string. II. String Nave. I.. so as effect. and in . of this kind have probably suggested the use of the idea of a fillets with the roll. Sepulchre's Selby. the It is not certain at fillet what precise period. subsequent set It may be defined to be a first flat band on the surface of a roll-molding. Rutland. in strings. most commonly. II. Forms first. in the abaci of capitals. a groin-rib from Tintern Abbey. 17. as at Great. fillet. m cu t surface of the Wall. feature was itself a common enough down from Classic times. and Little Casterton. Or it may be cut that. with a slope or ogee curvature. surface-line having been feather suggested by the off pointed bowtell. to produce- more prominent As. St. and in Norman work was used and in other places. fig. 9). Great Shelford. or as PL. 9. 19. or as in PL. It. An example 12. was throated or widened. fillet it will be found in the earliest examples that this frequently falls in a line figs. 18.36 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Cambs. I. being merely the unOvolo and Fillet. It is the keynote of almost all the of molding. formations. IV. however. was first added to the cylindrical bowtell. of a single side to the roll is figured PL. the or fine edge was either (PL. cause. fig.. or from what.

as in a pier-arch from Cherry Hinton. II. till towards the end of the thirteenth century. examples are not not intended to wanting in much insist earlier molding . the eye would otherwise have an ill-defined and imperfect outline. But all these are mere conjectures. has in the central group a filleted roll between two pointed ones. indeed. the north doorway at Cherry Hinton. planes. Again. fig. Still. as well as in making them the die into or spring out of plain surfaces. so that it is on this theory of fact is its origin. from their distance. . EAELY MOLDINGS IN GENEEAL. 5. So also and the juxtaposition of these two forms may be noticed other instances. roll-and-fillet in many Another plausible account of the origin of the may be offered. introduced for the sake of contrasting and diversifying the members 8 of a group. One that it worthy of notice in the use of the roll-and-fillet commonly occurs in alternation with the pointed bowtell it whence would appear to be merely a variety of the latter. 37 6. have been as a standing portion of the uncut surface certainly borne out a view which molding. Its occurrence in early groin-ribs cannot have escaped the notice of the observer. 8. . PL. fig. though the first seems the most probable. the ordinary one throughout the Early English period and the fillet is not often found coincident with either of the other fig. by the general analogy of The position of diagonal projection is undoubtedly . or joining rolls at right angles. the earliest may be traced to the obvious propriety of forming sharp and hard edge-lines instead of mere round mem- bers in positions in which. The author has devoted considerable pains and attention to the discovery of the true origin of this very important feature. left is it may possibly . fig. but without satisfying himself with any of the theories given above. instances of its use Perhaps. the addition of fillet presents important advantages in neatness of con- struction. For example.. in mitering.

and repeated at certain intervals . 5. and are reduced to a scale of half an inch to a foot. The m_™. P roJ ec ting parts. roll-and-fillet. FROM THE ACCESSION OF RICHARD A. were taken ^. I. SECTION V.^ ^ ^^^ graph. %'^^^K* hollows an(^' are seldom true circles ^ie ^ e PL. The pointed The bowtell.— 38 . fig. The annexed section will also serve as an illustration of the ordinary forms of Early English moldings. archeS in the choir ° f g^ E ty Cathedral. The the belfry. 1189 TO 1272. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. 3. which comprise a great variety of pointed and clustered. llilli^ -. 4. filleted bowtells. as shown PL. isolated. The scroll-molding (rare). the second the pierEa^English Arch. 2. figs. 2 and 3. II. they fTjkw |Mj assume a great number of capricious forms. The characteristics of the moldings of this style may be de- fined as deep undercut hollows between prominent members.D. would alone be quite sufficient to convey to the eye an idea of the general first is method.arch \at Plymouth. TO DEATH OF HENRY III. III. a great depth or extent of molded surfaces and the general arrangein ment in rectangular faces. Ripen Cathedral. . MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.( W/a Early English ^ e sa moldings may Wmit / ' llllllp' ^ *° comP r i se *ne following p V members: \ \ r~\ ~ 4 1. The plain bowtell or edge-roll. .

A plain bowtell or or roll very often stands forward upon a short ridge neck in Transition moldings. 18 and 19. of irregular character. 23). as at Fountains. side has attached (PL. It is illustrated also in Doorway. fig. IV. fig. figs. 7. fig. from a ridge (PL. figs. and Ripon Cathedral. the other on the side. each side of which is undercut by a deep hollow. 12. 12. 6. fig. are varieties of very frequent occur- PL. VI. p. as in the PL. The ordinary fig. PL. II. 9. therefore. IV. 3. suggested. in consequence of a slight hollow immediately below. V. is a form often found in labels. I. one at the top. II. leaving a more particular investigation to the student's own exertions. 5. as fig. the edges being sharp on each side. which are so capricious as almost to defy any attempt them distinct names and formations. 3. 90 of Professor Willis's " Canterbury " (fig. figs. 1. and fillets. a fillet Sometimes only one I. Fountains Abbey. PL. The other forms to assign chiefly consist of modifications of the roll- and. V. figs. . rence. PL. 39 Angular forms. consisting of chamfered ridges and inter- vening projections. pier-arches of the choir. 5. XVIII.fillet. figs. 5. and therefore probably compound molding. PL. The is roll-and-triple-fillet (PL. PL. fig. briefly to point out some of the most com- monly occurring varieties. 11 and 13. and ways of that may be found in doorkind in many of our abbeys. naturally produces.EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. this 12). roll-and-fillet projecting fig. PL. 8. It will be observed in PL. Sometimes there are two cut from Ripon. 13.) much used in the more advanced buildings of the style. It will be right. 37). This is of frequent occurrence even in semicir- cular arches. VII. VII. . a. 25 . and was the favourite form during the reigns of the first two Edwards.

IV. It may often be found between the detached shafts in of large doorways. closely approaches the character of the roll-and-triple-fillet. are groin-ribs from Robertsbridge Abbey . of work. as at Peterborough and Ely. fig. at Ludborough.* form a combination of very frequent occurrence. 19. and indeed In some cases any position. PL. IV. IV. 9 is the arch-mold of a double piscina with from Histon. * There lis is See the outline diagrams in sometimes so close a in this complex molding. If set square on the roll. . with many minor fig. it is generally a sign of early work. But in Early English it is almost always a narrow edge-line. as in those to the east of the octagon at Ely. fig. often as it much as three. Mary's Fig. 11. which shows some other in fact. V. in PL. PL. the latter also illustrates the it as were depressed into the roll. fillet both from Lincoln Minster . III. In this case may be said to lose its original character. figs. II.40 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. the beautiful Decorated window-jamb at North- borough. Fig. somewhat in the form of a fleur-de-lis. as PL. especially in it clustered piers. as in style. Potter's Monastic Remains. or even four inches. the one from the other. 11 is the chancel doorway varieties. which is quite invaluable in showing the curves and geometric formations of early moldings. in The members plane. that resemblance to the head of a fleur-deit is difficult to disconnect the idea of full size. are examples. In Decorated work the fillet became extremely broad. fig. the combination of the roll-and-fillet having been once suggested. fig. Lincolnshire. we may here observe. it 21. fall wholly on the chamferis PL. 4 and 7. and which every lover of Gothic architecture ought to possess. near Cambridge. York. varieties of shape. 15 is a groin-rib from Furness Abbey. 5 and 6 Abbey. It contains an immense number of moldings —a of the finest era and the richest design. Tintern Abbey. Fig. 6. rolls which seldom the case in this Three pointed placed together. III. An example is given. Northamptonshire. 1. PL. XIII. fig. they seem to have been used together with the utmost licence. where very often occurs. its capital are fragments from Tintern and St. and PL. PL. 5.

. in respect of size. fig. bination of the scroll-molding and the PL. 4 and 9. depressed. IV. an Early Decorated door- way at Yaxley. It I. and very often in strings and basemoldings. Hunts. perII. the under half of which the upper. 14. Benet's. * It occurs. 41 The depressed %and elongated forms on each side of first 11 are principally found in later buildings. which. is a PL. having been commonly preferred. the latter in perpendicular. fig. together with the contiguous sections. EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. haps in an accidental or undeveloped form. It has been before stated that a great degree of licence is observable in the forms of Early English roll-and-fillet moldings. also occurs. VIII. 3. Here seen the unusual comside-fillet.* the sceoll-molding so called from its resemblance to a roll of thick paper. 11 and 16. 19. represent the jambs of the immense Early Decorated and Geometric windows in the south aisle of Grantham Church. engraved in Mr. might be found and catalogued by a careful observer. grooved at the end. the outer edge of which overlaps upon the side exposed to view. from proof of this. Bowman's account of that church in his Specimens of Ecclesiastical Architecture. Lincoln. PL. is It may be described as a cylinder. See PL. XVIII. 6. little withdrawn. The presence of the scroll-molding in any approach towards the Geometric age. Almost every conceivable modifica- tion of the plain roll. and that geo- metric accuracy was avoided in a rather remarkable manner the irregular shape. generally considered distinctive of Decobut not very is uncommon . XVII. in the moldings of the very elaborate triplet at the east PL. elliptical. VII. or shifted a behind It is almost universally used in the abacus and neck of Decorated capitals. It is certain that this form was known and in use even in the pure lancet architecture of 1200-1240. IV. PL. elaborate group its marks . and in figs. An rated. and composition. the in Decorated. fig. fig. fig. for example. peaked. figs. It is represented in PL. of end of Castle Eising Church. fig. is —the latter an arcade in Lincoln Minster. shape. in PL. 6. St. important form. and the freely undulating curve. in advanced Early English work.

Fig. so as to make it a little sharper. The shadowed edgeroll- was presented by the scroll-molding as well as by the . its likeness to from the section of a ship show- ing the form of the keel. Ely. When it worked in with more deeply cut moldings Rivauix. the rich and circa a. beautifully molded doorway at Northborough. Antiquaries are not agreed as to the origin of this molding. ing close to the edge. line where it most constantly occurs. Byland. is MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS.42 fig. 5. The earliest pointed bowtell was simply the new form of the pointed arch used as a molding (as at Roche this and Byland). 7. But it is more probable that It it was derived from the pointed bowtell. probably from occasionally turning the combination of the two forms. as to leave but little doubt on the subject. or afforded a more effective drip in strings and weather- ings. we find . forms are probably identical. stood more isolated. with a long neck it . It left may perhaps be regarded as a it roll-and-fillet with one side sight. may be traced from one form to the other through such gradual changes. 1270. and. This form has been called the keel molding. but was soon modified by having a slight sinkBarnwell. either because was removed from capitals. exhibits the scroll form on the interior order. Cambridge.d. as in uncut. as in these examples from Barnwell and Ely. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. and-fillet and the principles of effect which suggested both Ik. Ha Roche Abbey.

York. constitute the ™™ double-ogee. how closely allied the two Jj| <Wm forms are. which is a and in this case it will be observed that pairs off with a pointed bowtell. Hr' ^mBi might naturally be J ° expected. § JSt> r Tintern. The annexed examples. and down century. > \ \aulx Abbey are an early | example. and Tintern Abbey. jjlf 2 . show also. from . as at fourteenth Elsworth. (PL. Though the under edge rounded. Mary's Abbey.EAKLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS the edge to one side. XVIII. Michael's. York. as it was called. Cambridge. of it is of the scroll-molding is usually frequently to be found cut square where sharpness . from 6. as in some of the bases at Tintern Abbey Wm St. Cambridge. as in 43 PL. figs. as to the middle of the at Warmington. from St. and those in the choir arches of Ei' ^^^^^^^k f. XIV. as be found both in early work. Two |||L rolls-and-fillets conjoined at their bases. Northants. Northants. in a position in P. . fig. ^Ujimli' IS jj| ^mm-- The scroll-edge is somein- times. ' llllL 7. near Cambridge. Mary s.* —one of the commonest * Professor "Willis says this molding is sometimes called a brace. ™^ uppermost. anciently or double-ressant. so that their respective to fillets are at / right angles each other.2*| which the pointed bowtell Hil _ Jt* St. though so rarely. fig. J|jj| that the is with- i|» ^ll |j| Ilk drawn surface placed Jm ** Warmington. which we immediately obtain the form in regular scroll-molding it . 1 and 10. 33). verted. : . shadow was desired it but this can hardly be considered as a is to criterion of date. Elsworth.

as in PL. from figs. of Early English and Decorated piers. of pure Early English detail. Deopham fig. rare in Early English. fig. number copy They are by far the most difficult of all to with exactness. which 12. fig. Cambridgeshire. 1. 2. from Bottisham. . fig. r-*-N. 17. PL. the inner doorway of the south 12. often many The an extremely tedious process to draw any scale. IV. resemblance to a printer's bracket ("History of Winchester Cathedral. We there find a hollow of three-quarters of a circle." p. XVII. And the same may be constantly observed in the common arrangement PL. PL. the same from Benington. 6. of the rich and complex examples on a reduced numerous deep and dark hollows constitute the most characteristic difference between the moldings of this and those of the succeeding style. Early English arch-moldings are so easy to distinguish all others.) . Norfolk. when does occur. IV. fig. or to give a great of examples. renders it . V. But the extravagant is display of deep cavernous undercutting lost in Decorated moldings. 14 and 15. Proceedings of the Archseological Institute. as in PL. is a decorated molding of sufficiently common form the occurrence (as in the belfry shafts archway at Trumpington). And must be particularly observed as the real division. the west doorway at Hingham. porch at . and their great extent. 1845. these hollows its fig. and apparently the result of accident it rather than fig.44 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. is the west doorway of Llandaff Cathedral. VII. See also PL. in the angle of every receding subarch. that it is not necessary either to say more in explanation of their peculiarities. Lincolnshire and PL. in which most of the forms already enumerated will be found to recur. 11. 3. where the set together so as to which carry the capitals are double-ogee. intention fig. from the irregular and capricious forms of the curves and undercuttings feet across. It is moldings of the Decorated and Perpendicular styles. II. The capitals hear the two moldings in question are marked in outline. 60. accurately formed with the compasses. VI.

and the minuteand show a ness with which even the most concealed and darkened parts were executed. imparting life and vegetation to the very stones ! abundance of doorways of this style which exhibit the most . are circumstances of much interest. taste. love for the art above the sordid considerations of cost. But there was evidently a feeling that the designs had become weakened by the use of a large number of small members of much the same size massed together so that the eye did not readily distinguish the different groups. however It is little it may attract the attention of ordinary observers. tendency the Decorated moldings were developed. and in correcting this Still.EARLY ENGLISH MOLDINGS. The exquisite skill. The ingenuity that was never at a loss in any difficulty of finish or constructive irregularity. as the village most prominent and conspicuous and in the much so as in the most glorious cathedral. dividing the plainer moldings into groups. minimum The deepest hollows are church as all as cleanly and perfectly cut details . of the orders of moldings when they all lie 45 on the chamfer-plane. are truly admirable. The Decorated hollows English . as if they had overgrown their original and proper limits. most pleasing to notice the long trails of dog-tooth . are usually of larger size than the Early and there is this general difference in their use. that in the Decorated they divide groups. an Early English doorway is often a wonderful piece of art. too. lurking in the dark furrow of a label or chancelled recess see the end of to some inconvenient member got where it rid of by throwing a flower across the point suddenly stops or dies into the wall . to admire the floriated boss and the foliaged capital intruding their luxuriance upon the moldings and hollows. in the Early English individual members. How beautifully. and patient labour invariably evinced in the working of Early English moldings. the knots of pierced like and hanging leaves extend filigree some petrified garland or bower of work round the and almost There are arch.

Fig. t the southern fig. is from the east window of Castle Kising Church. But almost every cathedral and every it ruined abbey will supply good specimens. in the south scale of half aisle of the nave. the same. . fig. the Chapter The entrance doorway of example of the House at Lichfield is a very fine molding of this style." These latter examples (6. Weale's Quarterly Papers. II. would be 3. that the eye cannot tooth the \\\/^j§ i/^jilfjJ! | fathom the point of attachment. Many trails of the more elaborate groups of Early English moldings contain several successive of this decoration. II. Norman each shows. are taken from Mr. triplet of the Eefectory an arch-mold from the choir of Ripon Minster. molding is The of an evident development f^plll|| Dog-tooth. 2. Bowman's illus- . 7. hollows. Vol. yet never. 9 is borrowed from Brandon's " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. nail-head as the by cutting incisions on side. . a doorway immediately opposite. PL.46 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 7. Some examples occur at Bolton and Furness five or six feet in width. t From 10 from the same. a is west doorway at Binham the curious variety of dog-tooth set in hollows of such depth. shape and planes of projection. often of different sizes. 5 is a ruined doorway at Bivaulx Abbey.* fig. is Plate XVIII. both on a an inch to one Fig.' Abbeys. 10) show the method of insert- ing the tooth ornament in.of our cathedrals have Early English doorways of amazing magnificence. 6 foot. or rather across. fig. from Beaulieu Abbey. and groupings . PL. whose arch-moldings extend The west fronts of several . Norfolk. fig. VIII. a doorway in the cloisters at Peterborough fig. 8. accompanying illustration * This and trations of that church. delightful varieties in their forms always. so that useless to multiply illustrations. In the very beautiful Priory.

much greater geometrical precision observed in drawing both the hollows and the may be projecting mem- bers than prevailed in the preceding style. without the aid of such marks. and. without dismembering. are Sometimes moldings than we should have . it would be impossible to say whether a molding is of the fourteenth or the fifteenth century. The eye must be familiarized to the profile and general appearance of moldings of different dates. DECORATED MOLDINGS.DECORATED MOLDINGS. with the addition of some new members. though there is quite enough of uniform system to enable us to apprehend the broad distinctive principles which obtained in the different periods. and the size of the . the latter found to produce an entirely different though in description the distinction may appear very trifling. The student will bear in mind that the details of Decorated moldings are in great measure identical with those of the preceding style. DURING THE REIGNS OF THE FIRST THREE EDWARDS. 47 SECTION VI. met with of much earlier or later date expected from other characteristic marks in the building and there are not a few instances in which. though can hardly be asserted that all the differences of style admit of being reduced to unvarying and infallible rules. it analyzing the group. Generally. and several important modifications of grouping. may discern at a glance the style to which any example belongs. then. of examining the separate details. this science does not appear capable of more than general treatment . 1272-1377. as it were. so that. will be And effect. In fact. And this may be done with a considerable it degree of certainty by practice and attention.

I between two deep hollows. a delicacy and gentleness of grouping. 9. 10 in fact. Now the composition of Deco- roii-and-fiiiet. rated moldings is essentially different. that they cannot alone be taken as decisive of this or that date. were much used. irregular. repeated with little change several Ww§ Decorated Jill times over. so that tbe entire group looks like a mere alternation of dark and \ light. indeed. for the ogees.48 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. is. great A many of the finest buildings in this style scarcely afford as good examples of molding as small and humble churches of the Early English age. effect. very slightly from those of pure Early English so slightly. Segments of circles. and there parts. an avoid- ance of strong and violent contrasts of light and shade. during the reign of Edward III. and there was a softness of blending. The reason is. 2. little : as possible. which imparted a more pleasing. bowtells. Early English arch-moldings have sometimes a monotonous effect. Very often plain chamfers are used in . is no extravagant isolation of small and unimportant undercutting The roll-and-fillet is formed with as figs. that each stands WgUm. In the Geometric-Decorated age (that first in the reign of the differ two Edwards). in size. both concave and convex. that these moldings took the characteristic turn roll-and-fillet. the moldings of arches and jambs . first. and. as in PL. which brought about the surrender of the its and many varieties. but also in kind . numerous members do not vary materially in size .Decorated era (that is. and wide shallow casements of the Perpendicular period. 3. though much less striking.). that frequently the . It was not until the Flowing. only just enough is hollowed away at the sides to develop the outline. which is but imperfectly remedied by the free use of quaint. secondly. XVII. For the not only do the members vary deep hollows are principally confined to the inner angles. is members somewhat larger. Rich Decorated moldings are of rather rare occurrence. and fanciful members.

a window at Hingham. 20 and 21. properly speaking. exception. VII. and the east window at so. sepulchral recesses. 1. 5) is Windows how- especially are often singularly meagre in their moldings. and windows. indeed. VII. and pier-arches . from the scarcity of stone in those parts. which. as figs. capitals. all 49 the windows. doorways. the sunk and the hollow chamfer of two or more orders.: a The plain. 20. form only a step preparatory to molding. It is in this kind of work that style. ever rich their tracery may be. Trumpington. fig. Norfolk. and stopping short of that ulterior process. sedilia. and not the i E .* And again. which Decorated may generally be referred it though there are many examples which difficult might be to assign to any one of them. These are : m ><. I. for the best moldings in the Decorated In arches. the monials and tracery often consist of merely chamfered planes. so that the jamb-moldings are. doorways. and separated from or recessed behind it only by a single order with a plain or hollow chamfer. PL. is one degree richer than this. There appear to be three moldings distinct kinds to . fig. have fine and elaborate details. though of equally plain character. the tracery of good Decorated windows stands quite flush with the wall.— DECORATED MOLDINGS. entirely omitted. such as bases. we must look (PL. two orders being intro- duced in the monial. 19. as it were. outer surface of the wall. while minor parts. the plain chamfer of two orders perhaps most commonly found. * In the churches of Norfolk and Suffolk this is the rule. fig. and the like. The monials stand near the PL. without any edge-lines to relieve them. Frequently.

" The plain or hollow chamfer is extremely common style. PL.-. PL. and PL.. ornamental leaf-work disposed at regular inter- . And as they rarely occupy it any other position than the chamfer-plane. or other quatrefoil paterae. c — the belfry-arch at Deopham. 9. 4. The wave -I ^Bllfe this style. VI. as in diagrams PL. II. 6. at Attleborough. Koll-and-fillet moldings. other words thus of the chamfer 11. is similar ^%?v. in the Early Decorated The inner angle which divides the orders (and which has been called the re-entering angle). 14. are sometimes intermixed. divided by three-quarter hollows all lying in the chamfer-plane of 43° . with hollows between each member. or quarter-circles. PL. or cut into a deep Of this latter arrangement. two hollow chamfer orders. effect. XVII. the Early English method. Here the chamfers are hollow. roses. Their distinctive peculiarity con- in the repetition of the same members varieties fig. twenty-three inches. total width across. 11.50 2. divided by hollows of three- quarters of a circle. Ely. Norfolk. 12 a door- — way 3. nearly resembling. molding. described in : —" A Thus PL. though. them as virtually the plain chamfered edges of class their flat sists slightly relieved from and naked form. in principle and arrangement. MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as we have observed. might be double-ogee order between . i ''[ . as in Norfolk. VII. 8. fig. 16. or have no imposts or jamb-shafts). it which pro- duces a very bold and good might be difficult to name a better example than the west doorway of St. figs. A succession of double ogees. V. and both of these are exceedingly It is not common moldings in unusual to find these two varieties comfig. Mary's. fig. in each order. VI. bined. in kind. in all jambs and archways (especially if they be continuous. three-quarter hollow. 12. as figs. In such cases there are often trails of ball-flowers. seems proper to regard 1. is either left solid.

XX. but not always. 11. 2 . 3. as in the west at Trumpington Church. and the neck single is wider from the hollows between the less deeply undercut. VI. stances the roll-and-fillet as PL. the chancel door at Willingham. Sometimes moldings of are combined with those of the third. VII. figs. PL. 3. of this second kind. a many informs a member of very monument in the choir In large size. PL. fig. and PL." 7. There however. ham. V. the priest's door at Hingham. over. and the gently bulging ogee Je t e 00 ate d F 1 curvature predominates throughout. 12. is generally one fl member "of the group. fig. Cambridgeshire. and it is perhaps the most perfect and beautiful of is. XVII. is Fig. V. Norfolk . XX. 15. Church. 8. PL. near CamFig. fig. Suffolk. vals. The second kind style .£/h from the beautiful Decoi-ated archway of the south porch at Over. fig. a window-jamb. fig. from the south porch of Bottisham Church. from Grantham this class "wll window-jamb. Early English and the Decorated In the later style the fillet "is broader. a perceptible difference in the shape of the roll-and-fillet.. Eutland. The members doorway fig. VII. XVII. bridge. . are all a monument is. fig. 5 is from a doorway at Langof the Geometric age. being The ar- capricious and irregular forms of the earlier style are no longer found. ranged upon rectangular lines. the roll-and-triple-fillet. near Cambridge fig. as PL. 17. 10 is H/ . . dtjyjjk members. Fig. . 10. While moldings of the second kind are generally borne by b 2 . early in the all. 8 . of Bolton Abbey. 1. is generally. VII. 51 and repeated in rows in two or more of the chamfers. PL. See PL. 7. fig. not set square on the roll. a doorway at Burfield. PL. is in this case usually fall in squares (that on the wall-planes and soffit-planes in succession). PL. DECORATED MOLDINGS. at Boston.

3. is PL. Exceptions. fig. is A simple molding a plain single form. the west doorway fig. fig. at Attleborough. the untouched portions of the rectangular nook) almost invariably stand at right angles with each other. Thus.— 52 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. as PL. 3. and not detached from.. where they constantly occur. VII. ascertained by measuring the two Sometimes the group appears to have been designed on the principle of a series of squares. such as PL. V. This is properly the character of the ogee itself. PL. the principle of which is shown at PL. 4. fig. one at Hingham. or those of one order of different size from the others. must be particularly observed that in the third class of fillets Deco- rated moldings the on each side of the three-quarter hollows (i. XVII. those which are continuous on the chamfer-planes. VII. 3. We may further observe on PL." p. now engaged and jamb-shafts. A compound molding either composed of . as a bowtell or threeis quarter round. that if the sides of the re-entering is angle are equal. VII. the angle of the chamfer-plane sides of the central nook. those of the first third are almost always continuous. VI. It is not uncommon one member of a double ogee considerably larger than the It other. a. as a roll-and-fillet. fig. " Analysis of Gothic Architecture. . in which case they are stopped by the capitals. VI. of four or five of these together. the wall). Sometimes a fig. 3. which is formed by a segmental inward curve conjoined continuously with a similar outward * In doorways the moldings borne by the jamb-shafts always lie on the rectangular planes. a double ogee or involves a profile of reflex or double curvature. V. in forms an angle of 45°. gives a very to find deep and rich effect to a doorway. 2. Moldings are either simple or compound.e. fig. Norfolk. So. as in the Early English style (though in. PL. is a pier-arch at Trumpseries ington . two or more distinct parts. as seen in PL.* except in pier-arches. are seldom found in ancient moldings. 12. complete in itself. fig. 68. the chamfer-plane that is. it the diagonal of a square.

and in PL. which may be compound ogee. quently occurs with a hollow between. fig. Scarcely any method of molding is and so common in. half of a triply filleted roll.DECORATED MOLDINGS. near Cambridge. 19." § 16. the square fillet. considered as undeveloped. and is represented in the " Guide to the Neighp. or to the Sll Edge-roll. 53 Of the same kind is a very important and universal called the Decorated form.* figs. 18. or so It fre- characteristic of. several (Early There are modifications of it. The formation of this detail may the be traced either to ordinary edge-roll Tib \M Triply filleted roll. forming a central . the other half being . to which era its use was principally confined. c. VII. or the It is wave-molding. chamfer. the edges at the points of junction being rounded instead of sharp and abrupt. bourhood of Oxford. Halt roll-andfillet. * Professor "Willis calls this the stuelled the term ivave to the ogee.. 9.molding . from represented in is its gently undulating outline. |_ It composed of two ogee curvatures. PL. 10. sometimes projecting forward beyond the edges. being simply somewhat less undercut. as PL. fig. " Buildwas of Potter's Abbey" English). Varieties of wave . especially of the Flowing.shaft into a rectangular nook. the form is shown in the accom- panying outline sometimes found. but usually in the same plane with them. XXIV. 333." from Garsington Church . PL. VII. It occurs in \~] the sedilia at Elsworth Church. 17. ._ bulge or entasis. 17. Inigo Jones applied See "Architectural Nomenclature. this style. or later Decorated. and rounded) forms of the roll-and- Indeed. The latter is not improbable on the analogy of the earlier and later (that is. and elsewhere. or merged in the block or to the insertion of a quarter. curve. IV.

from Headington Church. It is generally a mark of Transition to Perpen- A rare to form is exhibited in PL. V. that the side hollows are less deep. in an archway at Croxden Abbey. a window-jamb from This appears to Quy Church. 3. sunk between two raised fig. dicular. figs. a double ogee would be the result. figs. as the edges PL. The former It most common in so Decorated. circa 1240. and in the east window of the south aisle at Bottisham. XX. This molding occurs in the Decorated belfry- arch at Stretham. It also occurs. that this form was not unknown in Early English architecture. VII. that its occurrence may. indeed. be taken as a presumptive evidence of the style. 17. 23. a very good specimen engraved in the " Oxford Guide. near Camhave arisen from cutting down to an end of the angle. as PL. 1. See PL. Cambridgeshire. much more in default common in Decorated work. 16. or there is a small width of as the chamfer-plane . edges. left fig. surface b. and the sunken This very chamfer. It may be called down a double wave-molding.54 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 8. a doorway from Landbeach case Church. XIX. fig. It is also wider is. 50. 5. The formation is shown in PL. . It is not of is may be termed common occurrence the . Another variety is shown in PL. XX. and shallower in early than in late work . 13. the later the obtuse triangle. and the central entasis less is so faint bulging. VII. PL. Cambridgeshire. It is clear from PL. 1 and 2. 16. a. instead of scooping out in an ogee curve. flat fig. are either sharp. VII. uncut on each side." p. bridge. and PL. It will be seen that the early form involves the equilateral. in the form approximating to the outline diagram in p. V. the wavy line as to fig. And sometimes we lowest order of find nothing more than a VII. PL. Isle of Ely. of other proofs. * fig.* Sometimes. By cutting the central hollow an angle (as shown in the shaded part). XIX. 2. one member. 11 PL. In this the concaves is is are sometimes slightly undercut. 281. fig. fig. fig. XIX. fig. be scarcely different from the plain chamfer. the latter in Perpendicular.

mind the idea of one side of a roll-and-fillet the convex portion being much larger than the concave. this latter case. if ever. of. 2). style Its occasional appearance in the Early English it is has been already mentioned. as PL. PL. scarcely. 11 . and so explain fully in origin and varied relations. is (fig. 10. 9. in fig. and here it must. in In its most ordinary position a window-jamb. so common part identical form with this difficult of a monial far the 3). or short the rectangular plane. however. 3 being the fall same church. however. that it might be supposed was thence imported into the Gothic. in England at whatever may be the case in the Komanesque edifices in other countries. The ogee molding difficult to it is is a form its so extensively used. fig. it seems extremely to decide how form was introduced from' this or that suggestion. figs. between two wave-mold- ings. In fig. the quirked ogee (see edifices. It is believed that the ogee Norman architecture..DECORATED MOLDINGS. XVI. PL. from the outer archway of the south porch inner) of the (fig. 2. it prevalent in the Classic styles. of course. from the north porch of Bottisham Church. 1. is . general the ogee easily and leading curve is so In respect of its origin. or a roll-and-fillet. the rolls-and-fillets within. Since. is found in Decorated work. where. It should be especially noted that it very sparingly used. 55 A plain bowtell. XVII. were there not abundant opportunities of self-development presented by the varieties of the roll-and-fillet. VII. Cambridgeshire fig. it actually corresponds to a perfect roll-and-fillet in the ^ monial. because they would otherwise have been too large. the always suggests to . occurs in least. 2. whenever the ogee occurs in Decorated moldings. in Classic be regarded literally as half of that member. formation whereas the we can roll-and- gradual from . the earliest But in forms would be found of Classic character with actually trace the its large concave portion. that its almost impossible to do more than point out characteristics.

in Decorated work. This detail is the most usual in Transition to Perpendicular. Norfolk . but rather sparingly. Rife The roll-and-fillet. is The bowtell. 16. The following. and PL. 4. &^m^W _ Vi Double ogee. It is difficult to give a fig. rather it than refer to an imitation of uncongenial Classic details. VI. is a doorway of Transition Swanton Morley. in which the bowtell occupy- ing the centre forms an engaged shaft. 14. used. or ressant lorymer. fig. as PL. V. are the principal forms found in : Decorated moldings 1. therefore. a fragment from Rivaulx Abbey. Sometimes a semicircle sunk in the chamfer-plane is found. 8 6 - Scro11 molding. Other minor varieties might be added of forms which are principally found in Decorated work. VII. Roll-and-triple-fillet. a very fine fig. Norfolk . a door- way at Deopham. <mm ^ m I ' 5^m : I «jj . . b. having at first the roll the predominant portion. 6. 5. 14. VII. and PL. or three-quarter round. VII. When this is the case. fig. Sunken chamfer. ti^k. . and the hollow gradually gaining in importance in later work so that for it would not perhaps be saying too much to vindicate Gothic architecture the self-development of the ogee. fig. PL. a window Hing- ham. Ogee and fillet. So also PL. 13. 56 fillet. 18. date. fig. fig. archway at at Hardingham. V. at PL. / gjj • jflnP 2.— . and perhaps it is not of sufficiently frequent occurrence to render a particular term desirable. 9. or double ressant. VII. name to the form shown in PL. VI. or swelled chamfer. it was extremely common in Perpendicular. PL. Norfolk. l*^ 7. Wave-molding. circa 1360—80. 8. Plain or hollow chamfer. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 2. fig.

V. fig. may of course be also taken to represent one side of the monials. When a window has primary and secondary monials. architects generally in these examples. as being identical in detail. 14.' 9. 5. as PL. is part of a window in the chancel at Boston . all of which are late in the style. In drawing the section of a window- jamb.DECORATED MOLDINGS the fillet 57 is seldom wanting. . inner jamb 14. and so that. of members constituting the separate sub-arches for the face of the smaller * All the examples in PL. of the east window at Heckington PL. a small tongue- shaped member projects from the inner side of the principal roll-and-fillet. 1. position with the sunken semicircle. XVI. II. 4. shortness' sake. 1. Leicestershire. V. VI. is 5. which. But the plain roll appears in PL. V. PL. fig. 15. are Late Decorated. 6. 1. a window at Fen Stanton. the fig. which this example belongs. is . as in figs. This should be noticed as a very characteristic class. and PL. VI. figs. same 15. PL. is a sure indication of approach to Perpendicular. 14. of of principal and secondary monials. 48. as in PL. . show the method are. VI. the monial-members may be represented by lines across. to detail of Decorated moldings of the second See also PL. fig.* Sometimes the bowtell seen in juxtafigs. This occurs also in jambs and arches. In PL. as merged into one another.the fig. the group . fig. A combination in common in labels and capitals is shown PL. extremely fig. for jamb . V. 4. except in very advanced work. it is obvious that they carry distinct planes or orders of moldings. The occurrence of the small three-quarter round. from Stoke Golding. 5. PL. Thus the outer edge represents the actual profile of the jamb. 5. The moldings course. 3. VII. parallel with the wall-plane. XVII. Yet these orders are not always of the same nature as those we have before described as such —namely.3. draw double monials. 1. coincident in every part of the tracery in the corresponding parts or planes of the and monials. figs. V. fig.

that is. . in PL. especipri- when the < 1 ' JJ M y / - '. as in the last example. attended to in copying moldings. 5 PL. follow the *' common law of pierarches and shafted . 14. some and early is examples a molding carried all furnished with is small in bases resting on the cill. falls monial often within or behind that of the larger only by a single retiring step. Thus. XX. 58 -MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. In Decorated windows the face of the monials flat is generally roll- edge or is fillet . . is The difference of inclination sometimes very slight. a fig. . it stilted bases in the jamb. This produces a very fine ally effect. The plane the monial in which the outer moldings of the jamb lie is seldom coincident. VI. In these cases the moldings tracery t of the ^^'IjIf Sleaford. but in round. or fig. with that on which members are arranged. they are different in section above the Ordinary windows. the second- '<fm W l < ary a single shaft. member of a group. follow the principle of continuous archways. Wells Cathedral.. capitals. for this would in most cases give too great thickness to the monials themselves. Many Decorated windows have shafts in the jambs and monials both internally and externally. VIII. the slope or inclination of which must of course be the same on both sides of each aperture or light. as has small at the west end of King's College Chapel. on the other hand. carefully fig. but different members of it. 8. This roll-tracery very common Perpendicular windows and sometimes. both the monials combined carry (properly speaking) the same order. doorways. bat this point must be See PL. !i mary monials j carry a triple.

a close resemblance in the a composition of this and of 1. 4 is the molding of the pier-arches in the same church. because a strong presumption of coeval date is thence to be derived. PL. Fig. from being cut away too deeply and widely from the block surface. The aisles and clerestory in the nave of Alban's Abbey. the north doorway at ham . fig. 1 and 10. 4 is is the inner doorway of the south porch at Boston. doorways at Little Ellingham. that to very important compare their moldings with other parts of the same church. Stafford. afford most beautiful instances of shafted window- . There fig. 7 from a monument at Boston. It closely resembles PL. and II. Nomencla- . as in PL. of unusual and decidedly early character. fig. And monuments especially it is were so often inserted subsequently. The interior arch. and the south choir-aisle of St. of Early English and Geo- metric windows generally borne by a shaft. in the same church. in fact. 6. character of these two examples is rather late . plain and inexpensive buildings. The and they are wiry and poor in their effect. fig. not only in the same church. though of rather late Decorated date. The labels or hood-moldings of the date of Edward I. Fig. Norfolk. It This latter example un- usually bold and deep. monument artist. or is 59 rear-rib. windows St. Willis's " Architectural * Called anciently. ture. measures three soffit. but in the neighbouring edifices. is a doorway at Great Ellingham. V. 2. VI. VI. figs. 8. Fig. 57. feet across from outer face of the label to the fine. form a very essential part in the composition of the more elaborate. and fig 13. the soffit at a." p. betraying the hand of the same This resem- blance should always be attended to. in these styles.* except in very Shafts. at Hardingham. and the effect is remarkably at Fig.DECORATED MOLDINGS. Mary's Church. the rear-shaft. sunk in the Hingis surface of the wall. are often undercut by a three-quarter circle. 5 is the interior of a window jamb Sleaford.

Peterborough is an effective decorated group. or Ketton. Fig. Lincolnshire. PL.* PL. fig. PL. Fig. The roll-and-triple-fillet produces a fine effect in moldings of this cate. to illustrate the difference in appearance exists between the same molding exhibited in section and in elevation. and must not be depended upon. Thurlby. a Decorated window from the chancel Lincolnshire. fig. Fig. 7. fig. V. with double jamb-shafts. 8 the interior of a window-jamb at Heckington. the south doorway at Langtoft. . fig. Fig. Its edge-lines are sharp and deli- and the profile beautifully relieved it is by the deep side- hollows with which necessarily connected. PL. Fig. 15. in Decorated This also is is a very common form windows. 13 from the outer porch doorway at North- Fig. the celebrated This molding is Andrew's. 22. from a fine Decorated tomb at Ewerby Church. 21 is a window from the Decorated chancel at Keddington. Kutland — window which elegantly enriched by a trail of ball-flowers in is the hollow chamfer of the outer order. 13 is one side of the belfry-arch at West Keal. HeckingIt is ton. a fine doorway from West Keal fig. Fig. Lincolnshire. Abbey. VII. 16. Hunts. Fig. 12 11. is . a very fig 8. near Market Deeping. is the outer archway of the west entrance to . borough. fig.a 60 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. It is taken from Yaxley. the molding at the angle of a piscina. a groin-rib from Rivaulx . fig. and is 10 the exterior of the same. 23. is an archway in the cloisters at Peterborough. * This example is badly copied. from Horbling. which almost rivals St. style. shown which in perspective. at Over. immediate neighbour. 10 is from Clipsham. Fig. XX. the precinct. 4. 5. a good and effective composition. 9 common is plan of a Decorated window. Lincolnshire its a noble structure. is the interior of a window-jamb at Bennington. Lincolnshire. Suffolk. V.

in indulging any he may have formed for earlier work. . in early work. would have been separate moldings . to death of henry viii. Wells. that their general arrangeis ment on the chamfer-plane. and general shallowness of cutting. Large and coarse members. 1485. 61 SECTION VII. ii. with little of minute and delicate detail. there work of it is such a mass of really high art in the this period. occupying spaces filled which. Vicar's Close.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. since it is only by Fireplace. commencing the latter with the reign of Henry VII. from the accession of richard a. with groups of hard wiry edges in place of rounded and softened forms. cutting channels that the moldings are developed from it Three peculiarities are so * This might fairly be divided by the student into Perpendicular and Tudor. which a marked is feature of the Perpendicular period. are all con- spicuous characteristics. At the same time.. Add to these. gives a flatness which unpleasing to the eye in comparison with the rectangularly recessed grouping of the two preceding styles. wide and shallow hollows.d. which case the outer edges of each molding of course coincide with it. that the student must be careful not to slur predilection over. perpendicular moldings. The mold- ings of this style frequently die into a basement composed of the simple - uncut in chamfer plane.* 1377 to 1546. debasing influence will at once In the moldings of this style a be perceived in the comparatively meagre save-trouble method of working them.

as seen in PL. 2 and 15. figs. it is. the most frequent are those represented in PL. and sometimes. resembling small shafts. fig. and IX. 3. John's College. that their absence almost forms the exception to general Tisage. fig. and if the student . and PL. 3. 10. in the chancel of figs. and often used as such of the double ogee. he will per- ceive the importance of assigning this feature as a peculiarity . or hollow. IX. as in PL. 4. — MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. VIII. fig. the arch-mold of the nave of Lancaster fig. The latter result may be observed in the windows of St. PL. so stretched as to become flat surface. is gained at the sacrifice of depth. XX. of bowtells. Of many forms which the casement assumes. VIII. compares the three plates of Decorated moldings. G2 common 1. sunken but little below the chamfer-plane.. Church. The casement alluded by which width it is to may undoubtedly be regarded as an elongation or extension of the Decorated three-quarter hollow. the ends are sharp and angular. and equal to about one-third of the width 2. 13. in the same group with the great casement or central hollow. usually occupying the centre of the group. in Perpendicular moldings. of three-quarters of a 3. IX. or beads. The three-quarter hollow also occurs in this style. Cambridge. to find one or both ends of the hollow returned in a kind of quasi-bowtell. and PL. The constant use circle. Frequently. of late when wide and shallow. figs. These are : A wide shallow casement. or external line of the group. and in those of the older portions of St. 16. 14. 2. Accordingly. VIII. . It is very common XX. as PL. 11. of early Perpendicular generally a is mark work when the casement deep and narrow. fig. 14. The frequency and some varieties of it peculiar to the period. however. a window Grantham Church. Botolph's Church. perhaps generally. VIII. and of debased when almost or quite a as it were. or PL. The bowtell will be observed in every example given in some form or other in almost PL. IX.

10. figs. double ogee. 1. figs. PL. 5. . an ogee with a small bead or figs. way in the choir of : Grantham Church and a "doorway in Ripon Minster. and the combination exhibited in is 15. an ogee combined with a quarter-circle. 10. in than in Decorated moldings. fig. as PL. fig. 10 and 14 PL. fig. it some assumes in the later style. 63 In PL. figs. stands like is an excrescence on the surface of a plane. is extremely com- mon in Perpendicular moldin j OP fig. PL. . where the depth of the hollows generally conclusive. XX. 3. It is often side. near Camhridge . it . western doorway at Newtown Church. ings. 13. Occasionally fig. The double ogee the form which is much more common There is in Perpendicular difference. For whereas the Decorated ogee. the Perpendicular appears rather to be composed of a semicircular hollow continued in a bowtell. u. 1. . from a small doorfig. figs. both from Bolton Abbey fig. IX. as before stated. 17 . 11 and 12. always represents the profile of the half of a roll-and-fillet. fig. a small double bowtell forms the central member. PL. the earlier ib* -^^ vm J||lllllS> form. VIII. fig. 3. figs. of the Perpendicular. peculiar to the style. as in — all contain examples of the cylindrical bowtell. 7. as departure 5 but this a from the usual practice. b. and especially the \-/ Perpendicular members. IX.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. from Rivaulx Abbey Fig. However. 4 and 5. 16. 6. as well as from the true principle of moldings. IX. as PL. fig. VIII. IX. XVI. 8. formed from a plane by sinking a channel on each PL. Other varieties. * This is one of the commonest and most decisive combinations in Perpendicular moldings. too. an ogee with a bowtell forming one side of the great casement. are the double ogee with a bowtell in the centre.* fillet c . 9 . at the base. XX. the . forming a section more like the letter S— see PL. All these may be considered as dis- tinctive criteria of the style. 5. 6.

. IV. the belfry arch at Haslingfield. and is principally confined to the outer members PL. The form represented in outline in the preceding woodcut is It occurs in Early found in all the styles. VIII. it usually springs from the capital of a small bowtell. other corrupted varieties 16. of the bowtell mold. IP Cambridgeshire. the figure Early Other two. near Cambridge. PL. it is size in Perpendicular arch-moldings.V Ijjp grams the upper English. varieties of the Per- pendicular roll-and-fillet. . window-jamb from the south . usually rather of dooris small. VIII. of the before 1400. fig. The debased form fig. capitals. XX. that is. are Two fig. with in a the roll or bowtell plain and not filleted. however. fig. doorway at Fountains Abbey. 21. it in fact. that of the diagram between figs. 3. fig. 7. VII. . 16. 64 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. except in a very corrupted form. however. IX. exhibited in In the annexed diarepresents the V'^. English work. In PL. is very rare in this style it is shown in and it The absence of the roll-and-fillet.* 10 and 11. The double ogee is sometimes of large and clumsy In Decorated. Transition period. 3. is also jBjlllI Jjjjl peculiar to the style it is much used in basefind ment moldings and PL. 9. the inner doorway of it is the south porch at Great Shelford. as in 14 PL.fillet in a debased form as in 'Ijjljl' fig. A half roll-and-fillet a frequently occurs. properly a late Decorated combination. this is The form of the roll-and-fillet. the breadth of the The shape. A roll-and-fillet between two ogees II. . Sometimes we the roll-and-triple. fig. prevalent in it style. of the nave at Eipon Cathedral bowtell * is. The pointed fig. in which. as in aisle PL. one of the late Gothic. 13. When' most remarkable -features in the moldings of the does occur. fig. fillet will of the ogee curve and be found to follow the rules laid down. ways and windows. a doorway from Bolton Abbey. was not extensively used. PL.

or beautiful. at Uffington. 12. PL. Lincolnshire. in the from the east window same county fig. illus- 12 and 18. from Fig. most examples but of three or four very ordinary members. Norfolk. or hollow. such as the jamb-shafts in deeply recessed doorways. VIII. jamb fig. Having pointed out these facts (which deserved to be regislittle tered as essential and characteristic differences). without any casement in the angle.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS.. 65 occurs in the aisle windows at the west end of St. to arrest our attention and add to our store of knowledge. encroaches so is left for much upon the group that room more than a double ogee on the outside" of : and the monial-members on the inside — by which term those moldings of the coincide with the monials. early in the Fig. John's Church. externally. which form groups of considerable delicacy. a larger space is available for the pur- pose. are meant which Sometimes. Rich and good Perpendiconsisting cular moldings are not very common. is from the west doorway style. however. or ingenious in the treatment of the moldings. fig. are taken from different churches. and trate the remarkable uniformity which prevailed in the use of moldings. from the isolated tower at Dereham. But the great casement. which either novel or interesting to the view . PL. though the tracery is generally set deeper in the wall than in the preceding style. fig. comprising the first order. near Stamford. 2 is the same.. and. figs. at Leverton. 5 is . offer nothing while in the two pre- ceding styles there is ever something singular. 3 the same. IX. consequently. 1. Window-moldings are usually extremely meagre. VIII. 6 F . But Perpendicular work is by no means to be despised. for many points may be found. to be said remains on this part of the subject. we find the double ogee and the monial-members occupying the next. Saham Toney . 4 from Fishtoft. Stamford. Fig. represents the almost universal plan of Perpendicular windows. PL. especially in earlier examples. little it.

from Messrs. a window. Stamford . fig. from Byhall. 12 from the south Choir Chapel. 19 a doorway at St. Skirlaugh. 8 from in Lin- Stewton. IX. tban 11. Yorkshire. Stamford . Suffolk fig. 1. . fig. 9 from an oriel window fig. 16 from St. . the " Analysis of Gothic Architecture." figs. John's Church. Stamford. 3 the same from St. VIII. Albans. fig.. Martin's. 13 at an arch in Sepulchre's Church St. and fig. 10 the south doorway. fig. an angle of 45° and that occasionally. and . Rutland. Brandon's excellent work. fig. both doorways fig. 20 the pier-arches of the same church. near Cambridge St. The two moldings. 17 a pier-arch from Holy Trinity. 6 the west doorway. 10 the east window at Chesterton. more or less fig. two parallel planes are taken * for the basis of the arrangement. Fig. . . Cambridge fig. 8 is from the chancel door at fig. All Saints . fig. that in It also appears. from the examples given. . 4 from the Bede House in that town fig. 14 the south 18 doorway rence . are borrowed from the " Churches 11 and 16. near Cambridge Skirlaugh. from Histon. 14 from a niche Great Gransden. 8 and 10. 66 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. The former has large sculp- tured paterae in the central casement. fig. 5 is from a pier-arch in the noble church of fig. 21 from Louth. near Stapleford. 7 from Louth. many cases the chamfer-plane is either . PL. fig. fig. a window-jamb. near Neots . 15 a molding of constant occurfig. 2 the west doorway of the same . common fig. fig. 16 from Great Shelford Colchester . 18 the same from Long Melford. . while it is seldom undefinable in Decorated moldings. fig. fig. and of Yorkshire. 12 a window of . is from the east window of . 15 the east window at . 13 the belfry-arch at Haslingfield . at Grantchester fig.* fig. as PL. It will be observed that the distinction of the orders is often completely lost in this style. St. 17 a doorway. near Cambridge . fig. coln fig. . 7 a window." figs. . 9 the north doorway at Harlton. fig. fig. Hampshire form . fig. from Partney fig. fig. 11 from Basingstoke. Lincoln Cathedral . Martin's.

in the arch-jamb of a doorway or window. This may be illustrated by 8 or by PL. In the annexed example from p 2 . i'tafto itt ' One principle of composition may sometimes be This is traced in moldings. An The ° instance may be noticed in the west w window of Grantchester Church. especially in late ones. 76. Overstrand. and on arch moldings are often arranged." published by the Archaeological Institute. many other accounts of cathedrals by the same The question of composition involves that of the grouping of molding. for instance. This is a great fault. of base. The casement is 67 sometimes so extravagantly hollowed as to give the appearance. 6. with a repetition of the same the custom of ending members which commenced the group. the variation of the same feature. figs. as. always produces a very unsatisfactory result to the eye which desiderates the idea of perfect and substantial support. of weakening the jamb. In early work the jamb shafts carrying their is frequently formed with detached these capitals elaborate own capitals. GranteTeste^ch^b Ki«. and in author. 77 of Professor Willis's " Architectural History of Win- chester Cathedral. capital. the centre being U|| occupied by a different one. and probably the **^ll \:lass and actual effect. IX. Students of the present subject will find a very valu- able series of illustrations West doorway. the annexed cut. or of the arch and column in an arcade. 3. 1845. and archx molds of the three styles in pp. Norfolk.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS.

to 1 ft.68 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. . 2 in. Even in this case the chamfer forming the inner member close to the Priests' door. and it will be noticed that the fore- most of the angles jamb are in position immediately «# 1 below the re- entering angle of the arch- mold. Heacham. Heckington. In this example the square of the stone out of which moldings cut is the are dis- tinctly seen. Scale. Scale. south porch. Inner door. Norfolk. Lincolnshire. 1 in. in Norfolk this is clearly shown. to 1 ft. Heacham.

Lincolnshire but frequently much larger proportion common to both. times. they become Portion of Arch and Jamb. a of the moldings are continuous and When we mon and invariably tinuous. The Early English columns in an arcade with the detached shafts carried arch moldings which at first sight seem to have but little connection with the shaft as an example. Cambridge. example from Heckington Church. inner door. south porch. mere beads.PERPENDICULAR MOLDINGS. it get into Perpendicular work we find the fiat case- ment very comwas con- The larger of shafts are smaller and a number members the are as continuous. being the same in the jamb and in the arch-mold. As the styles developed the detached were superseded by still engaged columns. King's College Chapel. but we in the frequently find considerable variety jamb and arch-mold. in the annexed example KiDg's Chapel. door itself is 69 continuous. Scale. bridge. The same as- sertion of the continuous molding is found in other positions as the styles advanced. This is shown in the annexed . In Decorated work the plain octagon shaft carries the sub their hollow chamfer or other mold- and main arch-molds with . 1 in. to 1 ft. from College CamSomeindeed.

In tracery also the mullion will have or rather sub-orders. all the different orders. contained in it. The real master of his craft never hesitated to make his moldings exactly what he thought best suited for the position they were in. excepting for small shafts which carry a varied arch-mold. will and these so well . . much and so was thought of little real artistic effect of what one may term cast-iron regularity. branch out and break into the different forms known under the plastic. in the name of tracery but beyond this the moldings are wonderfully hands of the master designer. so as in accompanying diagram. and where a member which seemed only in it sufficiently strong tracery a mullion looked heavy in was frequently thinned down. when we get to later ings.70 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. but work we find the molding continuous.

the See Professor Willis's "Architectural Nomenplinth. early). as is proved by (pro- those in the ancient chapel in the White Tower. The . and shafts. Cathedral. 71 SECTION VIII. not involving a of aggregate parts. and these forms are either when composed number of one plain member. 39-41. and piers. PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. or footing of and verges. The general plan of the columns which support the nave or other principal arches is either square. whether is Harold's Church or not. A few sections have been given for the purpose in PL. The earliest form of column is the circular.* This subject the forms of falls properly under the head of Moldings. were respec- tively pillars. that is. many and other places. capitals. But it is one of such extensive scope that only a few general rules can here he given for dis- tinguishing the styles. detached or engaged. Simple. at Norwich Sepulchre's Cambridge." pp. chapiters. when consisting of a core surrounded by smaller shafts. Polygonal Norman of vast size strength.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. And these simple forms continued in common use throughout the Transitional. III. circular. Complex. or parallelogramic simple or complex. London bably the earliest piece of and by similar Norman architecture in England). diamond-shaped. since piers or columns more or less partake of the details of the arch-moldings. undoubtedly Church. support the eastern transept walls at Peterborough Cathedral. and Decorated * The mediaeval terms for columns. columns. clature. was the patin. St. . examples at Waltham Abbey (which. octagonal. Early English. And of these the bases and capitals will generally afford the surest indications.

surrounded by four. and the member also carry- made into a semicircular form. and these recesses were cut with angular soon filled with small shafts. The Purbeck limestone. except for tombs and the beds of sepulchral brasses. to which they are at intervals attached in reality as well as in appearance. These complex Early English piers are often extremely beautiful . These shafts are generally of native marble. is that of the square plan. but they by a were frequently brought down to the ground flat with the rectangular plan. . a regular clustered shaft. than those of any other style.* of stone than are often some other kind the central pillar. by molded bands or or of fillets. though liable to disintegrate. like the arch it was sometimes and sub-arch. With circular columns the vaultcapitals ing shafts were commonly stopped above the corbel. MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. which. where they are some- periods in ordinary parochial churches. . or in opposite rows. Examples common the choir-aisles at Ely. forms thus recesses. it They are so varied in arrangement that would be impossible in this general characteristics^ place to do more than notice their which consist principally in the number of smaller isolated shafts clinging to a central column. more so. is . a beautiful and common device. and many parts of West- * It is a curious fact that the mediaeval English architects appear never to have used any foreign marbles. smaller detached shafts.72. and bases worked out in one large A circular are very column. perhaps. six. or eight. Thus we though in a heavy and simple form. composed of comminuted freshwater shells (whence it is called lumachella marble). and taking a fine polish. where the face of the pier was continuous with that of the wall ing the sub-arch was often obtain. in construction at least. was much used in the thirteenth century. But or a very common arrangement derived from it . The clustered capitals piece. during the Early English period. being part of the "Wealden formation. but much more sparingly afterwards. 8). was brought to a wonderful degree of lightness and elegance. XIX. Lady Chapel of Fountains Abbey (PL. times disposed alternately. the fig.

figs. X. is Rutland. Lincolnshire. 17. from All Saints'. the shafts or . . fig. III. 40. rence. 13 from Ruskington. Lin17 of colnshire is and fig. generally four. is PL. In this case there is always a fillets midway band the shafts. or bonding-stone. \M \ former style. The annexed from Rus. fig. era. It forms an ex- in the Chapter House of Furness Abbey. 12 from St. without any central core. kington Church. fig. Stamford . that is. still The lower part of a similar one. of constant occurpoints. is an instance of attached shafts so deeply undercut that they have the appearance of complete quisitely graceful feature isolation. York . Fig. 16. ^m^-^-^---^ Bowman^s Half of a illustrations of that church. . PL. III. Rutland. 8. with some varieties. and there is a very good example at Exton. have this kind of compound cases the column is pillar. is a beautiful example of the ^>Wg. 11. 15. from Skelton.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. 73 In some made up of several shafts. Peter Gowt's. fig. Fig. near York and this is a very common form Early English and Decorated piers. and reduced from the section given in Mr. the corners of project. Mary's Abbey. at Lincoln. The fillets running up the face of each shaft usually pass over or round the astragal. fig. as fig. placed close together. is and are some- times worked into smaller pointed beads. from Stretton Church. The square being set to the cardinal the addition of the shafts changes the outline to the diamond form. 6 from Grantham is w/ ^jIlP m^^ / Church. as in PL. after Towards the Geometric 1240. as in the round nave of the Temple Church. V. 5. though usually so in the pure lancet PL. XIX.\^'^ is wS^ HP Ruskington. stands in the vestibule of St. . minster Abbey. and die into the bell of the capital. roll-and-fillet set on each which side of a square. and in PL. applied. rather later in date. worked into annular separately to The shafts are not always style.

PL. Cam- bridge. Lincolnshire. Stamford. so that a clustered column nelling the surfaces of the lights in reality formed by chan- mass in lines and hollows of graceful and shadows. . the whole dia- metric section being worked out of one block. The construction. are among the commonest forms in cathedrals but the richness and extent of the great piers it and abbeys would require a volume is to set forth. or soffit-moldings. 2. The principle which led to this form was the desire to obtain width in the direction of the thickness * Shafts ceased to stand of the wall.. Decorated piers always have their is shafts engaged. XIX. PL. figs. 14 is from Utterby.* in the choir of the This will be seen Temple Church. fig. 14 and 16. Norfolk. is entirely different. John's. being usually continuous. began to be generally verges. Perpendicular piers are generally of oblong or parallelogramic plan. where vaulting shafts arealso added on the northern and southern faces. the longitudinal direction extending from north to south. from Saffron Walden. a plain but good illustration of this fig. from St. for the sake of greater strength. of the arch . real or apparent. . of late Decorated date. III. being suppressed. Very good examples exist at Great St. Mary's. including the great casement or hollow. ( iitl III. instead firmly compacted into a — . fig. PL. 18.which bear the innermost order. PL. therefore. erected at the above period. without the interruption of any impost. and remarkable for the hollow faces. Essex. the rest. almost universal method. isfrom Attleborough. detached or banded into clusters. Fig. no longer of any use. and became mass the bands.74 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. On the east and west sides half. as engaged. they were anciently called. . 4." p. III. 15. which are seldom found but in small shafts in Perpendicular work.shafts are attached. or attached to the central mass. " Brandon's Analysis.

as at Swavesey. 19 and 20. Mary's. occurs not 'infrequently in Perpendicular columns. Wood Ditton Church. or rather before. The example tical is taken from Bowman's " Specimens of Ecclesias- Architecture. the angles are chamfered away face . the Martin's. 7. figs. Swavesey. fig. In this they followed the . examples are \ / IP Long Ashton. as in Long Ashton Church.PLANS OF GOTHIC COLUMNS. with a three-quarter circular shaft engaged on each face. 1 Another form. built about. In the first case. 1400. 20). in some late H fo/K churches. not wanting of early Perpendicular character. and each face (as in fig. a hollow is sunk in the between the shafts. 19). In these the or each ground-plan angle (as fig. re- . Somersetshire.wise. plan of window monials in fact. 75 and the greatest span j& between the columns. the second from St. which runs continuously round the arches. XIX. which is first shown from in St. Ensham Church. in the second. is a square. PL. combined with the least possible bulk. III. This is usually of later date than the parallelbgramic plan. if set diamond. carries an engaged shaft. PL. Stamford. The nave columns in this church consist of a square. near Cambridge. the angles being cut away into the wave-molding. they become nothing more nor less than exaggerated monials with shafts attached to carry the subarch. however. Still. IV." PL.

and that from c. 1400. near Newmarket.76 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. on which erect. columns. The parallelogramic plan is sometimes found in Decorated style. a great square stone would naturally pillar or post. as the be placed upon the top of the bed or . provided it possessed any character at all. or broad footing of masonry. even for an experienced eye. by a great superincumThis failure suggested the necessity of a plinth. IX. to mistake the details of a Decorated for those of a Perpendicular archway .is by no means impossible. This arrangement we may often observe in the construction of wooden sheds or rustic homesteads of rude timber-work. but not until the close of the The woodcuts on the previous page represent such a column from "Wood Ditton Church. and important part of the study. SECTION CAPITALS. And they have the peculiar advantage of being more definitely marked. it bent pressure. we may suppose that an upright post planted in the earth was found to sink. To go very rapidly through the history of a column." p. It. 139. Ensham Church. and immovable. in which the same principle of formation is exhibited. might stand firm. Again. extensive. given in " The Oxford Architectural Guide. presents a column of good Decorated date in the crypt at Gran- tham. in the various periods of architecture. than any other kind of moldings. but no one moderately acquainted with the subject could hesitate in pronouncing the style of a capital or base. The moldings of capitals and bases form not the least in- teresting. or decline from the perpendicular.

so that we have positive fact to guide belfry arches at us instead of mere theory. off to suit the How this was done in Norman capitals is Cushion Capital. the parts immediately below the one and above the other being rounded shape of the shaft. Transition' Norman Capitals. fig. and extend to is the otherwise vacant and superfluous angles of the plinth. 77 cushion to receive the superstructure. Bolton Abbey. In the Norman period. Mary Bishophill Junior. The lingering re- luctance to get rid of the square plinth. the highest and lowest members only. shown in PL. It was felt that these angles were not but the mediaeval builders preferred to decorate what as yet they did not wish to cut away. in the tongue-shaped leaves or other grotesques which are often seen to issue from the circular moldings of Transition-Norman bases. The ante-Norman later date. when the shaft was round. . resting upon and surmounted by rude and clumsy blocks of stone. and it is seen in the ordinary form of what has been called the cushion capital. whether arch or entablature. Barnack and St. York. X. with a great many others of probably much have square pillars on each side. respectively called the abacus and the plinth (anciently the patin) were square.CAPITALS. 2. Examples fully as rude as this do actually exist in English ecclesiastical architecture. Even in the advanced Early English columns in Westminster Abbey instances of floriated bases may be observed. worthy of observation. It was from such an origin that the highly elaborated Gothic base and capital arose. necessary .

called the neck or astragal. the sides were cut out or curved inwards —a feature some- times seen in Perpendicular octagonal capitals . as in the accompanying cut. In the more elaborate and this took place first in capitals. I. Classic styles. more probably. the others being only decorative adjuncts. [form . in were. by becoming recessed Hy left . before plinths . 4). 6. is also Tbe lowest member. and is the relic of the rude impost which it first surmounted the stone post. to both kinds . with its accompanying moldings. is The upper member. They either cut off or cut out the corners. a portion bearing surface unemployed and superfluous. by adopting the shape of the shaft. corresponding to the graduation of the sub-arch.78 MANUAL OK GOTHIC MOLDINGS. through the medium This seems. and examples may also be seen in Potter's " Illustrations of Buildwas Abbey. ^^ That ^^ of the rectanis. gular nooks were cut in the angles of the square abacus. is which otherwise occupied by the overhanging and undercut member called the bell. Gothic capitals floriated. and either by removing angles indefinitely. or. practical fact. but this method of relieving and lightening the massive impost does not seem to have occurred to the Komanesque builders. But capitals became octagonal and similarly octagonal plinths were retained long after circular capitals had become universal. common to both. common but in floriated capitals foliage covers the intermediate space. from which was transferred. or involving a sub-arch (PL. But the simple square was sure to undergo some changes. In the Transi- . molded and or abacus. as soon as the pier-arch. to of the Classic to the Christian styles. fig. From the former came the octagonal." process pi. be the primary and essential. may be divided into two kinds. and. as it member. we obtain the circular capital and base of the first and second Gothic periods.

as used in capitals. and other ornacapitals. the Norman capitals at the east end of Canterbury Cathedral. Classical in general features. 79 foliage. as in Great St. and not unfrequently in parochial churches (as at Barnack). near Cambridge. seem clearly to be. arranged vertically. Suffolk. Corinthian acanthus. or the Ionic volute Transitional for example. from the deep earlier styles. Lincolnshire. very worked. The dog-tooth. leaves.CAPITALS. this there is a very curious example at West Keal. or rather transversely. round the capital. in the Decorated twines horizontally. will have is it that On goose." p. the ball-flower. as in the belfry-arch of Great Shelford. mental moldings. more frequently small patera. the is known. floriated In Perpendicular. Cambridge.* some very and the Or a subject is intermixed with the foliage. . among others. while a chained ape one of the capitals (which are Decorated) a fox is laying hold of it behind. sometimes occur in and in later work the Tudor flower. enough to observe that the origin foliage is probably Classical. 110. Others. are also frequently found.. But of floriated or sculptured work It is it is not at present our of province to speak. and in the choir of Wingfield Church. or crestings of minute battlements (occasionally floriated). Mary's Church. as is well it tion-Norman and Early English. Occasionally (in Norman work commonly) Of some subject is grotesquely sculptured below the abacus. But the vine differently and the strawberry leaf is sometimes seen. very closely approaching the . the nail-head. This kind of capital may be called Pictorial. carrying off a The Decorated capitals in Oakham Church exhibit the same design. since in the Bomanesque we find the style of it. however. or capitals are rare . and almost so in their * details. as the author has suggested in the " Manual of Gothic Architecture. overhanging foliage of the being only a shallow kind of surface ornament. as in interesting Early English capitals in the south transept north porch of Wells Cathedral. Even angels' heads with spread wings are sometimes found. are set like studs at intervals round the shaft above the neck. however.

the outer being continuous is while in Early English doorways the soffit generally con- tinuous. Hence. or even the arm. the shafts In Decorated. in PL. In some cases a member of the same projection and diameter as * By what is called decorative. of the column. and not conare not tinued down to the ground. II. The use of capitals. to speak is it constructively. to receive the at the clusters of arch-molds which are stopped by summit For. by an ulterior debasement. less important in the apparent work of support. Here the soffit or innermost moldings are borne by a shaft. Again. engaged. they are stand isolated in the latter so far that the hand. 80 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. This. certain groups being borne while the intervening hollows are continued to the ground. There can be little doubt that the influence of both prevailed in the introduction of foliage into Gothic capitals.. is the origin of the foliated capitals rather from the East. . The moldings would in reality remain in their places as well without as with the bearing shafts. and merely decorative. 18 Norman and Early English.—"Willis's "Architecture. II. apparent construction. as in and 19. as may be observed in the porches and doorways of King's College Chapel. by shafts. may be passed round them. ." Chap. fewer in number. figs. mere bowtells. the others carried by shafts. are furnished with quasi-capitals and bases. And in Perpendicular they become entirely subordinate. .* In many cases the moldings are partly continuous and partly stopped by the capitals . is particularly the case in Perpendicular piers and arches. as described in Section VII. when the arch-molds wholly identical with those of the either die jamb or column. i. in pure Gothic architecture. as we before remarked. they must away at the spring (in which case they are called discontinuous) or be abruptly stopped by a projecting impost.e. it from whence was subsequently transferred to other parts of buildings. forming at the same time deep lines of division between the groups of arch-molds above and the separate jamb-shafts below. less prominent.

for example. the bowtell is 81 (if continued above this quasi-capital the term be allowable). XII. . both bell. while. but the lower edge- . but slightly varied in form and profile. Small in 11 and 15. yet judi- ciously subordinate to both arch into one the bundles of shafts and pier. they seem to bind which form the column. Cambridge. fig. The earlier forms of the abacus had the upper edge always left square. 1 shows the two uppermost members in their is rudest state. complex and graceful in their members. It be observed that Gothic capitals fig. at first the fillet was large in proportion. out. Hingham. is A good Gothic capital a feature of remarkable beauty. Gothic capitals consist of three parts the abacus. from Great Abington. Norfolk. And these parts are distinctly visible in block capitals. will Hera a is the abacus. Cambridge- The most certain evidence of date is furnished by the mold- ings of the abacus. and therefore the impost. projection. Lincolnshire . 3 from fig. and figs. or the woodcuts on pages 77. as a may be omitted or added mere matter of decoration. c in the ' same county. Fig. X. Take. those of the piers in the nave of Trumpington Church. and 5 from Walesby. continuous only in very late work and the reason that the idea of a impost is essential to that of an isolated column. may generally be reduced to this outline. the bell. and gave a heavy appearance. became entirely is. while in the jambs of doorways and entrance arches. they intercept and at the same time form a satisfactory termination to the vertical lines above and below. as shire. Such may occasionally be met with fig. the shafts themselves.CAPITALS. 78. PL. Laceby. PL. and the neck. by their reversed or horizontal outlines. b the the neck. The moldings capital or of pier-arches . 16. at will. 4 from Middle Rasen. or those in which the members have not been worked in village churches. and the under edge rather plainly flat chamfered or cut into a ovolo .



mold gradually became more important, and was frequently cut
into a hollow chamfer,

and sometimes quirked and finished also

with a bead, as at Heacham, Norfolk.



means a



i I s \ I 4
St. Sep.,


Cant. Oath. Blatherwick, Byland. IXorthants. Crypt.

Heacham, Wadenhoe,


abacus was obtained, which held



far into the



style, as


seen at the Eefectory, Eivaulx, &c.

But then they began

to cut

away the upper

edge, the projec-

was made greater, and the under side was cut or hollowed

out, so that



overhang the bell just as the bell does

the shaft, and with the


profile, consisting of

the half of a

The Decorated abacus has the
roll of


with a cylindrical

rather less size below

PL. X.

38 and 39, represent these peculiarities, and an examination

of the sections of the capitals of both styles will
this distinctive

show how

mark is wanting.

In Early English capitals the

fig. 8,


sometimes quite plain, as

17, from Thurlby,


from Frieston, Lincolnshire.

In the reign of Edward

a peculiar molding occurs, something between the two, which


be called an undercut




seen in

fig. 9,

from Stickney, and


from Lincoln Cathedral, and

may be

considered a characteristic of Transition from Early


to Decorated.

The moldings
fig. 5,

of the bell are generally kept within the limits

but in very minute work exceptions are someat


for instance,


Balsal, Warwickshire,

the capitals to the small shafts on the moni-als of some of the

windows have the



quite beyond the abacus.

The woodcut
of the


taken from

Bowman and

Crowiher's " Churches

Middle Ages."


foliage is introduced


projected a long


way even


large capitals,

and a molding


to have

been allowed

the same

when the

was small.



and bases appear frequently

have been



might account

for treating a


where the




In Early English capitals the







moldings, which gives a very handsome






seen in

PL. X.



28, from Tintern


22, from Furness


onMoniafK window.



24, from Bolton.

Capitals occur in their greatest perfection in shafts.




or circular



seldom so

elaborate or so decidedly marked.

In these the abacus


member which affords any sure indication of date. The distinguishing feature of Decorated capitals has been


be the



the abacus,



ninety-nine out of every hundred






Yet some

capitals presenting the






be of

Early English date.

It is believed




Decorated Capital, Grantham.

scarcely ever occurs in pure Deco-

rated work.


bell is

seldom so prominent or so deeply undercut in this

as in the preceding style.


a general

rule, the projection

the relative diameter to that of the shaft) became gradually


both in capitals and bases, as the styles advanced.


above cut furnishes an exception to the rule.
pendicular work, when the shafts became, as

Thus, in Perwere, mere parts

g 2


Decorated capitals preserve the happy

of the entire groups of moldings, both these features

minute and subordinate.

medium between
inutility of

the clumsiness of constructive members, and

mere ornaments.

In this their remarkable

beauty really consists, in that they occupy the truest and most
consistent position as architectural parts of the whole.


respect to their details, the moldings of the bell present the

principal varieties


but these are generally some modification or

corruption of the roll-and-fillet.
part of the bell
as in

Very often the under
entire roll-and-fillet,

composed of an


figs. 3, 8,

and PL. XI.

12, 20.

It is still

more frequently formed by the compound
in the cut, and in

member shown
of forty-three





examples of Decorated




PL. XI. and XII. ten of them have the
others present

bell thus formed,



slight variety of


It is seen in elevation



15, the beautiful capital of the nave-piers at

Decorated capitals seldom have double moldings to the
at least


less frequently

than in the Early English


Three examples are given, PL. XI.


from Yaxley, Hunts,

very early in the style, as appears by the abacus,


fig. 9,

and the annexed


from Harringworth, Northants.

The neck,

or astragal, forms




mining the dates of
the Early English





a heavy and bold annular molding, of a stilted or oval shape, or


more than half

a circle,

PL. X.


Either this

or the semi-hexagon



the prevailing form.
rated neck is almost always the scroll-molding

The Deco-

but both the




Early English forms, with

many others,


be found to occur.
nearly identical in


capitals of both styles are


general character and principles of formation, that a practised

may now and

then be deceived in their date.

And it


here important to remark, that though the vast majority of
capitals in all English buildings will be found to fall in with the

rules laid


in this work, anomalies do occur which present

difficulties in

any attempt to

them and the same



of bases.

Perpendicular capitals present very marked features, which
are seldom liable to be mistaken.

The moldings

are large,
so clearly

angular, meagre, and few.

Neither abacus nor bell

a fact similar to that already stated with regard to

the arch-moldings of this style, that the distinction of orders
generally lost.

Frequently the abacus appears so far blended

into the other part of the capital as hardly to be a separate

member, and the

bell either

wholly vanishes or

is veryis


perfectly developed.

The upper

part of the abacus


sloped off to a sharp edge, like the chamfer of an angle
section of the


molding below resembles the

letter S,

being an

ogee formed by a bold concave returning into a

prominent convex
the capital

(as at



and, above



nearly always octagonal, while that

of the preceding styles is

commonly round.


shaft, however, is circular in Perpendicular

while octagonal capitals only occur in the other
styles in the case of large


columns of
few cases
n n

the same shape,



/. it

we except



Cam b.


Early English arcading shafts with octagonal
transepts at

capitals, as in

Histon, near Cambridge, the west front of

Peterborough Cathedral, and in the choir-aisle of Fountains


The same


which induced the

latter architects to

prefer sharp edges and abrupt lines in their moldings to the

we see nearly the same form as roll. in stating the It will not be necessary to occupy much space places from which our are taken. IV. . 29. and 12. is either a ^ & j^ in of deba8fld scroll-molding with the upper edge chamfered. 7. we obtain scroll- 15. as in the abacus. 21. by a meagre 3 and Sometimes. in the Decorated and by omitting the under the ordinary profile of fig. 20. 22. The section of the Perpendicular abacus is a mere corruption figs. com- mon to both members. X. 22. 8. Perpendicular embattled. and reducible to no certain rule. capital is often produced the projection slope. 7. that shown PL. in its however. undercut of & ill fig. as figs. which occurs in the abacus of 'M fig. specified. 15. figs. 1 and 2. in This debasement of the molding is separately shown PL. XIII. but not very often. though the profile is often much the same as in Decorated work. and the neck bell of fig. is 26. an arrangement which in the preceding style. however. Its form seems capricious. XIII. 8. Another form. 10. rare The Lancaster Church. . XII. fig. and octagonal as in below. Perhaps greater license was taken in general in designing the moldings of this style than in any other. figs. the bell remains. PL. 16. XY. p j ain ^^ is astragal. resembling a coarse keel-mold. as in figs. 21. and blending Decorated forms. generally circular upper members. Thus in PL. Lincolnshire.86 soft MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. PL. VIII. or neck. numerous sections of capitals and bases A few only of the most remarkable shall be thus figs. as capitals are often PL. m The with its overhanging and moldings having vanished. the 5. PL. is to the octagonal capital to the rejection The base. made them revert of the circular. are from Frieston. of the Decorated scroll-molding.

those who are unacquainted with the details of the styles may form a correct idea of the leading It is characteristics of the capitals of this period. X. 4 is a fine capital of very unusual size and depth. 3 is vestry in the church at Boston. 30 from Saffron Walden. 1 PL. Isle of Wight. XI. and remarkable in is its profile. and has the double bell Abbey. * . 18 fig. from Leverton. 17. 16. 37 is from Bolton Abbey. 6. with the nail-head in the hollow above the elevation of the Fig. 9. Of the same date and character from the Chapter House of . a noble capital from Stickney. depth one is 22 from Abington. 15. is 11 from Partney in the — in Lincolnshire. 18 is from Kuskington. 11. Lincolnshire. very rich and elevation. the former from Lincoln Cathedral. from Fletton. 19 from Tintern is fine in its profile. figs. as appears from the undercut scroll-abacus. from Tintern.* Fig. 24. Figs. 40 is the most ordinary form in shafts and clustered piers. late in 9. are from Yaxley . the latter Fig. PL. 22 shown in by studying which. foot . bell. 87 Here the this bell is of rather unusual form. 14 is is not uncommon in Transition caSindge. Fig. 12 Stickford. fig. 7. drawn on a large scale. in a chapel used as the Fig. from Furness Fig. is from Aswardby. 29 Abbey. 16. (15 inches in depth) fig. fig. and almost identical. the style. from Arreton. rather late. XL figs. are mostly from churches in the neighbourhood of Cambridge. Lincolnshire. Fig. of large size from Legburn. all 10 from Fig. 15. are all from Lincolnshire. as in more so in than in the next fig.' The student many beautiful capitals again referred to Potter's illustrations of this abbey and bases. This the form of the pier capitals at Heckington. Hunts fig.CAPITALS. Cambridgeshire. PL. Fig. 26 are from Bolton Abbey. is 17. 23. fig. . 10 is from the are 12 same place. and 2. * for Fig. of much larger size than usual. Furness Abbey. Fig. The sections of Decorated capitals in PL. figs. XII. 28 is Fig. fig. same county. perhaps style. 9 from Sibsey. 13 from Waltham. and 13 . Figs.

16 from Dry Drayton. * fig. figs. fig. 12.88 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. 23. Suffolk . 1. to Perpendicular at it occurs at Maxey. and fig.* Norfolk . and Louth at (see PL. Louth . 19 from Saham An interesting specimen. XII. in the Decorated capitals of the nave columns at Dunchurch. Northamptonshire. from Els worth Hall. very little known. . 29 from the Bede House. fig. . XII. 16. which in this style should be attended to. 24. fig. is from Uffington. Norfolk. Figs. 18 is octagonal. 13 is from a fine monu- ment Little Shelford. PL. fig 13. John's. fig. 4 from figs. the abacus. PL. 9. all 26 and 27 from 28 from St. fig. 19. in the A same position. Lincolnshire. PL. XIII. from Colchester . from Fen Ditton is 17 from Mat- Here the abacus Fig. St. . is from Long Melford. George's. . is from Careby. 22. in Stamford. fig. near Stamford. Martin's. are from St. near Cambridge Toney. of a moated mansion of the Fifteenth Century. near Cambridge. and the double ogee below. This has a battlement above. fig. This and the next illustrate the methods of obtaining the plane of the moldings. fig near Cambridge tishall. similar feature is the wave molding. XL 28). fig. The rest of the sections in this plate are Perpendicular. 14 from Harston. 8. Fig. Warwickshire. neck circular. the bell and .

89 SECTION BASES.BASES. and from that arrange- ment those of the subsequent styles are readily deduced. laid down as they were raised from the quarry. Bases consist. by gradually spreading courses. X. as at "Wittering. These are often mere shapeless lumps. or hollows. stages. like the after styles. in Norman architecture first adopted a more regular method constructing the footing of a column. the is plinth. In Decorated and Perpendicular columns. such and others already mentioned. each separated from the next by a plain or molded chamfer. the base often resembles the capital inverted in some instances. Often a bold . a series of annular rolls. slopes. of at least two distinct members —the plinth. The form are not numerous and as they do not involve it complex moldings. . or tables. the plinth usually divided into heights. which the character of a base may be said principally to In shafts. in consist. taking the form of the column. near Stamford. direct the attention of the will be sufficient to student to the upper members. . The Classic pillar was evidently the prototype of all these. Of Norman bases varieties of it is not necessary to treat at length. or lower step. in early work. but octagonal in later and the base-moldings. and consisting only of the single member thus presented to view. of solid masonry. The earliest examples of bases must be looked for in the rude monolith blocks which support the pillars or pilasters in the Ante-Norman churches. and forming an ornamental junction between the shaft and its essential constructive member. generally square . the one might be substituted scarcely for the other with any perceptible change of appearance. in early work.

9. Cambridge. and this is more like Classic work than English archif tecture generally. Mary's. with an intervening hollow separated fillets. roll. few inches wide. XIV. j- and with one from fig. derived. 8. Canterbury Cathedral j (date about 1180).90 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. Sepulchre's." and Nothing developed approaching isolated to tinct gradations St. 76. XIV. from the nave of Peterborough Cathedral. It consists of two rounds. A very common form shown in PL. omitted in most * Willis's " Canterbury. Cambridge. 10 is a little later. This occurs in St. 7). XIV. from them by If we compare this form with some of the early Italian-Gothic bases. Yorkshire. fig. where only a the present bases were cut from a very small piece. from Fountains Abbey. however. is divides the shaft from the plinth.1 tJie twelfth century. fig. a concave above a convex below. IU the . figs." % Canterbury Cathedral has a very French character in the work of William of Sens."* consist of two reverse curves. not in all From Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. from the is Chapter House of the same place. The fillet and curve. . early part . 4. The moldings of the earliest Norman ally bases are frequently " and gener"little better than scratches upon the surface. 3. we shall find them rather uppermost identical with than similar to the Classic. 3. PL.. Huntingdon. figs. a modification (often trifling with very departure from the Classic) of the Attic base was introduced. HelmsloyCh. members and diswas known . 01 e . XXI. St." p. or first member at the lower exif tremity of the shaft. Sepulchre. was. figs. which alone remained in the eight massive columns of the circular part. annular quirked on the under side (as seen iu PL. A little before the Transition period. from which the Early English is is directly The Attic base given in PL. 5. 1 and 2. Fig.

BASES. 15. or even by an IIIIIIf IPPwK* u interposed square edge. as fig." p. iBI JBm ttmJlm thus bringing the or from supplying rolls its into contact. from Peterborough Cathedral. to the was very much vogue. See Potter. the other seems to be derived either from as omitting in figs. in place of the descending three-quarter It must be perfectly remembered that first this water-holding base is contemporary with the dawn of the Transition style. as fig. PL.* This example leads us at once (fig. and as may commonly early as be met with in pointed Norman work. ordinary Early English base 12). and JSm. of the Attic base. are naturally formed the feather edges seen in Transition fig. by cutting example off 3. 1160 or 1170. so that it is capable of containing water. A valuable of the base is fig. the 10. hollow 11. Here we most distinctly recognise the peculiar feature fig. and by far the most common. X. the bases of the choir columns in Eivaulx Buildwas * The bases of the pointed Nornian columns in the nave Abbey are nearly identical with this. taken from the great central piers of Byland Abbey. i. fig. and the form in in fig. 9. — of f Willis's " Canterbury. 76.e. the side-hollow of circle 1 — the lateral semicircle. f There are two kinds of Early English bases. above and below the hollow. 6. V ("" similar roll. place by another f > 12 •*' . and extended from half to three-quarters of a circle. the form given in PL. which may often be observed standing in exterior bases. " 91 cases . the chief peculiarity of which consists in the intermediate hollow being cut downwards rather than sideioays. is The first. . The filleted rolls on each side. 12 . 7. altogether. It is found in the Transition work of William of Sens at Canterbury. or plinthiform member. XIV. shortly after some extensive excavations had revealed a great part of the ground- plan and lower portions of the columns of that once splendid church.

some distance. from Lincoln Cathedral. or nearly so. omitted in the upper roll. at rolls. Sometimes the fig. is Fig. 26. from Ely. figs. 33. form. The examples given 28 and 29. PL. will convey a correct idea of the general appearance. from the shaft not standing true in the centre. And below these. the upper member. as fig. In very rich Early English bases there are often double hollows between filleted rolls — after the analogy of the double row of moldings to the bell in capitals. XXI. * These engravings are slightly incorrect. the hollow again approaches that of the is Attic base. occur other series of very bold single. Tbis It is base occurs almost invariably in Westminster Abbey. Fig. In fig. tbis intermediate roll is rather smaller. of XIV. Fig. annular double. great 18. Hence was at once derived the ordinary Decorated base.92 MANUAL OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. from Furness Abbey. 30. is remarkable omission of the hollow in in elevation. the latter from Furness Abbey. 27 from Skelton. lights florid period of when geometric windows of two or more had begun to supersede the single lancet. for the Fig. figs. XIV. PL. a fine piece of detail. Peterborough Cathedral. 4. of great richness and considerable spread. often a depressed inwardly. fig.* The spread of the base generally equals that of the capital. of the most ordinary from the revestry or chapter-room at Kipon Cathedral. 16. where the bases are worked out of hard Purbeck marble. seldom found except in tbe more advanced or the Early Englisb. from the beautiful Galilee at Ely. and have all been elaborately polished. fillet is as PL. Fig. near York. 18. 7 is from York Cathedral. fig. or even triple. 35. is an example. 34. and little Abbey. . the former from Tintern. 25. in is the base a pier Lincoln Cathedral. Generally. 20.

it much In Early English bases large spreading roll.BASES.. plane. There is something extremely elegant in the form of . at Wells . when fig. York. where a marked difference in this part is observable. . or earth. (fig. but of lead. generally a fig. mark of late or florid Early English. In fig. 39. either from the and complex work of the latter. as it will almost invariably be Probably the desire of forming a better weatherinfluence in the change. it and the capital of this period. from St. 21) may possibly have gradually difficult superseded the more elaborate. from Fishtoft. 40. ing had dirt. or because the hollow was exter- nally apt to be filled up with standing water. or in the same . from the doorway in the same place . 45. This is almost invariable and it is mentioned particularly with reference to Decorated bases. near Cambridge) or a the nave-piers at Trumpington it under-edge. 43 is from the nave-pillars at Bottisham. 35. One of the fig. an elegant base from the library of York Cathedral. moss. or the part of the base below clear. as fig. from 42. and internally with dust and found to be. Not few modifications of this form occur but they are seldom very complex. Here we usually find either the scroll-molding flat . by a quirk or angular nook. commonest Decorated bases 35 . 15. XXI. The plainer form 10. surprising to notice the uniformity vails and it is. 17. 39 there are four . 16. Mary's This is Abbey. but often only two. House fig. the cut away. the number 34. so that it overhangs base of the beautiful central column in the Chapter fig. . 11. with which it usually stands flush. Lincolnshire. the more usual kind of Early English base over. 5. as PL. XIV. is also to be remarked that the which forms the lower of the two memis placed. is bers between which the deep hollow worked out of the block. 93 this. is that shown in PL. as fig. from Coton. Fig. found in work of the thirteenth century. 37. of rolls being generally three. as the uppermost a is fig. more- which everywhere pre- hoth in (figs. by which the shaft is fastened.

with fig. XIV. member is the roll-and-fillet. the next style in some instances. Fig. or polygonal. Ely). 8. in what might be called the inverted wave-molding. XV. with the plinth formed by graduated stages or tables. Instead of the three half-rounds which ordinarily constitute the Decorated base. and sometimes these faces are In the Decorated columns support- ing the vault of the Lady Cbapel at Wells. Perpendiculav. Compare PL. Ripon . Transition to fig. scooped out in the middle.94 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. . as before described. so as to form an ogee curvature. 36 (from the Lady Chapel. XV. 3. XIV. upper member fig. the next style (PL. one member. near Cambridge fig. a Decorated base from the nave of a Perpendicular base from York Cathedral. as those under the western tower at Ely. and the to the moldings approximating Decorated profile. of un- usual profile . 38 is from the arcade in the Lady Chapel at Ely. 33. is member stands six or even The lower part of Decorated bases sometimes octagonal. In the choir at * the Temple Church (1240). Here the lower It is . partially developed 41. the base-moldings are raised a considerable height from the floor. 40. This form is not unusual late in the style. This is seen in PL. is from the nave-piers at Tintern — already noticed as a specimen of the inverted scroll- molding. fig. 44 is from Boston. is PL. support the octagon at Ely fluted or hollow-chamfered. figs. generally the second. but often the first. as in the columns which . it is from the chancel at Over. 1 6. worked in Purbeck marble. the plinth being very large and high. and 42. PL. as it were. the uppermost eight feet from the ground. figs. from Over and Histon its an of example which retains a singular trace in the side hollow of the Attic base. which in fig. Hence the bell-shaped base of and 2) was immediately derived. XXI. the principle of stilting the bases may be seen. is sometimes. is not uncommon. Decorated bases are often stilted. or raised above the floor. in This principle was carried to an extravagant excess .

though sometimes. octagonal. of figs. the upper being generally round. The bases of Perpendicular columns are various . and forming with it the contour of a double ogee in section. They are very chaste and elegant often standing but a little above the floor-line. however. according to the rules already laid down. This ogee curve seems to be derived from the several rolls which we have seen variation to avoid were used repetition. or geometric Decorated. are PL. 1 and from Crosby Hall.BASES. often rest- ing on a cushion-like member. The prevailing- a large bell-shaped spread in the upper part. especially in shafts. will readily remove it. because from the forms described are not of it necessary to illusin profile . decisive of Decorated work. But few examples of Decorated bases have been any important varieties sufficiently frequent occurrence to render given. 2. are the two forms. they are not so . as Lancaster. They are for the most part of decided character and where any difficulty occurs in determining their date. an inspection of the capital. and give a representation the correct most ordinary kind. being a natural It does not appear to occur in early. trate them. and thus of modest and unpretending contour. So similar. in the bases. . but rather in degrees of richness and the number of gradations than in difference of form in the principal characteristic is members. From the great size and height of the best examples. Cathedral. that some pure Decorated bases may occasionally be found which would have been equally correct in a Perpendicular column. It will be particularly is observed that the lower part almost invariably octagonal. 95 The sharp under-edge is of the second member in the former example a peculiar feature. XV. $he capital always is. .

as figs. in adjoining example. Colchester fig. 20 from St. with clene hewen Asshler altogedir in the outer side unto the full hight of the said Quire and all the inner side of rough stone except the bcncli-table-sloncs. roll. clature. . but may fairly be taken in the more limited one of a basement. as I shall show. which I shall . figs. then he shall haf vj 11 xijj iiij d . . and we may therefore assign b. * resembling the neck This is the uppermost member. fig. and the wall thereto wythyn and without as it ought 8 to be well and duly made. . ." The directions for these members in the body of the contract are unfortunately interrupted by an illegible portion. venture to supply as follows : XXXIII. . Edward's. 6. to the- — ground-table. "The ground of the same body and isles to be maad within the erthe under *he ground-table-stones with rough stone and fro the ground-table-stone (to the legements and alio the remanent of the said body and isles unto the bight of the said Quire. Saints'. ." etc. . thus. 17 from Haslingfield fig. This passage shows that the legement-table was immediately above the ground-table. stages. to the legement-table. or by a second bell-shaped slope. 21 from s Heme. At the end of the Fotheringhay contract it is covenanted that the mason. as 5. 15. . is often the The following note : taken from Willis's "Architectural Nomenor horizontality . Kent. shall be paid by instalments as the work rises. however. 17. from Louth . Horwode. 16. the basement moldings are described under this epithet. W. in which. 5 . The ancient name' for the lower member was the ground-table* (especially when for applied to mural basement moldings). to begin.. All Perpendicular bases have an annular of capitals.— — MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. to guide the student under ordinary circumis Fig. Cambridge fig. and d. Stamford fig. 13 from All contains enough specimens stances. 96 . 18 from Holy Trinity. ' easily engraved iu a small space. 14. PL. sloping off Almost every Perpendicular base has either one or more by a hollow ledgement or -chamfer." § 39 The word leggement simply implies lying but as all tables are horizontal the epithet cannot be in this case applied in its general sense. " when he hath hewyn and set his ground-table stones and his Ugements. the whole mass of which lies on the ground below the wall and this is confirmed by the two examples of Fotheringhay and Eton. — full . XV.

and is not found in the same isolated form in any other style. 12. fig. 1 and 2. fig. fig. 14 from St. 29 or 32. 8 from Dereham . Peterborough fig. . 22 from Saffron Walden. as it does. PL. fig. 4 from the Lady Chapel. debased roll-aud-fillet shown in PL. This feature almost invariable. XV. — all in Norfolk figs. John's. but the bell of remarkably graceful form.. fig. 6 from fig. It is singular that edge lines occur less in Perpendicular than in any other bases. rising. BASES. Stamford fig. as in PL. fig. 1 5. . . figs. 10 from Mattishall . as in is PL. XIV. or the debased scroll-molding. 18. as in the interior of King's College Chapel. Carbrook 7 from Saham . 11 from Swanton Morley fig. from Colchester St. 16 from Albans . XV. Fig. is . is and perhaps few to that of will prefer the contour of PL. almost every point being carefully rounded off. fig. 9 from Norwich Cathedral fig. 97 21. abruptly from the floor to the height of two feet and more. There is a peculiar naknedess in the straight unbroken line of the lower or ground-table. XV. "VIII. . 15. figs. .

SECTION XI. and seemingly insignificant. Yet. being in fact very. carried below windows. used as dividing lines to set off one particular portion as distinct from another. and other parts of edifices. XVI. details. they rise in graduated and rectangular heights. hardly claim a place in laying do. series of PL. Classical is principally distinguished from Gothic architecture and the importance of them that all will be felt when it is remembered masonry is made up of successive layers.wn the principles of a system. contains a moldings of this sort (for hood- moldings and string-courses must be classed together. as they. parapets. and are almost essential to the feeling of repose. which. they are of the greatest possible importance in imparting a character to a building. Though subordinate. irregularities constantly occur. It has been before observed that string-courses may be regarded as the successors of the horizontal lines by which . . the varieties and peculiar characteristics of the styles being as well hitherto described. This is by no means an unimportant branch of the study of such as in any Gothic moldings.98 MANUAL.OF GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or the one continued . HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. seem reducible to no certain rule. They consist of pro- jecting ledges of stone. tower-stages. illustrating the three styles. the character is generally maintained. though the form may be arbitrary. round buttresses and other angular projections . divided into three parts. so that they • form a most genuine piece of decorative construction. and in cornices. both within and without . breaking playfully from the horizontal.from the other). often identical. defined in details Of the immense diversity of forms only for capricious some of the most ordinary can be enumerated . Sometimes.

and playing the most fantastic tricks before again descending relieves a string-course at once naked masonry.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. Not less. 15. PL. viz. Figs. and the like. XVI. one of the commonest forms. Giles's. its it forms a real drip or upper surface especially Hood-moldings. especially in windows. of Potter's work on Buildwas Abbey. and. or square is bead with chamfered angles. The as specimens of the kind. h 2 . is frequently found. 8. and of course adapts to this end. plain half-hexagon. 99 . by it. They follow the of same changes as the * Rebuilt in the South Aisle new Church. Two or three only are given in figs. some sculptured decoration of the chevron. as the billet. figs. cannot he . as it were. are given in PL. The semi-hexagon. 25. In most cases. 6. weathering. when used internally. 8. said to have any real use but they form a decorative finish of too important a kind to be neglected with impunity. and binds into a whole the geemjngly detached portions of a rambling and irregular construction. PL. XIX. now dying now. 22. Sometimes carried over a doorway or round an arch into the wall . and 9.than eleven of this form. The commonest Early English. Norman profile string-courses are generally of heavy and massive In most — full of edges or hard chamfered surfaces. 10 and 12 may also very often be found. passing into some interrupting projection. with varieties scarcely perceptible and merely accidental. reappearing on the other now starting aloof into a window-label.. strings are those given in 13. 7. grooved or worked on the middle of the outer face similar to that in fig. The. the the hatched or serrated molding. The upper edge is often left square.* at St. 18. latter is from the chancel- arch. and the wide but shallow form presents an though not relieved by the dark appearance suiting well with the massive character of the work and the low relief decoration. cases they are adorned with style. shadows caused by undercutting the lower surface. . instead of being weathei*ed off. erected before the year 1100. Cambridge. nothing baffled side . XVL.

Stamford. Fig. Early English. 36. Figs. 25 has the scroll-molding. In this respect a i so string-courses follow the prin- ciple of the abacus of capitals. as fig. 44. dicular ogee of 4 occurs. are common. of the upper edge is began in this the most all is but the undercutting striking characteristic of this. 49. a half-round next below the same as is in the abacus of capitals of this period. fig. 41 is gene- rally found in Transition to Perpendicular. is from All Saints'. characteristic. Fig. The scroll-moldiDg with it. . 20. 23 is from Lincoln Minster. very Fig. Fig. 11 from Furness Abbey 19 from Eivaulx latter is curious . The same remark applies to fig. its late fig. 50 is from fig. The rounding style. roll-and-fillet complete. is The most perhaps also very figs. 43 is from the vestibule of the Chapter early in the style. 17 from Tintern 21 from Byland. com- in late Decorated buildings. of the upper side. Over. .. 100 MANUAL OP GOTHIC MOLDINGS. or of the first The rounded form weathering. as of other moldings of the style. figs. in which even the characteristic Perpenfig. 52 and 55. 53. though the date is about 1200.* PL. 71). XVI. and of frequent occurrence. It is peculiarly elegant. may * Early English strings are often continued from the abaci which perhaps accounts for this fact. from Furness. 26 the Both are equally common in Decorated I. near Cambridge 45 from Bottisham. Fig. is characteristic two the angular or chamfered of the last this peculiarity is also very —although mon Tradition strings. styles . Fig. 28 generally marks the time of Edwards frequent and II. Decorated. House at Wells. Fig. Fig. . The from form (see fig. 24 fig. on abaci of capitals of which several successive forms are given page 77. fig. work. of capitals. Decorated form 35 or 48.

51. wall often recedes above the string. and the combination of the ogee with the figs. as 67. as in 58.. 32. as in 66. are so 60. as in figs. is left quite indefinite. under side of half a square proalso a jecting diagonally. occur principally in the time of Edwards I. mark i of the style. 16. under fillet. without this. and This i others. . 101 it Undercuttings. 71. Embattled string-courses occur now and then in this style. and II. Sometimes a foot-rule fig. 56. rather a characteristic fig. as figs. and indeed ought. is more or less clearly developed. as fig. 62. . 77. 44. Fig. 61. 71. may be bent against the wall and the under part. 78 exhibits the peculiar Perpendicular form already pointed out.. of the upper surface. Norfolk. or even overhangs. 59. but also because the as" fig. 57. from Grantham Church. Perhaps the most ordinary forms are PL. XX. The details of it the parts underneath to varied as to render like a almost impossible give anything complete account of them. Much more might. The angles of the chamfers can best be attained by bending a piece of lead across them. Perpendicular strings and hood-moldings are generally marked by the sloping plane figs. has already been remarked. A semicircle sunk in the fig. PL. double ogee. 18 is a string-course from the place. to be said on the subject . 68. is common variety. they will generally merous as they be found to recur with Usually there is tolerable uniformity. figs.HOOD-MOLDINGS AND STRING-COURSES. The 60. is p t Perpendicular Strings. a small bowtell in the lowest part. same another example. which. often occur. therefore be pronounced late in the style. nuare. not only for a guide to show the direction of inclination or projection. already described. XVI. In copying string-courses. 61. XVI. yet. as PL. Fig. and thus the exact angle can readily be transferred to paper. as in the cornice of the aisles at Cromer Church. it is better to draw the parts of the wall above and below perpendicularly on the paper. 64. 68.



of moldings, were

the intention of the writer to attempt any-

thing like a complete essay.

For example, there yet remain
Basements, weatherings of

wholly unnoticed several important cases of the application of

moldings in Gothic architecture.

cappings of parapets

and battlements, plans of and other wood-work,


groin-ribs, timbers of roofs,


many and

interesting varieties of ornamental

moldings, are

well deserving of the closest attention.

But a great book

a great

as a philosopher of old has



has been the wish of the author rather to win

the attention of the reader, by pointing out the way to copy and
observe, than to deter

him by

the uninviting form of a grave
it is

and heavy book.

Quite enough has been said,


to illustrate the really essential principles of the science.


no one need



difficulty or perplexity in

recognizing the

details of the styles,


will take the trouble to apply the rules


in this little work.






In studying the history and development of moldings in the
ancient buildings in this country there is




of great

interest to the antiquary, but that interest is very




when the student

feels that



learning not only what

has been done heretofore, but,
for designs






his alphabet,


himself make in the future.
of designing

Whatever building he may have the opportunity

so sure to find himself requiring

some ornament of

kind, that the study of the subject will assist
his design to a successful issue.'


in bringing

Whatever the

class of building



whether he


wishing to make

it effective






its solid character, or

its delicacy of








render this by the

broad moldings of the Norman period,

or the deeply cut and sharply defined molding of the Early

English period, or the softer and rounder outlines of the
Decorated, or

he chooses

later work, his

knowledge of what

has been done, and his experience of the


more surely than anything
work as
will. produce




to set out such

the effect he is aiming

Whether, again, he limits his aims
whether he uses his study
has powers to do
his knowledge of
so, or




to enable


to design, as far' as



he indulges in mere inventing,

what has been done must be of value
things to be considered in
it is



of the


designing a

the use



Mr. Euskih

brings an example of what I mean, though


a very simple


illustrates the ordinary square angle,

and shows that


order to prevent the probable chipping and breaking of


a fine edge, the angle was simply rounded

but, as

he says, this

was not Art



was only when the angle was

treated further,

1 M A m
either as a simple bead or a




more enriched molding, that the
and yet the use of
would have a


of the artist stepped in



to obtain a surface that

chance of

retaining its form without damage.





of the

ordinary exterior




throw the water

off the building

and prevent

running down and staining the wall

and care should be taken


do this

—a care

not always thought of in modern


Take, again, the case of the ordinary Arcade found in almost
.every church.


wall carrying the

main roof

is to

be pierced

so as to extend the area of the floor into the aisles

if this


done simply by leaving square piers and rectangular arches,
the value of


space would



and therefore the

columns were reduced in section and the strength maintained

by making them

solid stone instead of

mere walling.




of the Artist

comes when


column has

be enlarged

at the base so that there is the

same support from the founda-

and where the

capital is

formed to receive the arch, and

again where the arch

divided into its various parts to

of of

work harmoniously with the


The manner

accomplishing these ends


be varied immensely.


the methods used in ancient work are described above, and the
object of the Artist is so to bring all these parts together, that




while gaining the utmost utility the design forms one harmo-

nious whole.

In order

to obtain

this there are one or two points


should be carefully studied.

In the


place, moldings should

be designed with a careful attention to the position from which
they will be most commonly seen.
surface of the base

To say

that the upper

and the lower

side of the capital should be

those molded seems too obvious to need pointing out

but the

same principle should be carried out where
obvious, and where



not quite so

requires a




it effective.

As an

instance of this in

old work, I

may mention

a purlin which was

taken down in Pembroke College, Cambridge.




natural tendency of the draughtsmen in

would be to

set out the


symmetrically, the roll being placed so that the hollow molds

on each side were alike


but the Artist who built Pembroke

noted the fact that the upper side would be




than the lower when viewed

from the


and therefore

widened the upper side thus.
Other instances
the thought
chiefly seen
will continually occur,



of where





from should be continually pre-




question of

scale, is also

a most imporidea, until they

tant consideration.

Few have any

have been

startled with the appearance of their finished work,

how small

a molding looks
eye, that

when executed and placed

a few feet from the

had seemed very

when on

the drawing-board.


nothing but actual measurement of executed work, new or

old, will ever fix this

on the mind.



preliminary difficulty

overcome, there


remains that of 'whether the work will be coarse from an over
attempt to be bold, or weak from a too intense desire to bo

106 refined.


steer clearly

between these


know when

to allow

scope and emphasize a feature by a


over boldness,

and when

draw attention by an exceeding

delicate treatment,

the knowledge of the Artist which study and experience alone

can give.


principles of design are beyond the scope of

this little book, but

has been thought well to note a few

points that

may be

useful to the student and those

in future

their career, in the



when they look back

years on their early work, they


find that they have learnt to discover

by study and observation what others have had
the experience of failure in obtaining


the results they were




. London.i! sc. Paternoster Bow.ZelX&tji.if.. . Gurney & Ja-dkaaa.Plate 1 J.

13. Waterbeach. Casterton Horningsea. Diagram of Pointed and Side Filleted Bowtell. near Leeds. Bobertsbridge Abbey — Groin Bib. Lincolnshire. do. 1190. 21. Chamfered Window. 12. 11. 17. — 10. Rutland. 6 enlarged. 23. Abbey —Respond. Ely. 9. Little Casterton — Transition Norman Arch.Chamfered. Lincoln. of Thirteenth-Century of Sub-arch. Great Grimsby. Lincolnshire 18. Clee. 8. 19 enlarged. 3. —Arch Mold. . Little 7. Lincolnshire Norman Pier Arch. of Chamfer. Skirbeck. Plain Saxon "Window (Diagram). 20. St. —Groin Eib. Clee. Fig. Fig. Adel. Tintern 19.PLATE I. Benet's. Lincoln Cathedral — Doorway in Precincts. do. 24. 22. 15. Example Example Diagram Do. Broach Stop. Early English Pier Arch. Cambridgeshire c. Mary's. Little Casterton. 5. do. 4. 6. — 14. 25. . 2. Friesland. Cherry Hinton— Cambridgeshire — Chancel Arch. 1. St. 16.



&uni«y * Jaiiceoii.Plate 11 4 i m# f- j § ul Ulsii 3Hifii_ London. Paternoster Row .

19. do. 1. . 10. Doorway.— PLATE II. Cherry Hinton. do. Madingley. do. Do. — — — Interior. Cambridge. Tintern Abbey— Groin Bib. South Porch. 17. 15. Trumpington. Diagram of Planes a Chamfer Plane. Cambridgeshire North Door. Langtoft. Clement's — South Doorway. Cherry Hinton— Inner Door. Great Grimsby. 7. 14. South Porch. Lincolnshire Doorway. —Pier Arch. Window Jamb. Do. Cambridgeshire —Doorway. Do. 9. Ludborough. Over. b Soffit Plane. Cambridgeshire. . Over. Chancel Door. All Saints' 16. 13. Jamb. Pier Arch. Middle Basen Early English Pier Arch. do. Chancel Arch. 18. c Wall Plane. do. 3. do. 6. Stamford. St. do. 5. 11. 2.



If.S3 Plate Fiji m ml im • l _ m mm K 1 * ' A HI 1 k Hi V '.. Paternoster Row. J ^HW J.Ze A' i. .:r jr London.: Gurney & Jackson.

Eobertsbridge Abbey Groin Bib. 5. 9. 15. — — — — — — — 8. 7. Stamford. Louth Early English Doorway. 12.PLATE III. Mary's Abbey. York Fragment. 20. Euskington. Tintern Abbey Fragment. 11. Common form of Decorated Pier. St. Choir. Peter Gowts. Mary's. St. Robertsbridge Abbey Groin Rib. Plymouth Belfry Arch. Norfolk. do. 17. 2. St. — — —Arch over Piscina and Capital. 13. 4. Attleborough. Martin's. 18. 10. Wittering. Lincoln. 14. 16. Furness Abbey Chapter House. All Saints'. St. Cambridgeshire Northants Chancel Arch. St. 19. Skelton. 1. Utterby. 6. Stamford. Histon. . Lincolnshire. John's. near York. do. 3. Ely Cathedral Pier Arches. do.



BARXT EWGLISH. . jOP^'lS Lon&tm: Girrney* Jaclnjoiv. Paternoster Row.

— 10. — Chancel Doorway. Diagram of Boll Molding. Trumpington Belfry Arch. 19. Boll and Triple Fillet. . —Doorway. — — 6. Do. Yaxley. Do. Fleur-de-lis Molding. . 18. Scroll Molding. 3. 1. Hunts Furness Abbey Groin Bib. Diagram of first sketch of Mold. 8. variety of Scroll Molding. Diagram Diagram of possible first formation of Fillet. of common form. Broad 20. Fillet. Do.PLATE IV. Glastonbury— c. 2. Do. 7. 21. 22. 12.) 13. Ludborough. 1200— Groin Bib. 16. — — and do. 5. Norfolk. 17. Lincolnshire Lincoln Cathedral. 9. 15.} 14. Diagram Do. Peterborough Cathedral— Groin Bib. 11. Barnack Early English Arch. of Boll Fillet. Beymerston. Barholme semi-Norman Arch. 4. Lincoln Cathedral Arcade.



Lantfon: Oaww * Jackson. Paternoster Row. .DECORATED.

Exterior Jamb of Window. —West Doorway. Cambridgeshire. 3. Great Ellingham Doorway. Northants—Window Jamb. Variety of Decorated Pier. Hingharn. — — 13. Do. Ewerby— Monument. West Keal. Benington. 2. — 4. do. Lincolnshire — Interior of Window Jamb. Norfolk — Boston Heckington. Hingharn —Window. Lincolnshire 14. 1. 7. Interior of Window Jamb.PLATE V. 9. —Belfry Arch. Boston Monument. do. 17. do. 12. 11. Variety of 16. 5. . Attleborough. Northborough. 15. Stretham. 6. East Window. 10. —Inner Doorway. Benington. Inner Jamb. Attleborough Doorway. South Porch. Decorated Pier. 8. Norfolk Chancel Doorway.



DECORATED J. tc Jackson. Paternoster Row.ZcfiTctucso- London.ff.. Qurncy . .

Do. Little 11. 9. Deopham Doorway. 10. Pier Arch.PLATE VI. Ellingham. 3. 5. 6. Lincolnshire South Porch. 14. Deopham Inner Doorway. Benington. 8. . Hardingham. Boston Monument in Church Hingham North Doorway. —-Window Jamb. Soffit). Hingham. Norfolk 2. — — — (a. Double Ogee and Hollow. Norfolk Do. 7. Sleaford do. Norfolk Archway. 1. 13. Little Ellingham. Norfolk Doorway. South Porch. 4. 12. Boston—Pier Arch. Boston East Window. Stoke Golding. — Doorway. Leicestershire. — — — — — 15. —West Door. Double Ogee and Hollow.



Paternoster Row. .DECORATED. London.Qurney tc Jackson.

14-. Horbling. Eivaulx. Thurlby. Yorkshire Fragment. 10. — — to precincts. 20. 5. Trumpington do. Diagram. 9. Wave Molds and Hollow. Northants Doorway. c Deopham Belfry Arch. Butland. 1.PLATE VII. Keddington (or Ketton). Over. 18. 21. 15. South Doorway. 2. 3. —East Window. Swanton Morley. Mold. Peterborough Outer Archway. Trumpington West Doorway. Hingham. 13. west entrance Yaxley. 16. Suffolk — Chancel Window. Groin Eib. Langtoft. 17. Eivaulx Fragment. 4. 22. Clipsham. Double Chamfer. Do. Lincolnshire — Piscina. Northborough Outer Porch Doorway. Pier Arch. —Window. Fen Stanton. _ Do. Lincolnshire. Norfolk. 11. Northborough. 12. — — — — — 19. Hunts Window. West Doorway. 23. Llandaff Cathedral — — — 6. b Sunken Chamfer. do. Hunts 8. West Keal Doorway. Cambridgeshire Window in Chancel. Window. 7. Lincolnshire — a Shallow Wave — .



. Qnrney & Jaokaorv.temoet. London. Row.JILZcSkuo. so. .

Lincoln— Oriel Window. . Lincoln Cathedral South Choir Chapel. Cambridgeshire East Window. 5. Inner Doorway. 8. Uffington. 18. Martin's. 1. Cambridgeshire East Window. 15. Louth. do. Holy Trinity. Saham Toney.' Hunts Niche. — — — — Long Melford. do. —West Doorway. Stamford — Doorway. 14. do. near Stamford 2. Stewton. do. Doorway. St. Great Shelford. Neots. Fishtoft. — do. Leverton. Chesterton. Window Jamb. South Porch. —West Doorway. East Window. Lincolnshire. 13. Suffolk-Pier Arch. St. Partney. Staplefprd. Dereham. Colchester Pier Arch. Louth. 17. 7. 9. Norfolk —West Doorway in isolated Tower.PLATE VIII. Pier Arch. near St. — 20. Doorway. 6. do. do. Great Gransden. Do. 21. 10. 4. 16. Cambridge Arch. 12. Sepulchre's. 19. 3.



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.: in? a =fT' J.Y ENGLISH CAPITALS. ^ Londbn. sc- Qumey & Jackson.EATU.ff. Paternoster Sow.Ed HTsuas.

Furness Abbey.. Lincoln Cathedral. Thurlby. Kuskington. Arreton. 23. Lincolnshire. do. Do. do. 39. Furness Abbey. Essex. 30. Chapter House. Tintern Abbey. 37. 10. Saffron Walden. Laceby. 4. do. Diagram of rudimentary Capital. 7. Do. ' < Do. Decorated Abacus. do. . Great Abington. do. do. 26. Frieston. Early English Abacus. Walesby. do. Isle of Wight. 22. 19. Tintern Abbey. 12. 13. 17. 29. 16. do.PLATE X. Cambridgeshire. Lincolnshire. 3. 8. 5. 1. 9. Bolton Abbey. 38. Middle Basen. 28. Early English Capital. 24. Stiekney. 18. Yorkshire. 40. Do. Bolton Abbey..



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18. Fletton. Yaxley. . do. 9. 11. Sibsey. Cambridgeshire. do. 4. Legburn. do. Lincolnshire do. 13. 1. 22. do. Leverton. 28. • Boston.PLATE XI. Hunts. Waltham. 6. Stickford. Aswardby. 2. do. 10. Do. 12. Louth. Partney. Abingtbn. — Chapel used as Vestr* Do. do. Hunts. do. do. 7. 3.



Jackson Pat ernoster Row. Onrney A. .London. .

Lincolnshire. 23. Nave Monument. 19. 22. Pier. 13. Norfolk Nave Piers. Bede House. Hinghan.PLATE XII."\ 27 28. do. do. . -I do. Uffington. Stamford.' St. Northamptonshire. 29. 1st. 15. Trumpington. Maxey. Martin's. John's. — 16. George's. 24. do. Careby. J 26. 14. J-St. Cambridgeshire Little Shelford. — Capital of do. 11.



. London: Qurxicy 6c Jackeon. Paternoster Row .PERPENDICULAR CAPITALS.

14. Suffolk. 19. do. 9. do. J 13.PLATE XIII. 12. Lincolnshire. 16. Dry Drayton. Fen Ditton. Elsworth Hall. Saham Toney. do. k 2 . 18. 4. Mattishall. Cambridgeshire. }-Colchester. Long Melted. Norfolk. 1. 17. Louth. do. Harston.



London. Paieraooter "Raw.Bate XIV J.Ze 7&uj£.fT. se.: G-urney & Jackson . .

29. Trumpington Nave Pier. Bottisham. Ely Cathedral— Galilee." Canterbury Cathedral. Tintern Abbey Nave Piers. Chapter House. 42. Central Piers. near York./ 5.' Lincolnshire. York. Base. 39. do. a /Attic i}' 4. 43. 9. Furness Abbey. 33. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. Peterborough Cathedral. 26. Ely Cathedral. do. do. 28. 3. Cambridgeshire.PLATE XIV. Choir Columns. Lincoln Cathedral 18. 36. 20. Skelton. . — 38. Base of Great do. Over and Histon. Central Column. Coton. Tintern Abbey. Bivaulx Abbey — - — 16. St. from Willis's " Architecture of the Middle Ages. Do. 27. Do. 41. Ely Cathedral— Lady Chapel. Cambridgeshire. Do. do. Wells Cathedral Doorway. 6. 40. By land Abbey v 7. 8. 30. 44. — Piers. Do. 17. 45. — — — Boston. '37.\Italian Gothic Bases. Furness Abbey. Cambridgeshire Nave Piers. 35. Mary's Abbey. Fishtoft.



ZeJfouc. Paternoster Row. ...tf6> London. Ourney &* Jackson.2E.

Crosby Hall. Over. — — 6. 16. 2. Carbrook. Norfolk. do. 18. 1. Kent. All Saints'. 14. Norwich Cathedral. Colchester. 13. Stamford. do. Mattishall. 22. St. do. Do. Peterborough Cathedral Lady Chapel. Cambridgeshire Chancel. Louth. 3. Haslingfield. Saffron . 7.PLATE XV. 15. Cambridge. 10. St. Holy Trinity. 21. Colchester. Colchester. Norfolk. Dereham. 9. Swanton Morley. 11. do. 17. Heme. 20. Essex. do. Edward's. Cambridgeshire. Walden. St. 5. Sahara. 8. John's. 12. Alban's Abbey. 4.



London. jr. J. .ZeJJ!ewx:. Paternoster Row..STRINGS -AND LABELS.: Qurnajr tk Jaeltoon.3.

PLATE XVI. &c. / 'd ^ . Hood Molds. from various sources. Examples of Strings.



Plate XV11 LanSaa.: Quinsy it Jackson. Paternoster Row.. .

1. Eutland Doorway. South Porch. 6. 2. 9. Do. Grantham South Aisle Window. 3. Over. do. Grantham. 8. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window.PLATE XVII. Grantham. do. South Porch. Lincolnshire South Aisle Window. Bottisham. Do. Inner Doorway. Grantham -Window Jamb. 10. 4. 5. Langham. North Porch. Cambridgeshire — — — — — — — . Cambridgeshire South Porch.



ey A Jackson. .: G-u. Paternoster Row. .Plate XVM1 London.rn.

1. Norfolk — — — 10.PLATE XVIII. 5. Bivaulx Abbey. half-inch scale. Bipon Cathedral Choir. Peterborough Cathedral —Doorway Nave Doorway : opposite in Cloister South : Aisle of half-inch scale. 3. Castle Bising. 4. Norfolk. 8. 6. East Window. Do. 7. Bivaulx Abbey— Window Jamb. Beaulieu Abbey South Transept Befectory. . Castle Bising. Do. do. 2. Buined Doorway. do.



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^Diagrams showing the formation
Bottisham, Cambridgeshire
Saffron Walden, Essex.
Stretton, Eutland.

of the



3. 4.

— East Window,

South Aisle.



Grantham, Lincolnshire. Do. do. Crypt. Fountains Abbey Lady Chapel.



: Currier & Jackson. Patornoatoi- Row.Tvrnbuil sc. . London.T.

13. do Guy. 9. Bipon Cathedral Window Jamb. — — — — — — — — — — .PLATE XX. Window. 4. 12. Ripon Cathedral. Grantham Choir Doorway. Bolton Abbey. Grantham. Eivaulx Abbey. 14. Newton. Landbeach. 1. 15. 17. Grantham. near Cambridge West Doorway. 7. 6. Grantham Chancel Window. . Bolton Abbey Monument. South Aisle. Lancaster Arch Mold of Nave. 16. Cambridgeshire Doorway. WOlingham. 10! 11. Cambridgeshire Chancel Door. 2. do. Peterborough Cathedral Archway in Cloister. Bolton Abbey Doorway. Do. 5. 18. 3.



TurnbuZL jo. Paternoster Row. Louden.Plate XXI T. ... Qupn«y & Jackson.

8. Moroot. Rutland. 7. do. Ripon Cathedral. Seaton. Chapter House. 10. do. 5. 4. Do. do. Do. Do. Fountains Abbey. do. 6. 2. York Cathedral—Library. Ripon Cathedral Revestry or Chapter Room. — 9. .PLATE XXI. 1. Nave.


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